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Sample records for ssu rrna gene

  1. A new sequence data set of SSU rRNA gene for Scleractinia and its phylogenetic and ecological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Vacherie, Benoî t; Benzoni, Francesca; Stefani, Fabrizio; Karsenti, Eric; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Nunes, Flavia; Payri, Claude; Wincker, Patrick; Barbe, Valé rie

    2016-01-01

    Scleractinian corals (i.e. hard corals) play a fundamental role in building and maintaining coral reefs, one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, their phylogenies remain largely unresolved and little is known about dispersal and survival of their planktonic larval phase. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a commonly used gene for DNA barcoding in several metazoans, and small variable regions of SSU rRNA are widely adopted as barcode marker to investigate marine plankton community structure worldwide. Here, we provide a large sequence data set of the complete SSU rRNA gene from 298 specimens, representing all known extant reef coral families and a total of 106 genera. The secondary structure was extremely conserved within the order with few exceptions due to insertions or deletions occurring in the variable regions. Remarkable differences in SSU rRNA length and base composition were detected between and within acroporids (Acropora, Montipora, Isopora and Alveopora) compared to other corals. The V4 and V9 regions seem to be promising barcode loci because variation at commonly used barcode primer binding sites was extremely low, while their levels of divergence allowed families and genera to be distinguished. A time-calibrated phylogeny of Scleractinia is provided, and mutation rate heterogeneity is demonstrated across main lineages. The use of this data set as a valuable reference for investigating aspects of ecology, biology, molecular taxonomy and evolution of scleractinian corals is discussed.

  2. A new sequence data set of SSU rRNA gene for Scleractinia and its phylogenetic and ecological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2016-11-27

    Scleractinian corals (i.e. hard corals) play a fundamental role in building and maintaining coral reefs, one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, their phylogenies remain largely unresolved and little is known about dispersal and survival of their planktonic larval phase. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a commonly used gene for DNA barcoding in several metazoans, and small variable regions of SSU rRNA are widely adopted as barcode marker to investigate marine plankton community structure worldwide. Here, we provide a large sequence data set of the complete SSU rRNA gene from 298 specimens, representing all known extant reef coral families and a total of 106 genera. The secondary structure was extremely conserved within the order with few exceptions due to insertions or deletions occurring in the variable regions. Remarkable differences in SSU rRNA length and base composition were detected between and within acroporids (Acropora, Montipora, Isopora and Alveopora) compared to other corals. The V4 and V9 regions seem to be promising barcode loci because variation at commonly used barcode primer binding sites was extremely low, while their levels of divergence allowed families and genera to be distinguished. A time-calibrated phylogeny of Scleractinia is provided, and mutation rate heterogeneity is demonstrated across main lineages. The use of this data set as a valuable reference for investigating aspects of ecology, biology, molecular taxonomy and evolution of scleractinian corals is discussed.

  3. Thousands of primer-free, high-quality, full-length SSU rRNA sequences from all domains of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Soeren M; Dueholm, Morten S; McIlroy, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are the consensus marker for determination of microbial diversity on the planet, invaluable in studies of evolution and, for the past decade, high-throughput sequencing of variable regions of ribosomal RNA genes has become the backbone of most microbial ecology studies...... (SSU) rRNA genes and synthetic long read sequencing by molecular tagging, to generate primer-free, full-length SSU rRNA gene sequences from all domains of life, with a median raw error rate of 0.17%. We generated thousands of full-length SSU rRNA sequences from five well-studied ecosystems (soil, human...... gut, fresh water, anaerobic digestion, and activated sludge) and obtained sequences covering all domains of life and the majority of all described phyla. Interestingly, 30% of all bacterial operational taxonomic units were novel, compared to the SILVA database (less than 97% similarity...

  4. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, S.S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Gjerde, B.

    2008-01-01

    any effect on previously inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Sarcocystidae. The complete small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene sequences of all six Sarcocystis species from reindeer were used in the phylogenetic analyses along with ssu rRNA gene sequences of 85 other members of the Coccidea. Trees...... the six species in phylogenetic analyses of the Sarcocystidae, and also to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the species from reindeer and those from other hosts. The study also aimed at revealing whether the inclusion of six Sarcocystis species from the same intermediate host would have....... tarandivulpes, formed a sister group to other Sarcocystis species with a canine definitive host. The position of S. hardangeri on the tree suggested that it uses another type of definitive host than the other Sarcocystis species in this clade. Considering the geographical distribution and infection intensity...

  5. Evolutionary relationships of Spirurina (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida) with special emphasis on dracunculoid nematodes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wijová, Martina; Moravec, František; Horák, Aleš; Lukeš, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 9 (2006), s. 1067-1075 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Spirurina * SSU rRNA gene sequences Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.337, year: 2006

  6. Retrieval of a million high-quality, full-length microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences without primer bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; McIlroy, Simon Jon

    2018-01-01

    Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, 16S in bacteria and 18S in eukaryotes, have been the standard phylogenetic markers used to characterize microbial diversity and evolution for decades. However, the reference databases of full-length SSU rRNA gene sequences are skewed to well-studied e...

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of some spirurine nematodes (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida: Spirurina) parasitic in fishes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černotíková, Eva; Horák, Aleš; Moravec, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2011), s. 135-148 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Spirurina * SSU rRNA * phylogeny * taxonomy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2011 http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=21981

  8. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidian isolates infecting silkworm, Bombyx mori using small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, B Surendra; Gupta, S K; Bajpai, A K

    2012-12-01

    The life cycle, spore morphology, pathogenicity, tissue specificity, mode of transmission and small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis of the five new microsporidian isolates viz., NIWB-11bp, NIWB-12n, NIWB-13md, NIWB-14b and NIWB-15mb identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori have been studied along with type species, NIK-1s_mys. The life cycle of the microsporidians identified exhibited the sequential developmental cycles that are similar to the general developmental cycle of the genus, Nosema. The spores showed considerable variations in their shape, length and width. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIWB-15mb was found to be more virulent than other isolates. All of the microsporidians were found to infect most of the tissues examined and showed gonadal infection and transovarial transmission in the infected silkworms. SSU-rRNA sequence based phylogenetic tree placed NIWB-14b, NIWB-12n and NIWB-11bp in a separate branch along with other Nosema species and Nosema bombycis; while NIWB-15mb and NIWB-13md together formed another cluster along with other Nosema species. NIK-1s_mys revealed a signature sequence similar to standard type species, N. bombycis, indicating that NIK-1s_mys is similar to N. bombycis. Based on phylogenetic relationships, branch length information based on genetic distance and nucleotide differences, we conclude that the microsporidian isolates identified are distinctly different from the other known species and belonging to the genus, Nosema. This SSU-rRNA gene sequence analysis method is found to be more useful approach in detecting different and closely related microsporidians of this economically important domestic insect.

  9. SSU rRNA reveals a sequential increase in shell complexity among the euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lara, Enrique; Heger, Thierry J; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2007-01-01

    The existing data on the molecular phylogeny of filose testate amoebae from order Euglyphida has revealed contradictions between traditional morphological classification and SSU rRNA phylogeny and, moreover, the position of several important genera remained unknown. We therefore carried out a stu...

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Lacher, David W; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. A total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of Sarcocystidae were included in the analyses with clonal isolates of two opossum and two horse S. neurona. Phylogenies obtained by the four tree-building methods were consistent with the classical taxonomy based on morphological criteria. The "isosporid" coccidia Neospora, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Isospora lacking stieda bodies, and Hyaloklossia formed a sister group to the Sarcocystis spp. Sarcocystis species were divided into three main lineages; S. neurona isolates were located in the second lineage and clustered with S. mucosa, S. dispersa, S. lacertae, S. rodentifelis, S. muris, and Frenkelia spp. Alignment of S. neurona SSU rRNA gene sequences of Michigan opossum isolates (MIOP5, MIOP20) and a S. neurona Michigan horse isolate (MIH8) showed 100% identity. These Michigan isolates differed in 2/1085 bp (0.2%) from a Kentucky S. neurona horse isolate (SN5). Additionally, S. neurona isolates from horses and opossums were identical based on the ultrastructural features and PCR-RFLP analyses thus forming a phylogenetically indistinct group in these regions. These findings revealed the concordance between the morphological and molecular data and confirmed that S. neurona from opossums and horses originated from the same phylogenetic origin.

  11. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P; Johnson, Arlen W

    2013-06-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome.

  12. Enhancing expression of SSU1 genes in Saccharomyces uvarum leads to an increase in sulfite tolerance and a transcriptome profile change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Z; Sang, M; Zhang, X A; Zhang, T K; Zhang, H Y; He, X; Li, S X; Sun, X D; Zhang, Z M

    2017-05-01

    Saccharomyces uvarum is a good wine yeast species that may have great potential for the future. However, sulfur tolerance of most S. uvarum strains is very poor. In addition there is still little information about the SSU1 gene of S. uvarum, which encodes a putative transporter conferring sulfite tolerance. In order to analyze the function of the SSU1 gene, two expression vectors that contained different SSU1 genes were constructed and transferred into a sulfite-tolerant S. uvarum strain, A9. Then sulfite tolerance, SO2 production, and PCR, sequencing, RT-qPCR and transcriptome analyses were used to access the function of the S. uvarum SSU1 gene. Our results illustrated that enhancing expression of the SSU1 gene can promote sulfite resistance in S. uvarum, and an insertion fragment ahead of the additional SSU1 gene, as seen in some alleles, could affect the expression of other genes and the sulfite tolerance level of S. uvarum. This is the first report on enhancing the expression of the SSU1 gene of S. uvarum. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Establishment of a continuous culture system for Entamoeba muris and analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi S.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We established a culture system for Entamoeba muris (MG-EM-01 strain isolated from a Mongolian gerbil using a modified Balamuth’s egg yolk infusion medium supplemented with 4% adult bovine serum and Bacteroides fragilis cocultured with Escherichia coli. Further, encystation was observed in the culture medium. The morphological characteristics of E. muris are similar to those of Entamoeba coli (E. coli; moreover, the malic isoenzyme electrophoretic band, which shows species-specific electrophoretic mobility, of E. muris had almost the same mobility as that observed with the malic isoenzyme electrophorectic band of E. coli (UZG-EC-01 strain isolated from a gorilla. We determined the small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA gene sequence of the MG-EM-01 strain, and this sequence was observed to show 82.7% homology with that of the UZG-EC-01 strain. Further, the resultant phylogenetic tree for molecular taxonomy based on the SSU-rRNA genes of the 21 strains of the intestinal parasitic amoeba species indicated that the MG-EM-01 strain was most closely related to E. coli.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of diplomonads and enteromonads based on SSU rRNA, alpha-tubulin and HSP90 genes: Implications for the evolutionary history of the double karyomastigont of diplomonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fornicata is a relatively recently established group of protists that includes the diplokaryotic diplomonads (which have two similar nuclei per cell, and the monokaryotic enteromonads, retortamonads and Carpediemonas, with the more typical one nucleus per cell. The monophyly of the group was confirmed by molecular phylogenetic studies, but neither the internal phylogeny nor its position on the eukaryotic tree has been clearly resolved. Results Here we have introduced data for three genes (SSU rRNA, α-tubulin and HSP90 with a wide taxonomic sampling of Fornicata, including ten isolates of enteromonads, representing the genera Trimitus and Enteromonas, and a new undescribed enteromonad genus. The diplomonad sequences formed two main clades in individual gene and combined gene analyses, with Giardia (and Octomitus on one side of the basal divergence and Spironucleus, Hexamita and Trepomonas on the other. Contrary to earlier evolutionary scenarios, none of the studied enteromonads appeared basal to diplokaryotic diplomonads. Instead, the enteromonad isolates were all robustly situated within the second of the two diplomonad clades. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that enteromonads do not constitute a monophyletic group, and enteromonad monophyly was statistically rejected in 'approximately unbiased' tests of the combined gene data. Conclusion We suggest that all higher taxa intended to unite multiple enteromonad genera be abandoned, that Trimitus and Enteromonas be considered as part of Hexamitinae, and that the term 'enteromonads' be used in a strictly utilitarian sense. Our result suggests either that the diplokaryotic condition characteristic of diplomonads arose several times independently, or that the monokaryotic cell of enteromonads originated several times independently by secondary reduction from the diplokaryotic state. Both scenarios are evolutionarily complex. More comparative data on the similarity of the

  15. Diversity in the 18S SSU rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of Theileria spp. in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Ben J; Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Potgieter, Fred T

    2011-05-01

    Sequence variation within the 18S SSU rRNA V4 hyper-variable region can affect the accuracy of real-time hybridization probe-based diagnostics for the detection of Theileria spp. infections. This is relevant for assays that use non-specific primers, such as the real-time hybridization assay for T. parva (Sibeko et al. 2008). To assess the effect of sequence variation on this test, the Theileria 18S gene from 62 buffalo and 49 cattle samples was cloned and ∼1000 clones sequenced. Twenty-six genotypes were detected which included known and novel genotypes for the T. buffeli, T. mutans, T. taurotragi and T. velifera clades. A novel genotype related to T. sp. (sable) was also detected in 1 bovine sample. Theileria genotypic diversity was higher in buffalo compared to cattle. Polymorphism within the T. parva hyper-variable region was confirmed by aberrant real-time melting peaks and supported by sequencing of the S5 ribosomal gene. Analysis of the S5 gene suggests that this gene can be a marker for species differentiation. T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) remain the only genotypes amplified by the primer set of the hybridization assay. Therefore, the 18S sequence diversity observed does not seem to affect the current real-time hybridization assay for T. parva.

  16. Phylogenetic comparisons of a coastal bacterioplankton community with its counterparts in open ocean and freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappé; Vergin; Giovannoni

    2000-09-01

    In order to extend previous comparisons between coastal marine bacterioplankton communities and their open ocean and freshwater counterparts, here we summarize and provide new data on a clone library of 105 SSU rRNA genes recovered from seawater collected over the western continental shelf of the USA in the Pacific Ocean. Comparisons to previously published data revealed that this coastal bacterioplankton clone library was dominated by SSU rRNA gene phylotypes originally described from surface waters of the open ocean, but also revealed unique SSU rRNA gene lineages of beta Proteobacteria related to those found in clone libraries from freshwater habitats. beta Proteobacteria lineages common to coastal and freshwater samples included members of a clade of obligately methylotrophic bacteria, SSU rRNA genes affiliated with Xylophilus ampelinus, and a clade related to the genus Duganella. In addition, SSU rRNA genes were recovered from such previously recognized marine bacterioplankton SSU rRNA gene clone clusters as the SAR86, SAR11, and SAR116 clusters within the class Proteobacteria, the Roseobacter clade of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, the marine group A/SAR406 cluster, and the marine Actinobacteria clade. Overall, these results support and extend previous observations concerning the global distribution of several marine planktonic prokaryote SSU rRNA gene phylotypes, but also show that coastal bacterioplankton communities contain SSU rRNA gene lineages (and presumably bacterioplankton) shown previously to be prevalent in freshwater habitats.

  17. [Molecular evolution of the sulphite efflux gene SSU1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Xin; Sun, Fei-Fei; Huang, Yan-Yan; Li, Zhen-Chong

    2013-11-01

    The SSU1 gene encoding a membrane sulfite pump is a main facilitator invovled in sulfite efflux. In Saccharomyce cerevisiae, various range of resistance to sulfite was observed among strains. To explore the evolution traits of SSU1 gene, the population data of S. cerevisiae were collected and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. cerevisiae population can be classified into three sub-populations, and the positive selection was detected in population by McDonald-Kreitman test. The anaylsis of Ka/Ks ratios further showed that S. cerevisiae sub-population was undergoing positive selection. This finding was also supported by PAML branch model. Nine potential positive selection sites were predicted by branch-site model, and four sites exclusively belong to the sub-population under positive seletion. The data from ssulp protein structure demonstrated that three sites are substitutions between polar and hydrophobic amino acids, and only one site of substitutaion from basic amino acid to basic amino acid (345R/K). Because amino acid pKa values are crucial for sulfite pump to maintain their routine function, positive selection of these amino acid substitutions might affect sulfite efflux efficient.

  18. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested...... to be related to Ichthyodinium chabelardi, a dinoflagellate-like protist that parasitizes yolk sacs of embryos and larvae of a variety of fish species. Comparison of a 1535 bp long fragment of the SSU rRNA gene of the cod endoparasite showed absolute identify with I. chabelardi, demonstrating that the 2...

  19. Molecular evolution inferred from small subunit rRNA sequences: what does it tell us about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of the parabasalids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, E.; Edgcomb, V. P.; Gerbod, D.; Noel, C.; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P.; Sogin, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Parabasala are a primitive group of protists divided into two classes: the trichomonads and the hypermastigids. Until recently, phylogeny and taxonomy of parabasalids were mainly based on the comparative analysis of morphological characters primarily linked to the development of their cytoskeleton. Recent use of molecular markers, such as small subunit (SSU) rRNA has led to now insights into the systematics of the Parabasala and other groups of prolists. An updated phylogeny based on SSU rRNA is provided and compared to that inferred from ultrastructural data. The SSU rRNA phylogeny contradicts the dogma equating simple characters with pumitive characters. Hypermastigids, possessing a hyperdeveloped cytoskeleton, exhibit the most basal emergence in the parabasalid lineage. Other observations emerge from the SSU rRNA analysis, such as the secondary loss of some cytoskeleton structures in all representatives of the Monocercomonadidae, the existence of secondarily free living taxa (reversibility of parasitism) and the evidence against the co-evolution of the endobiotic parabasalids and their animal hosts. According to phylogenies based on SSU rRNA, all the trichomonad families are not monophyletic groups, putting into question the validity of current taxonomic assignments. The precise branching order of some taxa remains unclear, but this issue can possibly be addressed by the molecular analysis of additional parabasalids. The goal of such additional analyses would be to propose, in a near future, a revision of the taxonomy of this group of protists that takes into account both molecular and morphological data.

  20. Microbial Dark Matter: Unusual intervening sequences in 16S rRNA genes of candidate phyla from the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarett, Jessica; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Kieft, Thomas; Onstott, Tullis; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The Microbial Dark Matter project has sequenced genomes from over 200 single cells from candidate phyla, greatly expanding our knowledge of the ecology, inferred metabolism, and evolution of these widely distributed, yet poorly understood lineages. The second phase of this project aims to sequence an additional 800 single cells from known as well as potentially novel candidate phyla derived from a variety of environments. In order to identify whole genome amplified single cells, screening based on phylogenetic placement of 16S rRNA gene sequences is being conducted. Briefly, derived 16S rRNA gene sequences are aligned to a custom version of the Greengenes reference database and added to a reference tree in ARB using parsimony. In multiple samples from deep subsurface habitats but not from other habitats, a large number of sequences proved difficult to align and therefore to place in the tree. Based on comparisons to reference sequences and structural alignments using SSU-ALIGN, many of these ?difficult? sequences appear to originate from candidate phyla, and contain intervening sequences (IVSs) within the 16S rRNA genes. These IVSs are short (39 - 79 nt) and do not appear to be self-splicing or to contain open reading frames. IVSs were found in the loop regions of stem-loop structures in several different taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic placement of sequences is strongly affected by IVSs; two out of three groups investigated were classified as different phyla after their removal. Based on data from samples screened in this project, IVSs appear to be more common in microbes occurring in deep subsurface habitats, although the reasons for this remain elusive.

  1. Diversity of 23S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The concept of ribosomal constraints on rRNA genes is deduced primarily based on the comparison of consensus rRNA sequences between closely related species, but recent advances in whole-genome sequencing allow evaluation of this concept within organisms with multiple rRNA operons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the 23S rRNA gene as an example, we analyzed the diversity among individual rRNA genes within a genome. Of 184 prokaryotic species containing multiple 23S rRNA genes, diversity was observed in 113 (61.4% genomes (mean 0.40%, range 0.01%-4.04%. Significant (1.17%-4.04% intragenomic variation was found in 8 species. In 5 of the 8 species, the diversity in the primary structure had only minimal effect on the secondary structure (stem versus loop transition. In the remaining 3 species, the diversity significantly altered local secondary structure, but the alteration appears minimized through complex rearrangement. Intervening sequences (IVS, ranging between 9 and 1471 nt in size, were found in 7 species. IVS in Deinococcus radiodurans and Nostoc sp. encode transposases. T. tengcongensis was the only species in which intragenomic diversity >3% was observed among 4 paralogous 23S rRNA genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate tight ribosomal constraints on individual 23S rRNA genes within a genome. Although classification using primary 23S rRNA sequences could be erroneous, significant diversity among paralogous 23S rRNA genes was observed only once in the 184 species analyzed, indicating little overall impact on the mainstream of 23S rRNA gene-based prokaryotic taxonomy.

  2. Multiple independent insertions of 5S rRNA genes in the spliced-leader gene family of trypanosome species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauparlant, Marc A; Drouin, Guy

    2014-02-01

    Analyses of the 5S rRNA genes found in the spliced-leader (SL) gene repeat units of numerous trypanosome species suggest that such linkages were not inherited from a common ancestor, but were the result of independent 5S rRNA gene insertions. In trypanosomes, 5S rRNA genes are found either in the tandemly repeated units coding for SL genes or in independent tandemly repeated units. Given that trypanosome species where 5S rRNA genes are within the tandemly repeated units coding for SL genes are phylogenetically related, one might hypothesize that this arrangement is the result of an ancestral insertion of 5S rRNA genes into the tandemly repeated SL gene family of trypanosomes. Here, we use the types of 5S rRNA genes found associated with SL genes, the flanking regions of the inserted 5S rRNA genes and the position of these insertions to show that most of the 5S rRNA genes found within SL gene repeat units of trypanosome species were not acquired from a common ancestor but are the results of independent insertions. These multiple 5S rRNA genes insertion events in trypanosomes are likely the result of frequent founder events in different hosts and/or geographical locations in species having short generation times.

  3. High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has been developed over the past few years and is now ready to use for more comprehensive studies related to plant operation and optimization thanks to short analysis time, low cost, high throughput, and high taxonomic resolution. In this study we show how 16S r......RNA gene amplicon sequencing can be used to reveal factors of importance for the operation of full-scale nutrient removal plants related to settling problems and floc properties. Using optimized DNA extraction protocols, indexed primers and our in-house Illumina platform, we prepared multiple samples...... be correlated to the presence of the species that are regarded as “strong” and “weak” floc formers. In conclusion, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing provides a high throughput approach for a rapid and cheap community profiling of activated sludge that in combination with multivariate statistics can be used...

  4. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase genes among β-lactamase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Co production of 16S rRNA methylases gene and β-Lactamase gene among Enterobacteriaceae isolates conferring resistance to both therapeutic options has serious implications for clinicians worldwide. Methods: To study co existence of 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, and npmA) and ...

  5. 5S rRNA gene arrangements in protists: a case of nonadaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Guy; Tsang, Corey

    2012-06-01

    Given their high copy number and high level of expression, one might expect that both the sequence and organization of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes would be conserved during evolution. Although the organization of 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes is indeed relatively well conserved, that of 5S rRNA genes is much more variable. Here, we review the different types of 5S rRNA gene arrangements which have been observed in protists. This includes linkages to the other ribosomal RNA genes as well as linkages to ubiquitin, splice-leader, snRNA and tRNA genes. Mapping these linkages to independently derived phylogenies shows that these diverse linkages have repeatedly been gained and lost during evolution. This argues against such linkages being the primitive condition not only in protists but also in other eukaryote species. Because the only characteristic the diverse genes with which 5S rRNA genes are found linked with is that they are tandemly repeated, these arrangements are unlikely to provide any selective advantage. Rather, the observed high variability in 5S rRNA genes arrangements is likely the result of the fact that 5S rRNA genes contain internal promoters, that these genes are often transposed by diverse recombination mechanisms and that these new gene arrangements are rapidly homogenized by unequal crossingovers and/or by gene conversions events in species with short generation times and frequent founder events.

  6. Quantitative metagenomic analyses based on average genome size normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Jeremy Alexander; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2011-01-01

    provide not just a census of the community members but direct information on metabolic capabilities and potential interactions among community members. Here we introduce a method for the quantitative characterization and comparison of microbial communities based on the normalization of metagenomic data...... marine sources using both conventional small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene analyses and our quantitative method to calculate the proportion of genomes in each sample that are capable of a particular metabolic trait. With both environments, to determine what proportion of each community they make up and how......). These analyses demonstrate how genome proportionality compares to SSU rRNA gene relative abundance and how factors such as average genome size and SSU rRNA gene copy number affect sampling probability and therefore both types of community analysis....

  7. Characterization of 16S rRNA Processing with Pre-30S Subunit Assembly Intermediates from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian A; Gupta, Neha; Denny, Kevin; Culver, Gloria M

    2018-06-08

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a major component of ribosomes and is fundamental to the process of translation. In bacteria, 16S rRNA is a component of the small ribosomal subunit and plays a critical role in mRNA decoding. rRNA maturation entails the removal of intervening spacer sequences contained within the pre-rRNA transcript by nucleolytic enzymes. Enzymatic activities involved in maturation of the 5'-end of 16S rRNA have been identified, but those involved in 3'-end maturation of 16S rRNA are more enigmatic. Here, we investigate molecular details of 16S rRNA maturation using purified in vivo-formed small subunit (SSU) assembly intermediates (pre-SSUs) from wild-type Escherichia coli that contain precursor 16S rRNA (17S rRNA). Upon incubation of pre-SSUs with E. coli S100 cell extracts or purified enzymes implicated in 16S rRNA processing, the 17S rRNA is processed into additional intermediates and mature 16S rRNA. These results illustrate that exonucleases RNase R, RNase II, PNPase, and RNase PH can process the 3'-end of pre-SSUs in vitro. However, the endonuclease YbeY did not exhibit nucleolytic activity with pre-SSUs under these conditions. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that multiple pathways facilitate 16S rRNA maturation with pre-SSUs in vitro, with the dominant pathways entailing complete processing of the 5'-end of 17S rRNA prior to 3'-end maturation or partial processing of the 5'-end with concomitant processing of the 3'-end. These results reveal the multifaceted nature of SSU biogenesis and suggest that E. coli may be able to escape inactivation of any one enzyme by using an existing complementary pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How many 5S rRNA genes and pseudogenes are there in ''Aspergillus nidulans''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelczar, P.; Fiett, J.; Bartnik, E.

    1994-01-01

    We have estimated the number of 5S rRNA genes in ''Aspergillus nidulans'' using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and hybridization to appropriate probes, representing the 5'-halves, the 3'-halves of the 5S rRNA sequence and a sequence found at the 3'-end of all known. ''A. nidulans'' pseudogenes (block C). We have found 23 5S rRNA genes, 15 pseudogenes consisting of the 5'-half of the 5S rRNA sequence (of which 3 are flanked by block C) and 12 copies of block C which do not seem to be in the vicinity of 5S rRNA sequences. This number of genes is much lower than our earlier estimates, and makes our previously analyzed sample of 9 sequenced genes and 3 pseudogenes much more representative. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  9. Identification of pathogenic Nocardia species by reverse line blot hybridization targeting the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Cao, Yongyan; Lee, Ok Cha; Liu, Ying; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C A

    2010-02-01

    Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is employed most often for the definitive identification of Nocardia species, alternate molecular methods and polymorphisms in other gene targets have also enabled species determinations. We evaluated a combined Nocardia PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay based on 16S and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region polymorphisms to identify 12 American Type Culture Collection and 123 clinical Nocardia isolates representing 14 species; results were compared with results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Thirteen 16S rRNA gene-based (two group-specific and 11 species-specific) and five 16S-23S spacer-targeted (two taxon-specific and three species-specific) probes were utilized. 16S rRNA gene-based probes correctly identified 124 of 135 isolates (sensitivity, 92%) but were unable to identify Nocardia paucivorans strains (n = 10 strains) and a Nocardia asteroides isolate with a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence. Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica strains were identified by the sequential use of an N. farcinica-"negative" probe and a combined N. farcinica/N. cyriacigeorgica probe. The assay specificity was high (99%) except for weak cross-reactivity between the Nocardia brasiliensis probe with the Nocardia thailandica DNA product; however, cross-hybridization with closely related nontarget species may occur. The incorporation of 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-based probes enabled the identification of all N. paucivorans strains. The overall sensitivity using both probe sets was >99%. Both N. farcinica-specific 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-directed probes were required to identify all N. farcinica stains by using this probe set. The study demonstrates the utility of a combined PCR/RLB assay for the identification of clinically relevant Nocardia species and its potential for studying subtypes of N. farcinica. Where species assignment is ambiguous or not possible, 16S rRNA gene sequencing is recommended.

  10. The distribution, diversity, and importance of 16S rRNA gene introns in the order Thermoproteales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Zackary J; Inskeep, William P

    2015-07-09

    Intron sequences are common in 16S rRNA genes of specific thermophilic lineages of Archaea, specifically the Thermoproteales (phylum Crenarchaeota). Environmental sequencing (16S rRNA gene and metagenome) from geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has expanded the available datasets for investigating 16S rRNA gene introns. The objectives of this study were to characterize and curate archaeal 16S rRNA gene introns from high-temperature habitats, evaluate the conservation and distribution of archaeal 16S rRNA introns in geothermal systems, and determine which "universal" archaeal 16S rRNA gene primers are impacted by the presence of intron sequences. Several new introns were identified and their insertion loci were constrained to thirteen locations across the 16S rRNA gene. Many of these introns encode homing endonucleases, although some introns were short or partial sequences. Pyrobaculum, Thermoproteus, and Caldivirga 16S rRNA genes contained the most abundant and diverse intron sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of introns revealed that sequences within the same locus are distributed biogeographically. The most diverse set of introns were observed in a high-temperature, circumneutral (pH 6) sulfur sediment environment, which also contained the greatest diversity of different Thermoproteales phylotypes. The widespread presence of introns in the Thermoproteales indicates a high probability of misalignments using different "universal" 16S rRNA primers employed in environmental microbial community analysis.

  11. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase genes among b-lactamase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-07

    Jul 7, 2014 ... School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India ... Methods: To study co existence of 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, and .... Isolates positive for bla or 16S rRNA methylase genes.

  12. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Borong; Wang, Chundi; Huang, Jie; Shi, Yuhong; Chen, Xiangrui

    2016-10-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of two hypotrichous ciliates, Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013 were investigated based on morphology, infraciliature and the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequence. The new species, M. parastruederkypkeae n. sp. was identified according to its characteristics: body shape ellipsoidal, size about (165-200) × (45-60) μm in vivo, cell color reddish; two types of cortical granules including wheat grain-like and yellow-greenish larger ones along the marginal cirri rows and dorsal kineties and dot-like and reddish smaller ones, grouped around marginal cirri on ventral side and arranged in short lines on dorsal side; 26-41 adoral membranelles; three frontal and one parabuccal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, and three to six transverse cirri; seven to thirteen midventral pairs; five to nine unpaired ventral cirri, five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows; and three complete dorsal kineties. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that both Metaurostylopsis and Neourostylopsis are monophyletic. As the internal relationship between and within both genera are not clear, further studies on the species in these two genera are necessary. The key characteristics of all known twelve Metaurostylopsis-Apourostylopsis-Neourostylopsis species complex were updated.

  13. The weathervane model, a functional and structural organization of the two-component alkanesulfonate oxidoreductase SsuD from Xanthomonas citri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegos, V.R.; Oliveira, P.S.L.; Balan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogen responsible for the canker citrus disease, we identified in the ssuABCDE operon, genes encoding the alkanesulfonate ABC transporter as well as the two enzymes responsible for oxido reduction of the respective substrates. SsuD and SsuE proteins represent a two-component system that can be assigned to the group of FMNH 2 -dependent monooxygenases. How- ever, despite of the biochemical information about SsuD and SsuE orthologs from Escherichia coli, there is no structural information of how the two proteins work together. In this work, we used ultracentrifugation, SAXS data and molecular modeling to construct a structural/functional model, which consists of eight molecules organized in a weathervane shape. Through this model, SsuD ligand-binding site for NADPH 2 and FMN substrates is clearly exposed, in a way that might allow the protein-protein interactions with SsuE. Moreover, based on molecular dynamics simulations of SsuD in apo state, docked with NADPH 2 , FMN or both substrates, we characterized the residues of the pocket, the mechanism of substrate interaction and transfer of electrons from NADPH 2 to FMN. This is the first report that links functional and biochemical data with structural analyses. (author)

  14. Multilocus and SSU rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses of available cyanobacterial genomes, and their relation to the current taxonomic system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 811, č. 1 (2018), s. 19-34 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11912S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : 16S rRNA * Cyanobacterial orders * Multilocus phylogeny Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  15. Nucleolin is required for DNA methylation state and the expression of rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Pontvianne

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays in copy numbers ranging from several hundred to several thousand in plants. Although it is clear that not all copies are transcribed under normal growth conditions, the molecular basis controlling the expression of specific sets of rRNA genes remains unclear. Here, we report four major rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, while transcription of one of these rRNA variants is induced, the others are either repressed or remain unaltered in A. thaliana plants with a disrupted nucleolin-like protein gene (Atnuc-L1. Remarkably, the most highly represented rRNA gene variant, which is inactive in WT plants, is reactivated in Atnuc-L1 mutants. We show that accumulated pre-rRNAs originate from RNA Pol I transcription and are processed accurately. Moreover, we show that disruption of the AtNUC-L1 gene induces loss of symmetrical DNA methylation without affecting histone epigenetic marks at rRNA genes. Collectively, these data reveal a novel mechanism for rRNA gene transcriptional regulation in which the nucleolin protein plays a major role in controlling active and repressed rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis.

  16. Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes overexpression and intellectual disability. Alexander A. Dolskiy, Natalya A. Lemskaya, Yulia V. Maksimova, Asia R. Shorina, Irina S. Kolesnikova, Dmitry V. Yudkin ...

  17. Phylogenetic relatedness determined between antibiotic resistance and 16S rRNA genes in actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Ulanova, Dana; Sanderova, Petra; Omelka, Marek; Kamenik, Zdenek; Olsovska, Jana; Kopecky, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Distribution and evolutionary history of resistance genes in environmental actinobacteria provide information on intensity of antibiosis and evolution of specific secondary metabolic pathways at a given site. To this day, actinobacteria producing biologically active compounds were isolated mostly from soil but only a limited range of soil environments were commonly sampled. Consequently, soil remains an unexplored environment in search for novel producers and related evolutionary questions. Ninety actinobacteria strains isolated at contrasting soil sites were characterized phylogenetically by 16S rRNA gene, for presence of erm and ABC transporter resistance genes and antibiotic production. An analogous analysis was performed in silico with 246 and 31 strains from Integrated Microbial Genomes (JGI_IMG) database selected by the presence of ABC transporter genes and erm genes, respectively. In the isolates, distances of erm gene sequences were significantly correlated to phylogenetic distances based on 16S rRNA genes, while ABC transporter gene distances were not. The phylogenetic distance of isolates was significantly correlated to soil pH and organic matter content of isolation sites. In the analysis of JGI_IMG datasets the correlation between phylogeny of resistance genes and the strain phylogeny based on 16S rRNA genes or five housekeeping genes was observed for both the erm genes and ABC transporter genes in both actinobacteria and streptomycetes. However, in the analysis of sequences from genomes where both resistance genes occurred together the correlation was observed for both ABC transporter and erm genes in actinobacteria but in streptomycetes only in the erm gene. The type of erm resistance gene sequences was influenced by linkage to 16S rRNA gene sequences and site characteristics. The phylogeny of ABC transporter gene was correlated to 16S rRNA genes mainly above the genus level. The results support the concept of new specific secondary metabolite

  18. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, Susannah; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-09-07

    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the last quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  19. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringe, Susannah G; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-10-01

    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the past quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata, and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  20. Deletion analysis of the expression of rRNA genes and associated tRNA genes carried by a lambda transducing bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, E.A.; Nomura, M.

    1979-01-01

    Transducing phage lambda ilv5 carries genes for rRNA's, spacer tRNA's (tRNA 1 /sup Ile/ and tRNA/sub 1B//sup Ala/), and two other tRNA's (tRNA 1 /sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/). We have isolated a mutant of lambda ilv5, lambda ilv5su7, which carries an amber suppressor mutation in the tRNA/sup Trp/ gene. A series of deletion mutants were isolated from the lambda ilv5su7 phage. Genetic and biochemical analyses of these deletion mutants have confirmed our previous conclusion that the genes for tRNA 1 /sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/ located at the distal end of the rRNA operon (rrnC) are cotranscribed with other rRNA genes in that operon. In addition, these deletions were used to define roughly the physical location of the promoter(s) of the rRNA operon carried by the lambda ilv5su7 transducing phage

  1. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wu

    Full Text Available Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9 within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%; and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2 nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9 of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%; 3 compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%; and 4 V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  2. Structural and physiological analyses of the alkanesulphonate-binding protein (SsuA of the citrus pathogen Xanthomonas citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Tófoli de Araújo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The uptake of sulphur-containing compounds plays a pivotal role in the physiology of bacteria that live in aerobic soils where organosulfur compounds such as sulphonates and sulphate esters represent more than 95% of the available sulphur. Until now, no information has been available on the uptake of sulphonates by bacterial plant pathogens, particularly those of the Xanthomonas genus, which encompasses several pathogenic species. In the present study, we characterised the alkanesulphonate uptake system (Ssu of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306 strain (X. citri, the etiological agent of citrus canker. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single operon-like gene cluster (ssuEDACB that encodes both the sulphur uptake system and enzymes involved in desulphurisation was detected in the genomes of X. citri and of the closely related species. We characterised X. citri SsuA protein, a periplasmic alkanesulphonate-binding protein that, together with SsuC and SsuB, defines the alkanesulphonate uptake system. The crystal structure of SsuA bound to MOPS, MES and HEPES, which is herein described for the first time, provides evidence for the importance of a conserved dipole in sulphate group coordination, identifies specific amino acids interacting with the sulphate group and shows the presence of a rather large binding pocket that explains the rather wide range of molecules recognised by the protein. Isolation of an isogenic ssuA-knockout derivative of the X. citri 306 strain showed that disruption of alkanesulphonate uptake affects both xanthan gum production and generation of canker lesions in sweet orange leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study unravels unique structural and functional features of the X. citri SsuA protein and provides the first experimental evidence that an ABC uptake system affects the virulence of this phytopathogen.

  3. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for id ntification of Sta h lococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asdmin

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... as the type strains of a species of genus Trichoderma based on phylogenetic tree analysis together with the 18S rRNA gene sequence search in Ribosomal Database Project, small subunit rRNA and large subunit rRNA databases. The sequence was deposited in GenBank with the accession numbers.

  4. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3-100%. However, the inter-species similarities were

  5. Crystal Structure of the Human Symplekin-Ssu72-CTD Phosphopeptide Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Xiang; T Nigaike; S Xiang; T Kilic; M Beh; J Manley; L Tong

    2011-12-31

    Symplekin (Pta1 in yeast) is a scaffold in the large protein complex that is required for 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation of eukaryotic messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs); it also participates in transcription initiation and termination by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Symplekin mediates interactions between many different proteins in this machinery, although the molecular basis for its function is not known. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution of the amino-terminal domain (residues 30-340) of human symplekin in a ternary complex with the Pol II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) Ser5 phosphatase Ssu72 and a CTD Ser5 phosphopeptide. The N-terminal domain of symplekin has the ARM or HEAT fold, with seven pairs of antiparallel {alpha}-helices arranged in the shape of an arc. The structure of Ssu72 has some similarity to that of low-molecular-mass phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase, although Ssu72 has a unique active-site landscape as well as extra structural features at the C terminus that are important for interaction with symplekin. Ssu72 is bound to the concave face of symplekin, and engineered mutations in this interface can abolish interactions between the two proteins. The CTD peptide is bound in the active site of Ssu72, with the pSer5-Pro6 peptide bond in the cis configuration, which contrasts with all other known CTD peptide conformations. Although the active site of Ssu72 is about 25 {angstrom} from the interface with symplekin, we found that the symplekin N-terminal domain stimulates Ssu72 CTD phosphatase activity in vitro. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of symplekin inhibits polyadenylation in vitro, but only when coupled to transcription. Because catalytically active Ssu72 overcomes this inhibition, our results show a role for mammalian Ssu72 in transcription-coupled pre-mRNA 3'-end processing.

  6. Heitmania gen. nov., a new yeast genus in Microbotryomycetes, and description of three novel species: Heitmania litseae sp. nov., Heitmania castanopsis sp. nov. and Heitmania elacocarpi sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Xin-Zhan; Groenewald, Marizeth; Boekhout, Teun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    Nine anamorphic yeast strains isolated from various plant leaves collected in southern China were phylogenetically characterized based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, the two

  7. Variable Copy Number, Intra-Genomic Heterogeneities and Lateral Transfers of the 16S rRNA Gene in Pseudomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, Josselin; Nsigue-Meilo, Sandrine; Besaury, Ludovic; Quillet, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Even though the 16S rRNA gene is the most commonly used taxonomic marker in microbial ecology, its poor resolution is still not fully understood at the intra-genus level. In this work, the number of rRNA gene operons, intra-genomic heterogeneities and lateral transfers were investigated at a fine-scale resolution, throughout the Pseudomonas genus. In addition to nineteen sequenced Pseudomonas strains, we determined the 16S rRNA copy number in four other Pseudomonas strains by Southern hybridization and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and studied the intra-genomic heterogeneities by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and sequencing. Although the variable copy number (from four to seven) seems to be correlated with the evolutionary distance, some close strains in the P. fluorescens lineage showed a different number of 16S rRNA genes, whereas all the strains in the P. aeruginosa lineage displayed the same number of genes (four copies). Further study of the intra-genomic heterogeneities revealed that most of the Pseudomonas strains (15 out of 19 strains) had at least two different 16S rRNA alleles. A great difference (5 or 19 nucleotides, essentially grouped near the V1 hypervariable region) was observed only in two sequenced strains. In one of our strains studied (MFY30 strain), we found a difference of 12 nucleotides (grouped in the V3 hypervariable region) between copies of the 16S rRNA gene. Finally, occurrence of partial lateral transfers of the 16S rRNA gene was further investigated in 1803 full-length sequences of Pseudomonas available in the databases. Remarkably, we found that the two most variable regions (the V1 and V3 hypervariable regions) had probably been laterally transferred from another evolutionary distant Pseudomonas strain for at least 48.3 and 41.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences, respectively. In conclusion, we strongly recommend removing these regions of the 16S rRNA gene during the intra-genus diversity studies. PMID:22545126

  8. Punctual mutations in 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori in Colombian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Andrés Jenuer; Zambrano, Diana Carolina; Pazos, Alvaro Jairo

    2018-04-14

    To characterize punctual mutations in 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) and determine their association with therapeutic failure. PCR products of 23S rRNA gene V domain of 74 H. pylori isolates; 34 resistant to clarithromycin (29 from a low-risk gastric cancer (GC) population: Tumaco-Colombia, and 5 from a high-risk population: Tuquerres-Colombia) and 40 from a susceptible population (28 from Tumaco and 12 from Túquerres) were sequenced using capillary electrophoresis. The concordance between mutations of V domain 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori and therapeutic failure was determined using the Kappa coefficient and McNemar's test was performed to determine the relationship between H. pylori mutations and clarithromycin resistance. 23S rRNA gene from H. pylori was amplified in 56/74 isolates, of which 25 were resistant to clarithromycin (20 from Tumaco and 5 from Túquerres, respectively). In 17 resistant isolates (13 from Tumaco and 4 from Túquerres) the following mutations were found: A1593T1, A1653G2, C1770T, C1954T1, and G1827C in isolates from Tumaco, and A2144G from Túquerres. The mutations T2183C, A2144G and C2196T in H. pylori isolates resistant to clarithromycin from Colombia are reported for the first time. No association between the H. pylori mutations and in vitro clarithromycin resistance was found. However, therapeutic failure of eradication treatment was associated with mutations of 23S rRNA gene in clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori ( κ = 0.71). The therapeutic failure of eradication treatment in the two populations from Colombia was associated with mutations of the 23S rRNA gene in clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori .

  9. Alteration of rRNA gene copy number and expression in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irina S. Kolesnikova

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... Asia R. Shorina d, Alexander S. Graphodatsky a, Ekaterina M. Galanina b, Dmitry V. Yudkin a,b,* ... rRNA gene copy numbers on affected acrocentric chromosomes in .... estimated using MS Excel software (Microsoft, USA).

  10. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Nathan D.; Lund, Steven P.; Zook, Justin M.; Rojas-Cornejo, Fabiola; Beck, Brian; Foy, Carole; Huggett, Jim; Whale, Alexandra S.; Sui, Zhiwei; Baoutina, Anna; Dobeson, Michael; Partis, Lina; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing®, or Ion Torrent PGM®. The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1) identity of biologically conserved position, (2) ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3) the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies. PMID:27077030

  11. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. Olson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing®, or Ion Torrent PGM®. The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1 identity of biologically conserved position, (2 ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3 the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies.

  12. Detection and characterization of Pasteuria 16S rRNA gene sequences from nematodes and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y P; Castro, H F; Hewlett, T E; White, J H; Ogram, A V

    2003-01-01

    Various bacterial species in the genus Pasteuria have great potential as biocontrol agents against plant-parasitic nematodes, although study of this important genus is hampered by the current inability to cultivate Pasteuria species outside their host. To aid in the study of this genus, an extensive 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny was constructed and this information was used to develop cultivation-independent methods for detection of Pasteuria in soils and nematodes. Thirty new clones of Pasteuria 16S rRNA genes were obtained directly from nematodes and soil samples. These were sequenced and used to construct an extensive phylogeny of this genus. These sequences were divided into two deeply branching clades within the low-G + C, Gram-positive division; some sequences appear to represent novel species within the genus Pasteuria. In addition, a surprising degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence diversity was observed within what had previously been designated a single strain of Pasteuria penetrans (P-20). PCR primers specific to Pasteuria 16S rRNA for detection of Pasteuria in soils were also designed and evaluated. Detection limits for soil DNA were 100-10,000 Pasteuria endospores (g soil)(-1).

  13. How Changes in Anti-SD Sequences Would Affect SD Sequences in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolbaghaei, Akram; Silke, Jordan R; Xia, Xuhua

    2017-05-05

    The 3' end of the small ribosomal RNAs (ssu rRNA) in bacteria is directly involved in the selection and binding of mRNA transcripts during translation initiation via well-documented interactions between a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence located upstream of the initiation codon and an anti-SD (aSD) sequence at the 3' end of the ssu rRNA. Consequently, the 3' end of ssu rRNA (3'TAIL) is strongly conserved among bacterial species because a change in the region may impact the translation of many protein-coding genes. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis differ in their 3' ends of ssu rRNA, being GAUC ACCUCCUUA 3' in E. coli and GAUC ACCUCCUU UCU3' or GAUC ACCUCCUU UCUA3' in B. subtilis Such differences in 3'TAIL lead to species-specific SDs (designated SD Ec for E. coli and SD Bs for B. subtilis ) that can form strong and well-positioned SD/aSD pairing in one species but not in the other. Selection mediated by the species-specific 3'TAIL is expected to favor SD Bs against SD Ec in B. subtilis , but favor SD Ec against SD Bs in E. coli Among well-positioned SDs, SD Ec is used more in E. coli than in B. subtilis , and SD Bs more in B. subtilis than in E. coli Highly expressed genes and genes of high translation efficiency tend to have longer SDs than lowly expressed genes and genes with low translation efficiency in both species, but more so in B. subtilis than in E. coli Both species overuse SDs matching the bolded part of the 3'TAIL shown above. The 3'TAIL difference contributes to the host specificity of phages. Copyright © 2017 Abolbaghaei et al.

  14. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, T; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intraspecies heterogeneity within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis, five isolates with diverse antigenic profiles, variable/identical P120 hypervariable domains, and different 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns were analysed. The 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon was amplified...

  15. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, T; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intraspecies heterogeneity within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis, five isolates with diverse antigenic profiles, variable/identical P120 hypervariable domains, and different 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns were analysed. The 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon was amplified...... by PCR and the PCR products were sequenced. Three isolates had identical 16S rRNA sequences and two isolates had sequences that differed from the others by only one nucleotide....

  16. Folate deficiency facilitates recruitment of upstream binding factor to hot spots of DNA double-strand breaks of rRNA genes and promotes its transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiu; Li, Caihua; Song, Xiaozhen; Wu, Lihua; Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Zhiyong; Cao, Haiyan; Yu, Kaihui; Wan, Chunlei; Li, Jianting; Yang, Feng; Huang, Zebing; Niu, Bo; Jiang, Zhengwen; Zhang, Ting

    2017-03-17

    The biogenesis of ribosomes in vivo is an essential process for cellular functions. Transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis controlled by environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the role of folate antagonist on changes of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) landscape in mouse embryonic stem cells. A significant DSB enhancement was detected in the genome of these cells and a large majority of these DSBs were found in rRNA genes. Furthermore, spontaneous DSBs in cells under folate deficiency conditions were located exclusively within the rRNA gene units, representing a H3K4me1 hallmark. Enrichment H3K4me1 at the hot spots of DSB regions enhanced the recruitment of upstream binding factor (UBF) to rRNA genes, resulting in the increment of rRNA genes transcription. Supplement of folate resulted in a restored UBF binding across DNA breakage sites of rRNA genes, and normal rRNA gene transcription. In samples from neural tube defects (NTDs) with low folate level, up-regulation of rRNA gene transcription was observed, along with aberrant UBF level. Our results present a new view by which alterations in folate levels affects DNA breakage through epigenetic control leading to the regulation of rRNA gene transcription during the early stage of development. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. The nucleotide sequence and organization of nuclear 5S rRNA genes in yellow lupine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuc, K.; Nuc, P.; Pawelkiewicz, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a genomic clone containing 'Lupinus luteus' 5S ribosomal RNA genes by screening with 5S rDNA probe clones that were hybridized previously with the initiator methionine tRNA preparation (contaminated) with traces of rRNA or its degradation products). The clone isolated contains ten repeat units of 342 bp with 119 bp fragment showing 100% homology to the 5S rRNA from yellow lupine. Sequence analysis indicates only point heterogeneities among the flanking regions of the genes. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  18. Defining reference sequences for Nocardia species by similarity and clustering analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Helal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intra- and inter-species genetic diversity of bacteria and the absence of 'reference', or the most representative, sequences of individual species present a significant challenge for sequence-based identification. The aims of this study were to determine the utility, and compare the performance of several clustering and classification algorithms to identify the species of 364 sequences of 16S rRNA gene with a defined species in GenBank, and 110 sequences of 16S rRNA gene with no defined species, all within the genus Nocardia. METHODS: A total of 364 16S rRNA gene sequences of Nocardia species were studied. In addition, 110 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned only to the Nocardia genus level at the time of submission to GenBank were used for machine learning classification experiments. Different clustering algorithms were compared with a novel algorithm or the linear mapping (LM of the distance matrix. Principal Components Analysis was used for the dimensionality reduction and visualization. RESULTS: The LM algorithm achieved the highest performance and classified the set of 364 16S rRNA sequences into 80 clusters, the majority of which (83.52% corresponded with the original species. The most representative 16S rRNA sequences for individual Nocardia species have been identified as 'centroids' in respective clusters from which the distances to all other sequences were minimized; 110 16S rRNA gene sequences with identifications recorded only at the genus level were classified using machine learning methods. Simple kNN machine learning demonstrated the highest performance and classified Nocardia species sequences with an accuracy of 92.7% and a mean frequency of 0.578. CONCLUSION: The identification of centroids of 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters using novel distance matrix clustering enables the identification of the most representative sequences for each individual species of Nocardia and allows the quantitation of inter- and intra

  19. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic tree of lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... processed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Phylogenetic tree was constructed with the sequences of the V2-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Results show two distinct divisions among the Lactobacillus species. The study presents a new understanding of the nature of the Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota ...

  20. Morphological and molecular description of Blastocrithidia cyrtomeni sp. nov. (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae associated with Cyrtomenus bergi Froeschner (Hemiptera: Cydnidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Caicedo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new trypanosomatid species, Blastocrithidia cyrtomeni, is herein described using morphological and molecular data. It was found parasitising the alimentary tract of the insect host Cyrtomenus bergi, a polyphagous pest. The morphology of B. cyrtomeni was investigated using light and transmission microscopy and molecular phylogeny was inferred from the sequences of spliced leader RNA (SL rRNA - 5S rRNA gene repeats and the 18S small subunit (SSU rRNA gene. Epimastigotes of variable size with straphanger cysts adhering to the middle of the flagellum were observed in the intestinal tract, hemolymph and Malpighian tubules. Kinetoplasts were always observed anterior to the nucleus. The ultrastructure of longitudinal sections of epimastigotes showed the flagellum arising laterally from a relatively shallow flagellar pocket near the kinetoplast. SL RNA and 5S rRNA gene repeats were positive in all cases, producing a 0.8-kb band. The amplicons were 797-803 bp long with > 98.5% identity, indicating that they originated from the same organism. According to the sequence analysis of the SL-5S rRNA gene repeats and the 18S SSU rRNA gene, B. cyrtomeni is different from all other known species or isolates of Trypanosomatidae. Both analyses indicate that among known species, it is most closely related to Blastocrithidia triatomae.

  1. Phylogeny and Systematics of Leptomyxid Amoebae (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea, Leptomyxida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexey; Nassonova, Elena; Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Berney, Cedric; Glotova, Anna; Bondarenko, Natalya; Dyková, Iva; Mrva, Martin; Fahrni, Jose; Pawlowski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    We describe four new species of Flabellula, Leptomyxa and Rhizamoeba and publish new SSU rRNA gene and actin gene sequences of leptomyxids. Using these data we provide the most comprehensive SSU phylogeny of leptomyxids to date. Based on the analyses of morphological data and results of the SSU rRNA gene phylogeny we suggest changes in the systematics of the order Leptomyxida (Amoebozoa: Lobosa: Tubulinea). We propose to merge the genera Flabellula and Paraflabellula (the genus Flabellula remains valid by priority rule). The genus Rhizamoeba is evidently polyphyletic in all phylogenetic trees; we suggest retaining the generic name Rhizamoeba for the group unifying R. saxonica, R.matisi n. sp. and R. polyura, the latter remains the type species of the genus Rhizamoeba. Based on molecular and morphological evidence we move all remaining Rhizamoeba species to the genus Leptomyxa. New family Rhizamoebidae is established here in order to avoid paraphyly of the family Leptomyxidae. With the suggested changes both molecular and morphological systems of the order Leptomyxida are now fully congruent to each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutational analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNASer(UCN) genes in Tunisian patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Saber; Louhichi, Nacim; Charfeddine, Ilhem; Amor, Mohamed Ben; Lahmar, Imed; Driss, Nabil; Drira, Mohamed; Ayadi, Hammadi; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2006-01-01

    We explored the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes in 100 Tunisian families affected with NSHL and in 100 control individuals. We identified the mitochondrial A1555G mutation in one out of these 100 families and not in the 100 control individuals. Members of this family harbouring the A1555G mutation showed phenotypic heterogeneity which could be explained by an eventual nuclear-mitochondrial interaction. So, we have screened three nuclear genes: GJB2, GJB3, and GJB6 but we have not found correlation between the phenotypic heterogeneity and variants detected in these genes. We explored also the entire mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes. We detected five novel polymorphisms: T742C, T794A, A813G, C868T, and C954T, and 12 known polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. None of the 100 families or the 100 controls were found to carry mutations in the tRNA Ser(UCN) gene. We report here First mutational screening of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes in the Tunisian population which describes the second family harbouring the A1555G mutation in Africa and reveals novel polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of 23S rRNA gene sequences of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... glycol plus control. All isolates exhibited good drought-tolerant efficiencies at 10% PEG. While most of the isolates could not tolerate up to 20% PEG, isolates of Rlv6, Rlv9, Rlv12 and Rlv13 tolerated up to 20% PEG. Keywords: Rhizobium leguminosarum, 23S rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree, diversity and drought tolerance ...

  4. Nematode 18S rRNA gene is a reliable tool for environmental biosafety assessment of transgenic banana in confined field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakacwa, R; Kiggundu, A; Talwana, H; Namaganda, J; Lilley, C; Tushemereirwe, W; Atkinson, H

    2013-10-01

    Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment.

  5. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesemer, Kirsten A; Mann, Allison E; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Schroeder, Hannes; Ozga, Andrew T; Brandt, Bernd W; Zaura, Egija; Waters-Rist, Andrea; Hoogland, Menno; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Aldenderfer, Mark; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Weston, Darlene A; MacDonald, Sandy J; Thomas, Gavin H; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M; Hofman, Corinne; Warinner, Christina

    2015-11-13

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341-534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon sequencing. Through comparisons of microbial taxonomic counts from paired amplicon (V3 U341F/534R) and shotgun sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that extensive length polymorphisms in the V3 region are a consistent and major cause of differential amplification leading to taxonomic bias in ancient microbiome reconstructions based on amplicon sequencing. We conclude that systematic amplification bias confounds attempts to accurately reconstruct microbiome taxonomic profiles from 16S rRNA V3 amplicon data generated using universal primers. Because in silico analysis indicates that alternative 16S rRNA hypervariable regions will present similar challenges, we advocate for the use of a shotgun metagenomics approach in ancient microbiome reconstructions.

  6. Phylogenetic relatedness determined between antibiotic resistance and 16S rRNA genes in actinobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ságová-Marečková, M.; Ulanová, Dana; Šanderová, P.; Omelka, M.; Kameník, Zdeněk; Olšovská, J.; Kopecký, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, APR 2015 (2015) ISSN 1471-2180 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Actinobacteria * 16S rRNA diversity * Resistance genes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2015

  7. Evaluation of two main RNA-seq approaches for gene quantification in clinical RNA sequencing: polyA+ selection versus rRNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanrong; Zhang, Ying; Gamini, Ramya; Zhang, Baohong; von Schack, David

    2018-03-19

    To allow efficient transcript/gene detection, highly abundant ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) are generally removed from total RNA either by positive polyA+ selection or by rRNA depletion (negative selection) before sequencing. Comparisons between the two methods have been carried out by various groups, but the assessments have relied largely on non-clinical samples. In this study, we evaluated these two RNA sequencing approaches using human blood and colon tissue samples. Our analyses showed that rRNA depletion captured more unique transcriptome features, whereas polyA+ selection outperformed rRNA depletion with higher exonic coverage and better accuracy of gene quantification. For blood- and colon-derived RNAs, we found that 220% and 50% more reads, respectively, would have to be sequenced to achieve the same level of exonic coverage in the rRNA depletion method compared with the polyA+ selection method. Therefore, in most cases we strongly recommend polyA+ selection over rRNA depletion for gene quantification in clinical RNA sequencing. Our evaluation revealed that a small number of lncRNAs and small RNAs made up a large fraction of the reads in the rRNA depletion RNA sequencing data. Thus, we recommend that these RNAs are specifically depleted to improve the sequencing depth of the remaining RNAs.

  8. High prevalence of plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylase gene rmtB among Escherichia coli clinical isolates from a Chinese teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue-qing

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, production of 16S rRNA methylases by Gram-negative bacilli has emerged as a novel mechanism for high-level resistance to aminoglycosides by these organisms in a variety of geographic locations. Therefore, the spread of high-level aminoglycoside resistance determinants has become a great concern. Methods Between January 2006 and July 2008, 680 distinct Escherichia coli clinical isolates were collected from a teaching hospital in Wenzhou, China. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify 16S rRNA methylase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL genes, including armA and rmtB, and in situ hybridization was performed to determine the location of 16S rRNA methylase genes. Conjugation experiments were subsequently performed to determine whether aminoglycoside resistance was transferable from the E. coli isolates via 16S rRNA methylase-bearing plasmids. Homology of the isolates harboring 16S rRNA methylase genes was determined using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results Among the 680 E. coli isolates, 357 (52.5%, 346 (50.9% and 44 (6.5% isolates were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin, respectively. Thirty-seven of 44 amikacin-resistant isolates harbored 16S rRNA methylase genes, with 36 of 37 harboring the rmtB gene and only one harboring armA. The positive rates of 16S rRNA methylase genes among all isolates and amikacin-resistant isolates were 5.4% (37/680 and 84.1% (37/44, respectively. Thirty-one isolates harboring 16S rRNA methylase genes also produced ESBLs. In addition, high-level aminoglycoside resistance could be transferred by conjugation from four rmtB-positive donors. The plasmids of incompatibility groups IncF, IncK and IncN were detected in 34, 3 and 3 isolates, respectively. Upstream regions of the armA gene contained ISCR1 and tnpU, the latter a putative transposase gene,. Another putative transposase gene, tnpD, was located within a region downstream of armA. Moreover, a

  9. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziesemer, K.A.; Mann, A.E.; Sankaranarayanan, K.; Schroeder, H.; Ozga, A.T.; Brandt, B.W.; Zaura, E.; Waters-Rist, A.; Hoogland, M.; Salazar-García, D.C.; Aldenderfer, M.; Speller, C.; Hendy, J.; Weston, D.A.; MacDonald, S.J.; Thomas, G.H.; Collins, M.J.; Lewis, C.M.; Hofman, C.; Warinner, C.

    2015-01-01

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341-534) of this

  10. Extensive 16S rRNA gene sequence diversity in Campylobacter hyointestinalis strains: taxonomic and applied implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, C.S.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subspecies were examined by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequence similarities among C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strains exceeded 99.0 %, but values among C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis strains ranged from 96...... of the genus Campylobacter, emphasizing the need for multiple strain analysis when using 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons for taxonomic investigations........4 to 100 %. Sequence similarites between strains representing the two different subspecies ranged from 95.7 to 99.0 %. An intervening sequence was identified in certain of the C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strains. C. hyointestinalis strains occupied two distinct branches in a phylogenetic analysis...

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Fusobacterium prausnitzii based upon the 16S rRNA gene sequence and PCR confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R F; Cao, W W; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-01-01

    In order to develop a PCR method to detect Fusobacterium prausnitzii in human feces and to clarify the phylogenetic position of this species, its 16S rRNA gene sequence was determined. The sequence described in this paper is different from the 16S rRNA gene sequence is specific for F. prausnitzii, and the results of this assay confirmed that F. prausnitzii is the most common species in human feces. However, a PCR assay based on the original GenBank sequence was negative when it was performed with two strains of F. prausnitzii obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. A phylogenetic tree based on the new 16S rRNA gene sequence was constructed. On this tree F. prausnitzii was not a member of the Fusobacterium group but was closer to some Eubacterium spp. and located between Clostridium "clusters III and IV" (M.D. Collins, P.A. Lawson, A. Willems, J.J. Cordoba, J. Fernandez-Garayzabal, P. Garcia, J. Cai, H. Hippe, and J.A.E. Farrow, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:812-826, 1994).

  12. Phytoplasma phylogenetics based on analysis of secA and 23S rRNA gene sequences for improved resolution of candidate species of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Jennifer; Boonham, Neil; Mumford, Rick; Harrison, Nigel; Dickinson, Matthew

    2008-08-01

    Phytoplasma phylogenetics has focused primarily on sequences of the non-coding 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (16-23S ISR), and primers that enable amplification of these regions from all phytoplasmas by PCR are well established. In this study, primers based on the secA gene have been developed into a semi-nested PCR assay that results in a sequence of the expected size (about 480 bp) from all 34 phytoplasmas examined, including strains representative of 12 16Sr groups. Phylogenetic analysis of secA gene sequences showed similar clustering of phytoplasmas when compared with clusters resolved by similar sequence analyses of a 16-23S ISR-23S rRNA gene contig or of the 16S rRNA gene alone. The main differences between trees were in the branch lengths, which were elongated in the 16-23S ISR-23S rRNA gene tree when compared with the 16S rRNA gene tree and elongated still further in the secA gene tree, despite this being a shorter sequence. The improved resolution in the secA gene-derived phylogenetic tree resulted in the 16SrII group splitting into two distinct clusters, while phytoplasmas associated with coconut lethal yellowing-type diseases split into three distinct groups, thereby supporting past proposals that they represent different candidate species within 'Candidatus Phytoplasma'. The ability to differentiate 16Sr groups and subgroups by virtual RFLP analysis of secA gene sequences suggests that this gene may provide an informative alternative molecular marker for pathogen identification and diagnosis of phytoplasma diseases.

  13. Identification of active methanotrophs in a landfill cover soil through detection of expression of 16S rRNA and functional genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Dumont, Marc G; Cébron, Aurélie; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-11-01

    Active methanotrophs in a landfill soil were revealed by detecting the 16S rRNA of methanotrophs and the mRNA transcripts of key genes involved in methane oxidation. New 16S rRNA primers targeting type I and type II methanotrophs were designed and optimized for analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Direct extraction of RNA from soil enabled the analysis of the expression of the functional genes: mmoX, pmoA and mxaF, which encode subunits of soluble methane monooxygenase, particulate methane monooxygenase and methanol dehydrogenase respectively. The 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for type I methanotrophs detected Methylomonas, Methylosarcina and Methylobacter sequences from both soil DNA and cDNA which was generated from RNA extracted directly from the landfill cover soil. The 16S rRNA primers for type II methanotrophs detected primarily Methylocella and some Methylocystis 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of mRNA recovered from the soil indicated that Methylobacter, Methylosarcina, Methylomonas, Methylocystis and Methylocella were actively expressing genes involved in methane and methanol oxidation. Transcripts of pmoA but not mmoX were readily detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), indicating that particulate methane monooxygenase may be largely responsible for methane oxidation in situ.

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of the sl1p pipeline for 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Fiona J; Surette, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed for detailed, molecular-based studies of microbial communities such as the human gut, soil, and ocean waters. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, specific to prokaryotes, using universal PCR primers has become a common approach to studying the composition of these microbiota. However, the bioinformatic processing of the resulting millions of DNA sequences can be challenging, and a standardized protocol would aid in reproducible analyses. The short-read library 16S rRNA gene sequencing pipeline (sl1p, pronounced "slip") was designed with the purpose of mitigating this lack of reproducibility by combining pre-existing tools into a computational pipeline. This pipeline automates the processing of raw 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to create human-readable tables, graphs, and figures to make the collected data more readily accessible. Data generated from mock communities were compared using eight OTU clustering algorithms, two taxon assignment approaches, and three 16S rRNA gene reference databases. While all of these algorithms and options are available to sl1p users, through testing with human-associated mock communities, AbundantOTU+, the RDP Classifier, and the Greengenes 2011 reference database were chosen as sl1p's defaults based on their ability to best represent the known input communities. sl1p promotes reproducible research by providing a comprehensive log file, and reduces the computational knowledge needed by the user to process next-generation sequencing data. sl1p is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/fwhelan/sl1p .

  15. Simultaneous pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA, IncP-1 trfA, and merA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Peter Nikolai; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Hansen, Lars H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of amplicon pyrosequencing makes it possible to produce thousands of sequences of the same gene at relatively low costs. Here we show that it is possible to simultaneously sequence the 16S rRNA gene, IncP-1 trfA gene and mercury reductase gene (merA) as a way for screening the diversity...

  16. Changes in the Composition of Drinking Water Bacterial Clone Libraries Introduced by Using Two Different 16S rRNA Gene PCR Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries is a popular tool used to describe the composition of natural microbial communities. Commonly, clone libraries are developed by direct cloning of 16S rRNA gene PCR products. Different primers are often employed in the initial amp...

  17. Investigation of histone H4 hyperacetylation dynamics in the 5S rRNA genes family by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlibașa, Liliana; Suciu, Ilinca

    2015-12-01

    Oogenesis is a critical event in the formation of female gamete, whose role in development is to transfer genomic information to the next generation. During this process, the gene expression pattern changes dramatically concomitant with genome remodelling, while genomic information is stably maintained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of H4 acetylation of the oocyte and somatic 5S rRNA genes in Triturus cristatus, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Our findings suggest that some epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA gene families.

  18. Phylogeny and morphological variability of trypanosomes from African pelomedusid turtles with redescription of Trypanosoma mocambicum Pienaar, 1962

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, N.; Čepička, I.; Qablan, M. A.; Gibson, W.; Blažek, Radim; Široký, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 6 (2015), s. 599-608 ISSN 1434-4610 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Trypanosoma * turtle * Pelusios * polymorphism * phylogeny * SSU rRNA gene Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.898, year: 2015

  19. Exploring internal features of 16S rRNA gene for identification of clinically relevant species of the genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus is an economically important genus as a number of species belonging to this genus are human and animal pathogens. The genus has been divided into different groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The variability observed among the members of these groups is low and it is difficult to distinguish them. The present study was taken up to explore 16S rRNA gene sequence to develop methods that can be used for preliminary identification and can supplement the existing methods for identification of clinically-relevant isolates of the genus Streptococcus. Methods 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the isolates of S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. bovis, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus and S. anginosus were analyzed with the purpose to define genetic variability within each species to generate a phylogenetic framework, to identify species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. Results The framework based analysis was used to segregate Streptococcus spp. previously identified upto genus level. This segregation was validated using species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. 43 uncharacterized Streptococcus spp. could be identified using this approach. Conclusions The markers generated exploring 16S rRNA gene sequences provided useful tool that can be further used for identification of different species of the genus Streptococcus. PMID:21702978

  20. 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic microarray for simultaneous identification of members of the genus Burkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönmann, Susan; Loy, Alexander; Wimmersberger, Céline; Sobek, Jens; Aquino, Catharine; Vandamme, Peter; Frey, Beat; Rehrauer, Hubert; Eberl, Leo

    2009-04-01

    For cultivation-independent and highly parallel analysis of members of the genus Burkholderia, an oligonucleotide microarray (phylochip) consisting of 131 hierarchically nested 16S rRNA gene-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed. A novel primer pair was designed for selective amplification of a 1.3 kb 16S rRNA gene fragment of Burkholderia species prior to microarray analysis. The diagnostic performance of the microarray for identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species was tested with 44 reference strains of the genera Burkholderia, Pandoraea, Ralstonia and Limnobacter. Hybridization patterns based on presence/absence of probe signals were interpreted semi-automatically using the novel likelihood-based strategy of the web-tool Phylo- Detect. Eighty-eight per cent of the reference strains were correctly identified at the species level. The evaluated microarray was applied to investigate shifts in the Burkholderia community structure in acidic forest soil upon addition of cadmium, a condition that selected for Burkholderia species. The microarray results were in agreement with those obtained from phylogenetic analysis of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the same cadmiumcontaminated soil, demonstrating the value of the Burkholderia phylochip for determinative and environmental studies.

  1. Partial Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene of Selected Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and its Antibiotic Resistance

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    Harsi Dewantari Kusumaningrum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The choice of primer used in 16S rRNA sequencing for identification of Staphylococcus species found in food is important. This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates by partial sequencing based on 16S rRNA gene employing primers 16sF, 63F or 1387R. The isolates were isolated from milk, egg dishes and chicken dishes and selected based on the presence of sea gene that responsible for formation of enterotoxin-A. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates towards six antibiotics was also tested. The use of 16sF resulted generally in higher identity percentage and query coverage compared to the sequencing by 63F or 1387R. BLAST results of all isolates, sequenced by 16sF, showed 99% homology to complete genome of four S. aureus strains, with different characteristics on enterotoxin production and antibiotic resistance. Considering that all isolates were carrying sea gene, indicated by the occurence of 120 bp amplicon after PCR amplification using primer SEA1/SEA2,  the isolates were most in agreeing to S. aureus subsp. aureus ST288. This study indicated that 4 out of 8 selected isolates were resistant towards streptomycin. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 16sF is useful for identification of S. aureus. However, additional analysis such as PCR employing specific gene target, should give a valuable supplementary information, when specific characteristic is expected.

  2. Phylogenetic inference of Coxiella burnetii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

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    Heather P McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a human pathogen that causes the serious zoonotic disease Q fever. It is ubiquitous in the environment and due to its wide host range, long-range dispersal potential and classification as a bioterrorism agent, this microorganism is considered an HHS Select Agent. In the event of an outbreak or intentional release, laboratory strain typing methods can contribute to epidemiological investigations, law enforcement investigation and the public health response by providing critical information about the relatedness between C. burnetii isolates collected from different sources. Laboratory cultivation of C. burnetii is both time-consuming and challenging. Availability of strain collections is often limited and while several strain typing methods have been described over the years, a true gold-standard method is still elusive. Building upon epidemiological knowledge from limited, historical strain collections and typing data is essential to more accurately infer C. burnetii phylogeny. Harmonization of auspicious high-resolution laboratory typing techniques is critical to support epidemiological and law enforcement investigation. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP -based genotyping approach offers simplicity, rapidity and robustness. Herein, we demonstrate SNPs identified within 16S rRNA gene sequences can differentiate C. burnetii strains. Using this method, 55 isolates were assigned to six groups based on six polymorphisms. These 16S rRNA SNP-based genotyping results were largely congruent with those obtained by analyzing restriction-endonuclease (RE-digested DNA separated by SDS-PAGE and by the high-resolution approach based on SNPs within multispacer sequence typing (MST loci. The SNPs identified within the 16S rRNA gene can be used as targets for the development of additional SNP-based genotyping assays for C. burnetii.

  3. Four new species of Metschnikowia and the transfer of seven Candida species to Metschnikowia and Clavispora as new combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    From comparisons of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and gene sequences for nuclear D1/D2 LSU rRNA, nuclear SSU (18S) rRNA, translation elongation factor 1-a (EF1-a) and RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (RPB2), the following four new ascosporogenous yeast species were resolved and are described as Metschnikowia anglica (N...

  4. Flow Cytometry-Assisted Cloning of Specific Sequence Motifs from Complex 16S rRNA Gene Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Schramm, Andreas; Bernhard, Anne E.

    2004-01-01

    for Systems Biology,3 Seattle, Washington, and Department of Ecological Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany2 A flow cytometry method was developed for rapid screening and recovery of cloned DNA containing common sequence motifs. This approach, termed fluorescence-activated cell sorting......  FLOW CYTOMETRY-ASSISTED CLONING OF SPECIFIC SEQUENCE MOTIFS FROM COMPLEX 16S RRNA GENE LIBRARIES Jeppe L. Nielsen,1 Andreas Schramm,1,2 Anne E. Bernhard,1 Gerrit J. van den Engh,3 and David A. Stahl1* Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington,1 and Institute......-assisted cloning, was used to recover sequences affiliated with a unique lineage within the Bacteroidetes not abundant in a clone library of environmental 16S rRNA genes.  ...

  5. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

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    Kinyanjui Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli, T. orientalis (ikeda, T. orientalis (chitose and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP or type C (SSU rRNA. The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  6. A Gene Homologous to rRNA Methylase Genes Confers Erythromycin and Clindamycin Resistance in Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Noelia; Luque, Roberto; Milani, Christian; Ventura, Marco; Bañuelos, Oscar; Margolles, Abelardo

    2018-05-15

    Bifidobacteria are mutualistic intestinal bacteria, and their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting activities. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in this genus is controversial, since, although bifidobacteria are nonpathogenic microorganisms, they could serve as reservoirs of resistance determinants for intestinal pathogens. However, until now, few antibiotic resistance determinants have been functionally characterized in this genus. In this work, we show that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 displays atypical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. In order to delimit the genomic region responsible for the observed resistance phenotype, a library of genomic DNA was constructed and a fragment of 5.8 kb containing a gene homologous to rRNA methylase genes was able to confer erythromycin resistance in Escherichia coli This genomic region seems to be very uncommon, and homologs of the gene have been detected in only one strain of Bifidobacterium longum and two other strains of B. breve In this context, analysis of shotgun metagenomics data sets revealed that the gene is also uncommon in the microbiomes of adults and infants. The structural gene and its upstream region were cloned into a B. breve -sensitive strain, which became resistant after acquiring the genetic material. In vitro conjugation experiments did not allow us to detect gene transfer to other recipients. Nevertheless, prediction of genes potentially acquired through horizontal gene transfer events revealed that the gene is located in a putative genomic island. IMPORTANCE Bifidobacterium breve is a very common human intestinal bacterium. Often described as a pioneer microorganism in the establishment of early-life intestinal microbiota, its presence has been associated with several beneficial effects for the host, including immune stimulation and protection against infections. Therefore, some strains of this species are considered probiotics. In relation to this

  7. Nuclear counterparts of the cytoplasmic mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene: a problem of ancient DNA and molecular phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuyl, A C; Kuiken, C L; Dekker, J T; Perizonius, W R; Goudsmit, J

    1995-06-01

    Monkey mummy bones and teeth originating from the North Saqqara Baboon Galleries (Egypt), soft tissue from a mummified baboon in a museum collection, and nineteenth/twentieth-century skin fragments from mangabeys were used for DNA extraction and PCR amplification of part of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Sequences aligning with the 12S rRNA gene were recovered but were only distantly related to contemporary monkey mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences. However, many of these sequences were identical or closely related to human nuclear DNA sequences resembling mitochondrial 12S rRNA (isolated from a cell line depleted in mitochondria) and therefore have to be considered contamination. Subsequently in a separate study we were able to recover genuine mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences from many extant species of nonhuman Old World primates and sequences closely resembling the human nuclear integrations. Analysis of all sequences by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method indicated that mitochondrial DNA sequences and their nuclear counterparts can be divided into two distinct clusters. One cluster contained all temporary cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA sequences and approximately half of the monkey nuclear mitochondriallike sequences. A second cluster contained most human nuclear sequences and the other half of monkey nuclear sequences with a separate branch leading to human and gorilla mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. Sequences recovered from ancient materials were equally divided between the two clusters. These results constitute a warning for when working with ancient DNA or performing phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA as a target sequence: Nuclear counterparts of mitochondrial genes may lead to faulty interpretation of results.

  8. Plastid 16S rRNA gene diversity among eukaryotic picophytoplankton sorted by flow cytometry from the South Pacific Ocean.

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    Xiao Li Shi

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes was investigated in the South East Pacific Ocean. Genetic libraries of the plastid 16S rRNA gene were constructed on picoeukaryote populations sorted by flow cytometry, using two different primer sets, OXY107F/OXY1313R commonly used to amplify oxygenic organisms, and PLA491F/OXY1313R, biased towards plastids of marine algae. Surprisingly, the two sets revealed quite different photosynthetic picoeukaryote diversity patterns, which were moreover different from what we previously reported using the 18S rRNA nuclear gene as a marker. The first 16S primer set revealed many sequences related to Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae, the second 16S primer set was heavily biased toward Prymnesiophyceae, while 18S sequences were dominated by Prasinophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta. Primer mismatches with major algal lineages is probably one reason behind this discrepancy. However, other reasons, such as DNA accessibility or gene copy numbers, may be also critical. Based on plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, the structure of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes varied along the BIOSOPE transect vertically and horizontally. In oligotrophic regions, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae dominated. Pelagophyceae were prevalent at the DCM depth and Chrysophyceae at the surface. In mesotrophic regions Pelagophyceae were still important but Chlorophyta contribution increased. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new clade of Prasinophyceae (clade 16S-IX, which seems to be restricted to hyper-oligotrophic stations. Our data suggest that a single gene marker, even as widely used as 18S rRNA, provides a biased view of eukaryotic communities and that the use of several markers is necessary to obtain a complete image.

  9. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds.

  10. Characterization of Hydrocortisone Biometabolites and 18S rRNA Gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cultures

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    Seyed Bagher Mosavi-Azam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A unicellular microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was isolated from rice paddy-field soil and water samples and used in the biotransformation of hydrocortisone (1. This strain has not been previously tested for steroid bioconversion. Fermentation was carried out in BG-11 medium supplemented with 0.05% substrate at 25ºC for 14 days of incubation. The products obtained were chromatographically purified and characterized using spectroscopic methods. 11b,17b-Dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (2, 11b-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3,17-dione (3, 11b,17a,20b,21-tetrahydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (4 and prednisolone (5 were the main products of the bioconversion. The observed bioreaction features were the side chain degradation of the substrate to give compounds 2 and 3 and the 20-ketone reduction and 1,2-dehydrogenation affording compounds 4 and 5, respectively. A time course study showed the accumulation of product 2 from the second day of the fermentation and of compounds 3, 4 and 5 from the third day. All the metabolites reached their maximum concentration in seven days. Microalgal 18S rRNA gene was also amplified by PCR. PCR products were sequenced to confirm their authenticity as 18S rRNA gene of microalgae. The result of PCR blasted with other sequenced microalgae in NCBI showed 100% homology to the 18S small subunit rRNA of two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii spp.

  11. Characterization of hydrocortisone biometabolites and 18S rRNA gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Younes; Rasoul-Amini, Sara; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Ghoshoon, Mohammad Bagher; Nouri, Fatemeh; Negintaji, Narges; Parvizi, Rezvan; Mosavi-Azam, Seyed Bagher

    2008-10-31

    A unicellular microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was isolated from rice paddy-field soil and water samples and used in the biotransformation of hydrocortisone (1). This strain has not been previously tested for steroid bioconversion. Fermentation was carried out in BG-11 medium supplemented with 0.05% substrate at 25 degrees C for 14 days of incubation. The products obtained were chromatographically purified and characterized using spectroscopic methods. 11b,17 beta-Dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (2), 11 beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3,17-dione (3), 11 beta,17 alpha,20 beta,21-tetrahydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (4) and prednisolone (5) were the main products of the bioconversion. The observed bioreaction features were the side chain degradation of the substrate to give compounds 2 and 3 and the 20-ketone reduction and 1,2-dehydrogenation affording compounds 4 and 5, respectively. A time course study showed the accumulation of product 2 from the second day of the fermentation and of compounds 3, 4 and 5 from the third day. All the metabolites reached their maximum concentration in seven days. Microalgal 18S rRNA gene was also amplified by PCR. PCR products were sequenced to confirm their authenticity as 18S rRNA gene of microalgae. The result of PCR blasted with other sequenced microalgae in NCBI showed 100% homology to the 18S small subunit rRNA of two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii spp.

  12. Validation of a PCR Assay for Chlamydophila abortus rRNA gene detection in a murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Gibson da Silva-Zacarias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus is associated with reproductive problems in cattle, sheep, and goats. Diagnosis of C. abortus using embryonated chicken eggs or immortalized cell lines has a very low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays have been used to detect C. abortus infection in clinical specimens and organ fragments, such as placenta, fetal organs, vaginal secretions, and semen. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR assay for the amplification of an 856-bp fragment of the rRNA gene of the Chlamydiaceae family. The PCR assay was evaluated using organs from 15 mice experimentally infected with the S26/3 reference strain of C. abortus. The results of the rRNA PCR were compared to the results from another PCR system (Omp2 PCR that has been previously described for the Omp2 (outer major protein gene from the Chlamydiaceae family. From the 15 C. abortus-inoculated mice, 13 (K=0.84, standard error =0.20 tested positive using the rRNA PCR assay and 9 (K=0.55, standard error=0.18 tested positive using the Omp2 PCR assay. The detection limit, measured using inclusion-forming units (IFU, for C. abortus with the rRNA PCR (1.05 IFU was 100-fold lower than for the Omp2 PCR (105 IFU. The higher sensitivity of the rRNA PCR, as compared to the previously described PCR assay, and the specificity of the assay, demonstrated using different pathogenic microorganisms of the bovine reproductive system, suggest that the new PCR assay developed in this study can be used for the molecular diagnosis of C. abortus in abortion and other reproductive failures in bovines, caprines, and ovines.Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus é frequentemente associada a distúrbios reprodutivos em bovinos, ovinos e caprinos. Para o diagnóstico, os métodos de cultivo em ovo embrionado de galinha e em células de linhagem contínua apresentam baixa sensibilidade. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR tem sido utilizada em placenta, órgãos fetais, secre

  13. PCR diagnosis and characterization of Leishmania in local and imported clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönian, Gabriele; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Dinse, Nicole; Schweynoch, Carola; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Presber, Wolfgang; Jaffe, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    Leishmaniasis diagnosis in regions where multiple species exist should identify each species directly in the clinical sample without parasite culturing. The sensitivity of two PCR approaches which amplify part of the ssu rRNA gene and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively,

  14. Detection of a Mixed Infection in a Culture-Negative Brain Abscess by Broad-Spectrum Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene PCR ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter M.; Rampini, Silvana K.; Bloemberg, Guido V.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the identification of two bacterial pathogens from a culture-negative brain abscess by the use of broad-spectrum 16S rRNA gene PCR. Simultaneous detection of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas endodontalis was possible due to a 24-bp length difference of their partially amplified 16S rRNA genes, which allowed separation by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:20392909

  15. Identification of Bacillus Probiotics Isolated from Soil Rhizosphere Using 16S rRNA, recA, rpoB Gene Sequencing and RAPD-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohkam, Milad; Nezafat, Navid; Berenjian, Aydin; Mobasher, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-03-01

    Some Bacillus species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus groups, have highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences, which are hard to identify based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To conquer this drawback, rpoB, recA sequence analysis along with randomly amplified polymorphic (RAPD) fingerprinting was examined as an alternative method for differentiating Bacillus species. The 16S rRNA, rpoB and recA genes were amplified via a polymerase chain reaction using their specific primers. The resulted PCR amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was employed by MEGA 6 software. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing was underpinned by rpoB and recA gene sequencing as well as RAPD-PCR technique. Subsequently, concatenation and phylogenetic analysis showed that extent of diversity and similarity were better obtained by rpoB and recA primers, which are also reinforced by RAPD-PCR methods. However, in one case, these approaches failed to identify one isolate, which in combination with the phenotypical method offsets this issue. Overall, RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA along with concatenated genes sequence analysis discriminated closely related Bacillus species, which highlights the significance of the multigenic method in more precisely distinguishing Bacillus strains. This research emphasizes the benefit of RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA sequence analysis superior to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for suitable and effective identification of Bacillus species as recommended for probiotic products.

  16. Utility of COX1 phylogenetics to differentiate between locally acquired and imported Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jin Phang; Gao, Qiu Han Christine; Lee, Vernon J; Tetteh, Kevin; Drakeley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Although there have been several phylogenetic studies on Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi), only cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene analysis has shown some geographical differentiation between the isolates of different countries. METHODS Phylogenetic analysis of locally acquired P. knowlesi infections, based on circumsporozoite, small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA), merozoite surface protein 1 and COX1 gene targets, was performed. The results were compared with the published sequences of regional isolates from Malaysia and Thailand. RESULTS Phylogenetic analysis of the circumsporozoite, SSU rRNA and merozoite surface protein 1 gene sequences for regional P. knowlesi isolates showed no obvious differentiation that could be attributed to their geographical origin. However, COX1 gene analysis showed that it was possible to differentiate between Singapore-acquired P. knowlesi infections and P. knowlesi infections from Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia. CONCLUSION The ability to differentiate between locally acquired P. knowlesi infections and imported P. knowlesi infections has important utility for the monitoring of P. knowlesi malaria control programmes in Singapore. PMID:26805667

  17. Utility of COX1 phylogenetics to differentiate between locally acquired and imported Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jin Phang; Gao, Qiu Han Christine; Lee, Vernon J; Tetteh, Kevin; Drakeley, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Although there have been several phylogenetic studies on Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi), only cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene analysis has shown some geographical differentiation between the isolates of different countries. Phylogenetic analysis of locally acquired P. knowlesi infections, based on circumsporozoite, small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA), merozoite surface protein 1 and COX1 gene targets, was performed. The results were compared with the published sequences of regional isolates from Malaysia and Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis of the circumsporozoite, SSU rRNA and merozoite surface protein 1 gene sequences for regional P. knowlesi isolates showed no obvious differentiation that could be attributed to their geographical origin. However, COX1 gene analysis showed that it was possible to differentiate between Singapore-acquired P. knowlesi infections and P. knowlesi infections from Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia. The ability to differentiate between locally acquired P. knowlesi infections and imported P. knowlesi infections has important utility for the monitoring of P. knowlesi malaria control programmes in Singapore. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  18. Prosthetic joint infection due to Lysobacter thermophilus diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    B Dhawan; S Sebastian; R Malhotra; A Kapil; D Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of prosthetic joint infection caused by Lysobacter thermophilus which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Removal of prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in good clinical outcome. This case illustrates the use of molecular diagnostics to detect uncommon organisms in suspected prosthetic infections.

  19. 16S rRNA gene sequencing in routine identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Knudsen, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    A comparison between conventional identification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a routine setting was performed (n = 127). With sequencing, 89% were identified to the species level, versus 52% with conventional identification. The times...

  20. Analysis of rRNA gene methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana by CHEF-Conventional 2D gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohannath, Gireesha; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Contour-clamped homogenous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis, a variant of Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), is a powerful technique for resolving large fragments of DNA (10 kb to 9 Mb). CHEF has many applications including the physical mapping of chromosomes, artificial chromosomes and sub-chromosomal DNA fragments, etc. Here we describe the use of CHEF and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to analyze rRNA gene methylation patterns within the two ~ 4 million base pair nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) of Arabidopsis thaliana. The method involves CHEF gel electrophoresis of agarose-embedded DNA following restriction endonuclease digestion to cut the NORs into large but resolvable segments, followed by digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases and conventional (or CHEF) gel electrophoresis, in a second dimension. Resulting products are then detected by Southern blotting or PCR analyses capable of discriminating rRNA gene subtypes. PMID:27576719

  1. Community analysis of chronic wound bacteria using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing: impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance B Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonization is hypothesized to play a pathogenic role in the non-healing state of chronic wounds. We characterized wound bacteria from a cohort of chronic wound patients using a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach and assessed the impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prospectively enrolled 24 patients at a referral wound center in Baltimore, MD; sampled patients' wounds by curette; cultured samples under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; and pyrosequenced the 16S rRNA V3 hypervariable region. The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed an average of 10 different bacterial families in wounds--approximately 4 times more than estimated by culture-based analyses. Fastidious anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Clostridiales family XI were among the most prevalent bacteria identified exclusively by 16S rRNA gene-based analyses. Community-scale analyses showed that wound microbiota from antibiotic treated patients were significantly different from untreated patients (p = 0.007 and were characterized by increased Pseudomonadaceae abundance. These analyses also revealed that antibiotic use was associated with decreased Streptococcaceae among diabetics and that Streptococcaceae was more abundant among diabetics as compared to non-diabetics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed complex bacterial communities including anaerobic bacteria that may play causative roles in the non-healing state of some chronic wounds. Our data suggest that antimicrobial therapy alters community structure--reducing some bacteria while selecting for others.

  2. New polymorphic mtDNA restriction site in the 12S rRNA gene detected in Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Saber; Charfeddine, Ilhem; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2008-01-01

    The 12S rRNA gene was shown to be a hot spot for aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss since several deafness-associated mtDNA mutations were identified in this gene. Among them, we distinguished the A1555G, the C1494T and the T1095C mutations and C-insertion or deletion at position 961. One hundred Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss and 100 hearing individuals were analysed in this study. A PCR-RFLP analysis with HaeIII restriction enzyme showed the presence of the A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene in only one out of the 100 patients. In addition, PCR-RFLP and radioactive PCR revealed the presence of a new HaeIII polymorphic restriction site in the same gene of 12S rRNA site in 4 patients with non-syndromic hearing loss. UVIDOC-008-XD analyses showed the presence of this new polymorphic restriction site with a variable heteroplasmic rates at position +1517 of the human mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, direct sequencing of the entire mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in the 100 patients and in 100 hearing individuals revealed the presence of the A750G and A1438G polymorphisms and the absence of the C1494T, T1095C and 961insC mutations in all the tested individuals. Sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome in the 4 patients showing the new HaeIII polymorphic restriction site revealed only the presence of the A8860G transition in the MT-ATP6 gene and the A4769G polymorphism in the ND2 gene

  3. Greengenes: Chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbenchcompatible in ARB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, T.Z.; Hugenholtz, P.; Larsen, N.; Rojas, M.; Brodie,E.L; Keller, K.; Huber, T.; Dalevi, D.; Hu, P.; Andersen, G.L.

    2006-02-01

    A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera-screening, standard alignments and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was revealed that incongruent taxonomic nomenclature exists among curators even at the phylum-level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages within the Archaea and Bacteria.

  4. Globicatella sanguinis bacteraemia identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Balslew, Ulla; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a gram-positive coccus, resembling non-haemolytic streptococci. The organism has been isolated infrequently from normally sterile sites of humans. Three isolates obtained by blood culture could not be identified by Rapid 32 ID Strep, but partial sequencing of the 16S r......RNA gene revealed the identity of the isolated bacteria, and supplementary biochemical tests confirmed the species identification. The cases histories illustrate the dilemma of finding relevant, newly recognized, opportunistic pathogens and the identification achievement (s) that can be obtained by using...

  5. Dominant obligate anaerobes revealed in lower respiratory tract infection in horses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa

    2014-04-01

    Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella-especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica-are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin.

  6. Comparison of two approaches for the classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatellier, Sonia; Mugnier, Nathalie; Allard, Françoise; Bonnaud, Bertrand; Collin, Valérie; van Belkum, Alex; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Emler, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    The use of 16S rRNA gene sequences for microbial identification in clinical microbiology is accepted widely, and requires databases and algorithms. We compared a new research database containing curated 16S rRNA gene sequences in combination with the lca (lowest common ancestor) algorithm (RDB-LCA) to a commercially available 16S rDNA Centroid approach. We used 1025 bacterial isolates characterized by biochemistry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS and 16S rDNA sequencing. Nearly 80 % of isolates were identified unambiguously at the species level by both classification platforms used. The remaining isolates were mostly identified correctly at the genus level due to the limited resolution of 16S rDNA sequencing. Discrepancies between both 16S rDNA platforms were due to differences in database content and the algorithm used, and could amount to up to 10.5 %. Up to 1.4 % of the analyses were found to be inconclusive. It is important to realize that despite the overall good performance of the pipelines for analysis, some inconclusive results remain that require additional in-depth analysis performed using supplementary methods. © 2014 The Authors.

  7. Prosthetic joint infection due to Lysobacter thermophilus diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dhawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of prosthetic joint infection caused by Lysobacter thermophilus which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Removal of prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in good clinical outcome. This case illustrates the use of molecular diagnostics to detect uncommon organisms in suspected prosthetic infections.

  8. [Phylogeny of protostome moulting animals (Ecdysozoa) inferred from 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N B; Vladychenskaia, N S

    2005-01-01

    Reliability of reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within a group of protostome moulting animals was evaluated by means of comparison of 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences sets both taken separately and combined. Reliability of reconstructions was evaluated by values of the bootstrap support of major phylogenetic tree nodes and by degree of congruence of phylogenetic trees inferred by various methods. By both criteria, phylogenetic trees reconstructed from the combined 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences were better than those inferred from 18 and 28S sequences taken separately. Results obtained are consistent with phylogenetic hypothesis separating protostome animals into two major clades, moulting Ecdysozoa (Priapulida + Kinorhyncha, Nematoda + Nematomorpha, Onychophora + Tardigrada, Myriapoda + Chelicerata, Crustacea + Hexapoda) and unmoulting Lophotrochozoa (Plathelminthes, Nemertini, Annelida, Mollusca, Echiura, Sipuncula). Clade Cephalorhyncha does not include nematomorphs (Nematomorpha). Conclusion was taken that it is necessary to use combined 18 and 28S data in phylogenetic studies.

  9. 18S rRNA is a reliable normalisation gene for real time PCR based on influenza virus infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchipudi Suresh V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One requisite of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is to normalise the data with an internal reference gene that is invariant regardless of treatment, such as virus infection. Several studies have found variability in the expression of commonly used housekeeping genes, such as beta-actin (ACTB and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, under different experimental settings. However, ACTB and GAPDH remain widely used in the studies of host gene response to virus infections, including influenza viruses. To date no detailed study has been described that compares the suitability of commonly used housekeeping genes in influenza virus infections. The present study evaluated several commonly used housekeeping genes [ACTB, GAPDH, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA, ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide (ATP5B and ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9 (ATP5G1] to identify the most stably expressed gene in human, pig, chicken and duck cells infected with a range of influenza A virus subtypes. Results The relative expression stability of commonly used housekeeping genes were determined in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs, pig tracheal epithelial cells (PTECs, and chicken and duck primary lung-derived cells infected with five influenza A virus subtypes. Analysis of qRT-PCR data from virus and mock infected cells using NormFinder and BestKeeper software programmes found that 18S rRNA was the most stable gene in HBECs, PTECs and avian lung cells. Conclusions Based on the presented data from cell culture models (HBECs, PTECs, chicken and duck lung cells infected with a range of influenza viruses, we found that 18S rRNA is the most stable reference gene for normalising qRT-PCR data. Expression levels of the other housekeeping genes evaluated in this study (including ACTB and GPADH were highly affected by influenza virus infection and

  10. Direct 16S rRNA gene sequencing of polymicrobial culture-negative samples with analysis of mixed chromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Gitte N; Justesen, Ulrik S

    2010-01-01

    Two cases involving polymicrobial culture-negative samples were investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, with analysis of mixed chromatograms. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus constellatus were identified from pleural fluid in a patient with Lemierre's syndrome...

  11. Characterization of a new myxozoan species (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae: Myxosporea) in largescale stonerollers (Campostoma oligolepis) from the Mobile River Basin (Alabama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, D D; Iwanowicz, L R; Howerth, E W; Schill, W B; Blazer, V S; Johnson, R L

    2013-02-01

    Myxobolus stanlii sp. n. was described from largescale stonerollers ( Campostoma oligolepis ) from the Mobile River Basin in Alabama. The parasite was described using critical identifying morphological features, and the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence. The spore body was ovoid, 10.03 ± 0.7 (7.5-11.0) μm long and 8.8 ± 1.5 (6.3-11.3) μm wide in frontal view. Spore thickness was 6.3 ± 2.7 (6.2-8.6) μm in sutural view. Polar capsules were pyriform, of equal size, and oriented in plane with the sutural ridge. Polar capsules were 2.45 ± 1.5 (range 2.1-4.3) μm in width and 4.6 ± 2.7 (range 4.5-6.9) μm in length. Based on the SSU rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus stanlii sp. n. is most closely related to M. pseudodispar.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria innocua (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mian Abdul; Vrba, Vladimir; Barta, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eimeria innocua KR strain (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa) was sequenced. This coccidium infects turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), Bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus), and Grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Genome organization and gene contents were comparable with other Eimeria spp. infecting galliform birds. The circular-mapping mt genome of E. innocua is 6247 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cytb), 19 gene fragments encoding large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 14 gene fragments encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA. Like other Apicomplexa, no tRNA was encoded. The mitochondrial genome of E. innocua confirms its close phylogenetic affinities to Eimeria dispersa.

  13. Bacterial Diversity Studies Using the 16S rRNA Gene Provide a Powerful Research-Based Curriculum for Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan E. Dutton

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a ten-week curriculum for molecular biology that uses 16S ribosomal RNA genes to characterize and compare novel bacteria from hot spring communities in Yellowstone National Park. The 16S rRNA approach bypasses selective culture-based methods. Our molecular biology course offered the opportunity for students to learn broadly applicable methods while contributing to a long-term research project. Specifically, students isolated and characterized clones that contained novel 16S rRNA inserts using restriction enzyme, DNA sequencing, and computer-based phylogenetic methods. In both classes, students retrieved novel bacterial 16S rRNA genes, several of which were most similar to Green Nonsulfur bacterial isolates. During class, we evaluated student performance and mastery of skills and concepts using quizzes, formal lab notebooks, and a broad project assignment. For this report, we also assessed student performance alongside data quality and discussed the significance, our goal being to improve both research and teaching methods.

  14. Prevalence of 16S rRNA Methylase Gene rmtB Among Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Ningxia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; He, Tao; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Rong-Ming; Wang, Gui-Qin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the prevalence and molecular characterization of 16S rRNA methylase gene, rmtB, among Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis in China. A total of 245 E. coli isolates were collected from bovine mastitis in China between 2013 and 2014 and were screened for 16S rRNA methylase genes (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, and npmA) by polymerase chain reaction. About 5.3% (13/245) of the isolates carried the rmtB gene; the isolates were highly resistant to amikacin. Thirteen rmtB-positive strains were analyzed for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), bla(OXA), and bla(SHV)). All the isolates harbored both bla(TEM-1) and bla(CTX-M-15) genes and two of the isolates were also positive for bla(OXA-1). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis indicated that the nine rmtB-positive strains belonging to ST10 from one farm showed the similar PFGE pattern, indicating a clonal expansion in this farm. S1-PFGE and Southern blotting showed that 12 isolates harbored the rmtB gene in plasmids of two different sizes (≈45 kb [n=10] and ≈48 kb [n=2]), while only 1 strain harbored the rmtB gene in the chromosome. These plasmids were transferable by conjugation studies, and two isolates from two respective farms carried the same size of plasmid, suggesting that the horizontal transmission of plasmids also contributed to the spread of rmtB gene. This is the first report of prevalence of the 16S rRNA methylase gene rmtB among E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis in China, and rmtB-carrying E. coli may pose a threat to the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  15. Genomic GC-content affects the accuracy of 16S rRNA gene sequencing bsed microbial profiling due to PCR bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin F.; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-01-01

    Profiling of microbial community composition is frequently performed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing on benchtop platforms following PCR amplification of specific hypervariable regions within this gene. Accuracy and reproducibility of this strategy are two key parameters to consider, which may...... be influenced during all processes from sample collection and storage, through DNA extraction and PCR based library preparation to the final sequencing. In order to evaluate both the reproducibility and accuracy of 16S rRNA gene based microbial profiling using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, we prepared libraries...... be explained partly by premature read truncation, but to larger degree their genomic GC-content, which correlated negatively with the observed relative abundances, suggesting a PCR bias against GC-rich species during library preparation. Increasing the initial denaturation time during the PCR amplification...

  16. Metaxa: a software tool for automated detection and discrimination among ribosomal small subunit (12S/16S/18S) sequences of archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in metagenomes and environmental sequencing datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Johan; Eriksson, K Martin; Hartmann, Martin; Wang, Zheng; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Grelet, Gwen-Aëlle; Abarenkov, Kessy; Petri, Anna; Rosenblad, Magnus Alm; Nilsson, R Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The ribosomal small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene has emerged as an important genetic marker for taxonomic identification in environmental sequencing datasets. In addition to being present in the nucleus of eukaryotes and the core genome of prokaryotes, the gene is also found in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryotes. These three sets of genes are conceptually paralogous and should in most situations not be aligned and analyzed jointly. To identify the origin of SSU sequences in complex sequence datasets has hitherto been a time-consuming and largely manual undertaking. However, the present study introduces Metaxa ( http://microbiology.se/software/metaxa/ ), an automated software tool to extract full-length and partial SSU sequences from larger sequence datasets and assign them to an archaeal, bacterial, nuclear eukaryote, mitochondrial, or chloroplast origin. Using data from reference databases and from full-length organelle and organism genomes, we show that Metaxa detects and scores SSU sequences for origin with very low proportions of false positives and negatives. We believe that this tool will be useful in microbial and evolutionary ecology as well as in metagenomics.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of some spirurine nematodes (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida: Spirurina) parasitic in fishes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernotíková, Eva; Horák, Ales; Moravec, Frantisek

    2011-06-01

    Abstract: Small subunit rRNA sequences were obtained from 38 representatives mainly of the nematode orders Spirurida (Camallanidae, Cystidicolidae, Daniconematidae, Philometridae, Physalopteridae, Rhabdochonidae, Skrjabillanidae) and, in part, Ascaridida (Anisakidae, Cucullanidae, Quimperiidae). The examined nematodes are predominantly parasites of fishes. Their analyses provided well-supported trees allowing the study ofphylogenetic relationships among some spirurine nematodes. The present results support the placement of Cucullanidae at the base of the suborder Spirurina and, based on the position of the genus Philonema (subfamily Philoneminae) forming a sister group to Skrjabillanidae (thus Philoneminae should be elevated to Philonemidae), the paraphyly of the Philometridae. Comparison of a large number of sequences of representatives of the latter family supports the paraphyly of the genera Philometra, Philometroides and Dentiphilometra. The validity of the newly included genera Afrophilometra and Caranginema is not supported. These results indicate geographical isolation has not been the cause of speciation in this parasite group and no coevolution with fish hosts is apparent. On the contrary, the group of South-American species ofAlinema, Nilonema and Rumai is placed in an independent branch, thus markedly separated from other family members. Molecular data indicate that the skrjabillanid subfamily Esocineminae (represented by Esocinema bohemicum) should be either elevated to the rank of an independent family or Daniconematidae (Mexiconema africanum) should be decreased to Daniconematinae and transferred to the family Skrjabillanidae. Camallanid genera Camallanus and Procamallanus, as well as the subgenera Procamallanus and Spirocamallanus are confirmed to be paraphyletic. Paraphyly has also been found within Filarioidea, Habronematoidea and Thelazioidea and in Cystidicolidae, Physalopteridae and Thelaziidae. The results of the analyses also show that

  18. PoSSuM v.2.0: data update and a new function for investigating ligand analogs and target proteins of small-molecule drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Jun-ichi; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Tomii, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    PoSSuM (http://possum.cbrc.jp/PoSSuM/) is a database for detecting similar small-molecule binding sites on proteins. Since its initial release in 2011, PoSSuM has grown to provide information related to 49 million pairs of similar binding sites discovered among 5.5 million known and putative binding sites. This enlargement of the database is expected to enhance opportunities for biological and pharmaceutical applications, such as predictions of new functions and drug discovery. In this release, we have provided a new service named PoSSuM drug search (PoSSuMds) at http://possum.cbrc.jp/PoSSuM/drug_search/, in which we selected 194 approved drug compounds retrieved from ChEMBL, and detected their known binding pockets and pockets that are similar to them. Users can access and download all of the search results via a new web interface, which is useful for finding ligand analogs as well as potential target proteins. Furthermore, PoSSuMds enables users to explore the binding pocket universe within PoSSuM. Additionally, we have improved the web interface with new functions, including sortable tables and a viewer for visualizing and downloading superimposed pockets. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. An intergenic non-coding rRNA correlated with expression of the rRNA and frequency of an rRNA single nucleotide polymorphism in lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Horng Shiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA is a central regulator of cell growth and may control cancer development. A cis noncoding rRNA (nc-rRNA upstream from the 45S rRNA transcription start site has recently been implicated in control of rRNA transcription in mouse fibroblasts. We investigated whether a similar nc-rRNA might be expressed in human cancer epithelial cells, and related to any genomic characteristics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using quantitative rRNA measurement, we demonstrated that a nc-rRNA is transcribed in human lung epithelial and lung cancer cells, starting from approximately -1000 nucleotides upstream of the rRNA transcription start site (+1 and extending at least to +203. This nc-rRNA was significantly more abundant in the majority of lung cancer cell lines, relative to a nontransformed lung epithelial cell line. Its abundance correlated negatively with total 45S rRNA in 12 of 13 cell lines (P = 0.014. During sequence analysis from -388 to +306, we observed diverse, frequent intercopy single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in rRNA, with a frequency greater than predicted by chance at 12 sites. A SNP at +139 (U/C in the 5' leader sequence varied among the cell lines and correlated negatively with level of the nc-rRNA (P = 0.014. Modelling of the secondary structure of the rRNA 5'-leader sequence indicated a small increase in structural stability due to the +139 U/C SNP and a minor shift in local configuration occurrences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate occurrence of a sense nc-rRNA in human lung epithelial and cancer cells, and imply a role in regulation of the rRNA gene, which may be affected by a +139 SNP in the 5' leader sequence of the primary rRNA transcript.

  20. Combined analyses of the ITS loci and the corresponding 16S rRNA genes reveal high micro- and macrodiversity of SAR11 populations in the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David; Stingl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    that of the corresponding 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, species estimates based on the ITS showed a highly diverse population of SAR11 in the mixed layer that became diminished in deep isothermal waters, which was in contrast to results of the related 16S rRNA genes. While

  1. Evaluation of the use of amplified 16S rRNA gene-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to detect enterobacter cloacae and bacillus licheniformis for microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Otsuka, Makiko; Ichimura, Naoya [Lansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan); Yonebayashi, Hideharu [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Hong, Chengxie; Enomoto, Heiji [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Evaluation of effectiveness of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of microorganisms injected into an oil reservoir, for monitoring their levels over time, was conducted. Two microorganisms, enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were focused in this paper among the microorganisms selected for injection, and gene fragments of the 16S rRNA gene of these microorganisms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCP), using one set of universal primers. Samples of the reservoir brine and reservoir rock were obtained; the microorganisms inhabiting in the reservoir were isolated from these samples, and the 16S rRNA gene of these microorganisms was amplified, condition remaining the same. RFLP analysis was performed on the 16S rRNA gene of each of these microorganisms, using restriction endonucleases HhaI, MspI, AluI and TaqI as necessary. Comparison of the resultant rRNA gene fragments, demonstrated that closely-related species displaying RFLP profile similar to that of E. cloacae TRC-322 or B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a were not among the microorganisms isolated from the reservoir. PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, using the protocol; presented in this paper, is effective to detect the presence appropriate injecting microorganisms. This method was also effective for studying microorganisms isolated from the reservoir, which have the ability to grow on a molasses. (author)

  2. Mutations in 23S rRNA gene associated with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin in Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei-Bei; Shen, Jian-Zhong; Cao, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Yang; Dai, Lei; Huang, Si-Yang; Wu, Cong-Ming

    2010-07-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major etiological agent of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens and sinusitis in turkeys. The pleuromutilin antibiotics tiamulin and valnemulin are currently used in the treatment of M. gallisepticum infection. We studied the in vitro development of pleuromutilin resistance in M. gallisepticum and investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Pleuromutilin-resistant mutants were selected by serial passages of M. gallisepticum strains PG31 and S6 in broth medium containing subinhibitory concentrations of tiamulin or valnemulin. A portion of the gene encoding 23S rRNA gene (domain V) and the gene encoding ribosome protein L3 were amplified and sequenced. No mutation could be detected in ribosome protein L3. Mutations were found at nucleotide positions 2058, 2059, 2061, 2447 and 2503 of 23S rRNA gene (Escherichia coli numbering). Although a single mutation could cause elevation of tiamulin and valnemulin MICs, combinations of two or three mutations were necessary to produce high-level resistance. All the mutants were cross-resistant to lincomycin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol. Mutants with the A2058G or the A2059G mutation exhibited cross-resistance to macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, tilmicosin and tylosin.

  3. Comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of amoebozoa based on concatenated analyses of SSU-rDNA and actin genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J G Lahr

    Full Text Available Evolutionary relationships within Amoebozoa have been the subject of controversy for two reasons: 1 paucity of morphological characters in traditional surveys and 2 haphazard taxonomic sampling in modern molecular reconstructions. These along with other factors have prevented the erection of a definitive system that resolves confidently both higher and lower-level relationships. Additionally, the recent recognition that many protosteloid amoebae are in fact scattered throughout the Amoebozoa suggests that phylogenetic reconstructions have been excluding an extensive and integral group of organisms. Here we provide a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction based on 139 taxa using molecular information from both SSU-rDNA and actin genes. We provide molecular data for 13 of those taxa, 12 of which had not been previously characterized. We explored the dataset extensively by generating 18 alternative reconstructions that assess the effect of missing data, long-branched taxa, unstable taxa, fast evolving sites and inclusion of environmental sequences. We compared reconstructions with each other as well as against previously published phylogenies. Our analyses show that many of the morphologically established lower-level relationships (defined here as relationships roughly equivalent to Order level or below are congruent with molecular data. However, the data are insufficient to corroborate or reject the large majority of proposed higher-level relationships (above the Order-level, with the exception of Tubulinea, Archamoebae and Myxogastrea, which are consistently recovered. Moreover, contrary to previous expectations, the inclusion of available environmental sequences does not significantly improve the Amoebozoa reconstruction. This is probably because key amoebozoan taxa are not easily amplified by environmental sequencing methodology due to high rates of molecular evolution and regular occurrence of large indels and introns. Finally, in an effort

  4. Comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of amoebozoa based on concatenated analyses of SSU-rDNA and actin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Daniel J G; Grant, Jessica; Nguyen, Truc; Lin, Jian Hua; Katz, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships within Amoebozoa have been the subject of controversy for two reasons: 1) paucity of morphological characters in traditional surveys and 2) haphazard taxonomic sampling in modern molecular reconstructions. These along with other factors have prevented the erection of a definitive system that resolves confidently both higher and lower-level relationships. Additionally, the recent recognition that many protosteloid amoebae are in fact scattered throughout the Amoebozoa suggests that phylogenetic reconstructions have been excluding an extensive and integral group of organisms. Here we provide a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction based on 139 taxa using molecular information from both SSU-rDNA and actin genes. We provide molecular data for 13 of those taxa, 12 of which had not been previously characterized. We explored the dataset extensively by generating 18 alternative reconstructions that assess the effect of missing data, long-branched taxa, unstable taxa, fast evolving sites and inclusion of environmental sequences. We compared reconstructions with each other as well as against previously published phylogenies. Our analyses show that many of the morphologically established lower-level relationships (defined here as relationships roughly equivalent to Order level or below) are congruent with molecular data. However, the data are insufficient to corroborate or reject the large majority of proposed higher-level relationships (above the Order-level), with the exception of Tubulinea, Archamoebae and Myxogastrea, which are consistently recovered. Moreover, contrary to previous expectations, the inclusion of available environmental sequences does not significantly improve the Amoebozoa reconstruction. This is probably because key amoebozoan taxa are not easily amplified by environmental sequencing methodology due to high rates of molecular evolution and regular occurrence of large indels and introns. Finally, in an effort to facilitate

  5. Development and evaluation of a 28S rRNA gene-based nested PCR assay for P. falciparum and P. vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakalapati, Deepak; Garg, Shilpi; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Subudhi, Amit K; Boopathi, Arunachalam P; Saxena, Vishal; Kochar, Sanjay K; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Das, Ashis

    2013-01-01

    The 28S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates collected from northwest India. Based upon the sequence diversity of the Plasmodium 28SrRNA gene in comparison with its human counterpart, various nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed from the 3R region of the 28SrRNA gene and evaluated on field isolates. This is the first report demonstrating the utility of this gene for species-specific diagnosis of malaria for these two species, prevalent in India. The initial evaluation on 363 clinical isolates indicated that, in comparison with microscopy, which showed sensitivity and specificity of 85.39% and 100% respectively, the sensitivity and specificity of the nested PCR assay was found to be 99.08% and 100% respectively. This assay was also successful in detecting mixed infections that are undetected by microscopy. Our results demonstrate the utility of the 28S rRNA gene as a diagnostic target for the detection of the major plasmodial species infecting humans. PMID:23816509

  6. Campylobacter jejuni, an uncommon cause of splenic abscess diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piseth Seng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a rare disease that primarily occurs in patients with splenic trauma, endocarditis, sickle cell anemia, or other diseases that compromise the immune system. This report describes a culture-negative splenic abscess in an immunocompetent patient caused by Campylobacter jejuni, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  7. Sequence and Secondary Structure of the Mitochondrial Small-Subunit rRNA V4, V6, and V9 Domains Reveal Highly Species-Specific Variations within the Genus Agrocybe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Patrice; Labarère, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    A comparative study of variable domains V4, V6, and V9 of the mitochondrial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA was carried out with the genus Agrocybe by PCR amplification of 42 wild isolates belonging to 10 species, Agrocybe aegerita, Agrocybe dura, Agrocybe chaxingu, Agrocybe erebia, Agrocybe firma, Agrocybe praecox, Agrocybe paludosa, Agrocybe pediades, Agrocybe alnetorum, and Agrocybe vervacti. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the three domains in the isolates belonging to the same specie...

  8. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of four new species of the genus trichonympha (Parabasalia, trichonymphea) from lower termite hindguts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boscaro, V.; James, E. R.; Fiorito, R.; Hehenberger, E.; Karnkowska, A.; del Campo, J.; Kolísko, Martin; Irwin, N. A.T.; Mathur, V.; Scheffrahn, R. H.; Keeling, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 9 (2017), s. 3570-3575, č. článku 002169. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parabasalids * SSU rRNA phylogeny * termite symbionts * trichonympha Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  9. Dancing together and separate again: gymnosperms exhibit frequent changes of fundamental 5S and 35S rRNA gene (rDNA) organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S; Kovařík, A

    2013-07-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the 5S rRNA genes occur in tandem units and are arranged either separately (S-type arrangement) or linked to other repeated genes, in most cases to rDNA locus encoding 18S-5.8S-26S genes (L-type arrangement). Here we used Southern blot hybridisation, PCR and sequencing approaches to analyse genomic organisation of rRNA genes in all large gymnosperm groups, including Coniferales, Ginkgoales, Gnetales and Cycadales. The data are provided for 27 species (21 genera). The 5S units linked to the 35S rDNA units occur in some but not all Gnetales, Coniferales and in Ginkgo (∼30% of the species analysed), while the remaining exhibit separate organisation. The linked 5S rRNA genes may occur as single-copy insertions or as short tandems embedded in the 26S-18S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS). The 5S transcript may be encoded by the same (Ginkgo, Ephedra) or opposite (Podocarpus) DNA strand as the 18S-5.8S-26S genes. In addition, pseudogenised 5S copies were also found in some IGS types. Both L- and S-type units have been largely homogenised across the genomes. Phylogenetic relationships based on the comparison of 5S coding sequences suggest that the 5S genes independently inserted IGS at least three times in the course of gymnosperm evolution. Frequent transpositions and rearrangements of basic units indicate relatively relaxed selection pressures imposed on genomic organisation of 5S genes in plants.

  10. Direct Regulation of tRNA and 5S rRNA Gene Transcription by Polo-like Kinase 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairley, Jennifer A.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Berg, Tracy; Kenneth, Niall S.; von Schubert, Conrad; Sillje, Herman H. W.; Medema, Rene H.; Nigg, Erich A.; White, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Polo-like kinase Plk1 controls numerous aspects of cell-cycle progression. We show that it associates with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes and regulates their transcription by RNA polymerase Ill (pol Ill) through direct binding and phosphorylation of transcription factor Brit During interphase, Plk1 promotes

  11. Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

  12. The Human Microbiome and Understanding the 16S rRNA Gene in Translational Nursing Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy J; Ranucci, Alexandra; Moriyama, Brad; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    As more is understood regarding the human microbiome, it is increasingly important for nurse scientists and healthcare practitioners to analyze these microbial communities and their role in health and disease. 16S rRNA sequencing is a key methodology in identifying these bacterial populations that has recently transitioned from use primarily in research to having increased utility in clinical settings. The objectives of this review are to (a) describe 16S rRNA sequencing and its role in answering research questions important to nursing science; (b) provide an overview of the oral, lung, and gut microbiomes and relevant research; and (c) identify future implications for microbiome research and 16S sequencing in translational nursing science. Sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene has revolutionized research and allowed scientists to easily and reliably characterize complex bacterial communities. This type of research has recently entered the clinical setting, one of the best examples involving the use of 16S sequencing to identify resistant pathogens, thereby improving the accuracy of bacterial identification in infection control. Clinical microbiota research and related requisite methods are of particular relevance to nurse scientists-individuals uniquely positioned to utilize these techniques in future studies in clinical settings.

  13. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  14. Using DGGE and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to evaluate changes in oral bacterial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhou; Trivedi, Harsh M; Chhun, Nok; Barnes, Virginia M; Saxena, Deepak; Xu, Tao; Li, Yihong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether a standard dental prophylaxis followed by tooth brushing with an antibacterial dentifrice will affect the oral bacterial community, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Twenty-four healthy adults were instructed to brush their teeth using commercial dentifrice for 1 week during a washout period. An initial set of pooled supragingival plaque samples was collected from each participant at baseline (0 h) before prophylaxis treatment. The subjects were given a clinical examination and dental prophylaxis and asked to brush for 1 min with a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer and 0.243% sodium fluoride (Colgate Total). On the following day, a second set of pooled supragingival plaque samples (24 h) was collected. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from the samples. Differences in the microbial composition before and after the prophylactic procedure and tooth brushing were assessed by comparing the DGGE profiles and 16S rRNA gene segments sequence analysis. Two distinct clusters of DGGE profiles were found, suggesting that a shift in the microbial composition had occurred 24 h after the prophylaxis and brushing. A detailed sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene segments further identified 6 phyla and 29 genera, including known and unknown bacterial species. Importantly, an increase in bacterial diversity was observed after 24 h, including members of the Streptococcaceae family, Prevotella, Corynebacterium, TM7 and other commensal bacteria. The results suggest that the use of a standard prophylaxis followed by the use of the dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer and 0.243% sodium fluoride may promote a healthier composition within the oral bacterial community.

  15. Common occurrence of a unique Cryptosporidium ryanae variant in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in the buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaoyu; Karna, Sandeep Raj; Dearen, Theresa K; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Adhikari, Lekh Nath; Shrestha, Aruna; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-04-30

    There are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in developing countries. In this study, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequence analyses of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene were used to genotype Cryptosporidium specimens from 12 zebu cattle calves, 16 water buffalo calves, and four swamp deer (Cervus duvaucelii) collected from the buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park, Nepal. All Cryptosporidium specimens from cattle and buffaloes belonged to Cryptosporidium ryanae, whereas those from deer belonged to Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Comparison of the SSU rRNA gene sequences obtained with those from earlier studies has identified a nucleotide substitution unique to all C. ryanae isolates from Nepal, in addition to some sequence heterogeneity among different copies of the gene. The finding of the dominance of a unique C. ryanae variant in both zebu cattle and water buffaloes in Nepal indicates that there is unique cryptosporidiosis transmission in bovine animals in the study area, and cross-species transmission of some Cryptosporidium spp. can occur between related animal species sharing the same habitats. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Genus-specific PCR Primers Targeting Intracellular Parasite Euduboscquella (Dinoflagellata: Syndinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Ho; Choi, Jung Min; Kim, Young-Ok

    2018-03-01

    We designed a genus-specific primer pair targeting the intracellular parasite Euduboscquella. To increase target specificity and inhibit untargeted PCR, two nucleotides were added at the 3' end of the reverse primer, one being a complementary nucleotide to the Euduboscquella-specific SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) and the other a deliberately mismatched nucleotide. Target specificity of the primer set was verified experimentally using PCR of two Euduboscquella species (positive controls) and 15 related species (negative controls composed of ciliates, diatoms and dinoflagellates), and analytical comparison with SILVA SSU rRNA gene database (release 119) in silico. In addition, we applied the Euduboscquella-specific primer set to four environmental samples previously determined by cytological staining to be either positive or negative for Euduboscquella. As expected, only positive controls and environmental samples known to contain Euduboscquella were successfully amplified by the primer set. An inferred SSU rRNA gene phylogeny placed environmental samples containing aloricate ciliates infected by Euduboscquella in a cluster discrete from Euduboscquella groups a-d previously reported from loricate, tintinnid ciliates.

  17. Hot topic: 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals the microbiome of the virgin and pregnant bovine uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Ericsson, A C; Poock, S E; Melendez, P; Lucy, M C

    2017-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the uterus of virgin heifers and pregnant cows possessed a resident microbiome by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the virgin and pregnant bovine uterus. The endometrium of 10 virgin heifers in estrus and the amniotic fluid, placentome, intercotyledonary placenta, cervical lumen, and external cervix surface (control) of 5 pregnant cows were sampled using aseptic techniques. The DNA was extracted, the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, and amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Operational taxonomic units (OTU) were generated from the sequences using Qiime v1.8 software, and taxonomy was assigned using the Greengenes database. The effect of tissue on the microbial composition within the pregnant uterus was tested using univariate (mixed model) and multivariate (permutational multivariate ANOVA) procedures. Amplicons of 16S rRNA gene were generated in all samples, supporting the contention that the uterus of virgin heifers and pregnant cows contained a microbiome. On average, 53, 199, 380, 382, 525, and 13,589 reads annotated as 16, 35, 43, 63, 48, and 176 OTU in the placentome, virgin endometrium, amniotic fluid, cervical lumen, intercotyledonary placenta, and external surface of the cervix, respectively, were generated. The 3 most abundant phyla in the uterus of the virgin heifers and pregnant cows were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and they accounted for approximately 40, 35, and 10% of the sequences, respectively. Phyla abundance was similar between the tissues of the pregnant uterus. Principal component analysis, one-way PERMANOVA analysis of the Bray-Curtis similarity index, and mixed model analysis of the Shannon diversity index and Chao1 index demonstrated that the microbiome of the control tissue (external surface of the cervix) was significantly different from that of the amniotic fluid, intercotyledonary placenta, and placentome tissues

  18. Comparative performance of the 16S rRNA gene in DNA barcoding of amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Ylenia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying species of organisms by short sequences of DNA has been in the center of ongoing discussions under the terms DNA barcoding or DNA taxonomy. A C-terminal fragment of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI has been proposed as universal marker for this purpose among animals. Results Herein we present experimental evidence that the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fulfills the requirements for a universal DNA barcoding marker in amphibians. In terms of universality of priming sites and identification of major vertebrate clades the studied 16S fragment is superior to COI. Amplification success was 100% for 16S in a subset of fresh and well-preserved samples of Madagascan frogs, while various combination of COI primers had lower success rates.COI priming sites showed high variability among amphibians both at the level of groups and closely related species, whereas 16S priming sites were highly conserved among vertebrates. Interspecific pairwise 16S divergences in a test group of Madagascan frogs were at a level suitable for assignment of larval stages to species (1–17%, with low degrees of pairwise haplotype divergence within populations (0–1%. Conclusion We strongly advocate the use of 16S rRNA as standard DNA barcoding marker for vertebrates to complement COI, especially if samples a priori could belong to various phylogenetically distant taxa and false negatives would constitute a major problem.

  19. Diversity of 16S rRNA and dioxygenase genes detected in coal-tar-contaminated site undergoing active bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M; Khanna, S [NIIT Univ, Neemrana (India). Dept. of Biotechnology & Bioinformation

    2010-04-15

    In order to develop effective bioremediation strategies for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation, the composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities need to be better understood, especially in highly PAH contaminated sites in which little information on the cultivation-independent communities is available. Coal-tar-contaminated soil was collected, which consisted of 122-122.5 mg g{sup -1} total extractable PAH compounds. Biodegradation studies with this soil indicated the presence of microbial community that is capable of degrading the model PAH compounds viz naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene at 50 ppm each. PCR clone libraries were established from the DNA of the coal-tar-contaminated soil, targeting the 16S rRNA to characterize (I) the microbial communities, (ii) partial gene fragment encoding the Rieske iron sulfur center {alpha}-subunit) common to all PAH dioxygenase enzymes and (iii) {beta}-subunit of dioxygenase. Phylotypes related to Proteobacteria ({Alpha}-, {Epsilon}- and Gammaproteobacteria), Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococci were detected in 16S rRNA derived clone libraries. Many of the gene fragment sequences of alpha-subunit and beta-subunit of dioxygenase obtained from the respective clone libraries fell into clades that are distinct from the reference dioxygenase gene sequences. Presence of consensus sequence of the Rieske type (2Fe2S) cluster binding site suggested that these gene fragments encode for {alpha}-subunit of dioxygenase gene. Sequencing of the cloned libraries representing {alpha}-subunit gene fragments (Rf1) and beta-subunit of dioxygenase showed the presence of hitherto unidentified dioxygenase in coal-tar-contaminated soil.

  20. Fastidious Gram-Negatives: Identification by the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus Card and by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönksen, Ute Wolff; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Nielsen, Lisbeth; Hesselbjerg, Annemarie; Hansen, Dennis Schrøder; Bruun, Brita

    2010-12-31

    Taxonomy and identification of fastidious Gram negatives are evolving and challenging. We compared identifications achieved with the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus (NH) card and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (526 bp stretch) analysis with identifications obtained with extensive phenotypic characterization using 100 fastidious Gram negative bacteria. Seventy-five strains represented 21 of the 26 taxa included in the Vitek 2 NH database and 25 strains represented related species not included in the database. Of the 100 strains, 31 were the type strains of the species. Vitek 2 NH identification results: 48 of 75 database strains were correctly identified, 11 strains gave `low discrimination´, seven strains were unidentified, and nine strains were misidentified. Identification of 25 non-database strains resulted in 14 strains incorrectly identified as belonging to species in the database. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis results: For 76 strains phenotypic and sequencing identifications were identical, for 23 strains the sequencing identifications were either probable or possible, and for one strain only the genus was confirmed. Thus, the Vitek 2 NH system identifies most of the commonly occurring species included in the database. Some strains of rarely occurring species and strains of non-database species closely related to database species cause problems. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis performs well, but does not always suffice, additional phenotypical characterization being useful for final identification.

  1. Alteration of rRNA gene copy number and expression in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is an important medical and social problem that can be caused by different genetic and environmental factors. One such factor could be rDNA amplification and changes in rRNA expression and maturation. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to investigate rRNA levels in ...

  2. Combined Analyses of the ITS Loci and the Corresponding 16S rRNA Genes Reveal High Micro- and Macrodiversity of SAR11 Populations in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, David Kamanda; Stingl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the SAR11 clade are among the most abundant prokaryotes in the pelagic zone of the ocean. 16S rRNA gene-based analyses indicate that they constitute up to 60% of the bacterioplankton community in the surface waters of the Red Sea. This extremely oligotrophic water body is further characterized by an epipelagic zone, which has a temperature above 24°C throughout the year, and a remarkable uniform temperature (∼22°C) and salinity (∼41 psu) from the mixed layer (∼200 m) to the bottom at over 2000 m depth. Despite these conditions that set it apart from other marine environments, the microbiology of this ecosystem is still vastly understudied. Prompted by the limited phylogenetic resolution of the 16S rRNA gene, we extended our previous study by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of SAR11 in different depths of the Red Sea’s water column together with the respective 16S fragment. The overall diversity captured by the ITS loci was ten times higher than that of the corresponding 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, species estimates based on the ITS showed a highly diverse population of SAR11 in the mixed layer that became diminished in deep isothermal waters, which was in contrast to results of the related 16S rRNA genes. While the 16S rRNA gene-based sequences clustered into three phylogenetic subgroups, the related ITS fragments fell into several phylotypes that showed clear depth-dependent shifts in relative abundances. Blast-based analyses not only documented the observed vertical partitioning and universal co-occurrence of specific phylotypes in five other distinct oceanic provinces, but also highlighted the influence of ecosystem-specific traits (e.g., temperature, nutrient availability, and concentration of dissolved oxygen) on the population dynamics of this ubiquitous marine bacterium. PMID:23185592

  3. Combined analyses of the ITS loci and the corresponding 16S rRNA genes reveal high micro- and macrodiversity of SAR11 populations in the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2012-11-20

    Bacteria belonging to the SAR11 clade are among the most abundant prokaryotes in the pelagic zone of the ocean. 16S rRNA gene-based analyses indicate that they constitute up to 60% of the bacterioplankton community in the surface waters of the Red Sea. This extremely oligotrophic water body is further characterized by an epipelagic zone, which has a temperature above 24 °C throughout the year, and a remarkable uniform temperature (~22 °C) and salinity (~41 psu) from the mixed layer (~200 m) to the bottom at over 2000 m depth. Despite these conditions that set it apart from other marine environments, the microbiology of this ecosystem is still vastly understudied. Prompted by the limited phylogenetic resolution of the 16S rRNA gene, we extended our previous study by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of SAR11 in different depths of the Red Sea\\'s water column together with the respective 16S fragment. The overall diversity captured by the ITS loci was ten times higher than that of the corresponding 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, species estimates based on the ITS showed a highly diverse population of SAR11 in the mixed layer that became diminished in deep isothermal waters, which was in contrast to results of the related 16S rRNA genes. While the 16S rRNA gene-based sequences clustered into three phylogenetic subgroups, the related ITS fragments fell into several phylotypes that showed clear depth-dependent shifts in relative abundances. Blast-based analyses not only documented the observed vertical partitioning and universal co-occurrence of specific phylotypes in five other distinct oceanic provinces, but also highlighted the influence of ecosystem-specific traits (e.g., temperature, nutrient availability, and concentration of dissolved oxygen) on the population dynamics of this ubiquitous marine bacterium.

  4. FunGene: the functional gene pipeline and repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jordan A; Chai, Benli; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C Titus; Tiedje, James M; Cole, James R

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer. While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/) offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes.

  5. FunGene: the Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Fish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer.While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/ offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the genus testudo (Testudines : Testudinidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.; Ph Ballasina, Donato L.; Dekker, John T.; Maas, Jolanda; Willemsen, Ronald E.; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    To test phylogenetic relationships within the genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae), we have sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial (mt) 12S rRNA gene of 98 tortoise specimens belonging to the genera Testudo, Indotestudo, and Geochelone. Maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods identify

  7. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  8. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sin Hang Lee,1,21Pathology Department, Milford Hospital, Milford, CT, USA; 2Milford Molecular Diagnostics, Milford, CT, USA Abstract: Lyme disease (LD, the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, homeologous 16S rRNA genes, DNA sequencing

  9. Biphasic Study to Characterize Agricultural Biogas Plants by High-Throughput 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing and Microscopic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Irena; Kim, Yong Sung; Wibberg, Daniel; Stolze, Yvonne; Off, Sandra; Antonczyk, Sebastian; Pühler, Alfred; Scherer, Paul; Schlüter, Andreas

    2017-02-28

    Process surveillance within agricultural biogas plants (BGPs) was concurrently studied by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and an optimized quantitative microscopic fingerprinting (QMF) technique. In contrast to 16S rRNA gene amplicons, digitalized microscopy is a rapid and cost-effective method that facilitates enumeration and morphological differentiation of the most significant groups of methanogens regarding their shape and characteristic autofluorescent factor 420. Moreover, the fluorescence signal mirrors cell vitality. In this study, four different BGPs were investigated. The results indicated stable process performance in the mesophilic BGPs and in the thermophilic reactor. Bacterial subcommunity characterization revealed significant differences between the four BGPs. Most remarkably, the genera Defluviitoga and Halocella dominated the thermophilic bacterial subcommunity, whereas members of another taxon, Syntrophaceticus , were found to be abundant in the mesophilic BGP. The domain Archaea was dominated by the genus Methanoculleus in all four BGPs, followed by Methanosaeta in BGP1 and BGP3. In contrast, Methanothermobacter members were highly abundant in the thermophilic BGP4. Furthermore, a high consistency between the sequencing approach and the QMF method was shown, especially for the thermophilic BGP. The differences elucidated that using this biphasic approach for mesophilic BGPs provided novel insights regarding disaggregated single cells of Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta species. Both dominated the archaeal subcommunity and replaced coccoid Methanoculleus members belonging to the same group of Methanomicrobiales that have been frequently observed in similar BGPs. This work demonstrates that combining QMF and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is a complementary strategy to describe archaeal community structures within biogas processes.

  10. Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

  11. Cattle impact on composition of archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities by comparative fingerprinting of total and extracellular DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Ascher, J.; Jirout, Jiří; Ceccherini, M.T.; Elhottová, Dana; Pietramellara, G.; Šimek, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2013), s. 351-361 ISSN 0178-2762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/1570; GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : SSU rRNA gene-DGGE * soil microbial community * cattle impact Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.396, year: 2013

  12. Sphaeromyxa artedielli sp. n. (Myxozoa: Sphaeromyxidae), a parasite of sculpins (Cottidae) in northern Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlsbakk, E.; Bårdsgjære Einen, A.C.; Bartošová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2013), s. 425-432 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Myxosporeans * marine fish * new species * Artediellus atlanticus * Triglops murrayi * SSU rRNA gene sequences * pseudogene * northern Atlantic Ocean * Sphaeromyxa balbianii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2013

  13. Expression stability of two housekeeping genes (18S rRNA and G3PDH) during in vitro maturation of follicular oocytes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswal, Ajay Pal Singh; Raghav, Sarvesh; De, Sachinandan; Thakur, Manish; Goswami, Surender Lal; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2008-01-15

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the expression stability of two housekeeping genes (HKGs), 18S rRNA and G3PDH during in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes in buffalo, which qualifies their use as internal controls for valid qRT-PCR estimation of other oocyte transcripts. A semi quantitative RT-PCR system was used with optimised qRT-PCR parameters at exponential PCR cycle for evaluation of temporal expression pattern of these genes over 24 h of IVM. 18S rRNA was found more stable in its expression pattern than G3PDH.

  14. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. from Brazilian dogs and its phylogenetic relationship with other Hepatozoon spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlano, M D; Teixeira, K R S; Scofield, A; Elisei, C; Yotoko, K S C; Fernandes, K R; Linhares, G F C; Ewing, S A; Massard, C L

    2007-04-10

    To characterize phylogenetically the species which causes canine hepatozoonosis at two rural areas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, we used universal or Hepatozoon spp. primer sets for the 18S SSU rRNA coding region. DNA extracts were obtained from blood samples of thirteen dogs naturally infected, from four experimentally infected, and from five puppies infected by vertical transmission from a dam, that was experimentally infected. DNA of sporozoites of Hepatozoon americanum was used as positive control. The amplification of DNA extracts from blood of dogs infected with sporozoites of Hepatozoon spp. was observed in the presence of primers to 18S SSU rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp., whereas DNA of H. americanum sporozoites was amplified in the presence of either universal or Hepatozoon spp.-specific primer sets; the amplified products were approximately 600bp in size. Cloned PCR products obtained from DNA extracts of blood from two dogs experimentally infected with Hepatozoon sp. were sequenced. The consensus sequence, derived from six sequence data sets, were blasted against sequences of 18S SSU rRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available at GenBank and aligned to homologous sequences to perform the phylogenetic analysis. This analysis clearly showed that our sequence clustered, independently of H. americanum sequences, within a group comprising other Hepatozoon canis sequences. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that the agent causing hepatozoonosis in the areas studied in Brazil is H. canis, supporting previous reports that were based on morphological and morphometric analyses.

  15. Recognition of Potentially Novel Human Disease-Associated Pathogens by Implementation of Systematic 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing in the Diagnostic Laboratory▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter M.; Rampini, Silvana K.; Büchler, Andrea C.; Eich, Gerhard; Wanner, Roger M.; Speck, Roberto F.; Böttger, Erik C.; Bloemberg, Guido V.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical isolates that are difficult to identify by conventional means form a valuable source of novel human pathogens. We report on a 5-year study based on systematic 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We found 60 previously unknown 16S rRNA sequences corresponding to potentially novel bacterial taxa. For 30 of 60 isolates, clinical relevance was evaluated; 18 of the 30 isolates analyzed were considered to be associated with human disease. PMID:20631113

  16. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. David; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  17. Anti-U-like as an alloantibody in S-s-U- and S-s-U+(var) black people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry; Lam, Yin; Saison, Carole; Arnaud, Lionel; Babinet, Jérôme; Rouger, Philippe; Bierling, Philippe; Janvier, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    S, s, and U antigens belong to the MNS system. They are carried by glycophorin B (GPB), encoded by GYPB. Black people with the low-prevalence S-s- phenotype, either U- or U+(var), can make a clinically significant anti-U. Anti-U-like, a cold immunoglobulin G autoantibody quite commonly observed in S-s+U+ black persons, was previously described to be nonreactive with ficin-, α-chymotrypsin-, and pronase-treated red blood cells (RBCs); nonreactive or weakly reactive with papain-treated RBCs; and reactive with trypsin-treated RBCs. Here we describe, in S-s- people from different molecular backgrounds, an alloantibody to a high-prevalence GPB antigen, which presents the same pattern of reactivity with proteases as autoanti-U-like. Four S-s- patients with an alloantibody to a high-prevalence GPB antigen were investigated by serologic and molecular methods. An alloantibody was observed in two S-s-U-/Del GYPB, one S-s-U+(var)/GYPB(P2), and one S-s-U+(var)/GYPB(NY) patients. As this alloantibody showed the same pattern of reactivity with proteases as autoanti-U-like, we decided to name it "anti-U-like." Anti-U-like made by the two S-s-U- patients was reactive with the S-s-U+(var) RBCs of the two other patients. S-s-U-/Del GYPB, S-s-U+(var)/GYPB(P2), and S-s-U+(var)/GYPB(NY) patients can make an alloanti-U-like. Anti-U-like made by S-s-U- people appears reactive with GYPB(P2) and GYPB(NY) RBCs, which both express a weak and partial U-like reactivity. We recommend transfusing S-s-U- RBCs in S-s-U- patients showing alloanti-U-like. Our study contributes to a better understanding of alloimmunization to GPB in black people and confirms importance of genotyping in S-s- patients, especially those with sickle cell disease to be frequently transfused. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. SINA: accurate high-throughput multiple sequence alignment of ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruesse, Elmar; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2012-07-15

    In the analysis of homologous sequences, computation of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) has become a bottleneck. This is especially troublesome for marker genes like the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) where already millions of sequences are publicly available and individual studies can easily produce hundreds of thousands of new sequences. Methods have been developed to cope with such numbers, but further improvements are needed to meet accuracy requirements. In this study, we present the SILVA Incremental Aligner (SINA) used to align the rRNA gene databases provided by the SILVA ribosomal RNA project. SINA uses a combination of k-mer searching and partial order alignment (POA) to maintain very high alignment accuracy while satisfying high throughput performance demands. SINA was evaluated in comparison with the commonly used high throughput MSA programs PyNAST and mothur. The three BRAliBase III benchmark MSAs could be reproduced with 99.3, 97.6 and 96.1 accuracy. A larger benchmark MSA comprising 38 772 sequences could be reproduced with 98.9 and 99.3% accuracy using reference MSAs comprising 1000 and 5000 sequences. SINA was able to achieve higher accuracy than PyNAST and mothur in all performed benchmarks. Alignment of up to 500 sequences using the latest SILVA SSU/LSU Ref datasets as reference MSA is offered at http://www.arb-silva.de/aligner. This page also links to Linux binaries, user manual and tutorial. SINA is made available under a personal use license.

  19. Routine DNA analysis based on 12S rRNA gene sequencing as a tool in the management of captive primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; van Gennep, D. R.; Dekker, J. T.; Goudsmit, J.

    2000-01-01

    Automated DNA sequencing of a fragment of the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was used to distinguish primate species, and the method was compared with species determination based upon classical taxonomy. DNA from blood from 53 monkeys housed at the Stichting AAP Shelter for

  20. Analysis of 16S rRNA and mxaF genes revealing insights into Methylobacterium niche-specific plant association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Conti, Raphael; Araújo, Janete Magali; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium comprises pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, known to be an important plant-associated bacterial group. Species of this group, described as plant-nodulating, have the dual capacity of producing cytokinin and enzymes, such as pectinase and cellulase, involved in systemic resistance induction and nitrogen fixation under specific plant environmental conditions. The aim hereby was to evaluate the phylogenetic distribution of Methylobacterium spp. isolates from different host plants. Thus, a comparative analysis between sequences from structural (16S rRNA) and functional mxaF (which codifies for a subunit of the enzyme methanol dehydrogenase) ubiquitous genes, was undertaken. Notably, some Methylobacterium spp. isolates are generalists through colonizing more than one host plant, whereas others are exclusively found in certain specific plant-species. Congruency between phylogeny and specific host inhabitance was higher in the mxaF gene than in the 16S rRNA, a possible indication of function-based selection in this niche. Therefore, in a first stage, plant colonization by Methylobacterium spp. could represent generalist behavior, possibly related to microbial competition and adaptation to a plant environment. Otherwise, niche-specific colonization is apparently impelled by the host plant. PMID:22481887

  1. Analysis of 16S rRNA and mxaF genes reveling insights into Methylobacterium niche-specific plant association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Methylobacterium comprises pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM bacteria, known to be an important plant-associated bacterial group. Species of this group, described as plant-nodulating, have the dual capacity of producing cytokinin and enzymes, such as pectinase and cellulase, involved in systemic resistance induction and nitrogen fixation under specific plant environmental conditions. The aim hereby was to evaluate the phylogenetic distribution of Methylobacterium spp. isolates from different host plants. Thus, a comparative analysis between sequences from structural (16S rRNA and functional mxaF (which codifies for a subunit of the enzyme methanol dehydrogenase ubiquitous genes, was undertaken. Notably, some Methylobacterium spp. isolates are generalists through colonizing more than one host plant, whereas others are exclusively found in certain specific plant-species. Congruency between phylogeny and specific host inhabitance was higher in the mxaF gene than in the 16S rRNA, a possible indication of function-based selection in this niche. Therefore, in a first stage, plant colonization by Methylobacterium spp. could represent generalist behavior, possibly related to microbial competition and adaptation to a plant environment. Otherwise, niche-specific colonization is apparently impelled by the host plant.

  2. Analysis of 16S rRNA and mxaF genes revealing insights into Methylobacterium niche-specific plant association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Conti, Raphael; Araújo, Janete Magali; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium comprises pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, known to be an important plant-associated bacterial group. Species of this group, described as plant-nodulating, have the dual capacity of producing cytokinin and enzymes, such as pectinase and cellulase, involved in systemic resistance induction and nitrogen fixation under specific plant environmental conditions. The aim hereby was to evaluate the phylogenetic distribution of Methylobacterium spp. isolates from different host plants. Thus, a comparative analysis between sequences from structural (16S rRNA) and functional mxaF (which codifies for a subunit of the enzyme methanol dehydrogenase) ubiquitous genes, was undertaken. Notably, some Methylobacterium spp. isolates are generalists through colonizing more than one host plant, whereas others are exclusively found in certain specific plant-species. Congruency between phylogeny and specific host inhabitance was higher in the mxaF gene than in the 16S rRNA, a possible indication of function-based selection in this niche. Therefore, in a first stage, plant colonization by Methylobacterium spp. could represent generalist behavior, possibly related to microbial competition and adaptation to a plant environment. Otherwise, niche-specific colonization is apparently impelled by the host plant.

  3. Trypanosoma melophagium from the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus on the island of St Kilda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, W; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M

    2010-10-01

    SUMMARYThe sheep ked has been largely eradicated in the UK but persists in the feral Soay sheep of St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides. Sheep keds transmit Trypanosoma melophagium, but parasitaemias are typically cryptic and this trypanosome has not been recorded in the St Kilda sheep. Trypanosomes were detected by PCR in preserved keds and were also found in gut smears from live keds; one infected gut was used to establish the trypanosome in vitro. Examination of the morphology of bloodstream forms from culture confirmed its identity as T. melophagium. Most keds were found to harbour the trypanosome, particularly those collected from lambs. DNA was extracted from preserved keds and from trypanosomes grown in vitro. Sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene and the spliced leader transcript showed the T. melophagium sequences to be very similar to those from T. theileri. A partial sequence of the ked SSU rRNA gene was also obtained. The close genetic relationship of T. melophagium and T. theileri suggests that T. melophagium represents a lineage of T. theileri that adapted to transmission by sheep keds and hence became a specific parasite of sheep.

  4. Emergence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to linezolid with rRNA gene C2190T and G2603T mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidral, Thiago André; Carvalho, Maria Cícera; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; de Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article were to determinate the mechanism of linezolid resistance in coagulase-negative methicillin-resistant staphylococci from hospitals in the northeast of Brazil. We identified the isolates using VITEK(®) 2 and MALDI-TOF. Susceptibility to antibiotics was measured by the disk-diffusion method and by Etest(®) . Extraction of the whole genome DNA was performed, followed by screening of all the strains for the presence of mecA and cfr genes. The domain V region of 23S rRNA gene was sequenced and then aligned with a linezolid-susceptible reference strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) macro-restriction analysis was performed. Three linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus hominis and two linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were analyzed. The isolates showed two point mutations in the V region of the 23S rRNA gene (C2190T and G2603T). We did not detect the cfr gene in any isolate by PCR. The S. hominis showed the same pulsotype, while the S. epidermidis did not present any genetic relation to each other. In conclusion, this study revealed three S. hominis and two S. epidermidis strains with resistance to linezolid due to a double mutation (C2190T and G2603T) in the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. For the first time, the mutation of C2190T in S. epidermidis is described. This study also revealed the clonal spread of a S. hominis pulsotype between three public hospitals in the city of Natal, Brazil. These findings highlight the importance of continued vigilance of linezolid resistance in staphylococci. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analysis of mat-forming and accompanying bacteria covering organically-enriched marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile (Calbuco Island)

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Carlos; Paredes, Javier; Valenzuela, Cristian; Lam, Phyllis; Guillou, Laure

    2010-01-01

    The mat forming bacteria covering organic matter-enriched and anoxic marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile, were examined using 16S rRNA gene phylogenies. This mat was absent in the sea bed outside the direct influence of the farm (360 m outside fish cages). Based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences (-1500 bp), mat-forming filamentous cells were settled as the sulphur-oxidizing and putatively dissimilative nitrate-reducing Beggiatoa spp., being closely related (up...

  6. 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding and TEM reveals different ecological strategies within the genus Neogloboquadrina (planktonic foraminifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Bird

    Full Text Available Uncovering the complexities of trophic and metabolic interactions among microorganisms is essential for the understanding of marine biogeochemical cycling and modelling climate-driven ecosystem shifts. High-throughput DNA sequencing methods provide valuable tools for examining these complex interactions, although this remains challenging, as many microorganisms are difficult to isolate, identify and culture. We use two species of planktonic foraminifera from the climatically susceptible, palaeoceanographically important genus Neogloboquadrina, as ideal test microorganisms for the application of 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Neogloboquadrina incompta were collected from the California Current and subjected to either 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding, fluorescence microscopy, or transmission electron microscopy (TEM to investigate their species-specific trophic interactions and potential symbiotic associations. 53-99% of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from two specimens of N. dutertrei were assigned to a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU from a chloroplast of the phylum Stramenopile. TEM observations confirmed the presence of numerous intact coccoid algae within the host cell, consistent with algal symbionts. Based on sequence data and observed ultrastructure, we taxonomically assign the putative algal symbionts to Pelagophyceae and not Chrysophyceae, as previously reported in this species. In addition, our data shows that N. dutertrei feeds on protists within particulate organic matter (POM, but not on bacteria as a major food source. In total contrast, of OTUs recovered from three N. incompta specimens, 83-95% were assigned to bacterial classes Alteromonadales and Vibrionales of the order Gammaproteobacteria. TEM demonstrates that these bacteria are a food source, not putative symbionts. Contrary to the current view that non-spinose foraminifera are predominantly herbivorous, neither N. dutertrei nor N. incompta

  7. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  8. Simultaneous DNA-RNA Extraction from Coastal Sediments and Quantification of 16S rRNA Genes and Transcripts by Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Enrico; McKew, Boyd A; Whitby, Corrine; Smith, Cindy J

    2016-06-11

    Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction also known as quantitative PCR (q-PCR) is a widely used tool in microbial ecology to quantify gene abundances of taxonomic and functional groups in environmental samples. Used in combination with a reverse transcriptase reaction (RT-q-PCR), it can also be employed to quantify gene transcripts. q-PCR makes use of highly sensitive fluorescent detection chemistries that allow quantification of PCR amplicons during the exponential phase of the reaction. Therefore, the biases associated with 'end-point' PCR detected in the plateau phase of the PCR reaction are avoided. A protocol to quantify bacterial 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from coastal sediments via real-time PCR is provided. First, a method for the co-extraction of DNA and RNA from coastal sediments, including the additional steps required for the preparation of DNA-free RNA, is outlined. Second, a step-by-step guide for the quantification of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from the extracted nucleic acids via q-PCR and RT-q-PCR is outlined. This includes details for the construction of DNA and RNA standard curves. Key considerations for the use of RT-q-PCR assays in microbial ecology are included.

  9. True microbiota involved in chronic lung infection of cystic fibrosis patients found by culturing and 16S rRNA gene analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Thomsen, Trine R; Alhede, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) develop chronic lung infection. In this study, we investigated the microorganisms present in transplanted CF lungs (n = 5) by standard culturing and 16S rRNA gene analysis. A correspondence between culturing and the molecular methods was observed. In c...

  10. A Nested PCR Assay to Avoid False Positive Detection of the Microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Environmental Samples in Shrimp Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroenlak, Pattana; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Williams, Bryony A. P.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Flegel, Timothy W.; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2016-01-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an important disease of cultivated shrimp. Heavy infections may lead to retarded growth and unprofitable harvests. Existing PCR detection methods target the EHP small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (SSU-PCR). However, we discovered that they can give false positive test results due to cross reactivity of the SSU-PCR primers with DNA from closely related microsporidia that infect other aquatic organisms. This is problematic for investigating and monitoring EHP infection pathways. To overcome this problem, a sensitive and specific nested PCR method was developed for detection of the spore wall protein (SWP) gene of EHP (SWP-PCR). The new SWP-PCR method did not produce false positive results from closely related microsporidia. The first PCR step of the SWP-PCR method was 100 times (104 plasmid copies per reaction vial) more sensitive than that of the existing SSU-PCR method (106 copies) but sensitivity was equal for both in the nested step (10 copies). Since the hepatopancreas of cultivated shrimp is not currently known to be infected with microsporidia other than EHP, the SSU-PCR methods are still valid for analyzing hepatopancreatic samples despite the lower sensitivity than the SWP-PCR method. However, due to its greater specificity and sensitivity, we recommend that the SWP-PCR method be used to screen for EHP in feces, feed and environmental samples for potential EHP carriers. PMID:27832178

  11. A Nested PCR Assay to Avoid False Positive Detection of the Microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Environmental Samples in Shrimp Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroenlak, Pattana; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Williams, Bryony A P; Stentiford, Grant D; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Itsathitphaisarn, Ornchuma

    2016-01-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an important disease of cultivated shrimp. Heavy infections may lead to retarded growth and unprofitable harvests. Existing PCR detection methods target the EHP small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (SSU-PCR). However, we discovered that they can give false positive test results due to cross reactivity of the SSU-PCR primers with DNA from closely related microsporidia that infect other aquatic organisms. This is problematic for investigating and monitoring EHP infection pathways. To overcome this problem, a sensitive and specific nested PCR method was developed for detection of the spore wall protein (SWP) gene of EHP (SWP-PCR). The new SWP-PCR method did not produce false positive results from closely related microsporidia. The first PCR step of the SWP-PCR method was 100 times (104 plasmid copies per reaction vial) more sensitive than that of the existing SSU-PCR method (106 copies) but sensitivity was equal for both in the nested step (10 copies). Since the hepatopancreas of cultivated shrimp is not currently known to be infected with microsporidia other than EHP, the SSU-PCR methods are still valid for analyzing hepatopancreatic samples despite the lower sensitivity than the SWP-PCR method. However, due to its greater specificity and sensitivity, we recommend that the SWP-PCR method be used to screen for EHP in feces, feed and environmental samples for potential EHP carriers.

  12. [Characterizing Beijing's Airborne Bacterial Communities in PM2.5 and PM1 Samples During Haze Pollution Episodes Using 16S rRNA Gene Analysis Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bu-ying; Lang, Ji-dong; Zhang, Li-na; Fang, Jian-huo; Cao, Chen; Hao, Ji-ming; Zhu, Ting; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jing-kun

    2015-08-01

    During 8th-14th Jan., 2013, severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes happened in Beijing. These air pollution events lead to high risks for public health. In addition to various PM chemical compositions, biological components in the air may also impose threaten. Little is known about airborne microbial community in such severe air pollution conditions. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected during that 7-day pollution period. The 16S rRNA gene V3 amplification and the MiSeq sequencing were performed for analyzing these samples. It is found that there is no significant difference at phylum level for PM2.5 bacterial communities during that 7-day pollution period both at phylum and at genus level. At genus level, Arthrobacter and Frankia are the major airborne microbes presented in Beijing winter.samples. At genus level, there are 39 common genera (combined by first 50 genera bacterial of the two analysis) between the 16S rRNA gene analysis and those are found by Metagenomic analysis on the same PM samples. Frankia and Paracoccus are relatively more abundant in 16S rRNA gene data, while Kocuria and Geodermatophilus are relatively more abundant in Meta-data. PM10 bacterial communities are similar to those of PM2.5 with some noticeable differences, i.e., at phylum level, more Firmicutes and less Actinobacteria present in PM10 samples than in PM2.5 samples, while at genus level, more Clostridium presents in PM10 samples. The findings in Beijing were compared with three 16S rRNA gene studies in other countries. Although the sampling locations and times are different from each other, compositions of bacterial community are similar for those sampled at the ground atmosphere. Airborne microbial communities near the ground surface are different from those sampled in the upper troposphere.

  13. lncRNA-Induced Nucleosome Repositioning Reinforces Transcriptional Repression of rRNA Genes upon Hypotonic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of rRNA genes (rDNA is regulated by pathways that target the transcription machinery or alter the epigenetic state of rDNA. Previous work has established that downregulation of rRNA synthesis in quiescent cells is accompanied by upregulation of PAPAS, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA that recruits the histone methyltransferase Suv4-20h2 to rDNA, thus triggering trimethylation of H4K20 (H4K20me3 and chromatin compaction. Here, we show that upregulation of PAPAS in response to hypoosmotic stress does not increase H4K20me3 because of Nedd4-dependent ubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation of Suv4-20h2. Loss of Suv4-20h2 enables PAPAS to interact with CHD4, a subunit of the chromatin remodeling complex NuRD, which shifts the promoter-bound nucleosome into the transcriptional “off” position. Thus, PAPAS exerts a “stress-tailored” dual function in rDNA silencing, facilitating either Suv4-20h2-dependent chromatin compaction or NuRD-dependent changes in nucleosome positioning.

  14. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takada

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon, within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons

  15. Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alexander A. Dolskiy

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... Results: We describe a family case of a translocation rob (13; 14) and elevated rRNA expression in the proband with ..... Clin Genet 2010;78:299–309. ... [9] Bertini V, Fogli A, Bruno R, Azzarà A, Michelucci A, Mattina T, et al.

  16. Metagenomic of Actinomycetes Based on 16S rRNA and nifH Genes in Soil and Roots of Four Indonesian Rice Cultivars Using PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyarudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the metagenomic of actinomycetes based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA and bacterial nifH genes in soil and roots of four rice cultivars. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile based on 16S rRNA gene showed that the diversity of actinomycetes in roots was higher than soil samples. The profile also showed that the diversity of actinomycetes was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. The profile was partially sequenced and compared to GenBank database indicating their identity with closely related microbes. The blast results showed that 17 bands were closely related ranging from 93% to 100% of maximum identity with five genera of actinomycetes, which is Geodermatophilus, Actinokineospora, Actinoplanes, Streptomyces and Kocuria. Our study found that Streptomyces species in soil and roots of rice plants were more varied than other genera, with a dominance of Streptomyces alboniger and Streptomyces acidiscabies in almost all the samples. Bacterial community analyses based on nifH gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that diversity of bacteria in soils which have nifH gene was higher than that in rice plant roots. The profile also showed that the diversity of those bacteria was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. Five bands were closely related with nifH gene from uncultured bacterium clone J50, uncultured bacterium clone clod-38, and uncultured bacterium clone BG2.37 with maximum identity 99%, 98%, and 92%, respectively. The diversity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene differed from nifH gene and may not correlate with each other. The findings indicated the diversity of actinomycetes and several bacterial genomes analyzed here have an ability to fix nitrogen in soil and roots of rice plant.

  17. Identification of a microsporidian isolate from Cnaphalocrocis Medinalis and its pathogenicity to Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuhua; Qi, Guangjun; Pan, Zhixin; Zhu, Fangrong; Huang, Yuanjiao; Wu, Yonghu

    2014-11-01

    A microsporidian, CmM2, was isolated from Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. The biological characters, molecular analysis and pathogenicity of CmM2 were studied. The spore of CmM2 is long oval in shape and 3.45 ± 0.25 × 1.68 ± 0.18 µm in size, the life cycle includes meronts, sporonts, sporoblasts, and spores, with typical diplokaryon in each stage, propagated in binary fission. There is positive coagulation reaction between CmM2 and the polyclonal antibody of Nosema bombycis (N.b.). CmM2 spores is binuclear, and has 10-12 polar filament coils. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence of CmM2 was obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing, the phylogenetic tree based on SSU rRNA sequences had been constructed, and the similarity and genetic distance of SSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, showed that CmM2 was grouped in the Nosema clade. The 50% infectious concentration of CmM2 to Bombyx mori is 4.72 × 10(4)  spores ml(-1) , and the germinative infection rate is 12.33%. The results showed that CmM2 is classified into genus Nosema, as Nosema sp. CmM2, and has a heavy infectivity to B. mori. The result indicated as well that it is valuable taxonomic determination for microsporidian isolates based on both biological characters and molecular evidence. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  19. [Identification of new conserved and variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene of acetic acid bacteria and acetobacteraceae family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, S; Sarkar, S; Gachhui, R

    2015-01-01

    The Acetobacteraceae family of the class Alpha Proteobacteria is comprised of high sugar and acid tolerant bacteria. The Acetic Acid Bacteria are the economically most significant group of this family because of its association with food products like vinegar, wine etc. Acetobacteraceae are often hard to culture in laboratory conditions and they also maintain very low abundances in their natural habitats. Thus identification of the organisms in such environments is greatly dependent on modern tools of molecular biology which require a thorough knowledge of specific conserved gene sequences that may act as primers and or probes. Moreover unconserved domains in genes also become markers for differentiating closely related genera. In bacteria, the 16S rRNA gene is an ideal candidate for such conserved and variable domains. In order to study the conserved and variable domains of the 16S rRNA gene of Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Acetobacteraceae family, sequences from publicly available databases were aligned and compared. Near complete sequences of the gene were also obtained from Kombucha tea biofilm, a known Acetobacteraceae family habitat, in order to corroborate the domains obtained from the alignment studies. The study indicated that the degree of conservation in the gene is significantly higher among the Acetic Acid Bacteria than the whole Acetobacteraceae family. Moreover it was also observed that the previously described hypervariable regions V1, V3, V5, V6 and V7 were more or less conserved in the family and the spans of the variable regions are quite distinct as well.

  20. From learning taxonomies to phylogenetic learning: Integration of 16S rRNA gene data into FAME-based bacterial classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering algorithms on FAME data or on 16S rRNA gene data. The knowledge gained from the tree can then be used to evaluate FAME-based classifiers, resulting in a novel framework for bacterial species classification. Results In view of learning in a taxonomic framework, we consider two types of trees. First, a FAME tree is constructed with a supervised divisive clustering algorithm. Subsequently, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phylogenetic trees are inferred by the NJ and UPGMA methods. In this second approach, the species classification problem is based on the combination of two different types of data. Herein, 16S rRNA gene sequence data is used for phylogenetic tree inference and the corresponding binary tree splits are learned based on FAME data. We call this learning approach 'phylogenetic learning'. Supervised Random Forest models are developed to train the classification tasks in a stratified cross-validation setting. In this way, better classification results are obtained for species that are typically hard to distinguish by a single or flat multi-class classification model. Conclusions FAME-based bacterial species classification is successfully evaluated in a taxonomic framework. Although the proposed approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared to flat multi-class classification, it has some distinct advantages. First, it has better capabilities for distinguishing species on which flat multi-class classification fails. Secondly, the hierarchical classification structure allows to easily evaluate and visualize the resolution of FAME data for

  1. From learning taxonomies to phylogenetic learning: Integration of 16S rRNA gene data into FAME-based bacterial classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawyndt Peter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering algorithms on FAME data or on 16S rRNA gene data. The knowledge gained from the tree can then be used to evaluate FAME-based classifiers, resulting in a novel framework for bacterial species classification. Results In view of learning in a taxonomic framework, we consider two types of trees. First, a FAME tree is constructed with a supervised divisive clustering algorithm. Subsequently, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phylogenetic trees are inferred by the NJ and UPGMA methods. In this second approach, the species classification problem is based on the combination of two different types of data. Herein, 16S rRNA gene sequence data is used for phylogenetic tree inference and the corresponding binary tree splits are learned based on FAME data. We call this learning approach 'phylogenetic learning'. Supervised Random Forest models are developed to train the classification tasks in a stratified cross-validation setting. In this way, better classification results are obtained for species that are typically hard to distinguish by a single or flat multi-class classification model. Conclusions FAME-based bacterial species classification is successfully evaluated in a taxonomic framework. Although the proposed approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared to flat multi-class classification, it has some distinct advantages. First, it has better capabilities for distinguishing species on which flat multi-class classification fails. Secondly, the hierarchical classification structure allows to easily evaluate and visualize the

  2. From learning taxonomies to phylogenetic learning: integration of 16S rRNA gene data into FAME-based bacterial classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbinck, Bram; Waegeman, Willem; Dawyndt, Peter; De Vos, Paul; De Baets, Bernard

    2010-01-30

    Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering algorithms on FAME data or on 16S rRNA gene data. The knowledge gained from the tree can then be used to evaluate FAME-based classifiers, resulting in a novel framework for bacterial species classification. In view of learning in a taxonomic framework, we consider two types of trees. First, a FAME tree is constructed with a supervised divisive clustering algorithm. Subsequently, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phylogenetic trees are inferred by the NJ and UPGMA methods. In this second approach, the species classification problem is based on the combination of two different types of data. Herein, 16S rRNA gene sequence data is used for phylogenetic tree inference and the corresponding binary tree splits are learned based on FAME data. We call this learning approach 'phylogenetic learning'. Supervised Random Forest models are developed to train the classification tasks in a stratified cross-validation setting. In this way, better classification results are obtained for species that are typically hard to distinguish by a single or flat multi-class classification model. FAME-based bacterial species classification is successfully evaluated in a taxonomic framework. Although the proposed approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared to flat multi-class classification, it has some distinct advantages. First, it has better capabilities for distinguishing species on which flat multi-class classification fails. Secondly, the hierarchical classification structure allows to easily evaluate and visualize the resolution of FAME data for the discrimination of bacterial

  3. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene in Theileria equi from horses presented in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Meli, Marina L; Zhang, Yi; Meili, Theres; Stirn, Martina; Riond, Barbara; Weibel, Beatrice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-05-15

    A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was adapted and applied for equine blood samples collected at the animal hospital of the University of Zurich to determine the presence of piroplasms in horses in Switzerland. A total of 100 equine blood samples were included in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using the RLB assay. Samples from seven horses hybridized to a Theileria/Babesia genus-specific and a Theileria genus-specific probe. Of these, two hybridized also to the Theileria equi-specific probe. The other five positive samples did not hybridize to any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of unrecognized Theileria variants or genotypes. The 18S rRNA gene of the latter five samples were sequenced and found to be closely related to T. equi isolated from horses in Spain (AY534822) and China (KF559357) (≥98.4% identity). Four of the seven horses that tested positive had a documented travel history (France, Italy, and Spain) or lived abroad (Hungary). The present study adds new insight into the presence and sequence heterogeneity of T. equi in Switzerland. The results prompt that species-specific probes must be designed in regions of the gene unique to T. equi. Of note, none of the seven positive horses were suspected of having Theileria infection at the time of presentation to the clinic. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of equine piroplasma infections outside of endemic areas and in horses without signs of piroplasmosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly divergent 16S rRNA sequences in ribosomal operons of Scytonema hyalinum (Cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Johansen

    Full Text Available A highly divergent 16S rRNA gene was found in one of the five ribosomal operons present in a species complex currently circumscribed as Scytonema hyalinum (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria using clone libraries. If 16S rRNA sequence macroheterogeneity among ribosomal operons due to insertions, deletions or truncation is excluded, the sequence heterogeneity observed in S. hyalinum was the highest observed in any prokaryotic species thus far (7.3-9.0%. The secondary structure of the 16S rRNA molecules encoded by the two divergent operons was nearly identical, indicating possible functionality. The 23S rRNA gene was examined for a few strains in this complex, and it was also found to be highly divergent from the gene in Type 2 operons (8.7%, and likewise had nearly identical secondary structure between the Type 1 and Type 2 operons. Furthermore, the 16S-23S ITS showed marked differences consistent between operons among numerous strains. Both operons have promoter sequences that satisfy consensus requirements for functional prokaryotic transcription initiation. Horizontal gene transfer from another unknown heterocytous cyanobacterium is considered the most likely explanation for the origin of this molecule, but does not explain the ultimate origin of this sequence, which is very divergent from all 16S rRNA sequences found thus far in cyanobacteria. The divergent sequence is highly conserved among numerous strains of S. hyalinum, suggesting adaptive advantage and selective constraint of the divergent sequence.

  5. Chromosomal mapping of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in eight species of Astyanax (Pisces, Characiformes) with different diploid numbers: syntenic conservation of repetitive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2016-03-01

    The genus Astyanax is widely distributed from the southern United States to northern Patagonia, Argentina. While cytogenetic studies have been performed for this genus, little is known about the histone gene families. The aim of this study was to examine the chromosomal relationships among the different species of Astyanax. The chromosomal locations of the 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were determined in A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, A. mexicanus (all 2n = 50), A. fasciatus (2n = 46), and A. schubarti (2n = 36). All eight species exhibited H3 histone clusters on two chromosome pairs. In six species (A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, and A. fasciatus), syntenic clusters of H3 histone and 5S rDNA were observed on metacentric (m) or submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. In seven species, clusters of 5S rDNA sequences were located on one or two chromosome pairs. In A. mexicanus, 5S rDNA clusters were located on four chromosome pairs. This study demonstrates that H3 histone clusters are conserved on two chromosome pairs in the genus Astyanax, and specific chromosomal features may contribute to the genomic organization of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes.

  6. Accurate and Practical Identification of 20 Fusarium Species by Seven-Locus Sequence Analysis and Reverse Line Blot Hybridization, and an In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Study▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon; Dou, Hong-Tao; Sorrell, Tania; Li, Ruo-Yu; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Eleven reference and 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium were subject to multilocus DNA sequence analysis to determine the species and haplotypes of the fusarial isolates from Beijing and Shandong, China. Seven loci were analyzed: the translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1α); the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit (LSU), and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2); the calmodulin gene (CAM); and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rRNA gene. We also evaluated an IGS-targeted PCR/reverse line blot (RLB) assay for species/haplotype identification of Fusarium. Twenty Fusarium species and seven species complexes were identified. Of 25 clinical isolates (10 species), the Gibberella (Fusarium) fujikuroi species complex was the commonest (40%) and was followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) (36%) and the F. incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex (12%). Six FSSC isolates were identified to the species level as FSSC-3+4, and three as FSSC-5. Twenty-nine IGS, 27 EF-1α, 26 RPB2, 24 CAM, 18 ITS, 19 LSU, and 18 mtSSU haplotypes were identified; 29 were unique, and haplotypes for 24 clinical strains were novel. By parsimony informative character analysis, the IGS locus was the most phylogenetically informative, and the rRNA gene regions were the least. Results by RLB were concordant with multilocus sequence analysis for all isolates. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against all species. Voriconazole MICs were high (>8 μg/ml) for 15 (42%) isolates, including FSSC. Analysis of larger numbers of isolates is required to determine the clinical utility of the seven-locus sequence analysis and RLB assay in species classification of fusaria. PMID:21389150

  7. Improved group-specific primers based on the full SILVA 16S rRNA gene reference database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Stefan; Pastar, Milica; Mitter, Birgit; Lippert, Kathrin; Hackl, Evelyn; Lojan, Paul; Oswald, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and community fingerprinting methods, such as the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis,are well-suited techniques for the examination of microbial community structures. The use of phylum and class-specific primers can provide enhanced sensitivity and phylogenetic resolution as compared with domain-specific primers. To date, several phylum- and class-specific primers targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene have been published. However, many of these primers exhibit low discriminatory power against non-target bacteria in PCR. In this study, we evaluated the precision of certain published primers in silico and via specific PCR. We designed new qPCR and T-RFLP primer pairs (for the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria) by combining the sequence information from a public dataset (SILVA SSU Ref 102 NR) with manual primer design. We evaluated the primer pairs via PCR using isolates of the above-mentioned groups and via screening of clone libraries from environmental soil samples and human faecal samples. As observed through theoretical and practical evaluation, the primers developed in this study showed a higher level of precision than previously published primers, thus allowing a deeper insight into microbial community dynamics.

  8. Methyltransferase That Modifies Guanine 966 of the 16 S rRNA: FUNCTIONAL IDENTIFICATION AND TERTIARY STRUCTURE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnyak, Dmitry V.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Skarina, Tatiana; Sergiev, Petr V.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Edwards, Aled; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    N2-Methylguanine 966 is located in the loop of Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA helix 31, forming a part of the P-site tRNA-binding pocket. We found yhhF to be a gene encoding for m2G966 specific 16 S rRNA methyltransferase. Disruption of the yhhF gene by kanamycin resistance marker leads to a loss of modification at G966. The modification could be rescued by expression of recombinant protein from the plasmid carrying the yhhF gene. Moreover, purified m2G966 methyltransferase, in the presence of S-adenosylomethionine (AdoMet), is able to methylate 30 S ribosomal subunits that were purified from yhhF knock-out strain in vitro. The methylation is specific for G966 base of the 16 S rRNA. The m2G966 methyltransferase was crystallized, and its structure has been determined and refined to 2.05 Å. The structure closely resembles RsmC rRNA methyltransferase, specific for m2G1207 of the 16 S rRNA. Structural comparisons and analysis of the enzyme active site suggest modes for binding AdoMet and rRNA to m2G966 methyltransferase. Based on the experimental data and current nomenclature the protein expressed from the yhhF gene was renamed to RsmD. A model for interaction of RsmD with ribosome has been proposed. PMID:17189261

  9. Methyltransferase that modifies guanine 966 of the 16 S rRNA: functional identification and tertiary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnyak, Dmitry V; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Skarina, Tatiana; Sergiev, Petr V; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Edwards, Aled; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Dontsova, Olga A

    2007-02-23

    N(2)-Methylguanine 966 is located in the loop of Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA helix 31, forming a part of the P-site tRNA-binding pocket. We found yhhF to be a gene encoding for m(2)G966 specific 16 S rRNA methyltransferase. Disruption of the yhhF gene by kanamycin resistance marker leads to a loss of modification at G966. The modification could be rescued by expression of recombinant protein from the plasmid carrying the yhhF gene. Moreover, purified m(2)G966 methyltransferase, in the presence of S-adenosylomethionine (AdoMet), is able to methylate 30 S ribosomal subunits that were purified from yhhF knock-out strain in vitro. The methylation is specific for G966 base of the 16 S rRNA. The m(2)G966 methyltransferase was crystallized, and its structure has been determined and refined to 2.05A(.) The structure closely resembles RsmC rRNA methyltransferase, specific for m(2)G1207 of the 16 S rRNA. Structural comparisons and analysis of the enzyme active site suggest modes for binding AdoMet and rRNA to m(2)G966 methyltransferase. Based on the experimental data and current nomenclature the protein expressed from the yhhF gene was renamed to RsmD. A model for interaction of RsmD with ribosome has been proposed.

  10. [Archaeal diversity in permafrost deposits of Bunger Hills Oasis and King George Island (Antarctica) according to the 16S rRNA gene sequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaevskaia, E S; Demchenko, L S; Demidov, N É; Rivkina, E M; Bulat, S A; Gilichinskiĭ, D A

    2014-01-01

    Archaeal communities of permafrost deposits of King George Island and Bunger Hills Oasis (Antarctica) differing in the content of biogenic methane were analyzed using clone libraries of two 16S rRNA gene regions. Phylotypes belonging to methanogenic archaea were identified in all horizons.

  11. New contribution to the species-rich genus Euplotes: Morphology, ontogeny and systematic position of two species (Ciliophora; Euplotia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Fan, Yangbo; Luo, Xiaotian; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bourland, William; Chen, Xiangrui

    2018-06-01

    The morphology, ontogeny and phylogeny of two Euplotes species, E. estuarinus sp. nov. and a population of E. platystoma Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986, both collected from tropical brackish waters in south China, were investigated based on living morphology, ciliary pattern and molecular data. Euplotes estuarinus sp. nov. is small (about 60 × 40 μm in vivo), has a dargyrome of the double-eurystomus type, and the transverse cirri are arranged in two groups, with two left and three right ones. The original description of the poorly known species, E. platystoma, is brief, and the species was never investigated using live observation and molecular methods Hence, we provided a detailed redescription. Some stages of their morphogenesis were observed which proceed in the same pattern as in their congeners. The new species E. estuarinus sp. nov. clusters with E. curdsi, differing only by 1 bp in their SSU rRNA gene sequences, which is likely due to the recent speciation event and the limited resolution of the SSU rRNA gene at species level in this group as the two species are clearly morphologically distinct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The online database MaarjAM reveals global and ecosystemic distribution patterns in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opik, M; Vanatoa, A; Vanatoa, E; Moora, M; Davison, J; Kalwij, J M; Reier, U; Zobel, M

    2010-10-01

    • Here, we describe a new database, MaarjAM, that summarizes publicly available Glomeromycota DNA sequence data and associated metadata. The goal of the database is to facilitate the description of distribution and richness patterns in this group of fungi. • Small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences and available metadata were collated from all suitable taxonomic and ecological publications. These data have been made accessible in an open-access database (http://maarjam.botany.ut.ee). • Two hundred and eighty-two SSU rRNA gene virtual taxa (VT) were described based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all collated Glomeromycota sequences. Two-thirds of VT showed limited distribution ranges, occurring in single current or historic continents or climatic zones. Those VT that associated with a taxonomically wide range of host plants also tended to have a wide geographical distribution, and vice versa. No relationships were detected between VT richness and latitude, elevation or vascular plant richness. • The collated Glomeromycota molecular diversity data suggest limited distribution ranges in most Glomeromycota taxa and a positive relationship between the width of a taxon's geographical range and its host taxonomic range. Inconsistencies between molecular and traditional taxonomy of Glomeromycota, and shortage of data from major continents and ecosystems, are highlighted.

  13. Response of forest soil euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) to pig cadavers assessed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppey, Christophe V W; Fournier, Bertrand; Szelecz, Ildikò; Singer, David; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing cadavers modify the soil environment, but the effect on soil organisms and especially on soil protists is still poorly documented. We conducted a 35-month experiment in a deciduous forest where soil samples were taken under pig cadavers, control plots and fake pigs (bags of similar volume as the pigs). We extracted total soil DNA, amplified the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V9 region and sequenced it by Illumina technology and analysed the data for euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), a common group of protozoa known to respond to micro-environmental changes. We found 51 euglyphid operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 45 of which did not match any known sequence. Most OTUs decreased in abundance underneath cadavers between days 0 and 309, but some responded positively after a time lag. We sequenced the full-length SSU rRNA gene of two common OTUs that responded positively to cadavers; a phylogenetic analysis showed that they did not belong to any known euglyphid family. This study confirmed the existence of an unknown diversity of euglyphids and that they react to cadavers. Results suggest that metabarcoding of soil euglyphids could be used as a forensic tool to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) particularly for long-term (>2 months) PMI, for which no reliable tool exists.

  14. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchodolski, Jan S; Dowd, Scot E; Wilke, Vicky; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E

    2012-01-01

    Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6) and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7) or severe IBD (n = 7) as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, pmicrobial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation.

  15. Epigenetic silencing of nucleolar rRNA genes in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Pietrzak

    Full Text Available Ribosomal deficits are documented in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, which often represents an early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD, as well as in advanced AD. The nucleolar rRNA genes (rDNA, transcription of which is critical for ribosomal biogenesis, are regulated by epigenetic silencing including promoter CpG methylation.To assess whether CpG methylation of the rDNA promoter was dysregulated across the AD spectrum, we analyzed brain samples from 10 MCI-, 23 AD-, and, 24 age-matched control individuals using bisulfite mapping. The rDNA promoter became hypermethylated in cerebro-cortical samples from MCI and AD groups. In parietal cortex, the rDNA promoter was hypermethylated more in MCI than in advanced AD. The cytosine methylation of total genomic DNA was similar in AD, MCI, and control samples. Consistent with a notion that hypermethylation-mediated silencing of the nucleolar chromatin stabilizes rDNA loci, preventing their senescence-associated loss, genomic rDNA content was elevated in cerebrocortical samples from MCI and AD groups.In conclusion, rDNA hypermethylation could be a new epigenetic marker of AD. Moreover, silencing of nucleolar chromatin may occur during early stages of AD pathology and play a role in AD-related ribosomal deficits and, ultimately, dementia.

  16. High-resolution microscopy of active ribosomal genes and key members of the rRNA processing machinery inside nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Khodarovich, Yuriy M; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-10-01

    Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) of fully-grown (germinal vesicle, GV) mammalian oocytes are traditionally considered as morphologically distinct entities, which, unlike normal nucleoli, contain transcribed ribosomal genes (rDNA) solely at their surface. In the current study, we for the first time showed that active ribosomal genes are present not only on the surface but also inside NLBs of the NSN-type oocytes. The "internal" rRNA synthesis was evidenced by cytoplasmic microinjections of BrUTP as precursor and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe to the short-lived 5'ETS segment of the 47S pre-rRNA. We further showed that in the NLB mass of NSN-oocytes, distribution of active rDNA, RNA polymerase I (UBF) and rRNA processing (fibrillarin) protein factors, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs and 18S/28S rRNAs is remarkably similar to that in somatic nucleoli capable to make pre-ribosomes. Overall, these observations support the occurrence of rDNA transcription, rRNA processing and pre-ribosome assembly in the NSN-type NLBs and so that their functional similarity to normal nucleoli. Unlike the NSN-type NLBs, the NLBs of more mature SN-oocytes do not contain transcribed rRNA genes, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs, 18S and 28S rRNAs. These results favor the idea that in a process of transformation of NSN-oocytes to SN-oocytes, NLBs cease to produce pre-ribosomes and, moreover, lose their rRNAs. We also concluded that a denaturing fixative 70% ethanol used in the study to fix oocytes could be more appropriate for light microscopy analysis of nucleolar RNAs and proteins in mammalian fully-grown oocytes than a commonly used cross-linking aldehyde fixative, formalin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of microbial communities found in the human vagina by analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, MJL; Post, E; Davis, CC; Forney, LJ

    2005-01-01

    To define and monitor the structure of microbial communities found in the human vagina, a cultivation-independent approach based on analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes was developed and validated. Sixteen bacterial strains commonly found in the

  18. Phytochrome control of gene expression in radish seedlings. 111. Evidence for a rapid control of the ribulose 1. 5 biphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene expression by red light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourcroy, P

    1986-01-01

    The effect of red and far-red light on the level of the mRNA encoding the small subunit (SSU) of ribulose, 1.5 bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO; EC 4.1.1.39) from radish cotyledons was investigated. Northern blot analysis of RNA with a cDNA probe showed that both long (12-36h) far-red irradiation and short (1-5 min) red irradiation brings about an increase in SSU mRNA concentraton which was prevented by a subsequent far-red light exposure. Far-red light was effective in reversing the red light effect provided that it was given soon after (<10 min) the red light pulse. The red light mediated increase in SSU mRNA level did not occur in presence of ..cap alpha..-amanitin. Our results suggest that phytochrome control of SSU gene expression is exerted at the transcriptional level. 34 refs.

  19. Microbial diversity and activity in the Nematostella vectensis holobiont: insights from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, isolate genomes, and a pilot-scale survey of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yi Har

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the molecular and genomic diversity of the microbiota of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian model for comparative developmental and functional biology and a year-round inhabitant of temperate salt marshes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed four ribotypes associated with N. vectensis at multiple locations and times. These associates include two novel ribotypes within the ε-Proteobacterial order Campylobacterales and the Spirochetes, respectively, each sharing 99% 16S rRNA identity with Endozoicomonas elysicola and Pseudomonas oleovorans, respectively. Species-specific PCR revealed that these populations persisted in N. vectensis asexually propagated under laboratory conditions. cDNA indicated expression of the Campylobacterales and Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA in anemones from Sippewissett Marsh, MA. A collection of bacteria from laboratory raised N. vectensis was dominated by isolates from P. oleovorans and Rhizobium radiobacter. Isolates from field-collected anemones revealed an association with Limnobacter and Stappia isolates. Genomic DNA sequencing was carried out on 10 cultured bacterial isolates representing field- and laboratory-associates, i.e. Limnobacter spp., Stappia spp., P. oleovorans and R. radiobacter. Genomes contained multiple genes identified as virulence (host-association factors while S. stellulata and L. thiooxidans genomes revealed pathways for mixotrophic sulfur oxidation. A pilot metatranscriptome of laboratory-raised N. vectensis was compared to the isolate genomes and indicated expression of ORFs from L. thiooxidans with predicted functions of motility, nutrient scavenging (Fe and P, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis for carbon storage, and selective permeability (porins. We hypothesize that such activities may mediate acclimation and persistence of bacteria in N. vectensis.

  20. FISH and AgNor mapping of the 45S and 5S rRNA genes in wild and cultivated species of Capsicum (Solananceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldaferro, Marisel A; da Cruz, M Victoria Romero; Cecchini, Nicolás M; Moscone, Eduardo A

    2016-02-01

    Chromosome number and position of rDNA were studied in 12 wild and cultivated species of the genus Capsicum with chromosome numbers x = 12 and x = 13 (22 samples). For the first time in these species, the 5S and 45S rRNA loci were localized and physically mapped using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and AgNOR banding. We focused on the comparison of the results obtained with both methods with the aim of accurately revealing the real functional rRNA genes. The analyzes were based on a previous work that reported that the 18S-5.8S-25S loci mostly coincide with GC-rich heterochromatic regions and likely have given rise to satellite DNAs, which are not active genes. These data show the variability of rDNA within karyotypes of the genus Capsicum, providing anchor points for (comparative) genetic maps. In addition, the obtained information might be useful for studies on evolution of repetitive DNA.

  1. Genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, K; Horikoshi, K

    1999-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring archaeal communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments was carried out by PCR-mediated small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing. As determined through partial sequencing of rDNA clones amplified with archaea-specific primers, the archaeal populations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments showed a great genetic diversity, and most members of these populations appeared to be uncultivated and unidentified organisms. In the...

  2. Large-scale benchmarking reveals false discoveries and count transformation sensitivity in 16S rRNA gene amplicon data analysis methods used in microbiome studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Jonathan; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Mortensen, Martin Steen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an immense scientific interest in the human microbiome and its effects on human physiology, health, and disease. A common approach for examining bacterial communities is high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, aggregating sequence-similar amplicons...

  3. Soil DNA extraction procedure influences protist 18S rRNA gene community profiling outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Susana S.; Nunes, Ines Marques; Nielsen, Tue K.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies allow deeper studies of the soil protist diversity and function. However, little attention has been given to the impact of the chosen soil DNA extraction procedure to the overall results. We examined the effect of three acknowledged DNA recovery methods, two...... manual methods (ISOm-11063, GnS-GII) and one commercial kit (MoBio), on soil protist community structures obtained from different sites with different land uses. Results from 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing suggest that DNA extraction method significantly affect the replicate homogeneity, the total...... number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered and the overall taxonomic structure and diversity of soil protist communities. However, DNA extraction effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among samples, as the community data still strongly grouped by geographical location...

  4. Enzymic colorimetry-based DNA chip: a rapid and accurate assay for detecting mutations for clarithromycin resistance in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shi-Hai; Zhou, Yu-Gui; Shao, Bo; Cui, Ya-Lin; Li, Jian; Yin, Hong-Bo; Song, Xiao-Ping; Cong, Hui; Jing, Feng-Xiang; Jin, Qing-Hui; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Macrolide drugs, such as clarithromycin (CAM), are a key component of many combination therapies used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. However, resistance to CAM is increasing in H. pylori and is becoming a serious problem in H. pylori eradication therapy. CAM resistance in H. pylori is mostly due to point mutations (A2142G/C, A2143G) in the peptidyltransferase-encoding region of the 23S rRNA gene. In this study an enzymic colorimetry-based DNA chip was developed to analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the 23S rRNA gene to determine the prevalence of mutations in CAM-related resistance in H. pylori-positive patients. The results of the colorimetric DNA chip were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. In 63 samples, the incidence of the A2143G mutation was 17.46 % (11/63). The results of the colorimetric DNA chip were concordant with DNA sequencing in 96.83 % of results (61/63). The colorimetric DNA chip could detect wild-type and mutant signals at every site, even at a DNA concentration of 1.53 x 10(2) copies microl(-1). Thus, the colorimetric DNA chip is a reliable assay for rapid and accurate detection of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori that lead to CAM-related resistance, directly from gastric tissues.

  5. Dancing together and separate again: gymnosperms exhibit frequent changes of fundamental 5S and 35S rRNA gene (rDNA) organisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 1 (2013), s. 23-33 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10057S; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : rRNA gene organisation * intergenic spacer * Ginkgo Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.804, year: 2013

  6. Microbial diversity and activity in the Nematostella vectensis holobiont: insights from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, isolate genomes, and a pilot-scale survey of gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Har, Jia Y.; Helbig, Tim; Lim, Ju H.; Fernando, Samodha C.; Reitzel, Adam M.; Penn, Kevin; Thompson, Janelle R.

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the molecular and genomic diversity of the microbiota of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian model for comparative developmental and functional biology and a year-round inhabitant of temperate salt marshes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed four ribotypes associated with N. vectensis at multiple locations and times. These associates include two novel ribotypes within the ε-Proteobacterial order Campylobacter...

  7. Phylogenetic Analysis of Pasteuria penetrans by 16S rRNA Gene Cloning and Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J M; Preston, J F; Dickson, D W; Hewlett, T E; Williams, N H; Maruniak, J E

    1999-09-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is an endospore-forming bacterial parasite of Meloidogyne spp. This organism is among the most promising agents for the biological control of root-knot nematodes. In order to establish the phylogenetic position of this species relative to other endospore-forming bacteria, the 16S ribosomal genes from two isolates of P. penetrans, P-20, which preferentially infects M. arenaria race 1, and P-100, which preferentially infects M. incognita and M. javanica, were PCR-amplified from a purified endospore extraction. Universal primers for the 16S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA which was cloned, and a nucleotide sequence was obtained for 92% of the gene (1,390 base pairs) encoding the 16S rDNA from each isolate. Comparison of both isolates showed identical sequences that were compared to 16S rDNA sequences of 30 other endospore-forming bacteria obtained from GenBank. Parsimony analyses indicated that P. penetrans is a species within a clade that includes Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, A. cycloheptanicus, Sulfobacillus sp., Bacillus tusciae, B. schlegelii, and P. ramosa. Its closest neighbor is P. ramosa, a parasite of Daphnia spp. (water fleas). This study provided a genomic basis for the relationship of species assigned to the genus Pasteuria, and for comparison of species that are parasites of different phytopathogenic nematodes.

  8. Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette M

    2010-01-01

    Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16......S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing......-agreeing identifications with the two methods with respect to allocation to the same VS group. Non-agreeing species identification mostly occurred among strains in the contaminant group, while for endocarditis strains notably fewer disagreeing results were observed.Only 67 of 150 strains in the mitis group strains...

  9. Human TRMU encoding the mitochondrial 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate-methyltransferase is a putative nuclear modifier gene for the phenotypic expression of the deafness-associated 12S rRNA mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qingfeng; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Li Ronghua; Mengesha, Emebet; Shohat, Mordechai; Estivill, Xavier; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Guan Minxin

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear modifier genes have been proposed to modulate the phenotypic manifestation of human mitochondrial 12S rRNA A1491G mutation associated with deafness in many families world-wide. Here we identified and characterized the putative nuclear modifier gene TRMU encoding a highly conserved mitochondrial protein related to tRNA modification. A 1937 bp TRMU cDNA has been isolated and the genomic organization of TRMU has been elucidated. The human TRMU gene containing 11 exons encodes a 421 residue protein with a strong homology to the TRMU-like proteins of bacteria and other homologs. TRMU is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, but abundantly in tissues with high metabolic rates including heart, liver, kidney, and brain. Immunofluorescence analysis of human 143B cells expressing TRMU-GFP fusion protein demonstrated that the human Trmu localizes and functions in mitochondrion. Furthermore, we show that in families with the deafness-associated 12S rRNA A1491G mutation there is highly suggestive linkage and linkage disequilibrium between microsatellite markers adjacent to TRMU and the presence of deafness. These observations suggest that human TRMU may modulate the phenotypic manifestation of the deafness-associated mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutations

  10. SSU rDNA sequence diversity and seasonally differentiated distribution of nanoplanktonic ciliates in neritic Bohai and Yellow Seas as revealed by T-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Shi, Fei; Li, Han; Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Xiaozhong; Gong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Nanociliates have been frequently found to be important players in the marine microbial loop, however, little is known about their diversity and distribution in coastal ecosystems. We investigated the molecular diversity and distribution patterns of nanoplanktonic oligotrich and choreotrich (OC) ciliates in surface water of three neritic basins of northern China, the South Yellow Sea (SYS), North Yellow Sea (NYS), and Bohai Sea (BS) in June and November 2011. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries generated from three summertime samples (sites B38, B4 and H8) were analyzed and revealed a large novel ribotype diversity, of which many were low-abundant phylotypes belonging to the subclass Oligotrichia, but divergent from described morphospecies. Based on the data of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of all 35 samples, we found that the T-RF richness was generally higher in the SYS than in the BS, and negatively correlated with the molar ratio of P to Si. Overall, multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance of the community turnover demonstrated a distinct seasonal pattern but no basin-to-basin differentiation across all samples. Nevertheless, significant community differences among basins were recognized in the winter dataset. Mantel tests showed that the environmental factors, P:Si ratio, water temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), determined the community across all samples. However, both biogeographic distance and environment shaped the community in winter, with DO being the most important physicochemical factor. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric ratio of P:Si is a key factor, through which the phytoplankton community may be shaped, resulting in a cascade effect on the diversity and community composition of OC nanociliates in the N-rich, Si-limited coastal surface waters, and that the Yellow Sea Warm Current drives the nanociliate community, and possibly the microbial food webs

  11. Rhea: a transparent and modular R pipeline for microbial profiling based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Fischer, Sandra; Kumar, Neeraj; Clavel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The importance of 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles for understanding the influence of microbes in a variety of environments coupled with the steep reduction in sequencing costs led to a surge of microbial sequencing projects. The expanding crowd of scientists and clinicians wanting to make use of sequencing datasets can choose among a range of multipurpose software platforms, the use of which can be intimidating for non-expert users. Among available pipeline options for high-throughput 16S rRNA gene analysis, the R programming language and software environment for statistical computing stands out for its power and increased flexibility, and the possibility to adhere to most recent best practices and to adjust to individual project needs. Here we present the Rhea pipeline, a set of R scripts that encode a series of well-documented choices for the downstream analysis of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) tables, including normalization steps, alpha - and beta -diversity analysis, taxonomic composition, statistical comparisons, and calculation of correlations. Rhea is primarily a straightforward starting point for beginners, but can also be a framework for advanced users who can modify and expand the tool. As the community standards evolve, Rhea will adapt to always represent the current state-of-the-art in microbial profiles analysis in the clear and comprehensive way allowed by the R language. Rhea scripts and documentation are freely available at https://lagkouvardos.github.io/Rhea.

  12. Rhea: a transparent and modular R pipeline for microbial profiling based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Lagkouvardos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles for understanding the influence of microbes in a variety of environments coupled with the steep reduction in sequencing costs led to a surge of microbial sequencing projects. The expanding crowd of scientists and clinicians wanting to make use of sequencing datasets can choose among a range of multipurpose software platforms, the use of which can be intimidating for non-expert users. Among available pipeline options for high-throughput 16S rRNA gene analysis, the R programming language and software environment for statistical computing stands out for its power and increased flexibility, and the possibility to adhere to most recent best practices and to adjust to individual project needs. Here we present the Rhea pipeline, a set of R scripts that encode a series of well-documented choices for the downstream analysis of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs tables, including normalization steps, alpha- and beta-diversity analysis, taxonomic composition, statistical comparisons, and calculation of correlations. Rhea is primarily a straightforward starting point for beginners, but can also be a framework for advanced users who can modify and expand the tool. As the community standards evolve, Rhea will adapt to always represent the current state-of-the-art in microbial profiles analysis in the clear and comprehensive way allowed by the R language. Rhea scripts and documentation are freely available at https://lagkouvardos.github.io/Rhea.

  13. Design and Evaluation of Illumina MiSeq-Compatible, 18S rRNA Gene-Specific Primers for Improved Characterization of Mixed Phototrophic Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ian M; Pinto, Ameet J; Guest, Jeremy S

    2016-10-01

    The use of high-throughput sequencing technologies with the 16S rRNA gene for characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities has become routine. However, the adoption of sequencing methods for eukaryotes has been slow, despite their significance to natural and engineered systems. There are large variations among the target genes used for amplicon sequencing, and for the 18S rRNA gene, there is no consensus on which hypervariable region provides the most suitable representation of diversity. Additionally, it is unclear how much PCR/sequencing bias affects the depiction of community structure using current primers. The present study amplified the V4 and V8-V9 regions from seven microalgal mock communities as well as eukaryotic communities from freshwater, coastal, and wastewater samples to examine the effect of PCR/sequencing bias on community structure and membership. We found that degeneracies on the 3' end of the current V4-specific primers impact read length and mean relative abundance. Furthermore, the PCR/sequencing error is markedly higher for GC-rich members than for communities with balanced GC content. Importantly, the V4 region failed to reliably capture 2 of the 12 mock community members, and the V8-V9 hypervariable region more accurately represents mean relative abundance and alpha and beta diversity. Overall, the V4 and V8-V9 regions show similar community representations over freshwater, coastal, and wastewater environments, but specific samples show markedly different communities. These results indicate that multiple primer sets may be advantageous for gaining a more complete understanding of community structure and highlight the importance of including mock communities composed of species of interest. The quantification of error associated with community representation by amplicon sequencing is a critical challenge that is often ignored. When target genes are amplified using currently available primers, differential amplification efficiencies

  14. Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates carrying bla(OXA-23) carbapenemase and 16S rRNA methylase armA genes in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Sofiane; Alsharapy, Samer Ahmed; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular support of resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from Yemen hospital. Three A. baumannii were isolated in February 2013 from three patients hospitalized at Al-Thawra University Hospital in Sana'a, Yemen. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion and E-test methods. Carbapenemase production was carried out by the modified Hodge test (MHT) and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. Carbapenem, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were studied by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The epidemiological relatedness of the three strains was studied using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were resistant to almost all antibiotics tested with very high imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (>32, >256, and >32 mg/L, respectively). The microbiological tests showed that the three A. baumannii were MHT positive, besides, the activity of β-lactamases was not inhibited by EDTA. All the three isolates contained the naturally occurring bla(OXA-51)-like gene and the bla(OXA-23)-like carbapenemase-encoding gene. The 16S rRNA methylase armA gene was detected in the three isolates. In addition, screening for genes encoding the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) demonstrated that one isolate contained the acetyltransferase gene aac(6')-Ib. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with a single mutation Ser83Leu in the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene in all isolates. The MLST showed that the sequence type (ST) obtained corresponds to ST2 for the three strains. Here we report the first identification of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates harboring the bla(OXA-23)-like gene, AMEs [aac(6')-Ib], and the 16S rRNA methylase (armA) in the Yemen hospital.

  15. [Analysis of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ser(UCN)) genes in patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss from various regions of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhemileva, L U; Posukh, O L; Tazetdinov, A M; Barashkov, N A; Zhuravskiĭ, S G; Ponidelko, S N; Markova, T G; Tadinova, V N; Fedorova, S A; Maksimova, N R; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2009-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations play an important role in etiology of hereditary hearing loss. In various regions of the world, patients suffer from nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss initiated by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Mutations that had been shown as pathogenetically important for hearing function disturbance were identified in mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ser(UCN)) genes while pathogenic role of several DNA sequences requires additional studies. This work presents the results of studying the spectrum of mutations and polymorphic variations in mtDNA genes 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ser(UGN)) in 410 patients with nonsyndromal sensoneural hearing impairment/loss from the Volga Ural region, St Petersburg, Yakutia, and Altai and in 520 individuals with normal hearing, which represent several ethnic groups (Russians, Tatars, Bashkirs, Yakuts, Altaians) residing in the Russian Federation. Pathogenetically significant mutation A1555G (12S rRNA) was found in two families (from Yakutia and St Peresburg) with hearing loss, probably caused by treatment with aminoglucosides, and in the population sample of Yakuts with a frequency of 0.83%. Further research is needed to confirm the role in hearing impairment of mutations 961insC, 961insC(n), 961delTinsC(n), T961G, T1095C (12S rRNA) and G7444A, A7445C (tRNA(Ser(UGN revealed in the patients. In addition, in the patients and the population groups, polymorphic mt DNA variants were detected, which are characteristic also of other Eurasian populations both in spectrum and frequency.

  16. Microbial diversity and activity in the Nematostella vectensis holobiont: insights from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, isolate genomes, and a pilot-scale survey of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Har, Jia Y; Helbig, Tim; Lim, Ju H; Fernando, Samodha C; Reitzel, Adam M; Penn, Kevin; Thompson, Janelle R

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the molecular and genomic diversity of the microbiota of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian model for comparative developmental and functional biology and a year-round inhabitant of temperate salt marshes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed four ribotypes associated with N. vectensis at multiple locations and times. These associates include two novel ribotypes within the ε-Proteobacterial order Campylobacterales and the Spirochetes, respectively, each sharing 99% 16S rRNA identity with Endozoicomonas elysicola and Pseudomonas oleovorans, respectively. Species-specific PCR revealed that these populations persisted in N. vectensis asexually propagated under laboratory conditions. cDNA indicated expression of the Campylobacterales and Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA in anemones from Sippewissett Marsh, MA. A collection of bacteria from laboratory raised N. vectensis was dominated by isolates from P. oleovorans and Rhizobium radiobacter. Isolates from field-collected anemones revealed an association with Limnobacter and Stappia isolates. Genomic DNA sequencing was carried out on 10 cultured bacterial isolates representing field- and laboratory-associates, i.e., Limnobacter spp., Stappia spp., P. oleovorans and R. radiobacter. Genomes contained multiple genes identified as virulence (host-association) factors while S. stellulata and L. thiooxidans genomes revealed pathways for mixotrophic sulfur oxidation. A pilot metatranscriptome of laboratory-raised N. vectensis was compared to the isolate genomes and indicated expression of ORFs from L. thiooxidans with predicted functions of motility, nutrient scavenging (Fe and P), polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis for carbon storage, and selective permeability (porins). We hypothesize that such activities may mediate acclimation and persistence of bacteria in a N. vectensis holobiont defined by both internal and external gradients of chemicals and

  17. 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a tool to study microbial populations in foods and process environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschhardt, Tasja; Hansen, Tina Beck; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    communities in meat and the meat process environment with special focus on the Enterobacteriaceae family as a subpopulation comprising enteropathogens including Salmonella. Samples were analyzed by a nested PCR approach combined with MiSeq® Illumina®16S DNA sequencing and standardized culture methods as cross...... reference. Results: Taxonomic assignments and abundances of sequences in the total community and in the Enterobacteriaceae subpopulation were affected by the 16S rRNA gene variable region, DNA extraction methods, and polymerases chosen. However, community compositions were very reproducible when the same...

  18. Composition and Metabolic Activities of the Bacterial Community in Shrimp Sauce at the Flavor-Forming Stage of Fermentation As Revealed by Metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shan; Hu, Xiaoxi; Li, Mengru; Miao, Jianyin; Du, Jinghe; Wu, Rongli

    2016-03-30

    The bacterial community and the metabolic activities involved at the flavor-forming stage during the fermentation of shrimp sauce were investigated using metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA gene sequencings. Results showed that the abundance of Tetragenococcus was 95.1%. Tetragenococcus halophilus was identified in 520 of 588 transcripts annotated in the Nr database. Activation of the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, along with the absence of lactate dehydrogenase gene expression, in T. halophilus suggests that T. halophilus probably underwent aerobic metabolism during shrimp sauce fermentation. The metabolism of amino acids, production of peptidase, and degradation of limonene and pinene were very active in T. halophilus. Carnobacterium, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Clostridium were also metabolically active, although present in very small populations. Enterococcus, Abiotrophia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus were detected in metatranscriptome sequencing, but not in 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Many minor taxa showed no gene expression, suggesting that they were in dormant status.

  19. Rapid identification of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter isolates by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S M; Melito, P L; Woodward, D L; Johnson, W M; Rodgers, F G; Mulvey, M R

    1999-12-01

    A rapid two-step identification scheme based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was developed in order to differentiate isolates belonging to the Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genera. For 158 isolates (26 reference cultures and 132 clinical isolates), specific RFLP patterns were obtained and species were successfully identified by this assay.

  20. Changes in the diversity of pig ileal lactobacilli around weaning determined by means of 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzcyk, P.; Pieper, R.; Smidt, H.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    Our study aimed to provide a comprehensive characterization of changes in porcine intestinal Lactobacillus populations around the time of weaning based on 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DNA was extracted from the ileal contents of piglets at weaning

  1. Analysis of microbiota associated with peri-implantitis using 16S rRNA gene clone library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Koyanagi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peri-implantitis (PI is an inflammatory disease which leads to the destruction of soft and hard tissues around osseointegrated implants. The subgingival microbiota appears to be responsible for peri-implant lesions and although the complexity of the microbiota has been reported in PI, the microbiota responsible for PI has not been identified. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the microbiota in subjects who have PI, clinically healthy implants, and periodontitis-affected teeth using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis to clarify the microbial differences. Design: Three subjects participated in this study. The conditions around the teeth and implants were evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examinations and diseased implants, clinically healthy implants, and periodontally diseased teeth were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from the deepest pockets using sterile paper points. Prevalence and identity of bacteria was analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene clone library technique. Results: A total of 112 different species were identified from 335 clones sequenced. Among the 112 species, 51 (46% were uncultivated phylotypes, of which 22 were novel phylotypes. The numbers of bacterial species identified at the sites of PI, periodontitis, and periodontally healthy implants were 77, 57, and 12, respectively. Microbiota in PI mainly included Gram-negative species and the composition was more diverse when compared to that of the healthy implant and periodontitis. The phyla Chloroflexi, Tenericutes, and Synergistetes were only detected at PI sites, as were Parvimonas micra, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, and Solobacterium moorei. Low levels of periodontopathic bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were seen in peri-implant lesions. Conclusions: The biofilm in PI showed a more complex microbiota when compared to periodontitis and

  2. Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of 16 S rRNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triman, K; Becker, E; Dammel, C

    1989-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutants have been isolated following hydroxylamine mutagenesis of a plasmid containing Escherichia coli rRNA genes carrying selectable markers for spectinomycin resistance (U1192 in 16 S rRNA) and erythromycin resistance (G2058 in 23 S rRNA). These antibiotic resistance....... The mutations were localized by in vitro restriction fragment replacement followed by in vivo marker rescue and were identified by DNA sequence analysis. We report here seven single-base alterations in 16 S rRNA (A146, U153, A350, A359, A538, A1292 and U1293), five of which produce temperature......-sensitive spectinomycin resistance and two that produce unconditional loss of resistance. In each case, loss of ribosomal function can be accounted for by disruption of base-pairing in the secondary structure of 16 S rRNA. For the temperature-sensitive mutants, there is a lag period of about two generations between...

  3. PCR-SSCP of the 16S rRNA gene, a simple methodology for species identification of fish eggs and larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Garcia-Vazquez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of the 16S rRNA gene obtained in 8 and 12% acrylamide gels by the SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism method were different for various marine fish species (Macrorhamphosus scolopax, Scomber scombrus, Lepidorhombus boscii, L. whiffiagonis, Trachurus trachurus, T. mediterraneus, Molva molva, Merluccius merluccius. SSCP patterns of this gene were employed to successfully identify formaldehyde-fixed eggs of different species (Merluccius merluccius, Scomber scombrus, Macrorhamphosus scolopax and L. whiffiagonis in plankton samples. The advantages of SSCPs in comparison with current genetic methods of egg identification are based on their technical simplicity and low price. The application of the PCR-SSCP methodology is proposed for routine genetic analyses in plankton surveys.

  4. Locus-specific ribosomal RNA gene silencing in nucleolar dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S Lewis

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The silencing of one parental set of rRNA genes in a genetic hybrid is an epigenetic phenomenon known as nucleolar dominance. We showed previously that silencing is restricted to the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs, the loci where rRNA genes are tandemly arrayed, and does not spread to or from neighboring protein-coding genes. One hypothesis is that nucleolar dominance is the net result of hundreds of silencing events acting one rRNA gene at a time. A prediction of this hypothesis is that rRNA gene silencing should occur independent of chromosomal location. An alternative hypothesis is that the regulatory unit in nucleolar dominance is the NOR, rather than each individual rRNA gene, in which case NOR localization may be essential for rRNA gene silencing. To test these alternative hypotheses, we examined the fates of rRNA transgenes integrated at ectopic locations. The transgenes were accurately transcribed in all independent transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines tested, indicating that NOR localization is not required for rRNA gene expression. Upon crossing the transgenic A. thaliana lines as ovule parents with A. lyrata to form F1 hybrids, a new system for the study of nucleolar dominance, the endogenous rRNA genes located within the A. thaliana NORs are silenced. However, rRNA transgenes escaped silencing in multiple independent hybrids. Collectively, our data suggest that rRNA gene activation can occur in a gene-autonomous fashion, independent of chromosomal location, whereas rRNA gene silencing in nucleolar dominance is locus-dependent.

  5. Organism-specific rRNA capture system for application in next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Kam Li

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing is a powerful tool in studying RNomics. However, the highly abundance of ribosomal RNAs (rRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA have predominated in the sequencing reads, thereby hindering the study of lowly expressed genes. Therefore, rRNA depletion prior to sequencing is often performed in order to preserve the subtle alteration in gene expression especially those at relatively low expression levels. One of the commercially available methods is to use DNA or RNA probes to hybridize to the target RNAs. However, there is always a concern with the non-specific binding and unintended removal of messenger RNA (mRNA when the same set of probes is applied to different organisms. The degree of such unintended mRNA removal varies among organisms due to organism-specific genomic variation. We developed a computer-based method to design probes to deplete rRNA in an organism-specific manner. Based on the computation results, biotinylated-RNA-probes were produced by in vitro transcription and were used to perform rRNA depletion with subtractive hybridization. We demonstrated that the designed probes of 16S rRNAs and 23S rRNAs can efficiently remove rRNAs from Mycobacterium smegmatis. In comparison with a commercial subtractive hybridization-based rRNA removal kit, using organism-specific probes is better in preserving the RNA integrity and abundance. We believe the computer-based design approach can be used as a generic method in preparing RNA of any organisms for next-generation sequencing, particularly for the transcriptome analysis of microbes.

  6. Blastocystis phylogeny among various isolates from humans to insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Koyama, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Erika; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Blastocystis is a common unicellular eukaryotic parasite found not only in humans, but also in various kinds of animal species worldwide. Since Blastocystis isolates are morphologically indistinguishable, many molecular biological approaches have been applied to classify these isolates. The complete or partial sequences of the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) are mainly used for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses among Blastocystis isolates. However, various lengths of the partial SSU rDNA sequence have been used for phylogenetic inference among genetically different isolates. Based on the complete SSU rDNA sequences, consensus terminology of nine subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis sp. that were supported by phylogenetically monophyletic nine clades was proposed in 2007. Thereafter, eight additional kinds of STs comprising non-human mammalian Blastocystis isolates have been reported based on the phylogeny of SSU rDNA sequences, while STs 11 and 12 were only proposed on the base of partial sequences. Although many sequence data from mammalian and avian Blastocystis are registered in GenBank, only limited data on SSU rDNA are available for poikilotherm-derived Blastocystis isolates. Therefore, the phylogenetic positions of the reptilian/amphibian Blastocystis clades are unstable. The phylogenetic inference of various STs comprising mammalian and/or avian Blastocystis isolates was verified herein based on comparisons between partial and complete SSU rDNA sequences, and the phylogenetic positions of reptilian and amphibian Blastocystis isolates were also investigated using 14 new Blastocystis isolates from reptiles with all known isolates from other reptilians, amphibians, and insects registered in GenBank. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Geomyces destructans sp. nov. associated with bat white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargas, Andrea; Trest, M.T.; Christensen, M.; Volk, T.J.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the new species Geomyces destructans. Bats infected with this fungus present with powdery conidia and hyphae on their muzzles, wing membranes, and/or pinnae, leading to description of the accompanying disease as white-nose syndrome, a cause of widespread mortality among hibernating bats in the northeastern US. Based on rRNA gene sequence (ITS and SSU) characters the fungus is placed in the genus Geomyces, yet its distinctive asymmetrically curved conidia are unlike those of any described Geomyces species.

  8. Complex community of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in coastal sediments of the Mai Po wetland by PCR amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhichao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, both 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers were employed successfully to study the diversity and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the surface and lower layer sediments at the coastal Mai Po wetland. The occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity was confirmed in this study. Unlike the two other known n-damo communities from coastal areas, the pmoA gene-amplified sequences in the present work clustered not only with some freshwater subclusters but also within three newly erected marine subclusters mostly, indicating the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in this wetland. Results suggested vegetation affected the distribution and community structures of n-damo bacteria in the sediments and n-damo could coexist with sulfate-reducing methanotrophs in the coastal ecosystem. Community structures of the Mai Po n-damo bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene were different from those of either the freshwater or the marine. In contrast, structures of the Mai Po n-damo communities based on pmoA gene grouped with the marine ones and were clearly distinguished from the freshwater ones. The abundance of n-damo bacteria at this wetland was quantified using 16S rRNA gene PCR primers to be 2.65-6.71 × 10(5) copies/g dry sediment. Ammonium and nitrite strongly affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the coastal Mai Po wetland sediments.

  9. Changes in rRNA levels during stress invalidates results from mRNA blotting: Fluorescence in situ rRNA hybridization permits renormalization for estimation of cellular mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Nielsen, A.K.; Molin, Søren

    2001-01-01

    obtained by these techniques are compared between experiments in which differences in growth rates, strains, or stress treatments occur, the normalization procedure may have a significant impact on the results. In this report we present a solution to the normalization problem in RNA slot blotting...... the relative level of rRNA per cell, and slot blotting to rRNA probes, which estimates the level of rRNA per extracted total RNA, the amount of RNA per cell was calculated in a series of heat shock experiments with the gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis. It was found that the level of rRNA per cell...... decreased to 30% in the course of the heat shock. This lowered ribosome level led to a decrease in the total RNA content, resulting in a gradually increasing overestimation of the mRNA levels throughout the experiment. Using renormalized cellular mRNA levels, the HrcA-mediated regulation of the genes...

  10. Detection of Microbial 16S rRNA Gene in the Blood of Patients With Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Qian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that the microbiota present in feces plays a role in Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, the alterations of the microbiome in the blood of PD patients remain unknown. To test this hypothesis, we conducted this case-control study to explore the microbiota compositions in the blood of Chinese PD patients. Microbiota communities in the blood of 45 patients and their healthy spouses were investigated using high-throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. The relationships between the microbiota in the blood and PD clinical characteristics were analyzed. No difference was detected in the structure and richness between PD patients and healthy controls. The following genera were enriched in the blood of PD patients: Isoptericola, Cloacibacterium, Enhydrobacter and Microbacterium; whereas genus Limnobacter was enriched in the healthy controls after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI and constipation. Additionally, the findings regarding these genera were validated in another independent group of 58 PD patients and 57 healthy controls using real-time PCR targeting genus-specific 16S rRNA genes. Furthermore, not only the genera Cloacibacterium and Isoptericola (which were identified as enriched in PD patients but also the genera Paludibacter and Saccharofermentans were positively associated with disease duration. Some specific genera in the blood were related to mood disorders. We believe this is the first report to provide direct evidence to support the hypothesis that the identified microbiota in the blood are associated with PD. Additionally, some microbiota in the blood are closely associated with the clinical characteristics of PD. Elucidating these differences in blood microbiomes will provide a foundation to improve our understanding of the role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of PD.

  11. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katherine E; Williamson, Charles; Grasby, Stephen E; Spear, John R; Templeton, Alexis S

    2013-01-01

    We combined free enenergy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S(0)) deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn, and [Formula: see text] oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S(0) was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr (dissimilatory sulfite reductase)genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and [Formula: see text] oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for [Formula: see text] oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification) or nitrite (anammox). The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum) is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-h sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic

  12. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We combined free energy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S0 deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn and NH4+ oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S0 was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and NH4+ oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for NH4+ oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification or nitrite (anammox. The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-hour sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic environment in the sulfur below, where the Epsilonproteobacteria can

  13. Identification by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing of Lactobacillus salivarius Bacteremic Cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Fung, Ami M. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2002-01-01

    An anaerobic, nonsporulating, gram-positive bacterium was isolated from blood and bile pus cultures of a 70-year-old man with bacteremic acute cholecystitis. The API 20A system showed that it was 70% Actinomyces naeslundii and 30% Bifidobacterium species, whereas the Vitek ANI system and the ATB ID32A Expression system showed that it was “unidentified.” The 16S rRNA gene of the strain was amplified and sequenced. There were 3 base differences between the nucleotide sequence of the isolate and that of Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius or L. salivarius subsp. salicinius, indicating that the isolate was a strain of L. salivarius. The patient responded to cholecystectomy and a 2-week course of antibiotic treatment. Identification of the organism in the present study was important because the duration of antibiotic therapy would have been entirely different depending on the organism. If the bacterium had been identified as Actinomyces, penicillin for 6 months would have been the regimen of choice. However, it was Lactobacillus, and a 2-week course of antibiotic was sufficient. PMID:11773128

  14. Phylogenetic Relationship of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria according to 16S rRNA Genes

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    Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer in an oil palm field.

  15. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny

  16. Methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer of rRNA genes in excised cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini) after hormone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, E.; Abdulova, G.; Grozdanov, P.; Karagyozov, L.

    2003-01-01

    High molecular mass genomic DNA was isolated from excised marrow cotyledons (Cucurbita pepo L. zucchini) treated with 6-benzyladenine (BA) of methyl ester of jasmonic acid (MeJA) for 24 h in darkness. DNA purified from contaminating polysaccharides with Celite column was completely digested with the restriction enzyme Eco RI and the changes in the methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer (IGS) of r RNA genes were studied after subsequent digestion with the couple of restriction enzymes-isoschizomers MSP I and Hpa II by the method of 'indirect end labelling'. As rDNA units probe a cloned 32 P-labelled Eco RI 2.1 kb fragment spanning in the most part of 18S r RNA gene from flax rDNA was used. Results showed heavy methylation of the rRNA genes. As judged from the almost total lack of digestion with HPA II, there were no methylation free regions in repeated rDNA units or little if any were observed. A hypo methylated Hps II site was detected near the promoter region in some of the repeats. Digestion with Msp I affected nearly 50% of the repeating units. The Msp digestion fragments of the 6.2 kb Eco RI fragment of r DNA were few in number and large in size (0.5 - 2.5 kb). This suggested that in addition with -CpG- sequences, methylation in -CpNpG- might not be random. Methylation pattern in IGS was not changed upon treatment of the cotyledons in vivo with BA and MeJA. Thus, previously observed hormone-mediated effects on the eactivity of rRNA gene expression were not accompanied by any significant changes of the methylation pattern in IGS. (authors)

  17. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the giant African land snail Achatina fulica in French Polynesia detected using the SSU rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla I, K C; Wade, C M

    2012-12-01

    The 5' end of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was used to determine whether 3rd larval stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis are present in populations of the giant African land snail Achatina fulica from French Polynesia. Two populations, one from Moaroa Valley, Tahiti (n=5) and the other from Haapiti Valley, Moorea (n=10), were examined. All snails from Tahiti were infected with nematodes, with parasite load ranging from 12 to 28. A total of 92 nematodes were found, of which 91 were positively identified as A. cantonensis. No nematodes were found in the snails from Moorea. We report for the first time the presence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica snails from French Polynesia, indicating a viable route of human infection of A. cantonensis in the region through the handling of A. fulica or consumption of the snail or contaminated food crops associated with the snail.

  18. Linking Maternal and Somatic 5S rRNA types with Different Sequence-Specific Non-LTR Retrotransposons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locati, M.D.; Pagano, J.F.B.; Ensink, W.A.; van Olst, M.; van Leeuwen, S.; Nehrdich, U.; Zhu, K.; Spaink, H.P.; Girard, G.; Rauwerda, H.; Jonker, M.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Breit, T.M.

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo and adult tissue,

  19. YebU is a m5C methyltransferase specific for 16 S rRNA nucleotide 1407

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    generally require specific enzymes, and only one m5C rRNA methyltransferase, RsmB (formerly Fmu) that methylates nucleotide C967, has previously been identified. BLAST searches of the E.coli genome revealed a single gene, yebU, with sufficient similarity to rsmB to encode a putative m5C RNA...... methyltransferase. This suggested that the yebU gene product modifies C1407 and/or C1962. Here, we analysed the E.coli rRNAs by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and show that inactivation of the yebU gene leads to loss of methylation at C1407 in 16 S rRNA, but does not interfere...

  20. Abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, amoA and nifH bacterial genes during assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Karis N.; Neilson, Julia W.; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nif...

  1. Nested PCR Biases in Interpreting Microbial Community Structure in 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqin; Fadrosh, Doug; Goedert, James J; Ravel, Jacques; Goldstein, Alisa M

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene has become a common approach to microbial community investigations in the fields of human health and environmental sciences. This approach, however, is difficult when the amount of DNA is too low to be amplified by standard PCR. Nested PCR can be employed as it can amplify samples with DNA concentration several-fold lower than standard PCR. However, potential biases with nested PCRs that could affect measurement of community structure have received little attention. In this study, we used 17 DNAs extracted from vaginal swabs and 12 DNAs extracted from stool samples to study the influence of nested PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene on the estimation of microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Nested and standard PCR methods were compared on alpha- and beta-diversity metrics and relative abundances of bacterial genera. The effects of number of cycles in the first round of PCR (10 vs. 20) and microbial diversity (relatively low in vagina vs. high in stool) were also investigated. Vaginal swab samples showed no significant difference in alpha diversity or community structure between nested PCR and standard PCR (one round of 40 cycles). Stool samples showed significant differences in alpha diversity (except Shannon's index) and relative abundance of 13 genera between nested PCR with 20 cycles in the first round and standard PCR (Pnested PCR with 10 cycles in the first round and standard PCR. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had low relative abundance (sum of relative abundance 27% of total OTUs in stool). Nested PCR introduced bias in estimated diversity and community structure. The bias was more significant for communities with relatively higher diversity and when more cycles were applied in the first round of PCR. We conclude that nested PCR could be used when standard PCR does not work. However, rare taxa detected by nested PCR should be validated by other technologies.

  2. Whole-Cell MALDI-TOF MS Versus 16S rRNA Gene Analysis for Identification and Dereplication of Recurrent Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Strejcek

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Many ecological experiments are based on the extraction and downstream analyses of microorganisms from different environmental samples. Due to its high throughput, cost-effectiveness and rapid performance, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Time-of-Flight detector (MALDI-TOF MS, which has been proposed as a promising tool for bacterial identification and classification, could be advantageously used for dereplication of recurrent bacterial isolates. In this study, we compared whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS-based analyses of 49 bacterial cultures to two well-established bacterial identification and classification methods based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses: a phylotype-based approach, using a closest type strain assignment, and a sequence similarity-based approach involving a 98.65% sequence similarity threshold, which has been found to best delineate bacterial species. Culture classification using reference-based MALDI-TOF MS was comparable to that yielded by phylotype assignment up to the genus level. At the species level, agreement between 16S rRNA gene analysis and MALDI-TOF MS was found to be limited, potentially indicating that spectral reference databases need to be improved. We also evaluated the mass spectral similarity technique for species-level delineation which can be used independently of reference databases. We established optimal mass spectral similarity thresholds which group MALDI-TOF mass spectra of common environmental isolates analogically to phylotype- and sequence similarity-based approaches. When using a mass spectrum similarity approach, we recommend a mass range of 4–10 kDa for analysis, which is populated with stable mass signals and contains the majority of phylotype-determining peaks. We show that a cosine similarity (CS threshold of 0.79 differentiate mass spectra analogously to 98.65% species-level delineation sequence similarity threshold, with corresponding precision

  3. Bacterial community structure in High-Arctic snow and freshwater as revealed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette K. Møller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial community structures in High-Arctic snow over sea ice and an ice-covered freshwater lake were examined by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of cultivated isolates. Both the pyrosequence and cultivation data indicated that the phylogenetic composition of the microbial assemblages was different within the snow layers and between snow and freshwater. The highest diversity was seen in snow. In the middle and top snow layers, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria dominated, although Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were relatively abundant also. High numbers of chloroplasts were also observed. In the deepest snow layer, large percentages of Firmicutes and Fusobacteria were seen. In freshwater, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the most abundant phyla while relatively few Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were present. Possibly, light intensity controlled the distribution of the Cyanobacteria and algae in the snow while carbon and nitrogen fixed by these autotrophs in turn fed the heterotrophic bacteria. In the lake, a probable lower light input relative to snow resulted in low numbers of Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts and, hence, limited input of organic carbon and nitrogen to the heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, differences in the physicochemical conditions may play an important role in the processes leading to distinctive bacterial community structures in High-Arctic snow and freshwater.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of three new microsporidian isolates from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, S; Muthulakshmi, M; Kanginakudru, S; Nagaraju, J

    2004-07-01

    The pathogenicity, mode of transmission, tissue specificity of infection and the small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequences of the three new microsporidian isolates from the silkworm Bombyx mori were studied. Out of the three, NIK-2r revealed life cycle features and SSU-rRNA gene sequence similar to Nosema bombycis, suggesting that it is N. bombycis. The other two, NIK-4m and NIK-3h, differed from each other as well as from N. bombycis. NIK-4m was highly pathogenic and did not show any vertical transmission, in accordance with the apparent lack of gonadal infection, whereas NIK-3h was less pathogenic and vertical transmission was not detected but could not be excluded. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU-rRNA gene sequence placed NIK-3h and NIK-4m in a distinct clade that included almost all the Vairimorpha species and Nosema species that infect lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran hosts, while NIK-2r was included in a clade containing almost all the Nosema isolates that infect only lepidopteran hosts. Thus, we have presented molecular evidence that one of the three isolates is in fact the type species N. bombycis, while the other two isolates are Vairimorpha spp. There was distinct separation of microsporidian isolates infecting only lepidopteran hosts and those infecting lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran hosts, reflecting possible co-evolution of hosts and microsporidian isolates.

  5. Deep Characterization of the Microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) Gall-Inducing Psyllids Reveals the Absence of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Three Dominant Endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Will A; Diaz, Rodrigo; Rosskopf, Erin; Green, Stefan J; Overholt, William A

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria associated with sap-feeding insect herbivores include not only symbionts that may increase their hosts' fitness but also harmful plant pathogens. Calophya spp. gall-inducing psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) are being investigated for their potential as biological control agents of the noxious weed, Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia), in Florida. Although there are no examples of plant pathogen transmission by members of the family Calophyidae, several insects in the superfamily Psylloidea are known to transmit pathogenic bacteria in the genera Candidatus Liberibacter and Candidatus Phytoplasma. To determine whether Calophya spp. harbor potentially harmful plant pathogenic bacteria, we sequenced small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons generated from individuals from four Calophya spp. populations: All microbial SSU gene sequences fell into the bacterial domain, with 98-99% belonging to the Proteobacteria. The Calophya microbiomes contained a relatively simple community, with 49-79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97%) detected, and only 5-8 OTUs with greater than 1% abundance. Candidatus Carsonella showed the highest relative abundance, with OTUs from this candidate genus representing between 51-65% of all recovered sequences. The next most abundant clade observed was an unclassified Enterobacteriacae group closely related to bacteria from the genera Buchnera and Blochmannia that ranged from 20-31% in relative abundance. Wolbachia populations were the third most abundant group and represented 7-27% of the diversity in microbial OTUs. No SSU rRNA gene sequences from putative pathogenic bacteria from the genera Ca. Liberibacter or Ca. Phytoplasma were detected in the microbiomes of the four Calophya populations. The probability that infected psyllids were present in our colonies, but were not sampled, was extremley low (1.39 x 10(-10)). As far as we are aware, our study is the first to characterize the microbiome of a candidate

  6. Deep Characterization of the Microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae Gall-Inducing Psyllids Reveals the Absence of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Three Dominant Endosymbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will A Overholt

    Full Text Available Bacteria associated with sap-feeding insect herbivores include not only symbionts that may increase their hosts' fitness but also harmful plant pathogens. Calophya spp. gall-inducing psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae are being investigated for their potential as biological control agents of the noxious weed, Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia, in Florida. Although there are no examples of plant pathogen transmission by members of the family Calophyidae, several insects in the superfamily Psylloidea are known to transmit pathogenic bacteria in the genera Candidatus Liberibacter and Candidatus Phytoplasma. To determine whether Calophya spp. harbor potentially harmful plant pathogenic bacteria, we sequenced small subunit (SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene amplicons generated from individuals from four Calophya spp. populations: All microbial SSU gene sequences fell into the bacterial domain, with 98-99% belonging to the Proteobacteria. The Calophya microbiomes contained a relatively simple community, with 49-79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% detected, and only 5-8 OTUs with greater than 1% abundance. Candidatus Carsonella showed the highest relative abundance, with OTUs from this candidate genus representing between 51-65% of all recovered sequences. The next most abundant clade observed was an unclassified Enterobacteriacae group closely related to bacteria from the genera Buchnera and Blochmannia that ranged from 20-31% in relative abundance. Wolbachia populations were the third most abundant group and represented 7-27% of the diversity in microbial OTUs. No SSU rRNA gene sequences from putative pathogenic bacteria from the genera Ca. Liberibacter or Ca. Phytoplasma were detected in the microbiomes of the four Calophya populations. The probability that infected psyllids were present in our colonies, but were not sampled, was extremley low (1.39 x 10(-10. As far as we are aware, our study is the first to characterize the microbiome of

  7. Population Abundance of Potentially Pathogenic Organisms in Intestinal Microbiome of Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos Shown with 16S rRNA Gene-Based Microbial Community Analysis

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    Isamu Maeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos prefer human habitats because of their versatility in feeding accompanied with human food consumption. Therefore, it is important from a public health viewpoint to characterize their intestinal microbiota. However, no studies have been involved in molecular characterization of the microbiota based on huge and reliable number of data acquisition. In this study, 16S rRNA gene-based microbial community analysis coupled with the next-generation DNA sequencing techniques was applied to the taxonomic classification of intestinal microbiome for three jungle crows. Clustering of the reads into 130 operational taxonomic units showed that at least 70% of analyzed sequences for each crow were highly homologous to Eimeria sp., which belongs to the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. The microbiotas of three crows also contained potentially pathogenic bacteria with significant percentages, such as the genera Campylobacter and Brachyspira. Thus, the profiling of a large number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in crow intestinal microbiomes revealed the high-frequency existence or vestige of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  8. [Investigation into the relationship between mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene, tRNA gene and cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene variations and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, J; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Li, Y H; Zhang, H L; Yang, Q Y; Xu, X R; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; He, L H; Zheng, Y X; Yu, S F

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To explore the relationship between mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene variation, tRNA gene variation and cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene point mutations and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Methods: A nested case-control study was performed that followed a cohort of 7 445 noise-exposed workers in a steel factory in Henan province, China, from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. Subjects whose average hearing threshold was more than 40 dB(A) in high frequency were defined as the case group, and subjects whose average hearing threshold was less than 35 dB(A) in high frequency and less than 25 dB (A) in speech frequency were defined as the control group. Subjects was recruited into the case group ( n =286) and the control group ( n= 286) according to gender, age, job category and time of exposure to noise, and a 1∶1 case-control study was carried out. We genotyped eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene, the mitochondrial tRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene using SNPscan high-throughput genotyping technology from the recruited subjects. The relationship between polymorphic sites and NIHL, adjusted for covariates, was analyzed using conditional logistic regression analysis, as were the subgroup data. Results: The average age of the recruited subjects was (40.3±8.1) years and the length of service exposure to noise was (18.6±8.9) years. The range of noise exposed levels and cumulative noise exposure (CNE) was 80.1- 93.4 dB (A) and 86.8- 107.9 dB (A) · year, respectively. For workers exposed to noise at a CNE level<98 dB (A) · year, smokers showed an increased risk of NIHL of 1.88 (1.16-3.05) compared with non-smokers; for workers exposed to noise at a CNE level ≥98 dB(A) · year, smokers showed an increased risk of NIHL of 2.53 (1.49- 4.30) compared with non-smokers. For workers exposed to noise at a CNE level<98 dB (A) · year, the results of univariate analysis and multifactor analysis

  9. Molecular evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA in Ungulata (mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzery, E; Catzeflis, F M

    1995-11-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene has been sequenced in 4 Ungulata (hoofed eutherians) and 1 marsupial and compared to 38 available mammalian sequences in order to investigate the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA molecule. Ungulata were represented by one artiodactyl (the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, suborder Suiformes), two perissodactyls (the Grevy's zebra, Equus grevyi, suborder Hippomorpha; the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, suborder Ceratomorpha), and one hyracoid (the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis). The fifth species was a marsupial, the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Several transition/transversion biases characterized the pattern of changes between mammalian 12S rRNA molecules. A bias toward transitions was found among 12S rRNA sequences of Ungulata, illustrating the general bias exhibited by ribosomal and protein-encoding genes of the mitochondrial genome. The derivation of a mammalian 12S rRNA secondary structure model from the comparison of 43 eutherian and marsupial sequences evidenced a pronounced bias against transversions in stems. Moreover, transversional compensatory changes were rare events within double-stranded regions of the ribosomal RNA. Evolutionary characteristics of the 12S rRNA were compared with those of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNAs. From a phylogenetic point of view, transitions, transversions and indels in stems as well as transversional and indels events in loops gave congruent results for comparisons within orders. Some compensatory changes in double-stranded regions and some indels in single-stranded regions also constituted diagnostic events. The 12S rRNA molecule confirmed the monophyly of infraorder Pecora and order Cetacea and demonstrated the monophyly of the suborder Ruminantia was not supported and the branching pattern between Cetacea and the artiodacytyl suborders Ruminantia and Suiformes was not established. The monophyly of the order Perissodactyla was evidenced

  10. Visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the rapid diagnosis of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Sathish Kumar; A, Navaneeth Krishnan; J, Joseph Sahaya Rajan; M, Makesh; K P, Jithendran; S V, Alavandi; K K, Vijayan

    2018-05-01

    The emerging microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), the causative agent of hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis, has been widely reported in shrimp-farming countries. EHP infection can be detected by light microscopy observation of spores (1.7 × 1 μm) in stained hepatopancreas (HP) tissue smears, HP tissue sections, and fecal samples. EHP can also be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or the spore wall protein gene (SWP). In this study, a rapid, sensitive, specific, and closed tube visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) protocol combined with FTA cards was developed for the diagnosis of EHP. LAMP primers were designed based on the SSU rRNA gene of EHP. The target sequence of EHP was amplified at constant temperature of 65 °C for 45 min and amplified LAMP products were visually detected in a closed tube system by using SYBR™ green I dye. Detection limit of this LAMP protocol was ten copies. Field and clinical applicability of this assay was evaluated using 162 field samples including 106 HP tissue samples and 56 fecal samples collected from shrimp farms. Out of 162 samples, EHP could be detected in 62 samples (47 HP samples and 15 fecal samples). When compared with SWP-PCR as the gold standard, this EHP LAMP assay had 95.31% sensitivity, 98.98% specificity, and a kappa value of 0.948. This simple, closed tube, clinically evaluated visual LAMP assay has great potential for diagnosing EHP at the farm level, particularly under low-resource circumstances.

  11. Overaccumulation of the chloroplast antisense RNA AS5 is correlated with decreased abundance of 5S rRNA in vivo and inefficient 5S rRNA maturation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Hotto, Amber M.; Bollenbach, Thomas J.; Stern, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation in the chloroplast is exerted by nucleus-encoded ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. One of these ribonucleases is RNR1, a 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease of the RNase II family. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis rnr1-null mutants exhibit specific abnormalities in the expression of the rRNA operon, including the accumulation of precursor 23S, 16S, and 4.5S species and a concomitant decrease in the mature species. 5S rRNA transcripts, however, accumulate to a very low level in both precursor and mature forms, suggesting that they are unstable in the rnr1 background. Here we demonstrate that rnr1 plants overaccumulate an antisense RNA, AS5, that is complementary to the 5S rRNA, its intergenic spacer, and the downstream trnR gene, which encodes tRNAArg, raising the possibility that AS5 destabilizes 5S rRNA or its precursor and/or blocks rRNA maturation. To investigate this, we used an in vitro system that supports 5S rRNA and trnR processing. We show that AS5 inhibits 5S rRNA maturation from a 5S-trnR precursor, and shorter versions of AS5 demonstrate that inhibition requires intergenic sequences. To test whether the sense and antisense RNAs form double-stranded regions in vitro, treatment with the single-strand-specific mung bean nuclease was used. These results suggest that 5S–AS5 duplexes interfere with a sense-strand secondary structure near the endonucleolytic cleavage site downstream from the 5S rRNA coding region. We hypothesize that these duplexes are degraded by a dsRNA-specific ribonuclease in vivo, contributing to the 5S rRNA deficiency observed in rnr1. PMID:21148395

  12. Impaired rRNA synthesis triggers homeostatic responses in hippocampal neurons

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    Anna eKiryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Decreased rRNA synthesis and nucleolar disruption, known as nucleolar stress, are primary signs of cellular stress associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Silencing of rDNA occurs during early stages of Alzheimer´s disease (AD and may play a role in dementia. Moreover aberrant regulation of the protein synthesis machinery is present in the brain of suicide victims and implicates the epigenetic modulation of rRNA. Recently, we developed unique mouse models characterized by nucleolar stress in neurons. We inhibited RNA polymerase I by genetic ablation of the basal transcription factor TIF-IA in adult hippocampal neurons. Nucleolar stress resulted in progressive neurodegeneration, although with a differential vulnerability within the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus. Here, we investigate the consequences of nucleolar stress on learning and memory. The mutant mice show normal performance in the Morris water maze and in other behavioral tests, suggesting the activation of adaptive mechanisms. In fact, we observe a significantly enhanced learning and re-learning corresponding to the initial inhibition of rRNA transcription. This phenomenon is accompanied by aberrant synaptic plasticity. By the analysis of nucleolar function and integrity, we find that the synthesis of rRNA is later restored. Gene expression profiling shows that thirty-six transcripts are differentially expressed in comparison to the control group in absence of neurodegeneration. Additionally, we observe a significant enrichment of the putative serum response factor (SRF binding sites in the promoters of the genes with changed expression, indicating potential adaptive mechanisms mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In the dentate gyrus a neurogenetic response might compensate the initial molecular deficits. These results underscore the role of nucleolar stress in neuronal homeostasis and open a new ground for therapeutic strategies aiming at preserving

  13. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

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    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  14. Evaluating the microbial diversity of an in vitro model of the human large intestine by phylogenetic microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Maathuis, A.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Venema, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.

    2010-01-01

    A high-density phylogenetic microarray targeting small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) sequences of over 1000 microbial phylotypes of the human gastrointestinal tract, the HITChip, was used to assess the impact of faecal inoculum preparation and operation conditions on an in vitro model of the human large

  15. Comparison of traditional phenotypic identification methods with partial 5' 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species-level identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Joann L; Harmsen, Dag; Iwen, Peter C; Dunn, James J; Hall, Gerri; Lasala, Paul Rocco; Hoggan, Karen; Wilson, Deborah; Woods, Gail L; Mellmann, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Correct identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFB) is crucial for patient management. We compared phenotypic identifications of 96 clinical NFB isolates with identifications obtained by 5' 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequencing identified 88 isolates (91.7%) with >99% similarity to a sequence from the assigned species; 61.5% of sequencing results were concordant with phenotypic results, indicating the usability of sequencing to identify NFB.

  16. Alteration of rRNA gene copy number and expression in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irina S. Kolesnikova

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... conjugated avidin and anti-avidin antibody (both from New Eng- land Biolabs ... performed using an Aurum Total RNA Mini Kit (BioRad, USA) or .... 5.8S rRNA in CPG148 are 19.60 ± 0.82 and 20.09 ± 0.13 times the .... Science + Business Media Dordrecht; 2011. p. ... New York: Academic Press; 1977. p.

  17. SSU rDNA sequence diversity and seasonally differentiated distribution of nanoplanktonic ciliates in neritic Bohai and Yellow Seas as revealed by T-RFLP.

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    Jun Dong

    Full Text Available Nanociliates have been frequently found to be important players in the marine microbial loop, however, little is known about their diversity and distribution in coastal ecosystems. We investigated the molecular diversity and distribution patterns of nanoplanktonic oligotrich and choreotrich (OC ciliates in surface water of three neritic basins of northern China, the South Yellow Sea (SYS, North Yellow Sea (NYS, and Bohai Sea (BS in June and November 2011. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries generated from three summertime samples (sites B38, B4 and H8 were analyzed and revealed a large novel ribotype diversity, of which many were low-abundant phylotypes belonging to the subclass Oligotrichia, but divergent from described morphospecies. Based on the data of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of all 35 samples, we found that the T-RF richness was generally higher in the SYS than in the BS, and negatively correlated with the molar ratio of P to Si. Overall, multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance of the community turnover demonstrated a distinct seasonal pattern but no basin-to-basin differentiation across all samples. Nevertheless, significant community differences among basins were recognized in the winter dataset. Mantel tests showed that the environmental factors, P:Si ratio, water temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO, determined the community across all samples. However, both biogeographic distance and environment shaped the community in winter, with DO being the most important physicochemical factor. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric ratio of P:Si is a key factor, through which the phytoplankton community may be shaped, resulting in a cascade effect on the diversity and community composition of OC nanociliates in the N-rich, Si-limited coastal surface waters, and that the Yellow Sea Warm Current drives the nanociliate community, and possibly the

  18. Lack of WDR36 leads to preimplantation embryonic lethality in mice and delays the formation of small subunit ribosomal RNA in human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenberger, Martin; Meinel, Dominik M; Kroeber, Markus; Wegner, Michael; Milkereit, Philipp; Bösl, Michael R; Tamm, Ernst R

    2011-02-01

    Mutations in WD repeat domain 36 gene (WDR36) play a causative role in some forms of primary open-angle glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. WDR36 is characterized by the presence of multiple WD40 repeats and shows homology to Utp21, an essential protein component of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome required for maturation of 18S rRNA. To clarify the functional role of WDR36 in the mammalian organism, we generated and investigated mutant mice with a targeted deletion of Wdr36. In parallel experiments, we used RNA interference to deplete WDR36 mRNA in mouse embryos and cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM-N) cells. Deletion of Wdr36 in the mouse caused preimplantation embryonic lethality, and essentially similar effects were observed when WDR36 mRNA was depleted in mouse embryos by RNA interference. Depletion of WDR36 mRNA in HTM-N cells caused apoptotic cell death and upregulation of mRNA for BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A. By immunocytochemistry, staining for WDR36 was observed in the nucleolus of cells, which co-localized with that of nucleolar proteins such as nucleophosmin and PWP2. In addition, recombinant and epitope-tagged WDR36 localized to the nucleolus of HTM-N cells. By northern blot analysis, a substantial decrease in 21S rRNA, the precursor of 18S rRNA, was observed following knockdown of WDR36. In addition, metabolic-labeling experiments consistently showed a delay of 18S rRNA maturation in WDR36-depleted cells. Our results provide evidence that WDR36 is an essential protein in mammalian cells which is involved in the nucleolar processing of SSU 18S rRNA.

  19. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6 and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7 or severe IBD (n = 7 as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, p<0.001. Proportions of Fusobacteria (p = 0.010, Bacteroidaceae (p = 0.015, Prevotellaceae (p = 0.022, and Clostridiales (p = 0.019 were significantly more abundant in healthy dogs. In contrast, specific bacterial genera within Proteobacteria, including Diaphorobacter (p = 0.044 and Acinetobacter (p = 0.040, were either more abundant or more frequently identified in IBD dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, dogs with spontaneous IBD exhibit alterations in microbial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation.

  20. Molecular Characterization of the 16S rRNA Gene of Phytoplasmas Detected in Two Leafhopper Species Associated with Alfalfa Plants Infected with Witches' Broom in Oman

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    A.J. Khan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two leafhopper species, Austroagallia avicula and Empoasca sp., were consistently found in alfalfa fields infected with witches’ broom phytoplasma (OmanAlfWB in the Al-Batinah, Dakhliya, North and South Sharqiya, Muscat, and Al-Bureimi regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Phytoplasmas from both leafhoppers were detected by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and the spacer region in direct PCR using P1/P7 primer pairs. Comparative RFLP profiles of the amplified rRNA gene and the spacer region from leafhopper phytoplasmas and from 20 phytoplasma controls yielded patterns referable to phytoplasmas belonging to the peanut witches’ broom group (16SrII group. In particular, extensive RFLP analyses with the endonucleases HpaII, Tru9I, Tsp509I, and RsaI indicated that the phytoplasmas in A. avicula and Empoasca sp. were identical but showed some differences from OmanAlfWB; however, RFLP patterns obtained with TaqI showed the OmanAlfWB and the phytoplasmas from the two leafhoppers to be identical. Direct PCR products amplified from phytoplasma leafhopper DNA using the P1/P7 primer pair were cloned and sequenced yielding 1758 bp and 1755 bp products from A. avicula and Empoasca sp. respectively; the homology of these sequences with OmanAlfWB and papaya yellow crinkle phytoplasmas was more than 98%. A phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene and spacer region sequences from 44 phytoplasmas revealed that the phytoplasmas from the leafhoppers clustered with OmanAlfWB, papaya yellow crinkle, and gerbera phyllody phytoplasmas, all belonging to 16SrII group, but were distinct from lime witches’ broom phytoplasma, the most commonly found phytoplasma in the Sultanate of Oman.

  1. Low Maternal Microbiota Sharing across Gut, Breast Milk and Vagina, as Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene and Reduced Metagenomic Sequencing

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    Ekaterina Avershina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The maternal microbiota plays an important role in infant gut colonization. In this work we have investigated which bacterial species are shared across the breast milk, vaginal and stool microbiotas of 109 women shortly before and after giving birth using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a novel reduced metagenomic sequencing (RMS approach in a subgroup of 16 women. All the species predicted by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing were also detected by RMS analysis and there was good correspondence between their relative abundances estimated by both approaches. Both approaches also demonstrate a low level of maternal microbiota sharing across the population and RMS analysis identified only two species common to most women and in all sample types (Bifidobacterium longum and Enterococcus faecalis. Breast milk was the only sample type that had significantly higher intra- than inter- individual similarity towards both vaginal and stool samples. We also searched our RMS dataset against an in silico generated reference database derived from bacterial isolates in the Human Microbiome Project. The use of this reference-based search enabled further separation of Bifidobacterium longum into Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis. We also detected the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which was used as a probiotic supplement by some women, demonstrating the potential of RMS approach for deeper taxonomic delineation and estimation.

  2. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-04-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. A comparison of structural and evolutionary attributes of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus small ribosomal subunits: signatures of thermal adaptation.

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    Saurav Mallik

    Full Text Available Here we compare the structural and evolutionary attributes of Thermus thermophilus and Escherichia coli small ribosomal subunits (SSU. Our results indicate that with few exceptions, thermophilic 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA is densely packed compared to that of mesophilic at most of the analogous spatial regions. In addition, we have located species-specific cavity clusters (SSCCs in both species. E. coli SSCCs are numerous and larger compared to T. thermophilus SSCCs, which again indicates densely packed thermophilic 16S rRNA. Thermophilic ribosomal proteins (r-proteins have longer disordered regions than their mesophilic homologs and they experience larger disorder-to-order transitions during SSU-assembly. This is reflected in the predicted higher conformational changes of thermophilic r-proteins compared to their mesophilic homologs during SSU-assembly. This high conformational change of thermophilic r-proteins may help them to associate with the 16S ribosomal RNA with high complementary interfaces, larger interface areas, and denser molecular contacts, compared to those of mesophilic. Thus, thermophilic protein-rRNA interfaces are tightly associated with 16S rRNA than their mesophilic homologs. Densely packed 16S rRNA interior and tight protein-rRNA binding of T. thermophilus (compared to those of E. coli are likely the signatures of its thermal adaptation. We have found a linear correlation between the free energy of protein-RNA interface formation, interface size, and square of conformational changes, which is followed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic SSU. Disorder is associated with high protein-RNA interface polarity. We have found an evolutionary tendency to maintain high polarity (thereby disorder at protein-rRNA interfaces, than that at rest of the protein structures. However, some proteins exhibit exceptions to this general trend.

  4. Seasonal diversity of planktonic protists in Southwestern Alberta rivers over a 1-year period as revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 18S rRNA gene library analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew C; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of planktonic protists in river water have received limited attention despite their ecological significance and recent studies linking phagotrophic protists to the persistence of human-pathogenic bacteria. Using molecular-based techniques targeting the 18S rRNA gene, we studied the seasonal diversity of planktonic protists in Southwestern Alberta rivers (Oldman River Basin) over a 1-year period. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data revealed distinct shifts in protistan community profiles that corresponded to season rather than geographical location. Community structures were examined by using clone library analysis; HaeIII restriction profiles of 18S rRNA gene amplicons were used to remove prevalent solanaceous plant clones prior to sequencing. Sanger sequencing of the V1-to-V3 region of the 18S rRNA gene libraries from spring, summer, fall, and winter supported the T-RFLP results and showed marked seasonal differences in the protistan community structure. The spring library was dominated by Chloroplastidae (29.8%), Centrohelida (28.1%), and Alveolata (25.5%), while the summer and fall libraries contained primarily fungal clones (83.0% and 88.0%, respectively). Alveolata (35.6%), Euglenozoa (24.4%), Chloroplastida (15.6%), and Fungi (15.6%) dominated the winter library. These data demonstrate that planktonic protists, including protozoa, are abundant in river water in Southwestern Alberta and that conspicuous seasonal shifts occur in the community structure.

  5. Fastidious Gram-Negatives: Identification by the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus Card and by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff Sönksen, Ute; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    Taxonomy and identification of fastidious Gram negatives are evolving and challenging. We compared identifications achieved with the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus (NH) card and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (526 bp stretch) analysis with identifications obtained with extensive phenotypic...... characterization using 100 fastidious Gram negative bacteria. Seventy-five strains represented 21 of the 26 taxa included in the Vitek 2 NH database and 25 strains represented related species not included in the database. Of the 100 strains, 31 were the type strains of the species. Vitek 2 NH identification...

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249 bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A + T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis.

  7. A single mutation in the 15S rRNA gene confers nonsense suppressor activity and interacts with mRF1 the release factor in yeast mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gargouri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the mim3-1 mitochondrial ribosomal suppressor, acting on ochre mitochondrial mutations and one frameshift mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The 15s rRNA suppressor gene contains a G633 to C transversion. Yeast mitochondrial G633 corresponds to G517 of the E.coli 15S rRNA, which is occupied by an invariant G in all known small rRNA sequences. Interestingly, this mutation has occurred at the same position as the known MSU1 mitochondrial suppressor which changes G633 to A. The suppressor mutation lies in a highly conserved region of the rRNA, known in E.coli as the 530-loop, interacting with the S4, S5 and S12 ribosomal proteins. We also show an interesting interaction between the mitochondrial mim3-1 and the nuclear nam3-1 suppressors, both of which have the same action spectrum on mitochondrial mutations: nam3-1 abolishes the suppressor effect when present with mim3-1 in the same haploid cell. We discuss these results in the light of the nature of Nam3, identified by [1] as the yeast mitochondrial translation release factor. A hypothetical mechanism of suppression by "ribosome shifting" is also discussed in view of the nature of mutations suppressed and not suppressed.

  8. Learners' and Teachers' Perceptions of Learning Analytics (LA): A Case Study of Southampton Solent University (SSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Osama

    2017-01-01

    This paper depicts a perceptual picture of learning analytics based on the understanding of learners and teachers at the SSU as a case study. The existing literature covers technical challenges of learning analytics (LA) and how it creates better social construct for enhanced learning support, however, there has not been adequate research on…

  9. The genetic diversity of genus Bacillus and the related genera revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences and ardra analyses isolated from geothermal regions of turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Coleri Cihan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously isolated 115 endospore-forming bacilli were basically grouped according to their temperature requirements for growth: the thermophiles (74%, the facultative thermophiles (14% and the mesophiles (12%. These isolates were taken into 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, and they were clustered among the 7 genera: Anoxybacillus, Aeribacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Paenibacillus, and Thermoactinomycetes. Of these bacilli, only the thirty two isolates belonging to genera Bacillus (16, Brevibacillus (13, Paenibacillus (1 and Thermoactinomycetes (2 were selected and presented in this paper. The comparative sequence analyses revealed that the similarity values were ranged as 91.4-100 %, 91.8- 99.2 %, 92.6- 99.8 % and 90.7 - 99.8 % between the isolates and the related type strains from these four genera, respectively. Twenty nine of them were found to be related with the validly published type strains. The most abundant species was B. thermoruber with 9 isolates followed by B. pumilus (6, B. lichenformis (3, B. subtilis (3, B. agri (3, B. smithii (2, T. vulgaris (2 and finally P. barengoltzii (1. In addition, isolates of A391a, B51a and D295 were proposed as novel species as their 16S rRNA gene sequences displayed similarities ≤ 97% to their closely related type strains. The AluI-, HaeIII- and TaqI-ARDRA results were in congruence with the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The ARDRA results allowed us to differentiate these isolates, and their discriminative restriction fragments were able to be determined. Some of their phenotypic characters and their amylase, chitinase and protease production were also studied and biotechnologically valuable enzyme producing isolates were introduced in order to use in further studies.

  10. Mechanistic study on the nuclear modifier gene MSS1 mutation suppressing neomycin sensitivity of the mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiyin; Wang, Wei; He, Xiangyu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Yaoyao; Yu, Zhe; Wang, Xuexiang; Qi, Xuchen; Zhang, Xuan; Fan, Mingjie; Dai, Yu; Yang, Shuxu; Yan, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations can be modulated by nuclear genes and environmental factors. However, neither the interaction among these factors nor their underlying mechanisms are well understood. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mtDNA 15S rRNA C1477G mutation (PR) corresponds to the human 12S rRNA A1555G mutation. Here we report that a nuclear modifier gene mss1 mutation suppresses the neomycin-sensitivity phenotype of a yeast C1477G mutant in fermentable YPD medium. Functional assays show that the mitochondrial function of the yeast C1477G mutant was impaired severely in YPD medium with neomycin. Moreover, the mss1 mutation led to a significant increase in the steady-state level of HAP5 (heme activated protein), which greatly up-regulated the expression of glycolytic transcription factors RAP1, GCR1, and GCR2 and thus stimulated glycolysis. Furthermore, the high expression of the key glycolytic enzyme genes HXK2, PFK1 and PYK1 indicated that enhanced glycolysis not only compensated for the ATP reduction from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria, but also ensured the growth of the mss1(PR) mutant in YPD medium with neomycin. This study advances our understanding of the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations.

  11. Biological significance of 5S rRNA import into human mitochondria: role of ribosomal protein MRP-L18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexandre; Entelis, Nina; Martin, Robert P.; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    5S rRNA is an essential component of ribosomes of all living organisms, the only known exceptions being mitochondrial ribosomes of fungi, animals, and some protists. An intriguing situation distinguishes mammalian cells: Although the mitochondrial genome contains no 5S rRNA genes, abundant import of the nuclear DNA-encoded 5S rRNA into mitochondria was reported. Neither the detailed mechanism of this pathway nor its rationale was clarified to date. In this study, we describe an elegant molecular conveyor composed of a previously identified human 5S rRNA import factor, rhodanese, and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18, thanks to which 5S rRNA molecules can be specifically withdrawn from the cytosolic pool and redirected to mitochondria, bypassing the classic nucleolar reimport pathway. Inside mitochondria, the cytosolic 5S rRNA is shown to be associated with mitochondrial ribosomes. PMID:21685364

  12. First Report of the 23S rRNA Gene A2058G Point Mutation Associated With Macrolide Resistance in Treponema pallidum From Syphilis Patients in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Matos, Nelvis; Blanco, Orestes; Rodríguez, Islay; Stamm, Lola Virginia

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the presence of macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum subtypes in Havana, Cuba. Samples from 41 syphilis patients were tested for T. pallidum 23S rRNA gene mutations. Twenty-five patients (61%) harbored T. pallidum with the A2058G mutation, which was present in all 8 subtypes that were identified. The A2059G mutation was not detected.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae based on the mitochondrial COI gene and the 18S and the 5' end of the 28S rRNA genes indicates that several genera are polyphyletic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Matsuda

    Full Text Available The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825-1,901 bp and 28S (the 5' end of 646-743 bp rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp. As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered.

  14. Transcript levels, alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage of TFIIIA control 5S rRNA accumulation during Arabidopsis thaliana development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layat, Elodie; Cotterell, Sylviane; Vaillant, Isabelle; Yukawa, Yasushi; Tutois, Sylvie; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2012-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is critical for eukaryotic cells and requires coordinated synthesis of the protein and rRNA moieties of the ribosome, which are therefore highly regulated. 5S ribosomal RNA, an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and specifically requires transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). To obtain insight into the regulation of 5S rRNA transcription, we have investigated the expression of 5S rRNA and the exon-skipped (ES) and exon-including (EI) TFIIIA transcripts, two transcript isoforms that result from alternative splicing of the TFIIIA gene, and TFIIIA protein amounts with respect to requirements for 5S rRNA during development. We show that 5S rRNA quantities are regulated through distinct but complementary mechanisms operating through transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of TFIIIA transcripts as well as at the post-translational level through proteolytic cleavage of the TFIIIA protein. During the reproductive phase, high expression of the TFIIIA gene together with low proteolytic cleavage contributes to accumulation of functional, full-length TFIIIA protein, and results in 5S rRNA accumulation in the seed. In contrast, just after germination, the levels of TFIIIA-encoding transcripts are low and stable. Full-length TFIIIA protein is undetectable, and the level of 5S rRNA stored in the embryo progressively decreases. After day 4, in correlation with the reorganization of 5S rDNA chromatin to a mature state, full-length TFIIIA protein with transcriptional activity accumulates and permits de novo transcription of 5S rRNA. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A new lineage of trypanosomes from Australian vertebrates and terrestrial bloodsucking leeches (Haemadipsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P B; Stevens, J R; Gidley, J; Holz, P; Gibson, W C

    2005-04-01

    Little is known about the trypanosomes of indigenous Australian vertebrates and their vectors. We surveyed a range of vertebrates and blood-feeding invertebrates for trypanosomes by parasitological and PCR-based methods using primers specific to the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosome isolates were obtained in culture from two common wombats, one swamp wallaby and an Australian bird (Strepera sp.). By PCR, blood samples from three wombats, one brush-tailed wallaby, three platypuses and a frog were positive for trypanosome DNA. All the blood-sucking invertebrates screened were negative for trypanosomes both by microscopy and PCR, except for specimens of terrestrial leeches (Haemadipsidae). Of the latter, two Micobdella sp. specimens from Victoria and 18 Philaemon sp. specimens from Queensland were positive by PCR. Four Haemadipsa zeylanica specimens from Sri Lanka and three Leiobdella jawarerensis specimens from Papua New Guinea were also PCR positive for trypanosome DNA. We sequenced the SSU rRNA and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes in order to determine the phylogenetic positions of the new vertebrate and terrestrial leech trypanosomes. In trees based on these genes, Australian vertebrate trypanosomes fell in several distinct clades, for the most part being more closely related to trypanosomes outside Australia than to each other. Two previously undescribed wallaby trypanosomes fell in a clade with Trypanosoma theileri, the cosmopolitan bovid trypanosome, and Trypanosoma cyclops from a Malaysian primate. The terrestrial leech trypanosomes were closely related to the wallaby trypanosomes, T. cyclops and a trypanosome from an Australian frog. We suggest that haemadipsid leeches may be significant and widespread vectors of trypanosomes in Australia and Asia.

  16. Anti-inflammatory properties of fermented soy milk with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis S-SU2 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells and DSS-induced IBD model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Miho; Nemoto, Maki; Nakata, Toru; Kondo, Saya; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Kuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Six lactic acid bacteria strains (four Lactobacillus plantarum strains and one each of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Pediococcus pentosaceus) have been isolated and shown to possess anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we determined their acid, bile, salt resistance, and adhesion activity on human enterocyte-like HT-29-Luc and Caco-2 cells. An isolate Lc. lactis S-SU2 showed highest bile resistance and adhesion activity compared to type strains. S-SU2 could ferment both 10% skimmed milk and soy milk while the type strain could not ferment soy milk. Soy milk fermented with S-SU2 showed an increased nitric oxide (NO) secretion in the mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells without bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the fermented soy milk on Escherichia coli O111 LPS-induced NO secretion were higher than those of fresh soy milk. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was induced in mice fed either 5% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water or 50% soy milk in drinking water. Shortening of colon length, breaking of epithelial cells, lowering liver and thymus weights, and enlargement of spleen are some of the characteristics observed in the IBD, which were prevented by the use of soy milk fermented with Lc. lactis S-SU2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative evaluation of PCR amplification of RLEP, 16S rRNA, rpoT and Sod A gene targets for detection of M. leprae DNA from clinical and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turankar, Ravindra P; Pandey, Shradha; Lavania, Mallika; Singh, Itu; Nigam, Astha; Darlong, Joydeepa; Darlong, Fam; Sengupta, Utpal

    2015-03-01

    PCR assay is a highly sensitive, specific and reliable diagnostic tool for the identification of pathogens in many infectious diseases. Genome sequencing Mycobacterium leprae revealed several gene targets that could be used for the detection of DNA from clinical and environmental samples. The PCR sensitivity of particular gene targets for specific clinical and environmental isolates has not yet been established. The present study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of RLEP, rpoT, Sod A and 16S rRNA gene targets in the detection of M. leprae in slit skin smear (SSS), blood, soil samples of leprosy patients and their surroundings. Leprosy patients were classified into Paucibacillary (PB) and Multibacillary (MB) types. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining method for all the SSS samples and Bacteriological Index (BI) was calculated for all patients. Standard laboratory protocol was used for DNA extraction from SSS, blood and soil samples. PCR technique was performed for the detection of M. leprae DNA from all the above-mentioned samples. RLEP gene target was able to detect the presence of M. leprae in 83% of SSS, 100% of blood samples and in 36% of soil samples and was noted to be the best out of all other gene targets (rpoT, Sod A and 16S rRNA). It was noted that the RLEP gene target was able to detect the highest number (53%) of BI-negative leprosy patients amongst all the gene targets used in this study. Amongst all the gene targets used in this study, PCR positivity using RLEP gene target was the highest in all the clinical and environmental samples. Further, the RLEP gene target was able to detect 53% of blood samples as positive in BI-negative leprosy cases indicating its future standardization and use for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The tylosin resistance gene tlrB of Streptomyces fradiae encodes a methyltransferase that targets G748 in 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, M; Kirpekar, F; Van Wezel, G P

    2000-01-01

    tlrB is one of four resistance genes encoded in the operon for biosynthesis of the macrolide tylosin in antibiotic-producing strains of Streptomyces fradiae. Introduction of tlrB into Streptomyces lividans similarly confers tylosin resistance. Biochemical analysis of the rRNA from the two...... is dependent on the presence of the methyl group donor, S-adenosyl methionine. Analysis of the 74-mer RNA substrate by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods shows that TlrB adds a single methyl group to the base of G748. Homologues of TlrB in other bacteria have been revealed through database searches...

  19. The Cladophora complex (Chlorophyta): new views based on 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, F T; Olsen, J L; Stam, W T; van den Hoek, C

    1994-12-01

    Evolutionary relationships among species traditionally ascribed to the Siphonocladales/Cladophorales have remained unclear due to a lack of phylogenetically informative characters and extensive morphological plasticity resulting in morphological convergence. This study explores some of the diversity within the generic complex Cladophora and its siphonocladalaen allies. Twelve species of Cladophora representing 6 of the 11 morphological sections recognized by van den Hoek were analyzed along with 8 siphonocladalaen species using 18S rRNA gene sequences. The final alignment consisted of 1460 positions containing 92 phylogenetically informative substitutions. Weighting schemes (EOR weighting, combinatorial weighting) were applied in maximum parsimony analysis to correct for substitution bias. Stem characters were weighted 0.66 relative to single-stranded characters to correct for secondary structural constraints. Both weighting approaches resulted in greater phylogenetic resolution. Results confirm that there is no basis for the independent recognition of the Cladophorales and Siphonocladales. The Siphonocladales is polyphyletic, and Cladophora is paraphyletic. All analyses support two principal lineages, of which one contains predominantly tropical members including almost all siphonocladalean taxa, while the other lineage consists of mostly warm- to cold-temperate species of Cladophora.

  20. Domain V of 23S rRNA contains all the structural elements necessary for recognition by the ErmE methyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, B; Douthwaite, S

    1994-01-01

    investigated what structural elements in 23S rRNA are required for specific recognition by the ErmE methyltransferase. The ermE gene was cloned into R1 plasmid derivatives, providing a means of inducible expression in Escherichia coli. Expression of the methyltransferase in vivo confers resistance......, and the enzyme efficiently modifies 23S rRNA in vitro. Removal of most of the 23S rRNA structure, so that only domain V (nucleotides 2000 to 2624) remains, does not affect the efficiency of modification by the methyltransferase. In addition, modification still occurs after the rRNA tertiary structure has been...

  1. Analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase and 16S rRNA gene fragments from deep-sea hydrothermal sites of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Maruyama, Akihiko; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Morimoto, Yusuke; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Urabe, Tetsuro; Fukui, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of unique dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes at a depth of 1,380 m from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent field at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific, Japan. The DSR genes were obtained from microbes that grew in a catheter-type in situ growth chamber deployed for 3 days on a vent and from the effluent water of drilled holes at 5 degrees C and natural vent fluids at 7 degrees C. DSR clones SUIYOdsr-A and SUIYOdsr-B were not closely related to cultivated species or environmental clones. Moreover, samples of microbial communities were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the vent catheter after a 3-day incubation revealed the occurrence of bacterial DGGE bands affiliated with the Aquificae and gamma- and epsilon-Proteobacteria as well as the occurrence of archaeal phylotypes affiliated with the Thermococcales and of a unique archaeon sequence that clustered with "Nanoarchaeota." The DGGE bands obtained from drilled holes and natural vent fluids from 7 to 300 degrees C were affiliated with the delta-Proteobacteria, genus Thiomicrospira, and Pelodictyon. The dominant DGGE bands retrieved from the effluent water of casing pipes at 3 and 4 degrees C were closely related to phylotypes obtained from the Arctic Ocean. Our results suggest the presence of microorganisms corresponding to a unique DSR lineage not detected previously from other geothermal environments.

  2. Transcription analysis of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) rrnA operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezel, G P; Krab, I M; Douthwaite, S

    1994-01-01

    Transcription start sites and processing sites of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) rrnA operon have been investigated by a combination of in vivo and in vitro transcription analyses. The data from these approaches are consistent with the existence of four in vivo transcription sites, corresponding...... to the promoters P1-P4. The transcription start sites are located at -597, -416, -334 and -254 relative to the start of the 16S rRNA gene. Two putative processing sites were identified, one of which is similar to a sequence reported earlier in S. coelicolor and other eubacteria. The P1 promoter is likely...... common to P2, P3 and P4 is not similar to any other known consensus promoter sequence. In fast-growing mycelium, P2 appears to be the most frequently used promoter. Transcription from all of the rrnA promoters decreased during the transition from exponential to stationary phase, although transcription...

  3. Ichthyophonus irregularis sp. nov. from the yellowtail flounder Limanda ferruginea from the Nova Scotia shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, T G; White, K; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R; Murphy, C A; Ragan, M A

    2000-05-25

    A previously described unusual form of the protistan parasite Ichthyophonus, differing in morphological and developmental features from I. hoferi sensu Plehn & Mulsow, was recovered from yellowtail flounder Limanda ferruginea Storer from the Brown's Bank area of the Nova Scotia shelf. The nuclear gene encoding the rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit was amplified from this unusual form of Ichthyophonus using the polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and aligned with other eukaryote small subunit (ssu)-rDNAs. Inferred phylogenetic trees clearly show that its ssu-rDNA is distinct from those of 2 isolates of I. hoferi sensu Plehn & Mulsow from different hosts and geographical locations (herring in the North Sea, and yellowtail flounder from the Nova Scotia shelf). We consider the unusual form to be a separate species, I. irregularis. The occurrence of a second, distinct type of Ichthyophonus within a single host species raises the possibility that ichthyophoniasis could be produced by different (although related) pathogens, and in some cases, by concurrent infections of the two.

  4. 5S rRNA and ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, G M

    2011-12-01

    5S rRNA is an integral component of the ribosome of all living organisms. It is known that the ribosome without 5S rRNA is functionally inactive. However, the question about the specific role of this RNA in functioning of the translation apparatus is still open. This review presents a brief history of the discovery of 5S rRNA and studies of its origin and localization in the ribosome. The previously expressed hypotheses about the role of this RNA in the functioning of the ribosome are discussed considering the unique location of 5S rRNA in the ribosome and its intermolecular contacts. Based on analysis of the current data on ribosome structure and its functional complexes, the role of 5S rRNA as an intermediary between ribosome functional domains is discussed.

  5. Decreases in average bacterial community rRNA operon copy number during succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemergut, Diana R; Knelman, Joseph E; Ferrenberg, Scott; Bilinski, Teresa; Melbourne, Brett; Jiang, Lin; Violle, Cyrille; Darcy, John L; Prest, Tiffany; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Trait-based studies can help clarify the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and coexistence. Here, we use a trait-based approach to explore the importance of rRNA operon copy number in microbial succession, building on prior evidence that organisms with higher copy numbers respond more rapidly to nutrient inputs. We set flasks of heterotrophic media into the environment and examined bacterial community assembly at seven time points. Communities were arrayed along a geographic gradient to introduce stochasticity via dispersal processes and were analyzed using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and rRNA operon copy number was modeled using ancestral trait reconstruction. We found that taxonomic composition was similar between communities at the beginning of the experiment and then diverged through time; as well, phylogenetic clustering within communities decreased over time. The average rRNA operon copy number decreased over the experiment, and variance in rRNA operon copy number was lowest both early and late in succession. We then analyzed bacterial community data from other soil and sediment primary and secondary successional sequences from three markedly different ecosystem types. Our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number are a consistent feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from cells to populations and communities, with implications for both microbial ecology and evolution.

  6. Segal's Law, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the perils of foodborne pathogen detection within the American Gut Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, James B; Rand, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining human population level estimates of the prevalence of foodborne pathogens is critical for understanding outbreaks and ameliorating such threats to public health. Estimates are difficult to obtain due to logistic and financial constraints, but citizen science initiatives like that of the American Gut Project (AGP) represent a potential source of information concerning enteric pathogens. With an emphasis on genera Listeria and Salmonella , we sought to document the prevalence of those two taxa within the AGP samples. The results provided by AGP suggest a surprising 14% and 2% of samples contained Salmonella and Listeria , respectively. However, a reanalysis of those AGP sequences described here indicated that results depend greatly on the algorithm for assigning taxonomy and differences persisted across both a range of parameter settings and different reference databases (i.e., Greengenes and HITdb). These results are perhaps to be expected given that AGP sequenced the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, which may not provide good resolution at the lower taxonomic levels (e.g., species), but it was surprising how often methods differ in classifying reads-even at higher taxonomic ranks (e.g., family). This highlights the misleading conclusions that can be reached when relying on a single method that is not a gold standard; this is the essence of Segal's Law: an individual with one watch knows what time it is but an individual with two is never sure. Our results point to the need for an appropriate molecular marker for the taxonomic resolution of interest, and calls for the development of more conservative classification methods that are fit for purpose. Thus, with 16S rRNA gene datasets, one must be cautious regarding the detection of taxonomic groups of public health interest (e.g., culture independent identification of foodborne pathogens or taxa associated with a given phenotype).

  7. Genetic classification and distinguishing of Staphylococcus species based on different partial gap, 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, sodA, and tuf gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, B; Layer, F; König, W; König, B

    2008-03-01

    The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has been the technique generally used to study the evolution and taxonomy of staphylococci. However, the results of this method do not correspond to the results of polyphasic taxonomy, and the related species cannot always be distinguished from each other. Thus, new phylogenetic markers for Staphylococcus spp. are needed. We partially sequenced the gap gene (approximately 931 bp), which encodes the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, for 27 Staphylococcus species. The partial sequences had 24.3 to 96% interspecies homology and were useful in the identification of staphylococcal species (F. Layer, B. Ghebremedhin, W. König, and B. König, J. Microbiol. Methods 70:542-549, 2007). The DNA sequence similarities of the partial staphylococcal gap sequences were found to be lower than those of 16S rRNA (approximately 97%), rpoB (approximately 86%), hsp60 (approximately 82%), and sodA (approximately 78%). Phylogenetically derived trees revealed four statistically supported groups: S. hyicus/S. intermedius, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus/S. simulans, and S. aureus/epidermidis. The branching of S. auricularis, S. cohnii subsp. cohnii, and the heterogeneous S. saprophyticus group, comprising S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus and S. equorum subsp. equorum, was not reliable. Thus, the phylogenetic analysis based on the gap gene sequences revealed similarities between the dendrograms based on other gene sequences (e.g., the S. hyicus/S. intermedius and S. sciuri groups) as well as differences, e.g., the grouping of S. arlettae and S. kloosii in the gap-based tree. From our results, we propose the partial sequencing of the gap gene as an alternative molecular tool for the taxonomical analysis of Staphylococcus species and for decreasing the possibility of misidentification.

  8. Genetic Classification and Distinguishing of Staphylococcus Species Based on Different Partial gap, 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, sodA, and tuf Gene Sequences▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, B.; Layer, F.; König, W.; König, B.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has been the technique generally used to study the evolution and taxonomy of staphylococci. However, the results of this method do not correspond to the results of polyphasic taxonomy, and the related species cannot always be distinguished from each other. Thus, new phylogenetic markers for Staphylococcus spp. are needed. We partially sequenced the gap gene (∼931 bp), which encodes the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, for 27 Staphylococcus species. The partial sequences had 24.3 to 96% interspecies homology and were useful in the identification of staphylococcal species (F. Layer, B. Ghebremedhin, W. König, and B. König, J. Microbiol. Methods 70:542-549, 2007). The DNA sequence similarities of the partial staphylococcal gap sequences were found to be lower than those of 16S rRNA (∼97%), rpoB (∼86%), hsp60 (∼82%), and sodA (∼78%). Phylogenetically derived trees revealed four statistically supported groups: S. hyicus/S. intermedius, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus/S. simulans, and S. aureus/epidermidis. The branching of S. auricularis, S. cohnii subsp. cohnii, and the heterogeneous S. saprophyticus group, comprising S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus and S. equorum subsp. equorum, was not reliable. Thus, the phylogenetic analysis based on the gap gene sequences revealed similarities between the dendrograms based on other gene sequences (e.g., the S. hyicus/S. intermedius and S. sciuri groups) as well as differences, e.g., the grouping of S. arlettae and S. kloosii in the gap-based tree. From our results, we propose the partial sequencing of the gap gene as an alternative molecular tool for the taxonomical analysis of Staphylococcus species and for decreasing the possibility of misidentification. PMID:18174295

  9. Increased Pathogen Identification in Vascular Graft Infections by the Combined Use of Tissue Cultures and 16S rRNA Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Ajdler-Schaeffler

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular graft infections (VGI are difficult to diagnose and treat, and despite redo surgery combined with antimicrobial treatment, outcomes are often poor. VGI diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical, radiological, laboratory and microbiological criteria. However, as many of the VGI patients are already under antimicrobial treatment at the time of redo surgery, microbiological identification is often difficult and bacterial cultures often remain negative rendering targeted treatment impossible. We aimed to assess the benefit of 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (broad-range PCR for better microbiological identification in patients with VGI.Methods: We prospectively analyzed the clinical, microbiological, and treatment data of patients enrolled in the observational Vascular Graft Cohort Study (VASGRA, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland. The routine diagnostic work-up involved microbiological cultures of minced tissue samples, and the use of molecular techniques in parallel. Patient-related and microbiological data were assessed in descriptive analyses, and we calculated sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value for broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR versus culture (considered as gold standard.Results: We investigated 60 patients (median age 66 years (Interquartile range [IQR] 59–75 with confirmed VGI between May 2013 and July 2017. The prevalence of antimicrobial pretreatment at the time of sampling was high [91%; median days of antibiotics 7 days (IQR 1–18]. We investigated 226 microbiological specimens. Thereof, 176 (78% were culture-negative and 50 (22% were culture-positive. There was a concordance of 70% (158/226 between conventional culture and broad-range PCR (sensitivity 58% (95% CI 43–72; specificity 74% (67–80%. Among the group of 176 culture-negative specimens, 46 specimens were broad-range PCR-positive resulting in identification of overall 69 species. Among the culture and

  10. Polyphasic characterization of Dolichospermum spp. and Sphaerospermopsis spp. (Nostocales, cyanobacteria): morphology, 16S rRNA gene sequences and fatty acid and secondary metabolite profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapomělová, Eliška; Hrouzek, Pavel; Řezanka, Tomáš; Jezberová, Jitka; Řeháková, Klára; Hisem, D.; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), s. 1152-1163 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960703; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/10/1501; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/0309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : taxonomy * cyanobacteria * Anabaena * Dolichospermum * Sphaerospermopsis * phylogeny * 16S rRNA gene * fatty acids * secondary metabolites Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2011

  11. Analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing options on the Roche/454 next-generation titanium sequencing platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Tamaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach has revolutionized studies in microbial ecology. While primer selection and short read length can affect the resulting microbial community profile, little is known about the influence of pyrosequencing methods on the sequencing throughput and the outcome of microbial community analyses. The aim of this study is to compare differences in output, ease, and cost among three different amplicon pyrosequencing methods for the Roche/454 Titanium platform METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following three pyrosequencing methods for 16S rRNA genes were selected in this study: Method-1 (standard method is the recommended method for bi-directional sequencing using the LIB-A kit; Method-2 is a new option designed in this study for unidirectional sequencing with the LIB-A kit; and Method-3 uses the LIB-L kit for unidirectional sequencing. In our comparison among these three methods using 10 different environmental samples, Method-2 and Method-3 produced 1.5-1.6 times more useable reads than the standard method (Method-1, after quality-based trimming, and did not compromise the outcome of microbial community analyses. Specifically, Method-3 is the most cost-effective unidirectional amplicon sequencing method as it provided the most reads and required the least effort in consumables management. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrated that alternative pyrosequencing methods for 16S rRNA genes could drastically affect sequencing output (e.g. number of reads before and after trimming but have little effect on the outcomes of microbial community analysis. This finding is important for both researchers and sequencing facilities utilizing 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for microbial ecological studies.

  12. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza M. Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla, were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species.

  13. Molecular characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and transcripts in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Rojas-Sánchez, Saúl; Vélez-Ramírez, Daniel E; Padilla-Mejía, Norma E; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania. While in most organisms 5S rRNA genes are normally associated with the nucleolus, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed that 5S rRNA genes are mainly located at the nuclear periphery in L. major. Similarly, the tandemly repeated 5S rRNA genes in Trypanosoma cruzi are dispersed throughout the nucleus. In contrast, 5S rRNA transcripts in L. major were localized within the nucleolus, and scattered throughout the cytoplasm, where mature ribosomes are located. Unlike other rRNA species, stable antisense RNA complementary to 5S rRNA is not detected in L. major.

  14. Karyological characterization and identification of four repetitive element groups (the 18S – 28S rRNA gene, telomeric sequences, microsatellite repeat motifs, Rex retroelements) of the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntronpong, Aorarat; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Twilprawat, Panupon; Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Somyong, Suthasinee; Muangmai, Narongrit; Surin Peyachoknagul; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Among teleost fishes, Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew, 1793) possesses the lowest chromosome number, 2n = 24. To characterize the chromosome constitution and investigate the genome organization of repetitive sequences in M. albus, karyotyping and chromosome mapping were performed with the 18S – 28S rRNA gene, telomeric repeats, microsatellite repeat motifs, and Rex retroelements. The 18S – 28S rRNA genes were observed to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4 at the same position with large propidium iodide and C-positive bands, suggesting that the molecular structure of the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 4 has evolved in a concerted manner with amplification of the 18S – 28S rRNA genes. (TTAGGG)n sequences were found at the telomeric ends of all chromosomes. Eight of 19 microsatellite repeat motifs were dispersedly mapped on different chromosomes suggesting the independent amplification of microsatellite repeat motifs in M. albus. Monopterus albus Rex1 (MALRex1) was observed at interstitial sites of all chromosomes and in the pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes whereas MALRex3 was scattered and localized to all chromosomes and MALRex6 to several chromosomes. This suggests that these retroelements were independently amplified or lost in M. albus. Among MALRexs (MALRex1, MALRex3, and MALRex6), MALRex6 showed higher interspecific sequence divergences from other teleost species in comparison. This suggests that the divergence of Rex6 sequences of M. albus might have occurred a relatively long time ago. PMID:29093797

  15. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  16. A morphogenetic survey on ciliate plankton from a mountain lake pinpoints the necessity of lineage-specific barcode markers in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Thorsten; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Filker, Sabine; Ostermaier, Veronika; Kammerlander, Barbara; Sonntag, Bettina

    2014-02-01

    Analyses of high-throughput environmental sequencing data have become the 'gold-standard' to address fundamental questions of microbial diversity, ecology and biogeography. Findings that emerged from sequencing are, e.g. the discovery of the extensive 'rare microbial biosphere' and its potential function as a seed-bank. Even though applied since several years, results from high-throughput environmental sequencing have hardly been validated. We assessed how well pyrosequenced amplicons [the hypervariable eukaryotic V4 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene] reflected morphotype ciliate plankton. Moreover, we assessed if amplicon sequencing had the potential to detect the annual ciliate plankton stock. In both cases, we identified significant quantitative and qualitative differences. Our study makes evident that taxon abundance distributions inferred from amplicon data are highly biased and do not mirror actual morphotype abundances at all. Potential reasons included cell losses after fixation, cryptic morphotypes, resting stages, insufficient sequence data availability of morphologically described species and the unsatisfying resolution of the V4 SSU rRNA fragment for accurate taxonomic assignments. The latter two underline the necessity of barcoding initiatives for eukaryotic microbes to better and fully exploit environmental amplicon data sets, which then will also allow studying the potential of seed-bank taxa as a buffer for environmental changes. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 16S rRNA gene-based detection of tetrachloroethene-dechlorinating Desulfuromonas and Dehalococcoides species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, F.E.; Sun, Q.; Li, J.; Tiedje, J.M.

    2000-03-01

    Members of the genera Desulfuromonas and Dehalococcoides reductively dechlorinate tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene. Two primer pairs specific to hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes of the Dehalococcoides group (comprising Dehalococcoides ethenogenes and Dehalococcoides sp. strain FL2) and the acetate-oxidizing, PCE-dechlorinating Desulfuromonas group (comprising Desulfuromonas sp. strain BB1 and Desulfuromonas chloroethenica) were designed. The detection threshold of a nested PCR approach using universal bacterial primers followed by a second PCR with the Desulfuromonas dechlorinator-targeted primer pair was 1 x 10{sup 3} BB1 cells added per gram (wet weight) of sandy aquifer material. Total community DNA isolated from sediments of three Michigan rivers and six different chloroethene-contaminated aquifer samples was used as template in nested PCR. All river sediment samples yielded positive signals with the BB1- and the Dehalococcoides-targeted primers. One chloroethene-contaminated aquifer tested positive with the Dehalococcoides-targeted primers, and another contaminated aquifer tested positive with the Desulfuromonas dechlorinator-targeted primer pair. Restriction fragment analysis of the amplicons could discriminate strain BB1 from other known Desulfuromonas species. Microcosm studies confirmed the presence of PCE-dechlorinating, acetate-oxidizing Desulfuromonas and hydrogenotrophic Dehalococcoides species in samples yielding positive PCR signals with the specific primers.

  18. Genetic relationships of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated from a diphtheria case and carriers by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rRNA genes Relação genética de cepas de Corynebacterium diphtheriae isoladas de caso e seus contatos por RLFP de rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tavares Sacchi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we report the results of an analysis, based on ribotyping of Corynebacterium diphtheriae intermedius strains isolated from a 9 years old child with clinical diphtheria and his 5 contacts. Quantitative analysis of RFLPs of rRNA was used to determine relatedness of these 7 C.diphtheriae strains providing support data in the diphtheria epidemiology. We have also tested those strains for toxigenicity in vitro by using the Elek's gel diffusion method and in vivo by using cell culture method on cultured monkey kidney cell (VERO cells. The hybridization results revealed that the 5 C.diphtheriae strains isolated from contacts and one isolated from the clinical case (nose case strain had identical RFLP patterns with all 4 restriction endonucleases used, ribotype B. The genetic distance from this ribotype and ribotype A (throat case strain, that we initially assumed to be responsible for the illness of the patient, was of 0.450 showing poor genetic correlation among these two ribotypes. We found no significant differences concerned to the toxin production by using the cell culture method. In conclusion, the use of RFLPs of rRNA gene was successful in detecting minor differences in closely related toxigenic C.diphtheriae intermedius strains and providing information about genetic relationships among them.No presente estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de uma análise, baseada na ribotipagem de cepas de C. diphtheriae intermedius isoladas de uma criança de 9 anos com difteria e seus 5 contatos. Análise quantitativa por RFLP de rRNA foi usada para determinar a relação destas 7 cepas de C. diphtheriae fornecendo dados de interesse epidemiológico. Nós também testamos estas cepas para toxicidade in vitro usando método de difusão de Elek e in vivo usando método de cultura celular com células VERO. Os resultados de hibridização revelaram que as 5 cepas de C. diphtheriae isoladas dos contatos e uma isolada do caso (cepa isolada

  19. An outbreak of bovine meningoencephalomyelitis with identification of Halicephalobus gingivalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Hansen, Mette Sif; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2016-01-01

    Halicephalobus gingivalis is an opportunistic parasite which is known to cause fatal meningoencephalomyelitis primarily in equines but sporadically also in humans. In April 2014, laboratory examination of the head of a young dairy calf, euthanized due to severe central nervous system symptoms......, revealed the presence of granulomatous to necrotizing encephalitis and myriads of nematodes in the brain lesion. Morphologically the parasites were identified as H. gingivalis. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes......, revealing genetic variations of 0.5–4.4% and 0.7–8.6%, respectively, between the H. gingivalis isolated from the Danish calf and published isolates, collected worldwide from free-living and parasitic stages of the nematode. Clinical symptoms and histological changes indicated infection with H. gingivalis...

  20. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes from oil field microbial communities indicates the presence of a variety of sulfate-reducing, fermentative, and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Voordouw, G; Armstrong, S M; Reimer, M F; Fouts, B; Telang, A J; Shen, Y; Gevertz, D

    1996-01-01

    Oil field bacteria were characterized by cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. A variety of gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected (16 members of the family Desulfovibrionaceae and 8 members of the family Desulfobacteriaceae). In contrast, a much more limited number of anaerobic, fermentative, or acetogenic bacteria was found (one Clostridium sp., one Eubacterium sp., and one Synergistes sp.). Potential sulfide oxidizers and/or microaerophiles (Thiomicrospira,...

  1. A novel RT-PCR for the detection of Helicobacter pylori and identification of clarithromycin resistance mediated by mutations in the 23S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Javier Jareño; Keller, Peter M; Zbinden, Reinhard; Wagner, Karoline

    2018-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the commercially available LightMix® RT-PCR assay for Helicobacter pylori detection and identification of clarithromycin (CLR) resistance in culture and clinical specimens (gastric biopsies and stool). The H. pylori LightMix® RT-PCR detects a 97bp long fragment of the 23S rRNA gene and allows the identification of 3 distinct point mutations conferring CLR resistance via melting curve analysis. The performance of the H. pylori LightMix® RT-PCR was evaluated using a set of 60 H. pylori strains showing phenotypical CLR susceptibility or CLR resistance (Minimum inhibitory concentrations from 0.016 to 256mg/L). We found high concordance (95%) between phenotypical CLR resistance screening by E-Test® and the Lightmix® RT-PCR. Discrepant results were verified by sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene that always confirmed the results obtained by Lightmix® RT-PCR. Furthermore, H. pylori was detected in clinical biopsy and stool specimens by Lightmix® RT-PCR that identified the correct H. pylori genotype. The LightMix® RT-PCR is an accurate, sensitive and easy to use test for H. pylori and CLR resistance detection and can therefore be readily implemented in any diagnostic laboratory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of sulfur-cycle prokaryotes in a low-sulfate lake (Lake Pavin) using aprA and 16S rRNA gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Boucher, Delphine; Kuever, Jan; Alberic, Patrick; Jézéquel, Didier; Chebance, Brigitte; Borrel, Guillaume; Fonty, Gérard; Peyret, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    Geochemical researches at Lake Pavin, a low-sulfate-containing freshwater lake, suggest that the dominant biogeochemical processes are iron and sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the main active element cycles in this lake, little is known about the sulfate-reducer and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the vertical distribution of these microbes and their diversities and to test the hypothesis suggesting that only few SRP populations are involved in dissimilatory sulfate reduction and that Epsilonproteobacteria are the likely key players in the oxidative phase of sulfur cycle by using a PCR aprA gene-based approach in comparison with a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. The results support this hypothesis. Finally, this preliminary work points strongly the likelihood of novel metabolic processes upon the availability of sulfate and other electron acceptors.

  3. Increased 5S rRNA oxidation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qunxing; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Bing; Soriano, Augusto; Burns, Roxanne; Markesbery, William R

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that oxidative stress is involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is one of the most abundant molecules in most cells and is affected by oxidative stress in the human brain. Previous data have indicated that total rRNA levels were decreased in the brains of subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment concomitant with an increase in rRNA oxidation. In addition, level of 5S rRNA, one of the essential components of the ribosome complex, was significantly lower in the inferior parietal lobule (IP) brain area of subjects with AD compared with control subjects. To further evaluate the alteration of 5S rRNA in neurodegenerative human brains, multiple brain regions from both AD and age-matched control subjects were used in this study, including IP, superior and middle temporal gyro, temporal pole, and cerebellum. Different molecular pools including 5S rRNA integrated into ribosome complexes, free 5S rRNA, cytoplasmic 5S rRNA, and nuclear 5S rRNA were studied. Free 5S rRNA levels were significantly decreased in the temporal pole region of AD subjects and the oxidation of ribosome-integrated and free 5S rRNA was significantly increased in multiple brain regions in AD subjects compared with controls. Moreover, a greater amount of oxidized 5S rRNA was detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of AD subjects compared with controls. These results suggest that the increased oxidation of 5S rRNA, especially the oxidation of free 5S rRNA, may be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in AD.

  4. Segal’s Law, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the perils of foodborne pathogen detection within the American Gut Project

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    James B. Pettengill

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining human population level estimates of the prevalence of foodborne pathogens is critical for understanding outbreaks and ameliorating such threats to public health. Estimates are difficult to obtain due to logistic and financial constraints, but citizen science initiatives like that of the American Gut Project (AGP represent a potential source of information concerning enteric pathogens. With an emphasis on genera Listeria and Salmonella, we sought to document the prevalence of those two taxa within the AGP samples. The results provided by AGP suggest a surprising 14% and 2% of samples contained Salmonella and Listeria, respectively. However, a reanalysis of those AGP sequences described here indicated that results depend greatly on the algorithm for assigning taxonomy and differences persisted across both a range of parameter settings and different reference databases (i.e., Greengenes and HITdb. These results are perhaps to be expected given that AGP sequenced the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, which may not provide good resolution at the lower taxonomic levels (e.g., species, but it was surprising how often methods differ in classifying reads—even at higher taxonomic ranks (e.g., family. This highlights the misleading conclusions that can be reached when relying on a single method that is not a gold standard; this is the essence of Segal’s Law: an individual with one watch knows what time it is but an individual with two is never sure. Our results point to the need for an appropriate molecular marker for the taxonomic resolution of interest, and calls for the development of more conservative classification methods that are fit for purpose. Thus, with 16S rRNA gene datasets, one must be cautious regarding the detection of taxonomic groups of public health interest (e.g., culture independent identification of foodborne pathogens or taxa associated with a given phenotype.

  5. Microsporidia in a woodland pool I. Lanatospora costata sp. n. (Opisthosporidia, Microsporidia), parasite of Megacyclops viridis (Crustacea, Copepoda): fine structure and molecular phylogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Fiala, Ivan; Refardt, D.; Larsson, J.I.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2016), s. 269-280 ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microsporidian parasite * Megacyclops viridis * SSU rRNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2016

  6. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in deer in Henan and Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Jinfeng; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Wanyu; Zhang, Longxian

    2018-04-12

    Little is known about the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in deer in China. In this study, 662 fecal samples were collected from 11 farms in Henan and Jilin Provinces between July 2013 and August 2014, and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis with genotyping and subtyping methods. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were detected in 6.80% (45/662) and 1.21% (5/662) of samples, respectively. Six Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified based on the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene: C. parvum (n = 11); C. andersoni (n = 5); C. ubiquitum (n = 3); C. muris (n = 1); C. suis-like (n = 1); and Cryptosporidium deer genotype (n = 24). When five of the 11 C. parvum isolates were subtyped by sequencing the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, zoonotic subtypes IIaA15G2R2 (n = 4) and IIdA19G1 (n = 1) were found. According to a subtype analysis, three C. ubiquitum isolates belonged to XIIa subtype 2. In contrast, only assemblage E was detected in the five Giardia-positive samples with small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report C. andersoni, as well as C. parvum zoonotic subtypes IIaA15G2R2 and IIdA19G1 in cervids. These data, though limited, suggest that cervids may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Cervids in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic potential to humans, and more molecular epidemiological studies are required to clarify the prevalence and public health significance of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in cervids throughout China.

  7. Rhizobia with 16S rRNA and nifH similar to Mesorhizobium huakuii but Novel recA, glnII, nodA and nodC genes are symbionts of New Zealand Carmichaelinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wee Tan

    Full Text Available New Zealand became geographically isolated about 80 million years ago and this separation gave rise to a unique native flora including four genera of legume, Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, tribe Sophoreae, sub-family Papilionoideae. Ten bacterial strains isolated from NZ Carmichaelinae growing in natural ecosystems grouped close to the Mesorhizobium huakuii type strain in relation to their 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequences. However, the ten strains separated into four groups on the basis of their recA and glnII sequences: all groups were clearly distinct from all Mesorhizobium type strains. The ten strains separated into two groups on the basis of their nodA sequences but grouped closely together in relation to nodC sequences; all nodA and nodC sequences were novel. Seven strains selected and the M. huakuii type strain (isolated from Astragalus sinicus produced functional nodules on Carmichaelia spp., Clianthus puniceus and A. sinicus but did not nodulate two Sophora species. We conclude that rhizobia closely related to M. huakuii on the basis of 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequences, but with variable recA and glnII genes and novel nodA and nodC genes, are common symbionts of NZ Carmichaelinae.

  8. Diversity, Dynamics, and Activity of Bacterial Communities during Production of an Artisanal Sicilian Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Analysis†

    OpenAIRE

    Randazzo, Cinzia L.; Torriani, Sandra; Akkermans, Antoon D. L.; de Vos, Willem M.; Vaughan, Elaine E.

    2002-01-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of Ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in Sicily (Italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. The latter included PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA). Bacterial and Lactobacillus group-specific primers were used to amplify the V6 to V8 and V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene...

  9. Caracterização de rizóbios indicados para produção de inoculantes por meio de sequenciamento parcial do 16S rRNA Characterization of rhizobia indicated for inoculant production using 16S rRNA partial sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethânia Figueiredo Barbosa de Toledo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi confrontar as sequências parciais do gene 16S rRNA de estirpes padrão de rizóbios com as de estirpes recomendadas para a produção de inoculantes no Brasil, com vistas à verificação da confiabilidade do sequenciamento parcial desse gene para a identificação rápida de estirpes. Foram realizados sequenciamentos através de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR com iniciadores relativos à região codificadora do gene 16S rRNA entre as bactérias estudadas. Os resultados foram analisados pela consulta de similaridade de nucleotídeos aos do "Basic Local Alignment Search Tool" (Blastn e por meio da interpretação de árvores filogenéticas geradas usando ferramentas de bioinformática. A classificação taxonômica das estirpes Semia recomendadas para inoculação de leguminosas com base em propriedades morfológicas e especificidade hospedeira não foi confirmada em todas as estirpes. A maioria das estirpes estudadas, consultadas no Blastn, é consistente com a classificação proposta pela construção de árvores filogenéticas das sequências destas estirpes, com base na similaridade pelo sequenciamento parcial do gene considerado.The aim of this work was to compare the partial sequences of 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia strain patterns already classified with strains recommended for the production of inoculants in Brazil, in order to verify the reliability of partial sequencing of the gene for the purpose of rapid identification of strains. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR sequencing using primers on the coding region of the 16S rRNA gene among the bacteria studied was conducted. The results were analyzed by consulting the nucleotides' similarity based on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (Blastn and by interpreting the phylogenetic trees generated by bioinformatic tools. The taxonomic classification of Semia strains recommended for legume inoculation based on morphological properties and host specificity was

  10. 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemodidelphidis' sp. nov., 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemolamae' sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Walker, Pamela G; Raphael, William; Berent, Linda; Shi, Xun

    2002-05-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence of newly characterized haemotrophic bacteria in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and alpaca (Lama pacos) was determined. In addition, the 16S rRNA sequence of a haemotrophic parasite in the dog (Canis familiaris) was determined. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis as well as secondary structural similarity and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of their 16S rRNA genes, positioned these organisms in the genus Mycoplasma. The highest scoring sequence similarities were 16S rRNA genes from haemotrophic mycoplasma species (Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon spp.). However, the lack of several higher-order structural idiosyncrasies used to define the pneumoniae group, suggests that these organisms and related haemotrophic mycoplasmas represent a new group of mycoplasmas. It is recommended that the organisms be named 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., to provide some indication of the target cell and host species of these parasites, and to reflect their phylogenetic affiliation.

  11. Influence of heavy metals on rhizosphere microbial communities of Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata (L. using a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach

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    Thanyaporn Ruangdech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach was used to assess the impacts of cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn contamination on populations of rhizobacteria on Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata (L.. Bacterial communities were characterized using the Illumina MiSeq platform and the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Among the 54,026 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified, 99.7% were classified as bacteria and the rest were classified as archaea. Several dominant bacterial phyla were observed in all samples—Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. These five phyla accounted for 89.2% of all OTUs identified among all sites, and only two OTUs could not be classified to a phylum. Comparison among samples containing low and high levels of Cd contamination using nonparametric Shannon and Shannon diversity indices showed that soils with low levels of diversity had a higher level of Cd (p < 0.05. These results indicated that levels of Cd may significantly alter bacterial species selection. The Cd- and Zn-resistant bacteria from each sample were subjected to heavy-metal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC analyses. The MIC values obtained from 1152 isolates were used to individually analyze the pattern of gene function using the BioNumerics software. The results of this analysis showed that 26.7% of the bacteria were resistant to Cd concentrations up to 320 mg/L and only 2.3% of bacteria were resistant to Zn at concentrations up to 3200 mg/L. The MIC analyses indicated that the number of resistant bacteria decreased with increasing metal concentrations and those bacteria resistant to Cd and Zn may contain more than one group of metal-resistance genes.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genomes of five Eimeria species infecting domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis caused by members of the genus Eimeria can cause enormous economic impact worldwide, but the genetics, epidemiology and biology of these parasites remain poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of five Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic rabbits. The complete mt genomes of Eimeria intestinalis, Eimeria flavescens, Eimeria media, Eimeria vejdovskyi and Eimeria irresidua were 6261bp, 6258bp, 6168bp, 6254bp, 6259bp in length, respectively. All of the mt genomes consist of 3 genes for proteins (cytb, cox1, and cox3), 14 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 11 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, but no transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The gene order of the mt genomes is similar to that of Plasmodium, but distinct from Haemosporida and Theileria. Phylogenetic analyses based on full nucleotide sequences using Bayesian analysis revealed that the monophyly of the Eimeria of rabbits was strongly statistically supported with a Bayesian posterior probabilities. These data provide novel mtDNA markers for studying the population genetics and molecular epidemiology of the Eimeria species, and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention and control of coccidiosis in rabbits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Phylogenetic analysis of closely related Leuconostoc citreum species based on partial housekeeping genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiang; Chen, Ming; Xu, Haiyan; Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Dan, Tong; Sun, Tiansong

    2013-07-04

    Using the 16S rRNA, dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, we identified the phylogenetic relationship among closely related Leuconostoc citreum species. Seven Leu. citreum strains originally isolated from sourdough were characterized by PCR methods to amplify the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, which were determined to assess the suitability as phylogenetic markers. Then, we estimated the genetic distance and constructed the phylogenetic trees including 16S rRNA and above mentioned three housekeeping genes combining with published corresponding sequences. By comparing the phylogenetic trees, the topology of three housekeeping genes trees were consistent with that of 16S rRNA gene. The homology of closely related Leu. citreum species among dnaA, murC, pyrG and 16S rRNA gene sequences were different, ranged from75.5% to 97.2%, 50.2% to 99.7%, 65.0% to 99.8% and 98.5% 100%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship of three housekeeping genes sequences were highly consistent with the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence, while the genetic distance of these housekeeping genes were extremely high than 16S rRNA gene. Consequently, the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene are suitable for classification and identification closely related Leu. citreum species.

  14. Katabia gromovi nov. gen., nov sp. - a new soil flagellate with affinities to Heteromita (Cercomonadida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpov, S.A.; Ekelund, Flemming; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2003-01-01

    Katabia gromovi, cercomonads, ultrastructure, cytoskeleton, soil flagellates, partial SSU gene sequence......Katabia gromovi, cercomonads, ultrastructure, cytoskeleton, soil flagellates, partial SSU gene sequence...

  15. Location of rRNA transcription to the nucleolar components: disappearance of the fibrillar centers in nucleoli of regenerating rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Lorenzo; Govoni, Marzia; Orrico, Catia; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The precise location of rDNA transcription to the components of mammalian cell nucleolus is still debated. This was due to the fact that all the molecules necessary for rRNA synthesis are located in two of the three components, the fibrillar centers (FCs) and the dense fibrillar component (DFC), which together with the granular component (GC) are considered to be constantly present in mammalian cell nucleoli. In the present study we demonstrated that in nucleoli of many regenerating rat hepatocytes at 15 h after partial hepatectomy the FCs were no longer present, only the DFC and the GC being detected. At this time of regeneration the rRNA transcriptional activity was three fold that of resting hepatocytes, while the synthesis of DNA was not yet significantly increased, indicating that these nucleolar changes were due to the rRNA synthesis up-regulation. The DFC appeared to be organized in numerous, small, roundish tufts of fibrils. The silver staining procedure for AgNOR proteins, which are associated with the ribosomal genes, selectively and homogeneously stained these fibrillar tufts. Immuno-gold visualization of the Upstream Binding Factor (UBF), which is associated with the promoter region and the transcribed portion of the rRNA 45S gene, demonstrated that UBF was selectively located in the fibrillar tufts. We concluded that in proliferating rat hepatocytes the increased synthesis of rRNA induced an activation of the rRNA transcription machinery located in the fibrillar centers which, by becoming associated with the ribonucleoprotein transcripts, assumed the morphological pattern of the DFC.

  16. Comparison of growth on mannitol salt agar, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, VITEK® 2 with partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Funmilola A; Andersen, Camilla; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Mannitol salt agar (MSA) is often used in resources' limited laboratories for identification of S. aureus however, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) grows and ferments mannitol on MSA. 171 strains of CoNS which have been previously misidentified as S. aureus due to growth on MSA were collected from different locations in Nigeria and two methods for identification of CoNS were compared i.e. ViTEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing as gold standard. Partial tuf gene sequencing was used for contradicting identification. All 171 strains (13 species) grew on MSA and ferments mannitol. All tested strains of S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri, S. sciuri,, S. warneri, S. xylosus, S. capitis were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF while variable identification were observed in S. saprophyticus and S. cohnii (90%, 81%). There was low identification of S. arlettae (14%) while all strains of S. kloosii and S. gallinarum were misidentified. There is absence of S. gallinarum in the MALDI-TOF database at the period of this study. All tested strains of S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri,, S. warneri, S. xylosus and S. capitis were correctly identified by ViTEK while variable identification were observed in S. saprophyticus, S. arlettae, S. cohnii, S. kloosii, (84%, 86%, 75%, 60%) and misidentification of S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used as gold standard for most strains except S. capitis and S. xylosus where the two species were misidentified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA contrary to MALDI-TOF and ViTEK identification. Tuf gene sequencing was used for correct identification. Characteristic growth on MSA for CoNS is also identical to S. aureus growth on the media and therefore, MSA could not differentiate between S. aureus and CoNS. The percentage accuracy of ViTEK was better than MALDI-TOF in identification of CoNS. Although partial sequencing of

  17. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans.

  18. Metagenomic Assembly of the Dominant Zetaproteobacteria in an Iron-oxidizing Hydrothermal Microbial Mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, C. L.; Fullerton, H.

    2013-12-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is potentially one of the most abundant energy sources on the earth as an electron donor for chemolithoautotrophic growth coupled to Fe(II) oxidation. Despite the rapid abiotic oxidation rate of iron, many microbes have adapted to feeding off this fleeting energy source. One such bacterial class is the Zetaproteobacteria. Iron-dominated microbial mat material was collected with a small-scale syringe sampler from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. From this sample, gDNA was extracted and prepared for paired-end Illumina sequencing. Reconstruction of SSU rDNA genes using EMERGE allowed for comparison to previous SSU rDNA surveys. Clone libraries and qPCR show these microbial mats to be dominated by Zetaproteobacteria. Results from our in silico reconstruction confirm these initial findings. RDP classification of the EMERGE reconstructed sequences resulted in 44% of the community being identified as Zetaproteobacteria. The most abundant SSU rDNA has 99% similarity to Zeta OTU-2, and only a 94% similarity to M. ferrooxidans PV-1. Zeta OTU-2 has been shown to be the most cosmopolitan population in iron-dominated hydrothermal systems from across Pacific Ocean. Metagenomic assembly has resulted in many contigs with high identity to M. ferrooxidans as identified, by BLAST. However, with large differences in SSU rRNA similarity, M. ferrooxidans PV-1 is not an adequate reference. Current work is focusing on reconstruction of the dominant microbial mat member, without the use of a reference genome through an iterative assembly approach. The resulting 'pan-genome' will be compared to other Zetaproteobacteria (at the class level) and the functional ecology of this cosmopolitan microbial mat community member will be extrapolated. Thus far, we have detected multiple housekeeping genes involved in DNA replication, transcription and translation. The most abundant metabolic gene we have found is Aconitase, a key enzyme in the

  19. Downregulation of rRNA transcription triggers cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Responding to various stimuli is indispensable for the maintenance of homeostasis. The downregulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in the response to stimuli by various cellular processes, such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell differentiation is caused by intra- and extracellular stimuli and is associated with the downregulation of rRNA transcription as well as reduced cell growth. The downregulation of rRNA transcription during differentiation is considered to contribute to reduced cell growth. However, the downregulation of rRNA transcription can induce various cellular processes; therefore, it may positively regulate cell differentiation. To test this possibility, we specifically downregulated rRNA transcription using actinomycin D or a siRNA for Pol I-specific transcription factor IA (TIF-IA in HL-60 and THP-1 cells, both of which have differentiation potential. The inhibition of rRNA transcription induced cell differentiation in both cell lines, which was demonstrated by the expression of the common differentiation marker CD11b. Furthermore, TIF-IA knockdown in an ex vivo culture of mouse hematopoietic stem cells increased the percentage of myeloid cells and reduced the percentage of immature cells. We also evaluated whether differentiation was induced via the inhibition of cell cycle progression because rRNA transcription is tightly coupled to cell growth. We found that cell cycle arrest without affecting rRNA transcription did not induce differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, our results demonstrate the first time that the downregulation of rRNA levels could be a trigger for the induction of differentiation in mammalian cells. Furthermore, this phenomenon was not simply a reflection of cell cycle arrest. Our results provide a novel insight into the relationship between rRNA transcription and cell differentiation.

  20. Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Complemented with Selected 16S rRNA and gyrB Genes Sequencing to Practically Identify Clinical Important Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Menglan; Yang, Qiwen; Kudinha, Timothy; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Yupei; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    There are challenges in viridans group streptococci (VGS) identification especially for the mitis group. Few studies have investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS system in VGS identification. Using 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene sequencing as a gold standard, the performance of two MALDI-TOF MS instruments in the identification of 181 VGS clinical isolates was studied. The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS IVD systems correctly identified 88.4% and 98.9% of the 181 isolates, respectively. The Vitek MS RUO system was the least reliable, only correctly identifying 38.7% of the isolates to species level with several misidentifications and invalid results. The Bruker Biotyper system was very unreliable in the identification of species within the mitis group. Among 22 non-pneumococci isolates (S. mitis/S. oralis/S. pseudopneumoniae), Biotyper misidentified 21 of them as S. pneumoniae leading to a low sensitivity and low positive predictive value in these species. In contrast, the Vitek MS IVD demonstrated a better resolution for pneumococci and non-pneumococci despite the inability to distinguish between S. mitis/S. oralis. For more accurate species-level identification, further improvements in the VGS spectra databases are needed. Based on MALDI-TOF analysis and selected 16S rRNA gene plus gyrB genes sequencing, we designed a practical VGS identification algorithm.

  1. 5S rRNA Promoter for Guide RNA Expression Enabled Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaomei; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Kun; Cairns, Timothy C; Meyer, Vera; Sun, Jibin; Ma, Yanhe

    2018-04-30

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a revolutionary genome editing tool. However, in eukaryotes, search and optimization of a suitable promoter for guide RNA expression is a significant technical challenge. Here we used the industrially important fungus, Aspergillus niger, to demonstrate that the 5S rRNA gene, which is both highly conserved and efficiently expressed in eukaryotes, can be used as a guide RNA promoter. The gene editing system was established with 100% rates of precision gene modifications among dozens of transformants using short (40-bp) homologous donor DNA. This system was also applicable for generation of designer chromosomes, as evidenced by deletion of a 48 kb gene cluster required for biosynthesis of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1. Moreover, this system also facilitated simultaneous mutagenesis of multiple genes in A. niger. We anticipate that the use of the 5S rRNA gene as guide RNA promoter can broadly be applied for engineering highly efficient eukaryotic CRISPR/Cas9 toolkits. Additionally, the system reported here will enable development of designer chromosomes in model and industrially important fungi.

  2. The effects of alignment quality, distance calculation method, sequence filtering, and region on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Schloss

    Full Text Available Pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified fragments that target variable regions within the 16S rRNA gene has quickly become a powerful method for analyzing the membership and structure of microbial communities. This approach has revealed and introduced questions that were not fully appreciated by those carrying out traditional Sanger sequencing-based methods. These include the effects of alignment quality, the best method of calculating pairwise genetic distances for 16S rRNA genes, whether it is appropriate to filter variable regions, and how the choice of variable region relates to the genetic diversity observed in full-length sequences. I used a diverse collection of 13,501 high-quality full-length sequences to assess each of these questions. First, alignment quality had a significant impact on distance values and downstream analyses. Specifically, the greengenes alignment, which does a poor job of aligning variable regions, predicted higher genetic diversity, richness, and phylogenetic diversity than the SILVA and RDP-based alignments. Second, the effect of different gap treatments in determining pairwise genetic distances was strongly affected by the variation in sequence length for a region; however, the effect of different calculation methods was subtle when determining the sample's richness or phylogenetic diversity for a region. Third, applying a sequence mask to remove variable positions had a profound impact on genetic distances by muting the observed richness and phylogenetic diversity. Finally, the genetic distances calculated for each of the variable regions did a poor job of correlating with the full-length gene. Thus, while it is tempting to apply traditional cutoff levels derived for full-length sequences to these shorter sequences, it is not advisable. Analysis of beta-diversity metrics showed that each of these factors can have a significant impact on the comparison of community membership and structure. Taken together, these results

  3. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Palmer, A; Beale, D J; Toze, S

    2015-10-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced. Water samples were also tested for the presence of bird-associated (GFD), cattle-associated (CowM3), horse-associated, and human-associated (HF183) molecular markers, to provide multiple lines of evidence regarding the possible presence of fecal pollution associated with specific hosts. Among the 18 water samples tested, 83%, 33%, 17%, and 17% were real-time PCR positive for the GFD, HF183, CowM3, and horse markers, respectively. Among the potential sources of fecal pollution in water samples from the river, DNA sequencing tended to show relatively small contributions from wastewater treatment plants (up to 13% of sequence reads). Contributions from other animal sources were rarely detected and were very small (molecular markers showed variable agreement. A lack of relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, host-associated molecular markers, and 16S rRNA gene community analysis data was also observed. Nonetheless, we show that bacterial community and host-associated molecular marker analyses can be combined to identify potential sources of fecal pollution in an urban river. This study is a proof of concept, and based on the results, we recommend using bacterial community analysis (where possible) along with PCR detection or quantification of host-associated molecular markers to provide information on the sources of fecal pollution in waterways. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology

  4. Physical localization and DNA methylation of 45S rRNA gene loci in Jatropha curcas L.

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    Zhiyun Gong

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays of repeat units, and not all copies are transcribed during mitosis. DNA methylation is considered to be an epigenetic marker for rDNA activation. Here, we established a clear and accurate karyogram for Jatropha curcas L. The chromosomal formula was found to be 2n=2x=22=12m+10 sm. We found that the 45S rDNA loci were located at the termini of chromosomes 7 and 9 in J. curcas. The distribution of 45S rDNA has no significant difference in J. curcas from different sources. Based on the hybridization signal patterns, there were two forms of rDNA - dispersed and condensed. The dispersed type of signals appeared during interphase and prophase, while the condensed types appeared during different stages of mitosis. DNA methylation analysis showed that when 45S rDNA stronger signals were dispersed and connected to the nucleolus, DNA methylation levels were lower at interphase and prophase. However, when the 45S rDNA loci were condensed, especially during metaphase, they showed different forms of DNA methylation.

  5. Physical Localization and DNA Methylation of 45S rRNA Gene Loci in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Mingliang; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Yong; Shi, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays of repeat units, and not all copies are transcribed during mitosis. DNA methylation is considered to be an epigenetic marker for rDNA activation. Here, we established a clear and accurate karyogram for Jatropha curcas L. The chromosomal formula was found to be 2n = 2x = 22 = 12m+10sm. We found that the 45S rDNA loci were located at the termini of chromosomes 7 and 9 in J. curcas. The distribution of 45S rDNA has no significant difference in J. curcas from different sources. Based on the hybridization signal patterns, there were two forms of rDNA - dispersed and condensed. The dispersed type of signals appeared during interphase and prophase, while the condensed types appeared during different stages of mitosis. DNA methylation analysis showed that when 45S rDNA stronger signals were dispersed and connected to the nucleolus, DNA methylation levels were lower at interphase and prophase. However, when the 45S rDNA loci were condensed, especially during metaphase, they showed different forms of DNA methylation. PMID:24386362

  6. Identification of Raoultella terrigena as a Rare Causative Agent of Subungual Abscess Based on 16S rRNA and Housekeeping Gene Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old-man was admitted to our hospital with severe subungual abscess. Bacteria were isolated from pus samples, and an inconsistent identification was shown by VITEK 2 system and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena, respectively. Molecular identification by 16S rRNA sequencing suggested that the isolate is R. terrigena, and this was further demonstrated by sequencing three housekeeping genes (rpoB, gyrA, and parC with phylogenetic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of subungual abscess caused by R. terrigena, a rare case of human infection due to soil bacterium. Our study highlights the technique importance on this pathogen identification.

  7. Sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA V4, V6, and V9 domains reveal highly species-specific variations within the genus Agrocybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, P; Labarère, J

    1998-11-01

    A comparative study of variable domains V4, V6, and V9 of the mitochondrial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA was carried out with the genus Agrocybe by PCR amplification of 42 wild isolates belonging to 10 species, Agrocybe aegerita, Agrocybe dura, Agrocybe chaxingu, Agrocybe erebia, Agrocybe firma, Agrocybe praecox, Agrocybe paludosa, Agrocybe pediades, Agrocybe alnetorum, and Agrocybe vervacti. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the three domains in the isolates belonging to the same species were the same length and had the same sequence, while variations were found among the 10 species. Alignment of the sequences showed that nucleotide motifs encountered in the smallest sequence of each variable domain were also found in the largest sequence, indicating that the sequences evolved by insertion-deletion events. Determination of the secondary structure of each domain revealed that the insertion-deletion events commonly occurred in regions not directly involved in the secondary structure (i.e., the loops). Moreover, conserved sequences ranging from 4 to 25 nucleotides long were found at the beginning and end of each domain and could constitute genus-specific sequences. Comparisons of the V4, V6, and V9 secondary structures resulted in identification of the following four groups: (i) group I, which was characterized by the presence of additional P23-1 and P23-3 helices in the V4 domain and the lack of the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. aegerita, A. chaxingu, and A. erebia; (ii) group II, which had the P23-3 helix in V4 and the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. pediades; (iii) group III, which did not have additional helices in V4, had the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. paludosa, A. firma, A. alnetorum, and A. praecox; and (iv) group IV, which lacked both the V4 additional helices and the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. vervacti and A. dura. This grouping of species was supported by the structure of a consensus tree based on the variable domain sequences. The

  8. Comparison of primary and secondary 26S rRNA structures in two Tetrahymena species: evidence for a strong evolutionary and structural constraint in expansion segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Nielsen, Henrik; Lenaers, G

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the 26S large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes for two Tetrahymena species, T. thermophila and T. pyriformis. The inferred rRNA sequences are presented in their most probable secondary structures based on compensatory mutations, energy, and conservation crite...

  9. Norwegian deep-water coral reefs: cultivation and molecular analysis of planktonic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sigmund; Lynch, Michael D J; Ray, Jessica L; Neufeld, Josh D; Hovland, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Deep-sea coral reefs do not receive sunlight and depend on plankton. Little is known about the plankton composition at such reefs, even though they constitute habitats for many invertebrates and fish. We investigated plankton communities from three reefs at 260-350 m depth at hydrocarbon fields off the mid-Norwegian coast using a combination of cultivation and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and transcript sequencing. Eight months incubations of a reef water sample with minimal medium, supplemented with carbon dioxide and gaseous alkanes at in situ-like conditions, enabled isolation of mostly Alphaproteobacteria (Sulfitobacter, Loktanella), Gammaproteobacteria (Colwellia) and Flavobacteria (Polaribacter). The relative abundance of isolates in the original sample ranged from ∼ 0.01% to 0.80%. Comparisons of bacterial SSU sequences from filtered plankton of reef and non-reef control samples indicated high abundance and metabolic activity of primarily Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 Ia), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), but also of Deltaproteobacteria (Nitrospina, SAR324). Eukaryote SSU sequences indicated metabolically active microalgae and animals, including codfish, at the reef sites. The plankton community composition varied between reefs and differed between DNA and RNA assessments. Over 5000 operational taxonomic units were detected, some indicators of reef sites (e.g. Flavobacteria, Cercozoa, Demospongiae) and some more active at reef sites (e.g. Gammaproteobacteria, Ciliophora, Copepoda). © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Promoter-wide hypermethylation of the ribosomal RNA gene promoter in the suicide brain.

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    Patrick O McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alterations in gene expression in the suicide brain have been reported and for several genes DNA methylation as an epigenetic regulator is thought to play a role. rRNA genes, that encode ribosomal RNA, are the backbone of the protein synthesis machinery and levels of rRNA gene promoter methylation determine rRNA transcription. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test here by sodium bisulfite mapping of the rRNA promoter and quantitative real-time PCR of rRNA expression the hypothesis that epigenetic differences in critical loci in the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of suicide. Suicide subjects in this study were selected for a history of early childhood neglect/abuse, which is associated with decreased hippocampal volume and cognitive impairments. rRNA was significantly hypermethylated throughout the promoter and 5' regulatory region in the brain of suicide subjects, consistent with reduced rRNA expression in the hippocampus. This difference in rRNA methylation was not evident in the cerebellum and occurred in the absence of genome-wide changes in methylation, as assessed by nearest neighbor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to show aberrant regulation of the protein synthesis machinery in the suicide brain. The data implicate the epigenetic modulation of rRNA in the pathophysiology of suicide.

  11. YgdE is the 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase RlmM specific for nucleotide C2498 in bacterial 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purta, Elzbieta; O'Connor, Michelle; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2009-01-01

    The rRNAs of Escherichia coli contain four 2'-O-methylated nucleotides. Similar to other bacterial species and in contrast with Archaea and Eukaryota, the E. coli rRNA modifications are catalysed by specific methyltransferases that find their nucleotide targets without being guided by small...... complementary RNAs. We show here that the ygdE gene encodes the methyltransferase that catalyses 2'-O-methylation at nucleotide C2498 in the peptidyl transferase loop of E. coli 23S rRNA. Analyses of rRNAs using MALDI mass spectrometry showed that inactivation of the ygdE gene leads to loss of methylation...... at nucleotide C2498. The loss of ygdE function causes a slight reduction in bacterial fitness. Methylation at C2498 was restored by complementing the knock-out strain with a recombinant copy of ygdE. The recombinant YgdE methyltransferase modifies C2498 in naked 23S rRNA, but not in assembled 50S subunits...

  12. Heitmania gen. nov., a new yeast genus in Microbotryomycetes, and description of three novel species: Heitmania litseae sp. nov., Heitmania castanopsis sp. nov. and Heitmania elacocarpi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Zhan; Groenewald, Marizeth; Boekhout, Teun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2017-11-01

    Nine anamorphic yeast strains isolated from various plant leaves collected in southern China were phylogenetically characterized based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, the two subunits of the RNA polymerase II gene (RPB1 and RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1). Phylogenetic analysis of the combined sequences of the six genes showed that the new strains formed a distinct clade in the class Microbotryomycetes but could not be assigned to any of the existing genera, families or orders of the class. Three separate groups were consistently resolved from the nine new strains based on the combined sequences of the six genes and single gene sequences of ITS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1. The results suggest that the nine yeast strains compared represent three novel species in a novel genus. The names Heitmania gen. nov. (MycoBank registration number MB819987), Heitmania litseae sp. nov. (MB820112, type strain CGMCC 2.5697 T =CBS 14756 T ), Heitmania castanopsis sp. nov. (MB819988, CGMCC 2.5698 T =CBS 14750 T ) and Heitmania elacocarpi sp. nov. (MB820113, CGMCC 2.5695 T =CBS 14752 T ) are proposed for the new taxa.

  13. Reconstruction of ribosomal RNA genes from metagenomic data.

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    Lu Fan

    Full Text Available Direct sequencing of environmental DNA (metagenomics has a great potential for describing the 16S rRNA gene diversity of microbial communities. However current approaches using this 16S rRNA gene information to describe community diversity suffer from low taxonomic resolution or chimera problems. Here we describe a new strategy that involves stringent assembly and data filtering to reconstruct full-length 16S rRNA genes from metagenomicpyrosequencing data. Simulations showed that reconstructed 16S rRNA genes provided a true picture of the community diversity, had minimal rates of chimera formation and gave taxonomic resolution down to genus level. The strategy was furthermore compared to PCR-based methods to determine the microbial diversity in two marine sponges. This showed that about 30% of the abundant phylotypes reconstructed from metagenomic data failed to be amplified by PCR. Our approach is readily applicable to existing metagenomic datasets and is expected to lead to the discovery of new microbial phylotypes.

  14. Rapid identification of probiotic Lactobacillus species by multiplex PCR using species-specific primers based on the region extending from 16S rRNA through 23S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yang, Eun-Hee; Yeon, Seung-Woo; Kang, Byoung-Hwa; Kim, Tae-Yong

    2004-10-15

    This study aimed to develop a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set for the identification of seven probiotic Lactobacillus species such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The primer set, comprising of seven specific and two conserved primers, was derived from the integrated sequences of 16S and 23S rRNA genes and their rRNA intergenic spacer region of each species. It was able to identify the seven target species with 93.6% accuracy, which exceeds that of the general biochemical methods. The phylogenetic analyses, using 16S rDNA sequences of the probiotic isolates, also provided further support that the results from the multiplex PCR assay were trustworthy. Taken together, we suggest that the multiplex primer set is an efficient tool for simple, rapid and reliable identification of seven Lactobacillus species.

  15. Improved taxonomic assignment of human intestinal 16S rRNA sequences by a dedicated reference database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritari, Jarmo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Lahti, Leo; Vos, de Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current sequencing technology enables taxonomic profiling of microbial ecosystems at high resolution and depth by using the 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker. Taxonomic assignation of newly acquired data is based on sequence comparisons with comprehensive reference databases to

  16. Stimulation of Pol III-dependent 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA gene expression by AP-1 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Richa; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-01

    RNA polymerase III transcribes structurally diverse group of essential noncoding RNAs including 5S ribosomal RNA (5SrRNA) and U6 snRNA. These noncoding RNAs are involved in RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis, thus, coupling Pol III activity to the rate of protein synthesis, cell growth, and proliferation. Even though a few Pol II-associated transcription factors have been reported to participate in Pol III-dependent transcription, its activation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) factors, c-Fos and c-Jun, has remained unexplored. Here, we show that c-Fos and c-Jun bind to specific sites in the regulatory regions of 5S rRNA (type I) and U6 snRNA (type III) gene promoters and stimulate their transcription. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation studies suggested that endogenous AP-1 factors bind to their cognate promoter elements during the G1/S transition of cell cycle apparently synchronous with Pol III transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun with histone acetyltransferase p300 promoted the recruitment of p300/CBP complex on the promoters and facilitated the occupancy of Pol III transcriptional machinery via histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. The findings of our study, together, suggest that AP-1 factors are novel regulators of Pol III-driven 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA expression with a potential role in cell proliferation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Frequency and spectrum of mitochondrial 12S rRNA variants in 440 Han Chinese hearing impaired pediatric subjects from two otology clinics

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    Zhou Jianjin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aminoglycoside ototoxicity is one of the common health problems. Mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutations are one of the important causes of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. However, the incidences of 12S rRNA mutations associated with aminoglycoside ototoxicity are less known. Methods A total of 440 Chinese pediatric hearing-impaired subjects were recruited from two otology clinics in the Ningbo and Wenzhou cities of Zhejiang Province, China. These subjects underwent clinical, genetic evaluation and molecular analysis of mitochondrial 12S rRNA. Resultant mtDNA variants were evaluated by structural and phylogenetic analysis. Results The study samples consisted of 227 males and 213 females. The age of all participants ranged from 1 years old to 18 years, with the median age of 9 years. Ninety-eight subjects (58 males and 40 females had a history of exposure to aminoglycosides, accounting for 22.3% cases of hearing loss in this cohort. Molecular analysis of 12S rRNA gene identified 41 (39 known and 2 novel variants. The incidences of the known deafness-associated 1555A > G, 1494C > T and 1095T > C mutations were 7.5%, 0.45% and 0.91% in this entire hearing-impaired subjects, respectively, and 21.4%, 2% and 2% among 98 subjects with aminoglycoside ototoxicity, respectively. The structural and phylogenetic evaluations showed that a novel 747A > G variant and known 839A > G, 1027A > G, 1310C > T and 1413T > C variants conferred increased sensitivity to aminoglycosides or nonsyndromic deafness as they were absent in 449 Chinese controls and localized at highly conserved nucleotides of this rRNA. However, other variants were polymorphisms. Of 44 subjects carrying one of definite or putative deafness-related 12S rRNA variants, only one subject carrying the 1413T > C variant harbored the 235DelC/299DelAT mutations in the GJB2 gene, while none of mutations in GJB2 gene was detected in other 43 subjects. Conclusions Mutations in mitochondrial 12S rRNA

  18. Fastidious Gram-Negatives: Identification by the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus Card and by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff Sönksen, Ute; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    Taxonomy and identification of fastidious Gram negatives are evolving and challenging. We compared identifications achieved with the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus (NH) card and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (526 bp stretch) analysis with identifications obtained with extensive phenotypic...... characterization using 100 fastidious Gram negative bacteria. Seventy-five strains represented 21 of the 26 taxa included in the Vitek 2 NH database and 25 strains represented related species not included in the database. Of the 100 strains, 31 were the type strains of the species. Vitek 2 NH identification...... results: 48 of 75 database strains were correctly identified, 11 strains gave `low discrimination´, seven strains were unidentified, and nine strains were misidentified. Identification of 25 non-database strains resulted in 14 strains incorrectly identified as belonging to species in the database. Partial...

  19. Secondary structures of rRNAs from all three domains of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S Petrov

    Full Text Available Accurate secondary structures are important for understanding ribosomes, which are extremely large and highly complex. Using 3D structures of ribosomes as input, we have revised and corrected traditional secondary (2° structures of rRNAs. We identify helices by specific geometric and molecular interaction criteria, not by co-variation. The structural approach allows us to incorporate non-canonical base pairs on parity with Watson-Crick base pairs. The resulting rRNA 2° structures are up-to-date and consistent with three-dimensional structures, and are information-rich. These 2° structures are relatively simple to understand and are amenable to reproduction and modification by end-users. The 2° structures made available here broadly sample the phylogenetic tree and are mapped with a variety of data related to molecular interactions and geometry, phylogeny and evolution. We have generated 2° structures for both large subunit (LSU 23S/28S and small subunit (SSU 16S/18S rRNAs of Escherichia coli, Thermus thermophilus, Haloarcula marismortui (LSU rRNA only, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. We provide high-resolution editable versions of the 2° structures in several file formats. For the SSU rRNA, the 2° structures use an intuitive representation of the central pseudoknot where base triples are presented as pairs of base pairs. Both LSU and SSU secondary maps are available (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RibosomeGallery. Mapping of data onto 2° structures was performed on the RiboVision server (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RiboVision.

  20. A molecular phylogeny of the marine red algae (Rhodophyta) based on the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, M A; Bird, C J; Rice, E L; Gutell, R R; Murphy, C A; Singh, R K

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny of marine Rhodophyta has been inferred by a number of methods from nucleotide sequences of nuclear genes encoding small subunit rRNA from 39 species in 15 orders. Sequence divergences are relatively large, especially among bangiophytes and even among congeners in this group. Subclass Bangiophycidae appears polyphyletic, encompassing at least three lineages, with Porphyridiales distributed between two of these. Subclass Florideophycidae is monophyletic, with Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Ahnfeltiales, and a close association of Nemaliales, Acrochaetiales, and Palmariales forming the four deepest branches. Cermiales may represent a convergence of vegetative and reproductive morphologies, as family Ceramiaceae is at best weakly related to the rest of the order, and one of its members appears to be allied to Gelidiales. Except for Gigartinales, for which more data are required, the other florideophyte orders appear distinct and taxonomically justified. A good correlation was observed with taxonomy based on pit-plug ultrastructure. Tests under maximum-likelihood and parsimony of alternative phylogenies based on structure and chemistry refuted suggestions that Acrochaetiales is the most primitive florideophyte order and that Gelidiales and Hildenbrandiales are sister groups. PMID:8041780

  1. Expression of 5 S rRNA genes linked to 35 S rDNA in plants, their epigenetic modification and regulatory element divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Sònia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, the 5 S rRNA genes usually occur as separate tandems (S-type arrangement or, less commonly, linked to 35 S rDNA units (L-type. The activity of linked genes remains unknown so far. We studied the homogeneity and expression of 5 S genes in several species from family Asteraceae known to contain linked 35 S-5 S units. Additionally, their methylation status was determined using bisulfite sequencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to reveal the sub-nuclear positions of rDNA arrays. Results We found that homogenization of L-type units went to completion in most (4/6 but not all species. Two species contained major L-type and minor S-type units (termed Ls-type. The linked genes dominate 5 S rDNA expression while the separate tandems do not seem to be expressed. Members of tribe Anthemideae evolved functional variants of the polymerase III promoter in which a residing C-box element differs from the canonical angiosperm motif by as much as 30%. On this basis, a more relaxed consensus sequence of a plant C-box: (5’-RGSWTGGGTG-3’ is proposed. The 5 S paralogs display heavy DNA methylation similarly as to their unlinked counterparts. FISH revealed the close association of 35 S-5 S arrays with nucleolar periphery indicating that transcription of 5 S genes may occur in this territory. Conclusions We show that the unusual linked arrangement of 5 S genes, occurring in several plant species, is fully compatible with their expression and functionality. This extraordinary 5 S gene dynamics is manifested at different levels, such as variation in intrachromosomal positions, unit structure, epigenetic modification and considerable divergence of regulatory motifs.

  2. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L

    2016-05-15

    Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a unique window into

  3. Phylogenetic position of Loricifera inferred from nearly complete 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shinta; Miyazaki, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Loricifera is an enigmatic metazoan phylum; its morphology appeared to place it with Priapulida and Kinorhyncha in the group Scalidophora which, along with Nematoida (Nematoda and Nematomorpha), comprised the group Cycloneuralia. Scarce molecular data have suggested an alternative phylogenetic hypothesis, that the phylum Loricifera is a sister taxon to Nematomorpha, although the actual phylogenetic position of the phylum remains unclear. Ecdysozoan phylogeny was reconstructed through maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses of nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences from 60 species representing all eight ecdysozoan phyla, and including a newly collected loriciferan species. Ecdysozoa comprised two clades with high support values in both the ML and BI trees. One consisted of Priapulida and Kinorhyncha, and the other of Loricifera, Nematoida, and Panarthropoda (Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda). The relationships between Loricifera, Nematoida, and Panarthropoda were not well resolved. Loricifera appears to be closely related to Nematoida and Panarthropoda, rather than grouping with Priapulida and Kinorhyncha, as had been suggested by previous studies. Thus, both Scalidophora and Cycloneuralia are a polyphyletic or paraphyletic groups. In addition, Loricifera and Nematomorpha did not emerge as sister groups.

  4. Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette M; Arpi, Magnus; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing results, 251 (76%) were VS strains, 10 (3%) were pyogenic streptococcal strains, 54 (16%) were E. faecalis strains and 15 (5%) strains belonged to a group of miscellaneous catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci. Among VS strains, respectively, 220 (87,6%) and 31 (12,3%) obtained agreeing and non-agreeing identifications with the two methods with respect to allocation to the same VS group. Non-agreeing species identification mostly occurred among strains in the contaminant group, while for endocarditis strains notably fewer disagreeing results were observed.Only 67 of 150 strains in the mitis group strains obtained identical species identifications by the two methods. Most VS strains belonging to the groups of salivarius, anginosus, and mutans obtained agreeing species identifications with the two methods, while this only was the case for 13 of the 21 bovis strains. Pyogenic strains (n=10), Enterococcus faecalis strains (n=54) and a miscellaneous group of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n=15) seemed well identified by both methods, except that disagreements in identifications in the miscellaneous group of strains occurred for 6 of 15 strains.

  5. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenkar Noa

    2009-08-01

    suggest a sister-group relationship between Salpida and Pyrosomatida within Thaliacea. Conclusion An updated phylogenetic framework for tunicates is provided based on phylogenetic analyses using the most realistic evolutionary models currently available for ribosomal molecules and an unprecedented taxonomic sampling. Detailed analyses of the 18S rRNA gene allowed a clear definition of the major tunicate groups and revealed contrasting evolutionary dynamics among major lineages. The resolving power of this gene nevertheless appears limited within the clades composed of Phlebobranchia + Thaliacea + Aplousobranchia and Pyuridae + Styelidae, which were delineated as spots of low resolution. These limitations underline the need to develop new nuclear markers in order to further resolve the phylogeny of this keystone group in chordate evolution.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA sequences in the Felidae: ocelot and domestic cat lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, R; Lopez, J V; Slattery, J P; Yuhki, N; O'Brien, S J

    1996-12-01

    Molecular phylogeny of the cat family Felidae is derived using two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b and 12S rRNA. Phylogenetic methods of weighted maximum parsimony and minimum evolution estimated by neighbor-joining are employed to reconstruct topologies among 20 extant felid species. Sequence analyses of 363 bp of cytochrome b and 376 bp of the 12S rRNA genes yielded average pair-wise similarity values between felids ranging from 94 to 99% and from 85 to 99%, respectively. Phylogenetic reconstruction supports more recent, intralineage associations but fails to completely resolve interlineage relationships. Both genes produce a monophyletic group of Felis species but vary in the placement of the pallas cat. The ocelot lineage represents an early divergence within the Felidae, with strong associations between ocelot and margay, Geoffroy's cat and kodkod, and pampas cat and tigrina. Implications of the relative recency of felid evolution, presence of ancestral polymorphisms, and influence of outgroups in placement of the topological root are discussed.

  7. Overexpression of a natural chloroplast-encoded antisense RNA in tobacco destabilizes 5S rRNA and retards plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern David B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of non-coding RNAs in regulating gene expression have been extensively studied in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, however few reports exist as to their roles in organellar gene regulation. Evidence for accumulation of natural antisense RNAs (asRNAs in chloroplasts comes from the expressed sequence tag database and cDNA libraries, while functional data have been largely obtained from artificial asRNAs. In this study, we used Nicotiana tabacum to investigate the effect on sense strand transcripts of overexpressing a natural chloroplast asRNA, AS5, which is complementary to the region which encodes the 5S rRNA and tRNAArg. Results AS5-overexpressing (AS5ox plants obtained by chloroplast transformation exhibited slower growth and slightly pale green leaves. Analysis of AS5 transcripts revealed four distinct species in wild-type (WT and AS5ox plants, and additional AS5ox-specific products. Of the corresponding sense strand transcripts, tRNAArg overaccumulated several-fold in transgenic plants whereas 5S rRNA was unaffected. However, run-on transcription showed that the 5S-trnR region was transcribed four-fold more in the AS5ox plants compared to WT, indicating that overexpression of AS5 was associated with decreased stability of 5S rRNA. In addition, polysome analysis of the transformants showed less 5S rRNA and rbcL mRNA associated with ribosomes. Conclusions Our results suggest that AS5 can modulate 5S rRNA levels, giving it the potential to affect Chloroplast translation and plant growth. More globally, overexpression of asRNAs via chloroplast transformation may be a useful strategy for defining their functions.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of Salmonella based on rRNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    separated by 16S rRNA analysis and found to be closely related to the Escherichia coli and Shigella complex by both 16S and 23S rRNA analyses. The diphasic serotypes S. enterica subspp. I and VI were separated from the monophasic serotypes subspp. IIIa and IV, including S. bongori, by 23S rRNA sequence...

  9. Characterisation of the human uterine microbiome in non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 region of the 16S rRNA gene

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    Hans Verstraelen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is widely assumed that the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women is physiologically sterile, also as a premise to the long-held view that human infants develop in a sterile uterine environment, though likely reflecting under-appraisal of the extent of the human bacterial metacommunity. In an exploratory study, we aimed to investigate the putative presence of a uterine microbiome in a selected series of non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene.Methods. Nineteen women with various reproductive conditions, including subfertility, scheduled for hysteroscopy and not showing uterine anomalies were recruited. Subjects were highly diverse with regard to demographic and medical history and included nulliparous and parous women. Endometrial tissue and mucus harvesting was performed by use of a transcervical device designed to obtain endometrial biopsy, while avoiding cervicovaginal contamination. Bacteria were targeted by use of a barcoded Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene V1-2 region, yielding an average of 41,194 reads per sample after quality filtering. Taxonomic annotation was pursued by comparison with sequences available through the Ribosomal Database Project and the NCBI database.Results. Out of 183 unique 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences, 15 phylotypes were present in all samples. In some 90% of the women included, community architecture was fairly similar inasmuch B. xylanisolvens, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis and an undetermined Pelomonas taxon constituted over one third of the endometrial bacterial community. On the singular phylotype level, six women showed predominance of L. crispatus or L. iners in the presence of the Bacteroides core. Two endometrial communities were highly dissimilar, largely lacking the Bacteroides core, one dominated by L. crispatus and another consisting of a highly diverse community, including

  10. TaxCollector: Modifying Current 16S rRNA Databases for the Rapid Classification at Six Taxonomic Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Triplett

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The high level of conservation of 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA in all Prokaryotes makes this gene an ideal tool for the rapid identification and classification of these microorganisms. Databases such as the Ribosomal Database Project II (RDP-II and the Greengenes Project offer access to sets of ribosomal RNA sequence databases useful in identification of microbes in a culture-independent analysis of microbial communities. However, these databases do not contain all of the taxonomic levels attached to the published names of the bacterial and archaeal sequences. TaxCollector is a set of scripts developed in Python language that attaches taxonomic information to all 16S rRNA sequences in the RDP-II and Greengenes databases. These modified databases are referred to as TaxCollector databases, which when used in conjunction with BLAST allow for rapid classification of sequences from any environmental or clinical source at six different taxonomic levels, from domain to species. The TaxCollector database prepared from the RDP-II database is an important component of a new 16S rRNA pipeline called PANGEA. The usefulness of TaxCollector databases is demonstrated with two very different datasets obtained using samples from a clinical setting and an agricultural soil. The six TaxCollector scripts are freely available on http://taxcollector.sourceforge.net and on http://www.microgator.org.

  11. Dominance of a clonal green sulfur bacterial population in a stratified lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lea H; Habicht, Kirsten S; Peduzzi, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    surveys using FISH cell counting and population multilocus sequence typing [clone library sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA locus and two loci involved in photosynthesis in GSB: fmoA and csmCA]. All bacterial populations clearly stratified according to water column chemistry. The GSB...

  12. Polybacterial community analysis in human conjunctiva through 16S rRNA gene libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, KrishnanNair Geetha; Jayasudha, Rajagopalaboopathi; Girish, Rameshan Nair; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Ram, Rammohan; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Prabagaran, Solai Ramatchandirane

    2018-05-14

    The conjunctival sac of healthy human harbours a variety of microorganisms. When the eye is compromised, an occasional inadvertent spread happens to the adjacent tissue, resulting in bacterial ocular infections. Microbiological investigation of the conjunctival swab is one of the broadly used modality to study the aetiological agent of conjunctiva. However, most of the time such methods yield unsatisfactory results. Hence, the present study intends to identify the bacterial community in human conjunctiva of pre-operative subjects through 16S rRNA gene libraries. Out of 45 samples collected from preoperative patients undergoing cataract surgery, 36 libraries were constructed with bacterial nested-PCR-positive samples. The representative clones with unique restriction pattern were generated through Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) which were sequenced for phylogenetic affiliation. A total of 211 representative clones were obtained which were distributed in phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Findings revealed the presence of polybacterial community, especially in some cases even though no bacterium or a single bacterium alone was identified through cultivable method. Remarkably, we identified 17 species which have never been reported in any ocular infections. The sequencing data reported 6 unidentified bacteria suggesting the possibility of novel organisms in the sample. Since, polybacterial community has been identified consisting of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria, a broad spectrum antibiotic therapy is advisable to the patients who are undergoing cataract surgery. Consolidated effort would significantly improve a clear understanding of the nature of microbial community in the human conjunctiva which will promote administration of appropriate antibiotic regimen and also help in the development of oligonucleotide probes to screen the

  13. Fragmentation of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene in oyster mitochondrial genomes

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    Milbury Coren A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discontinuous genes have been observed in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Gene discontinuity occurs in multiple forms: the two most frequent forms result from introns that are spliced out of the RNA and the resulting exons are spliced together to form a single transcript, and fragmented gene transcripts that are not covalently attached post-transcriptionally. Within the past few years, fragmented ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes have been discovered in bilateral metazoan mitochondria, all within a group of related oysters. Results In this study, we have characterized this fragmentation with comparative analysis and experimentation. We present secondary structures, modeled using comparative sequence analysis of the discontinuous mitochondrial large subunit rRNA genes of the cupped oysters C. virginica, C. gigas, and C. hongkongensis. Comparative structure models for the large subunit rRNA in each of the three oyster species are generally similar to those for other bilateral metazoans. We also used RT-PCR and analyzed ESTs to determine if the two fragmented LSU rRNAs are spliced together. The two segments are transcribed separately, and not spliced together although they still form functional rRNAs and ribosomes. Conclusions Although many examples of discontinuous ribosomal genes have been documented in bacteria and archaea, as well as the nuclei, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotes, oysters are some of the first characterized examples of fragmented bilateral animal mitochondrial rRNA genes. The secondary structures of the oyster LSU rRNA fragments have been predicted on the basis of previous comparative metazoan mitochondrial LSU rRNA structure models.

  14. Unique phylogenetic position of Diplomonadida based on the complete small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence of Giardia ardeae, G. muris, G. duodenalis and Hexamita sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, H; Gutell, R R; Gates, M A; Campbell, S R; Erlandsen, S L; Jarroll, E L; Kulda, J; Meyer, E A

    1993-01-01

    Complete small-subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) coding region sequences were determined for two species of the intestinal parasite Giardia: G. ardeae and G. muris, both belonging to the order Diplomonadida, and a free-living member of this order, Hexamita sp. These sequences were compared to published SSU-rDNA sequences from a third member of the genus Giardia, G. duodenalis (often called G. intestinalis or G. lamblia) and various representative organisms from other taxa. Of the three Giardia sequences analyzed, the SSU-rRNA from G. muris is the smallest (1432 bases as compared to 1435 and 1453 for G. ardeae and G. duodenalis, respectively) and has the lowest G+C content (58.9%). The Hexamita SSU-rRNA is the largest in this group, containing 1550 bases. Because the sizes of the SSU-rRNA are prokaryotic rather than typically eukaryotic, the secondary structures of the SSU-rRNAs were constructed. These structures show a number of typically eukaryotic signature sequences. Sequence alignments based on constraints imposed by secondary structure were used for construction of a phylogenetic tree for these four taxa. The results show that of the four diplomonads represented, the Giardia species form a distinct group. The other diplomonad Hexamita and the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix appear to be distinct from Giardia.

  15. Prokaryotic community profiling of local algae wastewaters using advanced 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limayem, Alya; Micciche, Andrew; Nayak, Bina; Mohapatra, Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Algae biomass-fed wastewaters are a promising source of lipid and bioenergy manufacture, revealing substantial end-product investment returns. However, wastewaters would contain lytic pathogens carrying drug resistance detrimental to algae yield and environmental safety. This study was conducted to simultaneously decipher through high-throughput advanced Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial community profile found in a single sample that was directly recovered from the local wastewater systems. Samples were collected from two previously documented sources including anaerobically digested (AD) municipal wastewater and swine wastewater with algae namely Chlorella spp. in addition to control samples, swine wastewater, and municipal wastewater without algae. Results indicated the presence of a significant level of Bacteria in all samples with an average of approximately 95.49% followed by Archaea 2.34%, in local wastewaters designed for algae cultivation. Taxonomic genus identification indicated the presence of Calothrix, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium as the most prevalent strains in both local municipal and swine wastewater samples containing algae with an average of 17.37, 12.19, and 7.84%, respectively. Interestingly, swine wastewater without algae displayed the lowest level of Pseudomonas strains algae indicates potential coexistence between these strains and algae microenvironment, suggesting further investigations. This finding was particularly relevant for the earlier documented adverse effects of some nosocomial Pseudomonas strains on algae growth and their multidrug resistance potential, requiring the development of targeted bioremediation with regard to the beneficial flora.

  16. NoRC Recruitment by H2A.X Deposition at rRNA Gene Promoter Limits Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation

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    Boris Eleuteri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs display an abbreviated cell cycle, resulting in a short doubling time and rapid proliferation. The histone variant H2A.X is critical for proliferation of stem cells, although mechanistic insights have remained obscure. Here, we show that H2A.X defines the rate of mouse ESC proliferation independently of the DNA damage response pathway, and it associates with three major chromatin-modifying complexes. Our functional and biochemical analyses demonstrate that H2A.X-associated factors mediate the H2A.X-dependent effect on ESC proliferation and involve the nucleolar remodeling complex (NoRC. A specific H2A.X deposition at rDNA promoters determines the chromatin recruitment of the NoRC, histone modifications, the rRNA transcription, and the rate of proliferation. Collectively, our results suggest that NoRC assembly by H2A.X deposition at rRNA promoters silences transcription, and this represents an important regulatory component for ESC proliferation. : Histone variant H2A.X defines the rate of embryonic stem cell proliferation. Eleuteri et al. identify H2A.X-interacting proteins, and they show that H2A.X deposition at rDNA promoters assembles the NoRC, which represses rRNA transcription and determines the rate of self-renewal. Keywords: ribosomal biogenesis, rRNA, rDNA, stem cells, TIP5, SNF2H, SPT16, BRG1, H2A.X, G1, cell cycle, cell cycle arrest, proliferation

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of freshwater fish trypanosomes from Europe using ssu rRNA gene sequences and random amplification of polymorphic DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibson, W. C.; Lom, Jiří; Pecková, Hana; Ferris, V. R.; Hamilton, P. B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 4 (2005), s. 405-412 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : trypanosomes * freshwater fish * phylogeny Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.703, year: 2005

  18. Evaluation of 5.8S rRNA to identify Penaeus semisulcatus and its subspecies, Penaeus semisulcatus persicus (Penaeidae and some Decapoda species

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    Zahra Noroozi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The green tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus is one of the most important members of the family Penaeidae in the Persian Gulf. Based on the morphological characteristics, two groups, including P. semisulcatus and its subspecies viz. P. s. persicus are recognized. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic distance between P. semisulcatus and P. s. persicus by analyzing partial sequence of 5.8S rRNA. Another objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of 5.8S rRNA to identify the species of Decapoda. The results indicated that the 5.8S rRNA gene of both P. semisulcatus and P. s. persicus were exactly identical, and sequence variation was not observed. The results also indicated that 5.8S rRNA sequences between species of the same genus of analysed species of Decapoda are conserved, and no genetic distance was observed in species level. The low evolutionary rate and efficient conservation of the 5.8S rRNA can be attributed to its role in the translation process.

  19. Defective mitochondrial rRNA methyltransferase MRM2 causes MELAS-like clinical syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garone, Caterina; D'Souza, Aaron R; Dallabona, Cristina; Lodi, Tiziana; Rebelo-Guiomar, Pedro; Rorbach, Joanna; Donati, Maria Alice; Procopio, Elena; Montomoli, Martino; Guerrini, Renzo; Zeviani, Massimo; Calvo, Sarah E; Mootha, Vamsi K; DiMauro, Salvatore; Ferrero, Ileana; Minczuk, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Defects in nuclear-encoded proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery cause early-onset and tissue-specific deficiency of one or more OXPHOS complexes. Here, we report a 7-year-old Italian boy with childhood-onset rapidly progressive encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes. Multiple OXPHOS defects and decreased mtDNA copy number (40%) were detected in muscle homogenate. Clinical features combined with low level of plasma citrulline were highly suggestive of mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, however, the common m.3243 A > G mutation was excluded. Targeted exome sequencing of genes encoding the mitochondrial proteome identified a damaging mutation, c.567 G > A, affecting a highly conserved amino acid residue (p.Gly189Arg) of the MRM2 protein. MRM2 has never before been linked to a human disease and encodes an enzyme responsible for 2'-O-methyl modification at position U1369 in the human mitochondrial 16S rRNA. We generated a knockout yeast model for the orthologous gene that showed a defect in respiration and the reduction of the 2'-O-methyl modification at the equivalent position (U2791) in the yeast mitochondrial 21S rRNA. Complementation with the mrm2 allele carrying the equivalent yeast mutation failed to rescue the respiratory phenotype, which was instead completely rescued by expressing the wild-type allele. Our findings establish that defective MRM2 causes a MELAS-like phenotype, and suggests the genetic screening of the MRM2 gene in patients with a m.3243 A > G negative MELAS-like presentation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Characterization of the Fecal Microbial Communities of Duroc Pigs Using 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

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    Edward Alain B. Pajarillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the fecal bacterial community structure and inter-individual variation in 30-week-old Duroc pigs, which are known for their excellent meat quality. Pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes generated 108,254 valid reads and 508 operational taxonomic units at a 95% identity cut-off (genus level. Bacterial diversity and species richness as measured by the Shannon diversity index were significantly greater than those reported previously using denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis; thus, this study provides substantial information related to both known bacteria and the untapped portion of unclassified bacteria in the population. The bacterial composition of Duroc pig fecal samples was investigated at the phylum, class, family, and genus levels. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes predominated at the phylum level, while Clostridia and Bacteroidia were most abundant at the class level. This study also detected prominent inter-individual variation starting at the family level. Among the core microbiome, which was observed at the genus level, Prevotella was consistently dominant, as well as a bacterial phylotype related to Oscillibacter valericigenes, a valerate producer. This study found high bacterial diversity and compositional variation among individuals of the same breed line, as well as high abundance of unclassified bacterial phylotypes that may have important functions in the growth performance of Duroc pigs.

  1. Abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, amoA and nifH bacterial genes during assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karis N.; Neilson, Julia W.; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings. PMID:25495940

  2. Abundance and Activity of 16S rRNA, AmoA and NifH Bacterial Genes During Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karis N; Neilson, Julia W; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings.

  3. Widespread dispersal of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Julia; Besana, Andrea M; Genersch, Elke; Gisder, Sebastian; Nanetti, Antonio; Tam, Dinh Quyet; Chinh, Tong Xuan; Puerta, Francisco; Ruz, José Maria; Kryger, Per; Message, Dejair; Hatjina, Fani; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar; Paxton, Robert J

    2007-09-01

    The economically most important honey bee species, Apis mellifera, was formerly considered to be parasitized by one microsporidian, Nosema apis. Recently, [Higes, M., Martín, R., Meana, A., 2006. Nosema ceranae, a new microsporidian parasite in honeybees in Europe, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 92, 93-95] and [Huang, W.-F., Jiang, J.-H., Chen, Y.-W., Wang, C.-H., 2007. A Nosema ceranae isolate from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Apidologie 38, 30-37] used 16S (SSU) rRNA gene sequences to demonstrate the presence of Nosema ceranae in A. mellifera from Spain and Taiwan, respectively. We developed a rapid method to differentiate between N. apis and N. ceranae based on PCR-RFLPs of partial SSU rRNA. The reliability of the method was confirmed by sequencing 29 isolates from across the world (N =9 isolates gave N. apis RFLPs and sequences, N =20 isolates gave N. ceranae RFLPs and sequences; 100% correct classification). We then employed the method to analyze N =115 isolates from across the world. Our data, combined with N =36 additional published sequences demonstrate that (i) N. ceranae most likely jumped host to A. mellifera, probably within the last decade, (ii) that host colonies and individuals may be co-infected by both microsporidia species, and that (iii) N. ceranae is now a parasite of A. mellifera across most of the world. The rapid, long-distance dispersal of N. ceranae is likely due to transport of infected honey bees by commercial or hobbyist beekeepers. We discuss the implications of this emergent pathogen for worldwide beekeeping.

  4. Evolutionary relationship between dinoflagellates bearing obligate diatom endosymbionts: insight into tertiary endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Y; Dacks, J B; Doolittle, W F; Watanabe, K I; Ohama, T

    2000-11-01

    The marine dinoflagellates Peridinium balticum and Peridinium foliaceum are known for bearing diatom endosymbionts instead of peridinin-containing plastids. While evidence clearly indicates that their endosymbionts are closely related, the relationship between the host dinoflagellate cells is not settled. To examine the relationship of the two dinoflagellates, the DNA sequences of nuclear small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNA) from Peridinium balticum, Peridinium foliaceum and one other peridinin-containing species, Peridinium bipes, were amplified, cloned and sequenced. While phylogenetic analyses under simple models of nucleotide substitution weakly support the monophyly of Peridinium balticum and Peridinium foliaceum, analyses under more sophisticated models significantly increased the statistical support for this relationship. Combining these results with the similarity between the two endosymbionts, it is concluded that (i) the two hosts have the closest sister relationship among dinoflagellates tested, (ii) the hypothesis that the diatom endosymbiosis occurred prior to the separation of the host cells is most likely to explain their evolutionary histories, and (iii) phylogenetic inferences under complex nucleotide evolution models seem to be able to compensate significant rate variation in the two SSU rDNA.

  5. Update on Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Typing Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variations in Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions of rRNA Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Hung; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Tang, Xing; Jin, Shaoling; Li, Baozheng; Bartlett, Marilyn S.; Lu, Jang-Jih; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens D.; Olsson, Mats; Lucas, Sebastian B.; Roux, Patricia; Cargnel, Antonietta; Atzori, Chiara; Matos, Olga; Smith, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis isolates from 207 clinical specimens from nine countries were typed based on nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2, respectively) of rRNA genes. The number of ITS1 nucleotides has been revised from the previously reported 157 bp to 161 bp. Likewise, the number of ITS2 nucleotides has been changed from 177 to 192 bp. The number of ITS1 sequence types has increased from 2 to 15, and that of ITS2 has increased from 3 to 14. The 15 ITS1 sequence types are designated types A through O, and the 14 ITS2 types are named types a through n. A total of 59 types of P. carinii f. sp. hominis were found in this study. PMID:9508304

  6. Bacterial communities in haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bioreactors under different electron donors revealed by 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jiemin [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Yuguang [101 Institute, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing 100070 (China); Xing, Jianmin, E-mail: jmxing@ipe.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Bacterial communities of haloalkaliphilic bioreactors were investigated. • MiSeq was first used in analysis of communities of haloalkaliphilic bioreactors. • Electron donors had significant effect on bacterial communities. - Abstract: Biological technology used to treat flue gas is useful to replace conventional treatment, but there is sulfide inhibition. However, no sulfide toxicity effect was observed in haloalkaliphilic bioreactors. The performance of the ethanol-fed bioreactor was better than that of lactate-, glucose-, and formate-fed bioreactor, respectively. To support this result strongly, Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was applied to investigate the bacterial communities. A total of 389,971 effective sequences were obtained and all of them were assigned to 10,220 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity. Bacterial communities in the glucose-fed bioreactor showed the greatest richness and evenness. The highest relative abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was found in the ethanol-fed bioreactor, which can explain why the performance of the ethanol-fed bioreactor was the best. Different types of SRB, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, and sulfur-reducing bacteria were detected, indicating that sulfur may be cycled among these microorganisms. Because high-throughput 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing has improved resolution of bacterial community analysis, many rare microorganisms were detected, such as Halanaerobium, Halothiobacillus, Desulfonatronum, Syntrophobacter, and Fusibacter. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of these bacteria would provide more functional and phylogenetic information about the bacterial communities.

  7. Biodiversity at the molecular level: the domains, kingdoms and phyla of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, T M; Hirt, R P; Williams, D M

    1994-07-29

    The results of comparative sequence analysis, mainly of small subunit (SSU) ribosomal (r)RNA sequences, have suggested that all of cellular life can be placed in one of three domains: the Archaea, Bacteria or Eucarya. There is some evidence that the Archaea may not be a monophyletic assemblage, but as yet this issue has not been resolved. Most of the lineages, and all of the deepest ones, in the tree based upon SSU rRNA sequences, are microbial. Traditional ideas of classification such as Whittaker's five kingdom scheme do not adequately describe life's diversity as revealed by sequence comparisons. There are many microbial groups that demonstrate much greater amounts of SSU rRNA sequence divergence than do members of the classical kingdoms, Animalia, Plantae and Fungi. The old microbial kingdoms Monera and Protista are clearly paraphyletic but as yet there is no consensus as to how they should be reorganized in taxonomic terms. New data from environmental analysis suggests that much of the microbial world is unknown. Every environment which has been analysed by molecular methods has revealed many previously unrecorded lineages. Some of these show great divergence from the sequences of cultured microorganisms suggesting that fundamentally new microbial groups remain to be isolated. The relationships of some of these new lineages may be expected to affect how the tree of life is organized into higher taxa, and to also influence which features will be recognized as synapomorphies. There is currently no objective measure whereby microbial diversity can be quantified and compared to the figures which are widely quoted for arthropods and other Metazoa.

  8. De novo clustering methods outperform reference-based methods for assigning 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Westcott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. 16S rRNA gene sequences are routinely assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs that are then used to analyze complex microbial communities. A number of methods have been employed to carry out the assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to OTUs leading to confusion over which method is optimal. A recent study suggested that a clustering method should be selected based on its ability to generate stable OTU assignments that do not change as additional sequences are added to the dataset. In contrast, we contend that the quality of the OTU assignments, the ability of the method to properly represent the distances between the sequences, is more important.Methods. Our analysis implemented six de novo clustering algorithms including the single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, abundance-based greedy clustering, distance-based greedy clustering, and Swarm and the open and closed-reference methods. Using two previously published datasets we used the Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC to assess the stability and quality of OTU assignments.Results. The stability of OTU assignments did not reflect the quality of the assignments. Depending on the dataset being analyzed, the average linkage and the distance and abundance-based greedy clustering methods generated OTUs that were more likely to represent the actual distances between sequences than the open and closed-reference methods. We also demonstrated that for the greedy algorithms VSEARCH produced assignments that were comparable to those produced by USEARCH making VSEARCH a viable free and open source alternative to USEARCH. Further interrogation of the reference-based methods indicated that when USEARCH or VSEARCH were used to identify the closest reference, the OTU assignments were sensitive to the order of the reference sequences because the reference sequences can be identical over the region being considered. More troubling was the observation that while both USEARCH and

  9. Chromatin structure of ribosomal RNA genes in dipterans and its relationship to the location of nucleolar organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madalena, Christiane Rodriguez Gutierrez; Díez, José Luís; Gorab, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoli, nuclear organelles in which ribosomal RNA is synthesized and processed, emerge from nucleolar organizers (NORs) located in distinct chromosomal regions. In polytene nuclei of dipterans, nucleoli of some species can be observed under light microscopy exhibiting distinctive morphology: Drosophila and chironomid species display well-formed nucleoli in contrast to the fragmented and dispersed nucleoli seen in sciarid flies. The available data show no apparent relationship between nucleolar morphology and location of NORs in Diptera. The regulation of rRNA transcription involves controlling both the transcription rate per gene as well as the proportion of rRNA genes adopting a proper chromatin structure for transcription, since active and inactive rRNA gene copies coexist in NORs. Transcription units organized in nucleosomes and those lacking canonical nucleosomes can be analyzed by the method termed psoralen gel retarding assay (PGRA), allowing inferences on the ratio of active to inactive rRNA gene copies. In this work, possible connections between chromosomal location of NORs and proportion of active rRNA genes were studied in Drosophila melanogaster, and in chironomid and sciarid species. The data suggested a link between location of NORs and proportion of active rRNA genes since the copy number showing nucleosomal organization predominates when NORs are located in the pericentric heterochromatin. The results presented in this work are in agreement with previous data on the chromatin structure of rRNA genes from distantly related eukaryotes, as assessed by the PGRA.

  10. Chromatin structure of ribosomal RNA genes in dipterans and its relationship to the location of nucleolar organizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Rodriguez Gutierrez Madalena

    Full Text Available Nucleoli, nuclear organelles in which ribosomal RNA is synthesized and processed, emerge from nucleolar organizers (NORs located in distinct chromosomal regions. In polytene nuclei of dipterans, nucleoli of some species can be observed under light microscopy exhibiting distinctive morphology: Drosophila and chironomid species display well-formed nucleoli in contrast to the fragmented and dispersed nucleoli seen in sciarid flies. The available data show no apparent relationship between nucleolar morphology and location of NORs in Diptera. The regulation of rRNA transcription involves controlling both the transcription rate per gene as well as the proportion of rRNA genes adopting a proper chromatin structure for transcription, since active and inactive rRNA gene copies coexist in NORs. Transcription units organized in nucleosomes and those lacking canonical nucleosomes can be analyzed by the method termed psoralen gel retarding assay (PGRA, allowing inferences on the ratio of active to inactive rRNA gene copies. In this work, possible connections between chromosomal location of NORs and proportion of active rRNA genes were studied in Drosophila melanogaster, and in chironomid and sciarid species. The data suggested a link between location of NORs and proportion of active rRNA genes since the copy number showing nucleosomal organization predominates when NORs are located in the pericentric heterochromatin. The results presented in this work are in agreement with previous data on the chromatin structure of rRNA genes from distantly related eukaryotes, as assessed by the PGRA.

  11. Resistance mechanisms of linezolid-nonsusceptible enterococci in Korea: low rate of 23S rRNA mutations in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Mi; Huh, Hee Jae; Song, Dong Joon; Shim, Hyang Jin; Park, Kyung Sun; Kang, Cheol-In; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2017-12-01

    To investigate linezolid-resistance mechanisms in linezolid-nonsusceptible enterococci (LNSE) isolated from a tertiary hospital in Korea. Enterococcal isolates exhibiting linezolid MICs ≥4 mg l -1 that were isolated between December 2011 and May 2016 were investigated by PCR and sequencing for mutations in 23S rRNA or ribosomal proteins (L3, L4 and L22) and for the presence of cfr, cfr(B) and optrA genes.Results/Key findings. Among 135 LNSE (87 Enterococcus faecium and 48 Enterococcus faecalis isolates), 39.1 % (34/87) of E. faecium and 18.8 % (9/48) of E. faecalis isolates were linezolid-resistant. The optrA carriage was the dominant mechanism in E. faecalis: 13 isolates, including 10 E. faecalis [70 % (7/10) linezolid-resistant and 30 % (3/10) linezolid-intermediate] and three E. faecium [33.3 % (1/3) linezolid-resistant and 66.7 % (2/3) linezolid-intermediate], contained the optrA gene. G2576T mutations in the 23S rRNA gene were detected only in E. faecium [14 isolates; 71.4 % (10/14) linezolid-resistant and 28.6 % (4/14) linezolid-intermediate]. One linezolid-intermediate E. faecium harboured a L22 protein alteration (Ser77Thr). No isolates contained cfr or cfr(B) genes and any L3 or L4 protein alterations. No genetic mechanism of resistance was identified for 67.6 % (23/34) of linezolid-resistant E. faecium. A low rate of 23S rRNA mutations and the absence of known linezolid-resistance mechanisms in the majority of E. faecium isolates suggest regional differences in the mechanisms of linezolid resistance and the possibility of additional mechanisms.

  12. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures, and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance.

  13. Mutations in domain II of 23 S rRNA facilitate translation of a 23 S rRNA-encoded pentapeptide conferring erythromycin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, M; Douthwaite, S; Tenson, T

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in domain II of Escherichia coli 23 S rRNA that cause resistance to erythromycin do so in a manner fundamentally different from mutations at the drug binding site in domain V of the 23 S rRNA. The domain II mutations are located in a hairpin structure between nucleotides 1198 and 1247...... this hypothesis, a range of point mutations was generated in domain II of 23 S rRNA in the vicinity of the E-peptide open reading frame. We find a correlation between erythromycin resistance of the mutant clones and increased accessibility of the ribosome binding site of the E-peptide gene. Furthermore......, the erythromycin resistance determinant in the mutants was shown to be confined to a small 23 S rRNA segment containing the coding region and the ribosome binding site of the E-peptide open reading frame. It thus appears that the domain II mutations mediate erythromycin resistance by increasing expression...

  14. Involvement of DNA topoisomerase I in transcription of human ribosomal RNA genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, J.C.; Liu, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of HeLa cells with a DNA topoisomerase I-specific inhibitor, camptothecin, results in rapid cessation of the synthesis of the 45S rRNA precursor. The inhibition of rRNA synthesis is reversible following drug removal and correlates with the presence of camptothecin-trapped topoisomerase I-DNA abortive complexes, which can be detected as topoisomerase I-linked DNA breaks upon lysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate. These breaks were found to be concentrated within the transcribed region of human rRNA genes. No such sites can be detected in the inactive human rRNA genes in mouse-human hybrid cells, suggesting a preferential association of topoisomerase I with actively transcribed genes. The distribution of RNA polymerase molecules along the transcription unit of human rRNA genes in camptothecin-treated HeLa cells, as assayed by nuclear run-on transcription, shows a graded decrease of the RNA polymerase density toward the 3' end of the transcription unit; the density is minimally affected near the 5' start of the transcription unit. These results suggest that DNA topoisomerase I is normally involved in the elongation step of transcription, especially when the transcripts are long, and that camptothecin interferes with this role

  15. Concatenated SSU and LSU rDNA data confirm the main evolutionary trends within myxosporeans (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) and provide effective tool for their molecular phylogenetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartošová, Pavla; Fiala, Ivan; Hypša, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), s. 81-93 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960701; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : myxosporea * phylogeny * LBA * LSU rDNA * 28S * SSU rDNA * 18S * D domains Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  16. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunlong eYim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Replant disease (RD severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after eight weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50 °C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after eight weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e. potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments.

  17. Microbial community in persistent apical periodontitis: a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M N; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Maeda, H; Wada, N; Akamine, A; Yamashita, Y

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the microbial composition of persistent periapical lesions of root filled teeth using a molecular genetics approach. Apical lesion samples were collected from 12 patients (23-80 years old) who visited the Kyushu University Hospital for apicectomy with persistent periapical lesions associated with root filled teeth. DNA was directly extracted from each sample and the microbial composition was comprehensively analysed using clone library analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and specific fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with specific primers. Bacteria were detected in all samples, and the dominant findings were P. gingivalis (19.9%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (11.2%) and Propionibacterium acnes (9%). Bacterial diversity was greater in symptomatic lesions than in asymptomatic ones. In addition, the following bacteria or bacterial combinations were characteristic to symptomatic lesions: Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113, Olsenella uli, Slackia exigua, Selemonas infelix, P. gingivalis with type IV fimA, and a combination of P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113 and predominance of Streptococcus spp. On the other hand, neither Enterococcus faecalis nor C. albicans were detected in any of the samples. Whilst a diverse bacterial species were observed in the persistent apical lesions, some characteristic patterns of bacterial community were found in the symptomatic lesions. The diverse variation of community indicates that bacterial combinations as a community may cause persistent inflammation in periapical tissues rather than specific bacterial species. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Distribution of 16S rRNA Methylases Among Different Species of Aminoglycoside-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Katarzyna; Zacharczuk, Katarzyna; Wołkowicz, Tomasz; Rzeczkowska, Magdalena; Bareja, Elżbieta; Olak, Monika; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are a group of antimicrobial agents still the most commonly used in the treatment of life-threatening bacterial infections in human and animals. The emergence and spread of 16S rRNA methylases, which confer high-level resistance to the majority of clinically relevant aminoglycosides, constitute a major public health concern. Our goal was to evaluate the distribution of 16S rRNA methylases among different species of Enterobacteriaceae during a five month-long survey in a tertiary hospital in Warszawa, Poland. In the survey, a total of 1770 non-duplicate clinical isolates were collected from all hospital wards in a tertiary hospital in Warszawa, Poland. The survey was conducted between 19 April and 19 September 2010. The ability to produce 16S rRNA methylase was examined by determining MICs for gentamicin, kanamycin, amikacin by means of the agar dilution method. The isolates resistant to high concentration of aminoglycosides were PCR tested for genes: armA, rmtA, rmtB and rmtC. PCR products were subjected to DNA sequencing by the Sanger method. The genetic similarity of the ArmA-producing isolates was analysed by pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis (PFGE). ArmA was the only 16S rRNA methylase detected in 20 of 1770 tested isolates. The overall prevalence rate of ArmA was 1.13%. In K. pneumoniae (n = 742), P. mirabilis (n = 130), and E. cloacae (n = 253) collected in the survey, the prevalence of ArmA was 0.4%, 0.8% and 5.9%, respectively. The PFGE revealed both horizontal and clonal spread of the armA gene in the hospital. The prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase ArmA reported in this study is significantly higher than observed in other countries in Europe.

  19. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stenger, B.L.S.; Clark, M.E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, E.; Giddings, C.W.; Dyer, N.W.; Schultz, J.L.; McEvoy, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, JUN 2015 (2015), s. 113-123 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Paralogy * 18S rRNA * 18S rDNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2015

  20. DIVERSITY OF THE TYPE 1 INTRON-ITS REGION OF THE 18S rRNA GENE IN PSEUDOGYMNOASCUS SPECIES FROM THE RED HILLS OF KANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Crupper, Scott S

    2016-09-01

    Gypsum caves found throughout the Red Hills of Kansas have the state's most diverse and largest population of cave-roosting bats. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which threatens all temperate bat species, has not been previously detected in the gypsum caves as this disease moves westward from the eastern United States. Cave soil was obtained from the gypsum caves, and using the polymerase chain reaction, a 624-nucleotide DNA fragment specific to the Type 1 intron-internal transcribed spacer region of the 18S rRNA gene from Pseudogymnoascus species was amplified. Subsequent cloning and DNA sequencing indicated P. destructans DNA was present, along with 26 uncharacterized Pseudogymnoascus DNA variants. However, no evidence of WNS was observed in bat populations residing in these caves.

  1. Natural infection of the sand fly Phlebotomus kazeruni by Trypanosoma species in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The natural infection of phlebotomine sand flies by Leishmania parasites was surveyed in a desert area of Pakistan where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Out of 220 female sand flies dissected, one sand fly, Phlebotomus kazeruni, was positive for flagellates in the hindgut. Analyses of cytochrome b (cyt b, glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences identified the parasite as a Trypanosoma species of probably a reptile or amphibian. This is the first report of phlebotomine sand flies naturally infected with a Trypanosoma species in Pakistan. The possible infection of sand flies with Trypanosoma species should be taken into consideration in epidemiological studies of vector species in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  2. Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene for forensic identification of crocodile species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Jogayya, K; Meganathan, P R; Dubey, Bhawna; Haque, I

    2013-05-01

    All crocodilians are under various threats due to over exploitation and these species have been listed in Appendix I or II of CITES. Lack of molecular techniques for the forensic identification of confiscated samples makes it difficult to enforce the law. Therefore, we herein present a molecular method developed on the basis on 16S rRNA gene of mitochondrial DNA for identification of crocodile species. We have developed a set of 16S rRNA primers for PCR based identification of crocodilian species. These novel primers amplify partial 16S rRNA sequences of six crocodile species which can be later combined to obtain a larger region (1290 bp) of 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rRNA gene could be used as an effective tool for forensic authentication of crocodiles. The described primers hold great promise in forensic identification of crocodile species, which can aid in the effective enforcement of law and conservation of these species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial community variations in an alfalfa-rice rotation system revealed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana R; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2014-03-01

    Crop rotation is a practice harmonized with the sustainable rice production. Nevertheless, the implications of this empirical practice are not well characterized, mainly in relation to the bacterial community composition and structure. In this study, the bacterial communities of two adjacent paddy fields in the 3rd and 4th year of the crop rotation cycle and of a nonseeded subplot were characterized before rice seeding and after harvesting, using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Although the phyla Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes predominated in all the samples, there were variations in relative abundance of these groups. Samples from the 3rd and 4th years of the crop rotation differed on the higher abundance of groups of presumable aerobic bacteria and of presumable anaerobic and acidobacterial groups, respectively. Members of the phylum Nitrospira were more abundant after rice harvest than in the previously sampled period. Rice cropping was positively correlated with the abundance of members of the orders Acidobacteriales and 'Solibacterales' and negatively with lineages such as Chloroflexi 'Ellin6529'. Studies like this contribute to understand variations occurring in the microbial communities in soils under sustainable rice production, based on real-world data. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial Community Diversity of Oil-Contaminated Soils Assessed by High Throughput Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Peng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil bacteria play a major role in ecological and biodegradable function processes in oil-contaminated soils. Here, we assessed the bacterial diversity and changes therein in oil-contaminated soils exposed to different periods of oil pollution using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. No less than 24,953 valid reads and 6246 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained from all five studied samples. OTU richness was relatively higher in contaminated soils than clean samples. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla among all the soil samples. The heatmap plot depicted the relative percentage of each bacterial family within each sample and clustered five samples into two groups. For the samples, bacteria in the soils varied at different periods of oil exposure. The oil pollution exerted strong selective pressure to propagate many potentially petroleum degrading bacteria. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that organic matter was the highest determinant factor for explaining the variations in community compositions. This suggests that compared to clean soils, oil-polluted soils support more diverse bacterial communities and soil bacterial community shifts were mainly controlled by organic matter and exposure time. These results provide some useful information for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil in the future.

  5. Bacterial Community Diversity of Oil-Contaminated Soils Assessed by High Throughput Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mu; Zi, Xiaoxue; Wang, Qiuyu

    2015-09-24

    Soil bacteria play a major role in ecological and biodegradable function processes in oil-contaminated soils. Here, we assessed the bacterial diversity and changes therein in oil-contaminated soils exposed to different periods of oil pollution using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. No less than 24,953 valid reads and 6246 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from all five studied samples. OTU richness was relatively higher in contaminated soils than clean samples. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla among all the soil samples. The heatmap plot depicted the relative percentage of each bacterial family within each sample and clustered five samples into two groups. For the samples, bacteria in the soils varied at different periods of oil exposure. The oil pollution exerted strong selective pressure to propagate many potentially petroleum degrading bacteria. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that organic matter was the highest determinant factor for explaining the variations in community compositions. This suggests that compared to clean soils, oil-polluted soils support more diverse bacterial communities and soil bacterial community shifts were mainly controlled by organic matter and exposure time. These results provide some useful information for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil in the future.

  6. Microbial community profiling of fresh basil and pitfalls in taxonomic assignment of enterobacterial pathogenic species based upon 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; De Coninck, Dieter; Bottledoorn, Nadine; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2017-09-18

    Application of 16S rRNA (gene) amplicon sequencing on food samples is increasingly applied for assessing microbial diversity but may as unintended advantage also enable simultaneous detection of any human pathogens without a priori definition. In the present study high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V1-V2-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was applied to identify the bacteria present on fresh basil leaves. However, results were strongly impacted by variations in the bioinformatics analysis pipelines (MEGAN, SILVAngs, QIIME and MG-RAST), including the database choice (Greengenes, RDP and M5RNA) and the annotation algorithm (best hit, representative hit and lowest common ancestor). The use of pipelines with default parameters will lead to discrepancies. The estimate of microbial diversity of fresh basil using 16S rRNA (gene) amplicon sequencing is thus indicative but subject to biases. Salmonella enterica was detected at low frequencies, between 0.1% and 0.4% of bacterial sequences, corresponding with 37 to 166 reads. However, this result was dependent upon the pipeline used: Salmonella was detected by MEGAN, SILVAngs and MG-RAST, but not by QIIME. Confirmation of Salmonella sequences by real-time PCR was unsuccessful. It was shown that taxonomic resolution obtained from the short (500bp) sequence reads of the 16S rRNA gene containing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 cannot allow distinction of Salmonella with closely related enterobacterial species. In conclusion 16S amplicon sequencing, getting the status of standard method in microbial ecology studies of foods, needs expertise on both bioinformatics and microbiology for analysis of results. It is a powerful tool to estimate bacterial diversity but amenable to biases. Limitations concerning taxonomic resolution for some bacterial species or its inability to detect sub-dominant (pathogenic) species should be acknowledged in order to avoid overinterpretation of results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  7. Mitochondrial 12S rRNA A827G mutation is involved in the genetic susceptibility to aminoglycoside ototoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Guangqian; Chen Zhibin; Wei Qinjun; Tian Huiqin; Li Xiaolu; Zhou Aidong; Bu Xingkuan; Cao Xin

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the clinical and molecular characterization of a Chinese family with aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing impairment. Clinical evaluations revealed that only those family members who had a history of exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics subsequently developed hearing loss, suggesting mitochondrial genome involvement. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNA Ser(UCN) genes led to the identification of a homoplasmic A827G mutation in all maternal relatives, a mutation that was identified previously in a few sporadic patients and in another Chinese family with non-syndromic deafness. The pathogenicity of the A827G mutation is strongly supported by the occurrence of the same mutation in two independent families and several genetically unrelated subjects. The A827G mutation is located at the A-site of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene which is highly conserved in mammals. It is possible that the alteration of the tertiary or quaternary structure of this rRNA by the A827G mutation may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby playing a role in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and aminoglycoside hypersensitivity. However, incomplete penetrance of hearing impairment indicates that the A827G mutation itself is not sufficient to produce clinical phenotype but requires the involvement of modifier factors for the phenotypic expression. Indeed, aminoglycosides may contribute to the phenotypic manifestation of the A827G mutation in this family. In contrast with the congenital or early-onset hearing impairment in another Chinese family carrying the A827G mutation, three patients in this pedigree developed hearing loss only after use of aminoglycosides. This discrepancy likely reflects the difference of genetic backgrounds, either mitochondrial haplotypes or nuclear modifier genes, between two families

  8. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rRNA and ITS1 region of small form of canine Babesia spp. from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, M; Banerjee, P S; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Canine babesiosis is a vector borne disease caused by intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan parasites Babesia canis (large form) and Babesia gibsoni (small form), throughout the globe. Apart from few sporadic reports on the occurrence of B. gibsoni infection in dogs, no attempt has been made to characterize Babesia spp. of dogs in India. Fifteen canine blood samples, positive for small form of Babesia, collected from northern to eastern parts of India, were used for amplification of 18S rRNA gene (∼1665bp) of Babesia sp. and partial ITS1 region (∼254bp) of B. gibsoni Asian genotype. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified products of each sample was performed separately. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS1 sequences, 13 were considered to be B. gibsoni. These thirteen isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni Asian genotype. The other two isolates could not be assigned to any particular species because of the difference(s) in 18S rRNA sequence with B. gibsoni and closer identity with Babesiaoccultans and Babesiaorientalis. In the phylogenetic tree, all the isolates of B. gibsoni Asian genotype formed a separate major clade named as Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with high bootstrap support. The two unnamed Babesia sp. (Malbazar and Ludhiana isolates) clustered close together with B. orientalis, Babesia sp. (Kashi 1 isolate) and B. occultans of bovines. It can be inferred from this study that 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region are highly conserved among 13 B. gibsoni isolates from India. It is the maiden attempt of genetic characterization by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region of B. gibsoni from India and is also the first record on the occurrence of an unknown Babesia sp. of dogs from south and south-east Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of intergenic spacers and small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phylogenetic analysis of test isolates included assessment of variation in sequences and length of IGS and SSU-rRNA genes with reference to 16 different microsporidian sequences. The results proved that IGS sequences have more variation than SSU-rRNA gene sequences. Analysis of phylogenetic trees reveal that ...

  10. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing identifies microbiota associated with oral cancer, Human Papilloma Virus infection and surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Jedlicka, Anne; Rodriguez-Hilario, Arnold; Gonzalez, Herminio; Bondy, Jessica; Lawson, Fahcina; Folawiyo, Oluwasina; Michailidi, Christina; Dziedzic, Amanda; Thangavel, Rajagowthamee; Hadar, Tal; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Westra, William; Koch, Wayne; Sidransky, David

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory events and localized disease, mediated by the microbiome, may be measured in saliva as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) diagnostic and prognostic biomonitors. We used a 16S rRNA V3-V5 marker gene approach to compare the saliva microbiome in DNA isolated from

  11. Deteksi Keragaman Spesies Bakteri Metanogen Rumen Sapi Menggunakan Kloning Gen 16s Rrna dan Sekuensing

    OpenAIRE

    Noor, Shoffiana; Pramono, Hendro; Aziz, Saefuddin

    2014-01-01

    Ruminants produce methane gas which contributes to enhanced greenhouse effect in the atmosphere. Cattle issued the highest methane during the fermentation of feed in the rumen. Methane gas produced by methanogen bacteria in carbohydrates anaerobic fermentation. Methanogen bacteria are difficult to obtain diversity information because difficult cultured. One technique can be used is molecular rRNA 16S gene cloning and sequencing. This study was aims to determine the species diversity of methan...

  12. Endophytic bacterial diversity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves described by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and length heterogeneity-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Quaglino, Fabio; Brasca, Milena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2009-08-01

    Diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with grapevine leaf tissues was analyzed by cultivation and cultivation-independent methods. In order to identify bacterial endophytes directly from metagenome, a protocol for bacteria enrichment and DNA extraction was optimized. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries underscored five diverse Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), showing best sequence matches with gamma-Proteobacteria, family Enterobacteriaceae, with a dominance of the genus Pantoea. Bacteria isolation through cultivation revealed the presence of six OTUs, showing best sequence matches with Actinobacteria, genus Curtobacterium, and with Firmicutes genera Bacillus and Enterococcus. Length Heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) electrophoretic peaks from single bacterial clones were used to setup a database representing the bacterial endophytes identified in association with grapevine tissues. Analysis of healthy and phytoplasma-infected grapevine plants showed that LH-PCR could be a useful complementary tool for examining the diversity of bacterial endophytes especially for diversity survey on a large number of samples.

  13. 16S rRNA gene-based association study identified microbial taxa associated with pork intramuscular fat content in feces and cecum lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shaoming; Xiong, Xingwei; Su, Ying; Huang, Lusheng; Chen, Congying

    2017-07-19

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) that deposits among muscle fibers or within muscle cells is an important meat quality trait in pigs. Previous studies observed the effects of dietary nutrients and additives on improving the pork IMF. Gut microbiome plays an important role in host metabolism and energy harvest. Whether gut microbiota exerts effect on IMF remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the microbial community structure of 500 samples from porcine cecum and feces using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that phylogenetic composition and potential function capacity of microbiome varied between two types of samples. Bacteria wide association study identified 119 OTUs significantly associated with IMF in the two types of samples (FDR microbiome associated with IMF might be caused by the IMF-associated microbial taxa. This study firstly evaluated the contribution of gut microbiome to porcine IMF content. The results presented a potential capacity for improving IMF through modulating gut microbiota.

  14. Resistance to ketolide antibiotics by coordinated expression of rRNA methyltransferases in a bacterial producer of natural ketolides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almutairi, Mashal M; Park, Sung Ryeol; Rose, Simon

    2015-01-01

    venezuelae strain ATCC 15439. The producer avoids the inhibitory effects of its own antibiotics by expressing two paralogous rRNA methylase genes pikR1 and pikR2 with seemingly redundant functions. We show here that the PikR1 and PikR2 enzymes mono- and dimethylate, respectively, the N6 amino group in 23S r...

  15. A Simple Method to Decode the Complete 18-5.8-28S rRNA Repeated Units of Green Algae by Genome Skimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Geng-Ming; Lai, Yu-Heng; Audira, Gilbert; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2017-11-06

    Green algae, Chlorella ellipsoidea , Haematococcus pluvialis and Aegagropila linnaei (Phylum Chlorophyta) were simultaneously decoded by a genomic skimming approach within 18-5.8-28S rRNA region. Whole genomic DNAs were isolated from green algae and directly subjected to low coverage genome skimming sequencing. After de novo assembly and mapping, the size of complete 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeated units for three green algae were ranged from 5785 to 6028 bp, which showed high nucleotide diversity (π is around 0.5-0.6) within ITS1 and ITS2 (Internal Transcribed Spacer) regions. Previously, the evolutional diversity of algae has been difficult to decode due to the inability design universal primers that amplify specific marker genes across diverse algal species. In this study, our method provided a rapid and universal approach to decode the 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeat unit in three green algal species. In addition, the completely sequenced 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeated units provided a solid nuclear marker for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for green algae for the first time.

  16. Genetic and epigenetic variation in 5S ribosomal RNA genes reveals genome dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lauriane; Rabanal, Fernando A; Dubos, Tristan; Oliver, Cecilia; Lauber, Damien; Poulet, Axel; Vogt, Alexander; Mandlbauer, Ariane; Le Goff, Samuel; Sommer, Andreas; Duborjal, Hervé; Tatout, Christophe; Probst, Aline V

    2018-04-06

    Organized in tandem repeat arrays in most eukaryotes and transcribed by RNA polymerase III, expression of 5S rRNA genes is under epigenetic control. To unveil mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, we obtained here in depth sequence information on 5S rRNA genes from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and identified differential enrichment in epigenetic marks between the three 5S rDNA loci situated on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5. We reveal the chromosome 5 locus as the major source of an atypical, long 5S rRNA transcript characteristic of an open chromatin structure. 5S rRNA genes from this locus translocated in the Landsberg erecta ecotype as shown by linkage mapping and chromosome-specific FISH analysis. These variations in 5S rDNA locus organization cause changes in the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus. Furthermore, 5S rRNA gene arrangements are highly dynamic with alterations in chromosomal positions through translocations in certain mutants of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway and important copy number variations among ecotypes. Finally, variations in 5S rRNA gene sequence, chromatin organization and transcripts indicate differential usage of 5S rDNA loci in distinct ecotypes. We suggest that both the usage of existing and new 5S rDNA loci resulting from translocations may impact neighboring chromatin organization.

  17. Mutations in conserved helix 69 of 23S rRNA of Thermus thermophilus that affect capreomycin resistance but not posttranscriptional modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monshupanee, Tanakarn; Gregory, Steven T; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    of previously reported capreomycin resistance base substitutions. Capreomycin resistance in other bacteria has been shown to result from inactivation of the TlyA methyltransferase which 2'-O methylates C1920 of 23S rRNA. Inactivation of the tlyA gene in T. thermophilus does not affect its sensitivity...... for resistance to the tuberactinomycin antibiotic capreomycin. Two base substitutions, A1913U and mU1915G, and a single base deletion, DeltamU1915, were identified in helix 69 of 23S rRNA, a structural element that forms part of an interribosomal subunit bridge with the decoding center of 16S rRNA, the site...... to capreomycin. Finally, none of the mutations in helix 69 interferes with methylation at C1920 or with pseudouridylation at positions 1911 and 1917. We conclude that the resistance phenotype is a consequence of structural changes introduced by the mutations....

  18. New Comparative Analysis Based on the Secondary Structure of SSU-rRNA Gene Reveals the Evolutionary Trend and the Family-Genus Characters of Mobilida (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Qin; Tang, Fa-Hui

    2015-08-01

    In order to reveal the structural evolutionary trend of Mobilida ciliates, twenty-six SSU-rRNA sequences of mobilid species, including seven ones newly sequenced in the present work, were used for comparative phylogenic analysis based on the RNA secondary structure. The research results indicate that all the secondary structures except domains Helix 10, Helix 12, and Helix 37 could be regarded as the criterions in classification between the family Trichodinidae and Urceolariida, and four regions including Helix E10-1, Helix 29, Helix 43, and Helix 45-Helix 46 could be as criterions in classification between the genus Trichodinella and Trichodina in family Trichodinidae. After the analysis of common structural feature within the Mobilida, it was found that the secondary structure of V6 could prove the family Urceolariidae primitive status. This research has further suggested that the genus Trichodina could be divergent earlier than Trichodinella in the family Trichodinidae. In addition, the relationship between the secondary structure and topology of phylogenic tree that the branching order of most clades corresponds with the secondary structure of species within each clade of phylogenetic tree was first uncovered and discussed in the present study.

  19. 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals effects of photoperiod on cecal microbiota of broiler roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod is an important factor in stimulating broiler performance in commercial poultry practice. However, the mechanism by which photoperiod affects the performance of broiler chickens has not been adequately explored. The current study evaluated the effects of three different photoperiod regimes (short day (LD = 8 h light, control (CTR = 12.5 h light, and long day (SD = 16 h light on the cecal microbiota of broiler roosters by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA genes. At the phylum level, the dominant bacteria were Firmicutes (CTR: 68%, SD: 69%, LD: 67% and Bacteroidetes (CTR: 25%, SD: 26%, and LD: 28%. There was a greater abundance of Proteobacteria (p < 0.01 and Cyanobacteria (p < 0.05 in chickens in the LD group than in those in the CTR group. A significantly greater abundance of Actinobacteria was observed in CTR chickens than in SD and LD chickens (p < 0.01. The abundance of Deferribacteres was significantly higher in LD chickens than in SD chickens (p < 0.01. Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria were more abundant in SD chickens than in CTR and LD chickens. The predicted functional properties indicate that cellular processes may be influenced by photoperiod. Conversely, carbohydrate metabolism was enhanced in CTR chickens as compared to that in SD and LD chickens. The current results indicate that different photoperiod regimes may influence the abundance of specific bacterial populations and then contribute to differences in the functional properties of gut microbiota of broiler roosters.

  20. Muscle contractures in patients with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury are associated with extracellular matrix expansion, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and reduced rRNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Walden, Ferdinand; Gantelius, Stefan; Liu, Chang; Borgström, Hanna; Björk, Lars; Gremark, Ola; Stål, Per; Nader, Gustavo A; Pontén, Eva

    2018-03-23

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and acquired brain injury (ABI) commonly develop muscle contractures with advancing age. An underlying growth defect contributing to skeletal muscle contracture formation in CP/ABI has been suggested. The biceps muscles of children and adolescents with CP/ABI (n=20) and typically developing controls (n=10) were investigated. We used immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blotting to assess gene expression relevant to growth and size homeostasis. Classical pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in extracellular matrix production were elevated in skeletal muscle of children with CP/ABI. Intramuscular collagen content was increased and satellite cell number decreased and this was associated with reduced levels of RNA polymerase (POL) I transcription factors, 45s pre-rRNA and 28S rRNA. The present study provides novel data suggesting a role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced ribosomal production in the development/maintenance of muscle contractures; possibly underlying stunted growth and perimysial extracellular matrix expansion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in animal and human hosts from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušek, Ondřej; Ditrich, Oleg; Šlapeta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2004), s. 183-192 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6022006 Grant - others:GA MŠk1(CZ) 1260/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * molecular identification * SSU rRNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  2. High protists diversity in the plankton of sulfurous lakes and lagoons examined by 18s rRNA gene sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2015-12-01

    Diversity of small protists was studied in sulfidic and anoxic (euxinic) stratified karstic lakes and coastal lagoons by 18S rRNA gene analyses. We hypothesized a major sulfide effect, reducing protist diversity and richness with only a few specialized populations adapted to deal with low-redox conditions and high-sulfide concentrations. However, genetic fingerprinting suggested similar ecological diversity in anoxic and sulfurous than in upper oxygen rich water compartments with specific populations inhabiting euxinic waters. Many of them agreed with genera previously identified by microscopic observations, but also new and unexpected groups were detected. Most of the sequences matched a rich assemblage of Ciliophora (i.e., Coleps, Prorodon, Plagiopyla, Strombidium, Metopus, Vorticella and Caenomorpha, among others) and algae (mainly Cryptomonadales). Unidentified Cercozoa, Fungi, Stramenopiles and Discoba were recurrently found. The lack of GenBank counterparts was higher in deep hypolimnetic waters and appeared differentially allocated in the different taxa, being higher within Discoba and lower in Cryptophyceae. A larger number of populations than expected were specifically detected in the deep sulfurous waters, with unknown ecological interactions and metabolic capabilities. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yu; Xie, Wenfang; Pang, Yue; Li, Tiesong; Li, Qingwei; Li, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  4. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zuo

    Full Text Available The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  5. Morphological and molecular study of the cyanobiont-bearing dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata from the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The presence of the benthic dinophysoid dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata has been reported in the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic) in live field observations and on fixed macroalgal samples from intertidal ponds (26 sampling sites from El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote islands). In vivo Sinophysis cells were typically pale pink colored. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed a small characteristic narrow hypothecal cut that matched the original description of S. canaliculata. SSU rRNA gene (rDNA) nuclear phylogeny showed that S. canaliculata is closely related to S. microcephalus. Sinophysis specimens displayed cyanobacterial endosymbionts with orange autofluorescence from phycoerythrins. SSU rDNA analyses of the cyanobionts nearly matched a former sequence obtained from S. canaliculata in the Pacific Ocean (Japan). S. canaliculata survived up to 5 months in the original seawater samples. During that period cyanobionts were always present and maintained their orange autofluorescence, although the pink color gradually vanished (<1 month) in most individuals. Molecular similarity of Sinophysis cyanobionts from the Canary Islands and Japanese waters suggest a deterministic relationship, likely a temporary maintenance inside their host via some specific grazing system. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Oxazolidinone resistance mutations in 23S rRNA of Escherichia coli reveal the central region of domain V as the primary site of drug action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, L; Kloss, P; Douthwaite, S

    2000-01-01

    Oxazolidinone antibiotics inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by interacting with the large ribosomal subunit. The structure and exact location of the oxazolidinone binding site remain obscure, as does the manner in which these drugs inhibit translation. To investigate the drug-ribosome interaction......, we selected Escherichia coli oxazolidinone-resistant mutants, which contained a randomly mutagenized plasmid-borne rRNA operon. The same mutation, G2032 to A, was identified in the 23S rRNA genes of several independent resistant isolates. Engineering of this mutation by site-directed mutagenesis...

  7. Comparative analysis of vaginal microbiota sampling using 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Seppo; Kalliala, Ilkka; Nieminen, Pekka; Salonen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing are actively being employed to characterize the vaginal microbiota in health and disease. Previous studies have focused on characterizing the biological variation in the microbiota, and less is known about how factors related to sampling contribute to the results. Our aim was to investigate the impact of a sampling device and anatomical sampling site on the quantitative and qualitative outcomes relevant for vaginal microbiota research. We sampled 10 Finnish women representing diverse clinical characteristics with flocked swabs, the Evalyn® self-sampling device, sterile plastic spatulas and a cervical brush that were used to collect samples from fornix, vaginal wall and cervix. Samples were compared on DNA and protein yield, bacterial load, and microbiota diversity and species composition based on Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We quantified the relative contributions of sampling variables versus intrinsic variables in the overall microbiota variation, and evaluated the microbiota profiles using several commonly employed metrics such as alpha and beta diversity as well as abundance of major bacterial genera and species. The total DNA yield was strongly dependent on the sampling device and to a lesser extent on the anatomical site of sampling. The sampling strategy did not affect the protein yield or the bacterial load. All tested sampling methods produced highly comparable microbiota profiles based on MiSeq sequencing. The sampling method explained only 2% (p-value = 0.89) of the overall microbiota variation, markedly surpassed by intrinsic factors such as clinical status (microscopy for bacterial vaginosis 53%, p = 0.0001), bleeding (19%, p = 0.0001), and the variation between subjects (11%, p-value 0.0001). The results indicate that different sampling strategies yield comparable vaginal microbiota composition and diversity. Hence, past and future vaginal microbiota studies employing different

  8. Nuclear modifier MTO2 modulates the aminoglycoside-sensitivity of mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu He

    Full Text Available The phenotypic manifestations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations are modulated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, nuclear modifier genes and environmental factors. The yeast mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G (P(R or P(R 454 mutation corresponds to the human 12S rRNA C1494T and A1555G mutations, which are well known as primary factors for aminoglycoside-induced nonsyndromic deafness. Here we report that the deletion of the nuclear modifier gene MTO2 suppressed the aminoglycoside-sensitivity of mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, the strain with a single mtDNA C1477G mutation exhibited hypersensitivity to neomycin. Functional assays indicated that the steady-state transcription level of mitochondrial DNA, the mitochondrial respiratory rate, and the membrane potential decreased significantly after neomycin treatment. The impaired mitochondria could not produce sufficient energy to maintain cell viability. Second, when the mto2 null and the mitochondrial C1477G mutations co-existed (mto2(P(R, the oxygen consumption rate in the double mutant decreased markedly compared to that of the control strains (MTO2(P(S, mto2(P(S and MTO2(P(R. The expression levels of the key glycolytic genes HXK2, PFK1 and PYK1 in the mto2(P(R strain were stimulated by neomycin and up-regulated by 89%, 112% and 55%, respectively. The enhanced glycolysis compensated for the respiratory energy deficits, and could be inhibited by the glycolytic enzyme inhibitor. Our findings in yeast will provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of human deafness.

  9. Activation of the ribosomal RNA genes late in the third cell cycle of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, Dorthe; Greve, Torben; Holm, Peter

    2002-01-01

    ; there was no silver staining at the sites of the rRNA genes and nucleolus precursor bodies. From 30 hpc onwards, most 4-cell embryos had medium size to large clusters of FITC-labeled areas colocalized with silver staining of rRNA gene clusters and fibrillogranular nucleoli. These observations indicate that r...

  10. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function. PMID:21957041

  11. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes identifies potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria and archaea in the plaque of partially erupted third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, J M; Campbell, J H; Bhandari, A R; Jesionowski, A M; Vickerman, M M

    2012-07-01

    Small subunit rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to identify cultivable and uncultivable microorganisms present in the dental plaque of symptomatic and asymptomatic partially erupted third molars to determine the prevalence of putative periodontal pathogens in pericoronal sites. Template DNA prepared from subgingival plaque collected from partially erupted symptomatic and asymptomatic mandibular third molars and healthy incisors was used in polymerase chain reaction with broad-range oligonucleotide primers to amplify 16S rRNA bacterial and archaeal genes. Amplicons were cloned, sequenced, and compared with known nucleotide sequences in online databases to identify the microorganisms present. Two thousand three hundred two clones from the plaque of 12 patients carried bacterial sequences from 63 genera belonging to 11 phyla, including members of the uncultivable TM7, SR1, and Chloroflexi, and difficult-to-cultivate Synergistetes and Spirochaetes. Dialister invisus, Filifactor alocis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, which have been associated with periodontal disease, were found in significantly greater abundance in pericoronal compared with incisor sites. Dialister invisus and F nucleatum were found in greater abundance in sites exhibiting clinical symptoms. The archaeal species, Methanobrevibacter oralis, which has been associated with severe periodontitis, was found in 3 symptomatic patients. These findings have provided new insights into the complex microbiota of pericoronitis. Several bacterial and archaeal species implicated in periodontal disease were recovered in greater incidence and abundance from the plaque of partially erupted third molars compared with incisors, supporting the hypothesis that the pericoronal region may provide a favored niche for periodontal pathogens in otherwise healthy mouths. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and

  12. A novel RNA binding surface of the TAM domain of TIP5/BAZ2A mediates epigenetic regulation of rRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosova, Irina; Melnik, Svitlana; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Kateb, Fatiha; Grummt, Ingrid; Sattler, Michael

    2015-05-26

    The chromatin remodeling complex NoRC, comprising the subunits SNF2h and TIP5/BAZ2A, mediates heterochromatin formation at major clusters of repetitive elements, including rRNA genes, centromeres and telomeres. Association with chromatin requires the interaction of the TAM (TIP5/ARBP/MBD) domain of TIP5 with noncoding RNA, which targets NoRC to specific genomic loci. Here, we show that the NMR structure of the TAM domain of TIP5 resembles the fold of the MBD domain, found in methyl-CpG binding proteins. However, the TAM domain exhibits an extended MBD fold with unique C-terminal extensions that constitute a novel surface for RNA binding. Mutation of critical amino acids within this surface abolishes RNA binding in vitro and in vivo. Our results explain the distinct binding specificities of TAM and MBD domains to RNA and methylated DNA, respectively, and reveal structural features for the interaction of NoRC with non-coding RNA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Differential gene expression in Neurospora crassa cell types: heterogeneity and amplification of rRNA genes. Progress report, July 1980-June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    The significant results obtained during 1980-1981 year of the current research program are as follows: I. Studies on heterogeneity of multiple copies of rDNAs from N. crassa cell types are being continued, such as: (1) Autoradiographs of Southern transfers of EcoR 1 restricted fragments of nuclear DNA from conidia, germinated conidia (sprouts) and mycelia of N. crassa were compared after hybridization with 32 P-rDNA probe. The nuclear DNA of two hours sprout and of 16 hours mycelia gave similar hybridization patterns with EcoR 1 digest, but no such hybridization pattern was evident in conidial DNA digest; (2) Procedure for concentration of rDNAs from Neurospora species and cell types was standardized; restriction analysis of purified rDNAs is being done; (3) 35S total rDNA clone, 17S rDNA clone and 26S rDNA subclone are being used to see gross differences in the precursor rRNAs of different cell types; (4) Comparison of DNA:DNA homologies of rRNA genes with different Neurospora species. II. Post-mitochondrial DNAs of N. crassa are found to be rDNA-like and were further characterized by electron microscopic studies and are found to be approximately twice the size of SV-40 DNAs. These N. crassa post-mitochondrial DNAs hybridized with 32 P-labeled N. crassa nuclear DNAs. III. Previous studies on differential RNase sensitive DNA polymerase activity in N. Crassa cell types and on evolution of sexual morphogenesis in the genus Neurospora are completed and published. RNase sensitive DNA polymerase activity is found to be in the post-mitochondrial fraction. Heterothallism in the genus Neurospora is evolved from homothallism

  14. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale Reveals Two Trans-Spliced Group I Introns in the Large Subunit rRNA Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombert, Jean-François; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Lemieux, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI), we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V). This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl) at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI). Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF) occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the possible implications

  15. The mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale reveals two trans-spliced group I introns in the large subunit rRNA gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Pombert

    Full Text Available Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI, we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V. This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI. Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the

  16. Pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes of bacteria associated with wild tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eMinard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomya albopictus is an invasive species that has spread across the world in the last two decades, showing a great capacity to adapt to contrasting climates and environments. While demonstrated in many insects, the contribution of bacterial symbionts in Aedes ecology is a challenging aspect that needs to be investigated however. Some bacterial species have already been identified in Ae. albopictus using classical methods, but a more accurate survey of mosquito-associated bacterial diversity is needed to decipher the potential biological functions of bacterial symbionts in mediating or constraining insect adaptation. We surveyed the bacteria associated with field populations of Ae. albopictus from Madagascar by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Different aspects of amplicon preparation and sequencing depth were tested to optimise the breadth of bacterial diversity identified. The results revealed that all mosquitoes collected from different sites have a bacterial microbiota dominated by a single taxon, Wolbachia pipientis, which accounted for about 99% of all 98,520 sequences obtained. Ae. albopictus is known to harbour two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB, and quantitative PCR was used to estimate the relative densities, i.e. the bacteria-to-host gene ratios, of the strains in individual mosquitoes. Relative densities were between 6.25 × 100.01 and 5.47 × 100.1 for wAlbA and between 2.03 × 100.1 and 1.4 × 101 for wAlbB. Apart from Wolbachia, a total of 32 bacterial taxa were identified at the genus level using the different in method variations. Diversity index values were low and probably underestimated the true diversity due to the high abundance of Wolbachia sequences vastly outnumbering sequences from other taxa. Further studies should implement alternative strategies to specifically discard from analysis any sequences from Wolbachia, the dominant endosymbiotic bacterium in Ae. albopictus from

  17. Characterisation of peacock (Pavo cristatus) mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence and its use in differentiation from closely related poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Das, D K; Dhara, A; Swarup, D; Yadav, M P; Gupta, P K

    2007-04-01

    1. Poaching of peacocks, the national bird of India, is illegal. People kill this beautiful pheasant bird for tail feathers and mix the meat with chicken or turkey. Differentiation of the meat of these species is essential in order to address the ambiguity about the origin of the sample. 2. The present study was carried out to investigate the use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for identification of these species. 3. Peacock mitochondrial 12S rRNA partial gene was amplified using universal primers, cloned and characterised. It was found to be 446 nucleotides long. 4. Sequence analysis revealed 86.8 and 84.1% similarity with reported turkey and chicken sequences, respectively. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the peacock is much closer to the turkey than the chicken. 5. PCR-RFLP of 446 bp amplicon using commonly available restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI produced a differential pattern for identifying these poultry species unambiguously.

  18. Phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of the microbial community associated with the Caribbean deep-water sponge Polymastia cf. corticata by 16S rRNA, aprA, and amoA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA, aprA, and amoA genes demonstrated that a phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial community was associated with the Caribbean deep-water sponge Polymastia cf. corticata Ridley and Dendy, 1887. From the 38 archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA phylotypes identified, 53% branched into the sponge-specific, monophyletic sequence clusters determined by previous studies (considering predominantly shallow-water sponge species), whereas 26% appeared to be P. cf. corticata specifically associated microorganisms ("specialists"); 21% of the phylotypes were confirmed to represent seawater- and sediment-derived proteobacterial species ("contaminants") acquired by filtration processes from the host environment. Consistently, the aprA and amoA gene-based analyses indicated the presence of environmentally derived sulfur- and ammonia-oxidizers besides putative sponge-specific sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria and a sulfate-reducing archaeon. A sponge-specific, endosymbiotic sulfur cycle as described for marine oligochaetes is proposed to be also present in P. cf. corticata. Overall, the results of this work support the recent studies that demonstrated the sponge species specificity of the associated microbial community while the biogeography of the host collection site has only a minor influence on the composition. In P. cf. corticata, the specificity of the sponge-microbe associations is even extended to the spatial distribution of the microorganisms within the sponge body; distinct bacterial populations were associated with the different tissue sections, papillae, outer and inner cortex, and choanosome. The local distribution of a phylotype within P. cf. corticata correlated with its (1) phylogenetic affiliation, (2) classification as sponge-specific or nonspecifically associated microorganism, and (3) potential ecological role in the host sponge.

  19. Detection of Malaria parasite species based on 18S rRNA and assessment of its resistance to the drug for DHPS gene to support the development of irradiation Malaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukh Syaifudin; Darlina; Siti Nurhayati

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem because it causes 1-2 million mortality per year. Therefore the development of its vaccine, including vaccine created by ionizing radiation, is urgently needed to control the disease. Aim of this research was to determine the species of malaria parasite infecting the blood of malaria suspected patients and its resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). The number of samples used were 10 blood specimens that obtained from Dok II Hospital in Jayapura. Microscopic examination on thin blood smear was done according to standard procedure, followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based diagnosis to further confirm the parasite using 18S rRNA gene on deoxyribonucleic acid extract. The presence of mutation in the dhps (dihydropteroate synthetase) gene related to SP drugs was examined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Results showed that 9 samples were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and 1 infected with P. vivax. Allelic mutants of dhps gene at codon K540E were detected in 3 (33.3%) samples. Even though only in very limited number of samples analyzed, the information obtained will be a great value in additional knowledge for vaccine development with irradiation. (author)

  20. 16S rRNA and Omp31 Gene Based Molecular Characterization of Field Strains of B. melitensis from Aborted Foetus of Goats in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vikas Kumar; Nayakwadi, Shivasharanappa

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a reemerging infectious zoonotic disease of worldwide importance. In human, it is mainly caused by Brucella melitensis, a natural pathogen for goats. In India, a large number of goats are reared in semi-intensive to intensive system within the close vicinity of human being. At present, there is no vaccination and control strategy for caprine brucellosis in the country. Thus, to formulate an effective control strategy, the status of etiological agent is essential. To cope up with these, the present study was conducted to isolate and identify the prevalent Brucella species in caprine brucellosis in India. The 30 samples (fetal membrane, fetal stomach content and vaginal swabs) collected throughout India from the aborted fetus of goats revealed the isolation of 05 isolates all belonging to Brucella melitensis biovars 3. All the isolates produced amplification products of 1412 and 720 bp in polymerase chain reaction with genus and species specific 16S rRNA and omp31 gene based primers, respectively. Moreover, the amplification of omp31 gene in all the isolates confirmed the presence of immuno dominant outer membrane protein (31 kDa omp) in all the field isolates of B. melitensis in aborted foetus of goats in India. These findings can support the development of omp31 based specific serodiagnostic test as well as vaccine for the control of caprine brucellosis in India. PMID:24453799

  1. Anterior foregut microbiota of the glassy-winged sharpshooter explored using deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing from individual insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Rogers

    Full Text Available The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS is an invasive insect species that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the bacterium causing Pierce's disease of grapevine and other leaf scorch diseases. X. fastidiosa has been shown to colonize the anterior foregut (cibarium and precibarium of sharpshooters, where it may interact with other naturally-occurring bacterial species. To evaluate such interactions, a comprehensive list of bacterial species associated with the sharpshooter cibarium and precibarium is needed. Here, a survey of microbiota associated with the GWSS anterior foregut was conducted. Ninety-six individual GWSS, 24 from each of 4 locations (Bakersfield, CA; Ojai, CA; Quincy, FL; and a laboratory colony, were characterized for bacteria in dissected sharpshooter cibaria and precibaria by amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq technology. An average of approximately 150,000 sequence reads were obtained per insect. The most common genus detected was Wolbachia; sequencing of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene placed this strain in supergroup B, one of two Wolbachia supergroups most commonly associated with arthropods. X. fastidiosa was detected in all 96 individuals examined. By multilocus sequence typing, both X. fastidiosa subspecies fastidiosa and subspecies sandyi were present in GWSS from California and the colony; only subspecies fastidiosa was detected in GWSS from Florida. In addition to Wolbachia and X. fastidiosa, 23 other bacterial genera were detected at or above an average incidence of 0.1%; these included plant-associated microbes (Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Agrobacterium, and Ralstonia and soil- or water-associated microbes (Anoxybacillus, Novosphingobium, Caulobacter, and Luteimonas. Sequences belonging to species of the family Enterobacteriaceae also were detected but it was not possible to assign these to individual genera. Many of these species likely interact with X. fastidiosa in the

  2. Rapid Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for identification of some common pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxiang Chen

    Full Text Available Conventional Sanger sequencing remains time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a rapid improved sequencing protocol of 16S rRNA for pathogens identification by using a new combination of SYBR Green I real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing with FTA® cards. To compare the sequencing quality of this method with conventional Sanger sequencing, 12 strains, including three kinds of strains (1 reference strain and 3 clinical strains, which were previously identified by biochemical tests, which have 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 Staphyloccocus aureus and 4 Escherichia coli, were targeted. Additionally, to validate the sequencing results and bacteria identification, expanded specimens with 90 clinical strains, also comprised of the three kinds of strains which included 30 samples respectively, were performed as just described. The results showed that although statistical differences (P<0.05 were found in sequencing quality between the two methods, their identification results were all correct and consistent. The workload, the time consumption and the cost per batch were respectively light versus heavy, 8 h versus 11 h and $420 versus $400. In the 90 clinical strains, all of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus strains were correctly identified, but only 26.7% of the Escherichia coli strains were recognized as Escherichia coli, while 33.3% as Shigella sonnei and 40% as Shigella dysenteriae. The protocol described here is a rapid, reliable, stable and convenient method for 16S rRNA sequencing, and can be used for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus identification, yet it is not completely suitable for discriminating Escherichia coli and Shigella strains.

  3. Mixed heterolobosean and novel gregarine lineage genes from culture ATCC 50646: Long-branch artefacts, not lateral gene transfer, distort α-tubulin phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Contradictory and confusing results can arise if sequenced 'monoprotist' samples really contain DNA of very different species. Eukaryote-wide phylogenetic analyses using five genes from the amoeboflagellate culture ATCC 50646 previously implied it was an undescribed percolozoan related to percolatean flagellates (Stephanopogon, Percolomonas). Contrastingly, three phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA alone, did not place it within Percolozoa, but as an isolated deep-branching excavate. I resolve that contradiction by sequence phylogenies for all five genes individually, using up to 652 taxa. Its 18S rRNA sequence (GQ377652) is near-identical to one from stained-glass windows, somewhat more distant from one from cooling-tower water, all three related to terrestrial actinocephalid gregarines Hoplorhynchus and Pyxinia. All four protein-gene sequences (Hsp90; α-tubulin; β-tubulin; actin) are from an amoeboflagellate heterolobosean percolozoan, not especially deeply branching. Contrary to previous conclusions from trees combining protein and rRNA sequences or rDNA trees including Eozoa only, this culture does not represent a major novel deep-branching eukaryote lineage distinct from Heterolobosea, and thus lacks special significance for deep eukaryote phylogeny, though the rDNA sequence is important for gregarine phylogeny. α-Tubulin trees for over 250 eukaryotes refute earlier suggestions of lateral gene transfer within eukaryotes, being largely congruent with morphology and other gene trees. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Microbial diversity in the floral nectar of seven Epipactis (Orchidaceae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Lenaerts, Marijke; Tyteca, Daniel; Lievens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Floral nectar of animal-pollinated plants is commonly infested with microorganisms, yet little is known about the microorganisms inhabiting the floral nectar of orchids. In this study, we investigated microbial communities occurring in the floral nectar of seven Epipactis (Orchidaceae) species. Culturable bacteria and yeasts were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, respectively. Using three different culture media, we found that bacteria were common inhabitants of the floral nectar of Epipactis. The most widely distributed bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in nectar of Epipactis were representatives of the family of Enterobacteriaceae, with an unspecified Enterobacteriaceae bacterium as the most common. In contrast to previous studies investigating microbial communities in floral nectar, very few yeast species (mainly of the genus Cryptococcus) were observed, and most of them occurred in very low densities. Total OTU richness (i.e., the number of bacterial and yeast OTUs per orchid species) varied between 4 and 20. Cluster analysis revealed that microbial communities of allogamous species differed from those of autogamous and facultatively autogamous species. This study extends previous efforts to identify microbial communities in floral nectar and indicates that the floral nectar of the orchids investigated mainly contained bacterial communities with moderate phylogenetic diversity. PMID:23836678

  5. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    BoonFei eTan; Charmaine Marie Ng; Jean Pierre Nshimyimana; Jean Pierre Nshimyimana; Lay-Leng eLoh; Lay-Leng eLoh; Karina Yew-Hoong Gin; Janelle Renee Thompson; Janelle Renee Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU) rRNA hypervariable reg...

  6. Changes in microbial community structure in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Rocca, Jennifer D; Lamontagne, Michael G; Dennett, Mark R; Gast, Rebecca J

    2008-12-15

    Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters thatthreaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water, and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans, and raw sewage. Correspondence analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as "sentinels" of water quality in the environment.

  7. Purpura fulminans mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis - additional value of 16S rRNA sequencing and skin biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautzenberg, K H W; Polderman, F N; van Suylen, R J; Moviat, M A M

    2017-05-01

    Both purpura fulminans and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare and life-threatening disorders with a high mortality. We present a case of suspected rapidly progressive, severe pneumococcal sepsis-induced purpura fulminans complicated by multiple organ failure, severe epidermolysis and cutaneous necrosis. We show the diagnostic challenge to differentiate between purpura fulminans and TEN, as the extensive epidermolysis in purpura fulminans may mimic TEN and we highlight the additional value of repeated skin biopsies and 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  8. Screening of B chromosomes for presence of two genes in yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis (Mammalia, Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajičić Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available B chromosomes (Bs are a very heterogeneous group of extra chromosomes. In various species Bs occur with different nucleotide sequences ranging from repetitive to protein coding. In yellow-necked field mice, Apodemus flavicollis Bs are small euchromatic chromosomes and untill now, only few molecular analyses have been conducted. In this study we examined A. flavicollis individuals with different number of Bs for presence of two genes, C-KIT and 18S rRNA. The C-KIT proto-oncogene was found on Bs in three Canidae species and one Cervidae species. This gene is a coding receptor critical for proliferation and cell differentiation of hematopoietic, melanoblast and primordial germ cells, and is highly conserved within mammals. While using semiquantitative PCR, we did not notice any difference in the C-KIT band intensity among animals with different number of Bs (0-3. The presence of only one copy of C- KIT gene was confirmed using real time-PCR on genomic DNA of A. flavicollis specimens with different number of Bs. rRNA genes in eukaryotes’ genome are organized like units of tandem repeated sequences. The units form distinct clusters on one to several chromosome pairs. rRNA genes were found on Bs in different species including two species of genus Apodemus. One particular sample with 2 Bs showed the number of 18S rRNA gene about three times that of the calibrator 0 B sample. This result can indicate the presence of 18S rRNA gene on Bs, but its confirmation requires the implementation of other methods. Still, we can neither confirm nor deny the existence of pseudogen of tested target genes, or lose of exon 1 of C-KIT protooncogen in Bs of A. flavicollis. Our findings are further discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173003

  9. Rapid PCR using nested primers of the 16S rRNA and the hippuricase (hipO) genes to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Wedderkopp, A.; Pedersen, Karl

    2002-01-01

    sensitivity due to the use of selective media, the low number of bacteria in the samples and possibly also due to the presence of non-culturable or sub-lethally injured stages of the bacteria. The present paper describes a rapid PCR assay using nested primers of the 16S rRNA or the hippuricase (hipO) genes...... to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental samples. The sensitivity of the nested PCR was determined to be 0.01 pg/PCR, corresponding to 2-3 colony forming units (cfu) per ml. The nested PCR assays were applied to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in 269 environmental samples...... collected from ten broiler farms. The sensitivity, specificity and the usefulness of the PCR assay for detection of C. jejuni and C coli in environmental samples are presented and discussed....

  10. Anuran trypanosomes: phylogenetic evidence for new clades in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Ferreira, Juliana I G; da Costa, Andrea P; Ramirez, Diego; Roldan, Jairo A M; Saraiva, Danilo; da S Founier, Gislene F R; Sue, Ana; Zambelli, Erick R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Verdade, Vanessa K; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosomes of anurans and fish are grouped into the Aquatic Clade which includes species isolated from fish, amphibians, turtles and platypus, usually transmitted by leeches and phlebotomine sand flies. Trypanosomes from Brazilian frogs are grouped within the Aquatic Clade with other anuran trypanosome species, where there seems to be coevolutionary patterns with vertebrate hosts and association to Brazilian biomes (Atlantic Forest, Pantanal and Amazonia Rainforest). We characterised the anuran trypanosomes from two different areas of the Cerrado biome and examined their phylogenetic relationships based on the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 112 anurans of six species was analysed and trypanosome prevalence evaluated through haemoculture was found to be 7% (8 positive frogs). However, only three isolates (2.7%) from two anuran species were recovered and cryopreserved. Analysis including SSU rDNA sequences from previous studies segregated the anuran trypanosomes into six groups, the previously reported An01 to An04, and An05 and An06 reported herein. Clade An05 comprises the isolates from Leptodactylus latrans (Steffen) and Pristimantis sp. captured in the Cerrado biome and Trypanosoma chattoni Mathis & Leger, 1911. The inclusion of new isolates in the phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for a new group (An06) of parasites from phlebotomine hosts. Our results indicate that the diversity of trypanosome species is underestimated since studies conducted in Brazil and other regions of the world are still few.

  11. rRNA fragmentation induced by a yeast killer toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Alene; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2014-02-01

    Virus like dsDNA elements (VLE) in yeast were previously shown to encode the killer toxins PaT and zymocin, which target distinct tRNA species via specific anticodon nuclease (ACNase) activities. Here, we characterize a third member of the VLE-encoded toxins, PiT from Pichia inositovora, and identify PiOrf4 as the cytotoxic subunit by conditional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the tRNA targeting toxins, however, neither a change of the wobble uridine modification status by introduction of elp3 or trm9 mutations nor tRNA overexpression rescued from PiOrf4 toxicity. Consistent with a distinct RNA target, expression of PiOrf4 causes specific fragmentation of the 25S and 18S rRNA. A stable cleavage product comprising the first ∼ 130 nucleotides of the 18S rRNA was purified and characterized by linker ligation and subsequent reverse transcription; 3'-termini were mapped to nucleotide 131 and 132 of the 18S rRNA sequence, a region showing some similarity to the anticodon loop of tRNA(Glu)(UUC), the zymocin target. PiOrf4 residues Glu9 and His214, corresponding to catalytic sites Glu9 and His209 in the ACNase subunit of zymocin are essential for in vivo toxicity and rRNA fragmentation, raising the possibility of functionally conserved RNase modules in both proteins. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Single Cell Analysis Linking Ribosomal (r)DNA and rRNA Copy Numbers to Cell Size and Growth Rate Provides Insights into Molecular Protistan Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rao; Gong, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNA and rDNA have been golden molecular markers in microbial ecology. However, it remains poorly understood how ribotype copy number (CN)-based characteristics are linked with diversity, abundance, and activity of protist populations and communities observed at organismal levels. Here, we applied a single-cell approach to quantify ribotype CNs in two ciliate species reared at different temperatures. We found that in actively growing cells, the per-cell rDNA and rRNA CNs scaled with cell volume (CV) to 0.44 and 0.58 powers, respectively. The modeled rDNA and rRNA concentrations thus appear to be much higher in smaller than in larger cells. The observed rRNA:rDNA ratio scaled with CV 0.14 . The maximum growth rate could be well predicted by a combination of per-cell ribotype CN and temperature. Our empirical data and modeling on single-cell ribotype scaling are in agreement with both the metabolic theory of ecology and the growth rate hypothesis, providing a quantitative framework for linking cellular rDNA and rRNA CNs with body size, growth (activity), and biomass stoichiometry. This study also demonstrates that the expression rate of rRNA genes is constrained by cell size, and favors biomass rather than abundance-based interpretation of quantitative ribotype data in population and community ecology of protists. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  13. Relative expression of rRNA transcripts and 45S rDNA promoter methylation status are dysregulated in tumors in comparison with matched-normal tissues in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Gozum, Gokcen; Bozkurt, Betul; Konu, Ozlen; Yulug, Isik G

    2015-06-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression, one of the most important factors regulating ribosome production, is primarily controlled by a CG-rich 45 S rDNA promoter. However, the DNA methylation state of the 45 S rDNA promoter, as well as its effect on rRNA gene expression in types of human cancers is controversial. In the present study we analyzed the methylation status of the rDNA promoter (-380 to +53 bp) as well as associated rRNA expression levels in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor-normal tissue pairs. We found that the aforementioned regulatory region was extensively methylated (74-96%) in all cell lines and in 68% (13/19 tumor-normal pairs) of the tumors. Expression levels of rRNA transcripts 18 S, 28 S, 5.8 S and 45 S external transcribed spacer (45 S ETS) greatly varied in the breast cancer cell lines regardless of their methylation status. Analyses of rRNA transcript expression levels in the breast tumor and normal matched tissues showed no significant difference when normalized with TBP. On the other hand, using the geometric mean of the rRNA expression values (GM-rRNA) as reference enabled us to identify significant changes in the relative expression of rRNAs in the tissue samples. We propose GM-rRNA normalization as a novel strategy to analyze expression differences between rRNA transcripts. Accordingly, the 18S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was significantly higher whereas the 5.8S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was significantly lower in breast tumor samples than this ratio in the matched normal samples. Moreover, the 18S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was negatively correlated with the 45 S rDNA promoter methylation level in the normal breast tissue samples, yet not in the breast tumors. Significant correlations observed between the expression levels of rRNA transcripts in the normal samples were lost in the tumor samples. We showed that the expression of rRNA transcripts may not be based solely on promoter methylation. Carcinogenesis may cause dysregulation of the correlation

  14. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarivi, Osvaldo; Cesare, Patrizia; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Leonardi, Marco; Bonfigli, Antonella; Colafarina, Sabrina; Poma, Anna Maria; Miranda, Michele; Pacioni, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    The symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (Périgord black truffle) belongs to the Ascomycota and forms mutualistic symbiosis with tree and shrub roots. This truffle has a high value in a global market and is cultivated in many countries of both hemispheres. The publication of the T. melanosporum genome has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of the fungus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is a definitive technique for quantitating differences in transcriptional gene expression levels between samples. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes must show stable expression under given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in T. melanosporum development. In this study, we present a morphological and microscopical classification of the developmental stages of T. melanosporum fruit body, and investigate the expression levels of 12 candidate reference genes (18S rRNA; 5.8S rRNA; Elongation factor 1-alpha; Elongation factor 1-beta; α-tubulin; 60S ribosomal protein L29; β-tubulin; 40S ribosomal protein S1; 40S ribosomal protein S3; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-actin; Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme). To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, five software-based approaches and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. We demonstrate here that the 18S rRNA gene shows the most stable expression during T. melanosporum development and that a set of three genes, 18S rRNA, Elongation factor 1-alpha and 40S ribosomal protein S3, is the most suitable to normalize qRT-PCR data from all the analyzed developmental stages; conversely, 18S rRNA, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Elongation factor 1-alpha are the most suitable

  15. Combined fluorescence in situ hybridization and microautoradiography (FISH-MAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginige, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    Cultivation independent studies have revealed, that due to the complexity of natural ecosystems such as activated sludge, rhizosphere, rumen etc., the pure cultivation of all related micro-organisms in these diverse ecosystems is quite unsuccessful. Accordingly, the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA, i.e. 16S and 18S rRNA) or genes, obtained from these ecosystems without cultivation has become a widely accepted approach to describe the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities present in these ecosystems. The rapid growth of the rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence data bank, accessible via the Internet (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/) has enabled us to compare microbial diversities across the globe without cultivation. However, these rRNA gene sequences provide very few direct clues regarding the interactions and the metabolic capabilities of the identified micro-organisms. Accordingly, the knowledge available on the in situ physiology of the inhabitants of most microbial ecosystems is quite remote and the availability of such knowledge will enable our ability to manipulate ecosystems (e.g. activated sludge) to achieve better process performances with the aid of improved mathematical models. In both natural and engineered systems, there are a diverse group of microorganisms cohabiting within matrix-encloses such as bio-films or flocs rather than single planktonic cells. In order to manipulate these systems to obtain higher productivity, it is important to understand population structure, dynamics, functionality and also special distributions in the matrix-encloses. It is an accepted fact that pure cultivation of micro-organisms in these complex ecosystems does not permit to resolve any of the above mentioned issues since (1) rigorous biomass disaggregation which is a common practice in cultivation-based approaches results in a loss of special information; (2) cultivation approaches also introduces significant biases resulting in pronounced population shifts

  16. Genomic and gene variation in Mycoplasma hominis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed...... no identity or cluster formation between strains. Variation within M. hominis rRNA genes was analyzed by Southern hybridization of EcoRI-cleaved DNA hybridized with a cloned fragment of the rRNA gene from the mycoplasma strain PG50. Five of the M. hominis strains showed identical hybridization patterns....... These hybridization patterns were compared with those of 12 other mycoplasma species, which showed a much more complex band pattern. Cloned nonribosomal RNA gene fragments of M. hominis PG21 DNA were analyzed, and the fragments were used to demonstrate heterogeneity among the strains. A monoclonal antibody against...

  17. Robust computational analysis of rRNA hypervariable tag datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Sipos

    Full Text Available Next-generation DNA sequencing is increasingly being utilized to probe microbial communities, such as gastrointestinal microbiomes, where it is important to be able to quantify measures of abundance and diversity. The fragmented nature of the 16S rRNA datasets obtained, coupled with their unprecedented size, has led to the recognition that the results of such analyses are potentially contaminated by a variety of artifacts, both experimental and computational. Here we quantify how multiple alignment and clustering errors contribute to overestimates of abundance and diversity, reflected by incorrect OTU assignment, corrupted phylogenies, inaccurate species diversity estimators, and rank abundance distribution functions. We show that straightforward procedural optimizations, combining preexisting tools, are effective in handling large (10(5-10(6 16S rRNA datasets, and we describe metrics to measure the effectiveness and quality of the estimators obtained. We introduce two metrics to ascertain the quality of clustering of pyrosequenced rRNA data, and show that complete linkage clustering greatly outperforms other widely used methods.

  18. Accuracy of taxonomy prediction for 16S rRNA and fungal ITS sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Edgar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of taxonomy for marker gene sequences such as 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA is a fundamental task in microbiology. Most experimentally observed sequences are diverged from reference sequences of authoritatively named organisms, creating a challenge for prediction methods. I assessed the accuracy of several algorithms using cross-validation by identity, a new benchmark strategy which explicitly models the variation in distances between query sequences and the closest entry in a reference database. When the accuracy of genus predictions was averaged over a representative range of identities with the reference database (100%, 99%, 97%, 95% and 90%, all tested methods had ≤50% accuracy on the currently-popular V4 region of 16S rRNA. Accuracy was found to fall rapidly with identity; for example, better methods were found to have V4 genus prediction accuracy of ∼100% at 100% identity but ∼50% at 97% identity. The relationship between identity and taxonomy was quantified as the probability that a rank is the lowest shared by a pair of sequences with a given pair-wise identity. With the V4 region, 95% identity was found to be a twilight zone where taxonomy is highly ambiguous because the probabilities that the lowest shared rank between pairs of sequences is genus, family, order or class are approximately equal.

  19. Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Byoung-Chan; Choi, Eun-Seok; Choi, Il-Ju; Lee, Yeon-Su; Goh, Sung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study of stomach cancer using RT-qPCR, although selection of optimal reference genes is critical for interpretation of results. We assessed the suitability of six possible reference genes, beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal subunit L29 (RPL29) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) in 20 normal and tumor stomach tissue pairs of stomach cancer patients and 6 stomach cancer cell lines, by RT-qPCR. Employing expression stability analyses using NormFinder and geNorm algorithms we determined the order of performance of these reference genes and their variation values. This RT-qPCR study showed that there are statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in the expression levels of HPRT1 and 18S rRNA in 'normal-' versus 'tumor stomach tissues'. The stability analyses by geNorm suggest B2M-GAPDH, as best reference gene combination for 'stomach cancer cell lines'; RPL29-HPRT1, for 'all stomach tissues'; and ACTB-18S rRNA, for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. NormFinder also identified B2M as the best reference gene for 'stomach cancer cell lines', RPL29-B2M for 'all stomach tissues', and 18S rRNA-ACTB for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. The comparisons of normalized expression of the target gene, GPNMB, showed different interpretation of target gene expression depend on best single reference gene or combination. This study validated RPL29 and RPL29-B2M as the best single reference

  20. A family of selfish minicircular chromosomes with jumbled chloroplast gene fragments from a dinoflagellate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Cavalier-Smith, T; Green, B R

    2001-08-01

    Chloroplast genes of several dinoflagellate species are located on unigenic DNA minicircular chromosomes. We have now completely sequenced five aberrant minicircular chromosomes from the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra. These probably nonfunctional DNA circles lack complete genes, with each being composed of several short fragments of two or three different chloroplast genes and a common conserved region with a tripartite 9G-9A-9G core like the putative replicon origin of functional single-gene circular chloroplast chromosomes. Their sequences imply that all five circles evolved by differential deletions and duplications from common ancestral circles bearing fragments of four genes: psbA, psbC, 16S rRNA, and 23S rRNA. It appears that recombination between separate unigenic chromosomes initially gave intermediate heterodimers, which were subsequently stabilized by deletions that included part or all of one putative replicon origin. We suggest that homologous recombination at the 9G-9A-9G core regions produced a psbA/psbC heterodimer which generated two distinct chimeric circles by differential deletions and duplications. A 23S/16S rRNA heterodimer more likely formed by illegitimate recombination between 16S and 23S rRNA genes. Homologous recombination between the 9G-9A-9G core regions of both heterodimers and additional differential deletions and duplications could then have yielded the other three circles. Near identity of the gene fragments and 9G-9A-9G cores, despite diverging adjacent regions, may be maintained by gene conversion. The conserved organization of the 9G-9A-9G cores alone favors the idea that they are replicon origins and suggests that they may enable the aberrant minicircles to parasitize the chloroplast's replication machinery as selfish circles.

  1. [Characterization of Black and Dichothrix Cyanobacteria Based on the 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Maya

    2010-01-01

    My project focuses on characterizing different cyanobacteria in thrombolitic mats found on the island of Highborn Cay, Bahamas. Thrombolites are interesting ecosystems because of the ability of bacteria in these mats to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and mineralize it as calcium carbonate. In the future they may be used as models to develop carbon sequestration technologies, which could be used as part of regenerative life systems in space. These thrombolitic communities are also significant because of their similarities to early communities of life on Earth. I targeted two cyanobacteria in my research, Dichothrix spp. and whatever black is, since they are believed to be important to carbon sequestration in these thrombolitic mats. The goal of my summer research project was to molecularly identify these two cyanobacteria. DNA was isolated from each organism through mat dissections and DNA extractions. I ran Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in each cyanobacteria. This specific gene is found in almost all bacteria and is highly conserved, meaning any changes in the sequence are most likely due to evolution. As a result, the 16S rRNA gene can be used for bacterial identification of different species based on the sequence of their 16S rRNA gene. Since the exact sequence of the Dichothrix gene was unknown, I designed different primers that flanked the gene based on the known sequences from other taxonomically similar cyanobacteria. Once the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, I cloned the gene into specialized Escherichia coli cells and sent the gene products for sequencing. Once the sequence is obtained, it will be added to a genetic database for future reference to and classification of other Dichothrix sp.

  2. Strains of the heterotrophic flagellate Bodo designis from different environments vary considerably with respect to salinity preference and SSU rRNA gene composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Trine A; Ekelund, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    The morpho species Bodo designis is widespread and abundant globally in highly contrasting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Whether the forms of Bodo designis from contrasting environments are conspecific, i.e. largely genetically identical, or whether they merely share the external morphology...

  3. Methanosarcina acetivorans 16S rRNA and transcription factor nucleotide fluctuation with implications in exobiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Todd; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Cheung, E.; Subramaniam, R.; Sullivan, R.; Schneider, P.; Flamholz, A.; Marchese, P.; Hiciano, O.; Yao, H.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2008-08-01

    Cultures of the methane-producing archaea Methanosarcina, have recently been isolated from Alaskan sediments. It has been proposed that methanogens are strong candidates for exobiological life in extreme conditions. The spatial environmental gradients, such as those associated with the polygons on Mars' surface, could have been produced by past methanogenesis activity. The 16S rRNA gene has been used routinely to classify phenotypes. Using the fractal dimension of nucleotide fluctuation, a comparative study of the 16S rRNA nucleotide fluctuation in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A, Deinococcus radiodurans, and E. coli was conducted. The results suggest that Methanosarcina acetivorans has the lowest fractal dimension, consistent with its ancestral position in evolution. Variation in fluctuation complexity was also detected in the transcription factors. The transcription factor B (TFB) was found to have a higher fractal dimension as compared to transcription factor E (TFE), consistent with the fact that a single TFB in Methanosarcina acetivorans can code three different TATA box proteins. The average nucleotide pair-wise free energy of the DNA repair genes was found to be highest for Methanosarcina acetivorans, suggesting a relatively weak bonding, which is consistent with its low prevalence in pathology. Multitasking capacity comparison of type-I and type-II topoisomerases has been shown to correlate with fractal dimension using the methicillin-resistant strain MRSA 252. The analysis suggests that gene adaptation in a changing chemical environment can be measured in terms of bioinformatics. Given that the radiation resistant Deinococcus radiodurans is a strong candidate for an extraterrestrial origin and that the cold temperature Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 can function in Siberian permafrost, the fractal dimension comparison in this study suggests that a chemical resistant methanogen could exist in extremely cold conditions (such as that which existed on early

  4. The Conserved RNA Exonuclease Rexo5 Is Required for 3′ End Maturation of 28S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and snoRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gerstberger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNA biogenesis in higher eukaryotes has not been fully characterized. Here, we studied the Drosophila melanogaster Rexo5 (CG8368 protein, a metazoan-specific member of the DEDDh 3′-5′ single-stranded RNA exonucleases, by genetic, biochemical, and RNA-sequencing approaches. Rexo5 is required for small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA and rRNA biogenesis and is essential in D. melanogaster. Loss-of-function mutants accumulate improperly 3′ end-trimmed 28S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and snoRNA precursors in vivo. Rexo5 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in somatic metazoan cells but extremely elevated in male and female germ cells. Loss of Rexo5 leads to increased nucleolar size, genomic instability, defective ribosome subunit export, and larval death. Loss of germline expression compromises gonadal growth and meiotic entry during germline development.

  5. Impact of protists on a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community from deep-sea Gulf of Mexico sediments: A microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, David J.; Carmichael, Catherine A.; Nelson, Robert K.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Teske, Andreas P.; Edgcomb, Virginia P.

    2016-07-01

    In spite of significant advancements towards understanding the dynamics of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial consortia, the impacts (direct or indirect via grazing activities) of bacterivorous protists remain largely unknown. Microcosm experiments were used to examine whether protistan grazing affects the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation capacity of a deep-sea sediment microbial community from an active Gulf of Mexico cold seep. Differences in n-alkane content between native sediment microcosms and those treated with inhibitors of eukaryotes were assessed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography following 30-90 day incubations and analysis of shifts in microbial community composition using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries. More biodegradation was observed in microcosms supplemented with eukaryotic inhibitors. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries from oil-amended treatments revealed an increase in the number of proteobacterial clones (particularly γ-proteobacteria) after spiking sediments with diesel oil. Bacterial community composition shifted, and degradation rates increased, in treatments where protists were inhibited, suggesting protists affect the hydrocarbon degrading capacity of microbial communities in sediments collected at this Gulf of Mexico site.

  6. The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. hepatopenaei and to determine its causal relationship with WFS. Results Generic primers used to amplify a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene for cloning and sequencing revealed that the new parasite from WFS ponds had 99% sequence identity to that of E. hepatopenaei, suggesting it was conspecific. Normal histological analysis using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that relatively few tubule epithelial cells exhibited spores, suggesting that the infections were light. However, the H&E results were deceptive since nested PCR and in situ hybridization analysis based on the cloned ssu rRNA gene fragment revealed very heavy infections in tubule epithelial cells in the central region of the hepatopancreas in the absence of spores. Despite these results, high prevalence of E. hepatopenaei in shrimp from ponds not exhibiting WFS and a pond that had recovered from WFS indicated no direct causal association between these infections and WFS. This was supported by laboratory oral challenge trials that revealed direct horizontal transmission to uninfected shrimp but no signs of WFS. Conclusions The microsporidian newly found in P. vannamei is conspecific with previously described E. hepatopenaei and it is not causally associated with WFS. However, the deceptive severity of infections (much greater than previously reported in P. monodon) would undoubtedly have a negative effect on whiteleg shrimp growth and production efficiency and

  7. Recognition determinants for proteins and antibiotics within 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, Stephen Roger; Voldborg, Bjørn Gunnar Rude; Hansen, Lykke Haastrup

    1995-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs fold into phylogenetically conserved secondary and tertiary structures that determine their function in protein synthesis. We have investigated Escherichia coli 23S rRNA to identify structural elements that interact with antibiotic and protein ligands. Using a combination of molecu......Ribosomal RNAs fold into phylogenetically conserved secondary and tertiary structures that determine their function in protein synthesis. We have investigated Escherichia coli 23S rRNA to identify structural elements that interact with antibiotic and protein ligands. Using a combination......-proteins L10.(L12)4 and L11 and is inhibited by interaction with the antibiotic thiostrepton. The peptidyltransferase center within domain V is inhibited by macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics, which interact with the rRNA around nucleotide A2058. Drug resistance is conferred by mutations...

  8. A critical role for noncoding 5S rRNA in regulating Mdmx stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Muyang; Gu, Wei

    2011-09-16

    Both p53 and Mdmx are ubiquitinated and degraded by the same E3 ligase Mdm2; interestingly, however, while p53 is rapidly degraded by Mdm2, Mdmx is a stable protein in most cancer cells. Thus, the mechanism by which Mdmx is degraded by Mdm2 needs further elucidation. Here, we identified the noncoding 5S rRNA as a major component of Mdmx-associated complexes from human cells. We show that 5S rRNA acts as a natural inhibitor of Mdmx degradation by Mdm2. RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous 5S rRNA, while not affecting p53 levels, significantly induces Mdmx degradation and, subsequently, activates p53-dependent growth arrest. Notably, 5S rRNA binds the RING domain of Mdmx and blocks its ubiquitination by Mdm2, whereas Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination remains intact. These results provide insights into the differential effects on p53 and Mdmx by Mdm2 in vivo and reveal a critical role for noncoding 5S rRNA in modulating the p53-Mdmx axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostic Utility of Broad Range Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene PCR with Degradation of Human and Free Bacterial DNA in Bloodstream Infection Is More Sensitive Than an In-House Developed PCR without Degradation of Human and Free Bacterial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Rogina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared a commercial broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay (SepsiTest to an in-house developed assay (IHP. We assessed whether CD64 index, a biomarker of bacterial infection, can be used to exclude patients with a low probability of systemic bacterial infection. From January to March 2010, 23 patients with suspected sepsis were enrolled. CD64 index, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein were measured on admission. Broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR was performed from whole blood (SepsiTest or blood plasma (IHP and compared to blood culture results. Blood samples spiked with Staphylococcus aureus were used to assess sensitivity of the molecular assays in vitro. CD64 index was lower in patients where possible sepsis was excluded than in patients with microbiologically confirmed sepsis (P=0.004. SepsiTest identified more relevant pathogens than blood cultures (P=0.008; in three patients (13% results from blood culture and SepsiTest were congruent, whereas in four cases (17.4% relevant pathogens were detected by SepsiTest only. In vitro spiking experiments suggested equal sensitivity of SepsiTest and IHP. A diagnostic algorithm using CD64 index as a decision maker to perform SepsiTest shows improved detection of pathogens in patients with suspected blood stream infection and may enable earlier targeted antibiotic therapy.

  10. Rapid identification of 11 human intestinal Lactobacillus species by multiplex PCR assays using group- and species-specific primers derived from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and its flanking 23S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Kato, N; Liu, C; Matsumiya, Y; Kato, H; Watanabe, K

    2000-06-15

    Rapid and reliable two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were established to identify human intestinal lactobacilli; a multiplex PCR was used for grouping of lactobacilli with a mixture of group-specific primers followed by four multiplex PCR assays with four sorts of species-specific primer mixtures for identification at the species level. Primers used were designed from nucleotide sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and its flanking 23S rRNA gene of members of the genus Lactobacillus which are commonly isolated from human stool specimens: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (ssp. bulgaricus and ssp. lactis), Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus paracasei (ssp. paracasei and ssp. tolerans), Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus salivarius (ssp. salicinius and ssp. salivarius). The established two-step multiplex PCR assays were applied to the identification of 84 Lactobacillus strains isolated from human stool specimens and the PCR results were consistent with the results from the DNA-DNA hybridization assay. These results suggest that the multiplex PCR system established in this study is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the identification of common Lactobacillus isolates from human stool samples.

  11. Histone and ribosomal RNA repetitive gene clusters of the boll weevil are linked in a tandem array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrdanz, R; Heilmann, L; Senechal, P; Sears, S; Evenson, P

    2010-08-01

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and the clusters are tandemly repeated. Ribosomal DNA contains a cluster of the rRNA sequences 18S, 5.8S and 28S. The rRNA genes are separated by the spacers ITS1, ITS2 and IGS. This cluster is also tandemly repeated. We found that the ribosomal RNA repeat unit of at least two species of Anthonomine weevils, Anthonomus grandis and Anthonomus texanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is interspersed with a block containing the histone gene quintet. The histone genes are situated between the rRNA 18S and 28S genes in what is known as the intergenic spacer region (IGS). The complete reiterated Anthonomus grandis histone-ribosomal sequence is 16,248 bp.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Pneumocystis from pig lungs obtained from slaughterhouses in southern and midwestern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.C Sanches

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pneumocystis genus is comprised of pathogens dwelling in the lungs of terrestrial, aerial, and aquatic mammals. Occasionally they induce severe pneumonitis, particularly in hosts with severe impairment of the immune system and progressively may fill pulmonary alveolar cavities causing respiratory failure. Molecular genetic studies revealed that Pneumocystis gene sequences present a marked divergence with the host species concerned. In the present study, the genetic diversity of Pneumocystis obtained from lungs of swines was examined by analyzing mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU and small subunit (mtSSU rRNA sequences. The samples were obtained from two slaughterhouses located in two Brazilian states. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that genetic groupings within Pneumocystis organisms were in accordance with those of the corresponding hosts and that two clusters were formed. In conclusion, these data show that there are genetically distinct porcine Pneumocystis genotypes with at least two separate clusters in Brazil.

  13. An assessment of the hypervariable domains of the 16S rRNA genes for their value in determining microbial community diversity: the paradox of traditional ecological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, DeEtta K; Entry, James A; Voss, Joshua D; Gillevet, Patrick M; Mathee, Kalai

    2006-09-01

    Amplicon length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) was investigated for its ability to distinguish between microbial community patterns from the same soil type under different land management practices. Natural sagebrush and irrigated mouldboard-ploughed soils from Idaho were queried as to which hypervariable domains, or combinations of 16S rRNA gene domains, were the best molecular markers. Using standard ecological indices to measure richness, diversity and evenness, the combination of three domains, V1, V3 and V1+V2, or the combined V1 and V3 domains were the markers that could best distinguish the undisturbed natural sagebrush communities from the mouldboard-ploughed microbial communities. Bray-Curtis similarity and multidimensional scaling were found to be better metrics to ordinate and cluster the LH-PCR community profiling data. The use/misuse of traditional ecological indices such as diversity and evenness to study microbial community profiles will remain a major point to consider when performing metagenomic studies.

  14. Quantitation of base substitutions in eukaryotic 5S rRNA: selection for the maintenance of RNA secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, W C; Vournakis, J N

    1984-01-01

    Eukaryotic 5S rRNA sequences from 34 diverse species were compared by the following method: (1) The sequences were aligned; (2) the positions of substitutions were located by comparison of all possible pairs of sequences; (3) the substitution sites were mapped to an assumed general base pairing model; and (4) the R-Y model of base stacking was used to study stacking pattern relationships in the structure. An analysis of the sequence and structure variability in each region of the molecule is presented. It was found that the degree of base substitution varies over a wide range, from absolute conservation to occurrence of over 90% of the possible observable substitutions. The substitutions are located primarily in stem regions of the 5S rRNA secondary structure. More than 88% of the substitutions in helical regions maintain base pairing. The disruptive substitutions are primarily located at the edges of helical regions, resulting in shortening of the helical regions and lengthening of the adjacent nonpaired regions. Base stacking patterns determined by the R-Y model are mapped onto the general secondary structure. Intrastrand and interstrand stacking could stabilize alternative coaxial structures and limit the conformational flexibility of nonpaired regions. Two short contiguous regions are 100% conserved in all species. This may reflect evolutionary constraints imposed at the DNA level by the requirement for binding of a 5S gene transcription initiation factor during gene expression.

  15. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis in the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora neoaphidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chun; Xie, Tingna; Ye, Sudan

    2016-01-01

    candidate genes including 18S rRNA(18S), 28S rRNA(28S) and elongationfactor 1 alpha-like protein (EF1), were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reac-tion at different developmental stages (conidia, conidia with germ tubes, short hyphae andelongated hyphae), and under different nutritional conditions...

  16. Down-regulation of 5S rRNA by miR-150 and miR-383 enhances c-Myc-rpL11 interaction and inhibits proliferation of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Ren, Yanli; Wang, Zhiqiong; Xiong, Xiangyu; Han, Sichong; Pan, Wenting; Chen, Hongwei; Zhou, Liqing; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Yang, Ming

    2015-12-21

    5S rRNA plays an important part in ribosome biology and is over-expression in multiple cancers. In this study, we found that 5S rRNA is a direct target of miR-150 and miR-383 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Overexpression of miR-150 and miR-383 inhibited ESCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, 5S rRNA silencing by miR-150 and miR-383 might intensify rpL11-c-Myc interaction, which attenuated role of c-Myc as an oncogenic transcriptional factor and dysregulation of multiple c-Myc target genes. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of miRNAs in ribosomal regulation during tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct classical and molecular cytogenetics of Astyanax marionae and A. fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae): a comparative study of the organization of heterochromatin and repetitive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscor, Diovani; Centofante, Liano; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2017-09-01

    Genus Astyanax is well distributed in Neotropical freshwater environments and its taxonomic position is uncertain, as is the case with other Characidae genera allocated in the group incertae sedis. This study aimed to analyse the karyotype of different populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Corumbataí River basin) using Giemsa staining, C-band technique, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes, in addition we describe for the first time the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNAgenes in A. marionae (ParaguayRiver basin). Chromosomes of three A. fasciatus populations were analysed (two with 2n = 50 and one with 2n = 48) and the heterochromatin was organized in two forms (blocks with blurred boundaries and distinct blocks). H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes were observed in all the three populations of A. fasciatus on two chromosome pairs (one metacentric chromosome showing H3 histone and 5S rRNA gene clusters). In A. marionae (2n = 48), H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes were observed in one acrocentric chromosome pair (different pairs). Further, differences between karyotypes and heterochromatin, as well as the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in Astyanax species, focussing on chromosome evolution in the group are discussed.

  18. Influence of menstruation on the microbiota of healthy women's labia minora as analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Morotomi, Nobuo; Imamura, Yuri; Mishima, Junko; Imai, Shigeo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstruation on the bacterial population of healthy Japanese women's vulvas, especially the labia minora. Labia minora swabs were obtained from 10 premenopausal, nonpregnant Japanese women at premenstruation and on day 2 of menstruation. Vaginal swabs were also obtained from 3 out of the 10 women. No significant difference was found in the average bacterial cell count between the menstruation and premenstruation samples. Molecular analysis using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method detected 22 genera from the labia minora swabs (total 20), with the genus Lactobacillus being predominant at both premenstruation and during menstruation in 7 out of the 10 women. Of the other 3 women, 2 showed various kinds of bacterial species, including oral and fecal bacteria, with Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis predominating in the remaining woman's vulva in both conditions. In total, 6 out of 10 cases (60%) showed significantly different microbiota of the labia minora between the two conditions. These results imply that menstruation may promote a distortion of the bacterial flora around the vulva, although it causes no significant increase of the bacterial count.

  19. Validation of housekeeping genes in the brains of rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia, a sleep apnea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Guilherme Silva; de Oliveira, Renato Watanabe; Perry, Juliana Cini; Tufik, Sergio; Chagas, Jair Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a syndrome characterized by intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, hypercapnia and respiratory effort, and it has been associated with several complications, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Quantitative real-time PCR has been performed in previous OSA-related studies; however, these studies were not validated using proper reference genes. We have examined the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), which is an experimental model mainly of cardiovascular consequences of OSA, on reference genes, including beta-actin, beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase and eukaryotic 18S rRNA, in different areas of the brain. All stability analyses were performed using the geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper software programs. With exception of the 18S rRNA, all of the evaluated genes were shown to be stable following CIH exposure. However, gene stability rankings were dependent on the area of the brain that was analyzed and varied according to the software that was used. This study demonstrated that CIH affects various brain structures differently. With the exception of the 18S rRNA, all of the tested genes are suitable for use as housekeeping genes in expression analyses.

  20. Reference genes for normalization: A study of rat brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Birgit; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2008-01-01

    are warranted. With the overall aim to inspect the gene expression of three target genes, NMDAR1, SORT, and CREB, in rat hippocampus, we tested a panel of eight HKGs, 18s rRNA, ActB, CycA, Gapd, Hmbs, Hprt1, Rpl13A, and Ywhaz in order to select the most stably expressed gene, using the NormFinder and ge...

  1. Combining flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing: A promising approach for drinking water monitoring and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2014-10-01

    The combination of flow cytometry (FCM) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data was investigated for the purpose of monitoring and characterizing microbial changes in drinking water distribution systems. High frequency sampling (5min intervals for 1h) was performed at the outlet of a treatment plant and at one location in the full-scale distribution network. In total, 52 bulk water samples were analysed with FCM, pyrosequencing and conventional methods (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP; heterotrophic plate count, HPC). FCM and pyrosequencing results individually showed that changes in the microbial community occurred in the water distribution system, which was not detected with conventional monitoring. FCM data showed an increase in the total bacterial cell concentrations (from 345±15×103 to 425±35×103cellsmL-1) and in the percentage of intact bacterial cells (from 39±3.5% to 53±4.4%) during water distribution. This shift was also observed in the FCM fluorescence fingerprints, which are characteristic of each water sample. A similar shift was detected in the microbial community composition as characterized with pyrosequencing, showing that FCM and genetic fingerprints are congruent. FCM and pyrosequencing data were subsequently combined for the calculation of cell concentration changes for each bacterial phylum. The results revealed an increase in cell concentrations of specific bacterial phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria), along with a decrease in other phyla (e.g., Actinobacteria), which could not be concluded from the two methods individually. The combination of FCM and pyrosequencing methods is a promising approach for future drinking water quality monitoring and for advanced studies on drinking water distribution pipeline ecology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Exploiting 16S rRNA gene for the detection and quantification of fish as a potential allergenic food: A comparison of two real-time PCR approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Telmo J R; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2018-04-15

    Fish is one of the most common allergenic foods that should be accurately labelled to protect the health of allergic consumers. In this work, two real-time PCR systems based on the EvaGreen dye and a TaqMan probe are proposed and compared. New primers were designed to target the 16S rRNA gene, as a universal maker for fish detection, with fully demonstrated specificity for a wide range of fish species. Both systems showed similar absolute sensitivities, down to 0.01 pg of fish DNA, and adequate real-time PCR performance parameters. The probe system showed higher relative sensitivity and dynamic range (0.0001-50%) than the EvaGreen (0.05-50%). They were both precise, but trueness was compromised at the highest tested level with the EvaGreen assay. Therefore, both systems were successful, although the probe one exhibited the best performance. Its application to verify labelling compliance of foodstuffs suggested a high level of mislabelling and/or fraudulent practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes from oil field microbial communities indicates the presence of a variety of sulfate-reducing, fermentative, and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voordouw, G; Armstrong, S M; Reimer, M F; Fouts, B; Telang, A J; Shen, Y; Gevertz, D

    1996-05-01

    Oil field bacteria were characterized by cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. A variety of gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected (16 members of the family Desulfovibrionaceae and 8 members of the family Desulfobacteriaceae). In contrast, a much more limited number of anaerobic, fermentative, or acetogenic bacteria was found (one Clostridium sp., one Eubacterium sp., and one Synergistes sp.). Potential sulfide oxidizers and/or microaerophiles (Thiomicrospira, Arcobacter, Campylobacter, and Oceanospirillum spp.) were also detected. The first two were prominently amplified from uncultured production water DNA and represented 28 and 47% of all clones, respectively. Growth on media containing sulfide as the electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor and designed for the isolation of Thiomicrospira spp. gave only significant enrichment of the Campylobacter sp., which was shown to be present in different western Canadian oil fields. This newly discovered sulfide oxidizer may provide a vital link in the oil field sulfur cycle by reoxidizing sulfide formed by microbial sulfate or sulfur reduction.

  4. Recognition elements in rRNA for the tylosin resistance methyltransferase RlmA(II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebars, Isabelle; Husson, Clotilde; Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2007-01-01

    The methyltransferase RlmA(II) (formerly TlrB) is found in many Gram-positive bacteria, and methylates the N-1 position of nucleotide G748 within the loop of hairpin 35 in 23S rRNA. Methylation of the rRNA by RlmA(II) confers resistance to tylosin and other mycinosylated 16-membered ring macrolide......RNA substrate indicated that multiple contacts occur between RlmA(II) and nucleotides in stem-loops 33, 34 and 35. RlmA(II) appears to recognize its rRNA target through specific surface shape complementarity at the junction formed by these three helices. This means of recognition is highly similar...

  5. Characterization of Actinomyces with genomic DNA fingerprints and rRNA gene probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, G; Johnson, J; Schachtele, C

    1993-08-01

    Cellular DNA from 25 Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus strains belonging to the 7 taxonomic clusters of Fillery et al. (1978) and several unclustered strains was obtained by enzymatic and N-lauroylsarcosine/guanidine isothiocyanate treatment of whole cells, followed by extraction of the nucleic acid. The DNA samples were digested with restriction endonucleases BamHI or PvuII, and agarose gel electrophoresis was used to obtain DNA fingerprints. The DNA fragments were subjected to Southern blot hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe transcribed from Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA. The patterns of bands from genomic (DNA fingerprints) and rDNA fingerprints (ribotypes) were used for comparison between the taxonomic cluster strains and strains within clusters. Representative strains from each taxonomic cluster provided different BamHI DNA fingerprints and ribotype patterns with 3 to 9 distinct bands. Some strains within a cluster showed identical ribotype patterns with both endonucleases (A. naeslundii B120 and A. naeslundii B102 from cluster 3), while others showed the same pattern with BamHI but a different pattern with PvuII (A. naeslundii ATCC 12104 and 398A from cluster 5). A viscosus ATCC 15987 (cluster 7) and its parent strain T6 yielded identical fingerprint and ribotype patterns. The genomic diversity revealed by DNA fingerprinting and ribotyping demonstrates that these techniques, which do not require phenotypic expression, are suited for study of the oral ecology of the Actinomyces, and for epidemiological tracking of specific Actinomyces strains associated with caries lesions and sites of periodontal destruction.

  6. The rRNA evolution and procaryotic phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of ribosomal RNA primary structure allow reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for prokaryotic organisms. Such studies reveal major dichotomy among the bacteria that separates them into eubacteria and archaebacteria. Both groupings are further segmented into several major divisions. The results obtained from 5S rRNA sequences are essentially the same as those obtained with the 16S rRNA data. In the case of Gram negative bacteria the ribosomal RNA sequencing results can also be directly compared with hybridization studies and cytochrome c sequencing studies. There is again excellent agreement among the several methods. It seems likely then that the overall picture of microbial phylogeny that is emerging from the RNA sequence studies is a good approximation of the true history of these organisms. The RNA data allow examination of the evolutionary process in a semi-quantitative way. The secondary structures of these RNAs are largely established. As a result it is possible to recognize examples of local structural evolution. Evolutionary pathways accounting for these events can be proposed and their probability can be assessed.

  7. Deep sequencing of subseafloor eukaryotic rRNA reveals active Fungi across marine subsurface provinces.

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    William Orsi

    Full Text Available The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC, nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more sta