Zhibin Miao; Hongtian Zhang
More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is p...
Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.
Morelli, Eugene A.
A maneuver design method that is particularly well-suited for determining the stability and control characteristics of hypersonic vehicles is described in detail. Analytical properties of the maneuver design are explained. The importance of these analytical properties for maximizing information content in flight data is discussed, along with practical implementation issues. Results from flight tests of the X-43A hypersonic research vehicle (also called Hyper-X) are used to demonstrate the excellent modeling results obtained using this maneuver design approach. A detailed design procedure for generating the maneuvers is given to allow application to other flight test programs.
Glaab, Louis J.; Fremaux, C. Michael
Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes, retro-rockets, and reaction control systems and rely on the natural aerodynamic stability of the vehicle throughout the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of flight. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs for an array of missions and develop and visualize the trade space. Testing in NASA Langley?s Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) was conducted to significantly improve M-SAPE?s subsonic aerodynamic models. Vehicle size and shape can be driven by entry flight path angle and speed, thermal protection system performance, terminal velocity limitations, payload mass and density, among other design parameters. The objectives of the VST testing were to define usable subsonic center of gravity limits, and aerodynamic parameters for 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulations, for a range of MMEEV designs. The range of MMEEVs tested was from 1.8m down to 1.2m diameter. A backshell extender provided the ability to test a design with a much larger payload for the 1.2m MMEEV.
Beeman, R. R.
Dynamic longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of the B-1 air vehicle were investigated in three wind tunnels at the Langley Research Center. The main rotary derivatives were obtained for an angle of attack range of -3 degrees to +16 degrees for a Mach number range of 0.2 to 2.16. Damping in roll data could not be obtained at the supersonic Mach numbers. The Langley 7 x 10 foot high speed tunnel, the 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel, and the 4 foot Unitary Plan wind tunnel were the test sites. An 0.024 scale light-weight model was used on a forced oscillation type balance. Test Reynolds number varied from 474,000/ft to 1,550,000/ft. through the Mach number range tested. The results showed that the dynamic stability characteristics of the model in pitch and roll were generally satisfactory up to an angle attack of about +6 degrees. In the wing sweep range from 15 to 25 degrees the positive damping levels in roll deteriorated rapidly above +2 degrees angle of attack. This reduction in roll damping is believed to be due to the onset of separation over the wing as stall is approached.
Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.
Full Text Available In order to improve the deficiency of vehicle stability region, according to vehicle nonlinear dynamic model, method of estimating vehicle spatial stability region was proposed. With Pacejka magic formula tire model, nonlinear 3DOF vehicle model was deduced and verified though vehicle test. Detailed detecting system and data processing were introduced. In addition, stability of the vehicle system was discussed using Hurwitz criterion. By establishing energy function for vehicle system, the vehicle’s stability region in 20 m/s was estimated based on Lyapunov theorem and vehicle system characteristics. Vehicle test in the same condition shows that the calculated stability region defined by Lyapunov and system stability theorem has good effect on characterized vehicle stability and it could be a valuable reference for vehicle stability evaluation.
Leenen, R.; Schouten, H.
Advanced vehicle control technologies provide a great potential to further improve vehicle handling, ride and safety. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the added value of the TNO Vehicle State Estimation module to integrated active safety. State-of-the-art Electronic Stability Control
Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.
Full Text Available This main objective of the paper is to stabilize an electric vehicle in optimal manner to a step lane change maneuver. To define the mathematical model of the vehicle, the rigid body moving on a plane is taken into account. An optimal lane keeping controller delivers the adequate angles in order to stabilize the vehicle’s trajectory in an optimal way. Two degree of freedom linear bicycle model is adopted as vehicle model, consisting of lateral and yaw motion equations. The proposed control maintains the lateral stability by taking the feedback information from the vehicle transducers. In this way only the lateral vehicle’s dynamics are enough to considerate. Based on the obtained linear mathematical model the quadratic optimal control is designed in order to maintain the lateral stability of the electric vehicle. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.
Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)
The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.
Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-820 Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing 5a...provides procedures for determining the maximum performance climate control capability of tactical vehicles in a minimalist baseline configuration inside...PROCEDURE *Test Operations Procedure 02-2-820 31 March 2017 DTIC AD No. TACTICAL VEHICLE CLIMATE CONTROL TESTING Page Paragraph 1. SCOPE
Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.
Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) have increased in popularity in recent years. The most common platform, the quadrotor, has surpassed other MAVs like traditional helicopters and ornithopters in popularity mainly due to their simplicity. Yet the quadrotor design is a century old and was intended to carry people. We set out to design a MAV that is designed specifically to be a MAV, i.e. a vehicle not intended to carry humans as a payload. With this constraint lifted the vehicle can continuously rotate, which would dizzy a human, can sustain larger forces, which would damage a human, or can take advantage of scaling properties, where it may not work at human scale. Furthermore, we aim for simplicity by removing vehicle controllers and reducing the number of actuators, such that the vehicle can be made cost effective, if not disposable. We begin by studying general equations of motion for hovering MAVs. We search for vehicle configurations that exhibit passive stability, allowing the MAV to operate without a controller or actuators to apply control, ideally a single actuator. The analysis suggests two distinct types of passively stabilized MAVs and we create test vehicles for both. With simple hovering achieved, we concentrate on controlled motion with an emphasis on doing so without adding actuators. We find we can attain three degree of freedom control using separation of time scales with our actuator via low frequency for control in the vertical direction and high frequency for control in the horizontal plane. We explore techniques for achieving high frequency actuator control, which also allow the compensation of motor defects, specifically cogging torque. We combine passive stability with the motion control into two vehicles, UNO and Piccolissimo. UNO, the Underactuated-propeller Naturally-stabilized One-motor vehicle, demonstrates the capabilities of simple vehicles by performing maneuvers like conventional quadrotors. Piccolissimo, Italian for very little
Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.
The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with
J. Francfort; D. Karner
The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.
Full Text Available Following the world conference on sustainable developmentof ecology, the care for the environment has to be strictlycomplied with, and this should be the task both of every individualand of the society as an organised whole. The work presentsconcrete measurements from practice and the indicators of thesituation regarding motor vehicles in Croatia. The EGO-TESThas been performed in Croatia according to the European Uniondirectives; first on the vehicles with petrol engines. Now, it isstarting to be applied on the vehicles with Diesel engines as well.Compliance with the EGO TEST regarding motor vehicles inCroatia will take into consideration the guidelines provided bythe European Union and thus reduce the harm from exhaustgases and noise pollution, and increase the possibility of usingmotor vehicles in order to reduce the danger and increase thesafety on the roads by excluding old vehicles from traffic.
Tamaddoni, Seyed Hossein; Taheri, Saied; Ahmadian, Mehdi
Dynamic game theory brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimisation behaviour, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In the presented methodology, vehicle stability is represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely the driver and the direct yaw controller (DYC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the DYC control algorithm is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degrees-of-freedom vehicle-handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion. To evaluate the developed control algorithm, CarSim with its built-in nonlinear vehicle model along with the Pacejka tire model is used. The control algorithm is evaluated for a lane change manoeuvre, and the optimal set of steering angle and corrective yaw moment is calculated and fed to the test vehicle. Simulation results show that the optimal preview control algorithm can significantly reduce lateral velocity, yaw rate, and roll angle, which all contribute to enhancing vehicle stability.
... Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 100 / Wednesday... Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway...
Full Text Available of these crashes involve heavy vehicle rollover. The regulations in the National Road Traffic Act of South Africa that govern heavy vehicle design do not directly address the roll stability of heavy vehicles. The internationally accepted method of regulating roll...
Full Text Available The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.
McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van
A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension
Griswold, Norman C.
The objective of the research is to develop an autonomous vehicle which utilizes stereo camera sensors (using ambient light) to follow complex paths at speeds up to 35 mph with consideration of moving vehicles within the path. The task is intended to demonstrate the contribution to safety of a vehicle under automatic control. All of the long-term scenarios investigating future reduction in congestion involve an automatic system taking control, or partial control, of the vehicle. A vehicle which includes a collision avoidance system is a prerequisite to an automatic control system. The report outlines the results of a constrained test of a vision controlled vehicle. In order to demonstrate its ability to perform on the current street system the vehicle was constrained to recognize, approach, and stop at an ordinary roadside stop sign.
This study investigated the safety and stability of longer combination vehicles (LCVs), in particular a triple trailer combination behind a commercial tractor, which has more complicated dynamics than the more common tractor in combination with a sin...
Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.
Trummel, M. C.; Burke, A. F.
Phase I of a joint Department of Energy/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Program undertook the development of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (HTV), which has subsequently progressed through design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation phases. Attention is presently given to the design and test experience gained during the HTV development program, and a discussion is presented of the design features and performance capabilities of the various 'mule' vehicles, devoted to the separate development of engine microprocessor control, vehicle structure, and mechanical components, whose elements were incorporated into the final HTV design. Computer projections of the HTV's performance are given.
Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C
Buznikov, S. E.; Endachev, D. V.; Elkin, D. S.; Strukov, V. O.
Currently the effort of many leading foreign companies is focused on creation of driverless transport for transportation of cargo and passengers. Among many practical problems arising while creating driverless vehicles, the problem of the specified path stability control occupies a central place. The purpose of this paper is formalization of the problem in question in terms of the quadratic functional of the control quality, the comparative analysis of the possible solutions and justification of the choice of the optimum technical solution. As square value of the integral of the deviation from the specified path is proposed as the quadratic functional of the control quality. For generation of the set of software and hardware solution variants the Zwicky “morphological box” method is used within the hardware and software environments. The heading control algorithms use the wheel steering angle data and the deviation from the lane centerline (specified path) calculated based on the navigation data and the data from the video system. Where the video system does not detect the road marking, the control is carried out based on the wheel navigation system data and where recognizable road marking exits - based on to the video system data. The analysis of the test results allows making the conclusion that the application of the combined navigation system algorithms that provide quasi-optimum solution of the problem while meeting the strict functional limits for the technical and economic indicators of the driverless vehicle control system under development is effective.
Full Text Available With the development of the vehicle industry, controlling stability has become more and more important. Techniques of evaluating vehicle stability are in high demand. Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS and Inertial Navigation System (INS is a very practical method to get high-precision measurement data. Usually, the Kalman filter is used to fuse the data from GPS and INS. In this paper, a robust method is used to measure vehicle sideslip angle and yaw rate, which are two important parameters for vehicle stability. First, a four-wheel vehicle dynamic model is introduced, based on sideslip angle and yaw rate. Second, a double level Kalman filter is established to fuse the data from Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System. Then, this method is simulated on a sample vehicle, using Carsim software to test the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Finally, a real experiment is made to verify the advantage of this approach. The experimental results showed the merits of this method of measurement and estimation, and the approach can meet the design requirements of the vehicle stability controller.
Davis, Williams [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)
The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.
Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark
A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.
Godthelp, J. & Buist, M.
An investigation was carried out concerning stability and manoeuvrability characteristics of single track vehicles. This report deals with the first phase of this study and refers to experiments carried out(1) with an instrumented varied and (2) with a number of popular bicycles and mopeds. In
Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Yang; Li, Qian; Li, Congmin; Qiu, Zhizhen
Half-Rotating Wing (HRW) is a new power wing which had been developed by our work team using rotating-type flapping instead of oscillating-type flapping. Half-Rotating Wing Air Vehicle (HRWAV) is similar as Bionic Flapping Wing Air Vehicle (BFWAV). It is necessary to guarantee pitching stability of HRWAV to maintain flight stability. The working principle of HRW was firstly introduced in this paper. The rule of motion indicated that the fuselage of HRWAV without empennage would overturn forward as it generated increased pitching movement. Therefore, the empennage was added on the tail of HRWAV to balance the additional moment generated by aerodynamic force during flight. The stability analysis further shows that empennage could weaken rapidly the pitching disturbance on HRWAV and a new balance of fuselage could be achieved in a short time. Case study using numerical analysis verified correctness and validity of research results mentioned above, which could provide theoretical guidance to design and control HRWAV.
Story, George; Arves, Joe
Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.
S. S. Andropov
Full Text Available A problem of stabilizing for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle in an environment with external disturbances is researched. A classic proportional-integral-derivative controller is analyzed, its flaws are outlined: inability to respond to changing of external conditions and the need for manual adjustment of coefficients. The paper presents an adaptive adjustment method for coefficients of the proportional-integral-derivative controller based on neural networks. A neural network structure, its input and output data are described. Neural networks with three layers are used to create an adaptive stabilization system for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle. Training of the networks is done with the back propagation method. Each neural network produces regulator coefficients for each angle of stabilization as its output. A method for network training is explained. Several graphs of transition process on different stages of learning, including processes with external disturbances, are presented. It is shown that the system meets stabilization requirements with sufficient number of iterations. Described adjustment method for coefficients can be used in remote control of unmanned aerial vehicles, operating in the changing environment.
The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.
Schumann, Johann; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar
For the safe operation of a complex system like a (manned) launch vehicle, real-time information about the state of the system and potential faults is extremely important. The on-board FDDR (Failure Detection, Diagnostics, and Response) system is a software system to detect and identify failures, provide real-time diagnostics, and to initiate fault recovery and mitigation. The ERIS (Evaluation of Rocket Integrated Subsystems) failure simulation is a unified Matlab/Simulink model of the Ares I Launch Vehicle with modular, hierarchical subsystems and components. With this model, the nominal flight performance characteristics can be studied. Additionally, failures can be injected to see their effects on vehicle state and on vehicle behavior. A comprehensive test and analysis of such a complicated model is virtually impossible. In this paper, we will describe, how parametric testing (PT) can be used to support testing and analysis of the ERIS failure simulation. PT uses a combination of Monte Carlo techniques with n-factor combinatorial exploration to generate a small, yet comprehensive set of parameters for the test runs. For the analysis of the high-dimensional simulation data, we are using multivariate clustering to automatically find structure in this high-dimensional data space. Our tools can generate detailed HTML reports that facilitate the analysis.
Bakker, R.T.; Hogema, J.A.; Huiskamp, W.; Papp, Z.
Simulation, or rather virtual testing, is a good instrument for study and design of traffic management concepts, traffic safety, vehicle safety and ergonomics. Simulation facilitates the evaluation of the design at an early stage and reduces the costs of making prototypes. The Dutch research
The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...
Gao, Yimin [Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville, VA (United States)
Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS
Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice
The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicle preparation. 205.57-3... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.57-3 Test vehicle preparation. (a) Prior to the official test, the test vehicle selected in accordance with § 205-57-2 shall not...
Owens, Donald B.; Aibicjpm. Vamessa V.
With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is designing a new spacecraft, called Orion, to fly astronauts to low earth orbit and beyond. Characterization of the dynamic stability of the Orion spacecraft is important for the design of the spacecraft and trajectory construction. Dynamic stability affects the stability and control of the Orion Crew Module during re-entry, especially below Mach = 2.0 and including flight under the drogues. The Launch Abort Vehicle is affected by dynamic stability as well, especially during the re-orientation and heatshield forward segments of the flight. The dynamic stability was assessed using the forced oscillation technique, free-to-oscillate, ballistic range, and sub-scale free-flight tests. All of the test techniques demonstrated that in heatshield-forward flight the Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle are dynamically unstable in a significant portion of their flight trajectory. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Orion dynamic aero program and a high-level summary of the dynamic stability characteristics of the Orion spacecraft.
Tobler, Chad K
.... In order to continue these research activities at CIMAR, a new Kawasaki Mule All-Terrain Vehicle was chosen to be automated as a test-bed for the purpose of developing and testing autonomous vehicle technologies...
..., repair, removal, disassembly, cleaning, or replacement on vehicles shall be performed only with the... malfunction, or the repair of such failure or malfunction, does not render the vehicle unrepresentative of... maintenance under paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section. (b) Repairs to vehicle components of test vehicles...
Sadri, Sobhan; Wu, Christine
For the first time, this paper investigates the application of the concept of Lyapunov exponents to the stability analysis of the nonlinear vehicle model in plane motion with two degrees of freedom. The nonlinearity of the model comes from the third-order polynomial expression between the lateral forces on the tyres and the tyre slip angles. Comprehensive studies on both system and structural stability analyses of the vehicle model are presented. The system stability analysis includes the stability, lateral stability region, and effects of driving conditions on the lateral stability region of the vehicle model in the state space. In the structural stability analysis, the ranges of driving conditions in which the stability of the vehicle model is guaranteed are given. Moreover, through examples, the largest Lyapunov exponent is suggested as an indicator of the convergence rate in which the disturbed vehicle model returns to its stable fixed point.
Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie
This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.
This paper presents first measurement results of two test vehicles ASIC embedding some building blocks for the future CMS High Granularity CALorimeter (HGCAL) read-out ASIC. They were fabricated in CMOS 130 nm, in order to first design the Analog and Mixed-Signal blocks before going to a complete and complex chip. Such a circuit needs to achieve low noise high dynamic range charge measurement and 20 ps resolution timing capability. The results show good analog performance but with higher noise levels compared to simulations. We present the results of the preamplifiers, shapers and ADCs.
Characterization test procedures have been developed to quantify the performance of intersection collision avoidance (ICA) systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications. These systems warn the driver of an imminent crossing-path collision at a r...
"This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...
"This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...
This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...
Wheeled Heavy 30 50 10 10 Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) / Route Clearance Vehicle (RCV) 10 40 30 20 Wheeled Truck-Tractor and...fall under this category. d. Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) / Route Clearance Vehicle (RCV). Special purpose armored trucks used for...2 October 2014 11 Vehicles such as the Skid Steer Loader (SSL) would fall under the rubber tracked engineering vehicle category. o
Hyde, E.A.; Goldsmith, H.A.; Proudlove, M.J.
A remotely controlled vehicle capable of roving over the outer surface of a nuclear reactor primary vessel carrying inspection instrumentation. The vehicle comprises an elongate bridge having a pair of suction support pads. Each pad carries gas thrusters for acting in opposition to the suction effort thereby to reduce adherence of the pads and enable displacement of the vehicle over the surface. The vehicle is supported by a services conducting umbilical. (author)
... expiration dates provided full shelf life studies are not available and are being conducted. Where data from... shelf life studies, there must be stability studies conducted, including drug product testing at... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stability testing. 211.166 Section 211.166 Food...
Patterson, Alan; Smith, Robert K.; Goggin, David; Newsom, Jerry
New NASA launch vehicles will require development of robust systems in a fiscally-constrained environment. NASA, Department of Defense (DoD), and commercial space companies routinely conduct ground vibration tests as an essential part of math model validation and launch vehicle certification. Although ground vibration testing must be a part of the integrated test planning process, more affordable approaches must also be considered. A study evaluated several ground vibration test options for the NASA Constellation Program flight test vehicles, Orion-1 and Orion-2, which concluded that more affordable ground vibration test options are available. The motivation for ground vibration testing is supported by historical examples from NASA and DoD. The approach used in the present study employed surveys of ground vibration test subject-matter experts that provided data to qualitatively rank six test options. Twenty-five experts from NASA, DoD, and industry provided scoring and comments for this study. The current study determined that both element-level modal tests and integrated vehicle modal tests have technical merits. Both have been successful in validating structural dynamic math models of launch vehicles. However, element-level testing has less overall cost and schedule risk as compared to integrated vehicle testing. Future NASA launch vehicle development programs should anticipate that some structural dynamics testing will be necessary. Analysis alone will be inadequate to certify a crew-capable launch vehicle. At a minimum, component and element structural dynamic tests are recommended for new vehicle elements. Three viable structural dynamic test options were identified. Modal testing of the new vehicle elements and an integrated vehicle test on the mobile launcher provided the optimal trade between technical, cost, and schedule.
Tønnesen, H H
Exposure of a drug to irradiation can influence the stability of the formulation, leading to changes in the physicochemical properties of the product. The influence of excipients of frequently used stabilizers is often difficult to predict and, therefore, stability testing of the final preparation is important. The selection of a protective packaging must be based on knowledge about the wavelength causing the instability. Details on drug photoreactivity will also be helpful in order to minimize side-effects and/or optimize drug targeting by developing photoresponsive drug delivery systems. This review focuses on practical problems related to formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.
... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation; refueling test... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...
... probability that a vehicle would be involved in a fatal crash. For passenger cars, the reductions are 5...-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...
Full Text Available The problem of controlling a platoon of vehicles moving in one dimension is considered so that they all follow a lead vehicle with constant spacing between successive vehicles. The stability and the string stability of a platoon of vehicles with two independent and uncertain delays, one in the inter-vehicle distance and the other in the relative velocity information channels, are considered. The main objectives of this paper are: (1 using a simplifying factorization procedure and deploying the cluster treatment of characteristic roots (CTCR paradigm to obtain exact stability boundaries in the domain of the delays, and (2 for the purpose of disturbance attenuation, the string stability analysis is examined. Finally, a simulation example of multiple vehicle platoon control is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Full Text Available This study examines the roll instability mechanism and stability index of articulated steering vehicles (ASVs by taking wheel loaders as the research object. A seven-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics model of the ASVs is built on the basis of multibody dynamics. A physical prototype model of an ASV is designed and manufactured to validate the dynamic model. Test results reasonably agree with the simulation results, which indicates that the established dynamic model can reasonably describe ASV movements. Detailed analysis of the rollover stability of the wheel loader is performed with the use of the established dynamic model. Analysis results show that rollover will occur when the roll angular velocity exceeds a critical threshold, which is affected by lateral acceleration and slope angle. On this basis, a dynamic stability index applicable to the ASVs is presented.
Mehrdad N. Khajavi; Golamhassan Paygane; Ali Hakima
Vehicle which are turning or maneuvering at high speeds are susceptible to sliding and subsequently deviate from desired path. In this paper the dynamics governing the Yaw/Roll behavior of a vehicle has been simulated. Two different simulations have been used one for the real vehicle, for which a fuzzy controller is designed to increase its directional stability property. The other simulation is for a hypothetical vehicle with much higher tire cornering stiffness which is ca...
fiber optic and bi-directional microwave telemetry links that provide high speed data transfer and real-time test control, and secure, single...effort, durability testing of wheeled and tracked vehicles, and evaluation of overweight and over length vehicles. Figure 143. HWTC map
Johnson, Cary E; Wagner, Deborah S; Bussard, Wendy E
The stability of dolasetron 10 mg/mL over 90 days when prepared as an oral liquid formulation from commercially available tablets in both strawberry syrup and a sugar-free vehicle was studied. A liquid suspension of dolasetron mesylate 10 mg/mL was prepared from commercially available dolasetron tablets, OraPlus, and Ora-Sweet or strawberry syrup. Six samples of each formulation were prepared and stored in amber plastic bottles. Three samples of each formulation were refrigerated (3-5 degrees C) and three were stored at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the 12 bottles immediately and after 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 10 micrograms/mL with sample diluent, the solutions were assayed in duplicate using high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were also inspected for color and odor changes, and the pH of each sample was determined. The stability-indicating capability of the dolasetron assay was determined by forced degradation of four separate 10-mg/mL samples exposed to direct sunlight for 90 days. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, or taste and no visible microbial growth in any sample. At least 98% of the initial dolasetron concentration remained throughout the 90-day study period for all samples. An extemporaneously compounded oral liquid preparation of dolasetron mesylate 10 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and strawberry syrup or Ora-Sweet was stable for at least 90 days when stored at 3-5 or 23-25 degrees C.
Ground vehicle mobility advances for the future combat vehicles fleet will be achieved through smaller and lighter systems with improved weapon stabilization, improved ride and agility, and reduced...
Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.
Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi
We have developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamics code coupling equation of motion of a rigid body for analyzing posture stability of laser propulsion vehicle through numerical simulations of flowfield interacting with unsteady motion of the vehicle. Asymmetric energy distribution is initially added around the focal spot (ring) in order to examine posture stability against an asymmetric blast wave resulting from a laser offset for a lightcraft-type vehicle. The vehicle moves to cancel out the offset from initial offset. However, the Euler angle grows and never returns to zero in a time scale of laser pulse. Also, we found that the vehicle moves to cancel tipping angle when the laser is irradiated to the vehicle with initial tipping angle over the wide angle range, through the vehicle cannot get sufficient restoring force in particular angle, and the tipping angle does not decrease from the initial value for that case.
Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao
Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037
Creager, Colin; Asnani, Vivake; Oravec, Heather; Woodward, Adam
As NASA strives to explore the surface of the Moon and Mars, there is a continued need for improved tire and vehicle development. When tires or vehicles are being designed for off-road conditions where significant thrust generation is required, such as climbing out of craters on the Moon, it is important to use a standard test method for evaluating their tractive performance. The drawbar pull (DP) test is a way of measuring the net thrust generated by tires or a vehicle with respect to performance metrics such as travel reduction, sinkage, or power efficiency. DP testing may be done using a single tire on a traction rig, or with a set of tires on a vehicle; this report focuses on vehicle DP tests. Though vehicle DP tests have been used for decades, there are no standard procedures that apply to exploration vehicles. This report summarizes previous methods employed, shows the sensitivity of certain test parameters, and provides a body of knowledge for developing standard testing procedures. The focus of this work is on lunar applications, but these test methods can be applied to terrestrial and planetary conditions as well. Section 1.0 of this report discusses the utility of DP testing for off-road vehicle evaluation and the metrics used. Section 2.0 focuses on test-terrain preparation, using the example case of lunar terrain. There is a review of lunar terrain analogs implemented in the past and a discussion on the lunar terrain conditions created at the NASA Glenn Research Center, including methods of evaluating the terrain strength variation and consistency from test to test. Section 3.0 provides details of the vehicle test procedures. These consist of a review of past methods, a comprehensive study on the sensitivity of test parameters, and a summary of the procedures used for DP testing at Glenn.
Li, Zhipeng; Li, Wenzhong; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Sun, Jian
In this paper, we propose a heterogeneous car following model in terms of an extension to the original optimal velocity model characterizing two classes of different self-stabilizing control vehicles. Linear stability analysis method is utilized to the extended model, for purpose to explore how the varying percentages of the vehicles with short-duration self-stabilizing control influence the stability of the heterogeneous traffic flow. We obtain the neutral stability lines for different percentages of two classes of vehicles, with finding that the traffic flow trends to stable with the decrease of the percentage for short-duration self-stabilizing control vehicles. Moreover, we explore a special case that the same numbers of two different classes of vehicles with self-stabilizing control. We theoretically derive the stability condition of the special case, and conclude the effect of the average value and the standard deviation of two time gaps, on the heterogeneous traffic stability. At last, direct simulations are conducted to verify the conclusion of theoretical analysis.
This Batchelor’s thesis was commissioned by Oy LM Ericsson Ab Oulu. The aim of it was to help to investigate and create a test automation solution for the stability testing of the LTE base station. The main objective was to create a test automation for a predefined test set. This test automation solution had to be created for specific environments and equipment. This work included creating the automation for the test cases and putting them to daily test automation jobs. The key factor...
Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.
The Hybrid Heavy Lift Helicopter (HHLH) is a potential candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure. Four rotor systems are also attached to the supporting structure. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modeling the dynamics of this multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed and used to study the fundamental aeromechanical stability characteristics of this class of vehicles. The mechanism of coupling between the blades, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified and the effect of buoyancy ratio (buoyant lift/total weight) on the vehicle dynamics is studied. It is shown that dynamics effects have a major role in the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.
Thawing soil presents a formidable challenge for vehicle operations cross-country and on unsurfaced roads. To mitigate the problem, a variety of stabilization techniques were evaluated for their suitability for rapid employment to enhance military ve...
... venting the carburetor during both engine off and engine operation. (viii) Liquid fuel hose material. (ix... Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.096-24 Test vehicles and engines. (a... different emission characteristics. This determination will be based upon a consideration of the features of...
The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...
Lehfuss, F.; Nohrer, M.; Werkmany, E.; Lopezz, J.A.; Zabalaz, E.
This paper presents a reference architecture for interoperability testing of electric vehicles as well as their support equipment with the smart grid and the e-Mobility environment. Pan-European Electric Vehicle (EV)-charging is currently problematic as there are compliance and interoperability
... Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.001-24 Test vehicles and engines. Section... which certification has been obtained or for which all applicable data required under § 86.001-23 has...
Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...
Ploeg, J.; Shukla, D.P.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.
Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) allows for short-distance automatic vehicle following using intervehicle wireless communication in addition to onboard sensors, thereby potentially improving road throughput. In order to fulfill performance, safety, and comfort requirements, a CACC-equipped
are as follows: a. Micrometer calipers (inside, outside, and dial types). b. Surface finish gauges. c. Torque wrench. d. Brake shoe...HAZARDOUS CONDITION • The power assist unit fails to operate. 10. Front Drum Brakes Procedure: Equipment needed: Steel scale or Vernier ... Micrometer and dial indicator. Reject the vehicle if: • Rotors are broken or damaged, or cracks on the surface extend to the outer edges. • Two grooves
Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus
This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... above the state of the art power converters. This is an unnecessary high consumption of electrical energy during charging, which not only affects the consumer financially, but also creates unnecessary load on the grid....
Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.
Full Text Available An adaptive slid mode controller was established for improving the handling stability of motorized electric vehicle (MEV. First and foremost, the structure and advantages of electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors will be provided. Then, an ideal cornering model of vehicles will be brought and analyzed, after which a method to estimate side-slip angle was also proposed and three typical sensors were used in the theory. Besides, an idea for the recognition of road adhesion coefficient was derived based on MEV platform, which will be helpful for better control performances. Finally, the scheme of control method was given and some typical tests for observing handling properties were implemented based on Simulink and Carsim software. With the outcomes from the experiments, which vividly showed the merits of the controller, one can come to a conclusion that MEV that equips with the adaptive slid mode controller always enjoys better handling performances than the one without control. Furthermore, the controller researched is friendly to the real-time working conditions, which will hold practical values in the future.
Full Text Available An accelerated corrosion test, known as proving ground accelerated test, is commonly performed by automotive manufacturers to evaluate the corrosion performance of a vehicle. The test combines corrosion and durability inputs to detect potential failures that may occur during in-service conditions. Currently, the test is conducted at an external test center overseas. Such test is aimed to simulate the effects of one year accelerated corrosion in severe corrosive environment of the north-east and south east of America. However, the test results obtained do not correlate with the actual corrosion conditions observed in the Malaysian market, which is likely attributed to the different test environment of the tropical climate of vehicles in service. Therefore, a vehicle accelerated corrosion test procedure that suits the Malaysian market is proposed and benchmarked with other global car manufacturers that have their own dedicated corrosion test procedure. In the present work, a test track is used as the corrosion test ground and consists of various types of roads for structural durability exposures. Corrosion related facilities like salt trough, mud trough and gravel road are constructed as addition to the existing facilities. The establishment of accelerated corrosion test facilities has contributed to the development of initial accelerated corrosion test procedure for the national car manufacturer. The corrosion exposure is monitored by fitting test coupons at the underbody of test vehicle using mass loss technique so that the desired corrosion rate capable of simulating the real time corrosion effects for its target market.
Gupta, Vishnu D
The chemical stability of hydrocortisone in two different commercially available vehicles for compounding oral liquid dosage forms has been studies using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method that was developed in our laboratory. Hydrocortisone was more stable in Ora-Sweet vehicle than in Humco simple syrup. After 71 days of storage at 60 degrees Celsius, the percent of hydrocortisone retained in Humco simple syrup was 62.8 ( initial pH value of the dosage form was 5.2) versus 67.7 in Ora-Sweet vehicle (initial pH value of the dosage form was 4.3). Due to the hydrolysis of sugar, the physical appearances of both the dosage forms gradually changed from almost colorless to yellow. Citric acid, which was present only in the Ora-Sweet vehicle, did not adversely affect the stability of hydrocortisone.
... Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... No. 136, Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles (77 FR 30766). The standard would... kilograms (26,000 pounds), to be equipped with an electronic stability control (ESC) system that meets the...
Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.
Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.
Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of vehicle landmine protection validation testing in South Africa. A short history of validation test standards is given, followed by a summary of current open test standards in general use...
Riofrio, Andres; Sanz, Susana; Boada, Maria Jesus L; Boada, Beatriz L
In this article, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) lateral stability and rollover controller has been developed including as the main novelty taking into account the road bank angle and using exclusively active suspension for both lateral stability and rollover control. The main problem regarding the road bank is that it cannot be measured by means of on-board sensors. The solution proposed in this article is performing an estimation of this variable using a Kalman filter. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between the road disturbance component and the vehicle's roll angle. The controller's effectiveness has been tested by means of simulations carried out in TruckSim, using an experimentally-validated vehicle model. Lateral load transfer, roll angle, yaw rate and sideslip angle have been analyzed in order to quantify the improvements achieved on the behavior of the vehicle. For that purpose, these variables have been compared with the results obtained from both a vehicle that uses passive suspension and a vehicle using a fuzzy logic controller.
Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie
the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...... manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which...... characteristics. Results: The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across...
Full Text Available This paper shows the design and development of a test bench for humanfemurs. The main uses of this test bench will run from artificial femurs comparisonwith real femurs, to join stability assessment after bone a fracture repair. Amongthis uses is specially designed for condylar fractures testing. The test bench isdeveloped from a self-made existing tensile/compression testing machine. Thedesign procedure is supported by a literature review about the bone mechanicalbehavior and composition generally and the knee joint performance and repairparticularly. On the basis of this review, the machine was designed to simulate theadduction and abduction movements of the joint. The magnitudes to be measuredare: the compression force, the bone displacement (vertical and the knee jointrotation
Abdullah, M. A.; Jamil, J. F.; Muhammad, N. S.
The world is demanding on the alternative fuel and reducing the fuel consumption of land transportation especially in the automotive industries. This paper emphasizes the development of the energy regenerative suspension system (EReSS) for energy efficient vehicle (EEV) or hybrid. The EReSS product is fabricated and tested on the laboratory and real vehicle. The test is conducted to test the function of the EReSS system on real vehicle. The test is done using the multimeter to record the reading of voltage produces by the EReSS system that is attached to the vehicle suspension system. The experiment starts by setting the parameters in the EReSS system which is the number of windings with a standard magnet. Road irregularity is one of the important parts of the experiment which is set to be various types of road condition and driving style. A domestic car model is selected for the EReSS test that the system can be installed. The test of the EReSS gives out the maximum output voltage of 5.6 V with 530 windings. Improvement on the material can increase the output voltage. The EReSS is function on the real vehicle by producing voltage by harvesting the kinetic energy from the suspension vibration.
Vehicles were characterized for the state of the art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed.
Hyde, E.A.; Goldsmith, H.A.; Proudlove, M.J.
This invention relates to a non-destructive testing apparatus and, in particular, to a vehicle that can be moved at will, for transporting instruments for testing against a surface remote from the operator. Under this invention a vehicle is intended, for instance, for testing the vessel of an installation containing a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor of the pond type. Such an installation includes a nuclear reactor comprising an assembly containing a nuclear fuel immersed in a pond of liquid metal coolant, located in a vessel which is itself placed in a concrete containment vessel [fr
Tanmay K. Mandal
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a Pilot-Induced Oscillation (PIO and human pilot control characterization study performed using flight data collected with a Remotely Controlled (R/C unmanned research aircraft. The study was carried out on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Several existing Category 1 and Category 2 PIO criteria developed for manned aircraft are first surveyed and their effectiveness for predicting the PIO susceptibility for the R/C unmanned aircraft is evaluated using several flight experiments. It was found that the Bandwidth/Pitch rate overshoot and open loop onset point (OLOP criteria prediction results matched flight test observations. However, other criteria failed to provide accurate prediction results. To further characterize the human pilot control behavior during these experiments, a quasi-linear pilot model is used. The parameters of the pilot model estimated using data obtained from flight tests are then used to obtain information about the stability of the Pilot Vehicle System (PVS for Category 1 PIOs occurred during straight and level flights. The batch estimation technique used to estimate the parameters of the quasi-linear pilot model failed to completely capture the compatibility nature of the human pilot. The estimation results however provided valuable insights into the frequency characteristics of the human pilot commands. Additionally, stability analysis of the Category 2 PIOs for elevator actuator rate limiting is carried out using simulations and the results are compared with actual flight results.
Liu, Yanbin; Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua
A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
EPA's Light-Duty In-Use Vehicle Testing Program Information System contains car owner names, addresses, vehicle identification numbers, etc. The EPA uses this information to recruit and test vehicles for emissions standards compliance.
Jansen, H.W.; Dittrich, M.G.; Squicciarini, G.; Thompson, D.J.; Betgen, B.
New railway vehicles in Europe have to comply with noise limits as defined in the Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI). The pass-by test has to be carried out at a site that fulfills the TSI requirements. The need has arisen to be able to perform TSI pass-by type testing at
Jansen, H.W.; Dittrich, M.G.; Squicciarini, S.; Thompson D.J.; Betgen, B.
New railway vehicles in Europe have to comply with noise limits as defined in the Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI). The pass-by test has to be carried out at a site that fulfills with TSI requirements. The need has arisen to be able to perform TSI pass-by type testing at
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicle sample selection. 205.57-2 Section 205.57-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.57-2 Test...
Seluga, Kristopher J; Baker, Lowell L; Ojalvo, Irving U
This paper describes research and parametric analyses of braking effectiveness and directional stability for golf cars, personal transport vehicles (PTVs) and low speed vehicles (LSVs). It is shown that current designs, which employ brakes on only the rear wheels, can lead to rollovers if the brakes are applied while traveling downhill. After summarizing the current state of existing safety standards and brake system designs, both of which appear deficient from a safety perspective, a previously developed dynamic simulation model is used to identify which parameters have the greatest influence on the vehicles' yaw stability. The simulation results are then used to parametrically quantify which combination of these factors can lead to yaw induced rollover during hard braking. Vehicle velocity, steering input, path slope and tire friction are all identified as important parameters in determining braking stability, the effects of which on rollover propensity are presented graphically. The results further show that when vehicles are equipped with front brakes or four-wheel brakes, the probability of a yaw induced rollover is almost entirely eliminated. Furthermore, the parametric charts provided may be used as an aid in developing guidelines for golf car and PTV path design if rear brake vehicles are used.
AFLRL with a water bottom were tested as control samples. This fuel sample had been previously innoculated with a culture of Cladosporium resinae and was...turbid, light pink color * Containing active growth of Cladosporium resinae ** Sample was shaken and allowed to stand for 24 hours prior to obtaining
Bartels, Robert E.
Launch vehicles frequently experience a reduced stability margin through the transonic Mach number range. This reduced stability margin can be caused by the aerodynamic undamping one of the lower-frequency flexible or rigid body modes. Analysis of the behavior of a flexible vehicle is routinely performed with quasi-steady aerodynamic line loads derived from steady rigid aerodynamics. However, a quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis can be unconservative at the critical Mach numbers, where experiment or unsteady computational aeroelastic analysis show a reduced or even negative aerodynamic damping.Amethod of enhancing the quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis of a launch vehicle with unsteady aerodynamics is developed that uses unsteady computational fluid dynamics to compute the response of selected lower-frequency modes. The response is contained in a time history of the vehicle line loads. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the unsteady aerodynamic line-load response is used to reduce the scale of data volume and system identification is used to derive the aerodynamic stiffness, damping, and mass matrices. The results are compared with the damping and frequency computed from unsteady computational aeroelasticity and from a quasi-steady analysis. The results show that incorporating unsteady aerodynamics in this way brings the enhanced quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis into close agreement with the unsteady computational aeroelastic results.
length. Since force is typically a linear correlation to strain on a structure, the use of force to help cut drive file length can be used as a...response channels, Nrb, as drive channels, ND. A linear best fit approach is used when a control band is over defined (Nrb > ND). Experience and...transducers, inertial measurement units, and wheel force transducers. Actuator drive files for the test item are developed from field data collected
Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.
The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.
A team led by NTRCI is working to improve the roll and yaw stability of heavy duty combination trucks through developing stability algorithms, assembling demonstration hardware, and investigating robust wireless communication. : Modern electronic sta...
Full Text Available In this article, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR lateral stability and rollover controller has been developed including as the main novelty taking into account the road bank angle and using exclusively active suspension for both lateral stability and rollover control. The main problem regarding the road bank is that it cannot be measured by means of on-board sensors. The solution proposed in this article is performing an estimation of this variable using a Kalman filter. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between the road disturbance component and the vehicle’s roll angle. The controller’s effectiveness has been tested by means of simulations carried out in TruckSim, using an experimentally-validated vehicle model. Lateral load transfer, roll angle, yaw rate and sideslip angle have been analyzed in order to quantify the improvements achieved on the behavior of the vehicle. For that purpose, these variables have been compared with the results obtained from both a vehicle that uses passive suspension and a vehicle using a fuzzy logic controller.
Full Text Available This study describes a comparative study of steering and yaw moment control manoeuvres in model predictive control (MPC and linear quadratic control approaches for path following unmanned vehicles for different control manoeuvres: two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and direct yaw moment control. We then propose MPC with a proportional-integral (PI controller for the coordination of active front steering (AFS and active braking system, which particularly highlights direct yaw moment control (DYC manoeuvres. Based on the known trajectory, we tested a vehicle at middle forward speed with the disturbance consideration of the road surface adhesion and the wind for a double lane change scenario in order to follow the desired trajectory as close as possible, minimizing tracking errors, and enhancing vehicle stability and drivability. We compared two different controllers; i MPC with PI of an AFS and, ii MPC with PI for coordination of AFS and DYC. The operation of the proposed integrated control is demonstrated in a Matlab simulation environment by manoeuvring the vehicle along the desired trajectory. Simulation results showed that the proposed method had yielded better tracking performances, and were able to enhance the vehicle’s stability at a given speed even under road surface coefficient and wind.
Scott, Alan D.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The US space industry has accumulated a vast amount of expertise in the testing of spacecraft to ensure these vehicles can endure the harsh environments associated with launch and on-orbit operations. Even with this corporate experience, there remains a wide variation in the techniques utilized to test spacecraft during the development and manufacturing process, particularly with regard to spacecraft level dynamics testing. This study ...
Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.
The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.
Filiberto Muñoz Palacios
Full Text Available This article addresses the development and implementation of a test bed for applications of heterogeneous unmanned vehicle systems. The test bed consists of unmanned aerial vehicles (Parrot AR.Drones versions 1 or 2, Parrot SA, Paris, France, and Bebop Drones 1.0 and 2.0, Parrot SA, Paris, France, ground vehicles (WowWee Rovio, WowWee Group Limited, Hong Kong, China, and the motion capture systems VICON and OptiTrack. Such test bed allows the user to choose between two different options of development environments, to perform aerial and ground vehicles applications. On the one hand, it is possible to select an environment based on the VICON system and LabVIEW (National Instruments or robotics operating system platforms, which make use the Parrot AR.Drone software development kit or the Bebop_autonomy Driver to communicate with the unmanned vehicles. On the other hand, it is possible to employ a platform that uses the OptiTrack system and that allows users to develop their own applications, replacing AR.Drone’s original firmware with original code. We have developed four experimental setups to illustrate the use of the Parrot software development kit, the Bebop Driver (AutonomyLab, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada, and the original firmware replacement for performing a strategy that involves both ground and aerial vehicle tracking. Finally, in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed test bed for the implementation of advanced controllers, we present experimental results of the implementation of three consensus algorithms: static, adaptive, and neural network, in order to accomplish that a team of multiagents systems move together to track a target.
Zhou Danfeng; Wang Lianchun; Li Jie; Yu Peichang
The maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem has been encountered in many maglev test or commercial lines, which significantly degrade the performance of the maglev train. In previous research on the principle of the coupled vibration problem, it has been discovered that the fundamental model of the maglev girder can be simplified as a series of mass-spring resonators of different but related resonance frequencies, and that the stability of the vehicle-girder coupled system can be inve...
Dustin, M. O.
A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.
Baek, S.; Son, M.; Song, J.; Boo, K.; Kim, H.
A map based controller method to improve a vehicle lateral stability is proposed in this study and compared with the conventional method, a model referenced controller. A model referenced controller to determine compensated yaw moment uses the sliding mode method, but the proposed map based
Wang, M.; Li, Honghai; GAO, Jian; Huang, Zichao; li, Bin; van Arem, B.
It is expected that automated vehicles will gradually penetrate on public roads, resulting in mixed traffic in the next decades. This can impact traffic flow operations, especially the roadway capacity and flow stability. It is of paramount
importance to understand and predict the implications
Kazemba, Cole D.; Braun, Robert D.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Clark, Ian G.
This analysis defines an analytic model for the pitching motion of blunt bodies during atmospheric entry. The proposed model is independent of the pitch damping sum coefficient present in the standard formulation of the equations of motion describing pitch oscillations of a decelerating blunt body, instead using the principle of a time-lagged aftbody moment as the forcing function for oscillation divergence. Four parameters, all with intuitive physical relevance, are introduced to fully define the aftbody moment and the associated time delay. It is shown that the dynamic oscillation responses typical to blunt bodies can be produced using hysteresis of the aftbody moment in place of the pitch damping coefficient. The approach used in this investigation is shown to be useful in understanding the governing physical mechanisms for blunt body dynamic stability and in guiding vehicle and mission design requirements. A validation case study using simulated ballistic range test data is conducted. From this, parameter identification is carried out through the use of a least squares optimizing routine. Results show good agreement with the limited existing literature for the parameters identified, suggesting that the model proposed could be validated by an experimental ballistic range test series. The trajectories produced by the identified parameters were found to match closely those from the MER ballistic range tests for a wide array of initial conditions and can be identified with a reasonable number of ballistic range shots and computational effort.
This photograph was taken during the testing of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) at the Johnson Space Center. Developed by the MSFC, the LRV was the lightweight electric car designed to increase the range of mobility and productivity of astronauts on the lunar surface. It was used on the last three Apollo missions; Apollo 15, Apollo 16, and Apollo 17.
Riese, Jens; Rüden, Klaus
The book includes contributions on the latest model-based methods for the development of personal and commercial vehicle control devices. The main topics treated are: application of simulation and model design to development of driver assistance systems; physical and database model design for engines, motors, powertrain, undercarriage and the whole vehicle; new simulation tools, methods and optimization processes; applications of simulation in function and software development; function and software testing using HiL, MiL and SiL simulation; application of simulation and optimization in application of control devices; automation approaches at all stages of the development process.
Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.
An irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being jointly developed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMIT) and the U.S. Fusion Program. The vehicle is intended for neutron irradiation testing of candidate structural materials, including vanadium-based alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low activation steels. It could possibly be used for U.S./Japanese collaboration in the Jupiter Program. The first test train is scheduled to be completed by September 1998. In this report, we present the functional requirements for the vehicle and a preliminary design that satisfies these requirements
In the past many DOE and DoD facilities involved in handling nuclear material realized a need to enhance the safely and security for movement of sensitive materials within their facility, or ''intra-site''. There have been prior efforts to improve on-site transportation; however, there remains a requirement for enhanced on-site transportation at a number of facilities. The requirements for on-site transportation are driven by security, safety, and operational concerns. The Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) was designed to address these concerns specifically for DOE site applications with a standardized vehicle design. This paper briefly reviews the ISTV design features providing significant enhancement of onsite transportation safety and security, and also describes the test and evaluation activities either complete of underway to validate the vehicle design and operation
Sargent, N. B.
The road load simulator facility located at the NASA Lewis Research Center enables a propulsion system or any of its components to be evaluated under a realistic vehicle inertia and road loads. The load is applied to the system under test according to the road load equation: F(net)=K1F1+K2F2V+K3 sq V+K4(dv/dt)+K5 sin theta. The coefficient of each term in the equation can be varied over a wide range with vehicle inertial representative of vehicles up to 7500 pounds simulated by means of flywheels. The required torque is applied by the flywheels, a hydroviscous absorber and clutch, and a drive motor integrated by a closed loop control system to produce a smooth, continuous load up to 150 horsepower.
Jin, Zhilin; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiale; Khajepour, Amir
Vehicle rollover is a serious traffic accident. In order to accurately evaluate the possibility of untripped and some special tripped vehicle rollovers, and to prevent vehicle rollover under unpredictable variations of parameters and harsh driving conditions, a new rollover index and an anti-roll control strategy are proposed in this paper. Taking deflections of steering and suspension induced by the roll at the axles into consideration, a six degrees of freedom dynamic model is established, including lateral, yaw, roll, and vertical motions of sprung and unsprung masses. From the vehicle dynamics theory, a new rollover index is developed to predict vehicle rollover risk under both untripped and special tripped situations. This new rollover index is validated by Carsim simulations. In addition, an H-infinity controller with electro hydraulic brake system is optimised by genetic algorithm to improve the anti-rollover performance of the vehicle. The stability and robustness of the active rollover prevention control system are analysed by some numerical simulations. The results show that the control system can improve the critical speed of vehicle rollover obviously, and has a good robustness for variations in the number of passengers and longitude position of the centre of gravity.
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General test fleet requirements for... test fleet requirements for vehicle testing. (a) The test fleet must consist of only 1989-91 MY... test fleet shall have no fewer than 4,000 miles of accumulated mileage prior to being included in the...
Johnsen, J. S.; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.
Published version of an article in the journal: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-3960-3 The current paper describes an apparatus for full-scale vehicle crash test experimentation. This apparatus is referred to as the harp. In brief, the harp may either accelerate a trolley which is impacted into a test vehicle or the test vehicle itself may be accelerated and impacted into an object su...
Full Text Available An opportunity wireless charging system for electric vehicles when they stop and wait at traffic lights is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the serious power fluctuation caused by random access loads, this study presents a power stabilization strategy based on counting the number of electric vehicles in a designated area, including counting method, power source voltage adjustment strategy and choice of counting points. Firstly, the circuit model of a wireless power system with multi-loads is built and the equation of each load is obtained. Secondly, after the counting method of electric vehicles is stated, the voltage adjustment strategy, based on the number of electric vehicles when the system is at a steady state, is set out. Then, the counting points are chosen according to power curves when the voltage adjustment strategy is adopted. Finally, an experimental prototype is implemented to verify the power stabilization strategy. The experimental results show that, with the application of this strategy, the charging power is stabilized with the fluctuation of no more than 5% when loads access randomly.
Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.
The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.
Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.; Hayward, W.M.
Westinghouse Hanford Company Decommissioning and Decontamination Engineering Group and Environmental Technology and Assessment Groups are developing new technologies to improve revegetation techniques for interim stabilization control over underground waste sites within the Radiation Area Remedial Action Program. Successful revegetation is an integral aspect of waste isolation strategy. Unfortunately, revegetation can be very difficult to achieve on the Hanford Site due to several factors: low annual precipitation, unpredictable timing of precipitation, low fertility of available soils, and coarse physical texture of soils covering waste sites. The tests in this report were performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993 and include the use of two soil sealants in combination with bare soil and a soil/compost mixture and a comparison of a wheatgrass mixture and a native seed mixture. Hydroprobe access ports were placed in one-half of the test plots and moisture data was collected. Soil fertility and plant community characteristics were monitored during the two years of the test. During the first year all sites with compost provided additional fertility and retained greater amounts of soil moisture than noncomposted sites. The use of Enduraseal soil fixative provided greater soil moisture than the use of Aerospray-77 soil fixative. During the second year the use of compost and soil fixative's had a lesser effect on soil moisture. During late summer periods all treatments had very similar soil moisture profiles. The use of compost greatly increased vegetative cover and soil fertility in comparison to sites that had no compost added. Testing of the seed mixtures found that Siberian wheatgrass and Sandberg's bluegrass were the most dominant of the seeded species observed. All plots exhibited a dominant plant cover of volunteer cheatgrass. Biomass production was significantly greater on plots with compost than on the noncomposted plots
The Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program exists in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) and on braking performance testing included service brake stopping distance tests, constant-pressure ...
Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Electric Vehicles (EV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for EVs. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Chul Bae of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (firstname.lastname@example.org).
... test vehicles. 85.1509 Section 85.1509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1509 Final admission of modification and test vehicles. (a) Except...
... vehicles or engines? 1051.301 Section 1051.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.301 When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines? (a...
Weir, Adam; Darby, Jennifer; Inklaar, Han; Koes, Bart; Bakker, Erik; Tol, Johannes L.
Core stability is a complex concept within sports medicine and is thought to play a role in sports injuries. There is a lack of reliable and valid clinical tests for core stability. The inter- and intraobserver reliability of 6 tests commonly used to assess core stability was determined. A video of
Full Text Available Detection of moving vehicles in aerial video sequences is of great importance with many promising applications in surveillance, intelligence transportation, or public service applications such as emergency evacuation and policy security. However, vehicle detection is a challenging task due to global camera motion, low resolution of vehicles, and low contrast between vehicles and background. In this paper, we present a hybrid method to efficiently detect moving vehicle in aerial videos. Firstly, local feature extraction and matching were performed to estimate the global motion. It was demonstrated that the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF key points were more suitable for the stabilization task. Then, a list of dynamic pixels was obtained and grouped for different moving vehicles by comparing the different optical flow normal. To enhance the precision of detection, some preprocessing methods were applied to the surveillance system, such as road extraction and other features. A quantitative evaluation on real video sequences indicated that the proposed method improved the detection performance significantly.
Full Text Available This paper presents the nonlinear six degrees of freedom dynamic modeling of a fixed wing micro air vehicle. The static derivatives of the micro air vehicle are obtained through the wind tunnel testing. The propeller effects on the lift, drag, pitching moment and side force are quantified through wind tunnel testing. The dynamic derivatives are obtained through empirical relations available in the literature. The trim conditions are computed for a straight and constant altitude flight condition. The linearized longitudinal and lateral state space models are obtained about trim conditions. The variations in short period mode, phugoid mode, Dutch roll mode, roll subsidence mode and spiral mode with respect to different trim operating conditions is presented. A stabilizing static output feedback controller is designed using the obtained model. Successful closed loop flight trials are conducted with the static output feedback controller.
...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight AGENCY...) bus testing regulation to increase the assumed average passenger weight value used for ballasting test buses from the current value of 150 pounds to a new value of 175 pounds. This increase was proposed to...
Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Fuel savings have never been the primary focus for autonomy-enabled military vehicles. However, studies have estimated that autonomy in passenger and commercial vehicles could improve fuel economy by as much as 22%-33% over various drive cycles. If even a fraction of this saving could be realized in military vehicles, significant cost savings could be realized each year through reduced fuel transport missions, reduced fuel purchases, less maintenance, fewer required personnel, and increased vehicle range. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory installed advanced data logging equipment and instrumentation on two autonomy-enabled convoy vehicles configured with Lockheed Martin's Autonomous Mobility Applique System to determine system performance and improve on the overall vehicle control strategies of the vehicles. Initial test results from testing conducted at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds are included in this report. Lessons learned from in-use testing and performance results have been provided to the project partners for continued system refinement.
Parlett, Lysle P.
The stability and control characteristics of a simple, lightly loaded model approximately one-third the size of a full-scale vehicle have been investigated by a series of free-flight tests. The model is representative of a type of vertically rising aircraft which would utilize four ducted fans as its sole source of lift and propulsion. The ducts were arranged in a rectangular pattern and were fixed to the airframe so that their axes of revolution were vertical for hovering flight. Control moments were provided by remotely controlled compressed-air jets at the sides and ends of the model. In hovering, the model in its original configuration exhibited divergent oscillations about both the roll and pitch axes. Because these oscillations were of a rather short period., the model was very difficult to control by the use of remote controls only. The model could be completely stabilized by the addition of a sufficient amount of artificial damping. The pitching oscillation was made easier to control by increasing the distance between the forward and rearward pairs of ducts. In forward flight, with the model in its original configuration, the top speed was limited by the development of an uncontrollable pitch-up. Large forward tilt angles were required for trim at the highest speeds attained. With the model rotated so that the shorter axis became the longitudinal axis, the pitch trim problem was found to be less than with the longer axis as the longitudinal axis. The installation of a system of vanes in the slipstream of the forward ducts reduced the tilt angle but increased the power required.
Taylor, Terry L.
Approach and Lending Test Vehicle (ALTV) reduces risk to the X-37 orbital vehicle (OV) flight program by: Testing a subset of OV technologies in a critical portion of the flight envelope. Validating the calculated air data system (CADS) performance/subsonic aerodynamic database. Demonstrating OV approach and landing trajectory. Expending the operational flight envelope of the OV-enabling more landing opportunities for orbital missions.
The variable terrain tilt platform (VTTP) is a means of providing simulated terrain for mobility testing of engineering models of the Mars Exploration Rovers. The VTTP could also be used for testing the ability of other robotic land vehicles (and small vehicles in general) to move across terrain under diverse conditions of slope and surface texture, and in the presence of obstacles of various sizes and shapes. The VTTP consists mostly of a 16-ft-(4.88-m)-square tilt table. The tilt can be adjusted to any angle between 0 (horizontal) and 25 . The test surface of the table can be left bare; can be covered with hard, high-friction material; or can be covered with sand, gravel, and/or other ground-simulating material or combination of materials to a thickness of as much as 6 in. (approx. 15 cm). Models of rocks, trenches, and other obstacles can be placed on the simulated terrain. For example, for one of the Mars- Rover tests, a high-friction mat was attached to the platform, then a 6-in.- ( 15 cm) deep layer of dry, loose beach sand was deposited on the mat. The choice of these two driving surface materials was meant to bound the range of variability of terrain that the rover was expected to encounter on the Martian surface. At each of the different angles at which tests were performed, for some of the tests, rocklike concrete obstacles ranging in height from 10 to 25 cm were placed in the path of the rover (see figure). The development of the VTTP was accompanied by development of a methodology of testing to characterize the performance and modes of failure of a vehicle under test. In addition to variations in slope, ground material, and obstacles, testing typically includes driving up-slope, down-slope, cross-slope, and at intermediate angles relative to slope. Testing includes recording of drive-motor currents, wheel speeds, articulation of suspension mechanisms, and the actual path of the vehicle over the simulated terrain. The collected data can be used to
Results from vehicle computer simulations usually take the form of numeric data or graphs. While these graphs provide the investigator with the insight into vehicle behavior, it may be difficult to use these graphs to assess complex vehicle motion. C...
Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the aerodynamic modeling of a small ducted fan UAV and the problem of attitude stabilization when the parameter of the vehicle is varied. The main aerodynamic model of the hovering flight UAV is first presented. Then, an attitude control is designed from a linearization of the dynamic model around the hovering flight, which is based on the H∞ output feedback control theory with D-stability. Simulation results show that such method has good robustness to the attitude system. They can meet the requirements of attitude control and verify further the feasibility of such a control strategy.
Ellis, J.D.; Joo, K.N.; Verlaan, A.L.; Spronck, J.W.
Material stability is an important parameter for EUV lithography, space instrumentation, and metrology in general. In both EUV lithography and space, more information is needed about material stability during an atmospheric to vacuum transition. For metrology instruments in general, determining the
The mutagenicity of motor vehicle exhausts has been studied by using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Acetone extracts of the particulate phase and the gas phase have been tested in the presence and absence of a metabolizing system (S9). The particulate phases from medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested. The vehicles were driven according to a modified 13 mode test, and the particulate phase was sampled at mode 6 (maximum load and intermediate engine speed) and mode 12 (10% load and rated speed). In mode 6 all vehicles gave approximately the same mutagenicity in strain TA 98 (50,000-90,000 revertants/kW-hr) as well as in TA 100 (200,000-360,000 revertants/kW-hr). A higher mutagenic effect, in some cases up to 10 times, was seen with mode 12.Light-duty vehicles of different year models were tested using different fuel/engine combinations. The vehicles were driven according to FTP 72 or ECE driving cycle. Cold starts at two different temperature levels, approx. 0 degrees C and 23 degrees C, respectively, were also compared. Based on the mutagenicity of the particulate extracts (given as revertants per km), the light-duty vehicles could be divided into three main groups. The first group, the high mutagenicity group, giving 100,000-700,000 revertants/km, consists only of diesel cars. In the medium mutagenicity group, giving between 20,000 and 100,000 revertants/km, different gasoline fuels are placed, i.e., leaded and lead-free gasoline as well as alcohol/gasoline fuels. Two other fuels, methanol (M95) and propane (LPG), constitute the low mutagenicity group, giving less than 20,000 revertants/km. Fuels from the medium effect group will produce a particulate phase with low mutagenicity if the vehicle is equipped with a three way catalyst with closed loop, or fuel injection. The cold start temperature did not change this classification, since all samples gave a somewhat higher mutagenic effect at the low temperature. With the ECE driving
VanZwieten, Tannen; Zhu, J. Jim; Adami, Tony; Berry, Kyle; Grammar, Alex; Orr, Jeb S.; Best, Eric A.
Recently, a robust and practical adaptive control scheme for launch vehicles [  has been introduced. It augments a classical controller with a real-time loop-gain adaptation, and it is therefore called Adaptive Augmentation Control (AAC). The loop-gain will be increased from the nominal design when the tracking error between the (filtered) output and the (filtered) command trajectory is large; whereas it will be decreased when excitation of flex or sloshing modes are detected. There is a need to determine the range and rate of the loop-gain adaptation in order to retain (exponential) stability, which is critical in vehicle operation, and to develop some theoretically based heuristic tuning methods for the adaptive law gain parameters. The classical launch vehicle flight controller design technics are based on gain-scheduling, whereby the launch vehicle dynamics model is linearized at selected operating points along the nominal tracking command trajectory, and Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) controller design techniques are employed to ensure asymptotic stability of the tracking error dynamics, typically by meeting some prescribed Gain Margin (GM) and Phase Margin (PM) specifications. The controller gains at the design points are then scheduled, tuned and sometimes interpolated to achieve good performance and stability robustness under external disturbances (e.g. winds) and structural perturbations (e.g. vehicle modeling errors). While the GM does give a bound for loop-gain variation without losing stability, it is for constant dispersions of the loop-gain because the GM is based on frequency-domain analysis, which is applicable only for LTI systems. The real-time adaptive loop-gain variation of the AAC effectively renders the closed-loop system a time-varying system, for which it is well-known that the LTI system stability criterion is neither necessary nor sufficient when applying to a Linear Time-Varying (LTV) system in a frozen-time fashion. Therefore, a
Kruczynski, Leonard R.; Li, Pui C.; Evans, Alan G.; Hermann, Bruce R.
Prototype GPS orientation equipment was tested aboard the USS Yorktown, a U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser, to demonstrate that GPS could be used to determine orientation on a moving vessel. Initialization, integer maintenance, and accuracy in a real-time dynamic environment were addressed. The tests confirmed GPS-based real-time orientation determination, provided real-world data to exercise enhanced orientation algorithms, and identified equipment improvements that will make GPS a viable source of vehicle attitude in addition to GPS's superior positioning capabilities.
Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.
Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.
... motor vehicles and engines. 85.1506 Section 85.1506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1506 Inspection and testing of imported motor vehicles and...
Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard
-wave stated preference experiment where data was collected before and after the respondents experienced an electric vehicle for three months. We estimate a hybrid choice model using jointly the stated choices before and after the test period. The results show that individual preferences change significantly......In this study, we investigate the extent to which experience affects individual preferences for specific electric vehicle characteristics, individual attitudes toward the environment, and the impact of the attitudes on the choice between an electric and a conventional vehicle. We use a two...... after a real experience with an electric vehicle in the household. In particular, there are major changes in the preference for driving range, top speed, fuel cost, battery life and charging in city centres and train stations. In line with other studies, we find that environmental concern has a positive...
... vehicles or engines? 1051.501 Section 1051.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Test Procedures § 1051.501 What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines? This section describes test...
Sturk, David; Hoffmann, Lars; Ahlberg Tidblad, Annika
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abuse conditions, including realistic crash scenarios, on Li ion battery systems in E-vehicles in order to develop safe practices and priorities when responding to accidents involving E-vehicles. External fire tests using a single burning item equipment were performed on commercial Li ion battery cells and battery packs for electric vehicle (E-vehicle) application. The 2 most common battery cell technologies were tested: Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and mixed transition metal oxide (lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, NMC) cathodes against graphite anodes, respectively. The cell types investigated were "pouch" cells, with similar physical dimensions, but the NMC cells have double the electric capacity of the LFP cells due to the higher energy density of the NMC chemistry, 7 and 14 Ah, respectively. Heat release rate (HRR) data and concentrations of toxic gases were acquired by oxygen consumption calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The test results indicate that the state of charge (SOC) affects the HRR as well as the amount of toxic hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas formed during combustion. A larger number of cells increases the amount of HF formed per cell. There are significant differences in response to the fire exposure between the NMC and LFP cells in this study. The LFP cells generate a lot more HF per cell, but the overall reactivity of the NMC cells is higher. However, the total energy released by both batteries during combustion was independent of SOC, which indicates that the electric energy content of the test object contributes to the activation energy of the thermal and heat release process, whereas the chemical energy stored in the materials is the main source of thermal energy in the batteries. The results imply that it is difficult to draw conclusions about higher order system behavior with respect to HF emissions based on data from tests on single
Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McDuffee, Joel Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) requires most materials and all fuel experiments to be placed in a pressure containment vessel to ensure that internal contaminants such as fission products cannot be released into the primary coolant. It also requires that all experiments be capable of withstanding various accident conditions (e.g., loss of coolant) without generating vapor bubbles on the surface of the experiment in the primary coolant. These requirements are intended to artificially increase experiment temperatures by introducing a barrier between the experimental materials and the HFIR coolant, and by reducing heat loads to the HFIR primary coolant, thus ensuring that no boiling can occur. A proposed design for materials irradiation would remove these limitations by providing the required primary containment with an internal cooling flow. This would allow for experiments to be irradiated without concern for coolant contamination (e.g., from cladding failure of advanced fuel pins) or for specimen heat load. This report describes a new materials irradiation experiment design that uses a thermosyphon cooling system to allow experimental materials direct access to a liquid coolant. The new design also increases the range of conditions that can be tested in HFIR. This design will provide a unique capability to validate the performance of current and advanced fuels and materials. Because of limited supporting data for this kind of irradiation vehicle, a test program was initiated to obtain operating data that can be used to (1) qualify the vehicle for operation in HFIR and (2) validate computer models used to perform design- and safety-basis calculations. This report also describes the test facility and experimental data, and it provides a comparison of the experimental data to computer simulations. A total of 51 tests have been completed: four tests with pure steam, 12 tests with argon, and 35 tests with helium. A total
Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Yonemoto, Koichi; Hosokawa, Shigeru
ISAS is now developing a small reentry test vehicle, which is 2m long with a 1.5m wing span and weighs about 170 kg, for the purpose of exploring high angle-of-attack aerodynamic attitude control issue in supersonic and hypersonic speed. The flight test, employing 'Rockoon' launch system, is planned as a preliminary design verification for a fully reusable winged rocket named HIMES (Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space) vehicle. This paper describes the results of preflight ground test using a motion table system. This ground system test is called 'physical simulation' aimed at: (1) functional verification of side-jet system, aerodynamic surface actuators, battery and onboard avionics; and (2) guidance and control law evaluation, in total hardware-in-the-loop system. The pressure of side-jet nozzles was measured to provide exact thrust characteristics of reaction control. The dynamics of vehicle motion was calculated in real-time by the ground simulation computer.
Memarsadeghi, Nargess; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Blake, Peter N.; Morey, Peter A.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Chambers, Victor J.; Moseley, Samuel H.
Image registration, or alignment of two or more images covering the same scenes or objects, is of great interest in many disciplines such as remote sensing, medical imaging. astronomy, and computer vision. In this paper, we introduce a new application of image registration algorithms. We demonstrate how through a wavelet based image registration algorithm, engineers can evaluate stability of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). In particular, we applied image registration algorithms to assess alignment stability of the MicroShutters Subsystem (MSS) of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This work introduces a new methodology for evaluating stability of MEMS devices to engineers as well as a new application of image registration algorithms to computer scientists.
Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jae Jin; Kim, Do Hyun; You, Joshua Sung H
Core stabilization plays an important role in the regulation of postural stability. To overcome shortcomings associated with pain and severe core instability during conventional core stabilization tests, we recently developed the dynamic neuromuscular stabilization-based heel sliding (DNS-HS) test. The purpose of this study was to establish the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the novel DNS-HS test. Twenty young adults with core instability completed both the bilateral straight leg lowering test (BSLLT) and DNS-HS test for the criterion validity study and repeated the DNS-HS test for the test-retest reliability study. Criterion validity was determined by comparing hip joint angle data that were obtained from BSLLT and DNS-HS measures. The test-retest reliability was determined by comparing hip joint angle data. Criterion validity was (ICC2,3) = 0.700 (pTest-retest reliability was (ICC3,3) = 0.953 (pvalidity data demonstrated a good relationship between the gold standard BSLLT and DNS-HS core stability measures. Test-retest reliability data suggests that DNS-HS core stability was a reliable test for core stability. Clinically, the DNS-HS test is useful to objectively quantify core instability and allow early detection and evaluation.
Full Text Available The dynamic stability of supercavitating vehicles under periodic axial loading is investigated in this article. The supercavitating vehicle is simulated as a long and thin cylindrical shell subjected to periodic axial loading and simply supported boundary conditions. The nonlinear transverse vibration differential equation is obtained in terms of nonlinear geometric equations, physical equations, and balance equations of cylindrical shells. Mathieu equation with periodic coefficients and nonlinear term is derived by employing Galerkin variational method and Bolotin method. The analytical expressions of the steady-state amplitudes of vibrations in the first- and second-order instable regions are obtained by solving nonlinear Mathieu equation derived in this article. Numerical results are presented to analyze the influence of the sailing speed, ratio of loads, the frequency of axial loads, and the mode of vibration on parametric resonance curves and to show the nonlinear parametric resonance curves incline toward the side where it is greater than the excitation frequency, which significantly extends the range of the exciting region. The presented results indicate the enlargement of the exciting region will cause shrinkage of the safe frequency range of external loads and decrease in dynamic stability of supercavitating vehicle.
Scully, B.; Norgard, J.
In preparation for the upcoming experimental test flight for the Orion crew module, considerable interest was raised over the possibility of exposure to elevated levels of plasma activity and vehicle charging both externally on surfaces and internally on dielectrics during the flight test orbital operations. Initial analysis using NASCAP-2K indicated very high levels of exposure, and this generated additional interest in refining/defining the plasma and spacecraft models used in the analysis. This refinement was pursued, resulting in the use of specific AE8 and AP8 models, rather than SCATHA models, as well as consideration of flight trajectory, time duration, and other parameters possibly affecting the levels of exposure and the magnitude of charge deposition. Analysis using these refined models strongly indicated that, for flight test operations, no special surface coatings were necessary for the Thermal Protection System (TPS), but would definitely be required for future GEO, trans-lunar, and extra-lunar missions.
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) will increasingly be used for tasks such as retrieving injured soldiers from a battlefield, transporting supplies, and towing other small vehicles and payloads. To date, the unmanned test community has not standardized on an apparatus or test operating procedure (TOP) specifically for evaluating the towing capacity of small unmanned ground vehicles. Draw-bar testing has been adapted by several groups to quantify small unmanned ground vehicle (SUGV) tow capaci...
The nanoemulsions were characterized by droplet size, pH, viscosity, conductivity and refractive index. Stability studies were performed according to International Council on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines over a period of 3 months. Droplet size, pH, viscosity, conductivity and refractive index were determined monthly for 3 ...
Oleksowicz, Selim A.; Burnham, Keith J.; Southgate, Adam; McCoy, Chris; Waite, Gary; Hardwick, Graham; Harrington, Cian; McMurran, Ross
The sustainable development of vehicle propulsion systems that have mainly focused on reduction of fuel consumption (i.e. CO2 emission) has led, not only to the development of systems connected with combustion processes but also to legislation and testing procedures. In recent years, the low carbon policy has made hybrid vehicles and fully electric vehicles (H/EVs) popular. The main virtue of these propulsion systems is their ability to restore some of the expended energy from kinetic movement, e.g. the braking process. Consequently new research and testing methods for H/EVs are currently being developed. This especially concerns the critical 'use-cases' for functionality tests within dynamic events for both virtual simulations, as well as real-time road tests. The use-case for conventional vehicles for numerical simulations and road tests are well established. However, the wide variety of tests and their great number (close to a thousand) creates a need for selection, in the first place, and the creation of critical use-cases suitable for testing H/EVs in both virtual and real-world environments. It is known that a marginal improvement in the regenerative braking ratio can significantly improve the vehicle range and, therefore, the economic cost of its operation. In modern vehicles, vehicle dynamics control systems play the principal role in safety, comfort and economic operation. Unfortunately, however, the existing standard road test scenarios are insufficient for H/EVs. Sector knowledge suggests that there are currently no agreed tests scenarios to fully investigate the effects of brake blending between conventional and regenerative braking as well as the regenerative braking interaction with active driving safety systems (ADSS). The paper presents seven manoeuvres, which are considered to be suitable and highly informative for the development and examination of H/EVs with regenerative braking capability. The critical manoeuvres presented are considered to be
Full Text Available A novel control scheme is proposed to improve the yaw stability of a tractor semitrailer vehicle in critical situations. The control scheme is a two-layer structure consisting of an upper yaw moment controller and a lower brake force distributor. The tractor and the trailer are, respectively, stabilized by two independent fuzzy logic based yaw moment controllers. The controllers for the tractor and the trailer are, respectively, designed to track the reference yaw rate of the tractor and the hitch angle between the tractor and the trailer while considering the variation of the hitch angular rate at the same time. The corrective yaw moments determined by the corresponding upper fuzzy yaw moment controllers are realized by active wheel braking. The performance of the proposed control scheme is evaluated by simulations on a nonlinear vehicle model. The results demonstrate that the proposed control scheme is robust and effective in stabilizing the severe instabilities such as jackknife and trailer oscillation in the chosen simulation scenarios. It is believed that this control scheme is robust to the variation of road adhesion conditions.
Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.
A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.
Wilhelm, Kevin T.
Unmanned air vehicles (UAV's) provide a low-cost, low-maintenance, and effective platform upon which experimentation can be performed to validate conceptual aerodynamic ideas. However, the UAV flight test data acquisition process is complex and requires a reliable recording system for post-flight data analysis. The thrust of this thesis was the development, construction, and validation of a viable telemetry system for data gathering and processing. Major areas of focus were: integration of the telemetry into a 1/8 scale model, radio controlled F-16A airplane; telemetry circuitry optimization; recording and display of instrumented parameters; and data reduction techniques necessary to obtain useful information. A flight test was flown and data was gathered using a steady-heading side-slip maneuver to demonstrate successful integration of all supporting elements.
Commercial Vehicle Administrative (CVO) Processes Cross-Cutting report summarizes and interprets the results of several Field Operational Tests (FOTs) conducted to evaluate systems that increase the efficiency of commercial vehicle administrative pro...
The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...
Full Text Available For a small electric vehicle (EV with the rear two in-wheel motors, the hydraulic brake system and the mechanical brake system are installed at the front and rear tire respectively. The mechanical brake system is used at the rear tire because there is no enough space for the hydraulic brake system. In a braking condition, the in-wheel motor at the rear tire will generate the regenerative braking force and it can improve the braking performance of the vehicle. However, during braking on the low adhesion road surface, anti-lock brake system (ABS is very crucial to prevent the tire from lock-up. To improve the safety and stability of the vehicle, the combination of anti-skid control system and direct yaw moment control system is proposed. The anti-skid control system contains a hydraulic unit of ABS at the front tires and regenerative brake timing control at the rear tires. The control method of the regenerative brake timing control is same as ABS and it will turn on and off to prevent the tire from lock-up. On the other hand, the direct yaw moment control system is developed to increase the steer performance of the vehicle. The optimal control is used as the control strategy method to control the yaw moment. The simulation is developed in MATLAB Simulink and the result shows that the proposed model can improve the stopping distance from 9 seconds to 8.2 seconds. In addition, the combination of skid control and yaw moment control also improved the steer performance of the vehicle.
V. N. Akimov
Full Text Available One of the important problems of the designing of maneuverable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV is to ensure aeroelastic stability with automatic control system (ACS. One of the possible types of aeroelastic instability of UAV with ACS is loss of stability in the system "surface control – actuator". A nonlinear model for the study of the stability of the system "surface control – actuator" is designed for solving problems of joint design of airframe and ACS with the requirements of aeroelasticity. The electric actuator is currently the most widely used on highly maneuverable UAV. The wide bandwidth and the availability of frequency characteristic lifts are typical for the modern electric actuator. This exacerbates the problem of providing aeroelastic stability of the UAV with ACS, including the problem of ensuring the stability of the system "surface control – actuator". In proposed model the surface control, performing bending-torsion oscillations in aerodynamic flow, in fact, is the loading for the actuator. Experimental frequency characteristics of the isolated actuator, obtained for different levels of the control signal, are used for the mathematical description of the actuator, then, as dynamic hinge moment, which is determined by aeroelastic vibrations of the surface control in the air flow, is calculated. Investigation of the stability of the system "surface control – actuator" is carried out by frequency method using frequency characteristics of the open-loop system. The undeniable advantage of the proposed model is the simplicity of obtaining the transfer functions of the isolated actuator. The experiment by its definition is a standard method of determining frequency characteristics of the actuator in contrast to time-consuming experiments for determining the dynamic stiffness of the actuator (with the surface control or the transfer function of the actuator using electromechanical simulation of aeroelastic loading of the
Loomis, Mark P.
Proposed configurations for the next generation of transatmospheric vehicles will rely on air breathing propulsion systems during all or part of their mission. At flight Mach numbers greater than about 7 these engines will operate in the supersonic combustion ramjet mode (scramjet). Ground testing of these engine concepts above Mach 8 requires high pressure, high enthalpy facilities such as shock tunnels and expansion tubes. These impulse, or short duration facilities have test times on the order of a millisecond, requiring high speed instrumentation and data systems. One such facility ideally suited for scramjet testing is the NASA-Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel, which over the last two years has completed a series of tests for the NASP (National Aero-Space Plane) program at simulated flight Mach numbers ranging from 12-16. The focus of the experimental programs consisted of a series of classified tests involving a near-full scale hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor model in the semi-free jet method of engine testing whereby the compressed forebody flow ahead of the cowl inlet is reproduced (see appendix A). The AIMHYE-1 (Ames Integrated Modular Hypersonic Engine) test entry for the NASP program was completed in April 1993, while AIMHYE-2 was completed in May 1994. The test entries were regarded as successful, resulting in some of the first data of its kind on the performance of a near full scale scramjet engine at Mach 12-16. The data was distributed to NASP team members for use in design system verification and development. Due to the classified nature of the hardware and data, the data reports resulting from this work are classified and have been published as part of the NASP literature. However, an unclassified AIAA paper resulted from the work and has been included as appendix A. It contains an overview of the test program and a description of some of the important issues.
The Closed Loop In-Reactor Assembly (CLIRA) is a test vehicle for in-core material and fuel experiments in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The FFTF is a fast flux nuclear test reactor operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Hanford Company in Richland, Washington. The CLIRA is a removable/replaceable part of the Closed Loop System (CLS) which is a sodium coolant system providing flow and temperature control independent of the reactor coolant system. The primary purpose of the CLIRA is to provide a test vehicle which will permit testing of nuclear fuels and materials at conditions more severe than exist in the FTR core, and to isolate these materials from the reactor core
...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle...-2251. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical information, Gregory Rymarz, Bus Testing Program...
Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
A review of irradiation testing vehicle approaches and designs that have been incorporated into past Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) or envisioned for incorporation has been carried out. The objective is to understand the essential features of the approaches and designs so that they can inform test vehicle designs for a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Fast test reactor designs examined include EBR-II, FFTF, JOYO, BOR-60, PHÉNIX, JHR, and MBIR. Previous designers exhibited great ingenuity in overcoming design and operational challenges especially when the original reactor plant’s mission changed to an irradiation testing mission as in the EBRII reactor plant. The various irradiation testing vehicles can be categorized as: Uninstrumented open assemblies that fit into core locations; Instrumented open test assemblies that fit into special core locations; Self-contained closed loops; and External closed loops. A special emphasis is devoted to closed loops as they are regarded as a very desirable feature of a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Closed loops are an important technology for irradiation of fuels and materials in separate controlled environments. The impact of closed loops on the design of fast reactors is also discussed in this report.
The use of electric vehicles within the service industry (such as the town's sanitation, its trash collection and horticultural authority) can lead to a visible environmental relief, particularly in the inner city. The RWE in Essen has been supporting the development and use of electric vehicles for over 20 years and introduced a program in 1990 for the communities(ProKom) which provides 5 million DM for over 5 years for the support of electric vehicles. In this article the communities' requirements for electric vehicles are discussed, the types of vehicles which are mediated by ProKom are introduced and the first practical experiences made are also reported. (BWI) [de
Full Text Available Articulated wheel loaders used in the construction industry are heavy vehicles and have poor stability and a high rate of accidents because of the unpredictable changes of their body posture, mass and centroid position in complex operation environments. This paper presents a novel distributed multi-sensor system for real-time attitude estimation and stability measurement of articulated wheel loaders to improve their safety and stability. Four attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS are constructed using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors, and installed on the front body, rear body, rear axis and boom of an articulated wheel loader to detect its attitude. A complementary filtering algorithm is deployed for sensor data fusion in the system so that steady state margin angle (SSMA can be measured in real time and used as the judge index of rollover stability. Experiments are conducted on a prototype wheel loader, and results show that the proposed multi-sensor system is able to detect potential unstable states of an articulated wheel loader in real-time and with high accuracy.
Tomek, Deborah M.; Sewall, William G.; Mason, Stan E.; Szchur, Bill W. A.
Throughout industry, accurate measurement and modeling of dynamic derivative data at high-speed conditions has been an ongoing challenge. The expansion of flight envelopes and non-conventional vehicle design has greatly increased the demand for accurate prediction and modeling of vehicle dynamic behavior. With these issues in mind, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) embarked on the development and shakedown of a high-speed dynamic stability test technique that addresses the longstanding problem of accurately measuring dynamic derivatives outside the low-speed regime. The new test technique was built upon legacy technology, replacing an antiquated forced oscillation system, and greatly expanding the capabilities beyond classic forced oscillation testing at both low and high speeds. The modern system is capable of providing a snapshot of dynamic behavior over a periodic cycle for varying frequencies, not just a damping derivative term at a single frequency.
Patterson, Timothy [Research Engineer; Motupally, Sathya [Research Engineer
UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.
Reese, Matthew O.; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel
Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS). The proced...
Purpose: This study examined the test-retest stability of select word-retrieval measures in the discourses of people with aphasia who completed a 5-stimulus discourse task. Method: Discourse samples across 3 sessions from 12 individuals with aphasia were analyzed for the stability of measures of informativeness, efficiency, main concepts, noun and…
Full Text Available The maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem has been encountered in many maglev test or commercial lines, which significantly degrade the performance of the maglev train. In previous research on the principle of the coupled vibration problem, it has been discovered that the fundamental model of the maglev girder can be simplified as a series of mass-spring resonators of different but related resonance frequencies, and that the stability of the vehicle-girder coupled system can be investigated by separately examining the stability of each mass-spring resonator – electromagnet coupled system. Based on this conclusion, a maglev test platform, which includes a single electromagnetic suspension control system, is built for experimental study of the coupled vibration problem. The guideway of the test platform is supported by a number of springs so as to change its flexibility. The mass of the guideway can also be changed by adjusting extra weights attached to it. By changing the flexibility and mass of the guideway, the rules of the maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem are to be examined through experiments, and related theory on the vehicle-girder self-excited vibration proposed in previous research is also testified.
Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Coblish, Joseph J.; Norris, Joseph D.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Kirk, Ben
An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Data were measured on a approx. 3.5% scale model (0.1778m/7-inch diam.) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples in the Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles of Tunnel 9. Runs were performed at free stream Reynolds numbers of 1 106/ft to 20 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 10 nozzle and 8 10(exp 6)/ft to 48 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 8 nozzle. The test gas in Tunnel 9 is pure N2, which at these operating conditions remains un-dissociated and may be treated as a perfect gas. At these conditions, laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow was produced on the model at Mach 10, and transitional and turbulent conditions were produced on the model at Mach 8. The majority of runs were made on a clean, smooth-surface model configuration and a limited number of runs were made in which inserts with varying boundary-layer trips configurations were used to force the occurrence of transition. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins for the computational method. Data from both the wind tunnel test and the computations are presented herein. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the thermocouple locations on the model and figures 2 and 3 show a photo and schematic of the AEDC Hypervelocity Tunnel 9. Figure 4 shows a typical grid used in the computations. From the comparisons shown in figures 5 through 8 it was concluded that for perfect-gas conditions, the computations could predict either fully-laminar or full-turbulent flow to within +/-10% of the experimental data. The experimental data showed that transition began on the leeside of the heatshield at a free stream Reynolds number of 9 10(exp 6)/ft in the Mach 10 nozzle and fully-developed turbulent flow was produced at 20 10(exp 6)/ft. In the Mach 8
Natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of buried waste have been identified as integral components of a plan to isolate a number of Hanford defense waste sites. Standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance will mandate a barrier surface layer that is resistant to the eolian erosion processes of wind erosion (deflation) and windborne particle deposition (formation of sand dunes). Thus, experiments are needed to measure rates of eolian erosion processes impacting those surfaces under different surface and climatological conditions. Data from these studies will provide information for use in the evaluation of selected surface layers as a means of providing stable cover over waste sites throughout the design life span of protective barriers. The multi-year test plan described in this plan is directed at understanding processes of wind erosion and windborne particle deposition, providing measurements of erosion rates for models, and suggesting construction materials and methods for reducing the effect of long-term eolian erosion on the barrier. Specifically, this plan describes possible methods to measure rates of eolian erosion, including field and laboratory procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of laboratory (wind tunnel) tests are discussed, and continued wind tunnel tests are recommended for wind erosion studies. A comparison between field and wind tunnel erosive forces is discussed. Plans for testing surfaces are described. Guidance is also presented for studying the processes controlling sand dune and blowout formation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs
The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.
EOT End of Test HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig HRJ-8 Hydro-Renewable Jet Fuel JFTOT Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test kW kilo Watts MEP... Jet -A. The blend was additized with 22.5 ppm DCI-4A and 1 ppm STADIS to bring the blend into conformance with the MIL-DTL-83133G specification. As...Muff psia psia 13.96 1.468 Exh Cyl 3 F 751.9 1.00 Exh Cyl 4 F 763.8 0.97 Power kW 15.6 Exh Manifold F 797.6 0.63 Voltage L1 V 119.2 0.07 After Turbo
A unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: (1) the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and (2) lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. These features were analyzed and demonstrated in an electric test vehicle, ETV-2. Characteristics of this vehicle are summarized. Information is presented on: vehicle design, fabrication, safety testing, and performance testing; power system design and operation; flywheel; battery pack performance; and controls and electronic equipment. (LCL)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here addresses the testing and evaluation of wireless networking technologies for small launch vehicles by leveraging existing nanosat launch...
Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.
The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.
...) Except for air conditioning, where it is expected that 33 percent or less of a car line, within a test... air conditioning regardless of the rate of installation of air conditioning within the car line... Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles. For test vehicles selected under §§ 86.1822-01...
Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-603A Vehicle Fuel Consumption 5a. CONTRACT...test methods used to measure and present the fuel consumption characteristics for wheeled and tracked vehicles. Specific facilities, instrumentation...test controls, and analysis techniques are presented. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fuel consumption traction battery hybrid
Nor, M. K. Mohd; Noordin, A.; Ruzali, M. F. S.; Hussen, M. H.; Mustapa@Othman, N.
Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method is offered as a means of organizing the process for rationalizing the basic vehicle body structure load paths. The application of this simplified approach is highly beneficial in the development of modern passenger car structure design. In Malaysia, the SSS topic has been widely adopted and seems compulsory in various automotive programs related to automotive vehicle structures in many higher education institutions. However, there is no real physical model of SSS available to gain considerable insight and understanding into the function of each major subassembly in the whole vehicle structures. Based on this motivation, a real physical SSS of sedan model and the corresponding model vehicle tests of bending is proposed in this work. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is useful to physically demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path using the necessary structural components within the vehicle structures. It is clearly observed that the global bending stiffness reduce significantly when more panels are removed from the complete SSS model. The analysis shows the front parcel shelf is an important subassembly to sustain bending load.
Ottander, John A.; Hall, Robert A.; Powers, J. F.
A method is presented that allows for the prediction of the magnitude of limit cycles due to adverse control-slosh interaction in liquid propelled space vehicles using non-linear slosh damping. Such a method is an alternative to the industry practice of assuming linear damping and relying on: mechanical slosh baffles to achieve desired stability margins; accepting minimal slosh stability margins; or time domain non-linear analysis to accept time periods of poor stability. Sinusoidal input describing functional analysis is used to develop a relationship between the non-linear slosh damping and an equivalent linear damping at a given slosh amplitude. In addition, a more accurate analytical prediction of the danger zone for slosh mass locations in a vehicle under proportional and derivative attitude control is presented. This method is used in the control-slosh stability analysis of the NASA Space Launch System.
manufacturing techniques have been developed by various universities for research on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles. Minimal attention though is given...collected at 2kHz (www.polytec.com/psv3d). A 0.25V band-limited white noise input signal is input to a Bogen HTA -125 High Performance Amplifier, which...manufacturing techniques have been developed by various universities for research on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles. Minimal attention though is given
Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort
Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric
Goodarzi, Avesta; Mohammadi, Masoud
In this paper, vehicle stability control and fuel economy for a 4-wheel-drive hybrid vehicle are investigated. The integrated controller is designed within three layers. The first layer determines the total yaw moment and total lateral force made by using an optimal controller method to follow the desired dynamic behaviour of a vehicle. The second layer determines optimum tyre force distribution in order to optimise tyre usage and find out how the tyres should share longitudinal and lateral forces to achieve a target vehicle response under the assumption that all four wheels can be independently steered, driven, and braked. In the third layer, the active steering, wheel slip, and electrical motor torque controllers are designed. In the front axle, internal combustion engine (ICE) is coupled to an electric motor (EM). The control strategy has to determine the power distribution between ICE and EM to minimise fuel consumption and allowing the vehicle to be charge sustaining. Finally, simulations performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment show that the proposed structure could enhance the vehicle stability and fuel economy in different manoeuvres.
Deng, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Wang, Rei; Yan, Yanhong
Vehicle load is an important factor affecting the safety and usability of bridges. An statistical analysis is carried out in this paper to investigate the vehicle load data of Tianjin Haibin highway in Tianjin port of China, which are collected by the Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) system. Following this, the effect of the vehicle load on test bridge is calculated, and then compared with the calculation result according to HL-93(AASHTO LRFD). Results show that the overall vehicle load follows a distribution with a weighted sum of four normal distributions. The maximum vehicle load during the design reference period follows a type I extremum distribution. The vehicle load effect also follows a weighted sum of four normal distributions, and the standard value of the vehicle load is recommended as 1.8 times that of the calculated value according to HL-93.
Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk
This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.
Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Soltis, R. F.; Schuh, R. M.
An electric vehicle was tested as part of an Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The Waterman vehicle performance test results are presented in this report. The vehicle is a converted four-passenger DAF 46 sedan. It is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a three-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 kW motor. The braking system is a conventional hydraulic braking system.
Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David
Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no
Mourey, D. J.
The aspects of flight testing an aeroelastically tailored forward swept research wing on a BQM-34F drone vehicle are examined. The geometry of a forward swept wing, which is incorporated into the BQM-34F to maintain satisfactory flight performance, stability, and control is defined. A preliminary design of the aeroelastically tailored forward swept wing is presented.
Sarvajcz, K.; Váradiné Szarka, A.
Nowadays the consumer society applies a huge amount of energy in many fields including transportation sector. Internal combustion vehicles contribute substantially to the air pollution. An alternative solution for reducing energy consumption is replacing the internal combustion vehicles by electrical or hybrid vehicles. Today one of the biggest disadvantages of the electrical vehicles is the finite capacity of batteries. The research topic presented in this paper is the „Energy Harvesting”, and development of energy recovery system for electrical vehicles which largely contributes in increasing the driving range. At the current phase of the research efficiency analysis of the heat energy recovery devices are investigated in real driving circumstances. Computer based mobile and wireless measurement system for the analysis was developed, tested and installed in a real vehicle. Driving tests were performed and analysed in different circumstances.
Deets, D. A.; Brown, L. E.
The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program explored the various and complex interactions of advanced technologies, such as aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canard, and relaxed static stability. A 0.44-subscale remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) of a hypothetical fighter airplane was designed and flight-tested to determine the effects of these interactions and to define the design techniques appropriate for advanced fighter technologies. Flexibility and high maneuverability were provided by flight control laws implemented in ground-based computers and telemetered to the vehicle control system during flight tests. The high quality of the flight-measured data and their close correlation with the analytical design modeling proved that the RPRV is a viable and cost-effective tool for developing aerodynamic, structure, and control law requirements for highly maneuverable fighter airplanes of the future.
Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming
Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.
Russell, Carl R.; Jung, Jaewoo; Willink, Gina; Glasner, Brett
There is currently a lack of published data for the performance of multicopter unmanned aircraft system (UAS) vehicles, such as quadcopters and octocopters, often referred to collectively as drones. With the rapidly increasing popularity of multicopter UAS, there is interest in better characterizing the performance of this type of aircraft. By studying the performance of currently available vehicles, it will be possible to develop models for vehicles at this scale that can accurately predict performance and model trajectories. This paper describes a wind tunnel test that was recently performed in the U.S. Army's 7- by 10-ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. During this wind tunnel entry, five multicopter UAS vehicles were tested to determine forces and moments as well as electrical power as a function of wind speed, rotor speed, and vehicle attitude. The test is described here in detail, and a selection of the key results from the test is presented.
NASA is maturing test and evaluation plans leading to flight readiness of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. Key development, qualification, and verification tests are planned . Upper stage engine sea-level and altitude testing. First stage development and qualification motors. Upper stage structural and thermal development and qualification test articles. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA). Upper stage green run testing. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (IVGVT). Aerodynamic characterization testing. Test and evaluation supports initial validation flights (Ares I-Y and Orion 1) and design certification.
Wang, Yi; Yang, Jianfeng; Ou, Yong
With the development of intelligent driving, the LiDAR used for vehicle plays an important role in it, in some extent LiDAR is the key factor of intelligent driving. And environmental adaptability is one critical factor of quality, it relates success or failure of LiDAR. This article discusses about the environment and its effects on LiDAR used for vehicle, it includes analysis of any possible environment that vehicle experiences, and environmental test design.
Full Text Available The LiDAR mapping carried out using gyrocopters provides a relatively cheap alternative for traditional mapping involving airplanes. The costs of the fuel and the overall maintenance are much lower when compared to planes. At the same time the flight kinematics of the gyrocopter makes it an ideal vehicle for corridor mapping. However a limited payload and a strongly limited space prevent using stabilized platforms dedicated for aerial photogrammetry. As the proper stabilization of the laser scanner during the flight is crucial in order to keep the desirable quality of the LiDAR data, it was decided to develop the prototype of the stabilized, ultra-light mapping platform that can meet the restricted requirements of the gyrocopter. The paper starts with the brief discussion of the legal and practical aspects of the LiDAR data quality, dealing mostly with the influence of the flight imperfections on the point pattern and point density. Afterwards the mapping system prototype is characterized, taking into account three main components: stabilized platform, sensors and control. Subsequently first in-flight tests are described. Though the data are still not perfect mostly due to vibrations, the stabilization provides a substantial improvement of their geometry, reducing both roll and pitch deflections.
Littell, Justin D.; Kellas, Sotiris
During the summer of 2016, a series of drop tests were conducted on two passive earth entry vehicle (EEV) test articles at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The tests were conducted to evaluate the structural integrity of a realistic EEV vehicle under anticipated landing loads. The test vehicles were lifted to an altitude of approximately 400m via a helicopter and released via release hook into a predesignated 61 m landing zone. Onboard accelerometers were capable of measuring vehicle free flight and impact loads. High-speed cameras on the ground tracked the free-falling vehicles and data was used to calculate critical impact parameters during the final seconds of flight. Additional sets of high definition and ultra-high definition cameras were able to supplement the high-speed data by capturing the release and free flight of the test articles. Three tests were successfully completed and showed that the passive vehicle design was able to withstand the impact loads from nominal and off-nominal impacts at landing velocities of approximately 29 m/s. Two out of three test resulted in off-nominal impacts due to a combination of high winds at altitude and the method used to suspend the vehicle from the helicopter. Both the video and acceleration data captured is examined and discussed. Finally, recommendations for improved release and instrumentation methods are presented.
At moderate to high traffic densities, road traffic exhibits an unstable behavior, resulting in decrease traffic efficiency. One of the phenomena that can be observed at these densities is the propagation of shock waves against the flow of traffic, which seriously reduce the speed of vehicles. The
Sunday M. Ofochebe
Full Text Available In vehicle crashworthiness design optimization detailed system evaluation capable of producing reliable results are basically achieved through high-order numerical computational (HNC models such as the dynamic finite element model, mesh-free model etc. However the application of these models especially during optimization studies is basically challenged by their inherent high demand on computational resources, conditional stability of the solution process, and lack of knowledge of viable parameter range for detailed optimization studies. The absorbable energy monitoring scheme (AEMS presented in this paper suggests a new design protocol that attempts to overcome such problems in evaluation of vehicle structure for crashworthiness. The implementation of the AEMS involves studying crash performance of vehicle components at various absorbable energy ratios based on a 2DOF lumped-mass-spring (LMS vehicle impact model. This allows for prompt prediction of useful parameter values in a given design problem. The application of the classical one-dimensional LMS model in vehicle crash analysis is further improved in the present work by developing a critical load matching criterion which allows for quantitative interpretation of the results of the abstract model in a typical vehicle crash design. The adequacy of the proposed AEMS for preliminary vehicle crashworthiness design is demonstrated in this paper, however its extension to full-scale design-optimization problem involving full vehicle model that shows greater structural detail requires more theoretical development.
Žugić Ana R.
Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Usnea barbata especially against bacteria involved in pathogenesis of various skin conditions has been well documented in literature. Nevertheless, there are no papers dealing with formulation of its isolates into topical preparations for treatment of skin infections. In present study, alkyl polyglucoside (APG - based vehicle was developed as carrier of U. barbata CO2-supercritical extract (U-SE that demonstrated the best antimicrobial potential in preliminary screening. For comparison, chosen extract in the same concentration and using the same procedure was incorporated into a pharmacopoeial vehicle. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical stability, efficiency and safety proved APG-based vehicle to possess certain preferential features as carrier of U-SE compared to the reference one, composing a topical formulation with potential clinical relevance in treatment of skin infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45017 i br. TR34031
Full Text Available ) commissioned the University of California at Berkely (UCB), Dynatest Consulting and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the potential of the South African Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS...
The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition scheduled for : 2012. Vehicle integration has been completed as part of a variety of 2010-2011 senior design projects and 201...
2-704 as a general guideline): (1) The CTIS will remain off until the vehicle wheels are exercised on the chassis by driving a distance of 10 km...long cold spell has chilled the ground. Other causes are automobile exhaust or the compressed remnants of a snowfall. c. Black ice (sometimes known
Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.
Preechagoon, Detpon; Sumyai, Viroj; Tontisirin, Khanittha; Aumpon, Sirikul; Pongjanyakul, Thaned
Prefomulation approach utilizing the fractional-ordered randomized blocked design was employed for the formulation development and stability testing of morphine solution. Factors expecting to affect the stability of morphine were evaluated, i.e., vehicle, antioxidant, chelating agent, and pH of the solution. Eight formulations of a possible 16 were prepared according to the block design. The stability of the preparations was tested after 35 days of storage. The data of preformulation study were used for formulation development. The presence of glycerin and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid in the formulation, and the pH of the solution adjusted to 4, stabilized morphine. The concentration of morphine decreased drastically in the formulations containing sodium metabisulfite, and those pH adjusted to 6. After 35 days, only 65% of morphine was found in the formulation containing sodium metabisulfite and pH adjusted to 6. The results of preformulation study were used for preparing oral morphine preparations. Samples were kept in amber glass bottles and stored at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C/75% RH for 13 months. No precipitation of the four formulations was detected. Only a decrease of odor and a small increase of pH value of the preparations (preformulation approach. They were stable more than 13 months when stored at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C/75% RH.
This document presents results from the light-vehicle and heavy-truck field operational tests performed as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based : Safety Systems (IVBSS) program. The findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of M...
"This document presents results from the light-vehicle and heavy-truck field operational tests performed as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) program. The findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Mi...
... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.010-08 Vehicle test... of a running change (§§ 86.079-32, 86.079-33 and 86.082-34 or 86.1842-01 of this chapter, as...
... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.010-86 Vehicle test... after certification or approval of a running change (40 CFR 86.079-32, 86.079-33 and 86.082-34 or 40 CFR...
This report identifies crash imminent test scenarios based on common pre-crash scenarios for integrated vehicle-based safety systems that alert the driver of a light vehicle or a heavy truck to an impending rear-end, lane change, or run-off-road cras...
Kang, Sanggyu; Min, Kyoungdoug
Highlights: • Development of a FCHV dynamic model. • Integration of a PEMFC system dynamic model with the electric vehicle model. • Investigation of the dynamic behavior of the FCEV and PEMFC system during FTP-75. • Capturing the dynamic correlation among components in PEMFC system during FTP-75. - Abstract: The dynamic behavior of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is a crucial factor to ensure the safe and effective operation of fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs). Specifically, water and thermal management are critical to stabilize the performance of the PEMFC during severe load changes. In the present study, the FCHV dynamic model is developed. The dynamic model of the PEMFC system developed by Matlab–Simulink® is integrated into the electric vehicle model embedded in the Amesim®. The dynamic model of the PEMFC system is composed of a PEMFC stack, an air feeding system, and a thermal management system (TMS). The component models of PEMFC, a shell-and-tube gas-to-gas membrane humidifier, and a heat exchanger are validated via a comparison with the experimental data. The FCHV model is simulated during a federal test procedure (FTP)-75 driving cycle. One system configuration and control strategy is adopted to attain optimal water and thermal management in the PEMFC system. The vehicle speed obtained from the FCHV model aptly tracks the target velocity profile of the FTP-75 cycle within an error of ±0.5%. The dynamic behavior and correlation of each component in the PEMFC system is investigated. The mass and heat transfer in the PEMFC, a humidifier, and a heat exchanger are resolved to determine the species concentration and the temperature more accurately with discretization in the flow’s perpendicular direction. Discretization in the flow parallel direction of humidifier and heat exchanger model makes it possible to capture the distribution of the characteristics. The present model can be used to attain the optimization of the system
Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (email@example.com).
Full Text Available We have fabricated organic solar cell of a new low bandgap polymer poly[4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-4,7-bis(2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5′,5′′-diyl] (PCPDTTBTT. We have investigated for the first time the stability tests, ISOS-L-1 and ISOS-D-3, of PCPDTTBTT solar cells. Thermal annealing of PCPDTTBTT solar cells at 80°C brought about an improvement of photocurrent generation, stability, and efficiency of the solar cells. T80 value of PCPDTTBTT solar cell is about 150 hours which is close to P3HT (235 h. PCPDTTBTT is very promising polymer for both polymer solar cell efficiency and stability.
Seanor, Brad A.
The contribution of this research effort was to show that a reliable RPV could be built, tested, and successfully used for flight testing and parameter estimation purposes, in an academic setting. This was a fundamental step towards the creation of an automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This research project was divided into four phases. Phase one involved the construction, development, and initial flight of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV), the West Virginia University (WVU) Boeing 777 (B777) aircraft. This phase included the creation of an onboard instrumentation system to provide aircraft flight data. The objective of the second phase was to estimate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives from actual flight data for the B777 model. This involved performing and recording flight test maneuvers used for analysis of the longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates. Flight maneuvers included control surface doublets produced by the elevator, aileron, and rudder controls. A parameter estimation program known as pEst, developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), was used to compute the off-line estimates of parameters from collected flight data. This estimation software uses the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method with a Newton-Raphson (NR) minimization algorithm. The mathematical model used a traditional static and dynamic derivative buildup. Phase three focused on comparing a linear model obtained from the phase two ML estimates, with linear models obtained from a (i) Batch Least Squares Technique (BLS) and (ii) a technique from the Matlab system identification toolbox. Historically, aircraft parameter estimation has been performed off-line using recorded flight data from specifically designed maneuvers. In recent years, several on-line parameter identification techniques have been evaluated for real-time on-line applications. Along this research line, a novel contribution of this work was to compare the off
Lopez Ramos, S.
This article tries to offer information on how Central Laboratory of Structures and Materials are made the tests for Marca N of AENOR of the systems of containment of vehicles and its control of external quality. (Author) 15 refs
Young, Larry A.
A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a
Cox, Stephen J.
Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).
... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.310 How must I select vehicles or engines for... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I select vehicles or engines...
Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gros...
This report presents the final results of an independent evaluation of the Volvo Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) Field Operational Test (FOT), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The intent of the overall IVI program, a m...
Du Plessis, L
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it will provide a brief description of the technological developments involved in the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) accelerated pavement testing equipment. This covers the period from its conception...
Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...
This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...
Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...
Ying-hui, Li; Liang, Qu; Hao-jun, Xu; Qi-meng, Cao
The category-II PIO (Pilot Induced Oscillations) caused by actuator rate limitation of fly-by-wire airplanes will badly threaten the flight safety. The stability regions of closed-loop pilot-vehicle (CLPV) system with rate limited actuator were studied in this paper to assess stability of such CLPV system. The augmented state variables were introduced to segregate the rate limited element from the primary system in order to build the saturation nonlinear model of CLPV system. To get the max...
Moghimipour, Eskandar; Salimi, Anayatollah; Rezaee, Saeed; Balack, Maryam; Handali, Somayeh
Background: Nitrofurantoin is a nitrofuran antibiotic that has been used for treatment of urinary tract against positive and negative bacteria. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of structural vehicles and flocculating agents on physical stability and rheological behavior of nitrofurantoin suspension. Materials and Methods: To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated and their particle sizes were determined using the sieve method. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium citrate and aluminum chloride were added. After choosing the suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose and Veegum were evaluated individually and in combination. In addition, the effect of sorbitol on density of continuous phase and some physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, degree of flocculation and ease of redispersion of the suspensions were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations were also determined to find their flow behavior. Results: According to the results, glycerin (0.2%) and sodium citrate (0.3%) had the best effect on the suspension stability as wetting and flocculating agents, respectively. Rheological properties of formulations showed pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. Conclusions: In conclusion, the suspension containing Veegum 1%, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose 1%, glycerine 0.2%, sodium citrate 0.3% and sorbitol 20 % was chosen as the most physically stable formulation. PMID:24872937
Square and Invertible 2.1.7 Application to the 3DOF Vehicle Dynamics Problem 2.1.8 Conclusions 2.2 Active Roll Control for...the matrices A, B, C and D. 2.1.7 Application to the 3DOF Vehicle Dynamics Problem In this section, we apply the above LQR extension procedure to...the 3DOF vehicle dynamics problem discussed before and investigate the performance of the resulting controllers under a double lane change maneuver
Full Text Available In-wheel motored powertrain on electric vehicles has more potential in maneuverability and active safety control. This paper investigates the longitudinal and lateral integrated control through the active front steering and yaw moment control systems considering the saturation characteristics of tire forces. To obtain the vehicle sideslip angle of mass center, the virtual lateral tire force sensors are designed based on the unscented Kalman filtering (UKF. And the sideslip angle is estimated by using the dynamics-based approaches. Moreover, based on the estimated vehicle state information, an upper level control system by using robust control theory is proposed to specify a desired yaw moment and correction front steering angle to work on the electric vehicles. The robustness of proposed algorithm is also analyzed. The wheel torques are distributed optimally by the wheel torque distribution control algorithm. Numerical simulation is carried out in Matlab/Simulink-Carsim cosimulation environment to demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed robust control algorithm for lateral stability control of in-wheel motored vehicle.
The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...
Fernández-Yáñez, P.; Armas, O.; Martínez-Martínez, S.
Highlights: • Air simulation model was developed for a vehicle test bench under climatic chamber. • Good accuracy between experimental data and simulated values were obtained. • Wind blower-vehicle relative position alters external cooling of after-treatment devices. • Vehicle emission certification can be affected by wind blower-vehicle relative position. - Abstract: In terms of energy efficiency and exhaust emissions control, an appropriate design of cooling systems of climatic chambers destined to vehicle certification and/or perform scientific research is becoming increasingly important. European vehicle emissions certification (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) establishes the position of the wind-simulation blower at 200 mm above floor level. This height is fixed and kept constant independently of the vehicle tested. The position of the blower with respect to the vehicle can modify the external forced convection under the car, where after-treatment devices are located. Consequently, the performance of such devices could be modified and emission results during the certification cycle could be non-representative of real-world driving conditions. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different wind blower-vehicle relative heights on the air velocity and temperature profiles under the car by means of a simple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. A steady state three-dimensional CFD model was developed and applied to the estimation of the air velocity and temperature profiles inside of a climatic chamber equipped with a vehicle roller (chassis dyno) test bench. The simulations reproduce one steady-state condition from NEDC, specifically the EU17 mode (120 km/h, maximum velocity during the cycle). The cool air propelling temperature was 20 °C (minimum temperature in the NEDC range). Simulations were performed employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the realizable k-ε model to provide closure. Air velocity and
Full Text Available This paper presented an analysis of the gear shifting performances of a multipurpose vehicle transmission in driving condition by Ricardo's Gear Shift Quality Assessment (GSQA system. The performances of the transmission included the travel and effort of the gear shift lever and synchronizing time. The mathematic models of the transmission including the gear shift mechanism and synchronizer were developed in MATLAB. The model of the gear shift mechanism was developed to analyze the travel map of the gear shift lever and the model of the synchronizer was developed to obtain the force-time curve of the synchronizer during the slipping time. The model of the synchronizer was used to investigate the relationship between the performances of the transmission and the variation of parameters during gear shifting. The mathematic models of the gear shift mechanism and the synchronizer provided a rapid design and verification method for the transmission with ring spring.
Shamsi, Mohammad Bagher; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Jamshidi, Aliashraf
It is a matter of controversy whether core stability exercise is preferred to other types of exercise for chronic low back pain. Lumbopelvic stability is an important element in low back pain. No study was found using lumbopelvic stability tests in comparing core stability and other exercises. The single leg squat, dip test, and runner pose test appear to be suitable as tests for lumbopelvic stability. The aim of this study was to compare "core stability" and "traditional trunk exercise" using these tests and also the Oswestry disability questionnaire and pain intensity. Twenty-nine non-specific chronic low back pain subjects were alternately allocated in one of the two exercise groups. For both groups, a 16-sessions exercise program was provided. Before and after training: (1) video was recorded while subjects performed the tests; (2) Oswestry disability questionnaire was completed; and (3) pain intensity was measured by visual analogue scale. The test videos were scored by three physiotherapists. Statistical analysis revealed a significant improvement in stability test scores (p = 0.020 and p = 0.041) and reduction in disability (p stability or equal effectiveness of TTE and CSE on improving LPS. The non-significant differences may also be attributable to the lack of sensitivity of our tests to assess stability change in two groups after training given the relatively small sample size.
Weisshaar, T. A.; Schmidt, D. K.
Several examples are presented in which flutter involving interaction between flight mechanics modes and elastic wind bending occurs for a forward swept wing flight vehicle. These results show the basic mechanism by which the instability occurs and form the basis for attempts to actively control such a vehicle.
Harless, David W; Hoffer, George E
A number of studies have examined whether the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) frontal crash test results reliably indicate the risk of fatality or injury in serious crashes. The conclusions of these studies are mixed. Generally, studies that examine crashes in the circumstances as close as possible to those of the laboratory test find that crash test results do predict real-world risk, but studies of crashes outside those specific circumstances find either no support for the predictive validity of crash test results or limited support with important inconsistencies. We provide a new test of the predictive validity of the crash test results using information from multiple crash tests within vehicle lines, thus controlling for systematic differences in driver behavior across vehicle lines. Among drivers of passenger cars, we find large, statistically significant differences in fatality risk for vehicles with one- to four-star NHTSA ratings versus a five-star rating. We also examine the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's frontal offset crash test, though our sample of vehicle lines tested twice or more is considerably smaller than for NHTSA ratings. Our results also support the predictive validity of the frontal offset crash test results for passenger cars, but not for trucks.
... production-line vehicles or engines? 1051.305 Section 1051.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.305 How must I prepare and test my production...
Templeton, Justin D.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.
The Ares I-X modal test program consisted of three modal tests conducted at the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. The first test was performed on the 71-foot 53,000-pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the 66-foot 146,000- pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two 250 lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the 327-foot 1,800,000-pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform. The excitation for this test consisted of four 1000+ lb-peak hydraulic shakers arranged to excite the vehicle s cantilevered bending modes. Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0.02 to 30 Hz, high sensitivity capacitive accelerometers were used. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.
anti - lock brake systems , or self-leveling systems . 2. FACILITIES AND INSTRUMENTATION. 2.1 Facilities. Testing will be conducted at the...This TOP describes procedures for measuring teleoperated system latencies of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) for the purpose of analyzing system ...discrete system components or measurements of latency in autonomous systems . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Unmanned Ground Vehicles, Basic Video Latency, End-to
Vertin, K.; Glinsky, G.; Reek, A.
The Energy Independence and Security Act passed into law in December 2007 has mandated the use of 36 billion ethanol equivalent gallons per year of renewable fuel by 2022. A primary pathway to achieve this national goal is to increase the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline. This study is part of a multi-laboratory test program coordinated by DOE to evaluate the effect of higher ethanol blends on vehicle exhaust emissions over the lifetime of the vehicle.
Yang, Ning; Yang, Ming; Huo, Ju
In the vehicle simulation test, in order to improve the measuring precision for the attitude of a test vehicle, a measuring method based on the vectors of light beams is presented, in which light beams are mounted on the test vehicle as the cooperation target, and the attitude of the test vehicle is calculated with the light beams’ vectors in the test vehicle’s coordinate system and the world coordinate system. Meanwhile, in order to expand the measuring range of the attitude parameters, cooperation targets and light beams in each cooperation target are increased. On this basis, the concept of an attitude calculation container is defined, and the selection method for the attitude calculation container that participates in the calculation is given. Simultaneously, the vectors of light beams are tracked so as to ensure the normal calculation of the attitude parameters. The experiments results show that this measuring method based on the tracking of vectors can achieve the high precision and wide range of measurement for the attitude of the test vehicle. (paper)
Minho Shin; Hwimin Kim; Hyoseop Kim; Hyuksoo Jang
The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant standards are being published, but the methods for conformance testing need to be developed. In this paper, we present our conformance test system for the electric vehicle charger in accordance with...
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the sandwich core dimensional stability in the two plan dimensions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.
This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability
Full Text Available Stabilised platforms are regularly integrated with vehicles in various applications such as terrain mapping and surveillance. The equipment installed on the platform is often sensitive to motion and has to be isolated from unnecessary vibrations...
Osula, D.O.A.; Adebisi, O.
A report is presented on a study carried out to develop a functional form for travel money expenditure in a Nigerian setting, and test its stability against energy policy change, specifically the fuel price increase of October 1994. The Box-Cox transformation regression approach was adopted in the modelling exercise in order to evolve a data-defined functional form and ensure a more rational basis for the stability test. The results of the modelling exercise show that while statistically significant functional forms were estimated for the 'before' and 'after' fuel price increase periods, the functional forms estimated are not stable across the periods. Thus 'travel budget' is as yet not usable as a term for travel expenditures in Nigeria. The implication of this for travel demand modelling in Nigeria is that, at least till other evidences prove otherwise, there is as yet no basis for using the 'Universal Mechanism of Travel' model developed by Zahavi (The UMOT Project. Report No. DOT-RSPA-DPB-20-79-3; The UMOT Travel Model II Report No. DOT-RSPA-DPB-50-82-11). Of disposable income and total expenditure, the former has proved to be more appropriate for use as 'available money' for the estimation of travel expenditures in Nigeria in the 'before' energy policy change period, while total expenditure proved appropriate in the 'after' period. (author)
Wang, Fei; Chen, Hong; Guo, Konghui; Cao, Dongpu
The path following and directional stability are two crucial problems when a road vehicle experiences a tire blow-out or sudden tire failure. Considering the requirement of rapid road vehicle motion control during a tire blow-out, this article proposes a novel linearized decoupling control procedure with three design steps for a class of second order multi-input-multi-output non-affine system. The evaluating indicators for controller performance are presented and a performance related control parameter distribution map is obtained based on the stochastic algorithm which is an innovation for non-blind parameter adjustment in engineering implementation. The analysis on the robustness of the proposed integrated controller is also performed. The simulation studies for a range of driving conditions are conducted, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
McGee, Mike [Fermilab; Andrews, Richard [Fermilab; Carlson, Kermit [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Nobrega, Lucy [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab
The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is proposed for operation at Fermilab. The goal of IOTA is to create practical nonlinear accelerator focusing systems with a large frequency spread and stable particle motion. The IOTA is a 40 m circumference, 150 MeV (e-), 2.5 MeV (p⁺) diagnostic test ring. A heavy low frequency steel floor girder is proposed as the primary tier for IOTA device component support. Two design lengths; (8) 4 m and (2) 2.8 m long girders with identical cross section completely encompass the ring. This study focuses on the 4 m length girder and the development of a working prototype. Hydrostatic Level Sensor (HLS), temperature, metrology and fast motion measurements characterize the anticipated mechanical stability of the IOTA ring.
... representativeness of the durability demonstration. (2) For DDV's aged using the standard or a customized/alternative...-mile test point providing that the representativeness of the emission results will not be affected... the representativeness of the vehicle's test results. Manufacturers shall use good engineering...
Penetrometer ............................................................................................. 5 2.1.2 Clegg Impact Hammer...to testing and to measure the impact of the vehicle on the snow strength after testing. We used the Rammsonde Snow Penetrometer to measure a...Rammsonde Snow Penetrometer The U.S. Army adapted the Rammsonde, seen in Figure 2, from an in- strument originally used in the Swiss Alps for estimating
Full Text Available Prostorni položaj težišta vozila i rotacije karoserije značajni su za analizu dinamike, ponašanje na putu, oscilatornu udobnost vozila, bezbedno odvijanje saobraćaja i sl. Pomenuti parametri se u fazi projektovanja vozila određuju metodama dinamičke simulacije, a kod izvedenih vozila merenjima u stvarnim eksploatacionim uslovima. Problem koji je u ovom radu razmotren odnosi se na praktična merenja parametara kretanja vozila. Naime, translatorne koordinate težišta vozila se, uobičajeno, utvrđuju na osnovu registrovanih linearnih ubrzanja težišta vozila (koja se kasnije, jednom ili dva puta, integrale radi izračunavanja brzine ili pomeranja, a uglovi rotacije karoserije se najčešće, mere žiroskopski stabilisanim platformama. Problem koji se pri tome javlja je cena pomenutih platformi (do sto hiljada evra, pa je retko koja institucija njima opremljena. U ovom radu nastojano je da se utvrde parametri kretanja vozila na osnovu šest registrovanih linearnih ubrzanja karakterističnih tačaka vozila. / Spatial position of vehicle C.G. as well as angular parameters of body rotation are of major importance for analysis of vehicle dynamics, handling vibrational comfort, safe service in traffic etc. The mentioned parameters are determined by use of methods of dynamic simulation in phase of development, and by means of test measurement for vehicles in real service conditions. The problem that is to be taken into consideration here is related to practical measurement of vehicle motion parameters. Translational coordinates of vehicle C.G. are usually measured on the basis of registered linear accelerations of vehicle C.G. (once or twice integrated later, for calculation of displacement or velocity and body angles are usually measured on gyroscope-stabilized platforms. The problem which occurs in these cases is the platform price (up to 100.000 EUR, not easily affordable for researchers. This paper attempts to determine vehicle motion
Cristian Cioroianu, Constantin; Marinescu, Dănuţ Gabriel; Iorga, Adrian; Răzvan Sibiceanu, Adrian
Nowadays, environmental pollution has become a general issue and the automotive industry is probably the most affected. The principal air-quality pollutant emissions from petrol, diesel and LPG engines are carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, un-burnt hydrocarbons. Modern cars produce only quite small quantities of the air quality pollutants, but the emissions from large numbers of cars add to a significant air quality problem. Electric vehicles are an answer to this problem because they have absolutely no emissions. These vehicles have some major disadvantages regarding cost and range. In this paper, an electric vehicle model will be created in the AVL Cruise software. The constructed model is based on the existing Dacia Sandero. Also unlike the real car, the model presented has different characteristics since it is a full electric vehicle. It has an electric motor instead of the petrol engine and a battery pack placed in the trunk. The model will be simulated in order to obtain data regarding vehicle performance, energy consumption and range on the new WLTC test cycle. The obtained know-how will help on later improvements of the electric model regarding methods to increase the vehicle range on the new WLTC test cycle.
Mohd Nor, M. K.; Noordin, A.; Ruzali, M. F. S.; Hussen, M. H.
Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method is offered as a means of organizing the process for rationalizing the basic vehicle body structure load paths. The application of this simplified approach is highly beneficial in the design development of modern passenger car structure especially during the conceptual stage. In Malaysia, however, there is no real physical model of SSS available to gain considerable insight and understanding into the function of each major subassembly in the whole vehicle structures. Based on this motivation, a physical model of SSS for sedan model with the corresponding model vehicle tests of bending and torsion is proposed in this work. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results show that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that satisfactory load paths can give a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global bending stiffness reduce significantly when more panels are removed from a complete SSS model. It is identified that parcel shelf is an important subassembly to sustain bending load. The results also match with the theoretical hypothesis, as the stiffness of the structure in an open section condition is shown weak when subjected to torsion load compared to bending load. The proposed approach can potentially be integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.
Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.
Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong
In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.
Dima, D. S.; Covaciu, D.
Crash tests are useful for validating computer simulations of road traffic accidents. One of the most important parameters measured is the acceleration. The evolution of acceleration versus time, during a crash test, form a crash pulse. The correctness of the crash pulse determination depends on the data acquisition system used. Recommendations regarding the instrumentation for impact tests are given in standards, which are focused on the use of accelerometers as impact sensors. The goal of this paper is to present the device and software developed by authors for data acquisition and processing. The system includes two accelerometers with different input ranges, a processing unit based on a 32-bit microcontroller and a data logging unit with SD card. Data collected on card, as text files, is processed with a dedicated software running on personal computers. The processing is based on diagrams and includes the digital filters recommended in standards.
Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony
Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.
Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, Voicu; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn
Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads......Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads...
Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.
The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.
Argonne National Laboratory will open it's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility on Friday, Nov. 15. The facility is North America's only public testing facility for engines, fuel cells, electric drives and energy storage. State-of-the-art performance and emissions measurement equipment is available to support model development and technology validation (1 page).
... requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...
Oka, K.; Kakaudate, S.; Fukatsu, S.
A rail-mounted vehicle system has been developed for remote maintenance of in-vessel components for fusion experimental reactor. In this system, a rail deploying/storing system is installed at outside of the reactor core and used to deploy a rail transporter and vehicle/manipulator for the in-vessel maintenance. A prototype of the rail deploying/storing system has been fabricated for mockup tests. This paper describes structural design of the prototypical rail deploying/storing system and results of the performance tests such as payload capacity, position control and rail deployment/storage performance
Schrock, Ken; Freestone, Todd; Bell, Leon
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's experience with different GPS simulators and receivers over the last 10 years has shown a need for testing the receivers in more than just a nominal mission. The Spaceliner 100 program is researching blended INS/GPS data tuned specifically for launch vehicles and orbital deployments. The paper will discuss layout of the testing lab, the test equipment, test scenarios that all receivers will be evaluated under, and a discussion of receiver types planned to test. It will conclude with a discussion of some of the current tests and goals of future testing.
Yang Wenjiang; Liu Yu; Wen Zheng; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yi [School of Astronautics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)
In order to investigate the feasible application of a permanent magnet-high-temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system to a maglev train or a space vehicle launcher, we have constructed a demonstration maglev test vehicle. The force dissipation and damping of the maglev vehicle against external disturbances are studied in a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies by using a sine vibration testing set-up. The dynamic levitation force shows a typical hysteresis behavior, and the force loss is regarded as the hysteresis loss, which is believed to be due to flux motions in superconductors. In this study, we find that the hysteresis loss has weak frequency dependence at small amplitudes and that the dependence increases as the amplitude grows. To analyze the damping properties of the maglev vehicle at different field cooling (FC) conditions, we also employ a transient vibration testing technique. The maglev vehicle shows a very weak damping behavior, and the damping is almost unaffected by the trapped flux of the HTSs in different FC conditions, which is believed to be attributed to the strong pinning in melt-textured HTSs.
Yang, Wenjiang; Liu, Yu; Wen, Zheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Duan, Yi
In order to investigate the feasible application of a permanent magnet-high-temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system to a maglev train or a space vehicle launcher, we have constructed a demonstration maglev test vehicle. The force dissipation and damping of the maglev vehicle against external disturbances are studied in a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies by using a sine vibration testing set-up. The dynamic levitation force shows a typical hysteresis behavior, and the force loss is regarded as the hysteresis loss, which is believed to be due to flux motions in superconductors. In this study, we find that the hysteresis loss has weak frequency dependence at small amplitudes and that the dependence increases as the amplitude grows. To analyze the damping properties of the maglev vehicle at different field cooling (FC) conditions, we also employ a transient vibration testing technique. The maglev vehicle shows a very weak damping behavior, and the damping is almost unaffected by the trapped flux of the HTSs in different FC conditions, which is believed to be attributed to the strong pinning in melt-textured HTSs.
Du Plessis, Louw
Full Text Available of the University of Costa Rica and the Mexico Institute of Trans- portation amongst others. Brief descriptions of HVS research and summaries of key results from these programs are provided. Planned research is covered where available. � 2017 Chinese Society...-empirical design models using laboratory materials testing characterization and real, long-term pavement performance monitoring and analysis data.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.09.016 1996-6814/� 2017 Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering. Production...
Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.
Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.
Van der Knaap, A.C.; Pacejka, H.B.
Mass spring system for use in a vehicle, in which the sprung mass (4) is connected to a support (1) by means of at least one bearing arm (2) and a spring leg (6). The mass spring system is equipped with an antiroll/pitch mechanism comprising an auxiliary spring (18), of which the axis is movable, of
J.N. Davis; J.E. Baier; J.P. Fulton; D.A. Brown; T.P. McDonald
Off‐road vehicle (ORV) use is an increasingly popular form of outdoor recreation throughout the United States. This form of motorized recreation, however, can sometimes lead to serious erosion of trail running surfaces, with resulting export of sediment into forested ecosystems causing environmental degradation. This project was conducted to determine the...
Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Lidberg, M.; Falcone, P.; Iersel, S. van; Jansen, S.T.H.
This paper presents a combined control and estimation framework for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles. We consider a fully electric powertrain, with a driven front axle operating on low friction road surfaces. Our objective is to find the blending of regenerative and friction braking
Gilbert, Hunter B; Hendrick, Richard J; Webster, Robert J
Concentric tube robots are needle-sized manipulators which have been investigated for use in minimally invasive surgeries. It was noted early in the development of these devices that elastic energy storage can lead to rapid snapping motion for designs with moderate to high tube curvatures. Substantial progress has recently been made in the concentric tube robot community in designing snap-free robots, planning stable paths, and characterizing conditions that result in snapping for specific classes of concentric tube robots. However, a general measure for how stable a given robot configuration is has yet to be proposed. In this paper, we use bifurcation and elastic stability theory to provide such a measure, as well as to produce a test for determining whether a given design is snap-free (i.e. whether snapping can occur anywhere in the unloaded robot's workspace). These results are useful in designing, planning motions for, and controlling concentric tube robots with high curvatures.
Levy, Y; Glovinsky, Y
Dark adaptation rate, scotopic retinal sensitivity and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions, but not visual acuity, have been shown to be directly related to the ability to identify military targets at night. These parameters can be used to select personnel for specific military tasks demanding excellent night vision, as well as to assess pharmacological effects on night vision. To evaluate the mid-term (2 to 6-week period) stability of night vision tests based on assessment of the above parameters. Dark adaptation rate, scotopic retinal sensitivity and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions were studied in 16 young volunteers during a 6-week period. Tests of scotopic retinal sensitivity (after 30 min of dark adaptation) exhibited high reproducibility and a low fluctuation rate, with a high correlation between values at week 0 and at 2-week intervals during the following 6 weeks of the study (rs (week 0 to week 6) = 0.81, p = 0.0001). The reproducibility of mesopic contrast sensitivity tests (average of 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 cycles per degree, (cpd)) was fair (rs (week 0 to week 2) = 0.67, p = 0.0045), whereas that of dark adaptation rate tests was poor. In view of the reproducibility characteristics of these night vision tests, assessment of night vision ability in pilots and military personnel, as well as assessment of pharmacological effects on night vision, may be based on scotopic retinal sensitivity (after 30 min of dark adaptation) and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions (average of 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 cpd).
Jadhav, Suresh S; Dogar, Vikas; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil
Stability testing is an integral part of the vaccine manufacturing process and is crucial for the success of immunization programs. WHO (World Health Organization) has recently published guidelines on the stability testing of vaccines. These guidelines enlist scientific basis and principles for stability testing at various stages like development, pre-clinical, clinical, licensing, lot release and post-licensure monitoring. DCVMN (Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network) is an international body of developing countries vaccine manufacturers and has viewpoints on technical and administrative issues in stability testing of vaccines. We here highlight viewpoints, possible roles and global expectations of DCVMN in the area of stability testing of vaccines.
Huang, Yingping; McMurran, Ross; Dhadyalla, Gunwant; Jones, R Peter; Mouzakitis, Alexandros
This paper presents an advanced testing system, combining model-based testing and machine vision technologies, for automated design validation of a vehicle instrument cluster. In the system, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tester, supported by model-based approaches, simulates vehicle operations in real time and dynamically provides all essential signals to the instrument cluster under test. A machine vision system with advanced image processing algorithms is designed to inspect the visual displays. Experiments demonstrate that the system developed is accurate for measuring the pointer position, bar graph position, pointer angular velocity and indicator flash rate, and is highly robust for validating various functionalities including warning lights status, symbol and text displays. Moreover, the system developed greatly eases the task of tedious validation testing and makes onerous repeated tests possible
Dunbar, William B; Murray, Richard M
... horizon optimal control problem. For a given centralized cost structure, we generate distributed optimal control problems for each subsystem and establish that the distributed receding horizon implementation is asymptotically stabilizing...
Full Text Available The DalmlerChrysler fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR 4, a hydrogen-fueled zero-emission compact car based on the A-Class of Mercedes-Benz, is described. Test results obtained on the road and on the dynamometer are presented. These and other results show the high technological maturity reliability and durability already achieved with fuel cell technology.
Procedures used in determining the energy efficiency and economy of a gasoline-electric hybrid taxi, an electric passenger car, and an electric van are described. Tabular and graphic data show results of driving cycle and constant speed tests, energy distribution to various components, efficiency of the components, and, for the hybrid vehicle, the emissions.
..., or reject a particular augmentation for inclusion in an updated complex model (performed through... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Augmentation of the complex emission... Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing. (a) The provisions of this section apply only if...
Fan, Wei; Hentilä, Lassi; Zhang, Fengchun
Virtual drive testing (VDT) has gained great interest from both industry and academia, owing to its promise to replay field trials in a controllable laboratory condition. VDT is especially appealing for vehicle communication scenarios, where actual field trials can be difficult to carry out...
Du Plessis, L
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two fold. First, it will provide a brief description of the technological developments involved in the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) accelerated pavement testing equipment. This covers the period from concept in the late...
Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten
An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module
Full Text Available The analysis of the perturbed motion stability of the brake automatic control system on the basis of Lyapunov’s second method is carried out. Using transformations of Lurie there has been ob-tained the canonical form of the system of equations of automatic control. It allowed determining the necessary and sufficient conditions of the asymptotic stability of the system irrespective of its initial condition and a definite choice of the admissible characteristic of the regulator.
The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as open-quotes commercial fuelsclose quotes except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative
The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN
The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN
The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.
The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.
oversteer. Interpretations will be given to the resulting control structure by comparing it against common model -reference VSC systems that use yaw-rate...628. 7. Falcone, P., M. Tufo, F. Borrelli, J. Asgari, and H.E. Tseng. "A linear time varying model predictive control approach to the integrated...The control structure avoids the need for an explicit reference model to generate target vehicle responses. The method is particularly suited for a
Muhammad H. Al-Malack
Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.
Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Tartari, Talita; Marciano, Marina Angélica; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Mondeli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Camilleri, Josette; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro
Discoloration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) can be exacerbated by the interaction of the cement with body fluids such as blood. This study aimed to analyze the color alteration, chemical characteristics, and radiopacity of MTA manipulated with 2 different vehicles after immersion in blood or distilled water (DW). MTA mixed with 100% DW or 80% DW/20% propylene glycol (PG) as vehicles were placed into rubber rings and incubated at 37°C and 100% relative humidity until set. Color assessment and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis were performed after setting and repeated after 7, 15, and 30 days after immersion in blood and DW. Statistical analysis for color alteration and radiopacity was performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (P vehicle, significantly lower color alterations were observed for all time periods compared with 100% DW when immersed in blood (P vehicle for MTA results in a lower color alteration when in contact with blood. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gowri, Krishnan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6
Full Text Available Learning from the motion principle of quadrotor, a symmetric propeller AUV, which has small size and low velocity is designed. Compared with the AUV equipped with rudders, it has better maneuverability and manipulation at low velocity. According to the Newton-Euler method, the 6 DOF kinematic model and dynamic model of the propeller AUV are established. A stability controller that consists of 3 different PID controllers is designed. It makes the depth and attitude angle as trigger conditions, and the relevant controller is chosen in different moving process. The simulation experiments simulate ideal motion state and disturbed motion state, and experiments results show that the stability controller based on combined sections method can make the best of mature technology of PID, and meet the control requirements in different stages. It has a higher respond speed and accuracy, improving the stability of the propeller AUV under the disturbance of complex ocean currents.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Full Text Available The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include: the length of the measuring segments, their overall test time share, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analyzed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.
Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.
New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.
The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA, under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStar(Trademark), an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite-epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor 1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountainview, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, 2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at NASA Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and 3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.
Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Chen, Lih-Wei; Wang, Li-Ting
Diesel vehicles are one of the major forms of transportation, especially in metropolitan regions. However, air pollution released from diesel vehicles causes serious damage to both human health and the environment, and as a result is of great public concern. Nitrogen oxides and black smoke are two significant emissions from diesel engines. Understanding the correlation between these two emissions is an important step toward developing the technology for an appropriate strategy to control or eliminate them. This study field-tested 185 diesel vehicles at an engine dynamometer station for their black smoke reflectivity and nitrogen oxides concentration to explore the correlation between these two pollutants. The test results revealed that most of the tested diesel vehicles emitted black smoke with low reflectivity and produced low nitrogen oxides concentration. The age of the tested vehicles has a significant influence on the NOx emission. The older the tested vehicles, the higher the NOx concentrations emitted, however, there was no obvious correlation between the age of the tested diesel vehicles and the black smoke reflectivity. In addition, if the make and engine displacement volume of the tested diesel vehicles are not taken into consideration, then the correlation between the black smoke reflectivity and nitrogen oxides emission weakens. However, when the tested vehicles were classified into various groups based on their makes and engine displacement volumes, then the make of a tested vehicle became a dominant factor for both the quantity and the trend of the black smoke reflectivity, as well as the NOx emission. Higher emission indices of black smoke reflectivity and nitrogen oxides were observed if the diesel vehicles were operated at low engine speed and full engine load conditions. Moreover, the larger the displacement volume of the engine of the tested vehicle, the lower the emission indices of both black smoke reflectivity and nitrogen oxides emitted. The
... Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of.... Benefits of ESC Electronic stability control (ESC) systems use automatic computer- controlled braking of... as a four-wheel drive low- range transfer case, that does not control the ESC system directly but has...
G. G. Loomis (INEEL); A. P. Zdinak (MSE); M. A. Ewanic (MSE); J. J. Jessmore (INEEL)
During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity
Full Text Available adequately and that equipment is operating within acceptable parameters. An investigation into the required equipment and in-field test methods was conducted as the basis of this study. Stationary in-field vehicle emission tests were reproduced in a... controlled engine test cell to establish the repeatability and suitability of these methods. These stationary tests were compared against real-world data recorded during a load-haul- dump (LHD) vehicle underground operational cycle in order to devise...
This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...
Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.
Sutterfield, Aleta; Pecoraro, Katie; Rouhana, Stephen W; Xu, Lan; Abramczyk, Joe; Berliner, Jeff; Irwin, Annette; Jensen, Jack; Mertz, Harold J; Nusholtz, Guy; Pietsch, Hollie; Scherer, Risa; Tylko, Suzanne
This technical paper presents the results from tests conducted with the ES-2re, a version of the ES-2 side impact dummy that was modified by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to improve its performance in crash tests. Through the series of biofidelity tests conducted on the ES-2re, described in International Standards Organization (ISO) Technical Report (TR)9790 (1999), the OSRP observed a final overall biofidelity ranking of 4.1 for the ES-2re, which corresponds to an ISO classification of "marginal." The biofidelity of the ES-2re is compared to that of the ES-2 and the WorldSID. Repeatability was also evaluated on the ES-2re based on the biofidelity test data. Additional pendulum tests were performed to assess the response of the dummy in oblique loading conditions, and results indicate that oblique loading from the front leads to significantly reduced rib deflections. To evaluate inconsistencies observed in the response of the ES-2, the OSRP analyzed the shoulder biofidelity via additional sled and drop tests. Due to the shoulder design of the ES-2 and ES-2re, the dummies appear to have significant sensitivity to initial conditions, potentially increasing variability in full vehicle tests. Finally, the responses of the ES-2re in full vehicle tests are compared to those of the ES-2 and the WorldSID.
Aldridge, Edward; Curry, Bruce; Scully, Robert
Objective: Perform System-Level EMI testing of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) spacecraft in situ in the Kennedy Space Center's Neil Armstrong Operations & Checkout (O&C) Facility in 6 days. The only way to execute the system-level EMI testing and meet this schedule challenge was to perform the EMI testing in situ in the Final Assembly & System Test (FAST) Cell in a reverberant mode, not the direct illumination mode originally planned. This required the unplanned construction of a Faraday Cage around the vehicle and FAST Cell structure. The presence of massive steel platforms created many challenges to developing an efficient screen room to contain the RF energy and yield an effective reverberant chamber. An initial effectiveness test showed marginal performance, but improvements implemented afterward resulted in the final test performing surprisingly well! The paper will explain the design, the challenges, and the changes that made the difference in performance!
Wong L. Sing; Roslan Hashim; Faisal H. Ali
Problem statement: Deep stabilized peat columns were known to be economical at forming foundations to support highway embankments constructed on deep peat land. However, failure in the formation of the columns with adequate strength was often attributed to unsuitable type and insufficient dosage of binder added to the soil. Organic matter in peat was known to impede the cementing process in the soil, thus retarding the early strength gain of stabilized peat. Approach: To evaluate the strength...
Serov, Alexey; Padilla, Monica; Roy, Aaron J; Atanassov, Plamen; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Asazawa, Koichiro; Tanaka, Hirohisa
Novel highly active electrocatalysts for hydrazine hydrate fuel cell application were developed, synthesized and integrated into an operation vehicle prototype. The materials show in both rotating disc electrode (RDE) and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) tests the world highest activity with peak current density of 16,000 A g(-1) (RDE) and 450 mW cm(-2) operated in air (MEA). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant standards are being published, but the methods for conformance testing need to be developed. In this paper, we present our conformance test system for the electric vehicle charger in accordance with the standards ISO/IEC 15118, IEC 61851 and IEC 61850-90-8. Our test system leverages the TTCN-3 framework for its flexibility and productivity. We evaluate the test system by lab tests with two reference chargers that we built. We also present the test results in two international testival events for the ISO/IEC 15118 interoperability. We confirmed that our test system is robust, efficient and practical.
Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.
Shi, Ke; Yuan, Xiaofang; Liu, Liang
Distributed drive electric vehicle(DDEV) has been widely researched recently, its longitudinal stability is a very important research topic. Conventional wheel slip ratio control strategies are usually designed for one special operating mode and the optimal performance cannot be obtained as DDEV works under various operating modes. In this paper, a novel model predictive controller-based multi-model control system (MPC-MMCS) is proposed to solve the longitudinal stability problem of DDEV. Firstly, the operation state of DDEV is summarized as three kinds of typical operating modes. A submodel set is established to accurately represent the state value of the corresponding operating mode. Secondly, the matching degree between the state of actual DDEV and each submodel is analyzed. The matching degree is expressed as the weight coefficient and calculated by a modified recursive Bayes theorem. Thirdly, a nonlinear MPC is designed to achieve the optimal wheel slip ratio for each submodel. The optimal design of MPC is realized by parallel chaos optimization algorithm(PCOA)with computational accuracy and efficiency. Finally, the control output of MPC-MMCS is computed by the weighted output of each MPC to achieve smooth switching between operating modes. The proposed MPC-MMCS is evaluated on eight degrees of freedom(8DOF)DDEV model simulation platform and simulation results of different condition show the benefits of the proposed control system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian
An overview of aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign test vehicle is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. Test flights conducted in June of 2014 (SFDT-1) and 2015 (SFDT-2) each successfully delivered a 6 meter diameter decelerator (SIAD-R) to test conditions and several seconds of flight, and were successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R technology. Aerodynamic models and uncertainties developed for the SFDT campaign are presented, including the methods used to generate them and their implementation within an aerodynamic database (ADB) routine for flight simulations. Pre- and post-flight aerodynamic models are compared against reconstructed flight data and model changes based upon knowledge gained from the flights are discussed. The pre-flight powered phase model is shown to have a significant contribution to off-nominal SFDT trajectory lofting, while coast and SIAD phase models behaved much as predicted.
Full Text Available Despite a large number of different vehicles available nowadays, conventional emulsion systems remain one of the most commonly used for cosmetic and dermatological preparations. Popularly labelled as skin- and environmentally-friendly, alkyl polyglucoside (APG sugar-based emulsifiers have attracted considerable interest with regard to their dermatological properties, since irritation potential of commonly used emulsifiers could affect the functionality and safety of dermopharmaceutics. The aim of this study was to promote the emulsion based on C16/18 APG as a prospective vehicle for topical drugs and cosmetic actives assessing the safety for use and skin hydration capacity. In accordance with the requirements of newer legislation in vitro, acute skin irritation test was performed using cytotoxicity assay on artificial skin. The results were compared with in vivo data obtained by measuring the skin biophysical parameters, such as: stratum corneum hydration (SCH, erythema index (EI, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Parameters were measured prior to (baseline values and upon cessation of a 24-h occlusive treatment in 14 healthy human volunteers. In vivo moisturizing capacity of the emulsions was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers in a long-term trial measuring of SCH. This study showed, investigating the most frequently used APG, that emulsions based on these emulsifiers could probably be promoted as safe cosmetic/ dermopharmaceutical vehicles. Prospective safety for human use with the correlation between in vivo and in vitro findings was shown. In addition, the investigated vehicle per se showed an excellent skin moisturizing capacity which is essential in maintaining healthy skin, but also in improving dermatitis, which follows most pathological skin conditions.
Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data
Li, Yulan; Yang, Zhangli; Zhu, Bin; Ran, Shengyi
With the increasing of charging spots, the testing of charging security and interoperability becomes more and more urgent and important. In this paper, an interface simulator for ac charging test is designed, the automatic testing platform for electric vehicle charging spots is set up and used to test and analyze the abnormal state during the charging process. On the platform, the charging security and interoperability of ac charging spots and IC-CPD can be checked efficiently, the test report can be generated automatically with No artificial reading error. From the test results, the main reason why the charging spot is not qualified is that the power supply cannot be cut off in the prescribed time when the charging anomaly occurs.
Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.
In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.
In summary, within the scope of this work, unlike the previous studies, experiments involving physical tests (i.e. tilt table, fishhook and cornering and numerical calculations are included. In addition, verification of the virtual model, parametric sensitivity analysis and the comparison of the virtual test and the physical test is performed. Because of the vigorous verification, sensitivity analysis and validation process, the results can be more reliable compared to previous studies.
The Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU consists of thee Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01 - Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02 - Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03 - Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). Characterization activities indicated that only CAS 25-07-02 (F and J Roads Pad) contained constituents of concern (COCs) above action levels and required remediation. The COCs detected were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel, cesium-137, and strontium-90. The F and J Roads Pad may have been used for the decontamination of vehicles and possibly disassembled engine and reactor parts from Test Cell C. Activities occurred there during the 1960s through early 1970s. The F and J Roads Pad consisted of a 9- by 5-meter (m) (30- by 15-foot [ft]) concrete pad and a 14- by 13-m (46-by 43-ft) gravel sump. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Closure activities began on August 21, 2000, and ended on September 19, 2000. Waste disposal activities were completed on December 12, 2000. A total of 172 cubic meters (223 cubic yards) of impacted soil was excavated and disposed. The concrete pad was also removed and disposed. Verification samples were collected from the bottom and sidewalls of the excavation and analyzed for TPH diesel and 20-minute gamma spectroscopy. The sample results indicated that all impacted soil above remediation standards was removed. The closure was completed following the approved Corrective Action Plan. All impacted waste was disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill. All non-impacted debris was disposed in the Area 9 Construction Landfill and the Area 23 Sanitary Landfill
Full Text Available With the advent of autonomous vehicles, in particular its adaptability to harsh conditions, the research and development of autonomous vehicles attract significant attention by not only academia but also practitioners. Due to the high risk, high cost, and difficulty to test autonomous vehicles under harsh conditions, the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL scaled platform has been proposed as it is a safe, inexpensive, and effective test method. This platform system consists of scaled autonomous vehicle, scaled roadway, monitoring center, transmission device, positioning device, and computers. This paper uses a case of the development process of tracking control for high-speed U-turn to build the tracking control function. Further, a simplified vehicle dynamics model and a trajectory tracking algorithm have been considered to build the simulation test. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the HIL scaled platform.
Simpson, James; Campbell, Chip; Carpenter, Russell; Davis, Ed; Kizhner, Semion; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Davis, George; Jackson, Larry
This paper discusses the process and results of the performance testing of the GPS receiver planned for use on the International Space Station (ISS) and the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). The receiver is a Force-19 unit manufactured by Trimble Navigation and Modified in software by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to perform navigation and attitude determination in space. The receiver is the primary source of navigation and attitude information for ISS and CRV. Engineers at GSFC have developed and tested the new receiver with a Global Simulation Systems Ltd (GSS) GPS Signal Generator (GPSSG). This paper documents the unique aspects of ground testing a GPS receiver that is designed for use in space. A discussion of the design and tests using the GPSSG, documentation, data capture, data analysis, and lessons learned will precede an overview of the performance of the new receiver. A description of the challenges of that were overcome during this testing exercise will be presented. Results from testing show that the receiver will be within or near the specifications for ISS attitude and navigation performance. The process for verifying other requirements such as Time to First Fix, Time to First Attitude, selection/deselection of a specific GPS satellite vehicles (SV), minimum signal strength while still obtaining attitude and navigation, navigation and attitude output coverage, GPS week rollover, and Y2K requirements are also given in this paper.
Pichon, T.; Barreteau, R.; Soyris, P.; Foucault, A.; Parenteau, J. M.; Prel, Y.; Guedron, S.
Experimental re-entry demonstrators are currently being developed in Europe, with the objective of increasing the technology readiness level (TRL) of technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. Among these are the Pre-X programme, currently funded by CNES, the French Space Agency, and which is about to enter into development phase B, and the IXV, within the future launcher preparatory programme (FLPP) funded by ESA. One of the major technologies necessary for such vehicles is the thermal protection system (TPS), and in particular the ceramic matrix composites (CMC) based windward TPS. In support of this goal, technology maturation activities named "generic shingle" were initiated beginning of 2003 by SPS, under a CNES contract, with the objective of performing a test campaign of a complete shingle of generic design, in preparation of the development of a re-entry experimental vehicle decided in Europe. The activities performed to date include: the design, manufacturing of two C/SiC panels, finite element model (FEM) calculation of the design, testing of technological samples extracted from a dedicated panel, mechanical pressure testing of a panel, and a complete study of the attachment system. Additional testing is currently under preparation on the panel equipped with its insulation, seal, attachment device, and representative portion of cold structure, to further assess its behaviour in environments relevant to its application The paper will present the activities that will have been performed in 2006 on the prediction and preparation of these modal characterization, dynamic, acoustic as well as thermal and thermo-mechanical tests. Results of these tests will be presented and the lessons learned will be discussed.
Full Text Available In this paper mathematical modeling of a vehicle crash test based on a single-mass is studied. The model under consideration consists of a single-mass coupled with a spring and/or a damper. The parameters for the spring and damper are obtained by analyzing the measured acceleration in the center of gravity of the vehicle during a crash. A model with a nonlinear spring and damper is also proposed and the parameters will be optimized with different damper and spring characteristics and optimization algorithms. The optimization algorithms used are interior-point and firefly algorithm. The objective of this paper is to compare different methods used to establish a simple model of a car crash and validate the results against real crash data.
The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) establish minimum levels for vehicle safety, and manufacturers of motor vehicle and equipment items must comply with these standards. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) contra...
Gunter, Dave D; Bylsma, Wesley W; Edgar, Kevin; Letherwood, Mike D; Gorsich, David J
The objective of this paper will be to describe the computer-based modeling, simulation, and limited field testing effort that has been undertaken to investigate the dynamic performance of an unmanned...
Palmer, J. M., Jr.; Stephens, C. O.; Sutton, J. O.
A review of the structural configuration and ground test program is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the testing of a full-scale stub box test subcomponent and full span ground test unit. The stub box subcomponent was tested in an environmental chamber under ambient, cold/wet, and hot/wet conditions. The test program included design limit static loads, fatigue spectrum loading to approximately two service lifetimes (with and without damage), design limit damage tolerance tests, and a final residual strength test to a structural failure. The first full-scale ground test unit was tested under ambient conditions. The test unit was to have undergone static, fatigue, and damage tolerance tests but a premature structural failure occurred at design limit load during the third limit load test. A failure theory was developed which explains the similarity in types of failure and the large load discrepancy at failure between the two test articles. The theory attributes both failures to high stress concentrations at the edge of the lower rear spar access opening. A second full-scale ground test unit has been modified to incorporate the various changes resulting from the premature failure. The article has been assembled and is active in the test program.
Koelfgen, Syri J.; Faber, James J.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the aviation industry have recognized a need for developing a method to identify and combine resources to carry out research and testing more efficiently. The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Research Test and Integration Plan (RTIP) Wiki is a tool that is used to visualize, plan, and accomplish collaborative research and testing. Synergistic test opportunities are developed using the RTIP Wiki, and include potential common resource testing that combines assets and personnel from NASA, industry, academia, and other government agencies. A research scenario is linked to the appropriate IVHM milestones and resources detailed in the wiki, reviewed by the research team members, and integrated into a collaborative test strategy. The scenario is then implemented by creating a test plan when appropriate and the research is performed. The benefits of performing collaborative research and testing are achieving higher Technology Readiness Level (TRL) test opportunities with little or no additional cost, improved quality of research, and increased communication among researchers. In addition to a description of the method of creating these joint research scenarios, examples of the successful development and implementation of cooperative research using the IVHM RTIP Wiki are given.
Kiss, Adam K.; Hajdu, David; Bachrathy, Daniel; Stepan, Gabor
Chatter detection is usually based on the analysis of measured signals captured during cutting processes. These techniques, however, often give ambiguous results close to the stability boundaries, which is a major limitation in industrial applications. In this paper, an experimental chatter detection method is proposed based on the system's response for perturbations during the machining process, and no system parameter identification is required. The proposed method identifies the dominant characteristic multiplier of the periodic dynamical system that models the milling process. The variation of the modulus of the largest characteristic multiplier can also be monitored, the stability boundary can precisely be extrapolated, while the manufacturing parameters are still kept in the chatter-free region. The method is derived in details, and also verified experimentally in laboratory environment.
Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.
Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)
An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.
Ernst, E. W.; Sass, J. P.; Lobemeyer, D. A.; Sojourner, S. J.; Hatfield, W. H.; Rewinkel, D. A.
The development of a new launch vehicle to support NASA's future exploration plans requires significant redesign and upgrade of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) launch pad and ground support equipment systems. In many cases, specialized test equipment and systems will be required to certify the function of the new system designs under simulated operational conditions, including propellant loading. This paper provides an overview of the cryogenic test infrastructure that is in place at KSC to conduct development and qualification testing that ranges from the component level to the integrated-system level. An overview of the major cryogenic test facilities will be provided, along with a detailed explanation of the technology focus area for each facility
Siddall, Robert; Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Kovač, Mirko
Aerial robots capable of locomotion in both air and water would enable novel mission profiles in complex environments, such as water sampling after floods or underwater structural inspections. The design of such a vehicle is challenging because it implies significant propulsive and structural design trade-offs for operation in both fluids. In this paper, we present a unique Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV), which uses a reconfigurable wing to dive into the water from flight, inspired by the plunge diving strategy of water diving birds in the family Sulidae . The vehicle's performance is investigated in wind and water tunnel experiments, from which we develop a planar trajectory model. This model is used to predict the dive behaviour of the AquaMAV, and investigate the efficacy of passive dives initiated by wing folding as a means of water entry. The paper also includes first field tests of the AquaMAV prototype where the folding wings are used to initiate a plunge dive.
Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.
Dustin, M. O.
The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.
Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic air-breathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in future. For combustion test in real flight condition of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan with a small test vehicle falling from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory that can achieve the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge when we design prototype vehicles.
Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic airbreathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in the future. For combustion test in the real flight conditions of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan where a small test vehicle is released from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory for the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge for designing prototype vehicles.
Brewer, Peter G.; Orr, Franklin M., Jr.; Friederich, Gernot; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Orange, Daniel L.; McFarlane, James; Kirkwood, William
We have observed the process of formation of clathrate hydrates of methane in experiments conducted on the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Ventana in the deep waters of Monterey Bay. A tank of methane gas, acrylic tubes containing seawater, and seawater plus various types of sediment were carried down on Ventana to a depth of 910 m where methane gas was injected at the base of the acrylic tubes by bubble stream. Prior calculations had shown that the local hydrographic conditions gave an upper limit of 525 m for the P-T boundary defining methane hydrate formation or dissociation at this site, and thus our experiment took place well within the stability range for this reaction to occur. Hydrate formation in free seawater occurred within minutes as a buoyant mass of translucent hydrate formed at the gas-water interface. In a coarse sand matrix the filling of the pore spaces with hydrate turned the sand column into a solidified block, which gas pressure soon lifted and ruptured. In a fine-grained black mud the gas flow carved out flow channels, the walls of which became coated and then filled with hydrate in larger discrete masses. Our experiment shows that hydrate formation is rapid in natural seawater, that sediment type strongly influences the patterns of hydrate formation, and that the use of ROV technologies permits the synthesis of large amounts of hydrate material in natural systems under a variety of conditions so that fundamental research on the stability and growth of these substances is possible.
Cockrell, Charles E.; Taylor, James L.; Patterson, Alan; Stephens, Samuel E.; Tyson, Richard W.; Hueter, Uwe
The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration is designing and developing the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles for access to the International Space Station (ISS) and human exploration of the Moon. The Ares I consists of a first stage reusable five-segment solid rocket booster, a upper stage using a J-2X engine derived from heritage experience (Saturn and Space Shuttle External Tank programs), and the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The Ares V is designed to minimize the development and overall life-cycle costs by leveraging off of the Ares I design. The Ares V consists of two boosters, a core stage, an earth departure stage (EDS), and a shroud. The core stage and EDS use LH2/LO2 propellants, metallic propellant tanks, and composite dry structures. The core stage has six RS-68B upgraded Delta IV engines while the EDS uses a J-2X engine for second stage ascent and trans-lunar injection (TLI) burn. System and propulsion tests and qualification approaches for Ares V elements are being considered as follow-on extensions of the Ares I development program. Following Ares I IOC, testing will be conducted to verify the J-2X engine's orbital restart and TLI burn capability. The Ares I upper stage operation will be demonstrated through integrated stage development and acceptance testing. The EDS will undergo similar development and acceptance testing with additional testing to verify aspects of cryogenic propellant management, operation of sub-systems in a space simulation environment, and orbital re-start of the main propulsion system. RS-68B certification testing will be conducted along with integrated core stage development and acceptance testing. Structural testing of the Ares V EDS and core stage propellant tanks will be conducted similar to the Ares I upper stage. The structural qualification testing may be accomplished with separate propellant tank test articles. Structural development and qualification testing of the dry structure will be pursued as
In several earlier analyses of two tests of academic literacy – the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL) and its Afrikaans counterpart, the Toets vir Akademiese Geletterdheidsvlakke (TAG) – we have adopted an approach to the problem that tests may be abused (and therefore used to harm people) by discussing various ...
Full Text Available In this paper, stabilizing control of tracked unmanned ground vehicle in 3-D space was presented. Firstly, models of major modules of tracked UGV were established. Next, to reveal the mechanism of disturbances applied on the UGV, two kinds of representative disturbances (slope and general disturbances in yaw motion were discussed in depth. Consequently, an attempting PID method was employed to compensate the impacts of disturbances andsimulation results proved the validity for disturbance incited by slope force, but revealed the lack for general disturbance on yaw motion. Finally, a hierarchical fuzzy controller combined with PID controller was proposed. In lower level, there were two PID controllers to compensate the disturbance of slope force, and on top level, the fuzzy logic controller was employed to correct the yaw motion error based on the differences between the model and the real UGV, which was able to guide the UGV maintain on the stable state. Simulation results demonstrated the excellent effectiveness of the newly designed controller.
Full Text Available Current practice of analytical and test methods related to the analysis, testing and improvement of vehicle vibrations is overviewed. The methods are illustrated on the determination and improvement of powertrain induced steering wheel vibration of a heavy commercial truck. More specifically, the transmissibility of powertrain idle vibration to cabin is investigated with respect to powertrain rigid body modes and modal alignment of the steering column/wheel system is considered. It is found out that roll mode of the powertrain is not separated from idle excitation for effective vibration isolation as well as steering wheel column mode is close to the 3rd engine excitation frequency order, which results in high vibration levels. Powertrain roll mode is optimized by tuning the powertrain mount stiffness to improve the performance. Steering column mode is also separated from the 3rd engine excitation frequency by the application of a mass absorber. It is concluded that the use of analytical and test methods to address the complex relation between design parameters and powertrain idle response is effective to optimize the system performance and evaluate the trade-offs in the vehicle design such as vibration performance and weight. Reference Number: www.asrongo.org/doi:4.2017.2.1.10
Patterson, Byron W.; Glaab, Louis J.
Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, four different Rohacell foams are tested at three different, uniform, strain rates (approximately 0.17, approximately 100, approximately 13,600%/s). The primary data analysis method uses a global data smoothing technique in the frequency domain to remove noise and system natural frequencies. The results from the data indicate that the filter and smoothing technique are successful in identifying the foam crush event and removing aberrations. The effect of strain rate increases with increasing foam density. The 71-WF-HT foam may support Mars Sample Return requirements. Several recommendations to improve the drop tower test technique are identified.
Tesi per compendi de publicacions. La consulta íntegra de la tesi, inclosos els articles no comunicats públicament per drets d'autor, es pot realitzar prèvia petició a l'Arxiu UPC Tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia stabilized with 3 mol% of yttria (3Y-TZP) is a biocompatible ceramic showing superior mechanical properties, which are partly the consequence of phase transformation: the tetragonal metastable phase can transform, with a net volume increase, to the stable monoclinic phase by a ...
Bluman, James Edward
Insect wings are flexible. However, the influence of wing flexibility on the flight dynamics of insects and flapping wing micro air vehicles is unknown. Most studies in the literature consider rigid wings and conclude that the hover equilibrium is unstable. This dissertation shows that a flapping wing flyer with flexible wings exhibits stable natural modes of the open loop system in hover, never reported before. The free-flight insect flight dynamics is modeled for both flexible and rigid wings. Wing mass and inertia are included in the nonlinear equations of motion. The flapping wing aerodynamics are modeled using a quasi-steady model, a well-validated two dimensional Navier Stokes model, and a coupled, two dimensional Navier Stokes - Euler Bernoulli beam model that accurately models the fluid-structure interaction of flexible wings. Hover equilibrium is systematically and efficiently determined with a coupled quasi-steady and Navier-Stokes equation trimmer. The power and stability are reported at hover while parametrically varying the pitch axis location for rigid wings and the structural stiffness for flexible wings. The results indicate that the rigid wings possess an unstable oscillatory mode mainly due to their pitch sensitivity to horizontal velocity perturbations. The flexible wings stabilize this mode primarily by adjusting their wing shape in the presence of perturbations. The wing's response to perturbations generates significantly more horizontal velocity damping and pitch rate damping than in rigid wings. Furthermore, the flexible wings experience substantially less wing wake interaction, which, for rigid wings, is destabilizing. The power required to hover a fruit fly with actively rotating rigid wings varies between 16.9 and 34.2 W/kg. The optimal power occurs when the pitch axis is located at 30% chord, similar to some biological observations. Flexible wings require 23.1 to 38.5 W/kg. However, flexible wings exhibit more stable system dynamics and
The neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV) niche is the object of this market and product test project. The project availed itself of a limited production three wheel, single passenger low performance NEV designed and produced in Denmark to determine the acceptability of the design for production and use in North America. This vehicle, as well as a prototype four wheel vehicle designed and constructed through this project, are entirely reinforced plastic chassis and body. Pacific Electric Vehicles was the primary participant in the Project. Included are the evaluation of drive system components, battery charging schemes, body and chassis and glazing material suitability. The project determined and/or verified many of the realities of motor vehicle development and usage in the U.S., which remain more restrictive than elsewhere. Statistical usage data, maintenance requirements, and user experiences are reported and analyzed.
Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron
Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.
..., Gregory Rymarz, Bus Testing Program Manager, Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), (202... weight assumption was based on the number established by FTA's sister DOT mode, the National Highway... range of average passenger weights used by other transportation modes with regulatory authority such as...
Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.
... test: (a) The vessel must be as complete as practicable at the time of the test. (b) Each tank vessel...) The water depth at the mooring site must provide ample clearance against grounding. (e) Each mooring... that result in acceptable accuracy in calculating the center of gravity and displacement of the unit...
Qualitative test determines the ability of insulation liners used on liquid hydrogen tanks to withstand stresses produced by the thermal shocks imparted to the insulation during tank filling and drainage. Test specimens are bonded to metal plates with a low thermal expansion coefficient and are immersed in liquid hydrogen.
Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.
This report documents results from a variety of activities requested by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The activities related to caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, permeate precipitation behavior of waste as well as chromium (Cr) leaching are: • Model Input Boehmite Leaching Tests • Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Support Leaching Tests • PEP Parallel Leaching Tests • Precipitation Study Results • Cr Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Tests. Leaching test activities using the PEP simulant provided input to a boehmite dissolution model and determined the effect of temperature on mass loss during caustic leaching, the reaction rate constant for the boehmite dissolution, and the effect of aeration in enhancing the chromium dissolution during caustic leaching. Other tests were performed in parallel with the PEP tests to support the development of scaling factors for caustic and oxidative leaching. Another study determined if precipitate formed in the wash solution after the caustic leach in the PEP. Finally, the leaching characteristics of different chromium compounds under different conditions were examined to determine the best one to use in further testing.
Hayashi, Masahito; Morimae, Tomoyuki
We introduce a simple protocol for verifiable measurement-only blind quantum computing. Alice, a client, can perform only single-qubit measurements, whereas Bob, a server, can generate and store entangled many-qubit states. Bob generates copies of a graph state, which is a universal resource state for measurement-based quantum computing, and sends Alice each qubit of them one by one. Alice adaptively measures each qubit according to her program. If Bob is honest, he generates the correct graph state, and, therefore, Alice can obtain the correct computation result. Regarding the security, whatever Bob does, Bob cannot get any information about Alice's computation because of the no-signaling principle. Furthermore, malicious Bob does not necessarily send the copies of the correct graph state, but Alice can check the correctness of Bob's state by directly verifying the stabilizers of some copies.
Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.
Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.
Glaab, Louis J.; Agrawal, Paul; Hawbaker, James
Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, two different Rohacell foams were tested to determine their thermal conductivity in support of MMEEV design applications. These applications include thermal insulation during atmospheric entry, impact attenuation, and post-impact thermal insulation in support of thermal soak analysis. Results indicate that for these closed-cell foams, the effect of impact is limited on thermal conductivity due to the venting of the virgin material gas and subsequent ambient air replacement. Results also indicate that the effect of foam temperature is significant compared to data suggested by manufacturer's specifications.
tests. 0.8406m (F17) 0.8554m (F19) 06m Figure 2: Planform and geometric parameters of the generic UCAV configuration (Models F-17 and F-19...aerodynamics of SACCON, a generic UCAV . While our overall goal is to determine the state-of-the-art for computational capabilities in predicting...Cummings, R.M. and Schutte, A. "An Integrated Computational/Experimental Approach to UCAV Stability & Control Estimation: Overview ofNA TO RTO A VT -161
natural terrain by the addition of course material (known locally as tosca) to improve traction, and by the addition of several logs buried in...sections of the course that must be traversed; the logs are buried approximately to the midpoint of their diameters, range from approximately half a foot...of Establishment of Quality Control Charts for Test Course Inspection Roughness, TECOM Project No. 9-CO-011-000-055, John P. Sobczyk, July 1972. c
POSTALCIOGLU OZGEN, S.
Full Text Available This paper includes a Heading Control (HC system for a multi-body vehicle. HC system helps reducing the required torque from the driver and improves the lane keeping efficiency. HC system is important for safety and driver comfort in traffic. The controller performance is examined on a virtual test drive platform. The optimal control theory is applied to HC system and examined on a curved path and under a side wind disturbance. Different assistance levels are applied to see the characteristics of the controller with different virtual test drivers. The results are analyzed based on three performance indices; lane keeping performance (LKP index, assist torque performance (ATP index and driver torque performance (DTP index. As seen from the results while using HC system the lateral displacement decreases as the lane keeping performance increases and the driver torque performance decreases as the assist torque performance increases.
Pauckert, R. P.
The performance and heat transfer characteristics of a doublet element type injector for the space shuttle orbiter maneuvering engine thrust chamber were investigated. Ths stability characteristics were evaluated over a range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. The specific objectives of the test were: (1) to determine whether stability has been influenced by injection of boundary layer coolant across the cavity entrance, (2) if the injector is stable, to determine the minimum cavity area required to maintain stability, and (3) if the injector is unstable, to determine the effects of entrance geometry and increased area on stability.
Naruse, Masahiro; Uemura, Keisuke; Morishita, Masahiro
A research of 'remote controlled engineering vehicle system for CBRN threat' was triggered by the nuclear accident that successively happened after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This project focuses on the remote controlled engineering system that can be used for multi purposes such as debris/obstacle clearing operation or various reconnaissance operation, under CBRN threat. For the remote-controlled engineering vehicle, we conducted a series of validation tests for countermeasure performance for CBRN-environment. As a result, it is proved that the vehicle possess required performances for CBRN threat. (author)
Forero Camacho Oscar Mauricio
Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid.
Youssef A. Ghoneim
Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.
Goldstein, Brittany N; Wesler, Jordan; Nowacki, Amy S; Reineks, Edmunds; Natowicz, Marvin R
An assessment of blood ammonia concentration is common medical practice in the evaluation of an individual with an unexplained mental status change or coma. The determination of a blood ammonia level is most commonly done using a glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)-based assay, although there are many potential sources of artifact and the literature is inconsistent regarding key preanalytic issues. Using a GLDH-based assay, we first investigated matrix effects using three anticoagulants: heparin, EDTA and oxalate. Heparin-anticoagulated plasma was substantially less precise than EDTA- and oxalate-anticoagulated plasma. Oxalate-anticoagulated plasma showed a greater baseline of apparent ammonia than either heparin- or EDTA-derived plasma, presumably due to interferants. We then evaluated the stability of EDTA-anticoagulated plasma for assessment of ammonia when stored at 4°C,-14°C or -70°C. There was a linear increase of ammonia with storage at both 4°C and -14°C. Plasma kept at -70°C for up to three weeks showed no change in measured ammonia relative to the baseline determination. This work clarifies preanalytic conditions for which a precise determination of ammonia can be accomplished using a GLDH-based assay. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Visions of self-driving vehicles abound in popular science and entertainment. Many programs are at work to make a reality catch of this imagination. Vehicle automation has progressed rapidly in recent years, from simple driver assistance technologies...
FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.
In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (F-T/W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moisture ...
soe or " esa PWXZ S 16CURITV CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAGR(Ihusa t Eftmem percent) respectively.) Modulus were 5.0,0.18, 0.14 and 0.08 (xl05 p.s.i...lengths were measured with a steel ruler (to 0.01 inch). **Conditioning Specimens tested at temperatures above and below roo. temperature were conditioned
M. A. Коrotkevich
Full Text Available The paper considers conditions for selection of power supply of the unit which is used for testing samples of cable products by thermal and dynamic stability currents. It has been shown that while conducting testing by thermal and dynamic stability currents at nominal cable voltage it is more justifiable to use a percussive energy accumulator, and in the case when the voltage is low an inductive energy accumulator is used.
Croop, Harold C.; Leger, Kenneth B.; Lowndes, Holland B.; Hahn, Steven E.; Barthel, Chris A.
An advanced carbon-carbon structural component is being experimentally evaluated for use as primary load carrying structure for future single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles. The component is a wing torque box section featuring an advanced, three-spar design. This design features 3D-woven, angle-interlock skins, 3D integrally woven spar webs and caps, oxidation inhibited matrix, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) oxidation protection coating, and ceramic matrix composite fasteners. The box spar caps are nested into the skins which, when processed together through the carbon-carbon processing cycle, resulted in monolithic box halves. The box half sections were then joined at the spar web intersections using ceramic matrix composite fasteners. This method of fabrication eliminated fasteners through both the upper and lower skins. Development of the carbon-carbon wing box structure was accomplished in a four phase design and fabrication effort, conducted by Boeing, Information, Space and Defense Systems, Seattle, WA, under contract to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The box is now set up for testing and will soon begin cyclic loads testing in the AFRL Structural Test Facility at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), OH. This paper discusses the latest test setup accomplishments and the results of the pre-cyclic loads testing performed to date.
Malozo, Mponda; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Heckrath, Goswin Johann
Minimizing soil erosion is essential for maintaining proper soil quality and thus preserving soil productivity. The erodibility of a soil is closely linked to its structural stability as well as its infiltrability. This study focuses on testing the effect of two different soil amendments on soil...... aggregate stability and erodibility. Two commercial products, gypsum and a microbial-based solution were used for the experiment and were tested on two Danish sandy loamy soils as well on a sandy soil from Tanzania. The carrier of the microbial-based product, a glycerol solution, was tested as well....... In the laboratory, soils were treated with the soil amendments in a two-step procedure at controlled water contents following aerobic incubation in closed containers. Water-aggregate stability and clay dispersion were measured on soil aggregates less than 8 mm in diameter. Aggregate stability was measured...
Full Text Available This paper provides an optimized method for measuring dummy’s knee displacement in vehicle sled crash test. The proposed method utilizes completely new elements for measurement, which are acceleration and angular velocity of dummy’s pelvis, as well as the rotational angle of its femur. Compared with the traditional measurement only using camera-based high-speed motion image analysis, the optimized one can not only maintain the measuring accuracy, but also avoid the disturbance caused by dummy movement, dashboard blocking and knee deformation during the crash. An experiment is made to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, which eliminates the strong dependence on single target tracing in traditional method. Moreover, it is very appropriate for calculating the penetration depth to the dashboard.
Full Text Available A laboratory system for remote monitoring and control of an asynchronous motor controlled by a soft starter and contemporary measuring and control devices has been developed and built. This laboratory system is used for research and in teaching. A study of the principles of operation, setting up and examination of intelligent energy meters, soft starters and PLC has been made as knowledge of the relevant software products is necessary. This is of great importance because systems for remote monitoring and control of energy consumption, efficiency and proper operation of the controlled objects are very often used in different spheres of industry, in building automation, transport, electricity distribution network, etc. Their implementation in electric vehicles for remote monitoring and control on auxiliary machines is also possible and very useful. In this paper, a methodology of tests is developed and some experiments are presented. Thus, an experimental verification of the developed methodology is made.
Kamaruzaman, N. F.; Abdullah, E. J.
Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator offers great solution for aerospace applications with low weight being its most attractive feature. A SMA actuation mechanism for the flapping micro unmanned aerial vehicle (MAV) is proposed in this study, where SMA material is the primary system that provides the flapping motion to the wings. Based on several established design criteria, a design prototype has been fabricated to validate the design. As a proof of concept, an experiment is performed using an electrical circuit to power the SMA actuator to evaluate the flapping angle. During testing, several problems have been observed and their solutions for future development are proposed. Based on the experiment, the average recorded flapping wing angle is 14.33° for upward deflection and 12.12° for downward deflection. This meets the required design criteria and objective set forth for this design. The results prove the feasibility of employing SMA actuators in flapping wing MAV.
Tests were performed on a prototyple Vokswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vheicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the urban Federal test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), C...
This thesis is about the validation of a computational fluid dynamics simulation of a ground vehicle by means of a low-budget coast-down test. The vehicle is built to the standards of the 2014 Formula SAE rules. It is equipped with large wings in the front and rear of the car; the vertical loads on the tires are measured by specifically calibrated shock potentiometers. The coast-down test was performed on a runway of a local airport and is used to determine vehicle specific coefficients such as drag, downforce, aerodynamic balance, and rolling resistance for different aerodynamic setups. The test results are then compared to the respective simulated results. The drag deviates about 5% from the simulated to the measured results. The downforce numbers show a deviation up to 18% respectively. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of inlet velocities, ride heights, and pitch angles was performed with the help of the computational simulation.
Emonts, B.; Bøgild Hansen, J.; Lœgsgaard Jørgensen, S.; Höhlein, B.; Peters, R.
On-board production of hydrogen from methanol based on a steam reformer in connection with the use of low-temperature fuel-cells (PEMFC) is an attractive option as energy conversion unit for light-duty vehicles. A steam reforming process at higher pressures with an external burner offers advantages in comparison to a steam reformer with integrated partial oxidation in terms of total efficiency for electricity production. The main aim of a common project carried out by the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ), Haldor Topsøe A/S (HTAS) and Siemens AG is to design, to construct and to test a steam reformer reactor concept (HTAS) with external catalytic burner (FZJ) as heat source as well as catalysts for heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen production (HTAS), concepts for gas treatment (HTAS, FZJ) and a low-temperature fuel cell (Siemens). Based on the experimental results obtained so far concerning methanol reformers, catalytic burners and gas conditioning units, our report describes the total system, a test unit and preliminary test results related to a hydrogen production capacity of 50 kW (LHV) and dynamic operating conditions. This hydrogen production system is aimed at reducing the specific weight (gas cleaning unit fulfill the requirements with high hydrogen permeability and low cost of the noble metal.
Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A and B, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in
Full Text Available The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type
The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.
The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.
Porras Navarro, Martha
This research evaluated the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, precipitated sulphur and titanium dioxide. By using emulsified vehicles of three solid greases: stearilic alcohol, stearic acid and beeswax. That varies the concentration of solid grease (2%, 4%, 6 %) and the velocity of agitation for the emulsified vehicle's preparation (250, 500, 750 revolutions by minutes). That got 81 suspensions, 27 for every grease employed. The following effects there were evaluated like indicators of the physical stability of the suspensions: volume of sediment, apparent viscosity, facility of resuspension. There was effected an analysis of the varying of two controlled factors to establish the importance since the statistical viewpoint of the variants of the process over the volume of the sediment. This study indicates that the selection of solid grease is an parameter which influence is significant, what supports the got data through the research. By giving as a result that the stearilic alcohol is the most competent vehicle for the preparation of these suspensions. (Author) [es
Solé, Aran; Neumann, Hannah; Niedermaier, Sophia; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Palomo, Elena
Sugar alcohols are potential phase change materials candidates as they present high phase change enthalpy values, are non-toxic and low cost products. Three promising sugar-alcohols were selected: D-mannitol, myo-inositol and dulcitol under high melting enthalpy and temperature criterion. Thermal cycling tests were performed to study its cycling stability which can be determining when selecting the suitable phase change material. D-mannitol and dulcitol present poor thermal stability...
Murphy, Gloria A.
This handbook describes a two-semester senior design course sponsored by the NASA Office of Education, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and the NASA Space Grant Consortium. The course was developed and implemented by the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department (MAE) at Utah State University. The course final outcome is a packaged senior design course that can be readily incorporated into the instructional curriculum at universities across the country. The course materials adhere to the standards of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and is constructed to be relevant to key research areas identified by ESMD. The design project challenged students to apply systems engineering concepts to define research and training requirements for a terrestrial-based lunar landing simulator. This project developed a flying prototype for a Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSRV). Per NASA specifications the concept accounts for reduced lunar gravity, and allows the terminal stage of lunar descent to be flown either by remote pilot or autonomously. This free-flying platform was designed to be sufficiently-flexible to allow both sensor evaluation and pilot training. This handbook outlines the course materials, describes the systems engineering processes developed to facilitate design fabrication, integration, and testing. This handbook presents sufficient details of the final design configuration to allow an independent group to reproduce the design. The design evolution and details regarding the verification testing used to characterize the system are presented in a separate project final design report. Details of the experimental apparatus used for system characterization may be found in Appendix F, G, and I of that report. A brief summary of the ground testing and systems verification is also included in Appendix A of this report. Details of the flight tests will be documented in a separate flight test
Mohammad Bagher Shamsi
Conclusion Though it is claimed that MCE increases spinal stability, the lack of significant difference in the results of variables between the two groups may be due to our MCE not being specific for increasing spinal stability or equal effects of both interventions on increasing spinal stability and no preference of MCE. It may also be due to poor sensitivity of our outcome measures in detecting changes in spinal stability, especially with respect to the sample size. Based on these results, it could be concluded that MCE is not more effective than GE in improving endurance core stability tests and reducing disability and pain in chronic non-specific LBP patients.
Shamsi, Mohammad Bagher; Rezaei, Mandana; Zamanlou, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza
The aim was to compare core stability and general exercises (GEs) in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients based on lumbopelvic stability (LPS) assessment through three endurance core stability tests. There is a controversy about preference of core stability exercise (CSE) over other types of exercise for chronic LBP. Studies which have compared these exercises used other outcomes than those related to LPS. As it is claimed that CSE enhances back stability, endurance tests for LPS were used. A 16-session CSE program and a GE program with the same duration were conducted for two groups of participants. Frequency of interventions for both groups was three times a week. Forty-three people (aged 18-60 years) with chronic non-specific LBP were alternately allocated to core stability (n = 22) or GE group (n = 21) when admitted. The primary outcomes were three endurance core stability tests including: (1) trunk flexor; (2) trunk extensor; and (3) side bridge tests. Secondary outcomes were disability and pain. Measurements were taken at baseline and the end of the intervention. After the intervention, test times increased and disability and pain decreased within groups. There was no signiﬁcant difference between two groups in increasing test times (p = 0.23 to p = 0.36) or decreasing disability (p = 0.16) and pain (p = 0.73). CSE is not more effective than GE for improving endurance core stability tests and reducing disability and pain in chronic non-specific LBP patients.
Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R
To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.
Peterson, R. L.; Warmbrodt, W.
A hover test of a full-scale, hingeless rotor system was conducted in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The rotor was tested on the Ames rotor test apparatus. Rotor aeroelastic stability, performance, and loads at various rotational speeds and thrust coefficients were investigated. The primary objective was to determine the inplane stability characteristics of the rotor system. Rotor inplane damping data were obtained for operation between 350 and 425 rpm (design speed), and for thurst coefficients between 0.0 and 0.12. The rotor was stable for all conditions tested. At constant rotor rotational speed, a minimum inplane dampling level was obtained at a thrust coefficient approximately = 0.02. At constant rotor lift, a minimum in rotor inplane damping was measured at 400 rpm.
Keller, M.; Frick, R.; Hammer, S.
How should lightweight electric-powered vehicles be promoted, after the large-scale fleet test being conducted at Mendrisio (southern Switzerland) is completed in 2001, and are there reasons to put question marks behind the current approach? The demand for electric vehicles, and particularly the one in the automobile category, has remained at a persistently low level. As it proved, any appreciable improvement of this situation is almost impossible, even with substantial financial incentives. However, the unsatisfactory sales figures have little to do with the nature of the fleet test itself or with the specific conditions at Mendrisio. The problem is rather of structural nature. For (battery-operated) electric cars the main problem at present is the lack of an expanding market which could become self-supporting with only a few additional incentives. Various strategies have been evaluated. Two alternatives were considered in particular: a strategy to promote explicitly electric vehicles ('EL-strategy'), and a strategy to promote efficient road vehicles in general which would have to meet specific energy and environmental-efficiency criteria ('EF-strategy'). The EL-strategies make the following dilemma clear. If the aim is to raise the share of these vehicles up to 5% of all cars on the road (or even 8%) in a mid-term prospect, then substantial interventions in the relevant vehicle markets would be required, either with penalties for conventional cars, or a large-scale funding scheme, or interventions at the supply level. The study suggests a differentiated strategy with two components: (i) 'institutionalised' promotion with the aim of a substantial increase of the share of 'efficient' vehicles (independently of the propulsion technology), and (ii) the continuation of pilot and demonstration projects for the promotion of different types of innovative technologies. (author) [de
Yamawaki, Atsushi; Doi, Yoichi; Omine, Kiyoshi
This study discusses strength characteristics (slope stability, bearing capacity, etc.) of waste landfills through on-site tests that were carried out at 29 locations in 19 sites in Japan and three other countries, and proposes simple methods to test and assess the mechanical strength of landfills on site. Also, the possibility of using a landfill site was investigated by a full-scale eccentric loading test. As a result of this, landfills containing more than about 10 cm long plastics or other fibrous materials were found to be resilient and hard to yield. An on-site full scale test proved that no differential settlement occurs. The repose angle test proposed as a simple on-site test method has been confirmed to be a good indicator for slope stability assessment. The repose angle test suggested that landfills which have high, near-saturation water content have considerably poorer slope stability. The results of our repose angle test and the impact acceleration test were related to the internal friction angle and the cohesion, respectively. In addition to this, it was found that the air pore volume ratio measured by an on-site air pore volume ratio test is likely to be related to various strength parameters.
Gao, H. B.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, D. Y.; Liu, Y. C.
Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control method of autonomous is a key technique which has drawn the attention of industry and academe. In this paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. An experiments is applied to test the implementation of the longitudinal control algorithm. Empirical results show that if the longitudinal control algorithm based Gauss cloud model are applied to calculate the acceleration, and the vehicles drive at different speeds, a stable longitudinal control effect is achieved.
Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth
We report the results of a survey of the potential demand for electric vehicles (EVs) among a subset of California households. We limit our analysis to one group of potential hybrid households. These households own two or more light duty vehicles and buy new vehicles of the body styles we expect will be offered as electric vehicles. These characteristics identify households who may be able to incorporate at least one limited range vehicle into thei...
... certification for workers of the subject firm. The workers are engaged in vehicle testing and other activities related to the production of automobiles. New information shows that workers leased from Caravan Knight... under the control of the subject firm to be considered leased workers. Based on these findings, the...
This document presents the Concept of Operations (ConOps) Plan for the Automated and Connected Vehicle (AV/CV) Test Bed to Improve Transit, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Safety. As illustrated in Figure 1, the plan presents the overarching vision and goals...
... full rearward, middle, and full forward positions. If the child restraint or dummy contacts the vehicle.... S20.1.1 Tests specifying the use of a car bed, a rear facing child restraint, or a convertible child.... 208 respectively. The car bed, rear facing child restraint, or convertible child restraint may be...
Full Text Available This article deals with a set of stands made in NIMK TSAGI for testing and creating the air cushion chassis for the aircraft and vehicles. It allows to fully embrace the process of developing and constructing the air cushion chassis for air- craft and solve problems relating to peculiarities of such aircraft on the takeoff, landing and movement in the elementary prepared and unprepared soil runways, flat terrain and water areas. The complex includes: the experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis in the extending and retracting process with simulation of aircraft and ekran- oplane takeoff and landing modes in the air flow, including the wind tunnels; the experimental stand with vertical screen for testing of ekranoplane models in T-5 wind tunnel of NIMC TsAGI, permitting to simultaneously vary the model’s posi- tion relatively to the screen, roll, pitch (angle of attack, and banking; mobile experimental stand with contact crawler gear, for experimental determination and comparative evaluation of the chassis with different patterns of formation and air cush- ion fences for all-year-round testing in natural conditions at elementary-prepared and unprepared sites and water areas. Based on mathematical simulation of flow past in the wind tunnel the possibility of use booth stand with vertical screen and experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis for experimental studies, respectively, by defini- tion of the aerodynamic characteristics of forces and moments of the air cushion aircraft and ekranoplanes models and the research of phenomena of aeroelasticity of flexible fencing is substantiated.
Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer
storage conditions. Methods. Petrolatum samples of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (2-HPA), cinnamal and eugenol in patch test concentrations were stored in three different test chambers (IQ chamber™, IQ Ultimate™, and Van der Bend® transport...... during storage in the refrigerator. For these two chamber systems, the contact allergen concentration dropped below the stability limit in the following order: MMA, cinnamal, 2-HPA, eugenol, and 2-HEMA. In the Van der Bend® transport container, the contact allergens exhibited acceptable stability under...
Kwon, N. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, K. L.; Yim, S. W.; Kim, H.-R.; Hyun, O.-B.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, H. G.
The increased use of distributed power generation has led to increasingly high fault current levels. A superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is a potential solution to prevent the problem of short-circuit currents. YBCO-coated conductors (CCs) are one of the most promising superconducting materials for SFCLs. Most YBCO CCs have stabilizers, which play a significant role in limiting the fault current in the SFCL. Therefore, the selection of the appropriate material and the thickness of the stabilizer of the CC used for the SFCL may affect its quench/recovery characteristics. In this paper, the quench/recovery characteristics of YBCO CC tapes having stabilizers with various thicknesses were investigated. The quench/recovery test results showed that, as the thickness of the stabilizer decreased, both the final approach temperature and the recovery time decreased.
Davis, Stephan R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Tuma, Meg
In accordance with the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration and the nation's desire to again send humans to explore beyond Earth orbit, NASA has been tasked to send human beings to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. NASA is now building the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle into orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which will launch the Lunar Surface Access Module and Earth departure stage to rendezvous Orion for missions to the moon. NASA has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors to perform the technically and programmatically complex work of delivering astronauts to orbit early next decade, followed by heavy cargo late next decade. Our experiences with Saturn and the Shuttle have taught us the value of adhering to sound systems engineering, such as the "test as you fly" principle, while applying aerospace best practices and lessons learned. If we are to fly humans safely aboard a launch vehicle, we must employ a variety of methodologies to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks inherent in the complex business of space transportation. During the Saturn development effort, NASA conducted multiple demonstration and verification flight tests to prove technology in its operating environment before relying upon it for human spaceflight. Less testing on the integrated Shuttle system did not reduce cost or schedule. NASA plans a progressive series of demonstration (ascent), verification (orbital), and mission flight tests to supplement ground research and high-altitude subsystem testing with real-world data, factoring the results of each test into the next one. In this way, sophisticated analytical models and tools, many of which were not available during Saturn and Shuttle, will be calibrated and we will gain confidence in their predictions, as we gain hands-on experience in operating the first
Knoll, M.; Manthey, A.
Aim of the project was to study which contribution electrical powered vehicles of the moped-class can make to reduce noise and air pollution. In the pilot towns Bad Reichenhall and Bad Duerrheim the vehicles were integrated into traffic plans by giving the users advantages. The testing procedure included the suitability for everyday use, the acceptance by users and an environmently balance concerning energy consumption and air pollution in comparison with the mopeds with combustion engines. Efforts of building a solar infrastructure were started. (orig./HW) [de
Kosinov, A.V.; Maslov, N.I.; Naumov, S.V.; Ovchinnik, V.D.; Starodubtsev, A.F.; Vasiliev, G.P.; Yalovenko, V.I.; Bosisio, L.
An automatic multi-channel set-up prototype for simultaneous testing of the Long-Term Stability (LTS) of more than ten detectors is described. The Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment will include about two thousand Double-sided Microstrip Detectors (DSMD). Efficient automatic measurement techniques are crucial for the LTS test, because the corresponding test procedure should be performed on each detector and requires long time, at least two days. By using special adapters for supporting and connecting the bare DSMDs, failing detectors can be screened out before module assembly, thus minimizing the cost. Automated probe stations developed for a special purpose or for microelectronics industry are used for measuring physical static DSMD characteristics and check good-to-bad elements ratio for DSMD. However, automated (or semi-automatic)test benches for studying LTS or testing DSMD long-term stability before developing a detecting module are absent
The paper describes the specific temperature stability and control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Aquarius Instrument at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The testing was conducted in the 10' wide x 15' deep Facility 225 Thermal Vacuum chamber. The temperature control stability requirements were less than .14 C RMS thermal variation over a seven-day period. The thermal test specification also called for the ability to impose a high-resolution sinusoidal variation for all heater zones. The special requirements of the Aquarius radiometer test necessitated the construction of a multi-function test fixture and the modification of two existing heater controller racks.
Nie, Qihong; Joshi, Yogendra
Packaging of power semiconductor devices presents some of the greatest thermal design challenges due to the resulting high heat fluxes. Advanced cooling techniques are desired to help meet these demands for current and future devices. A hybrid double-sided approach combining micro-channel liquid cooling, thermoelectric cooling, and forced air convection is investigated via a test vehicle for the thermal management of electronic cabinets. A reduction of 74% in the chip junction temperature rise was achieved by using double-sided cooling, compared to single-sided air convection. Further reduction can be achieved by utilizing thermoelectric cooling (TEC). Additional reductions of 22.4% and 6.5% were achieved by utilizing TEC in single-sided air cooling and double-sided cooling, respectively. The effect of water flow rates through the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the microchannel heat sink on the chip junction temperature rise was insignificant, compared to the effect of TEC, and cooling configuration.
individual’s personality traits than the circumplex , psychosocial, or psychosexual models of psycl.opathology. A growing body of evidence supports a...MRLS8SFE B 7 199443 AN EVALUATION OF 1’ERSONALITYC TESTING AND THE FIVE-FACIOR MODEL IN THE SELECON OF LANDING CRAFT AIR CUSHION VEHICLE CREW MEMBERS D...personality testing and a five-factor model could improve the selection of Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) vehicle crew members. Vehicle crew members for
Trawny, Nikolas; Huertas, Andres; Luna, Michael E.; Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Martin, Keith E.; Carson, John M.; Johnson, Andrew E.; Restrepo, Carolina; Roback, Vincent E.
The Hazard Detection System (HDS) is a component of the ALHAT (Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology) sensor suite, which together provide a lander Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system with the relevant measurements necessary to enable safe precision landing under any lighting conditions. The HDS consists of a stand-alone compute element (CE), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and a gimbaled flash LIDAR sensor that are used, in real-time, to generate a Digital Elevation Map (DEM) of the landing terrain, detect candidate safe landing sites for the vehicle through Hazard Detection (HD), and generate hazard-relative navigation (HRN) measurements used for safe precision landing. Following an extensive ground and helicopter test campaign, ALHAT was integrated onto the Morpheus rocket-powered terrestrial test vehicle in March 2014. Morpheus and ALHAT then performed five successful free flights at the simulated lunar hazard field constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center, for the first time testing the full system on a lunar-like approach geometry in a relevant dynamic environment. During these flights, the HDS successfully generated DEMs, correctly identified safe landing sites and provided HRN measurements to the vehicle, marking the first autonomous landing of a NASA rocket-powered vehicle in hazardous terrain. This paper provides a brief overview of the HDS architecture and describes its in-flight performance.
Dusek, J; Triantafyllou, M S; Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J; Woo, M E; Lang, J H
The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics. (paper)
Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p crash severity (ΔV), but not at low ΔV (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.8-1.2; p = 0.55). In our model, older age and absence of seat belt use were associated with greater likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at low and medium ΔV (p crashes, a higher NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.
Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Morgan, Jason P.; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Rüpke, Lars
The surface of the solid Earth is effectively stress free in its subaerial portions, and hydrostatic beneath the oceans. Unfortunately, this type of boundary condition is difficult to treat computationally, and for computational convenience, numerical models have often used simpler approximations that do not involve a normal stress-loaded, shear-stress free top surface that is free to move. Viscous flow models with a computational free surface typically confront stability problems when the time step is bigger than the viscous relaxation time. The small time step required for stability (develop strategies that mitigate the stability problem by making larger (at least ∼10 Kyr) time steps stable and accurate. Here we present a new free-surface stabilization algorithm for finite element codes which solves the stability problem by adding to the Stokes formulation an intrinsic penalization term equivalent to a portion of the future load at the surface nodes. Our algorithm is straightforward to implement and can be used with both Eulerian or Lagrangian grids. It includes α and β parameters to respectively control both the vertical and the horizontal slope-dependent penalization terms, and uses Uzawa-like iterations to solve the resulting system at a cost comparable to a non-stress free surface formulation. Four tests were carried out in order to study the accuracy and the stability of the algorithm: (1) a decaying first-order sinusoidal topography test, (2) a decaying high-order sinusoidal topography test, (3) a Rayleigh-Taylor instability test, and (4) a steep-slope test. For these tests, we investigate which α and β parameters give the best results in terms of both accuracy and stability. We also compare the accuracy and the stability of our algorithm with a similar implicit approach recently developed by Kaus et al. (2010). We find that our algorithm is slightly more accurate and stable for steep slopes, and also conclude that, for longer time steps, the optimal
Compain, Eric; Maquet, Philippe; Kunc, Thierry; Marque, Julien; Lauer-Solelhac, Maxime; Delage, Laurent; Lanternier, Catherine
Most of space instruments and research facilities require test equipment with demanding opto-mechanical stability. In some specific cases, when the stability performance directly drives the final performance of the scientific mission and when feasibility is questionable, specific methods must be implemented for the associated technical risk management. In present paper, we will present our heritage in terms of methodology, design, test and the associated results for two specific systems : the SOPAC-POS and the MOTA, generating new references for future developments. From a performance point of view, we will emphasis on following key parameters : design symmetry, thermal load management, and material and structural choices. From a method point of view the difficulties arise first during design, from the strong coupling between the thermal, mechanical and optical performance models, and then during testing, from the difficulty of conceiving test setup having appropriate performance level. We will present how these limitations have been overcome. SOPAC-POS is the target alignment system of the LMJ, Laser Mega Joule, the French inertial confinement fusion research center. Its stability has been demonstrated by tests in 2014 after 10 years of research and development activities, achieving 1μm stability @ 6m during one hour periods. MOTA is an Optical Ground Support Equipment aiming at qualifying by tests the Flexible Combined Imager (FCI). FCI is an instrument for the meteorological satellite MTG-I, a program of and funded by the European Space Agency and under prime contractorship of Thales Alenia Space. Optimized design will allow to get better than 0.2 μrad stability for one hour periods, as required for MTF measurement.
Samin; Susanna TS
The methods study of homogeneity and stability test from cerium oxide CRM candidate has been studied based on ISO 13258 and KAN DP. 01. 34. The purpose of this study was to select the test method homogeneity and stability tough on making CRM cerium oxide. Prepared 10 sub samples of cerium oxide randomly selected types of analytes which represent two compounds, namely CeO 2 and La 2 O 3 . At 10 sub sample is analyzed CeO 2 and La 2 O 3 contents in duplicate with the same analytical methods, by the same analyst, and in the same laboratory. Data analysis results calculated statistically based on ISO 13528 and KAN DP.01.34. According to ISO 13528 Cerium Oxide samples said to be homogeneous if Ss ≤ 0.3 σ and is stable if | Xr – Yr | ≤ 0.3 σ. In this study, the data of homogeneity test obtained CeO 2 is Ss = 2.073 x 10-4 smaller than 0.3 σ (0.5476) and the stability test obtained | Xr - Yr | = 0.225 and the price is < 0.3 σ. Whereas for La 2 O 3 , the price for homogeneity test obtained Ss = 1.649 x 10-4 smaller than 0.3 σ (0.4865) and test the stability of the price obtained | Xr - Yr | = 0.2185 where the price is < 0.3 σ. Compared with the method from KAN, a sample of cerium oxide has also been homogenized for Fcalc < Ftable and stable, because | Xi - Xhm | < 0.3 x n IQR. Provided that the results of the evaluation homogeneity and stability test from CeO 2 CRM candidate test data were processed using statistical methods ISO 13528 is not significantly different with statistical methods from KAN DP.01.34, which together meet the requirements of a homogeneous and stable. So the test method homogeneity and stability test based on ISO 13528 can be used to make CRM cerium oxide. (author)
... acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana(trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented suspension and track design, could deploy to hot spots world-wide on peacekeeping and combat missions which require extra flexibility to adapt...
The primary objective of Phase II was to develop a prototype connected vehicle wrong-way driving detection and management system at the Texas A&M University Respect, Excellence, Leadership, Loyalty, Integrity, Selfless Service (RELLIS) campus. The pu...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions, LLC aims to use of a liquid-bipropellant (LOX / RP-1), electric-pump fed, 2-stage launch vehicle for low-cost and on-demand ground launch of small payloads...
... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... vehicle has been used for severe duty (trailer towing for passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The...
Zecchino, Antonio; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia
ancillary services for supporting the power grid. This paper presents modeling and analysis of the benefits of primary frequency regulation by electric vehicles in a microgrid. An innovative control logic algorithm is introduced, with the purpose of curtailing the number of current set-point variations...
The purpose of this study of Teacher Competency Test (UKG) is to know about (a) the description of the vocational school teachers' competency test result majoring light vehicle subject in eastern Jakarta, (b) the effect between those certified teachers, non-certified teachers, civil servant teachers and non-civil servant teachers to Teacher Competency Test (UKG) result. The UKG result indicates that (1) certified teachers hold the highest score, however non-certified teachers obtain at the average of 55, in terms of UKG technicality preparation; (2) there are 43 teachers (48.9%) mention that the room facility for conducting UKG is good, while 45 teachers (51.1%) mention the opposite opinion. This shows that the average UKG room is relatively good enough. Meanwhile, in terms of youth facilities availability, (3) there are 86 teachers (97.7%) agree that the facilities are good while 2 teachers (2.3%) say the opposite opinion. This shows that the average UKG preparation is relatively very good. About the implementation of UKG, (4) there are 65 teachers (73,9%) give good impression, while 23 teachers (26,1%) give poor quality impression. This shows that the average UKG implementation is relatively good. About the way UKG is managed, (5) there are 87 teachers (98,9%) identify satisfactory comments, while there is only 1 teacher (1,1%) gives unsatisfactory comment. This shows that the average UKG management is relatively very good. ANNOVA analysis is used in this study to estimate the effect of UKG on certified and non-certified teachers. The ANNOVA test result shows that (6) H_0 is accepted because α = 0,05 teach appropriately and proportionately (b) represent the components which are clearly and easily understood by the teachers as participants of the UKG. (3) Teachers' assessment has to give more concern to UKG selection which is based on their class performance, track record, and self-development. (4) The UKG shall be conducted only for mapping and shall be followed
The measurements of the Higgs boson and top quark masses can be used to extrapolate the Standard Model Higgs potential at energies up to the Planck scale. Adopting a Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order renormalization procedure, we argue that electroweak vacuum stability is at present allowed, discuss the associated theoretical and experimental errors and the prospects for its future tests.
This study sought to determine the technical feasibility of using seismic techniques to measure the : laboratory and field seismic modulus of lime-stabilized soils (LSS), and to compare/correlate test results : from bench-top (free-free resonance) se...
Romer, Natalie; Merrell, Kenneth W.
This study focused on evaluating the temporal stability of self-reported and teacher-reported perceptions of students' social and emotional skills and assets. We used a test-retest reliability procedure over repeated administrations of the child, adolescent, and teacher versions of the "Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales".…
Full Text Available The sister chromatid exchange (SCE test has been used to detect genome stability in humans (Chaganti, 1974 and the main livestock species (Ciotola et al., 2004; Di Meo et al., 2000; Di Berardino et al., 1979, and to discover DNA damage caused by a variety of natural and artificial chemical compounds (Iannuzzi et al., 1990.
Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia
they keep the image stationary on the retina. In this work we present the first complete model of eye-head stabilization based on the coordination of VCR and VOR. The model is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. Tests on a simulated humanoid platform replicating...
Hedetoft, Morten; Hyldegaard, Ole
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the use of quantitative Romberg's testing on postural stability during the course of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in patients presenting with decompression sickness (DCS). METHODS: The Quantitative Romberg test was used...... obtained with the Quantitative Romberg test were observed in the group of DCS with vertigo relative to DCS without vertigo and healthy controls. A stepwise improvement in postural instability for DCS patients with vertigo was found following HBO2 therapy. After three treatments of HBO2, postural stability...... was found to be within the normal range of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The Quantitative Romberg test offers the the clinician a fast, reliable and objective set of parametrical data to document postural instability in patients with either confirmed or suspected DCS....
The VSST team's mission is to evaluate the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context. These evaluations address light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTP R&D teams and to providing guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.
Stalmans, Sofie; Willems, Maxime; Adriaens, Els; Remon, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart
Flatworms possess adult pluripotent stem cells, which make them extraordinary experimental model organisms to assess in vivo the undesirable effects of substances on stem cells. Currently, quality practices, implying evaluation of the stability of the test compound under the proposed experimental conditions, are uncommon in this research field. Nevertheless, performing a stability study during the rational design of in vivo assay protocols will result in more reliable assay results. To illustrate the influence of the stability of the test substance on the final experimental outcome, we performed a short-term International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-based stability study of cyclophosphamide in the culture medium, to which a marine flatworm model Macrostomum lignano is exposed. Using a validated U(H)PLC method, it was demonstrated that the cyclophosphamide concentration in the culture medium at 20°C is lowered to 80% of the initial concentration after 21days. The multiwell plates, flatworms and diatoms, as well as light exposure, did not influence significantly the cyclophosphamide concentration in the medium. The results of the stability study have practical implications on the experimental set-up of the carcinogenicity assay like the frequency of medium renewal. This case study demonstrates the benefits of applying appropriate quality guidelines already during fundamental research increasing the credibility of the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ali N. M.
Full Text Available Based on the advantages of the electric motor such as fast and precise torque response, the performance of the electric vehicle (EV can be improved. During braking or driving on the cornering, the vehicle will over steer or under steer if a car turns by more or less than the amount commanded by the driver. To improve the stability of the small EV with four in-wheel motors, the differential regenerative braking torque control is proposed. In this system, the regenerative braking torque at each wheel will be controlled individually based on the value of slip ratio. If the slip ratio is greater than the optimum value, the regenerative brake will turn off. In this situation, the electric motor will not produce the regenerative braking torque. Conversely, if the slip ratio lower than the optimum value, the regenerative brake will turn on and the electric motor will generate the regenerative braking torque. In the numerical analysis, to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed model, the road condition is set to an icy road on the left tire and dry asphalt on the right tire. From the simulation results, the differential regenerative braking torque control can prevent the tire from lock-up and avoid the vehicle from skidding.
The International Geomechanical Commission is an independent group of experts in rock mechanics and hydrology. This commission has carried out a study on the rocks stability and hydrology of the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa (French Polynesia) after the stoppage of the French underground nuclear tests (147 tests all of all, from which 6 took place in 1995 and 1996). This book presents the results of this study. (J.S.)
Full Text Available This paper shows added mass and inertia can be acquired from the pure heaving motion and pure pitching motion respectively. A Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism (VPMM test for the spheroid-type Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV was compared with a theoretical calculation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis in this paper. The VPMM test has been carried out at a towing tank with specially manufactured equipment. The linear equations of motion on the vertical plane were considered for theoretical calculation, and CFD results were obtained by commercial CFD package. The VPMM test results show good agreement with theoretical calculations and the CFD results, so that the applicability of the VPMM equipment for an underwater vehicle can be verified with a sufficient accuracy.
Ishikawa, Keisuke; Eguchi, Yusuke; Uetake, Katsuji; Tnaka, Toshio
The puppy aptitude test (PAT) is a general method for choosing a puppy. However, the reliability of the test has been in doubt because of its lack of a scientific base. In this report, we conducted PAT and some other behavioral tests before and after the establishment of socialization in order to investigate the stability of behavioral traits of puppies. Ten puppies were tested of eleven items on PAT at 57 and 140 days of age. The puppy’s behavior was videotaped and rated by four people using...
Zhang, Bin; Qian, Yao; Wu, Yuntian; Yang, Y. B.
To further the technique of indirect measurement, the contact-point response of a moving test vehicle is adopted for the damage detection of bridges. First, the contact-point response of the vehicle moving over the bridge is derived both analytically and in central difference form (for field use). Then, the instantaneous amplitude squared (IAS) of the driving component of the contact-point response is calculated by the Hilbert transform, making use of its narrow-band feature. The IAS peaks serve as the key parameter for damage detection. In the numerical simulation, a damage (crack) is modeled by a hinge-spring unit. The feasibility of the proposed method to detect the location and severity of a damage or multi damages of the bridge is verified. Also, the effects of surface roughness, vehicle speed, measurement noise and random traffic are studied. In the presence of ongoing traffic, the damages of the bridge are identified from the repeated or invariant IAS peaks generated for different traffic flows by the same test vehicle over the bridge.
Wang, Aiwu; Ng, Hoi Pong; Xu, Yi; Li, Yuyu; Zheng, Yuhong; Yu, Jingping; Han, Fugui; Peng, Feng; Fu, Li
In today’s science, with the use of nanotechnology, nanomaterials, which behave very differently from the bulk solid, can be made. One of the capable uses of nanomaterials is bioapplications which make good use of the specific properties of nanoparticles. However, since the nanoparticles will be used both in-vivo and in-vitro, their stability is an important issue to the scientists, concern. In this dissertation, we are going to test the stability of gold nanoparticles in a number of media in...
Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Wang, Boguang; Ding, Xiang; Deng, Wei; Lü, Sujun; Zhang, Yanli
Ammonia (NH3) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L-1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km-1. These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L-1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km-1) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States.
Purusothaman, M.; kota, Saichand; Cornilius, C. Sam; Siva, R.
Heat flow from the roof with radiation through glass windows obviously high level that contributes to the total heat gained of a vehicle cabin. The cabin temperature of closed stationary vehicles in direct sunlight can quickly rise to a very level that may damage property and harm children or pets left in the vehicle. The problem that is faced by many car users today is very hot interior after certain minutes or hours of parking in open or un-shaded parking area. The heat accumulated inside the vehicle with undesired temperature rise would cause the parts of the car’s interior to degrade. Even the passengers are affected with the thermal condition inside the vehicle itself. The passenger has to wait for a certain time before getting into the car to cool down the interior condition either by lowering down the window or switching on the air conditioner at high speed that really affect the fuel consumption. A new roofing structure to improve its total thermal resistance is developed. Its uses phase change material properties to trap the heat from solar radiation and then release it back to the outer atmosphere by external convection when the vehicle is in use or during the nocturnal cycle. Phase change material, which has become an attractive means to store. Thermal energy, which has a wide range of applications, has been used. Phase change material has a high heat of fusion which is able to store and release large amount of energy. This PCM has been insulated in the roof of the vehicle to arrest the heat entering into the vehicle cabin. Experimental and numerical analyses have been conducted to compare the thermal performance of the new roofing structure and the normal roofing. By this experiment, the cooling process of the cabin could be much lower. The experimental investigation revealed that, on a hot day, the interior temperature of the vehicles cabin was approximately 22ºCe higher than the ambient temperature. The results show that the new roofing structure
Full Text Available In the frame of future sample return missions to Mars, asteroids, and comets, investigated by the European Space Agency, a review of the actual aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics capabilities in Europe for Mars entry of large vehicles and high-speed Earth reentry of sample return capsule has been undertaken. Additionally, capabilities in Canada and Australia for the assessment of dynamic stability, as well as major facilities for hypersonic flows available in ISC, have been included. This paper provides an overview of European current capabilities for aerothermodynamics and testing of thermal protection systems. This assessment has allowed the identification of the needs in new facilities or upgrade of existing ground tests for covering experimentally Mars entries and Earth high-speed reentries as far as aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal protection system testing are concerned.
Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito
Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html. PMID:28066557
Angela Maria Tortora
Full Text Available True stability of lubricants can be determined when there is minimum change in the contact area and also the intervention of wear debris in the contact zone. Here, we have used the ball-on-disk instrument with the migrating point contact, that is, relative motion between the ball and disk condition to fix the contact area and minimize the wear debris at the contact zone. The jump in the friction coefficient indicates the film failure, which appeared earlier for the motor oil 5W30 compared to 5W40. Such profile was not recorded in absence of relative motion. Therefore, 5W40 was considered to have a better lubricant stability than 5W30. Applying the same test condition to the natural lubricants shows that glycerol has better lubricant stability than glycerol-water mixture. Superior true lubricant stability by glycerol and 5W40 can be related to its high viscosity. However, they were less wear resistant compared to low viscosity lubricants like 5W30 and glycerol-water. We suspect the role of microscopic wear debris at the contact zone for this behavior although it should have been avoided in the migrating point contact condition. Overall, ball-on-disk instrument with a migrating point contact condition is an effective technique to determine the stability of lubricants.
Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.
Smith, Andrew; Davis, R. Ben; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas
The team of authors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating estimating techniques for the vibration response of launch vehicle panels excited by acoustics and/or aero-fluctuating pressures. Validation of the approaches used to estimate these environments based on ground tests of flight like hardware is of major importance to new vehicle programs. The team at MSFC has recently expanded upon the first series of ground test cases completed in December 2010. The follow on tests recently completed are intended to illustrate differences in damping that might be expected when cable harnesses are added to the configurations under test. This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that employs a finite element model (FEM) of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. This paper will report on the \\damping trend differences. observed from response measurements for several different configurations of cable harnesses. The data should assist vibroacoustics engineers to make more informed damping assumptions when calculating vibration response estimates when using model based analysis approach. Achieving conservative estimates that have more flight like accuracy is desired. The paper may also assist analysts in determining how ground test data may relate to expected flight response levels. Empirical response estimates may also need to be adjusted if the measured response used as an input to the study came from a test article without flight like cable harnesses.
Fischer, Fabian; Laevemann, Eberhard
Thermal energy storage based on adsorption and desorption of water on an adsorbent can achieve high energy storage densities. Many adsorbents lose adsorption capacity when operated under unfavourable hydrothermal conditions during adsorption and desorption. The stability of an adsorbent against stressing hydrothermal conditions is a key issue for its usability in adsorption thermal energy storage. We built an experimental setup that simultaneously controls the hydrothermal conditions of 16 samples arranged in a matrix of four temperatures and four water vapour pressures. This setup allows the testing of potential adsorbents between temperatures of 50 °C and 350 °C and water vapour pressures of up to 32 kPa. A measurement procedure that allows the detection of the hydrothermal stability of an adsorbent after defined time spans has been designed. We verified the functionality of the multiple sample measurements with a microporous adsorbent, a zeolite NaMSX. The hydrothermal stability of this zeolite is tested by water uptake measurements. A standard deviation lower than 1% of the 16 samples for detecting the hydrothermal stability enables setting different conditions in each sample cell. Further, we compared the water uptake measurements by measuring their adsorption isotherms with the volumetric device BELSORP Aqua 3 from Bel Japan. (paper)
Orlik-Ruckemann, K. J.
A survey was conducted relative to future requirements for dynamic stability information for such aerospace vehicles as the space shuttle and advanced high performance military aircraft. High-angle-of-attack and high-Reynolds number conditions were emphasized. A review was made of the wind-tunnel capabilities in North America for measuring dynamic stability derivatives, revealing an almost total lack of capabilities that could satisfy these requirements. Recommendations are made regarding equipment that should be constructed to remedy this situation. A description is given of some of the more advanced existing capabilities, which can be used to at least partly satisfy immediate demands.
Naing, C.L.; Hill, J.; Thomson, R.; Fagerlind, H.; Kelkka, M.; Klootwijk, C.; Dupre, G.; Bisson, O.
Many European road casualties result from vehicles leaving the road, often impacting roadside obstacles. As part of the European Commission-funded project RISER (Roadside Infrastructure for Safer European Roads), several activities were undertaken to collate the type of real world crash data which
Project #OPE-FY17-0009, Mar 6, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA’s existing internal controls are effective at detecting and preventing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty on-road vehicle emissions fraud.
Slezak, Lee [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
The VSST team evaluates the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context, covering light to heavy platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTP R&D teams and to provide guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.
Full Text Available Objective. To longitudinally follow the osseointegration using Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA for different lengths of abutment on a new wide bone-anchored implant, introduced with the non-skin thinning surgical technique. Study Design. A single-center, prospective 1 year study following adults with bone-anchored hearing implants. Materials and Methods. Implantation was performed and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All patients were operated on according to the tissue preserving technique. A 4.5 mm wide fixture (Oticon Medical with varying abutments (9 to 12 mm was used and RFA was tested 1 week, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months later. Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ, was measured from 1 to 100. Stability was compared to a group of patients (N=7 implanted with another brand (Cochlear BI400 of 4.5 mm fixtures. Results. All 10 adults concluded the study. None of the participants lost their implant during the test period indicating a good anchoring of abutments to the wide fixture tested. Stability testing was shown to vary depending on abutment length and time after surgery and with higher values for shorter abutments and increasing values over the first period of time. One patient changed the abutment from 12 to 9 mm and another from a 9 to a 12 during the year. No severe skin problems, numbness around the implant, or cosmetic problems arose. Conclusion. After 1 year of follow-up, combination of a wide fixture implant and the non-skin thinning surgical technique indicates a safe procedure with good stability and no abutment losses.
Hinchey, M. J.; Sullivan, P. A.
The dynamic heave stability of an air cushion vehicle or hovercraft hovering over deep water without forward motion is investigated analytically. The principal feature of the analysis is the modeling of the motion of the water surface beneath the cushion caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the cushion or cavity air. This surface motion interacts with the vehicle dynamics by modulating both the volume and exit flow area of the cushion. For analytical simplicity, the geometry chosen for study is a 2D section of a rigid wall plenum chamber; this enables exploitation of classical linear wave formulas developed by Lamb for the surface motion generated by a spatially uniform surface pressure oscillating sinusoidally in time. To assess stability characteristics, the Nyquist criterion is applied to the linearized equations. Results are presented for two cases: one is representative of a small test vehicle, and the other of a large ice-breaking platform. They show that the water surface motion significantly affects stability through both of the proposed mechanisms, with cushion exit flow area modulation usually being more important. A feature of the results is that as the weight of a vehicle decreases many stability transitions occur. This suggests that simple guidelines for avoiding instability may not exist, so that stability augmentation devices may be required for vehicles designed to hover for extended periods over water.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explaining species richness patterns is a central issue in biogeography and macroecology. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms driving biodiversity patterns, but the causes of species richness gradients remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explain the impacts of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity factors on variation of vertebrate species richness (VSR, based on the VSR pattern in China, so as to test the energy hypothesis, the environmental stability hypothesis, and the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A dataset was compiled containing the distributions of 2,665 vertebrate species and eleven ecogeographic predictive variables in China. We grouped these variables into categories of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity and transformed the data into 100 × 100 km quadrat systems. To test the three hypotheses, AIC-based model selection was carried out between VSR and the variables in each group and correlation analyses were conducted. There was a decreasing VSR gradient from the southeast to the northwest of China. Our results showed that energy explained 67.6% of the VSR variation, with the annual mean temperature as the main factor, which was followed by annual precipitation and NDVI. Environmental stability factors explained 69.1% of the VSR variation and both temperature annual range and precipitation seasonality had important contributions. By contrast, habitat heterogeneity variables explained only 26.3% of the VSR variation. Significantly positive correlations were detected among VSR, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and NDVI, whereas the relationship of VSR and temperature annual range was strongly negative. In addition, other variables showed moderate or ambiguous relations to VSR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The energy hypothesis and the environmental stability hypothesis were supported, whereas little
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery for disc herniations can be complicated by two major problems: painful degeneration of the spinal segment and re-herniation. Therefore, we examined an absorbable poly-glycolic acid (PGA biomaterial, which was lyophilized with hyaluronic acid (HA, for its utility to (a re-establish spinal stability and to (b seal annulus fibrosus defects. The biomechanical properties range of motion (ROM, neutral zone (NZ and a potential annulus sealing capacity were investigated. Methods Seven bovine, lumbar spinal units were tested in vitro for ROM and NZ in three consecutive stages: (a intact, (b following nucleotomy and (c after insertion of a PGA/HA nucleus-implant. For biomechanical testing, spinal units were mounted on a loading-simulator for spines. In three cycles, axial loading was applied in an excentric mode with 0.5 Nm steps until an applied moment of ± 7.5 Nm was achieved in flexion/extension. ROM and NZ were assessed. These tests were performed without and with annulus sealing by sewing a PGA/HA annulus-implant into the annulus defect. Results Spinal stability was significantly impaired after nucleotomy (p Conclusion PGA/HA biomaterial seems to be well suited for cell-free and cell-based regenerative treatment strategies in spinal surgery. Its abilities to restore spinal stability and potentially close annulus defects open up new vistas for regenerative approaches to treat intervertebral disc degeneration and for preventing implant herniation.
Song, Zhengtian; Sarkar, Sreya; Vogt, Andrew D; Danzer, Gerald D; Smith, Casey J; Gualtieri, Ellen J; Simpson, Garth J
The low limits of detection afforded by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy coupled with image analysis algorithms enabled quantitative modeling of the temperature-dependent crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) within amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). ASDs, in which an API is maintained in an amorphous state within a polymer matrix, are finding increasing use to address solubility limitations of small-molecule APIs. Extensive stability testing is typically performed for ASD characterization, the time frame for which is often dictated by the earliest detectable onset of crystal formation. Here a study of accelerated stability testing on ritonavir, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, has been conducted. Under the condition for accelerated stability testing at 50 °C/75%RH and 40 °C/75%RH, ritonavir crystallization kinetics from amorphous solid dispersions were monitored by SHG microscopy. SHG microscopy coupled by image analysis yielded limits of detection for ritonavir crystals as low as 10 ppm, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than other methods currently available for crystallinity detection in ASDs. The four decade dynamic range of SHG microscopy enabled quantitative modeling with an established (JMAK) kinetic model. From the SHG images, nucleation and crystal growth rates were independently determined.
Wittrock, Martin Lindholm; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur
This paper presents a software platform developed in MatLab with the purpose of supporting research, Development and testing of wide area algorithms for stability assessment and control. The development and testing process of algorithms exploiting real time wide area data from Phasor Measurement...... Units (PMU) can be very time consuming, especially if the testing procedure is not carried out in a systematic and automatic manner. The test platform overcomes this problem by automatically importing system model parameters, topology and simulation output from a time domain simulation of an instability...... scenario and automatically generating synthetic PMU snapshots of the system conditions. To demonstrate the platform’s potential for supporting research and development of wide area algorithms, a method to detect voltage instability is implemented and tested, giving results consistent with results from...
Song, Eric; Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Uriot, Jerome; Potier, Pascal; Dubois, Denis; Douard, Richard
This study aims to provide a set of reference post-mortem human subject tests which can be used, with easily reproducible test conditions, for developing and/or validating pedestrian dummies and computational human body models against a road vehicle. An adjustable generic buck was first developed to represent vehicle front-ends. It was composed of four components: two steel cylindrical tubes screwed on rigid supports in V-form represent the bumper and spoiler respectively, a quarter of a steel cylindrical tube represents the bonnet leading edge, and a steel plate represents the bonnet. These components were positioned differently to represent three types of vehicle profile: a sedan, a SUV and a van. Eleven post-mortem human subjects were then impacted laterally in a mid-gait stance by the bucks at 40 km/h: three tests with the sedan, five with the SUV, and three with the van. Kinematics of the subjects were recorded via high speed videos, impact forces between the subjects and the bucks were measured via load cells behind each tube, femur and tibia deformation and fractures were monitored via gauges on these bones. Based on these tests, biofidelity corridors were established in terms of: 1) displacement time history and trajectory of the head, shoulder, T1, T4, T12, sacrum, knee and ankle, 2) impact forces between the subjects and the buck. Injury outcome was established for each PMHS via autopsy. Simplicity of its geometry and use of standard steel tubes and plates for the buck will make it easy to perform future, new post-mortem human subject tests in the same conditions, or to assess dummies or computational human body models using these reference tests.
Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul
Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.
Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.
The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.
Flávia Vieira Braga
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of finishing hot rolling temperature in promoting interpass recrystallization on a Nb-stabilized AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel. Torsion tests were performed in order to simulate the Steckel mill rolling process by varying the temperature ranges of the finishing passes. Interrupted torsion test were also performed and interpass recrystallization was evaluated via optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD. As a result of this work, it has been established, within the restrictions of a Steckel mill rolling schedule, which thermomechanical conditions mostly favor SRX.
Puji Hastuty, Ika; Roesyanto; Hutauruk, Ronny; Simanjuntak, Oberlyn
The soil has a important role as a highway’s embankment material (sub grade). Soil conditions are very different in each location because the scientifically soil is a very complex and varied material and the located on the field is very loose or very soft, so it is not suitable for construction, then the soil should be stabilized. The additive material commonly used for soil stabilization includes cement, lime, fly ash, rice husk ash, and others. This experiment is using the addition of volcanic ash. The purpose of this study was to determine the Index Properties and Compressive Strength maximum value with Unconfined Compression Test due to the addition of volcanic ash as a stabilizing agent along with optimum levels of the addition. The result showed that the original soil sample has Water Content of 14.52%; the Specific Weight of 2.64%; Liquid limit of 48.64% and Plasticity Index of 29.82%. Then, the Compressive Strength value is 1.40 kg/cm2. According to USCS classification, the soil samples categorized as the (CL) type while based on AASHTO classification, the soil samples are including as the type of A-7-6. After the soil is stabilized with a variety of volcanic ash, can be concluded that the maximum value occurs at mixture variation of 11% Volcanic Ash with Unconfined Compressive Strength value of 2.32 kg/cm2.
Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian
Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.
US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office
This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure
Full Text Available The braking system is one of the most important systems in any vehicle. Its proper functioning may determine the health and life the people inside the vehicle as well as other road users. Therefore, it is important that the parameters which characterise the functioning of brakes changed as little as possible throughout their lifespan. Multiple instances of heating and cooling of the working components of the brake system as well as the environment they work in may impact their tribological properties. This article describes a method of evaluating the coefficient of friction and the wear speed of abrasive wear of friction working components of brakes. The methodology was developed on the basis of Taguchi’s method of process optimization.
Hollis, Brian R.
An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.
installed in the computer. * Sensor Power-up and parameter verification of onboard devices. * Development of various power networds to allow operation of...running. "* The design of the vehicle hardware components to include the umbilical and associated connections, housing and power system and all...The direction taken was to get one control system roll-rate completely connected. This control system would unmask many hidden hardware problems and
Merlin, Peter William
Since the 1960s, NASA, the Air Force, and now private industry have attempted to develop an operational human crewed reusable spacecraft with a wingless, lifting body configuration. This type of vehicle offers increased mission flexibility and greater reentry cross range than capsule type craft, and is particularly attractive due to the capability to land on a runway. That capability, however, adds complexity to the human factors engineering requirements of developing such aircraft.
Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL
Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.
Kazanin, V. F.
High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a procedure including a multi-step calibration. One step of the calibration is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to read out the calorimeter cells. A facility to study the performance of the PMT stability response has been operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests are to study the time evolution of the PMT response in order to reproduce and understand the origin of the response drifts observed with the Tile Calorimeter PMTs during LHC Run I and Run II. A new statistical approach was used to measure the drift of the absolute PMT gain. A new procedure which combines studies of the time evolution of the global PMT responses and of the individual PMT gains was adopted to derive the evolution of the cathode quantum efficiency. The experimental setup of the Pisa facility and the first results obtained by testing about 30 PMTs are presented.
Maasha, Rumaasha; Towner, Robert L.
High-fidelity Finite Element Models (FEMs) were developed to support a recent test program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The FEMs correspond to test articles used for a series of acoustic tests. Modal survey tests were used to validate the FEMs for five acoustic tests (a bare panel and four different mass-loaded panel configurations). An additional modal survey test was performed on the empty test fixture (orthogrid panel mounting fixture, between the reverb and anechoic chambers). Modal survey tests were used to test-validate the dynamic characteristics of FEMs used for acoustic test excitation. Modal survey testing and subsequent model correlation has validated the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FEMs. The modal survey test results provide a basis for the analysis models used for acoustic loading response test and analysis comparisons
Spellman, Regina L.
The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design
The Task 6 Prototype Acceptance Test Summary Report summarizes the results of Acceptance Testing carried out at Battelle facilities in accordance with the Task 6 Acceptance Test Plan. The Acceptance Tests were designed to verify that the prototype sy...
Jones, J.C.; Maxwell, T.T.
Work was sperformed to determine effects of methanol fuel on engine performance and exhaust emissions during long-term use in a 1988 Chevrolet Corsica. Engine wear, gasket performance, fuel economy, emissions level, oil consumption, and overall vehicle performance were monitored over 22,000 miles. Baselines were established at the beginning for comparison: engine was disassembled, bearing/ring clearances and cam profiles were measured. Higher flow rate fuel injectors from AC Rochester were installed and the computer system calibrated for M100 fuel. The vehicle durability test increased oil consumption by 26% under cold-start conditions, 9% under hot start. Oil consumption under hot start was higher than under cold start by as much as 56%; effect of component temperatures on oil viscosity appears to be the cause. It is recommended that oil consumption of a gasoline-fueled vehicle be measured in order to normalize the effect of methanol operation on oil consumption, and to study the effect of steady-state and transient conditions on oil consumption.
Carmichael, L.A.; Niemi, R.O.
Turbine trip transient and low flow stability tests were performed at the Peach Bottom-2 BWR/4 nuclear power plant prior to shutdown for refueling at end of Cycle 2 in April 1977. The results of the turbine trip transient tests showed that the fundamental mode of the acoustical pressure oscillation generated in the main steam piping propagates with relatively little attenuation into the reactor core. The magnitude of the neutron flux transient taking place in the BWR core was found to be strongly affected by the initial rate of pressure rise caused by the pressure oscillation. The measured neutron flux transients showed a strong spatial variation along the axis of the reactor core. Very little radial variation in the neutron flux transient was observed. The low-flow stability tests demonstrated that the Peach Bottom-2 Cycle 2 core exhibited a high degree of stability at the limiting test condition above the rated power-flow control line. The measured reactor stability margins showed the expected sensitivity to core power changes at minimum reactor core flow. The tests showed that the small pressure perturbation stability testing offers a useful and practical method of measuring core stability margins. The actual core stability margin was determined from the measured closed-loop pressure to average neutron flux transfer function data based on maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a relatively simple transfer function model determined from nonlinear regression analysis. Both static and dynamic error estimates were taken into consideration in evaluating the test results
In an effort to study occupant survivability in train collisions, analyses and tests were conducted to understand and improve the crashworthiness of rail vehicles. A collision dynamics model was developed in order to estimate the rigid body motion of...
Walter, R. A.
The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.
Li, Yong; Zhu, Weishen; Zheng, Wenhua; He, Jianping
Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) sensor is widely accepted as a structural stability device for all kinds of geomaterials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structures. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which can accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Due to a large number of restrained factors, a series of experiments are difficult to be carried out, in particular for how to obtain physical parameters during the experiments. Using the geo-mechanical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station as a research object, the FBG sensors were mainly focused on and adopted to figure out the problem how to achieve the small displacements in the large-scale model test. The final experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like strain gages and mini-extensometers. The experimental results agree well with the numerical simulation results. In the process of building the model, it's successful to embed the FBG sensors in the physical model through making a reserved pore and adding some special glue. In conclusion, FBG sensors can effectively measure the small displacement of monitoring points in the whole process of the geomechanical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in-situ engineering construction.
Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S.
This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)
Tonkin, Matthew; Woodhams, Jessica; Bond, John W; Loe, Trudy
Geographical profiling is an investigative methodology sometimes employed by the police to predict the residence of an unknown offender from the locations of his/her crimes. The validity of geographical profiling, however, has not been fully explored for certain crime types. This study, therefore, presents a preliminary test of the potential for geographical profiling with a sample of 145 serial vehicle thieves from the U.K. The behavioural assumptions underlying geographical profiling (distance decay and domocentricity) are tested and a simple practical test of profiling using the spatial mean is presented. There is evidence for distance decay but not domocentricity among the spatial behaviour of car thieves from the U.K. A degree of success was achieved when applying the spatial mean on a case-by-case basis. The level of success varied, however, and neither series length in days nor number of crimes could account for the variation. The findings question previously held assumptions regarding geographical profiling and have potential theoretical and practical implications for the study and investigation of vehicle theft in the U.K. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The use of advanced transport means understands alsotheir supply by spare and consumable parts. In order to solvethe problem of the required quantities, costs of purchase andstorage of the parts, it is necessary to solve the problem of stocksmanagement. The wear of tyres for military vehicles in extremeexploitation conditions is of random character. How fast thetyres will wear on the all-ten·ain and heavy motor vehicle dependson the driver's skill and the external conditions (weather,terrain. All the conditions are of random character and in orderto determine as accurately as possible the wear of tyres it isnecessary to monitor the wear of tyres within a certain time period,and to find the approximate probability of tyre wear in thefuture period of time. When the probability of tyre wear is determined,stochastic supply management model is used to calculatethe value of the stocks which allows optimal planning ofstocks of spare parts at minimal costs. The stochastic model allowsoptimal calculation for the purchase of consumable partsof transport means whose consumption depends on the randomconditions and events.
Ito, Y.; Itami, A.; Tsuda, K.; Nakamura, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Toba, A.; Omoto, A.
The Step-III Fuel Type B is a new fuel design for high burn-up operation in BWRs in Japan. The fuel design uses a 9x9 - 9 rod bundle to accommodate the high fuel duty of high burn-up operation and a square water-channel to provide enhanced neutron moderation. The objective of this study is to confirm the thermal-hydraulic stability performance of the new fuel design by tests which simulate the parallel channel configuration of the BWR core. The stability testing was performed at the NFI test loop. The test bundle geometry used for the stability test is a 3x3 heater rod bundle which has about 1/8 of the cross section area of the full size 9x9 - 9 rod bundle. Full size heater rods were used to simulate the fuel rods. For parallel channel simulation, a bypass channel with a 6x6 - 8 heater rod bundle was connected in parallel with the 3x3 rod bundle test channel. The stability test results showed typical flow oscillation features which have been described as density wave oscillations. The stationary limit cycle oscillation extended flow amplitudes to several tens of a percent of the nominal value, during which periodic dry-out and re-wetting were observed. The test results were used for verification of a stability analysis code, which demonstrated that the stability performance of the new fuel design has been conservatively predicted. (author)
Tucci, Helga Tatiana; Martins, Jaqueline; Sposito, Guilherme de Carvalho; Camarini, Paula Maria Ferreira; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani
The Close Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUES test) is a low cost shoulder functional test that could be considered as a complementary and objective clinical outcome for shoulder performance evaluation. However, its reliability was tested only in recreational athletes' males and there are no studies comparing scores between sedentary and active samples. The purpose was to examine inter and intrasession reliability of CKCUES Test for samples of sedentary male and female with (SIS), for samples of sedentary healthy male and female, and for male and female samples of healthy upper extremity sport specific recreational athletes. Other purpose was to compare scores within sedentary and within recreational athletes samples of same gender. A sample of 108 subjects with and without SIS was recruited. Subjects were tested twice, seven days apart. Each subject performed four test repetitions, with 45 seconds of rest between them. The last three repetitions were averaged and used to statistical analysis. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC2,1 was used to assess intrasession reliability of number of touches score and ICC2,3 was used to assess intersession reliability of number of touches, normalized score, and power score. Test scores within groups of same gender also were compared. Measurement error was determined by calculating the Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM) and Minimum detectable change (MDC) for all scores. The CKCUES Test showed excellent intersession reliability for scores in all samples. Results also showed excellent intrasession reliability of number of touches for all samples. Scores were greater in active compared to sedentary, with exception of power score. All scores were greater in active compared to sedentary and SIS males and females. SEM ranged from 1.45 to 2.76 touches (based on a 95% CI) and MDC ranged from 2.05 to 3.91(based on a 95% CI) in subjects with and without SIS. At least three touches are needed to be considered a
Lu, Jen-Li; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Chao, Chin-Jung
In this study, a situation-augmented display for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring was designed, and its effects on operator performance and mental workload were examined. The display design was augmented with the knowledge that there is an invariant flight trajectory (formed by the relationship between altitude and velocity) for every flight, from takeoff to landing. 56 participants were randomly assigned to the situation-augmented display or a conventional display condition to work on 4 (number of abnormalities) x 2 (noise level) UAV monitoring tasks three times. Results showed that the effects of situation-augmented display on flight completion time and time to detect abnormalities were robust under various workload conditions, but error rate and perceived mental workload were unaffected by the display type. Results suggest that the UAV monitoring task is extremely difficult, and that display devices providing high-level situation-awareness may improve operator monitoring performance.
Full Text Available Sorghum breeding program had been conducted at the Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, BATAN. Plant genetic variability was increased through induced mutations using gamma-ray irradiation. Through selection process in successive generations, some promising mutant lines had been identified to have good agronomic characteristics with high grain yield. These breeding lines were tested in multi location trials and information of the genotypic stability was obtained to meet the requirements for officially varietal release by the Ministry of Agriculture. A total of 11 sorghum lines and varieties consisting of 8 mutant lines derived from induced mutations (B-100, B-95, B-92, B-83, B-76, B-75, B-69 and Zh-30 and 3 control varieties (Durra, UPCA-S1 and Mandau were included in the experiment. All materials were grown in 10 agro-ecologically different locations namely Gunungkidul, Bantul, Citayam, Garut, Lampung, Bogor, Anyer, Karawaci, Cianjur and Subang. In each location, the local adaptability test was conducted by randomized block design with 3 replications. Data of grain yield was used for evaluating genotypic stability using AMMI approach. Results revealed that sorghum mutation breeding had generated 3 mutant lines (B-100, B-76 and Zh-30 exhibiting grain yield significantly higher than the control varieties. These mutant lines were genetically stable in all locations so that they would be recommended for official release as new sorghum varieties to the Ministry of Agriculture
Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the influence of utilising natural polymers as a form of soil stabilization, in order to assess their potential for use in building applications. Mixtures were stabilized with a natural polymer (alginate and reinforced with wool fibres in order to improve the overall compressive and flexural strength of a series of composite materials. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV and mechanical strength testing techniques were then used to measure the porous properties of the manufactured natural polymer-soil composites, which were formed into earth blocks. Mechanical tests were carried out for three different clays which showed that the polymer increased the mechanical resistance of the samples to varying degrees, depending on the plasticity index of each soil. Variation in soil grain size distributions and Atterberg limits were assessed and chemical compositions were studied and compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF techniques were all used in conjunction with qualitative identification of the aggregates. Ultrasonic wave propagation was found to be a useful technique for assisting in the determination of soil shrinkage characteristics and fibre-soil adherence capacity and UPV results correlated well with the measured mechanical properties.
Coussy, Samuel; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Blanc, Denise; Moszkowicz, Pierre; Bussière, Bruno
Arsenic (As) is a toxicant in tailings from sulphur deposits. It represents an environmental risk because of its high solubility. Tailings can be mixed with water (typically 25%) and a low proportion of hydraulic binder (3-7%) to produce a cemented paste backfill (CPB), stored in underground mine openings. CPB is a tailings storage technique, but it could also provide environmental advantages by stabilization of polluting elements such as As. Tailings from Casa Berardi mine (QC, Canada) contain As (3800 ppm), mainly in arsenopyrite form. For this study, three different CPBs were synthesized in laboratory using Casa Berardi tailings and three different binders. These pastes were submitted to various leaching tests after 28 days of curing. The results indicate that As is released at higher concentration for a fly ash-based CPB than for slag- and Portland cement-based CPB. However, at lower pH, As is better stabilized in fly ash-based samples. These differences can be explained by a variation of solubility of As-compounds in each CPB. Several mechanisms of As release occur, as diffusion and/or dissolution/precipitation. The accelerated weathering test results show that sulphide reactivity is buffered by the neutralizing minerals contained in CPB, and influence the As release behaviour by decreasing the oxidation of As-bearing sulphides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Metals can be stabilized by soil amendments that increase metals adsorption or alter their chemical forms. Such treatments may limit the risk related to the contamination through reduction of metal transfer to the food chain (reduction of metal uptake by plants and its availability to soil organisms and metals migration within the environment. There is a need for experiments comparing various soil amendments available at reasonable amounts under similar environmental conditions. The other question is whether all components of soil environment or soil functions are similarly protected after remediation treatment. We conducted a series of pot studies to test some traditional and novel amendments and their combinations. The treatments were tested for several highly Zn/Cd/Pb contaminated soils. Among traditional amendments composts were the most effective – they ensured plant growth, increased soil microbial activity, reduced Cd in earthworms, reduced Pb bioaccessibility and increased share of unavailable forms of Cd and Pb.
Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.
The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.
Full Text Available We use Fisher Matrix analysis techniques to forecast the cosmological impact of astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant to be carried out by the forthcoming ESPRESSO spectrograph at the VLT (due for commissioning in late 2017, as well by the planned high-resolution spectrograph (currently in Phase A for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Assuming a fiducial model without α variations, we show that ESPRESSO can improve current bounds on the Eötvös parameter—which quantifies Weak Equivalence Principle violations—by up to two orders of magnitude, leading to stronger bounds than those expected from the ongoing tests with the MICROSCOPE satellite, while constraints from the E-ELT should be competitive with those of the proposed STEP satellite. Should an α variation be detected, these measurements will further constrain cosmological parameters, being particularly sensitive to the dynamics of dark energy.
Morse, Michael M.; Lu, N.; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.; Take, W.A.
This paper extends Culmann's vertical-cut analysis to unsaturated soils. To test the extended theory, unsaturated sand was compacted to a uniform porosity and moisture content in a laboratory apparatus. A sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the vertical cut failed. Digital images of the slope cross section and upper surface were acquired concurrently. A recently developed particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to quantify soil displacement. The PIV analysis showed strain localization at varying distances from the sliding door prior to failure. The areas of localized strain were coincident with the location of the slope crest after failure. Shear-strength and soil-water-characteristic parameters of the sand were independently tested for use in extended analyses of the vertical-cut stability and of the failure plane angle. Experimental failure heights were within 22.3% of the heights predicted using the extended theory.
White, Nathan; Reeves, Tom; Cheese, Phil; Stennett, Christopher; Wood, Andrew; Cook, Malcolm; Syanco Ltd Team; Cranfield University Team; DE&S, MoD Abbey Wood Team
Thin, cylindrical samples of HMX/HTPB formulations with solids loadings from 85-95% by mass have been heated at 1oC/minute until a reaction occurred in the new dual window cook-off test vehicle. The test vehicle has captured the response of these formulations, and shown the influence of variables such as confinement, heating rate and sample size. Live imaging of the heated samples revealed that as with pure nitramine samples, three distinct stages of change take place during heating; phase changes, melting and slow, flameless decomposition with production of gaseous intermediates and finally burning with a luminous flame of the gaseous intermediates. In addition, the binder appears to undergo decomposition before the HMX, darkening along the edge closest to the thermal input before the HMX melts. Prior to violent reaction, flame speeds were measured at approximately 30m/s for high confinement, which reduces by 2-3 orders of magnitude when confinement is lowered. The melting point of HMX has been observed below the widely reported value at 220oC, and requires further investigation.
Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira
This paper presents results of a flight test of the L-1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented are for piloted tasks performed during the flight test.
Kristensen, Morten T; Ekdahl, Charlotte; Kehlet, Henrik
To examine the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test using a standardized walking aid in patients with hip fracture who are allowed full weight bearing (FWB).......To examine the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test using a standardized walking aid in patients with hip fracture who are allowed full weight bearing (FWB)....
Full Text Available The analysis of the resource testing facilities and methods of automobile brake cylinders in terms of ABS working process adequacy is carried out. A testing stand construction and a method of carrying out the resource testing of hydraulic drive elements of the automobile automated braking sys-tem is offered.
Full Text Available Geomechanical model testing is an important method for studying the overall stability of high arch dams. The main task of a geomechanical model test is deformation monitoring. Currently, many types of deformation instruments are used for deformation monitoring of dam models, which provide valuable information on the deformation characteristics of the prototype dams. However, further investigation is required for assessing the overall stability of high arch dams through analyzing deformation monitoring data. First, a relationship for assessing the stability of dams is established based on the comprehensive model test method. Second, a stability evaluation system is presented based on the deformation monitoring data, together with the relationships between the deformation and overloading coefficient. Finally, the comprehensive model test method is applied to study the overall stability of the Jinping-I high arch dam. A three-dimensional destructive test of the geomechanical model dam is conducted under reinforced foundation conditions. The deformation characteristics and failure mechanisms of the dam abutments and foundation were investigated. The test results indicate that the stability safety factors of the dam abutments and foundation range from 5.2 to 6.0. These research results provide an important scientific insight into the design, construction, and operation stages of this project.
Abdelnour, Z.; Mildrun, H.; Strant, K.
The development of Mn-Al-C permanent magnets is reviewed. The general properties of the material are discussed and put into perspective relative to alnicos and ferrites. The traction motor designer's demands of a permanent magnet for potential use in electric vehicle drives are reviewed. Tests determined magnetic design data and mechanical strength properties. Easy axis hysteresis and demagnetization curves, recoil loops and other minor loop fields were measured over a temperature range from -50 to 150 C. Hysteresis loops were also measured for three orthogonal directions (the one easy and two hard axes of magnetization). Extruded rods of three different diameters were tested. The nonuniformity of properties over the cross section of the 31 mm diameter rod was studied. Mechanical compressive and bending strength at room temperature was determined on individual samples from the 31 mm rod.
Babel, H. W.; Christensen, R. H.; Dixon, H. H.
The relationship between analysis, design, fabrication, and testing of thin shells is illustrated by Saturn S-IVB, Thor, Delta, and other single-use and reusable large-size cryogenic aluminum tankage. The analyses and design to meet the design requirements are reviewed and include consideration of fracture control, general instability, and other failure modes. The effect of research and development testing on the structure is indicated. It is shown how fabrication and nondestructive and acceptance testing constrain the design. Finally, qualification testing is reviewed to illustrate the extent of testing used to develop the Saturn S-IVB.
Nakamura, M.; Sekine, T.; Nagae, H. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)
To study and/or develop the vehicle motion of a braking in turns theoretically, the cornering characteristics of the tire under the action of braking forces must be required. On the other hand, such data are very few to be published and also there be few tire testing machine to be able to use. The authors tried to derive such data from the vehicle behaviors in steady turns and braking in turns. Because each wheel loads are unknown factors, the two wheeled vehicle model are employed in analysis. The methodology of analysis and the reasonable results are presented in this paper. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Full Text Available To investigate the behavioral effects of different vehicles microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG of male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, tested in the elevated plus maze, animals were implanted with cannulas aimed at this structure. One week after surgery the animals received microinjections into the DPAG of 0.9% (w/v saline, 10% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 2% (v/v Tween-80, 10% (v/v propylene glycol, or synthetic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Ten min after the injection (0.5 µl the animals (N = 8-13/group were submitted to the elevated plus maze test. DMSO significantly increased the number of entries into both the open and enclosed arms when compared to 0.9% saline (2.7 ± 0.8 and 8.7 ± 1.3 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 and 5.1 ± 0.9, respectively, Duncan test, P<0.05, and tended to increase enclosed arm entries as compared to 2% Tween-80 (8.7 ± 1.3 vs 5.7 ± 0.9, Duncan test, P<0.10. In a second experiment no difference in plus maze exploration was found between 0.9% saline- or sham-injected animals (N = 11-13/group. These results indicate that intra-DPAG injection of some commonly used vehicles such as DMSO, saline or Tween-80 affects the exploratory activity of rats exposed to the elevated plus maze in statistically different manners
Full Text Available This study proposed an example on preliminary structural design including trade-off study and design evaluation such as structural safety and stability analysis of a 20-seat composite WIG craft using the netting rule and the rule of mixture and a commercial FEM tool. The structural configuration of the wing adopted the skin-spar semi-monocoque type structure with foam sandwich, and the fuselage also used the semi-monocoque type structure with the skin to carry shear flow, the stringers to carry bending moments and the ring frames to carry local loads under consideration of various design local load cases. The used materials were Carbon/Epoxy (UD for wing spar flanges and fuselage stringers and ring frames, Carbon/Epoxy (Fabric for fuselage skins, the sandwich with Carbon/Epoxy face sheet (Fabric and Al honeycomb core for the fuselage floor, and the sandwich with Carbon/Epoxy face sheet (UD and Urethane foam core for wing skins and spar webs. Through the structural analysis, the structural safety and stability were confirmed.
Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian
, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...... the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power...... of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same...
Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.
The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.
Klinkhachorn, P.; Mercer, A. Scott; Halabe, Udaya B.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.
Current non-destructive techniques for defect analysis of FRP bridge decks have a narrow scope. These techniques are very good at detecting certain types of defects but are not robust enough to detect all defects by themselves. For example, infrared thermography (IRT) can detect air filled defects and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is good at detecting water filled ones. These technologies can be combined to create a more robust defect detection scheme. To accomplish this, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) has been designed that incorporates both IR and GPR analysis to create a comprehensive defect map of a bridge deck. The UGV autonomously surveys the deck surface and acquires data. The UGV has two 1.5 GHz ground coupled GPR antennas that are mounted on the front of the UGV to collect GPR data. It also incorporates an active heating source and a radiometric IR camera to capture IR images of the deck, even in less than ideal weather scenarios such as cold cloudy days. The UGV is designed so that it can collect data in an assembly line fashion. It moves in 1 foot increments. When moving, it collects GPR data from the two antennas. When it stops it heats a section of the deck. The next time it stops to heat a section, the IR camera is analyzing the preheated deck section while preparing for the next section. Because the data is being continually collected using this method, the UGV can survey the entire deck in an efficient and timely manner.
Khemani, Farah N.
As research is being performed for the new heat shield for the Orion capsule, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the first composite heat shield. As an intern of the Structures Branch in the Engineering Directorate (ES 2), my main task was to set up a test plan to determine the material properties of the honeycomb that will be used on the Orion Crew Module heat shield to verify that the composite is suitable for the capsule. Before conducting composite shell tests, which are performed to simulate the crush performance of the heat shield on the capsule, it is necessary to determine the compression and shear properties of the composite used on the shell. During this internship, I was responsible for developing a test plan, designing parts for the test fixtures as well as getting them fabricated for the honeycomb shear and compression testing. This involved work in Pro/Engineer as well as coordinating with Fab Express, the Building 9 Composite Shop and the Structures Test Laboratory (STL). The research and work executed for this project will be used for composite sandwich panel testing in the future as well. As a part of the Structures Branch, my main focus was to research composite structures. This involves system engineering and integration (SE&I) integration, manufacturing, and preliminary testing. The procedures for these projects that were executed during this internship included design work, conducting tests and performing analysis.
Crashes involving transit vehicles, bicyclists, and pedestrians are a concern in Texas, especially in urban areas. This research explored the potential of automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) technology to reduce or eliminate these crashes. The pr...