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Sample records for srs water treatment

  1. Groundwater Treatment at SRS: An Innovative Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorque, M.A.; Golshir, G.H.; Davis, B.

    1998-03-01

    The SRS is located in southwestern South Carolina, occupying an almost circular area of approximately 800 km2 within Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties. The site lies approximately 36 km southeast of Augusta, Georgia, and is bounded by the Savannah River along its southwestern border. Prior to the establishment of the SRS in 1952, the area was largely a rural agricultural community. As part of the defense complex, the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the national defense.From 1955 until 1988, unlined earthen basins were used to dispose of wastewater from the SRS separations facilities located in the F and H areas. Approximately 300 million liters of wastewater was transported annually from the process area through underground piping to the basins. The wastewater was allowed to evaporate and to seep into the underlying formations. There were three basins in the F-Area covering a total of about 3 hectares; while the H-Area was served by four basins covering about 6 hectares. The seepage basins closure was started in 1989 and SCDHEC certified the closures as completed in 1991.Groundwater monitoring conducted in accordance with the provisions of the RCRA Permits determined that the underlying hydrogeologic units were contaminated by tritium, radioactive metals (primarily Cesium 137, Strontium 90, and Uranium 235), nitrate and heavy metals, some of which are defined as hazardous by RCRA. Under the terms and conditions of the RCRA Post- Closure Permits, it was necessary to remediate the contaminated groundwater plumes

  2. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)

  3. Screening dynamic evaluation of SRS cooling water line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Shteyngart, S.; Breidenbach, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been shut down due to perceived safety concerns. A major concern is the seismic integrity of the plant. A comprehensive program is underway to assess the seismic capacity of the existing systems and components and to upgrade them to acceptable levels. The evaluation of the piping systems at the SRS is a major element of this program. Many of the piping systems at the production reactors were designed without performing dynamic analyses. Instead their design complied with good design practice for dead weight supported systems with proper accommodation of thermal expansion effects. In order to gain some insight as to the seismic capacity of piping installed in this fashion, dynamic analyses were performed for some lines. Since the piping was not seismically supported, the evaluations involved various approximations and the results are only used as a screening test of seismic adequacy. In this paper, the screening evaluations performed for the raw water inlet line are described. This line was selected for evaluation since it was considered typical of the smaller diameter piping systems at the plant. It is a dead weight supported system made up of a run of small diameter piping which extends for great distances over many dead weight supports and through wall penetrations. The results of several evaluations for the system using different approximations to represent the support system are described. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Evaluation of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) monitor well sampling technology at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the complex issues surrounding Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at SRS, the Environmental Restoration Division has been exploring new technologies to deal with the purge water generated during monitoring well sampling. Standard procedures for sampling generates copious amounts of purge water that must be managed as hazardous waste, when containing hazardous and/or radiological contaminants exceeding certain threshold levels. SRS has obtained Regulator approval to field test an innovative surface release prevention mechanism to manage purge water. This mechanism is referred to as the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) and consists of a collapsible bladder situated within a rigid metal tank

  5. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    trends to the present time. The latter line of evidence is considered to be the most powerful in demonstrating that representative samples are being acquired by the PWMS because it is highly unlikely that previously existing concentration trends would continue if resampling had occurred.Standard procedure for obtaining protocol groundwater monitoring samples at the Savannah River Site (SRS) calls for extracting or ''purging'' sufficient quantities of groundwater to allow removal of stagnant water and to allow certain key indicator parameters to stabilize prior to collection of samples. The water extracted from a well prior to sample collection is termed ''purge water'' and must be managed in an approved fashion if it contains hazardous and/or radiological constituents that exceed specified health-based limits described in the Investigation Derived Waste Management Plan (WSRC, 1994). Typical management practices include containerization, transportation, treatment, and disposal via Clean Water Act -permitted facilities.A technology for handling purge water that eliminates the need to containerize and transport this water to a disposal facility has been developed. This technology, termed the Purge Water Management System (PWMS), is currently under pilot stage deployment at SRS. The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without significantly altering the water quality. A schematic drawing of the PWMS is in Figure 1. The system has been successfully demonstrated at both a ''clean'' well, P-26D, and a ''contaminated'' well, MCB-5, by comparing chemical concentration data obtained by PWMS sampling against the historical data record for each of these wells (Hiergesell et al., 1996). In both cases the PWMS was found to yield sample results that were indistinguishable from the results of the historical protocol sampling conducted at those same wells.For any method used to

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS)

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  8. The influence of Savannah River discharge and changing SRS cooling water requirements on the potential entrainment of ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Entrainment (i.e., withdrawal of fish larvae and eggs in cooling water) at the SRS Savannah River intakes is greatest when periods of high river water usage coincide with low river dischargeduring the spawning season. American shad and striped bass are the two species of greatest concern because of their recreational and/or commercial importance and because they produce drifting eggs and larvae vulnerable to entrainment. In the mid-reaches of the Savannah River, American shad and striped bass spawn primarily during April and May. An analysis of Savannah River discharge during April and May 1973--1989 indicated the potential for entrainment of 4--18% of the American shad and striped bass larvae and eggs that drifted past the SRS. This analysis assumed the concurrent operation of L-, K-, and P-Reactors. Additional scenarios investigated were: (1) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower; and (2) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, eliminating minimum flows to Steel Creek, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower. The former scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.7--3.3%, and the latter scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.20.8%. Thus, the currently favored scenario of operating K-Reactor with a cooling tower and not operating L- and P-Reactors represents a significant lessening of the impact of SRS operations

  9. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  10. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70 degrees C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams ampersand Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS

  11. SU-F-T-647: Linac-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: Detailed Description of SRS Procedural Technique and Reported Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Stepp, T; Camarata, P; Wang, F [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: SRS is an effective non-invasive alternative treatment modality with minimal-toxicity used to treat patients with medically/surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia root(TNR) or those who may not tolerate surgical intervention. We present our linac-based SRS procedure for TNR treatment and simultaneously report our clinical outcomes. Methods: Twenty-eight TNR-patients treated with frame-based SRS at our institution (2009–2015) with a single-fraction point-dose of 60-80Gy to TNR were included in this IRB-approved study. Experienced neurosurgeon and radiation oncologist delineated the TNR on 1.0mm thin 3D-FIESTA-MRI that was co-registered with 0.7mm thin planning-CT. Treatment plans were generated in iPlan (BrainLAB) with a 4-mm diameter cone using 79 arcs with differential-weighting for Novalis-TX 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) beam and optimized to minimize brainstem dose. Winston-Lutz test was performed before each treatment delivery with sub-millimeter isocenter accuracy. Quality assurance of frame placement was maintained by helmet-bobble-measurement before simulation-CT and before patient setup at treatment couch. OBI-CBCT scan was performed for patient setup verification without applying shifts. On clinical follow up, treatment response was assessed using Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score(BNI-score:I–V). Results: 26/28 TNR-patients (16-males/10-females) who were treated with following single-fraction point-dose to isocenter: 80Gy(n=22),75Gy(n=1),70Gy(n=2) and 60Gy(n=1, re-treatment) were followed up. Median follow-up interval was 8.5-months (ranged:1–48.5months). Median age was 70-yr (ranged:43–93-yr). Right/left TNR ratio was 15/11. Delivered total # of average MUs was 19034±1204. Average beam-on-time: 19.0±1.3min. Brainstem max-dose and dose to 0.5cc were 13.3±2.4Gy (ranged:8.1–16.5Gy) and 3.6±0.4Gy (ranged:3.0–4.9Gy). On average, max-dose to optic-apparatus was ≤1.2Gy. Mean value of max-dose to eyes/lens was 0.26Gy/0.11Gy

  12. SU-F-T-626: Intracranial SRS Re-Treatment Without Acquisition of New CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, D; Manning, M; Liu, H; Maurer, J; Hayes, T; Sintay, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Linear accelerator based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for multiple intracranial lesions with frequent surveillance is becoming a popular treatment option. This strategy leads to retreatment with SRS as new lesions arise. Currently, each course of treatment uses magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images for treatment planning. We propose that new MR images, with course 1 CT images, may be used for future treatment plans with negligible loss of dosimetric accuracy. Methods: Ten patients that received multiple courses of SRS were retrospectively reviewed. The treatment plans and contours from non-initial courses were copied to the initial CTs and recalculated. Doses metrics for the plans calculated on the initial CTs and later CTs were compared. All CT scans were acquired on a Philips CT scanner with a 600 mm field of view and 1 mm slice thickness (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA). All targets were planned to 20 Gy and calculated in Eclipse V. 13.6 (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) using analytic anisotropic algorithm with 1 mm calculation grid. Results: Sixteen lesions were evaluated. The mean time between courses was 250 +/− 215 days (range 103–979). The mean target volume was 2.0 +/− 2.9 cc (range 0.1–10.1). The average difference in mean target dose between the two calculations was 0.2 +/− 0.3 Gy (range 0.0 – 1.0). The mean conformity index (CI) was 1.28 +/− 0.14 (range 1.07 – 1.82). The average difference in CI was 0.03 +/− 0.16 (range 0.00 – 0.44). Targets volumes < 0.5 cc showed the largest changes in both metrics. Conclusion: Continued treatment based on initial CT images is feasible. Dose calculation on the initial CT for future treatments provides reasonable dosimetric accuracy. Changes in dose metrics are largest for small volumes, and are likely dominated by partial volume effects in target definition.

  13. Advanced Separations at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams which are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials which must be treated to remove the radioactivity (Cs, Sr, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls, cyanide, metal ions). This task provides test beds for ESP-developed separations materials and technologies using actual SRS waste streams. The work includes different SRS waste streams; high level waste solutions presently stored in underground tanks onsite, water recycled from the waste vitrification plant, and reactor basin water in excess facilities

  14. SU-E-J-221: Advantages of a New Surface Imaging Calibration Method for SRS Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, A; Manger, R; Pawlicki, T; Kim, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present calibration method used for the AlignRT surface imaging system relies on the placement of a calibration plate at the linac isocenter using isocenter surrogates (crosshairs, room lasers, etc.). This work investigated the potential advantages of a new calibration method that shifts the AlignRT isocenter to be coincident with the linac MV beam isocenter. Methods: To quantify the potential uncertainties associated with the present calibration method for SRS treatments, the calibration plate was intentionally shifted away from isocenter +/−3mm in the longitudinal and lateral directions and +/−1mm in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions. A head phantom was placed in a mock SRS treatment position and monitored with the AlignRT system. The AlignRT-indicated offsets were recorded at 270, 315, 0, 45, and 90° couch angles for each intentional calibration misalignment. The new isocenter calibration was applied after each misalignment, and the measurements were repeated and compared to the previous results. Results: With intentional longitudinal and lateral shifts of +/−3mm and +/−1mm in the calibration plate, the average indicated offsets at couch rotations of +/−90° were 4.3mm and 1.6mm, respectively. This was in agreement with the theoretical offset of sqrt(2)*(intentional shift of the calibration plate). Since vertical shifts were along the rotation axis of the couch, these shifts had little effect on the offsets with changing couch angle. When the new calibration was applied, the indicated offsets were all within 0.5mm for all couch angles. These offsets were in agreement with the known magnitude of couch walkout. Conclusion: The potential pitfalls of the present calibration method have been established, and the advantages of the new calibration method have been demonstrated. This new calibration method effectively removes the potential miscalibration artifacts of the present calibration method, giving the AlignRT user more

  15. SU-F-T-573: Evaluation of EBT-XD Radiochromic Films for Verification of SBRT and SRS Treatment Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, J; Zerouali, K [Centre hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of radiochromic films EBT-XD for quality control of stereotaxic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plan delivery. Methods: A film cut in 3×10 cm2 strips was irradiated from 0 to 20 Gy in increments of 1 to 1.5 Gy using a 15 MeV electron beam. Triple-channel film calibration was completed 24 hours later by scanning the film strips on an Epson 10000XL scanner using a well-defined protocol. Several dose measurements of increasing complexity were subsequently performed with Varian iX accelerators. Pieces of films were first irradiated in a solid water phantom with 6 MV photon beams and a static gantry to doses spanning the calibration range, either in a single field or multiple fields setup. High dose (>15 Gy per fraction) IMRT plans were then measured. Finally films were irradiated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans of lung and spinal lesions with prescribed doses per fraction between 8 and 20 Gy. The dose measured with the films was compared to the calculated dose from the Eclipse planning system using the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). Results: 77 dose measurements were compared to either ion chamber measurements or dose calculations (reference). The average dose difference between film measurements and reference was 0.7 % and the standard deviation was 1.3%. The maximum and minimum dose differences were +3.5% and −2% in the 4 Gy to 20 Gy range. Measured dose profiles of lung and vertebra treatment plans agreed very well with the calculations. Conclusion: EBT-XD films are a useful dosimeter for quality control of SBRT and SRS plan delivery. The measurement of a full 2D dose plane with high spatial resolution and acceptable dose accuracy make it an advantageous choice compared to other detectors such as ion chambers or diodes.

  16. Orthogonal image pairs coupled with OSMS for noncoplanar beam angle, intracranial, single-isocenter, SRS treatments with multiple targets on the Varian Edge radiosurgery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine A. Oliver, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, CR-induced shifts with the Varian Edge radiosurgery system will not produce noticeable dosimetric effects for SRS treatments. Thus, replacing cone beam CT with orthogonal kV/kV pairs coupled with OSMS at the treatment couch angle could reduce the number of cone beam CT scans that are acquired during a standard SRS treatment while providing an accurate and safe treatment with negligible dosimetric effects on the treatment plan.

  17. Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Criteria and Society of Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) 2008 Guidelines in Non-Operative Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Krzysztof; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Stoliński, Łukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2014-07-28

    According to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a curvature of more than 10° Cobb angle, affecting 2-3% of pediatric population. Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80% of all scoliosis cases. Non-operative principles in the therapy of idiopathic scoliosis, including Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and guidelines proposed by the experts of the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORTS) were presented. The possibility to carry out quality of life assessments in a conservative procedure was also demonstrated. Based on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, SRS criteria, SOSORT 2008 experts' opinion and the knowledge of the possibilities of psychological assessment of conservative IS treatment, rules were proposed regarding nonsurgical IS therapy procedures, with special consideration being paid to the proper treatment start time (age, Risser test, biological maturity, Cobb angle), possibility of curvature progression, the importance of physiotherapy and psychological assessment. The knowledge of SRS criteria and SOSORT guidelines regarding the conservative treatment of IS are essential for proper treatment (the right time to start treatment), and supports establishment of interdisciplinary treatment teams, consisting of a physician, a physiotherapist, an orthopedic technician and a psychologist.

  18. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink R technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO TM automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated

  19. SU-F-SPS-10: The Dosimetric Comparison of GammaKnife and Cyberknife Treatment Plans for Brain SRS Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanli, E; Mabhouti, H; Cebe, M; Codel, G; Pacaci, P; Serin, E; Kucuk, N; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) involves the use of precisely directed, single session radiation to create a desired radiobiologic response within the brain target with acceptable minimal effects on surrounding structures or tissues. In this study, the dosimetric comparison of GammaKnife perfection and Cyberknife M6 treatment plans were made. Methods: Treatment plannings were done for GammaKnife perfection unit using Gammaplan treatment planning system (TPS) on the CT scan of head and neck randophantom simulating the treatment of sterotactic treatments for one brain metastasis. The dose distribution were calculated using TMR 10 algorithm. The treatment planning for the same target were also done for Cyberknife M6 machine using Multiplan (TPS) with Monte Carlo algorithm. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using both machine by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. Dose distribution were measured using EBT3 film dosimeter. The measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The dose distribution in the target and 2 cm beyond the target edge were calculated on TPSs and measured using EBT3 film. For cyberknife treatment plans, the gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.2% and 96.7% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. For gammaknife treatment plans, the gamma analysis passing rates were 98.9% and 93.2% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that dosimetrically comparable plans are achievable with Cyberknife and GammaKnife. Although TMR 10 algorithm predicts the target dose.

  20. SU-F-SPS-10: The Dosimetric Comparison of GammaKnife and Cyberknife Treatment Plans for Brain SRS Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanli, E; Mabhouti, H; Cebe, M; Codel, G; Pacaci, P; Serin, E; Kucuk, N; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) involves the use of precisely directed, single session radiation to create a desired radiobiologic response within the brain target with acceptable minimal effects on surrounding structures or tissues. In this study, the dosimetric comparison of GammaKnife perfection and Cyberknife M6 treatment plans were made. Methods: Treatment plannings were done for GammaKnife perfection unit using Gammaplan treatment planning system (TPS) on the CT scan of head and neck randophantom simulating the treatment of sterotactic treatments for one brain metastasis. The dose distribution were calculated using TMR 10 algorithm. The treatment planning for the same target were also done for Cyberknife M6 machine using Multiplan (TPS) with Monte Carlo algorithm. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using both machine by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. Dose distribution were measured using EBT3 film dosimeter. The measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The dose distribution in the target and 2 cm beyond the target edge were calculated on TPSs and measured using EBT3 film. For cyberknife treatment plans, the gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.2% and 96.7% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. For gammaknife treatment plans, the gamma analysis passing rates were 98.9% and 93.2% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that dosimetrically comparable plans are achievable with Cyberknife and GammaKnife. Although TMR 10 algorithm predicts the target dose

  1. Performance Modeling Applied to the Treatment and Disposal of a Mixed Waste at the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cook, J.R.; Whited, A.R.; Field, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    Performance modeling for Low Level Mixed Waste disposal was conducted using the measured leach rates from a number of vitrified waste formulations. The objective of the study was to determine if the improved durability of a vitrified mixed waste would allow trench disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Leaching data were compiled from twenty-nine diverse reference glasses, encompassing a wide range of exposed glass surface area to leachant volume ratios (SA/V), and various leachant solutions; all of which had been leached at 90 degrees Celsius, using the MCC-1 or PCT procedures (ASTM Procedures C1220-92 and C1285-94, respectively). The normalized leach rates were scaled to the ambient disposal temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, and compared to the allowable leach rate of uranium - which would meet the performance assessment requirements. The results indicated that a glass of above average durability (vs. the reference glasses) would meet the uranium leaching concentration for direct SRS trench disposal

  2. Analysis of soil and water at the Four Mile Creek seepline near the F ampersand H Areas of SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselow, J.S.; Harris, M.; Looney, B.B.; Halverson, N.V.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Until 1988, solutions containing sodium hydroxide, nitride acid, low levels of radionuclides (mostly tritiated water) and some metals were discharged to unlined seepage basins at the F and H Areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of normal operations (Killian et al, 1987a,b). The basins are now being closed according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). As part of the closure, a Part B Post-Closure Care Permit is being prepared. The information included in this report will fulfill some of the data requirements for that Part B permit. Several soil and water samples were collected along the Four Mile Creek (FMC) seepline at the F ampersand H Areas of the Savannah River Site. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of metals, radionuclides, and inorganic constituents. The goal of the work reported herein is to document the impacts from the basins of FMC has been completed in a phased approach

  3. Large break frequency for the SRS (Savannah River Site) production reactor process water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Bush, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results and conclusions of an evaluation of the large break frequency for the process water system (primary coolant system), including the piping, reactor tank, heat exchangers, expansion joints and other process water system components. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break. This evaluation encompasses three specific areas: the failure probability of large process water piping directly from imposed loads, the indirect failure probability of piping caused by the seismic-induced failure of surrounding structures, and the failure of all other process water components. The first two of these areas are discussed in detail in other papers. This paper primarily addresses the failure frequency of components other than piping, and includes the other two areas as contributions to the overall process water system break frequency

  4. The time resolved SBS and SRS research in heavy water and its application in CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbo; Gai, Baodong; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Di; Xia, Xusheng; Wang, Pengyuan; Hu, Shu; Chen, Ying; Guo, Jingwei; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2018-05-01

    We present the time-resolved character of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) in heavy water and its application in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) technique. A nanosecond laser from a frequency-doubled Nd: YAG laser is introduced into a heavy water cell, to generate SBS and BSRS beams. The SBS and BSRS beams are collinear, and their time resolved characters are studied by a streak camera, experiment show that they are ideal source for an alignment-free CARS system, and the time resolved property of SBS and BSRS beams could affect the CARS efficiency significantly. By inserting a Dye cuvette to the collinear beams, the time-overlapping of SBS and BSRS could be improved, and finally the CARS efficiency is increased, even though the SBS energy is decreased. Possible methods to improve the efficiency of this CARS system are discussed too.

  5. CyberKnife SRS: new technologies that enhance the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (Accuracy Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used worldwide to treat tumors and neurological disorders anywhere in the body with sub-millimetre beam delivery accuracy. Accuracy has developed a number of new technologies in recent years to enhance the treatment of cancer patients. Such new technologies include a fast Monte Carlo Dose Calculation algorithm, Sequential Optimization dose planning, the Iris TM Variable Aperture Collimator, an 800 MU/min Linear Accelerator, and Optimized Path Traversal. These technologies enable physicists and physicians to plan treatments quickly and easily and deliver them with unrivalled accuracy and precision

  6. Postoperative perceived health status in adolescent following idiopathic scoliosis surgical treatment: results using the adapted French version of Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes questionnaire (SRS-22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Y; Bachy, M; Zakine, S; Mary, P; Khouri, N; Vialle, R

    2013-06-01

    Assessing functional outcome from patient-based outcomes questionnaires are essential to the evaluation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgical treatment At the minimum follow-up of 2 years, 45 operated on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were mailed the French version of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument (SRS-22) questionnaires containing items on pain, activities of daily living, and satisfaction. Mean values of the SRS-22 domains were 3,66 for the Pain domain, 3,85 for the Self-perceived image domain, 4,32 for the Function domain, 3,52 for the Mental health domain and 4,12 for the Global satisfaction with management domain. Mean value of the global SRS-22 score was 3,88. We showed no differences in functional SRS-22 health status in patients according to the type of curve (Lenke classification). We showed statistically significant correlations between the gain of Cobb angle and Patients self-image and function domain scores. There was a statistically significant correlation between preoperative Cobb angle and patient satisfaction with management. Even if Function and Self-image scores in our patients are close to control group values, indicating good short to mid-term outcome of surgical treatment, scores for pain and mental health status were significantly lower in patients than controls. Long-term follow-up studies conducted by multiple surgeons over successive generations are mandatory to assess clinical significance of these differences. Level IV. Retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. SU-D-BRB-04: Plan Quality Comparison of Intracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) for Gamma Knife and VMAT Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, V; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare treatment plan quality of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for VMAT (RapidArc) and Gamma Knife (GK) systems. Methods: Ten patients with 24 tumors (seven with 1–2 and three with 4–6 lesions), previously treated with GK 4C (prescription doses ranging from 14–23 Gy) were re-planned for RapidArc. Identical contour sets were kept on MRI images for both plans with tissues assigned a CT number of zero. RapidArc plans were performed using 6 MV flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams with dose rate of 1400 MU/minute using two to eight arcs with the following combinations: 2 full coplanar arcs and the rest non-coplanar half arcs. Beam selection was based on target depth. Areas that penetrated more than 10 cm of tissue were avoided by creating smaller arcs or using avoidance sectors in optimization. Plans were optimized with jaw tracking and a high weighting to the normal-brain-tissue and Normal-Tissue-Objective without compromising PTV coverage. Plans were calculated on a 1 mm grid size using AAA algorithm and then normalized so that 99% of each target volume received the prescription dose. Plan quality was assessed by target coverage using Paddick Conformity Index (PCI), sparing of normal-brain-tissue through analysis of V4, V8, and V12 Gy, and integral dose. Results: In all cases critical structure dose criteria were met. RapidArc had a higher PCI than GK plans for 23 out of 24 lesions. The average PCI was 0.76±0.21 for RapidArc and 0.46±0.20 for GK plans (p≤0.001), respectively. Integral dose and normal-brain-tissue doses for all criteria were lower for RapidArc in nearly all patients. The average ratio of GK to RapidArc plans was 1.28±0.27 (p=0.018), 1.31±0.25 (p=0.017), 1.81±0.43 (p=0.005), and 1.50±0.61 (p=0.006) for V4, V8, and V12 Gy, and integral dose, respectively. Conclusion: VMAT was capable of producing higher quality treatment plans than GK when using optimal beam geometries and proper optimization techniques.

  8. A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Andrew A; Haher, Thomas R; Brkaric, Mario; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Mathur, Samir; Kohani, Omid; Lowe, Thomas G; Lenke, Larry G; Wenger, Dennis R; Newton, Peter O; Clements, David H; Betz, Randal R

    2002-09-15

    A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire (SRS 24). To evaluate the patient based outcome of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A paucity of information exists with respect to patient measures of outcome regarding the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To our knowledge, no prospective outcome study on this topic thus far exists. Using the SRS 24 questionnaire, seven scoliosis centers agreed to prospectively assess outcome for surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Data were collected before surgery and at 24 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using paired and independent samples t test for all seven SRS 24 questionnaire domains (Pain, General Self-Image, Postoperative Self-Image, Postoperative Function, Function From Back Condition, General Level of Activity, and Satisfaction) using Statistical Package for Social Science. The domains were analyzed with respect to the total cohort, gender, curve magnitude, and type of surgery using independent-samples t tests. A total of 242 patients were included in our analysis. A baseline preoperative pain level of 3.68 of 5 was found. This improved to 4.63 after surgery, representing an improvement of 0.95 points. Surgical intervention was associated with improving outcome when compared with preoperative status. Pain, General Self-Image, Function From Back Condition, and Level of Activity all demonstrated statistically significant improvement as compared with preoperative status (P adolescent scoliosis population. Pain scores were improved in our study population at the 2-year postsurgical follow-up. Statistically significant improvements were likewise seen in the General Self-Image, Function From Back Condition, and Level of Activity domains. The present study demonstrates the ability of surgery to improve the outcome of patients afflicted with

  9. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  10. Mine water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komissarov, S V

    1980-10-01

    This article discusses composition of chemical compounds dissolved or suspended in mine waters in various coal basins of the USSR: Moscow basin, Kuzbass, Pechora, Kizelovsk, Karaganda, Donetsk and Chelyabinsk basins. Percentage of suspended materials in water depending on water source (water from water drainage system of dust suppression system) is evaluated. Pollution of mine waters with oils and coli bacteria is also described. Recommendations on construction, capacity of water settling tanks, and methods of mine water treatment are presented. In mines where coal seams 2 m or thicker are mined a system of two settling tanks should be used: in the upper one large grains are settled, in the lower one finer grains. The upper tank should be large enough to store mine water discharged during one month, and the lower one to store water discharged over two months. Salty waters from coal mines mining thin coal seams should be treated in a system of water reservoirs from which water evaporates (if climatic conditions permit). Mine waters from mines with thin coal seams but without high salt content can be treated in a system of long channels with water plants, which increase amount of oxygen in treated water. System of biological treatment of waste waters from mine wash-houses and baths is also described. Influence of temperature, sunshine and season of the year on efficiency of mine water treatment is also assessed. (In Russian)

  11. SU-E-T-213: Comparison of Treatment Efficiency of Gamma Knife SRS Plans for Brain Metastases with Different Planning Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y [East Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC (United States); Huang, Z [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Lo, S [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve Gamma Knife SRS treatment efficiency for brain metastases and compare the differences of treatment time and radiobiological effects between two different planning methods of automatic filling and manual placement of shots with inverse planning. Methods: T1-weighted MRI images with gadolinium contrast from five patients with a single brain metastatic-lesion were used in this retrospective study. Among them, two were from primary breast cancer, two from primary melanoma cancer and one from primary prostate cancer. For each patient, two plans were generated in Leksell GammaPlan10.1.1 for radiosurgical treatment with a Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion machine: one with automatic filling, automatic sector configuration and inverse optimization (Method1); and the other with manual placement of shots, manual setup of collimator sizes, manual setup of sector blocking and inverse optimization (Method2). Dosimetric quality of the plans was evaluated with parameters of Coverage, Selectivity, Gradient-Index and DVH. Beam-on Time, Number-of-Shots and Tumor Control Probability(TCP) were compared for the two plans while keeping their dosimetric quality very similar. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time and Number-of-Shots were calculated as the ratios among the two plans and used for quantitative analysis. Results: With very similar dosimetric and radiobiological plan quality, plans created with Method 2 had significantly reduced treatment time. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time ranged from 20% to 51 % (median:29%,p=0.001), and reduction of Number-of-Shots ranged from 5% to 67% (median:40%,p=0.0002), respectively. Time of plan creation for Method1 and Method2 was similar, approximately 20 minutes, excluding the time for tumor delineation. TCP calculated for the tumors from differential DVHs did not show significant difference between the two plans (p=0.35). Conclusion: The method of manual setup combined with inverse optimization in LGP for treatment of brain

  12. SU-E-T-213: Comparison of Treatment Efficiency of Gamma Knife SRS Plans for Brain Metastases with Different Planning Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y; Huang, Z; Lo, S; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To improve Gamma Knife SRS treatment efficiency for brain metastases and compare the differences of treatment time and radiobiological effects between two different planning methods of automatic filling and manual placement of shots with inverse planning. Methods: T1-weighted MRI images with gadolinium contrast from five patients with a single brain metastatic-lesion were used in this retrospective study. Among them, two were from primary breast cancer, two from primary melanoma cancer and one from primary prostate cancer. For each patient, two plans were generated in Leksell GammaPlan10.1.1 for radiosurgical treatment with a Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion machine: one with automatic filling, automatic sector configuration and inverse optimization (Method1); and the other with manual placement of shots, manual setup of collimator sizes, manual setup of sector blocking and inverse optimization (Method2). Dosimetric quality of the plans was evaluated with parameters of Coverage, Selectivity, Gradient-Index and DVH. Beam-on Time, Number-of-Shots and Tumor Control Probability(TCP) were compared for the two plans while keeping their dosimetric quality very similar. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time and Number-of-Shots were calculated as the ratios among the two plans and used for quantitative analysis. Results: With very similar dosimetric and radiobiological plan quality, plans created with Method 2 had significantly reduced treatment time. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time ranged from 20% to 51 % (median:29%,p=0.001), and reduction of Number-of-Shots ranged from 5% to 67% (median:40%,p=0.0002), respectively. Time of plan creation for Method1 and Method2 was similar, approximately 20 minutes, excluding the time for tumor delineation. TCP calculated for the tumors from differential DVHs did not show significant difference between the two plans (p=0.35). Conclusion: The method of manual setup combined with inverse optimization in LGP for treatment of brain

  13. TH-EF-BRB-10: Dosimetric Validation of a Trajectory Based Cranial SRS Treatment Technique On a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Gete, E [Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work investigates the dosimetric accuracy of a trajectory based delivery technique in which an optimized radiation beam is delivered along a Couch-Gantry trajectory that is formed by simultaneous rotation of the linac gantry and the treatment couch. Methods: Nine trajectory based cranial SRS treatment plans were created using in-house optimization software. The plans were calculated for delivery on the TrueBeam STx linac with 6MV photon beam. Dose optimization was performed along a user-defined trajectory using MLC modulation, dose rate modulation and jaw tracking. The pre-defined trajectory chosen for this study is formed by a couch rotation through its full range of 180 degrees while the gantry makes four partial arc sweeps which are 170 degrees each. For final dose calculation, the trajectory based plans were exported to the Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System. The plans were calculated on a homogeneous cube phantom measuring 18.2×18.2×18.2 cm3 with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) using a 1mm3 calculation voxel. The plans were delivered on the TrueBeam linac via the developer’s mode. Point dose measurements were performed on 9 patients with the IBA CC01 mini-chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.01 cc. Gafchromic film measurements along the sagittal and coronal planes were performed on three of the 9 treatment plans. Point dose values were compared with ion chamber measurements. Gamma analysis comparing film measurement and AAA calculations was performed using FilmQA Pro. Results: The AAA calculations and measurements were in good agreement. The point dose difference between AAA and ion chamber measurements were within 2.2%. Gamma analysis test pass rates (2%, 2mm passing criteria) for the Gafchromic film measurements were >95%. Conclusion: We have successfully tested TrueBeam’s ability to deliver accurate trajectory based treatments involving simultaneous gantry and couch rotation with MLC and dose rate modulation along the

  14. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  17. SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

    2006-03-01

    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  18. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  19. Medicine Of Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Rae

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with the medicine of water handling, which includes medicine for dispersion and cohesion, zeta-potential, congelation with Shalze Hardy's law, inorganic coagulants, inorganic high molecule coagulants, aid coagulant such as fly ash and sodium hydroxide, and effect of aluminum and iron on cohesion of clay suspension, organic coagulants like history of organic coagulants, a polyelectrolyte, coagulants for cation, and organic polymer coagulant, heavy metal and cyan exfoliants, application of drugs of water treatment.

  20. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  1. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking: A rationalization of apparent differences among stress corrosion cracking tendencies for sensitized regions in the process water piping and in the tanks of SRS reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequency of stress corrosion cracking in the near weld regions of the SRS reactor tank walls is apparently lower than the cracking frequency near the pipe-to-pipe welds in the primary cooling water system. The difference in cracking tendency can be attributed to differences in the welding processes, fabrication schedules, near weld residual stresses, exposure conditions and other system variables. This memorandum discusses the technical issues that may account the differences in cracking tendencies based on a review of the fabrication and operating histories of the reactor systems and the accepted understanding of factors that control stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steels

  2. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  3. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  4. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document

  5. Monitoring of the water levels in the wetlands of Fourmile Branch near the F and H Areas of SRS: September 1997 to December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    A network of twenty-three piezometers was used to measure hydraulic head in the water-table aquifer along the groundwater outcrop (i.e. seepline) at the F- and H-Area seeplines. The piezometers were installed to assess potential impacts of the F- and H-Area Groundwater Remediation Waste Treatment Units on the riparian wetland system located between the former F- and H-Area seepage basins and Fourmile Branch

  6. SU-F-SPS-11: The Dosimetric Comparison of Truebeam 2.0 and Cyberknife M6 Treatment Plans for Brain SRS Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabhouti, H; Sanli, E; Cebe, M; Codel, G; Pacaci, P; Serin, E; Kucuk, N; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Brain stereotactic radiosurgery involves the use of precisely directed, single session radiation to create a desired radiobiologic response within the brain target with acceptable minimal effects on surrounding structures or tissues. In this study, the dosimetric comparison of Truebeam 2.0 and Cyberknife M6 treatment plans were made. Methods: For Truebeam 2.0 machine, treatment planning were done using 2 full arc VMAT technique with 6 FFF beam on the CT scan of Randophantom simulating the treatment of sterotactic treatments for one brain metastasis. The dose distribution were calculated using Eclipse treatment planning system with Acuros XB algorithm. The treatment planning of the same target were also done for Cyberknife M6 machine with Multiplan treatment planning system using Monte Carlo algorithm. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using both machine by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. Dose distribution were measured using EBT3 film dosimeter. The measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The dose distribution in the target and 2 cm beyond the target edge were calculated on TPSs and measured using EBT3 film. For cyberknife plans, the gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.2% and 96.7% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. For Truebeam plans, the gamma analysis passing rates were 99.1% and 95.5% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. Conclusion: Although, target dose distribution calculated accurately by Acuros XB and Monte Carlo algorithms, Monte carlo calculation algorithm predicts dose distribution around the peripheral region of target more accurately than Acuros algorithm.

  7. 7Q10 flows for SRS streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Transport Group of the Environmental Technology Section was requested to predict the seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) for the SRS streams based on historical stream flow records. Most of the historical flow records for the SRS streams include reactor coolant water discharged from the reactors and process water released from the process facilities. The most straight forward way to estimate the stream daily natural flow is to subtract the measured upstream reactor and/or facility daily effluents from the measured downstream daily flow. Unfortunately, this method does not always work, as indicated by the fact that sometimes the measured downstream volumetric flow rates are lower than the reactor effluent volumetric flow rates. For those cases that cannot be analyzed with the simple subtracting method, an alternative method was used to estimate the stream natural flows by statistically separating reactor coolant and process water flow data. The correlation between the calculated 7Q10 flows and the watershed areas for Four Mile Branch and Pen Branch agrees with that calculated by the USGS for Upper Three Runs and Lower Three Runs Creeks. The agreement between these two independent calculations lends confidence to the 7Q10 flow calculations presented in this report

  8. Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people

  9. Volumetric activity of SRS mixed waste and comparison with SRS performance and commercial facility limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Daugherty, B.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the comparative analysis performed to estimate the after-treatment volumetric activity of the radionuclides included in the Savannah River site (SRS) mixed-waste streams and its comparison with the following: (1) The performance evaluation (PE) limits established for each radionuclide for on-site disposal: These limits correspond to the permissible waste disposal limits that are the lowest limits evaluated for the most restrictive release scenarios that include the groundwater pathway, the atmospheric pathway, and the intruder scenarios. (2) The radiological performance assessment (PA) limits established for each radionuclide for disposal in the SRS disposal vaults that meet the requirements of Chap. III of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 5820.2A: The vaults considered are the low-activity waste (LAW) vaults, the intermediate-level non-tritium (ILNT) vaults. and the intermediate-level tritium (ILT) vaults. (3) The radioactive limits of a commercial mixed waste disposal facility

  10. Closed recirculation-Water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Hamza B.; Ben Ali, Salah; Saad, Mohamed A.; Traish, Massud R.

    2005-01-01

    This water treatment is a practical work applied in the center, for a closed recirculation-water system. The system had experienced a serious corrosion problem, due to the use of inadequate water. This work includes chemical preparation for the system. Water treatment, special additives, and follow-up, which resulted in the stability of the case. This work can be applied specially for closed recirculation warm, normal, and chilled water. (author)

  11. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  12. Daresbury SRS Positional Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, S L

    2000-01-01

    The Daresbury SRS is a second generation synchrotron radiation source which ramps from its injection energy of 600 MeV to 2.0 GeV. Beam orbit feedback systems have been in routine operation on the SRS since 1994 and are now an essential element in delivering stable photon beams to experimental stations. The most recent enhancements to these systems have included the introduction of a ramp servo system to provide the orbit control demanded by the installation of two new narrow gap insertion device and development of the vertical orbit feedback system to cope with an increasing number of photon beamlines. This paper summaries the current status of these systems and briefly discusses proposed developments.

  13. Biosorption treatment of brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, M.; Ali, M.; Tariq, M.I.; Rehman, F.U.; Karim, A.; Makshoof, M.; Farooq, R.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorptivity of different agricultural wastes have been evaluated for the treatment of brackish water and a new method, based on the principle of bio-sorption has been described. Wastes of the Saccharum officinarum, Moringa oleifera, Triticum aestivcum and Oryza sativa have been used in raw forms as well as after converting them into ash and activated carbon as biosorbents for treatment of brackish water in this study. Samples of brackish water have been analyzed before and after treatment for quality control parameters of water. A significant Improvement has been observed in quality control parameters of water after treatment. pH of the water samples slightly increased from 7.68 to 7.97 with different treatments. A substantial decrease in conductivity,. TDS, TH, concentrations of cations and anions was observed in the samples of brackish water after treatment with different biosorbents. (author)

  14. SU-E-J-70: Feasibility Study of Dynamic Arc and IMRT Treatment Plans Utilizing Vero Treatment Unit and IPlan Planning Computer for SRS/FSRT Brain Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, S; Lee, S; Dagan, R; Malyapa, R; Mendenhall, N; Mendenhall, W; Ho, M; Hough, D; Yam, M; Li, Z

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of utilizing Dynamic Arc (DA) and IMRT with 5mm MLC leaf of VERO treatment unit for SRS/FSRT brain cancer patients with non-invasive stereotactic treatments. The DA and IMRT plans using the VERO unit (BrainLab Inc, USA) are compared with cone-based planning and proton plans to evaluate their dosimetric advantages. Methods: The Vero treatment has unique features like no rotational or translational movements of the table during treatments, Dynamic Arc/IMRT, tracking of IR markers, limitation of Ring rotation. Accuracies of the image fusions using CBCT, orthogonal x-rays, and CT are evaluated less than ∼ 0.7mm with a custom-made target phantom with 18 hidden targets. 1mm margin is given to GTV to determine PTV for planning constraints considering all the uncertainties of planning computer and mechanical uncertainties of the treatment unit. Also, double-scattering proton plans with 6F to 9F beams and typical clinical parameters, multiple isocenter plans with 6 to 21 isocenters, and DA/IMRT plans are evaluated to investigate the dosimetric advantages of the DA/IMRT for complex shape of targets. Results: 3 Groups of the patients are divided: (1) Group A (complex target shape), CI's are same for IMRT, and DGI of the proton plan are better by 9.5% than that of the IMRT, (2) Group B, CI of the DA plans (1.91+/−0.4) are better than cone-based plan, while DGI of the DA plan is 4.60+/−1.1 is better than cone-based plan (5.32+/−1.4), (3) Group C (small spherical targets), CI of the DA and cone-based plans are almost the same. Conclusion: For small spherical targets, cone-based plans are superior to other 2 plans: DS proton and DA plans. For complex or irregular plans, dynamic and IMRT plans are comparable to cone-based and proton plans for complex targets

  15. The SRS data bank concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendell, A.; Cannon, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Systems Reliability Service (SRS), now incorporated into the National Centre of Systems Reliability (NCSR), was formed 13 years ago as a commercial undertaking at the instigation of the then Minister of Technology, to act as a focal point for the development of reliability technology from its outset in the Nuclear Industry, and even earlier in such specialized areas as the instrument and aircraft industries. NCSR was also required to encourage research at Universities and other organizations, and a commercial service was offered to industry for solving various reliability and availability problems. The Data Bank Unit, being the data-handling, process and analysis group of the NCSR, is described. (author)

  16. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water curative treatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrihsons, J.

    2011-01-01

    The device is made of two water containers (water that is intended to be activated) which are connected with a glass pipe in lower parts. In these containers disinfectant ultraviolet radiance “U” type luminescent light bulbs are placed which are connected to a mono-phase electrical power network from the shell surface spiral steel wire electrodes through a voltage duplicator. In water such harmless chemical composition coagulator is placed which automatically in the lower part of the connecting glass pipe creates residue hydra-gate that separates fractions of anion and cation. The lower parts of the containers are equipped with coal filter taps; mixing the anion and cation in equal proportions allows collecting single fractions of activated water selectively and gain drinking water which is refined from residues and processed antibacterially. (author)

  18. A prospective randomized controlled study on the treatment outcome of SpineCor brace versus rigid brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with follow-up according to the SRS standardized criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Lam, Tsz Ping; Wong, Man Sang; Ng, Bobby Kin Wah; Lee, Kwong Man; Liu, King Lok; Hung, Lik Hang; Lau, Ajax Hong Yin; Sin, Sai Wing; Kwok, Wing Kwan; Yu, Fiona Wai Ping; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun Yiu

    2014-12-01

    SpineCor is a relatively innovative brace for non-operative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, the effectiveness of SpineCor still remains controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the treatment outcomes of SpineCor brace with that of rigid brace following the standardized Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria on AIS brace study. Females subjects with AIS and aged 10-14 were randomly allocated into two groups undergoing treatment of SpineCor (S Group, n = 20) or rigid brace (R Group, n = 18). During SpineCor treatment, patients who had curve progression of >5° would be required to switch to rigid brace treatment. The effectiveness of the two brace treatments was assessed using the SRS standardized criteria. Before skeletal maturity, 7 (35.0%) patients in the S Group and 1 (5.6%) patient in the R Group had curve progression >5° (P = 0.026). At skeletal maturity, 5 of the 7 (71.4%) patients who failed with SpineCor bracing showed control from further progression by changing to rigid bracing. At the latest follow-up with a mean duration of 45.1 months after skeletally maturity, 29.4% of patients who were successfully treated by rigid brace showed further curve progression beyond skeletal maturity, versus 38.5% of patients in the SpineCor group (P > 0.05). For both groups, the primary curves were slightly improved at the time of brace weaning, but additionally increased at the latest follow-up, with a rate of 1.5° per year for post-maturity progression. Curve progression rate was found to be significantly higher in the SpineCor group when compared with the rigid brace group. Changing to rigid bracing could control further curve progression for majority of patients who previously failed with SpineCor bracing. For both SpineCor and rigid brace treatments, 30-40% of patients who were originally successfully treated by bracing would exhibit further curve progression beyond skeletal maturity. The post

  19. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  20. Mine water treatment in Donbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarenkov, P A; Anisimov, V M; Krol, V A

    1980-10-01

    About 2,000,000 m$SUP$3 of mine water are discharged by coal mines yearly to surface waters in the Donbass. Mine water in the region is rich in mineral salts and suspended matter (coal and rock particles). The DonUGI Institute developed a system of mine water treatment which permits the percentage of suspended matter to be reduced to 1.5 mg/l. The treated mine water can be used in fire fighting and in dust suppression systems in coal mines. A scheme of the water treatment system is shown. It consists of the following stages: reservoir of untreated mine water, chamber where mine water is mixed with reagents, primary sedimentation tanks, sand filters, and chlorination. Aluminium sulphate is used as a coagulation agent. To intensify coagulation polyacrylamide is added. Technical specifications of surface structures in which water treatment is carried out are discussed. Standardized mine water treatment systems with capacities of 600 m$SUP$3/h, with 900, 1200, 1500, 1800 and 2100 m$SUP$3/h capacities are used. (In Russian)

  1. Comparison of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus a stereotactic boost (WBRT + SRS) for one to three brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, Dirk [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Department of Radiation Oncology]|[University Medical Center, Hamburg (Germany). Department of Radiation Oncology; Kueter, Jan-Dirk; Dunst, Juergen [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Department of Radiation Oncology; Hornung, Dagmar [University Medical Center, Hamburg (Germany). Department of Radiation Oncology; Veninga, Theo; Hanssens, Patrick [Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands). Department of Radiation Oncology; Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States). Department of Radiation Oncology

    2008-12-15

    The best available treatment of patients with one to three brain metastases is still unclear. This study compared the results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus SRS (WBRT + SRS). Survival (OS), intracerebral control (IC), and local control of treated metastases (LC) were retrospectively analyzed in 144 patients receiving SRS alone (n = 93) or WBRT + SRS (n = 51). Eight additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG-PS), tumor type, number of brain metastases, extracerebral metastases, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, and interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation. Subgroup analyses were performed for RPA class I and II patients. 1-year-OS was 53% after SRS and 56% after WBRT + SRS (p = 0.24). 1-year-IC rates were 51% and 66% (p = 0.015), respectively. 1-year-LC rates were 66% and 87% (p = 0.003), respectively. On multivariate analyses, OS was associated with age (p = 0.004), ECOG-PS (p = 0.005), extracerebral metastases (p < 0.001), RPA class (p < 0.001), and interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation (p < 0.001). IC was associated with interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation (p = 0.004) and almost with treatment (p = 0.09), and LC with treatment (p = 0.026) and almost with interval (p = 0.08). The results of the subgroup analyses were similar to those of the entire cohort. The increase in IC was stronger in RPA class I patients. WBRT + SRS resulted in better IC and LC but not better OS than SRS alone. Because also IC and LC are important end-points, additional WBRT appears justified in patients with one to three brain metastases, in particular in RPA class I patients. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus a stereotactic boost (WBRT + SRS) for one to three brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; University Medical Center, Hamburg; Kueter, Jan-Dirk; Dunst, Juergen; Hornung, Dagmar; Veninga, Theo; Hanssens, Patrick; Schild, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The best available treatment of patients with one to three brain metastases is still unclear. This study compared the results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus SRS (WBRT + SRS). Survival (OS), intracerebral control (IC), and local control of treated metastases (LC) were retrospectively analyzed in 144 patients receiving SRS alone (n = 93) or WBRT + SRS (n = 51). Eight additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG-PS), tumor type, number of brain metastases, extracerebral metastases, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, and interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation. Subgroup analyses were performed for RPA class I and II patients. 1-year-OS was 53% after SRS and 56% after WBRT + SRS (p = 0.24). 1-year-IC rates were 51% and 66% (p = 0.015), respectively. 1-year-LC rates were 66% and 87% (p = 0.003), respectively. On multivariate analyses, OS was associated with age (p = 0.004), ECOG-PS (p = 0.005), extracerebral metastases (p < 0.001), RPA class (p < 0.001), and interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation (p < 0.001). IC was associated with interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation (p = 0.004) and almost with treatment (p = 0.09), and LC with treatment (p = 0.026) and almost with interval (p = 0.08). The results of the subgroup analyses were similar to those of the entire cohort. The increase in IC was stronger in RPA class I patients. WBRT + SRS resulted in better IC and LC but not better OS than SRS alone. Because also IC and LC are important end-points, additional WBRT appears justified in patients with one to three brain metastases, in particular in RPA class I patients. (orig.)

  3. WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SRS - MAKING IT HAPPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heenan, T. F.; Kelly, S.

    2002-01-01

    The past five years have witnessed a remarkable transition in the pace and scope of waste management activities at SRS. At the start of the new M and O contract in 1996, little was being done with the waste generated at the site apart from storing it in readiness for future treatment and disposal. Large volumes of legacy waste, particularly TRU and Low Level Waste, had accumulated over many years of operation of the site's nuclear facilities, and the backlog was increasing. WSRC proposed the use of the talents of the ''best in class'' partners for the new contract which, together with a more commercial approach, was expected to deliver more results without a concomitant increase in cost. This paper charts the successes in the Solid Waste arena and analyzes the basis for success

  4. Water treatments of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, John; Moore Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses and reviews nine water technologies. They are solar desalination, synthetic aquaporin membranes, microbial fuel cell and desalination, forward osmosis, resource recovery and brine managment, 'Smart' water grids, micropollutant treatment, the Cities of the Future program and high retention membrane bioreactors.

  5. Membrane technology water treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruzdev, E. N.; Starikov, E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The suggested technical solution, in contrast with the traditional treatment methods using pressure filtration and sorption cleaning, can be applied with minimal used for equipment, stable production and the use of reagents, prevention of the formation of waste water with high mineral content and avoid the need for neutralization of the main stream of waste water

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  7. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. High Throughput Plasma Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    The troublesome emergence of new classes of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, poses challenges for conventional water treatment systems. In an effort to address these contaminants and to support water reuse in drought stricken regions, new technologies must be introduced. The interaction of water with plasma rapidly mineralizes organics by inducing advanced oxidation in addition to other chemical, physical and radiative processes. The primary barrier to the implementation of plasma-based water treatment is process volume scale up. In this work, we investigate a potentially scalable, high throughput plasma water reactor that utilizes a packed bed dielectric barrier-like geometry to maximize the plasma-water interface. Here, the water serves as the dielectric medium. High-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the reactor discharges. Changes in methylene blue concentration and basic water parameters are mapped as a function of plasma treatment time. Experimental results are compared to electrostatic and plasma chemistry computations, which will provide insight into the reactor's operation so that efficiency can be assessed. Supported by NSF (CBET 1336375).

  9. Water Exchange Rate Constant as a Biomarker of Treatment Efficacy in Patients With Brain Metastases Undergoing Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrabian, Hatef, E-mail: hatef.mehrabian@sri.utoronto.ca [Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Desmond, Kimberly L. [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chavez, Sofia [Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bailey, Colleen [Computer Science Department, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Rola, Radoslaw [Neurosurgery and Pediatric Neurosurgery, Medical University, Lublin (Poland); Sahgal, Arjun [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Czarnota, Gregory J. [Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Soliman, Hany [Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Martel, Anne L. [Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Stanisz, Greg J. [Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Neurosurgery and Pediatric Neurosurgery, Medical University, Lublin (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate whether changes in metastatic brain tumors after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be seen with quantitative MRI early after treatment. Methods and Materials: Using contrast-enhanced MRI, a 3-water-compartment tissue model consisting of intracellular (I), extracellular-extravascular (E), and vascular (V) compartments was used to assess the intra–extracellular water exchange rate constant (k{sub IE}), efflux rate constant (k{sub ep}), and water compartment volume fractions (M{sub 0,I}, M{sub 0,E}, M{sub 0,V}). In this prospective study, 19 patients were MRI-scanned before treatment and 1 week and 1 month after SRS. The change in model parameters between the pretreatment and 1-week posttreatment scans was correlated to the change in tumor volume between pretreatment and 1-month posttreatment scans. Results: At 1 week k{sub IE} differentiated (P<.001) tumors that had partial response from tumors with stable and progressive disease, and a high correlation (R=−0.76, P<.001) was observed between early changes in the k{sub IE} and tumor volume change 1 month after treatment. Other model parameters had lower correlation (M{sub 0,E}) or no correlation (k{sub ep}, M{sub 0,V}). Conclusions: This is the first study that measured k{sub IE} early after SRS, and it found that early changes in k{sub IE} (1 week after treatment) highly correlated with long-term tumor response and could predict the extent of tumor shrinkage at 1 month after SRS.

  10. Water Exchange Rate Constant as a Biomarker of Treatment Efficacy in Patients With Brain Metastases Undergoing Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Desmond, Kimberly L.; Chavez, Sofia; Bailey, Colleen; Rola, Radoslaw; Sahgal, Arjun; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Soliman, Hany; Martel, Anne L.; Stanisz, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate whether changes in metastatic brain tumors after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be seen with quantitative MRI early after treatment. Methods and Materials: Using contrast-enhanced MRI, a 3-water-compartment tissue model consisting of intracellular (I), extracellular-extravascular (E), and vascular (V) compartments was used to assess the intra–extracellular water exchange rate constant (k IE ), efflux rate constant (k ep ), and water compartment volume fractions (M 0,I , M 0,E , M 0,V ). In this prospective study, 19 patients were MRI-scanned before treatment and 1 week and 1 month after SRS. The change in model parameters between the pretreatment and 1-week posttreatment scans was correlated to the change in tumor volume between pretreatment and 1-month posttreatment scans. Results: At 1 week k IE differentiated (P<.001) tumors that had partial response from tumors with stable and progressive disease, and a high correlation (R=−0.76, P<.001) was observed between early changes in the k IE and tumor volume change 1 month after treatment. Other model parameters had lower correlation (M 0,E ) or no correlation (k ep , M 0,V ). Conclusions: This is the first study that measured k IE early after SRS, and it found that early changes in k IE (1 week after treatment) highly correlated with long-term tumor response and could predict the extent of tumor shrinkage at 1 month after SRS.

  11. Waste water treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Badulescu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

  12. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells

  13. Citrus processing waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawash, S; Hafez, A J; El-Diwani, G

    1988-02-01

    The process utilizes biological treatment to decompose organic matter and decreases the COD to a value of 230 ppm, using 161 of air per 1 of treated waste water for a contact time of 2.5 h. Ozone is used subsequently for further purification of the waste water by destroying refractory organics. This reduces the COD to a value of 40 ppm, and consequently also lowers the BOD. Ozone also effectively removed the yellow-brown colour due to humic substances in dissolved or colloidal form; their oxidation leaves the water sparkling. Iron and manganese are also eliminated.

  14. TU-A-BRB-00: PANEL DISCUSSION: SBRT/SRS Case Studies - Brain and Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are commonly treated by a multidisciplinary team of neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists. However the treatment objectives, constraints, and technical considerations involved can be quite different between the two techniques. In this interactive session an expert panel of speakers will present clinical brain SRS and spine SBRT cases in order to demonstrate real-world considerations for ensuring safe and accurate treatment delivery and to highlight the significant differences in approach for each treatment site. The session will include discussion of topic such as clinical indications, immobilization, target definition, normal tissue tolerance limits, and beam arrangements. Learning Objectives: Understand the differences in indications and dose/fractionation strategies for intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Describe the different treatment modalities which can be used to deliver intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Cite the major differences in treatment setup and delivery principles between intracranial and spine treatments. Identify key critical structures and clinical dosimetric tolerance levels for spine SBRT and intracranial SRS. Understand areas of ongoing work to standardize intracranial SRS and spine SBRT procedures. Schlesinger: Research support: Elekta Instruments, AB; D. Schlesinger, Elekta Instruments, AB - research support; B. Winey, No relevant external funding for this subject.

  15. TU-A-BRB-00: PANEL DISCUSSION: SBRT/SRS Case Studies - Brain and Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are commonly treated by a multidisciplinary team of neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists. However the treatment objectives, constraints, and technical considerations involved can be quite different between the two techniques. In this interactive session an expert panel of speakers will present clinical brain SRS and spine SBRT cases in order to demonstrate real-world considerations for ensuring safe and accurate treatment delivery and to highlight the significant differences in approach for each treatment site. The session will include discussion of topic such as clinical indications, immobilization, target definition, normal tissue tolerance limits, and beam arrangements. Learning Objectives: Understand the differences in indications and dose/fractionation strategies for intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Describe the different treatment modalities which can be used to deliver intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Cite the major differences in treatment setup and delivery principles between intracranial and spine treatments. Identify key critical structures and clinical dosimetric tolerance levels for spine SBRT and intracranial SRS. Understand areas of ongoing work to standardize intracranial SRS and spine SBRT procedures. Schlesinger: Research support: Elekta Instruments, AB; D. Schlesinger, Elekta Instruments, AB - research support; B. Winey, No relevant external funding for this subject.

  16. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy

  17. Security of water treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsha, C.A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, Johnstowne, PA (United States)

    2002-06-15

    The safety of the nation's water supply is at risk. Although harm may or may not be done to water sources, the fear is definitely a factor. No matter what size system supplies water, the community will expect increased security. Decisions must be made as to how much will be spent on security and what measures will be taken with the money. Small systems often have a difficult time in finding a direction to focus on. Physical and electronic protection is less involved because of the scale of service. Biological contamination is difficult to prevent if the assailants are determined. Small-scale water storage and low magnitudes of flow increase a contamination threat. Large systems have a size advantage when dealing with biological contamination because of the dilution factor, but physical and electronic protection is more involved. Large-scale systems are more likely to overlook components. A balance is maintained through anything dealing with the public. Having greater assurance that water quality will be maintained comes at the cost of knowing less about how water is protected and treated, and being banned from public land within watersheds that supply drinking water. Whether good or bad ideas are being implemented, security of water treatment facilities is changing. (author)

  18. Security of water treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsha, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The safety of the nation's water supply is at risk. Although harm may or may not be done to water sources, the fear is definitely a factor. No matter what size system supplies water, the community will expect increased security. Decisions must be made as to how much will be spent on security and what measures will be taken with the money. Small systems often have a difficult time in finding a direction to focus on. Physical and electronic protection is less involved because of the scale of service. Biological contamination is difficult to prevent if the assailants are determined. Small-scale water storage and low magnitudes of flow increase a contamination threat. Large systems have a size advantage when dealing with biological contamination because of the dilution factor, but physical and electronic protection is more involved. Large-scale systems are more likely to overlook components. A balance is maintained through anything dealing with the public. Having greater assurance that water quality will be maintained comes at the cost of knowing less about how water is protected and treated, and being banned from public land within watersheds that supply drinking water. Whether good or bad ideas are being implemented, security of water treatment facilities is changing. (author)

  19. Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis according to FITS concept: presentation of the method and preliminary, short term radiological and clinical results based on SOSORT and SRS criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Conservative scoliosis therapy according to the FITS Concept is applied as a unique treatment or in combination with corrective bracing. The aim of the study was to present author's method of diagnosis and therapy for idiopathic scoliosis FITS-Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis and to analyze the early results of FITS therapy in a series of consecutive patients. Methods The analysis comprised separately: (1) single structural thoracic, thoracolumbar or lumbar curves and (2) double structural scoliosis-thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves. The Cobb angle and Risser sign were analyzed at the initial stage and at the 2.8-year follow-up. The percentage of patients improved (defined as decrease of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees), stable (+/- 5 degrees), and progressed (increase of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees) was calculated. The clinical assessment comprised: the Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR) initial and follow-up value, the plumb line imbalance, the scapulae level and the distance from the apical spinous process of the primary curve to the plumb line. Results In the Group A: (1) in single structural scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 46,2% were stable and 3,8% progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 30,8% were stable and 19,2% progressed. In the Group B: (1) in single scoliosis 20,0% of patients improved, 80,0% were stable, no patient progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 28,1% of patients improved, 46,9% were stable and 25,0% progressed. Conclusion Best results were obtained in 10-25 degrees scoliosis which is a good indication to start therapy before more structural changes within the spine establish. PMID:22122964

  20. Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis according to FITS concept: presentation of the method and preliminary, short term radiological and clinical results based on SOSORT and SRS criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białek Marianna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conservative scoliosis therapy according to the FITS Concept is applied as a unique treatment or in combination with corrective bracing. The aim of the study was to present author's method of diagnosis and therapy for idiopathic scoliosis FITS-Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis and to analyze the early results of FITS therapy in a series of consecutive patients. Methods The analysis comprised separately: (1 single structural thoracic, thoracolumbar or lumbar curves and (2 double structural scoliosis-thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves. The Cobb angle and Risser sign were analyzed at the initial stage and at the 2.8-year follow-up. The percentage of patients improved (defined as decrease of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees, stable (+/- 5 degrees, and progressed (increase of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees was calculated. The clinical assessment comprised: the Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR initial and follow-up value, the plumb line imbalance, the scapulae level and the distance from the apical spinous process of the primary curve to the plumb line. Results In the Group A: (1 in single structural scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 46,2% were stable and 3,8% progressed, while (2 in double scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 30,8% were stable and 19,2% progressed. In the Group B: (1 in single scoliosis 20,0% of patients improved, 80,0% were stable, no patient progressed, while (2 in double scoliosis 28,1% of patients improved, 46,9% were stable and 25,0% progressed. Conclusion Best results were obtained in 10-25 degrees scoliosis which is a good indication to start therapy before more structural changes within the spine establish.

  1. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L.

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and 137 Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor

  2. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and {sup 137}Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  3. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and [sup 137]Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  4. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  5. Postoperative Perfection: Ceiling Effects and Lack of Discrimination With Both SRS-22 and -24 Outcomes Instruments in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2015-12-01

    Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P self-image (P self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of treatment are crucial in advancing treatment, and improvement in the ability to assess subjective outcomes is essential. 3.

  6. Defining the Glass Composition Limits for SRS Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Crews, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated soil resulting from the excavation, repair, and decommissioning of facilities located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently being disposed of by shallow land burial or is being stored when considered only hazardous. Vitrification of this waste is being investigated, since it will bind the hazardous and radioactive species in a stable and durable glass matrix, which will reduce the risk of ground water contamination. However, the composition limits for producing durable glass have to be determined before the technology can be applied. Glass compositions, consisting of SRS soil and glass forming additives, were tested on a crucible-scale in three ternary phase systems. Nine different glass compositions were produced, with waste loadings ranging from 43 to 58 weight percent. These were characterized using varoius chemical methods and tested for durability in both alkaline and acidic environments. All nine performed well in alkaline environments, but only three met the strictest criteria for the acidic environment tests. Although the glasses did not meet all of the limits for the acidic tests, the test was performed on very conservative size samples, so the results were also conservative. Therefore, enough evidence was found to provide proof that SRS soil can be vitrified in a durable glass matrix

  7. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Panching Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.; Hadi, Iqmal H.

    2018-03-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is scarce and overexploited. The purpose of this study is to determine the water footprint of Water Supply Treatment Process (WSTP) at Panching Water Treatment Plant (WTP) as well as to identify the sustainability of the Sg. Kuantan as an intake resource due to the effect of land use development. The total water footprint (WF) will be calculated by using WF accounting manual. The results obtained shows that the water intake resource is still available but it is believed that it will not be able to cope with the increasing WF. The increment of water demand percentage by 1.8% from 2015 to 2016 has increased 11 times higher of the water footprint percentage, 19.9%. This result shows that the water consumption during the water supply treatment process is two times higher than the demand thus it shows the inefficient of the water management

  8. Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rear, M.G.; Steele, J.L.; Kitchen, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) [formerly the Savannah River Plant (SRP)] comprise one of the most comprehensive and extensive environmental monitoring programs in the United States. This overview contains monitoring data from routine and nonroutine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing of environmental permits (Appendix A) issued by regulatory agencies. This overview provides information about the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment. The SRS occupies a large area of approximately 300 square miles along the Savannah River, principally in Aiken and Barnwell counties of South Carolina. SRS's primary function is the production of tritium, plutonium, and other special nuclear materials for national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. From August 1950 to March 31, 1989, SRS was operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by E. I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Co. On April 1, 1989 the Westinghouse Savannah River Company assumed responsibility as the prime contractor for the Savannah River Site

  9. Initial clinical results of linac stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Alexander, Eben; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Richardson, Gary E.; McL Black, Peter; Loeffler, Jay S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial clinical results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas with regard to tumor control and toxicity of the treatment, thus evaluate the feasibility of these technique for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. Subjects and Methods: 48 patients with either inoperable, recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma who underwent either SRS or SRT at the Brigham and Women's Hospital between 9/89 and 9/95 were analyzed. Of these, 18 received treatment with SRS, and 30 received SRT. SRS was contraindicated for the patients in whom the minimal distance of the target and optic chiasm or optic nerve was less than 5 mm. Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups, with the exception of tumor volume and previous irradiation. Median tumor volumes were 1.8 cm 3 and 7.7 cm 3 for SRS and SRT, respectively. Three of the SRS and none of the SRT patients had a history of previous external radiation therapy. Both SRS and SRT were performed by the use of dedicated stereotactic 6-MV linear accelerator with a treatment plan designed using a dedicated software. Doses were prescribed to the isodose distribution that covered the identified target. Dose and normalization used for SRS varied from 1000 cGy at 85 % isodose line to 1800 cGy at 80 % isodose line. For SRT patients, total dose of 4500 cGy was normalized at 90 or 95 % isodose line and this was delivered in 25 fractions of 180 cGy daily dose. Results: Local control: There was 1 case of local failure in each of SRS and SRT series (median follow up 42.5 months and 22 month, respectively). CNS adverse effects: There were 3 SRS cases in whom a ring enhancement in the temporal lobe was observed in follow-up MRI. (median follow up 32 months). Of these, one resolved spontaneously, whereas the other 2 lesion persisted and considered to be radiation necrosis. None of them required surgical intervention to date. These were observed in the

  10. Radiobiological basis of SBRT and SRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang W; Kim, Mi-Sook; Cho, L Chinsoo; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Sperduto, Paul W

    2014-08-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have been demonstrated to be highly effective for a variety of tumors. However, the radiobiological principles of SBRT and SRS have not yet been clearly defined. It is well known that newly formed tumor blood vessels are fragile and extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Various lines of evidence indicate that irradiation of tumors with high dose per fraction, i.e. >10 Gy per fraction, not only kills tumor cells but also causes significant damage in tumor vasculatures. Such vascular damage and ensuing deterioration of the intratumor environment then cause ischemic or indirect/secondary tumor cell death within a few days after radiation exposure, indicating that vascular damage plays an important role in the response of tumors to SBRT and SRS. Indications are that the extensive tumor cell death due to the direct effect of radiation on tumor cells and the secondary effect through vascular damage may lead to massive release of tumor-associated antigens and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby triggering an anti-tumor immune response. However, the precise role of immune assault on tumor cells in SBRT and SRS has not yet been clearly defined. The "4 Rs" for conventional fractionated radiotherapy do not include indirect cell death and thus 4 Rs cannot account for the effective tumor control by SBRT and SRS. The linear-quadratic model is for cell death caused by DNA breaks and thus the usefulness of this model for ablative high-dose SBRT and SRS is limited.

  11. The SRS analytical laboratories strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiland, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    There is an acute shortage of Savannah River Site (SRS) analytical laboratory capacity to support key Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management (EM) programs while making the transition from traditional defense program (DP) missions as a result of the cessation of the Cold War. This motivated Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to develop an open-quotes Analytical Laboratories Strategic Planclose quotes (ALSP) in order to provide appropriate input to SRS operating plans and justification for proposed analytical laboratory projects. The methodology used to develop this plan is applicable to all types of strategic planning

  12. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly

  13. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  14. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas

  15. Membrane technology revolutionizes water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderer, P A; Paris, S

    2007-01-01

    Membranes play a crucial role in living cells, plants and animals. They not only serve as barriers between the inside and outside world of cells and organs. More importantly, they are means of selective transport of materials and host for biochemical conversion. Natural membrane systems have demonstrated efficiency and reliability for millions of years and it is remarkable that most of these systems are small, efficient and highly reliable even under rapidly changing ambient conditions. Thus, it appears to be advisable for technology developers to keep a close eye on Mother Nature. By doing so it is most likely that ideas for novel technical solutions are born. Following the concept of natural systems it is hypothesized that the Millennium Development Goals can be best met when counting on small water and wastewater treatment systems. The core of such systems could be membranes in which chemical reactions are integrated allowing recovery and direct utilization of valuable substances.

  16. SU-F-T-574: MLC Based SRS Beam Commissioning - Minimum Target Size Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakikhani, R [Florida Cancer Specialists - Largo, Largo, FL (United States); Able, C [Florida Cancer Specialists - New Port Richey, New Port Richey, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement a MLC accelerator based SRS program using small fields down to 1 cm × 1 cm and to determine the smallest target size safe for clinical treatment. Methods: Computerized beam scanning was performed in water using a diode detector and a linac-head attached transmission ion chamber to characterize the small field dosimetric aspects of a 6 MV photon beam (Trilogy-Varian Medical Systems, Inc.). The output factors, PDD and profiles of field sizes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10 cm{sup 2} were measured and utilized to create a new treatment planning system (TPS) model (AAA ver 11021). Static MLC SRS treatment plans were created and delivered to a homogeneous phantom (Cube 20, CIRS, Inc.) for a 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm “PTV” target. A 12 field DMLC plan was created for a 2.1 cm target. Radiochromic film (EBT3, Ashland Inc.) was used to measure the planar dose in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes. A micro ion chamber (0.007 cc) was used to measure the dose at isocenter for each treatment delivery. Results: The new TPS model was validated by using a tolerance criteria of 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement. For fields ≤ 3 cm{sup 2}, the max PDD, Profile and OF difference was 0.9%, 2%/2mm and 1.4% respectively. The measured radiochromic film planar dose distributions had gamma scores of 95.3% or higher using a 3%/2mm criteria. Ion chamber measurements for all 3 test plans effectively met our goal of delivering the dose accurately to within 5% when compared to the expected dose reported by the TPS (1 cm plan Δ= −5.2%, 1.5 cm plan Δ= −2.0%, 2 cm plan Δ= 1.5%). Conclusion: End to end testing confirmed that MLC defined SRS for target sizes ≥ 1.0 cm can be safely planned and delivered.

  17. Water purification by corona-above-water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced oxidation technologies (AOT), such as non-thermal plasmas, are considered to be very promising for the purpose of water treatment. The goal of this study is to test the feasibility of "Corona-above-water" technology for the treatment of drinking water. Experiments have been performed on the

  18. Economics of mine water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Jaroslav; Vidlář, Jiří; Štěrba, Jiří; Heviánková, Silvie; Vaněk, Michal; Barták, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Mine water poses a significant problem in lignite coal mining. The drainage of mine water is the fundamental prerequisite of mining operations. Under the legislation of the Czech Republic, mine water that discharges into surface watercourse is subject to the permission of the state administration body in the water management sector. The permission also stipulates the limits for mine water pollution. Therefore, mine water has to be purified prior to discharge. Although all...

  19. Roadmap to the SRS computing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.

    1994-07-05

    This document outlines the major steps that must be taken by the Savannah River Site (SRS) to migrate the SRS information technology (IT) environment to the new architecture described in the Savannah River Site Computing Architecture. This document proposes an IT environment that is {open_quotes}...standards-based, data-driven, and workstation-oriented, with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.{close_quotes} Achieving this vision will require many substantial changes in the computing applications, systems, and supporting infrastructure at the site. This document consists of a set of roadmaps which provide explanations of the necessary changes for IT at the site and describes the milestones that must be completed to finish the migration.

  20. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities

  1. The development of optimization protocol in SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S. J.; Suh, T. S.; Lee, H. K.; Choe, B. Y.

    2002-01-01

    In an operation of stereotactic radiosurgery(SRS), a high dose must be delivered to a target region while a normal tissue region must be spared. Using dose distribution which fits in a target region satisfies this purpose. This is solved by using data bases through the simple patient model simulating the brain model and the tumor region. The objective of this research is to develop brain model with tumor based on pseudo coordinate and systematic optimization protocol and to construct data base(DB) about beam parameters such as position and number of isocenter and collimator size. The normal tissue region of patient can be spared by DB in a operation of SRS

  2. The development of optimization protocol in SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S. J.; Suh, T. S.; Lee, H. K.; Choe, B. Y. [The Catholic Univ., of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    In an operation of stereotactic radiosurgery(SRS), a high dose must be delivered to a target region while a normal tissue region must be spared. Using dose distribution which fits in a target region satisfies this purpose. This is solved by using data bases through the simple patient model simulating the brain model and the tumor region. The objective of this research is to develop brain model with tumor based on pseudo coordinate and systematic optimization protocol and to construct data base(DB) about beam parameters such as position and number of isocenter and collimator size. The normal tissue region of patient can be spared by DB in a operation of SRS.

  3. RIBDB: An SRS Based Infrastructure for REALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine de Daruvar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The REALIS project is an EU-funded consortium for the post genomic analysis of the food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The data generated by the consortium members is stored under the RIBDB database, a system built using SRS which integrates consortium data, public databases, and applications for analysis. RIBDB is available to all consortium members through a web server, with the option of installing a local mirror of the main server for local analysis.

  4. TH-C-BRC-03: Emerging Linac Based SRS/SBRT Technologies with Modulated Arc Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, L.

    2016-01-01

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  5. TH-C-BRC-01: An Overview of Emerging Technologies in SRS/SBRT Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  6. TH-C-BRC-00: Emerging Technologies in SRS/SBRT Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  7. TH-C-BRC-02: A Review of Emerging Technologies in Robotic SRS/SBRT Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. [Stanford University Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  8. TH-C-BRC-01: An Overview of Emerging Technologies in SRS/SBRT Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L. [UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  9. TH-C-BRC-03: Emerging Linac Based SRS/SBRT Technologies with Modulated Arc Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, L. [Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  10. TH-C-BRC-00: Emerging Technologies in SRS/SBRT Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  11. TH-C-BRC-02: A Review of Emerging Technologies in Robotic SRS/SBRT Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    2016-01-01

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  12. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  13. Waste water treatment today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The papers discuss waste water treatment in the legislation of the EC, the German state, the Laender and communities, as well as water protection by preventing waste production and pollutant emissions. (EF) [de

  14. MWH's water treatment: principles and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crittenden, John C

    2012-01-01

    ... with additional worked problems and new treatment approaches. It covers both the principles and theory of water treatment as well as the practical considerations of plant design and distribution...

  15. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....

  16. Towards frameless maskless SRS through real-time 6DoF robotic motion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Andrew H.; Liu, Xinmin; Chmura, Steven; Yenice, Kamil; Wiersma, Rodney D.

    2017-12-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) uses precise dose placement to treat conditions of the CNS. Frame-based SRS uses a metal head ring fixed to the patient’s skull to provide high treatment accuracy, but patient comfort and clinical workflow may suffer. Frameless SRS, while potentially more convenient, may increase uncertainty of treatment accuracy and be physiologically confining to some patients. By incorporating highly precise robotics and advanced software algorithms into frameless treatments, we present a novel frameless and maskless SRS system where a robot provides real-time 6DoF head motion stabilization allowing positional accuracies to match or exceed those of traditional frame-based SRS. A 6DoF parallel kinematics robot was developed and integrated with a real-time infrared camera in a closed loop configuration. A novel compensation algorithm was developed based on an iterative closest-path correction approach. The robotic SRS system was tested on six volunteers, whose motion was monitored and compensated for in real-time over 15 min simulated treatments. The system’s effectiveness in maintaining the target’s 6DoF position within preset thresholds was determined by comparing volunteer head motion with and without compensation. Comparing corrected and uncorrected motion, the 6DoF robotic system showed an overall improvement factor of 21 in terms of maintaining target position within 0.5 mm and 0.5 degree thresholds. Although the system’s effectiveness varied among the volunteers examined, for all volunteers tested the target position remained within the preset tolerances 99.0% of the time when robotic stabilization was used, compared to 4.7% without robotic stabilization. The pre-clinical robotic SRS compensation system was found to be effective at responding to sub-millimeter and sub-degree cranial motions for all volunteers examined. The system’s success with volunteers has demonstrated its capability for implementation with frameless and

  17. Towards frameless maskless SRS through real-time 6DoF robotic motion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Andrew H; Liu, Xinmin; Chmura, Steven; Yenice, Kamil; Wiersma, Rodney D

    2017-11-13

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) uses precise dose placement to treat conditions of the CNS. Frame-based SRS uses a metal head ring fixed to the patient's skull to provide high treatment accuracy, but patient comfort and clinical workflow may suffer. Frameless SRS, while potentially more convenient, may increase uncertainty of treatment accuracy and be physiologically confining to some patients. By incorporating highly precise robotics and advanced software algorithms into frameless treatments, we present a novel frameless and maskless SRS system where a robot provides real-time 6DoF head motion stabilization allowing positional accuracies to match or exceed those of traditional frame-based SRS. A 6DoF parallel kinematics robot was developed and integrated with a real-time infrared camera in a closed loop configuration. A novel compensation algorithm was developed based on an iterative closest-path correction approach. The robotic SRS system was tested on six volunteers, whose motion was monitored and compensated for in real-time over 15 min simulated treatments. The system's effectiveness in maintaining the target's 6DoF position within preset thresholds was determined by comparing volunteer head motion with and without compensation. Comparing corrected and uncorrected motion, the 6DoF robotic system showed an overall improvement factor of 21 in terms of maintaining target position within 0.5 mm and 0.5 degree thresholds. Although the system's effectiveness varied among the volunteers examined, for all volunteers tested the target position remained within the preset tolerances 99.0% of the time when robotic stabilization was used, compared to 4.7% without robotic stabilization. The pre-clinical robotic SRS compensation system was found to be effective at responding to sub-millimeter and sub-degree cranial motions for all volunteers examined. The system's success with volunteers has demonstrated its capability for implementation with frameless and maskless SRS

  18. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  19. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  20. Effluent and water treatment at AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes at Harwell is based on two main principles: separation of surface water, domestic sewage, trade wastes and radioactive effluents at source, and a system of holding tanks which are sampled so that the appropriate treatment can be given to any batch. All discharges are subject to independent monitoring by the authorising departments and the Thames Water Inspectors. (author)

  1. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  2. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  3. SU-F-T-638: Is There A Need For Immobilization in SRS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masterova, K; Sethi, A; Anderson, D; Prabhu, V; Rusu, I; Gros, S; Melian, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Frameless Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used in the clinic. Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) to simulation-CT match has replaced the 3-dimensional coordinate based set up using a stereotactic localizing frame. The SRS frame however served as both a localizing and immobilizing device. We seek to measure the quality of frameless (mask based) and frame based immobilization and evaluate its impact on target dose. Methods: Each SRS patient was set up by kV on-board imaging (OBI) and then fine-tuned with CBCT. A second CBCT was done at treatment-end to ascertain intrafraction motion. We compared pre- vs post-treatment CBCT shifts for both frameless and frame based SRS patients. CBCT to sim-CT fusion was repeated for each patient off-line to assess systematic residual image registration error. Each patient was re-planned with measured shifts to assess effects on target dose. Results: We analyzed 11 patients (12 lesions) treated with frameless SRS and 6 patients (11 lesions) with a fixed frame system. Average intra-fraction iso-center positioning errors for frameless and frame-based treatments were 1.24 ± 0.57 mm and 0.28 ± 0.08 mm (mean ± s.d.) respectively. Residual error in CBCT registration was 0.24 mm. The frameless positioning uncertainties led to target dose errors in Dmin and D95 of 15.5 ± 18.4% and 6.6 ± 9.1% respectively. The corresponding errors in fixed frame SRS were much lower with Dmin and D95 reduced by 4.2 ± 6.5% and D95 2.5 ± 3.8% respectively. Conclusion: Frameless mask provides good immobilization with average patient motion of 1.2 mm during treatment. This exceeds MRI voxel dimensions (∼0.43mm) used for target delineation. Frame-based SRS provides superior patient immobilization with measureable movement no greater than the background noise of the CBCT registration. Small lesions requiring submm precision are better served with a frame based SRS.

  4. SU-F-T-638: Is There A Need For Immobilization in SRS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masterova, K; Sethi, A; Anderson, D; Prabhu, V; Rusu, I; Gros, S; Melian, E [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Frameless Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used in the clinic. Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) to simulation-CT match has replaced the 3-dimensional coordinate based set up using a stereotactic localizing frame. The SRS frame however served as both a localizing and immobilizing device. We seek to measure the quality of frameless (mask based) and frame based immobilization and evaluate its impact on target dose. Methods: Each SRS patient was set up by kV on-board imaging (OBI) and then fine-tuned with CBCT. A second CBCT was done at treatment-end to ascertain intrafraction motion. We compared pre- vs post-treatment CBCT shifts for both frameless and frame based SRS patients. CBCT to sim-CT fusion was repeated for each patient off-line to assess systematic residual image registration error. Each patient was re-planned with measured shifts to assess effects on target dose. Results: We analyzed 11 patients (12 lesions) treated with frameless SRS and 6 patients (11 lesions) with a fixed frame system. Average intra-fraction iso-center positioning errors for frameless and frame-based treatments were 1.24 ± 0.57 mm and 0.28 ± 0.08 mm (mean ± s.d.) respectively. Residual error in CBCT registration was 0.24 mm. The frameless positioning uncertainties led to target dose errors in Dmin and D95 of 15.5 ± 18.4% and 6.6 ± 9.1% respectively. The corresponding errors in fixed frame SRS were much lower with Dmin and D95 reduced by 4.2 ± 6.5% and D95 2.5 ± 3.8% respectively. Conclusion: Frameless mask provides good immobilization with average patient motion of 1.2 mm during treatment. This exceeds MRI voxel dimensions (∼0.43mm) used for target delineation. Frame-based SRS provides superior patient immobilization with measureable movement no greater than the background noise of the CBCT registration. Small lesions requiring submm precision are better served with a frame based SRS.

  5. Report on SRS activities to March, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, I.H.

    1981-10-01

    In this first Annual Report on synchrotron radiation research and related activities since the completion of the storage ring (the SRS) at Daresbury Laboratory a summary is given of progress on the storage ring itself, on beamlines, experimental stations, data acquisition and processing facilities and on the build-up of ancillary laboratories and equipment. In appendices a bibliography of synchrotron radiation research publications from March 1977 to March 1981 and a cumulative list of research grants and agreements approved by the SRFC from March 1977 to March 1981 are given. (U.K.)

  6. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigate water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of output water chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerates to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30 %. output water chemistry agree with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined.5 fig., 3 tab

  7. SU-G-TeP2-12: IROCHouston and MDAPL SRS Anthropomorphic Phantom Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molineu, A; Kry, S; Alvarez, P; Hernandez, N; Nguyen, T; Followill, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of SRS phantom irradiations Methods: Anthropomorphic SRS head phantoms were sent to institutions participating in NCI sponsored SRS clinical trials and institutions interested in verifying SRS treatment delivery. The phantom shell was purchased from Phantom Laboratory and altered to house dosimetry and imaging inserts. The imaging insert has 1.9 cm diameter spherical target. The dosimetry insert holds two TLD capsules and radiochromic film in the coronal and sagittal planes through the center of the target. Institutions were asked to image, plan and treat the phantom as they would an SRS patient. GammaKnife, CyberKnife and c-arm accelerator institutions were asked to cover the target with 15 Gy, 20 Gy and 25 Gy, respectively. Following these guidelines and typical planning protocols for these three types of machines gives roughly 30 Gy to the center of the target for all units. Submission of the DICOM digital data set was required for analysis. Criteria of 5% for TLD results and 85% of pixels passing 5%/3mm gamma analysis were applied beginning in 2013. Results: The phantom was analyzed 269 times between the beginning of 2013 to present. The pass rate is 81%. Nineteen of the irradiation results failed only the TLD criteria, 19 failed only the film criteria and 12 failed both. Irradiations included 32 CyberKnife 23 GammaKnife, 3 TomoTherapy and 211 c-arm units. Planning systems included Eclipse, Ergo, GammaPlan, Hi-Art, iPlan, Monaco, MultiPlan, Pinnacle, RayStation, XiO and XKnife. Irradiations that were not accompanied with DICOM data were not included in this analysis. Conclusion: The phantom is a valuable end-to-end test used to independently verify the accuracy of SRS treatment delivery. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI.

  8. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Semambu Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Hadi, Iqmal H.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the assessment by using Water Footprint (WF) approach was conducted to assess water consumption within the water supply treatment process (WSTP) services of Semambu Water Treatment Plant (WTP). Identification of the type of WF at each stage of WSTP was carried out and later the WF accounting for the period 2010 – 2016 was calculated. Several factors that might influence the accounting such as population, and land use. The increasing value of total WF per year was due to the increasing water demand from population and land use activities. However, the pattern of rainfall intensity from the monsoonal changes was not majorly affected the total amount of WF per year. As a conclusion, if the value of WF per year keeps increasing due to unregulated development in addition to the occurrences of climate changing, the intake river water will be insufficient and may lead to water scarcity. The findings in this study suggest actions to reduce the WF will likely have a great impact on freshwater resources availability and sustainability.

  9. Water treatment for 500 MWe PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasist, Sudheer; Sharma, M.C.; Agarwal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of treated water is required for power generation. For a typical 500 MWe PHWR inland station with cooling towers, raw water at the rate of 6000 m 3 /hr is required. Impurities in cooling water give rise to the problems of corrosion, scaling, microbiological contamination, fouling, silical deposition etc. These problems lead to increased maintenance cost, reduced heat transfer efficiency, and possible production cut backs or shutdowns. The problems in coastal based power plants are more serious because of the highly corrosive nature of sea water used for cooling. An overview of the cooling water systems and water treatment method is enumerated. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  10. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  11. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure

  12. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  13. Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems For Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m 3 per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m 3 of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m 3 per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m 3 of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during the first season of

  14. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-07-19

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during

  15. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigates water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of outwater chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerants to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic-meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30%. Output water chemistry agrees with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined

  16. Waste water treatment in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navasardyants, M A; Esipov, V Z; Ryzhkov, Yu A

    1981-01-01

    This paper evaluates problems associated with waste water from coal surface mines of the Kemerovougol' association in the Kuzbass. Waste water treatment in the Kuzbass is of major importance as the region is supplied with water from only one river, the Tom river. Water influx to Kemerovougol' surface mines in a year amounts to 136 million m/sup 3/. The water is used during technological processes, for fire fighting, and spraying to prevent dusting; the rest, about 82.1 million m/sup 3/, is discharged into surface waters. Of this amount, 25.1 million m/sup 3/ is heavily polluted water, 46.6 million m3 are polluted but within limits, and 10.4 million m/sup 3/ are characterized as relatively clean. Waste water is polluted with: suspended matters, oils and oil products, nitrates, nitrides and chlorides. Suspended matter content sometimes reaches 4,000 and 5,000 mg/l, and oil product content in water amounts to 2.17 mg/l. Water treatment in surface mines is two-staged: sumps and sedimentation tanks are used. Water with suspended matter content of 50 to 100 mg/l in winter and summer, and 200 to 250 mg/l in spring and autumn is reduced in sumps to 25 to 30 mg/l in summer and winter and to 40 to 50 mg/l in autumn and spring. During the first stage water treatment efficiency ranges from 50 to 80%. During the second stage water is collected in sedimentation tanks. It is noted that so-called secondary pollution is one of the causes of the relatively high level of suspended matter in discharged water. Water discharged from sedimentation tanks carries clay and loam particles from the bottom and walls of water tanks and channels.

  17. Comparison of Srs-24 And Srs-22 Scores in Thirty Eight Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Who Had Undergone Surgical Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CYW Chan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity that affects patients’ self image and confidence. Surgery is offered when the curvature is greater than 50 degrees based on the likelihood of curvature progression. Outcome measures for scoliosis correction can be described in terms of radiological improvement or improvement of health related quality of life scores. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22 and Scoliosis Research Society 24 (SRS-24 questionnaires are widely accepted and used to characterize clinical results. Therefore, this prospective study of 38 patients aims to investigate how the SRS-24 and SRS-22 questionnaires compare to each other in terms of scoring when the same group of patients is evaluated. The SRS-22 questionnaire tends to give an inflated value in the overall score, pain and self image domain compared to the SRS-24 questionnaire.

  18. Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, F.A.; Doma, H.S.; El-Shafai, S.A.; Abdel-HaJim, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O 2 /l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O 2 /l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

  19. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ursino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  20. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Claudia; Castro-Muñoz, Roberto; Drioli, Enrico; Gzara, Lassaad; Albeirutty, Mohammad H; Figoli, Alberto

    2018-04-03

    The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  1. A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, MaryTheresa M.; Hoek, Eric M.V.

    2011-01-01

    readiness was based on known or anticipated material costs, scalability (for large scale water treatment applications), and compatibility with existing manufacturing infrastructure. Overall, bio-inspired membranes are farthest from commercial reality

  2. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  3. Sewage water treatment by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M.A.; Othman, I.

    1999-06-01

    Irradiation of the outlet wastewater from Adra Plant shows that radiation sensitivity for the total count of the microorganism, fungi, and pathogenic microorganism were 0.328, 0.327, 0.305 kGy respectively at 3.4 kGy/h. No Ascaris Lumbricoides eggs were found. These results show that radiation technology in wastewater treatment at Adra Plant for reuse in irrigation safely from microbial point of view can be applied. (author)

  4. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  5. Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve...... the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system....

  6. Physical water treatment against calcification and rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to Germany, where the installation of small-sized, decentralised plants is still prefered, water supply companies in countries such as Denmark have already for some time successfully been using physical water treatment systems. Although the health and environmental benefits of this non-chemical method of water treatment are undisputed and its proper application is also economically beneficial, there is still a widerspread lack of information as to where such plants can be used. Consequently, older methods are often resorted to combatting calcification and rust. (orig.) [de

  7. Water (electrolyte) balance after abdominal therapeutic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cionini, L; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia

    1976-07-01

    Total body water, plasma volume and Na space have been studied in 34 patients receiving external radiotherapy on the pelvic region. Determinations were made on the same patients before, and half-way treatment; in a few cases, some determinations were also repeated after the end of treatment. The results failed to show any appreciable modification of the different parameters studied.

  8. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  9. Stabilizing And Packaging Pu Materials Per 3013 At SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEVE, HENSEL

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) began packaging Pu metals into 3013 containers in April, 2003 and oxides in October, 2003. A total of 919 outer 3013 containers were made in the FB-Line at SRS when stabilization and packaging was completed in January, 2005. Experiences, lessons learned, and an overview of packaging activities are presented

  10. Treatment of water closet flush water for recycle and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Results from the operation of a 37.8 m/sup 3//d extended aeration and sand filtration system in the closed-loop treatment of water closet flush water are presented. The system has operated for four and one-half years at 95 percent recycle. During this period over 30,000 m/sup 3/ of flush water was treated and reused. Water inputs into the recycle system resulted from liquid human wastes plus wastage form potable water uses. Wasted potable water inputs were from wash basins, water fountains and custodial services. Operation of both the biological treatment unit and the pressure sand filter followed acceptable conventional practice. Variations in nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate), pH and alkalinity that were observed could be accounted for through fundamental biological, chemical and physical relationships. The pH throughout the entire recycle system varied between 5.5 and 8.4. Recycled water pH rose from a preflush pH of approximately 7.0 to a pH of 8.4 immediately after flushing. The biological unit lowered the pH and functioned between pH values of 5.5 and 7.0. A slight rise in pH between the biological unit (through storage and filtration) and water closets was observed. The predominate biomass in the biological unit was fungi. Biological solids were threadlike; however, they readily separated by gravity settling. Wastage of biological solids from the biological unit in the recycle-reuse system was the same experienced for a comparable biological unit used to treat water closet wastewater that was not recycled. Results from this study have conclusively demonstrated on a full-scale basis the acceptability of using biological oxidation and sand filtration as a treatment train in the reuse of water closet wastewater with a recycle ratio of 20.

  11. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2015-08-26

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.

  12. Zoujiashan uranium waste water treatment optimizaiton design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lianjun

    2014-01-01

    Optimization design follows the decontamination triage, comprehensive management, such as wastewater treatment principle and from easy to difficult. increasing the slurry treatment, optimization design containing ρ (U) > defines I mg/L wastewater for higher uranium concentration wastewater, whereas low uranium concentration wastewater. Through the optimization design, solve the problem of water turbidity 721-15 wastewater treatment station of the lack of capacity and mine. (author)

  13. A new approach for water treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, R

    1999-01-01

    A quantity of up to 4000 m3/h of water is used at CERN for cooling purposes: experiments, magnets and radio frequency cavities are refrigerated by closed circuits filled with deionized water; other utilities, such as air-conditioning, use chilled/hot water, also in closed circuits. All these methods all employ a cold source, the primary supply of water, coming from the cooling towers. About 500 kCHF are spent every year on water treatment in order to keep the water within these networks in operational conditions. In the line of further rationalization of resources, the next generation of contracts with the water treatment industry will aim for improved performance and better monitoring of quality related parameters in this context. The author will provide a concise report based upon an examination of the state of the installations and of the philosophy followed up until now for water treatment. Furthermore, he/she will propose a new approach from both a technical and contractual point of view, in preparation ...

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  15. Process for the treatment of salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, R J

    1966-06-12

    A procedure is described for the treatment of salty or brackish water for the production of steam, which is directly utilized afterward, either in a condensed form as sweet water or deoxidized for injection into oil formations for raising the temperature thereof and other uses. The water-purification treatment is continuous, and is of the type in which the salty or brackish water is passed in direct heat exchange relationship with the steam produced for preheating the water up to a temperature where some of the dissolved ions of calcium and magnesium are precipitated in the form of insoluble salts. In the passage of the preheated water being purified, a zone is created for the completion of the reaction. A part of the water is retained in this reaction zone while the other part is being passed in indirect heat exchange relationship with a heating means, for converting this part of the water into steam. All of the steam obtained in the latter described heat exchange is utilized in the water purification, and/or added to the produced steam, as first noted.

  16. Nanotechnology-based water treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Heydarifard, Solmaz; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2014-02-01

    The most important component for living beings on the earth is access to clean and safe drinking water. Globally, water scarcity is pervasive even in water-rich areas as immense pressure has been created by the burgeoning human population, industrialization, civilization, environmental changes and agricultural activities. The problem of access to safe water is inevitable and requires tremendous research to devise new, cheaper technologies for purification of water, while taking into account energy requirements and environmental impact. This review highlights nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies being developed and used to improve desalination of sea and brackish water, safe reuse of wastewater, disinfection and decontamination of water, i.e., biosorption and nanoadsorption for contaminant removal, nanophotocatalysis for chemical degradation of contaminants, nanosensors for contaminant detection, different membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, electro-dialysis etc. This review also deals with the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment systems along with the risks associated with nanomaterials.

  17. Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrke I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-SchulzFraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen, GermanyAbstract: Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA.Keywords: nanotechnology, water technology, nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, photocatalysis

  18. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m 3 to 4921 m 3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and product lubricated canned

  19. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  20. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121

  1. A review of vapor explosion information pertinent to the SRS reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.; Allison, D.K.

    1992-04-01

    Vapor explosions are explosive events resulting from the mixing of two liquids, one of which is heated to a temperature well above the boiling point of the second. Under some circumstances mixing of the liquids can boil part of the lower boiling liquid so quickly that the expanding vapor generates a strong pressure wave and explosion. If the lower boiling liquid is water, as is frequently the case, the event is called a ''steam explosion''. Analyses in support of the K-Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment have shown that steam explosions generated by the interaction of molten reactor fuel with water contribute significantly to the risk of reactor operation at the SRS. This calculated risk incorporates a conservative treatment of the uncertainties associated with such explosions. Study of steam explosions involving molten reactor materials has been included in the Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) in order to obtain a better evaluation of their importance, and, if possible, to find ways to avoid them. This paper presents a brief review and summary of steam explosion experience from literature accounts, along with the results of experimental studies from the SAAP. It concludes with an evaluation of current knowledge, and suggestions for future development. 71 refs

  2. Waste water treatment plant city of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all countries, in the fight for the preservation of environmental protection, water pollution, waste water is one of the very serious and complex environmental problems. Waste waters pollute rivers, lakes, sea and ground water and promote the development of micro-organisms that consume oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and the occurrence of pathogenic microbes. Water pollution and determination of its numerous microbiological contamination, physical agents and various chemical substances, is becoming an increasing health and general social problem. Purification of industrial and municipal waste water before discharge into waterways is of great importance for the contamination of the water ecosystems and the protection of human health. To present the results of purification of industrial and municipal wastewater in the city center Kraljevo system for wastewater treatment. The investigated physical and chemical parameters were performed before and after the city's system for wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the effect of purification present the physical and chemical parameters in waste water ranges from 0 - 19%.

  3. Modification of water treatment plant at Heavy Water Plant (Kota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpati, C.R.; Shrivastava, C.S.; Shrivastava, D.C.; Shrivastava, J.; Vithal, G.K.; Bhowmick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Water Production by GS process viz. H 2 S - H 2 O bi-thermal exchange process requires a huge quantity of demineralized (DM) water as a source of deuterium. Since the deuterium recovery of GS process is only 18-19%, the water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and commissioned at Heavy Water Plant (Kota) to produce demineralized water at the rate of 680 m 3 /hr. The WTP was commissioned in 1980 and till 2005; the plant was producing DM water of required quality. It was having three streams of strong cation resin, atmospheric degasser and strong anion exchange resin with co-current regeneration. In 2001 a new concept of layered bed resin was developed and engineered for water treatment plant. The concept was attractive in terms of saving of chemicals and thus preservation of environment. Being an ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 plant, the modification of WTP was executed in 2005 during major turn around. After modification, a substantial amount of acid and alkali is saved

  4. Application of graphene oxide in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchen

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide has good hydrophilicity and has been tried to use it into thin films for water treatment in recent years. In this paper, the preparation methods of graphene oxide membrane are reviewed, including vacuum suction filtration, spray coating, spin coating, dip coating and the layer by layer method. Secondly, the mechanism of mass transfer of graphene membrane is introduced in detail. The application of the graphene oxide membrane, modified graphene oxide membrane and graphene hybrid membranes were discussed in RO, vaporization, nanofiltration and other aspects. Finally, the development and application of graphene membrane in water treatment were discussed.

  5. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  6. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs

  7. Degradation and mineralisation of diuron by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 and its potential for remediating at a realistic µg L(-1) diuron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Juhler, René K; Aamand, Jens

    2013-11-01

    Low concentrations (10(-6)-10(-9) g L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron are occasionally detected as water contaminants in areas around the world where the herbicide is used extensively. Remediation of contaminated waters using diuron-mineralising bacteria is a possible approach for cleaning these resources. However, few diuron-mineralising strains have been isolated. Here, the ability of Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, a well-known soil bacterium capable of degrading the structurally related herbicide isoproturon, to mineralise diuron at realistically low concentrations is tested. Strain SRS2 readily degraded the dimethylurea side chain, while no or only slow mineralisation of the ring structure was determined. By monitoring metabolites, it was determined that SRS2 initially degraded diuron by two successive N-demethylations followed by cleavage of the urea group to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). Mineralisation of low diuron concentrations by SRS2 was detected and could be stimulated by the addition of a complex nutrient source. Further enhancement of the mineralisation activity was obtained by combining SRS2 with the 3,4-DCA-mineralising Variovorax sp. SRS16. This work demonstrates that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is a promising candidate for bioaugmentation, alone or in combination with other strains, and that enhanced diuron mineralisation at realistically low concentrations can be achieved. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Drainage treatment technology for water pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebise, Sen' ichi

    1988-03-01

    Drainage is purified either at terminal treatment plants or by septic tanks for sewage. At terminal treatment plants, sewage is purified by activated sludge prosessing or by biological treatment equipment. By the normal activated sludge processing, only 20 - 30 % of nitrogen and phosphur can be removed. To solve this problem, many advanced processing systems have been employed, representative systems being coagulating sedimentation, rapid filtration, recirculating nitro-denitrification, etc. The coagulating sedimentation is a treatment process in which such metallic salt coagulations as aluminum, iron, etc. are injected and mixed with sewage, and then phosphur and the like are sedimented in the form of grains. The rapid filtration requires no large space, and can reliably remove suspended matter. For large scale septic tank processing system, advance treatment processing is supplemented to improve the quality of treated water. Among other systems of sewage purification are oxidized channel, oxidized pond, soil treatment, etc. (2 figs, 2 refs)

  9. Poster - 43: Analysis of SBRT and SRS dose verification results using the Octavius 1000SRS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherpak, Amanda [Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, NS, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Department of Physics and Atmospheric Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The Octavius 1000{sup SRS} detector was commissioned in December 2014 and is used routinely for verification of all SRS and SBRT plans. Results of verifications were analyzed to assess trends and limitations of the device and planning methods. Methods: Plans were delivered using a True Beam STx and results were evaluated using gamma analysis (95%, 3%/3mm) and absolute dose difference (5%). Verification results were analyzed based on several plan parameters including tumour volume, degree of modulation and prescribed dose. Results: During a 12 month period, a total of 124 patient plans were verified using the Octavius detector. Thirteen plans failed the gamma criteria, while 7 plans failed based on the absolute dose difference. When binned according to degree of modulation, a significant correlation was found between MU/cGy and both mean dose difference (r=0.78, p<0.05) and gamma (r=−0.60, p<0.05). When data was binned according to tumour volume, the standard deviation of average gamma dropped from 2.2% – 3.7% for the volumes less than 30 cm{sup 3} to below 1% for volumes greater than 30 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: The majority of plans and verification failures involved tumour volumes smaller than 30 cm{sup 3}. This was expected due to the nature of disease treated with SBRT and SRS techniques and did not increase rate of failure. Correlations found with MU/cGy indicate that as modulation increased, results deteriorated but not beyond the previously set thresholds.

  10. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J D; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R; Clark, Joanna M

    2016-11-18

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to 'end-of-pipe' solutions through management of ecosystem service provision.

  11. WATER MICROPOLLUTANTS: CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the different kinds of emerging contaminants, their origin and use, and their presence in the Spanish waters, both in surface and groundwater. Micropollutants are compounds of different origin and chemical nature which had been unnoticed (due to their low concentration and don’t have specific regulation. They are divided into six major groups, and many of them behave as endocrine disruptors causing large negative effects on human health and environment. They are in waters because the waste water treatment plants are not designed for their removal, so they are being discharged. Different alternatives for their removal are discussed - physico- chemical, biological and hybrid treatment technologies -. Among the physicochemical process, the advance oxidation processes (AOPs are very promising.

  12. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  13. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  14. Magnetic Field Water Treatment Section - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopec, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In the last year the activity of the team was focused on industrial implementing of methods developed, as well as on designing and implementing devices for magnetohydrodynamic water treatment and water filtration in the magnetic field. - Phase 1 of research for Ostrowiec Steelworks in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (IFJ N-3454 Research) on the possibilities of implementation of the methods of magnetohydrodynamic water treatment in water and sewage circuits, as well as of the method of filtration in the magnetic field were completed. In this part of research, phase analyses of deposits from water and sewage circuits were carried out. In the rolling mill circuit of Ostrowiec Steelworks, a magnetic filter with a capacity of 200 m 3 /h, designed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics was installed and tested. Implementation of this filter is predicted for the year 1999. - Research for the Kozienice Power Station in Swierze Gorne (IFJ N-3450 Research) on determination of the phase composition of total suspended solids in water-steam circuits was completed. - A preliminary evaluation was completed on economic effects of implementation of the prototype magnetic filter FM-500 which has been operational since 1993 in the circuit of turbine condensate cleaning in the 225 MW unit in the power station in Polaniec. (author)

  15. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  16. Environmental restoration: Integrating hydraulic control of groundwater, innovative contaminant removal technologies and wetlands restoration--A case study at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.M.; Serkiz, S.M.; Adams, J.; Welty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater remediation program at the F and H Seepage Basins, Savannah River Sits (SRS) is a case study of the integration of various environmental restoration technologies at a single waste site. Hydraulic control measures are being designed to mitigate the discharge of groundwater plumes to surface water. One of the primary constituents of the plumes is tritium. An extraction and reinjection scenario is being designed to keep the tritium in circulation in the shallow groundwater, until it can naturally decay. This will be accomplished by extracting groundwater downgradient of the waste sites, treatment, and reinjection of the tritiated water into the water table upgradient of the basins. Innovative in-situ technologies, including electrolytic migration, are being field tested at the site to augment the pump-treat-reinject system. The in-situ technologies target removal of contaminants which are relatively immobile, yet represent long term risks to human health and the environment. Wetland restoration is an integral part of the F and H remediation program. Both in-situ treatment of the groundwater discharging the wetlands to adjust the pH, and replacement of water loss due to the groundwater extraction program ar being considered. Toxicity studies indicate that drought and the effects of low pH groundwater discharge have been factors in observed tree mortality in wetlands near the waste sites

  17. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  18. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  19. Produced water treatment methods for SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Produced water treatment methods for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes were presented. Lime softening is used to remove sludge before weak acid cation processes. However, the process is not reliable in cold climates, and disposal of the sludge is now posing environmental problems in Alberta. High pH MVC evaporation processes use sodium hydroxide (NaOH) additions to prevent silica scaling. However the process produces silica wastes that are difficult to dispose of. The sorption slurry process was designed to reduce the use of caustic soda and develop a cost-effective method of disposing evaporator concentrates. The method produces 98 per cent steam quality for SAGD injection. Silica is sorbed onto crystals in order to prevent silica scaling. The evaporator concentrate from the process is suitable for on- and off-site deep well disposal. The ceramic membrane process was designed to reduce the consumption of chemicals and improve the reliability of water treatment processes. The ion exchange desilication process uses 80 per cent less power and produces 80 per cent fewer CO{sub 2} emissions than MVC evaporators. A comparative operating cost evaluation of various electric supply configurations and produced water treatment processes was also included, as well as an analysis of produced water chemistry. tabs., figs.

  20. [Maintenance and monitoring of water treatment system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoriero, G; Pozzoni, P; Tentori, F; Scaravilli, P; Locatelli, F

    2005-01-01

    Water treatment systems must be submitted to maintenance, disinfections and monitoring periodically. The aim of this review is to analyze how these processes must complement each other in order to preserve the efficiency of the system and optimize the dialysis fluid quality. The correct working of the preparatory process (pre-treatment) and the final phase of depuration (reverse osmosis) of the system need a periodic preventive maintenance and the regular substitution of worn or exhausted components (i.e. the salt of softeners' brine tank, cartridge filters, activated carbon of carbon tanks) by a competent and trained staff. The membranes of reverse osmosis and the water distribution system, including dialysis machine connections, should be submitted to dis-infections at least monthly. For this purpose it is possible to use chemical and physical agents according to manufacturer' recommendations. Each dialysis unit should predispose a monitoring program designed to check the effectiveness of technical working, maintenance and disinfections and the achievement of chemical and microbiological standards taken as a reference. Generally, the correct composition of purified water is monitored by continuous measuring of conductivity, controlling bacteriological cultures and endotoxin levels (monthly) and checking water contaminants (every 6-12 months). During pre-treatment, water hardness (after softeners) and total chlorine (after chlorine tank) should be checked periodically. Recently the Italian Society of Nephrology has developed clinical guidelines for water and dialysis solutions aimed at suggesting rational procedures for production and monitoring of dialysis fluids. It is hopeful that the application of these guidelines will lead to a positive cultural change and to an improvement in dialysis fluid quality.

  1. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, Nicholas; Whiteside, Tad

    2016-01-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied, and elements such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water; and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher-bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  2. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Nicholas [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, Tad [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied, and elements such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 241Am, 244Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water; and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher-bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  3. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year

  4. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make....... Supportive enzymatic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers can be used along with gill and epidermal histological measures to evaluate the effects on water treatment regimens. The ultimate goal is to define the therapeutic window where fish welfare is not compromised.PAA is among the few disinfectants...

  5. Measurement of dosimetric parameters and dose verification in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduan Abdullah; Nik Ruzman Nik Idris; Ahmad Lutfi Yusof; Mazurawati Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The purpose of this study was to measure the dosimetric parameters for small photon beams to be used as input data treatment planning computer system (TPS) and to verify dose calculated by TPS in Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) procedure. The beam data required were Percentage Depth Dose (PDD), Off-axis Ratio (OAR), and Scatter Factor of Relative Output Factor. Small beams of 5 mm to 45 mm diameter circular cone collimators used in SRS were utilized for beam data measurements measured using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber (0.016 cc). For second part of this study, we reported the important quality assurance (QA) procedures before SRS treatment that influenced the dose delivery. These QA procedures consist of measurements on the accuracy in target localization and room laser alignment. The dose calculated to be delivered for treatment was verified using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber and TLD 100H. The mean deviation of measured dose using TLD 100H compared to calculated dose was 3.37 %. Beside that, pinpoint ionization 3D chamber give more accurate results of dose compared to TLD 100H. The measured dose using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber are good agreement with calculated dose by TPS with deviation of 2.17 %. The results are acceptable such as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report No. 50 (1993) that dose delivered to the target volume must be within ±5 % error. (author)

  6. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  7. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  8. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  9. Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

  10. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong Thao; Dang, Vu Chi

    2018-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  11. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Phuong Thao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  12. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, David B.; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jayachandran, Priya; Von Eyben, Rie; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Choi, Clara Y.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (United States); Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Li, Gordon; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hancock, Steven L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the time of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial.

  13. Comparison of Srs-24 And Srs-22 Scores in Thirty Eight Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Who Had Undergone Surgical Correction

    OpenAIRE

    CYW Chan; LB Saw; MK Kwan

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity that affects patients’ self image and confidence. Surgery is offered when the curvature is greater than 50 degrees based on the likelihood of curvature progression. Outcome measures for scoliosis correction can be described in terms of radiological improvement or improvement of health related quality of life scores. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) and Scoliosis Research Society 24 (SRS-24) questionnaires are widely accepted and ...

  14. Treatment of oily water by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz O, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    The operation of the nuclear power plants such as Laguna Verde (CLV) with nuclear reactors of the boiling water type (BWR) produce radioactive waste solids, liquids and gaseous which require of a special treatment in their operation and arrangement. Such is the case of the liquid wastes from CLV which are a mixture of water and synthetic oils coming from leaks and spilling by pressure of maintenance of electro-mechanical equipment associated to the performance of the nuclear power plant. This mixture of water and spent oils is pretreated by means of sedimentation, centrifugation and evaporation. However the realized efforts by the CLV, the spent oil obtained from the pretreatment contains concentrations of radioactive material higher than the tolerance limits established in the normative in force in radiological safety (0.37 Bq m L -1 for 60 Co and 54 Mn). In this context it was necessary to design an efficient treatment system and economically profitable which separates the oil, the heavy metals and the leftovers of radioactive material that could be present in water, with the purpose of fulfil with the Mexican Official Standards corresponding for its unload or even it can reuse it in the wash process of treated oil. The treatment system of oily water waste consists of: a) Coagulation-flocculation, b) Flotation system with modified air dissolved (DAFm). The proposed flotation process allows to reach a higher separation efficiencies of: Concentration of greases and oils: 94.11 %; Turbidity: 98.6 %; 60 Co: 82.3 % ; Co: 94.8 % and Cr: 99.9 % (Author)

  15. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  16. Energy requirements for waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2011-01-01

    The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant.

  17. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment. Change Notice 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    Coagulation Filtration Total Dissolved Solids Water Quality Conductivity Potable water Turbidity Water Treatment/Purification Disinfection ...microorganisms (pathogenic) found in the raw water . The preferred Army field method of water disinfection is chlorination. Filtration Filtration...senses. It looks, tastes, and smells good and is neither too hot nor too cold. Potable water Water that is safe for drinking . Reverse osmosis

  18. High temperature vitrification of surrogate Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Schumacher, R.F.; Spatz, T.L.; Newsom, R.A.; Circeo, L.J.; Danjaji, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been funded through the DOE Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to investigate high-temperature vitrification technologies for the treatment of diverse low-level and mixed wastes. High temperature vitrification is a likely candidate for processing heterogeneous solid wastes containing low levels of activity. Many SRS wastes fit into this category. Plasma torch technology is one high temperature vitrification method. A trial demonstration of plasma torch processing is being performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology on surrogate SRS wastes. This effort is in cooperation with the Engineering Research and Development Association of Georgia Universities (ERDA) program. The results of phase 1 of these plasma torch trials will be presented

  19. SU-E-T-480: Radiobiological Dose Comparison of Single Fraction SRS, Multi-Fraction SRT and Multi-Stage SRS of Large Target Volumes Using the Linear-Quadratic Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S; Meyer, J; Timmerman, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm 3 ) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan, the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment

  20. A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, MaryTheresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being used to enhance conventional ceramic and polymeric water treatment membrane materials through various avenues. Among the numerous concepts proposed, the most promising to date include zeolitic and catalytic nanoparticle coated ceramic membranes, hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite membranes, and bio-inspired membranes such as hybrid protein-polymer biomimetic membranes, aligned nanotube membranes, and isoporous block copolymer membranes. A semi-quantitative ranking system was proposed considering projected performance enhancement (over state-of-the-art analogs) and state of commercial readiness. Performance enhancement was based on water permeability, solute selectivity, and operational robustness, while commercial readiness was based on known or anticipated material costs, scalability (for large scale water treatment applications), and compatibility with existing manufacturing infrastructure. Overall, bio-inspired membranes are farthest from commercial reality, but offer the most promise for performance enhancements; however, nanocomposite membranes offering significant performance enhancements are already commercially available. Zeolitic and catalytic membranes appear reasonably far from commercial reality and offer small to moderate performance enhancements. The ranking of each membrane nanotechnology is discussed along with the key commercialization hurdles for each membrane nanotechnology. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Supercritical water oxidation treatment of textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Li, Yanhui; Lu, Jinling; Chen, Senlin; Luo, XingQi

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we studied the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the textile sludge, the hydrothermal conversion of typical textile compounds and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of NaOH during these related processes were explored. The results show that decomposition efficiency for organic matter in liquid phase of the textile sludge was improved with the increment of reaction temperature or oxidation coefficient. However, the organic substance in solid phase can be oxidized completely in supercritical water. Serious coking occurred during the high pressure water at 250-450°C for the Reactive Orange 7, while at 300 and 350°C for the polyvinyl alcohol. The addition of NaOH not only accelerated the destruction of organic contaminants in the SCWO reactor, but effectively inhibited the dehydration conversion of textile compounds during the preheating process, which was favorable for the treatment system of textile sludge. The corrosion experiment results indicate that the stainless steel 316 could be competent for the body materials of the reactor and the heat exchangers. Furthermore, there was prominent enhancement of sodium hydroxide for the corrosion resistance of 316 in subcritical water. On the contrary the effect was almost none during SCWO.

  2. Treatment of waste waters with peat moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupal, B; Lalancette, J M

    1976-01-01

    Waste waters containing heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cr/sup 6 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Ag, Pb, Sb or cyanide, phosphates and organic matters such as oil, detergents and dyes can be treated efficiently after a crude settling by contacting with peat moss. Chromium, as Cr/sup 6 +/, can be eliminated in one step from a starting solution of low turbidity to give effluent containing less than 10 ppb of Cr/sup 6 +/ and less than 40 ppb of Cr/sup 3 +/. The characteristics and performances of a contacting machine of 20,000 gal/day capacity for the treatment of industrial waste waters are reported.

  3. Treatment of some power plant waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.; Vanura, P.; Franta, P.; Marhol, M.; Tejnecky, M.; Fidler, J.

    1987-01-01

    Major results are summed up obtained in 1986 in the development of techniques for the treatment of coolant in the fuel transport and storage tank, of reserve coolant in the primary circuit and of waste water from the special nuclear power plant laundries, containing new washing agent Alfa-DES. A service test of the filter filled with Czechoslovak-made cation exchanger Ostion KSN in the boric acid concentrate filter station showed that the filter can be used in some technological circuits of nuclear power plants. New decontamination agents are also listed introduced in production in Czechoslovakia for meeting the needs of nuclear power plants. (author). 6 refs

  4. Computationally based methodology for reengineering the high-level waste planning process at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.K.; Gregory, M.V.; Wells, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has started processing its legacy of 34 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste into its final disposable form. The SRS high-level waste (HLW) complex consists of 51 waste storage tanks, 3 evaporators, 6 waste treatment operations, and 2 waste disposal facilities. It is estimated that processing wastes to clean up all tanks will take 30+ yr of operation. Integrating all the highly interactive facility operations through the entire life cycle in an optimal fashion-while meeting all the budgetary, regulatory, and operational constraints and priorities-is a complex and challenging planning task. The waste complex operating plan for the entire time span is periodically published as an SRS report. A computationally based integrated methodology has been developed that has streamlined the planning process while showing how to run the operations at economically and operationally optimal conditions. The integrated computational model replaced a host of disconnected spreadsheet calculations and the analysts' trial-and-error solutions using various scenario choices. This paper presents the important features of the integrated computational methodology and highlights the parameters that are core components of the planning process

  5. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment

  6. User guide to the SRS data logging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyson, B.E.

    1979-02-01

    The state of the SRS is recorded every two minutes, thus providing a detailed History of its parameters. Recording of History is done via the SRS Computer Network. This consists of a Master Computer, an Interdata 7/32, and three Minicomputers, Interdata 7/16s. Each of the Minicomputers controls one of the accelerators, Linac, Booster and Storage Ring. The Master Computer is connected to the Central Computer, an IBM 370/165, for jobs where greater computing power and storage are required. The Master Computer has a total of 20 Megabytes of fixed and movable disc space but only about 5 Megabytes are available for History storage. The Minicomputers have no storage facilities. The user guide is set out as follows: History filing system, History storage on the Master Computer, transfer of the History to the Central Computer, transferring History to tapes, job integrity, the SRS tape catalogue system. (author)

  7. MTR radiological database for SRS spent nuclear fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    A database for radiological characterization of incoming Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel has been developed for application to the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin spent fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This database provides a quick quantitative check to determine if SRS bound spent fuel is radiologically bounded by the Reference Fuel Assembly used in the L-Basin and RBOF authorization bases. The developed database considers pertinent characteristics of domestic and foreign research reactor fuel including exposure, fuel enrichment, irradiation time, cooling time, and fuel-to-moderator ratio. The supplied tables replace the time-consuming studies associated with authorization of SRS bound spent fuel with simple hand calculations. Additionally, the comprehensive database provides the means to overcome resource limitations, since a series of simple, yet conservative, hand calculations can now be performed in a timely manner and replace computational and technical staff requirements

  8. SWS: accessing SRS sites contents through Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Paolo; Marra, Domenico

    2008-03-26

    Web Services and Workflow Management Systems can support creation and deployment of network systems, able to automate data analysis and retrieval processes in biomedical research. Web Services have been implemented at bioinformatics centres and workflow systems have been proposed for biological data analysis. New databanks are often developed by taking into account these technologies, but many existing databases do not allow a programmatic access. Only a fraction of available databanks can thus be queried through programmatic interfaces. SRS is a well know indexing and search engine for biomedical databanks offering public access to many databanks and analysis tools. Unfortunately, these data are not easily and efficiently accessible through Web Services. We have developed 'SRS by WS' (SWS), a tool that makes information available in SRS sites accessible through Web Services. Information on known sites is maintained in a database, srsdb. SWS consists in a suite of WS that can query both srsdb, for information on sites and databases, and SRS sites. SWS returns results in a text-only format and can be accessed through a WSDL compliant client. SWS enables interoperability between workflow systems and SRS implementations, by also managing access to alternative sites, in order to cope with network and maintenance problems, and selecting the most up-to-date among available systems. Development and implementation of Web Services, allowing to make a programmatic access to an exhaustive set of biomedical databases can significantly improve automation of in-silico analysis. SWS supports this activity by making biological databanks that are managed in public SRS sites available through a programmatic interface.

  9. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Cees; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  10. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  11. Evaluation of Water Treatment Problems: Case Study of Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP and Maiduguri Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Idris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water remains the most useful universal solvent to human being and other animals, because of its derivative importance. However, effort to improve on raw water treatment would continue to be a subject of concern, because the process procedures are been violated or not properly upheld. This study was carried out in order to identify peculiar problems associate with water treatment at the Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP. This research study was based on prompt time-schedules and plant site-visits, interviewed questions were made and accessing the technology adopted in the process stages. Analytical data were obtained through the use of sampling bottles, camera, record sheets and other necessary laboratory equipment. The analysis showed that treated water contained excess chlorine and aluminum with 1.10mg/l and 0.68mg/l respectively. From this study, the following are the root causes: poor facility lay out, poor organizational and functional structures, wear of pump impellers and surface deterioration in the transmission line, lack of calibration test, constant head system not operation properly, lack of jar test conduction, improper maintenance of filter system, and the use of chemical coagulant. Inferences were made at the end of the research to enhance process efficiency, healthier and more economical treatment MWTP.

  12. Integrated oil sands tailings pond water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed research currently being conducted to treat oil sands tailings pond water (TPW). The treatment of TPW is challenged by the high level of naphthenic acids (NAs), the slow settling rate of fine particulate materials, and the complex chemistry of the water. The treatment process consisted of bioflocculation, sludge blanket assisted clarification, ozonation, and oil sands coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The aggregation and adsorption process bound small particles and cells together while also ensuring the passive uptake of pollutants using microbial masses. The mixed liquor then passed through a sludge blanket to ensure enhanced particle capture. An ozonation process was used to increase the biodegradability of the TPW as well as to increase the biodegradability of the residual NAs after ozonation. The process used a hybrid bioreactor that consisted of both suspended and fixed microbial communities. The coke served as a biofilm carrier for the waste. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the efficiency and capability of the process. tabs., figs.

  13. Differential expression of calcium/calmodulin-regulated SlSRs in response to abiotic and biotic stresses in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbao; Peng, Hui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Jurick, Wayne M

    2013-07-01

    Calcium has been shown to enhance stress tolerance, maintain firmness and reduce decay in fruits. Previously we reported that seven tomato SlSRs encode calcium/calmodulin-regulated proteins, and that their expressions are developmentally regulated during fruit development and ripening, and are also responsive to ethylene. To study their expressions in response to stresses encountered during postharvest handling, tomato fruit at the mature-green stage was subjected to chilling and wounding injuries, infected with Botrytis cinerea and treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate. Gene expression studies revealed that the seven SlSRs differentially respond to different stress signals. SlSR2 was the only gene upregulated by all the treatments. SlSR4 acted as a late pathogen-induced gene; it was upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, but downregulated by cold treatment. SlSR3L was cold- and wound-responsive and was also induced by salicylic acid. SlSR1 and SlSR1L were repressed by cold, wounding and pathogen infection, but were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. Overall, results of these expression studies indicate that individual SlSRs have distinct roles in responses to the specific stress signals, and SlSRs may act as a coordinator(s) connecting calcium-mediated signaling with other stress signal transduction pathways during fruit ripening and storage. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yousheng

    2010-01-01

    Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

  15. VME applications to the Daresbury SRS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martlew, B.G.; McCarthy, M.; Rawlinson, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The control system for the Daresbury SRS has recently been extended with a VME based alarm system which is operational. A further development is a steering system to provide servo control of the electron beam orbit position in the storage ring. (author)

  16. 75 FR 32158 - Information Collection; SRS Publications Evaluation Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... facilitate entry into the building. Additionally, the public may inspect comments received on the World Wide Web, at http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubeval . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Louise Wilde, Science... should be addressed to Forest Service, USDA, Southern Research Station, Science Delivery Group, 200 W.T...

  17. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  18. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiti Zhou; Weihen Yang; Fenglin Yang; Xuemin Xiang; Yulu Wang

    1997-01-01

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs

  19. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiti Zhou; Weihen Yang; Fenglin Yang; Xuemin Xiang; Yulu Wang [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China)

    1997-12-31

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs.

  20. Advanced water treatment as a tool in water scarcity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoes, Poul

    2000-01-01

    of water. In the former case, the water is lost by evaporation and polluted. In the latter case, the water is not lost but heavily polluted. With increasing scarcity, the value of water and the need for controls increase. In this situation, water reuse becomes an option that has been considered exotic......The water resource is under increasing pressure, both from the increase in population and from the wish to improve the living standards of the individual. Water scarcity is defined as the situation where demand is greater than the resource. Water scarcity has two distinctly different dimensions......: water availability and water applicability. The availability is a question of quantitative demand relative to resource. The applicability is a question of quality suitability for the intended use of the water. There is a significant difference in this regard with respect to rural versus urban use...

  1. Testing of SRS and RFETS Nylon Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the effects of radiation and heating on nylon bagout materials used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Recently, to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C), FB-Line has replaced the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags normally used to package cans of plutonium-bearing material with nylon bags. LDPE and PVC are not soluble in the nitric acid dissolver solution used in F-Canyon, so cans bagged using these materials had to be repackaged before they were added to the dissolver. Because nylon dissolves in nitric acid, cans bagged in nylon can be charged to the F-Canyon dissolvers without repackaging, thereby reducing handling requirements and personnel exposure. As part of a program to process RFETS SS and C at SRS, RFETS has also begun to use a nylon bagout material. The RFETS bag materials is made from a copolymer of nylon 6 and nylon 6.9, while the SRS material is made from a nylon 6 monomer. In addition, the SRS nylon has an anti-static agent added. The RFETS nylon is slightly softer than the SRS nylon, but does not appear to be as resistant to flex cracks initiated by contact with sharp corners of the inner can containing the SS and C.2 FB-Line Operations has asked for measurement of the effects of radiation and heating on these materials. Specifically, they have requested a comparison of the material properties of the plastics before and after irradiation, a measurement of the amount of outgassing when the plastics are heated, and a calculation of the amount of radiolytic gas generation. Testing was performed on samples taken from material that is currently used in FB-Line (color coded orange) and at RFETS. The requested tests are the same tests previously performed on the original and replacement nylon and LDPE bag materials.3,4,5. To evaluate the effect of irradiation on material properties, tensile stresses and elongations to break

  2. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  3. Water treatment for fossil fuel power generation - technology status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This technology status report focuses on the use of water treatment technology in fossil fuel power plants. The use of polymeric ion exchange resins for deionization of water, the currently preferred use of ion exchange for economically treating water containing low dissolved salts, the use of low pressure high-flux membranes, membrane microfiltration, and reverse osmosis are discussed. Details are given of the benefits of the technologies, water use at power plants, the current status of water treatment technologies, and the potential for future developments, along with power plant market trends and potentials, worldwide developments, and UK capabilities in water treatment plant design and manufacturing

  4. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  5. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations to Advance National Programs - 13108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.E.; Murray, A.M.; McGuire, P.W.; Wheeler, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    The SRS is re-purposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established the Center for Applied Nuclear Materials Processing and Engineering Research (CANMPER). The key objective of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear materials management advancements and large-scale deployment of the technology by leveraging SRS assets (e.g. facilities, staff, and property) for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. CANMPER will coordinate the demonstration of R and D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R and D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the R and D team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of CANMPER will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, CANMPER also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform R and D demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact that these SRS assets will continue to accomplish DOE's critical

  6. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1975-01-01

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.

    In

  8. The beneficial usage of water treatment sludge as pottery product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposal of sludge from water treatment operations has become a major problem in Malaysia. The problem becomes acute because of scarcity of space for installation of sludge treatment facilities and disposal of treated sludge. Traditionally, treated sludge from water treatment plant will be sent to landfill for disposal.

  9. Waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill in mine No. 754

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiqun

    1997-01-01

    The author briefly introduces some measures to waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill of Uranium Mine No. 754. It is shown in practice that making rational use of waste water is advantageous to production, reducing qcost and lightening environment pollution

  10. Biological treatment of drinking water by chitosan based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABI

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... method. A membrane filtration technique is used for the treatment of water to remove or kill ... The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by dynamic ... water and just 3% is available for drinking, agriculture,.

  11. Peracids in water treatment:a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Luukkonen, T. (Tero); Pehkonen, S. O. (Simo O.)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Peracids have gained interest in the water treatment over the last few decades. Peracetic acid (CH₃CO₃H) has already become an accepted alternative disinfectant in wastewater disinfection whereas performic acid (CHO₃H) has been studied much less, although it is also already commercially available. Additionally, peracids have been studied for drinking water disinfection, oxidation of aqueous (micro)pollutants, sludge treatment, and ballast water treatment, to name just a few exampl...

  12. The effects of high-Ca hardness water treatment for secondary cooling water in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T. J.; Park, Y. C.; Hwang, S. R.; Lim, I. C.; Choi, H. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality control of the second cooling system in HANARO has been altered from low Ca-hardness treatment to high Ca-hardness treatment since March, 2001. High Ca-hardness water treatment in HANARO is to maintain the calcium hardness around 12 by minimizing the blowdown of secondary cooling water. This paper describes the effect of cost reduction after change of water-quility treatment method. The result shows that the cost of the water could be reduced by 25% using the pond water in KAERI. The amount and cost for the chemical agent could be reduced by 40% and 10% respectively

  13. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2013-08-01

    Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PHOSPHATE CHEMICALS FOR BUILDING POTABLE WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buildings can contribute significant quantities of trace metal contamination to drinking water, particularly lead, copper and zinc. Discolored water may also result in corroded galvanized and steel plumbing and after prolonged stagnation times. To protect human health as well as ...

  15. availability analysis of chemicals for water treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    In most countries, chemicals are generally recognized as being vital in the production of potable water and will ... industries and water utility ventures are being started in Nigeria ... are being dumped into rivers thereby polluting them the more.

  16. Successful treatment with supercritical water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) operates in a totally enclosed system. It uses water at high temperatures and high pressure to chemically change wastes. Oily substances become soluble and complex hydrocarbons are converted into water and carbon dioxide. Research and development on SCWO is described

  17. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  18. Effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water, sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity (EC) of the water and the lifespan of the magnetic effect on water. Magnetic flux densities used for treating the water were 124, 319, 443 and 719 gauss. All the cations (Calcium, Sodium, ...

  19. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... uncovered finished water reservoir requirement and the agency's Six Year Review process. EPA also plans to...

  20. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  1. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  2. Methodology of dose calculation for the SRS SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Safety Analysis Report (SAR) covering K reactor operation assesses a spectrum of design basis accidents. The assessment includes estimation of the dose consequences from the analyzed accidents. This report discusses the methodology used to perform the dose analysis reported in the SAR and also includes the quantified doses. Doses resulting from postulated design basis reactor accidents in Chapter 15 of the SAR are discussed, as well as an accident in which three percent of the fuel melts. Doses are reported for both atmospheric and aqueous releases. The methodology used to calculate doses from these accidents as reported in the SAR is consistent with NRC guidelines and industry standards. The doses from the design basis accidents for the SRS reactors are below the limits set for commercial reactors by the NRC and also meet industry criteria. A summary of doses for various postulated accidents is provided

  3. Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

  4. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  5. Treatment of mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Quanhui

    2002-01-01

    Treatment methods for mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines are introduced and classified. The suggestions on optimal treatment methods are presented as a matter of experience with decommissioned Chenzhou Uranium Mine

  6. DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Altman, Susan J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Biedermann, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuzio, Stephanie P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rempe, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Water is the backbone of our economy - safe and adequate supplies of water are vital for agriculture, industry, recreation, and human consumption. While our supply of water today is largely safe and adequate, we as a nation face increasing water supply challenges in the form of extended droughts, demand growth due to population increase, more stringent health-based regulation, and competing demands from a variety of users. To meet these challenges in the coming decades, water treatment technologies, including desalination, will contribute substantially to ensuring a safe, sustainable, affordable, and adequate water supply for the United States. This overview documents Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL, or Sandia) Water Treatment Program which focused on the development and demonstration of advanced water purification technologies as part of the larger Sandia Water Initiative. Projects under the Water Treatment Program include: (1) the development of desalination research roadmaps (2) our efforts to accelerate the commercialization of new desalination and water treatment technologies (known as the 'Jump-Start Program),' (3) long range (high risk, early stage) desalination research (known as the 'Long Range Research Program'), (4) treatment research projects under the Joint Water Reuse & Desalination Task Force, (5) the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership Program, (6) water treatment projects funded under the New Mexico Small Business Administration, (7) water treatment projects for the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), (8) Sandia- developed contaminant-selective treatment technologies, and finally (9) current Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funded desalination projects.

  7. Origins, and the construction, commissioning and operation of the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The SRS was initiated in 1973 and approved in 1975. It came into use in 1981. The paper describes the organizational framework at the different stages, the pre-approval, construction, commissioning and operational phases of the storage ring, the build-up of experimental stations, and future plans. The emphasis is on lessons which can be learned by those about to embark on such a project, rather than on a detailed historical account, and on managerial rather than physics matters

  8. SRS Behaviour with a superconducting 5-Tesla wiggler insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suller, V.P.; Marks, N.; Poole, M.W.; Walker, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    A 5 Tesla superconducting wavelength shifting wiggler magnet has been inserted into the SRS lattice. Observations have been made of the behaviour of the stored electron beam with the magnet powered. Betatron tune shifts and modulation of the betatron function have been measured and good agreement obtained with theory. Closed orbit changes have been examined and the stored beam lifetime optimised. The magnet is fully operational and is producing intense x-ray beams for users

  9. Chemistry of cost effective water treatment programme in HWP (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Laxmana Prasad, K.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a water treatment programme following points must be kept in mind: Effectiveness to achieve desired water quality objectives; Compliance with regulatory requirements; Cost minimization; Safety; Easy operation and protection to equipments. Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) laboratory has developed treatment programs to treat raw water and cooling water which satisfy the above requirements and has been in use for last several years successfully without any problem. These treatment programs have been given to other plants in Heavy Water Board for implementation. This paper describes the chemistry of the treatment program and cost minimization achieved. Further these treatments have helped the plant in achieving ΦZero Discharge and indirectly reduced the production cost. The chemistry parameters are monitored regularly to ascertain the effectiveness of these treatments. The areas where significant benefits derived are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and development of in-house cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments helped the plant in achieving Zero discharge and indirectly reduced production cost of heavy water. The dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15 - 20 Lakhs in a year besides other advantages. The changeover of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs. 1.4 Crore a year along with other advantages. The change over of proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted a saving about Rs. 11 Lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored (author)

  10. Water Footprint Assessment in Waste Water Treatment Plant: Indicator of the sustainability of urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Llanos, Eva; Durán Barroso, Pablo; Matías Sánchez, Agustín; Fernández Rodríguez, Santiago; Guzmán Caballero, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) represent a challenge for citizens and countries around the world by working together to reduce social inequality, to fight poverty and climate change. The Goal six water and sanitation aims for ensuring, among others, the protection and restoration of water-related ecosystem (target 6.6) and encouraging the water use efficiency (target 6.3). The commitment to this goal is not only the development of sanitation infrastructure, but also incorporates the necessity of a sustainable and efficient management from ecological and economic perspectives. Following this approach, we propose a framework for assessing the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) management based on the Water Footprint (WF) principles. The WF as indicator is able to highlight the beneficial role of WWTPs within the environment and provide a complementary information to evaluate the impact of a WWTP regarding to the use of freshwater and energy. Therefore, the footprint family provides an opportunity to relate the reduction of pollutant load in a WWTP and the associated consumptions in terms of electricity and chemical products. As a consequence, the new methodology allows a better understanding of the interactions among water and energy resources, economic requirements and environmental risks. Because of this, the current technologies can be improved and innovative solutions for monitoring and management of urban water use can be integrated. The WF was calculated in four different WWTP located in the North East of Extremadura (SW Spain) which have activated sludge process as secondary treatment. This zone is characterized by low population density but an incipient tourism development. The WF estimation and its relationship with the electricity consumption examines the efficiency of each WWTP and identifies the weak points in the management in terms of the sustainability. Consequently, the WF establishes a benchmark for multidisciplinary decision

  11. Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

    Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine

  12. Treatment of oil pollution on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, K.H.; Haywood, P.C.; Haywood, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil or other polluting material on or near the surface of a body of water is treated by a device comprising a tube having a slot through which fluid within the tube emerges. A cover directs the emerging fluid over the curved outer surface of the tube. The fluid may be water or a mixture of water and a dispersant. The device may be provided with fins. Some or all of the treated water may be collected in a tank and some or all may be returned to the sea. The device may be rendered buoyant by a pair of floats or may be part of a larger sea-going vessel. (Author)

  13. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  14. Growth in coculture stimulates metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Ronen, Zeev; Aamand, Jens

    2002-07-01

    Metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 was significantly enhanced when the strain was grown in coculture with a soil bacterium (designated strain SRS1). Both members of this consortium were isolated from a highly enriched isoproturon-degrading culture derived from an agricultural soil previously treated regularly with the herbicide. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, strain SRS1 was assigned to the beta-subdivision of the proteobacteria and probably represents a new genus. Strain SRS1 was unable to degrade either isoproturon or its known metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, or 4-isopropyl-aniline. Pure culture studies indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is auxotrophic and requires components supplied by association with other soil bacteria. A specific mixture of amino acids appeared to meet these requirements, and it was shown that methionine was essential for Sphingomonas sp. SRS2. This suggests that strain SRS1 supplies amino acids to Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, thereby leading to rapid metabolism of (14)C-labeled isoproturon to (14)CO(2) and corresponding growth of strain SRS2. Proliferation of strain SRS1 suggests that isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 provides unknown metabolites or cell debris that supports growth of strain SRS1. The role of strain SRS1 in the consortium was not ubiquitous among soil bacteria; however, the indigenous soil microflora and some strains from culture collections also stimulate isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 to a similar extent.

  15. Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

    2011-03-01

    Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO₂ in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  16. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.; Meeuwsen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance. The KW IWTS was designed to treat basin water and maintain basin clarity during fuel retrieval, washing, and packaging activities in the KW Basin. The original design was based on a mission that was limited to handling of KW Basin fuel. The use of the IWTS was extended by the decision to transfer KE fuel to KW to be cleaned and packaged using KW systems. The use was further extended for the packaging of two more Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing legacy fuel and scrap. Planning is now in place to clean and package Knock Out Pot (KOP) Material in MCOs using these same systems. Some washing of KOP material in the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) is currently being done to remove material that is too small or too large to be included in the KOP Material stream. These plans will require that the IWTS remain operational through a campaign of as many as 30 additional MCOs, and has an estimated completion date in 2012. Recent operation of the IWTS during washing of canisters of KOP Material has been impacted by low pressure readings at the inlet of the P4 Booster Pump. The system provides a low pressure alarm at 10 psig, and low-low pressure interlock at 5 psig. The response to these low readings has been to lower total system flow to between 301 and 315 gpm. In addition, the IWTS operator has been required to operate the system in manual mode and make frequent adjustments to the P4 booster pump speed during PCM washes. The preferred mode of operation is to establish a setpoint of 317 gpm for the P4 pump speed and run IWTS in semi-automatic mode. Based on hydraulic modeling compared to field data presented in this report, the low P4 inlet pressure is attributed to restrictions in the 2-inch KOP inlet hose and in the KOP itself

  17. Gamma radiation treatment of waste waters from textile industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of gamma irradiation alone, and in combination with chemical treatment on color, odor, chemical oxyg-en demand (COD) and suspended solids in waste waters from textile industries in Ghana were studied to explore the potential of alternative and innovative processes for treatment of industrial waste waters. Waste ...

  18. Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered included ...

  19. ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the new 10 ppb arsenic standard. One of the treatment options is co-precipitation of arsenic with iron. This tre...

  20. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Borger, K.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand

  1. Advantageous technology for treatment of laundry waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Y.; Gorbachev, D.; Volkov, A.; Barinov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, based on preliminary experimental studies, an improved scheme for cleaning of laundry water is offered which allows reuse of water and components of laundry solutions and produces low amounts of secondary radioactive waste. The principal feature of the proposed process is that waste water from rinsing (60-80% of the total volume) is processed by hyperfiltration, but waste water from the laundry (20-40% of the total volume) is treated by ultrafiltration. Concentrates after reverse osmosis desalination of waste liquids (after rinsing) contain a majority of laundry waste components, since a hyperfiltration membrane efficiently retains salts and surfactant molecules. Desalinated water (permeate) after hyperfiltration is reused, further reducing the volume of liquid wastes. (author)

  2. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  3. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has...... a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From 1992, the maximum average concentrations allowed for municipal waste water discharges to receiving...... waters will be; 15 mg/1 for BOD5, 8 mg/1 for total nitrogen, and 1.5 mg/1 for total phosphorus. These general requirements cover all types of receiving waters, but regional authorities have, in a number of cases, fixed lower values for sensitive areas....

  5. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  6. Characterisation of some South African water treatment residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... Land application of water treatment residue (WTR) the by-product from the production of potable water, is becoming the preferred ... were analysed for some physical (particle size distribution, particle density and plant available water) and chemical attributes ...... for Industrial Wastes – Theory and Practice.

  7. Modeling of water treatment plant using timed continuous Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fuady Adhalia, H.; Subiono, Adzkiya, Dieky

    2017-08-01

    Petri nets represent graphically certain conditions and rules. In this paper, we construct a model of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) using timed continuous Petri nets. Specifically, we consider that (1) the water pump always active and (2) the water source is always available. After obtaining the model, the flow through the transitions and token conservation laws are calculated.

  8. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  9. Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an

  10. Comparative study of household water treatment in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research presents the household treatment of drinking water samples in a rural community in Nigeria by boiling and water guard. The physicochemical parameters of the raw water samples with exception of chloride, BOD and dissolved oxygen were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) ...

  11. Economic study of the treatment of surface water by small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibility of utilising an ultrafiltration process for the treatment of water from the dam in the Kabylia region of Algeria and, in particular, for the provision of drinking water to people living in dispersed small villages. The water quality was determined by measuring turbidity, and ...

  12. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  13. New electrochemical and photochemical systems for water and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Victor M; Parra, Sandra; Rincon, Angela G; Torres, Ricardo A; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing pressure on a more effective use of water resources, the development of appropriate water treatment technologies become more and more important. Photochemical and electrochemical oxidation processes have been proposed in recent years as an attractive alternative for the treatment of contaminated water containing anthropogenic substances hardly biodegradable as well as to purify and disinfect drinking waters. The aim of this paper is to present some of our last results demonstrating that electrochemical, photochemical, and the coupling of these processes with biological systems are very promising alternatives for the improvement of the water quality

  14. An evaluation of the ecological consequences of partial-power operation of the K Reactor, SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Specht, W.L.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1991-06-01

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) shut-down in spring 1988 for maintenance and safety upgrades. Since that time the receiving stream for thermal effluent, Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch, have undergone a pattern of post-thermal recovery that is typical of other SRS streams following removal of thermal stress. Divesity of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities has increased and available habitats have been colonized by numerous species of herbaceous and woody plants. K Reactor is scheduled to resume operation in 1991 and operate through 1992 without a cooling tower to cool the discharge. It is likely that the reactor will operate at approximately one-third to one-half of full power (800--1200 MW thermal) during this period and effluent temperatures will be substantially lower than earlier operation at full power. Monthly average discharge temperatures at half-power operation will range from approximately 42 degrees C in winter to 49 degrees C in summer. The volume of water discharged will not be affected by altered power levels and will average approximately 10--11 m 3 /s. The ecological consequences of this mode of operation on the Indian Grave/Pen Branch stream system have been evaluated

  15. Present municipal water treatment and potential removal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; White, S.K.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium analyses of raw water, intermediate stage, and treated water samples from 20 municipal water treatment plants indicated that the present treatment practices were not effective in removing uranium from raw waters when the influent concentration was in the range of 0.1 to 16 μg/L uranium. Laboratory batch tests revealed that the water softening and coagulant chemicals commonly used were able to remove more than 90% of the dissolved uranium ( < 100 μg/L) in waters if an optimum pH and dosage were provided. Absorbents, titanium oxide and activated charcoal, were also effective in uranium removal under specific conditions. Strong base anion exchange resin was the most efficient uranium adsorbent, and an anion exchange column is a recommended option for the treatment of private well waters containing uranium at higher than desirable levels

  16. Innovative on-site treatment cuts frac flowback water costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Water is an essential component of the drilling and hydraulic fracturing or fracking process and so the natural gas industry is a heavy user of water. Learning from other industries, gas producers are now employing mobile service providers with the latest integrated treatment systems (ITS) to clean flowback and produced water from fracturing operations at the wellhead. This paper presents a novel on-site treatment for frac water. ITS are pre-fabricated on moveable skids or a truck trailer with all the necessary controls, piping, valves, instrumentation, pumps, mixers and chemical injection modules. They remove oil and other hydrocarbons, suspended solids, and dissolved metals from the frac water using the tightly controlled chemistry, separation and filtration technology. This method can cut the average cost of treating produced water by 50%, simultaneously allowing drillers to maximize their efforts and manpower on generating oil and gas profits, rather than on water treatment.

  17. Treatment of radon rich well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.; Mushrush, G.; Chrosniak, C.

    1991-01-01

    Private wells supply potable water to about 25% of the homes in northern Virginia, and almost all water wells contain radon, a carcinogenic radionuclide derived form uranium in rocks and soil. The average Virginia well provides about 2,000-3,000 pCi/l of dissolved radon; the US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed that 300 pCi/l of should be the allowed maximum for public water supplies. To estimate the ability of activated charcoal to remove radon from private well water, a home supplied by a water well carrying at sign 4,000 pCi/l was studied. Following 1 year of water measurements, an in-line tank containing 1 cubic foot of activated charcoal was installed, and a subsequent 6 month interval of radon measurements on untreated and on treated water was conducted. Although removal rates of more than 90% have been reported, this study home showed a 60-70% radiation removal in the tank. A high percentage removal rate was reached in less than a month after installation, and was maintained for about 4 months, but the removal rate declined to about 50% by the end of the testing interval. Additional studies are being conducted to determine the effect of using different charcoal volumes, different charcoal types; also being studied is the gamma emission of the charcoal tank

  18. Clay Ceramic Filter for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zereffa Enyew Amare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic water filters were prepared from different proportions of kaolin and soft wood and sintered at 900 °C, 950 °C, and 1000 °C. The flow rate, conductivity, pH of filtered water and removal efficiency (microbial, water hardness agent’s, nitrite and turbidity were analysed. The ceramic filter with 15 % saw dust, 80 % clay and 5 % grog that was fired at temperature of 950 °C or 1000 °C showed the best removal efficiency. Statistical ANOVA tests showed a significant difference between ceramic filters with various compositions in their removal efficiencies.

  19. MWH's water treatment: principles and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crittenden, John C

    2012-01-01

    .... The contents have been updated to cover changes to regulatory requirements, testing methodology, and design approaches, as well as the emergent topics of pharmacological agents in the water supply...

  20. Disinfection of Water by Ultrasound: Application to Ballast Water Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brizzolara, Robert A; Holm, Eric R; Stamper, David M

    2006-01-01

    .... A contact time for one log kill of an E. coli pure culture of 0.6 minutes was measured when using higher average intensities resulting from reduced treatment cell diameters, a substantial improvement over previous work...

  1. Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was targeted at finding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatus) and ...

  2. Pollution of water sources and removal of pollutants by advanced drinking-water treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    The pollution of water resources and drinking water sources in China is described in this paper with basic data. About 90% of surface waters and over 60% of drinking water sources in urban areas have been polluted to different extents. The main pollutants present in drinking water sources are organic substances, ammonia nitrogen, phenols, pesticides and pathogenic micro-organisms, some of which cannot be removed effectively by the traditional water treatment processes like coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination, and the product water usually does not meet Chinese national drinking water standards, when polluted source water is treated. In some drinking-water plants in China, advanced treatment processes including activated carbon filtration and adsorption, ozonation, biological activated carbon and membrane separation have been employed for further treatment of the filtrate from a traditional treatment system producing unqualified drinking water, to make final product water meet the WHO guidelines and some developed countries' standards, as well as the Chinese national standards for drinking water. Some case studies of advanced water treatment plants are described in this paper as well.

  3. Evaluation of Retro recon for SRS planning correction according to the error of recognize to coordinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyeon Seok; Jeong, Deok Yang; Do, Gyeong Min; Lee, Yeong Cheol; KIm, Sun Myung; Kim, Young Bun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Retro recon in SRS planning using BranLAB when stereotactic location error occurs by metal artifact. By CT simulator, image were acquired from head phantom(CIRS, PTW, USA). To observe stereotactic location recognizing and beam hardening, CT image were approved by SRS planning system(BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany). In addition, we compared acquisition image(1.25mm slice thickness) and Retro recon image(using for 2.5 mm, 5mm slice thickness). To evaluate these three images quality, the test were performed by AAPM phantom study. In patient, it was verified stereotactic location error. All the location recognizing error did not occur in scanned image of phantom. AAPM phantom scan images all showed the same trend. Contrast resolution and Spatial resolution are under 6.4 mm, 1.0 mm. In case of noise and uniformity, under 11, 5 of HU were measured. In patient, the stereotactic location error was not occurred at reconstructive image. For BrainLAB planning, using Retro recon were corrected stereotactic error at beam hardening. Retro recon may be the preferred modality for radiation treatment planning and approving image quality.

  4. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  5. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  6. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  7. Methods for waste waters treatment in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Zhezhova, Silvana; Risteski, Sanja; Golomeova, Saska

    2014-01-01

    The processes of production of textiles or wet treatments and finishing processes of textile materials are huge consumers of water with high quality. As a result of these various processes, considerable amounts of polluted water are released. This paper puts emphasis on the problem of environmental protection against waste waters generated by textile industry. The methods of pretreatment or purification of waste waters in the textile industry can be: Primary (screening, sedimentation, homo...

  8. Removal of oil products from fitters in water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.B.; Olander, M.A.; Arvin, E.

    1996-01-01

    Gasoline and oil spills cause aromatic hydrocarbon pollution of ground water. Benzene, toluene and naphtalene can be found in water wells. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the filtering of water and biological degradation of aromatics on water treatment filters. These filters were proved to reduce benzene, toluene and naphtalene concentration from 5-12 μg/l to 0,3-0,6 μg/l (86-98 % removal). (EG)

  9. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, C; Freeman, G [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., St. Charles, MO (United States); Ballew, B [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Dames and Moore, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  10. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, C.; Freeman, G.; Ballew, B.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  11. Waste Water Treatment And Data Book Of Method Of Water Quality Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This book indicates the method of water quality analysis and waste water treatment with collecting water quality data of advanced country and WHO, which introduces poisonous substance in industrial waste water such as heavy metal, ammonia, chlorine ion, PCB, chloroform, residual chlorine and manganese, reports about influence of those materials on human health, lists on method of analysis the poisonous substance, research way like working order and precautions on treatment and method of chemical process and use.

  12. SISTEM PENGOLAHAN AIR MINUM SEDERHANA (PORTABLE WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isna Syauqiah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most important thing for living. Lately it is difficult to get clean water and suitable for consumption. Many water sources are commonly used not as good as it used to be. It needs to research about making a simple water treatment system with variable time and suitable volume for Martapura river conditions by knowing the quality of drinking water that produced. The technology used includes water treatment conducted physically (filtration and aeration, chemical processing (adsorption and desinfection using UV. This research was conducted in several stages. First is the design of portable water treatment itself is by making the columns of aeration, filtration column, adsorption column, and columns where the desinfection equipment are separated. Second, the optimizing tools that aim to determine the optimum time and volume of each instrument. So it will be obtained the optimum time and volume for whole instrument. Third, the analysis results of Martapura river. Based on research results obtained that the design of this tool is less effective with the quality of Martapura river water conditions to be processed into drinking water that is usually consumed by people around because the quality of drinking water that produced has not reached the standard of specified drinking water quality standard. Optimum time for this tool is 135 s with a desinfection time for 2 minutes and the optimum volume of entering water amounts to 2 L

  13. Biological Treatment of Water Disinfection Byproducts using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination process of drinking water include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acides (HAA5). THMs mainly consist of chloroform, and other harsh chemicals. Prolonged consumptions of drinking water containing high levels of THMs has been linked with diseases of the liver, kidneys, bladder, or central nervous system and may increase likelihood of cancer. A risk also exists for THMs exposure via inhalation while showering, bathing or washing clothes and dishes. Due to these risks, the U.S. EPA regulate THMs content in drinking water. This research investigates biological degradation of THM using chloroform as a model compound. The study aims to decrease possible risks of THMs through filtration. Throughout this year’s presentations, there is a common theme of health and safety concerns. UC researchers are working hard to clean water ways of naturally occurring contaminates as well as man-made toxins found in our waterways. The significance of these presentations translates into the promise of safer environments, and more importantly saved lives, as UC’s faculty continues to produce real-world solutions to problems threatening the world around us. A biotech process has been developed and demonstrated that effectively remove and treat volatile disinfection by-products from drinking water. The process strips low concentration disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, that are formed during the chlori

  14. Green Walls as an Approach in Grey Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysulova, Martina; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vranayova, Zuzana

    2017-10-01

    Grey water contributes significantly to waste water parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (Ptotal), total nitrogen (Ntotal), ammonium, boron, metals, salts, surfactants, synthetic chemicals, oils and greases, xenobiotic substances and microorganisms. Concentration of these pollutants and the water quality highlights the importance of treatment process in grey water systems. Treatment technologies operating under low energy and maintenance are usually preferred, since they are more cost effective for users. Treatment technologies based on natural processes represent an example of such technology including vegetated wall. Main aim of this paper is to introduce the proposal of vegetated wall managing grey water and brief characteristic of proposed system. Is expected that prepared experiment will establish the purifying ability and the potential of green wall application as an efficient treatment technology.

  15. Fate of Carbamazepine during Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosjek, T.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Kompare, Boris

    2009-01-01

    of acridone, hydroxy-(9H,10H)-acridine-9-carbaldehyde, acridone-N-carbaldehyde, and 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-(1H,3H-quinazoline-2,4-dione, while biological breakdown of acridine yielded acridone. In parallel, the transformation product iminostilbene was observed during sample analysis. In addition,this study...... compared the treatment technologies according to the removal of carbamazepine and the production and decay of its transformation products. The most successful method for the removal of carbamazepine was UV treatment, while acridine and acridone were more susceptible to biological treatment. Therefore...

  16. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  17. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  18. Reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of scoliosis research society – 22 (SRS-22 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulou Evangelos A

    2009-07-01

    The adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire is valid and reliable and can be used for the assessment of the outcome of the treatment of the Greek speaking patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

  19. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  20. Passive Solar Driven Water Treatment of Contaminated Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mubasher

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology Freshwater, being vital for mankind survival, has become a very serious concern for the public especially living in countries with limited water, energy and economic resources. Freshwater generation is an energy-intensive task particularly when fossil based fuels are required as energy source. However, environmental concerns and high energy costs have called for the alternative and renewable sources of energy like wind, hy...

  1. EPR of VHal centres in SrS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, V.; Danilkin, M.; Must, M.; Ots, A.; Paernoja, E.; Pung, L.; Tarkpea, K.

    2006-01-01

    V Hal centres were studied by EPR in SrS doped with halogens after X-raying the samples at 77 K. V Hal centre arises when a hole is captured by sulphide-ion next to a cation vacancy with a halogen ion substituting the opposite sulphide-ion. EPR parameters and thermal decay characteristics are measured for V Cl , V Br , and V I centres. The efficiency of different halogens to produce and stabilise cation vacancies is shown to vary for different alkaline earth sulphides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. The electron gun for the Daresbury SRS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The electron gun for the Daresbury SRS linac injector has been modified to use the cathode-grid assembly from the Eimac planar triode 8755. The gun now has improved beam characteristics, is more reliable and the cathode assembly is quicker and easier to change. This paper describes the assembly of the electron gun, and then the re-conditioning of the cathode highlighting the vacuum environment. The action of the grid modulation system on the electron beam, which pre-bunches the electron beam, is described, and typical gun characteristics are shown. Proposed developments to the gun system are discussed. (author)

  3. Correlator filters for feedback at SRS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, D.M.; Galayda, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    In order to amplify signals that are produced by an oscillating beam, it is desirable to first reject that part of the signal produced when the beam is not oscillating. This can be done through the use of correlator filters which have the advantages of simplicity, at least 200 MHz working bandwidth, and broadband matching to 50 ohms at both input and output. Correlator filters have been built for the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), the Daresbury SRS storage ring, and the NSLS x-ray ring. This report describes the performance of the filters and their associated electronic circuits. (FI)

  4. Vitrification of actinide solutions in SRS separations facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minichan, R.L.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The actinide vitrification system being developed at SRS provides the capability to convert specialized or unique forms of nuclear material into a stable solid glass product that can be safely shipped, stored or reprocessed according to the DOE complex mission. This project is an application of technology developed through funds from the Office of Technology Development (OTD). This technology is ideally suited for vitrifying relatively small quantities of fissile or special nuclear material since it is designed to be critically safe. Successful demonstration of this system to safely vitrify radioactive material could open up numerous opportunities for transferring this technology to applications throughout the DOE complex

  5. Detection of Cyanotoxins During Potable Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007, the U.S. EPA listed three cyanobacterial toxins on the CCL3 containment priority list for potable drinking waters. This paper describes all methodologies used for detection of these toxins, and assesses each on a cost/benefit basis. Methodologies for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, and a...

  6. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  7. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  8. A transportable system for radioactivity contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated water treatment system called SARRY for retrieval and recovery of water in operation at the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant since August 2011 has been modified by compacting the system size to develop a mobile system SARRY-Aqua that can process Cs-contaminated water (one ton/hour) to the level of 10 Bq/kg. Installing the system in a small container with dimensions conforming to the international standards facilitates transportation by truck and enables the contaminated water treatment occurring in a variety of locations. (S. Ohno)

  9. REVIEW ON NATURAL METHODS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, the most common method of disposal of waste water is by land spreading. This treatment method has numerous problems, namely high labor requirements and the potential for eutrophication of surface an d ground waters. Constructed wetlands are commonl y used for treatment of seconda ry municipal wastewaters and they have been gaining popularity for treatment of agricultural wastewaters in Ethiopia. Intermittent sand filtration may offer an alternative to traditional treatment methods. As well as providing comparable treatment performance, they also have a smaller footprint, due to the substantially higher organic loading rates that may be applied to their surfaces. Th is paper discusses the performance and design criteria of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic and agricultural wastewater, and sand filters for the treatment of domestic wastewater. It also proposes sand filtration as an alt ernative treatment mechanism for agricultural wa stewater and suggests design guide lines.

  10. Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambalam, T.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations

  11. Radiation treatment for endocrine disrupters in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2003-01-01

    The radiation-induced decomposition of a trace amount of 17 β-estradiol (E2) in water was studied as a function of the dose of 60Co γ-rays. Concentration of both E2 and E2 activity were estimated by LC-MS and ELISA, and decreased with an increase in the dose of γ-rays. E2 at 1.8-nM in water was degraded almost completely by irradiation at 10 Gy (=J/kg), but the E2 activity of the same sample still remained, and decreased by 30 Gy to be lower than the threshold level of contamination to induce some estrogenic effects on the environmental ecology. (author)

  12. Ballast Water Treatment Corrosion Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    NANPCA Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act NaCl Sodium Chloride NIOZ Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee NISA National...Based Testing Report on the Ecochlor System performed by Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee (NIOZ) (Veldhuis, 2008), ballast water treated...and the Relevant IMO Guideline. Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee (NIOZ). Den Burg: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research. Volkening

  13. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Phuong Thao; Dang Vu Chi

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine ...

  14. Pump spectral linewidth influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang S.; Kuzmin, Andrey; Prasad, Paras N. [The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The threshold, temporal behavior, and conversion efficiency of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS) in three liquids (benzene, hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two crystals (calcite and barium nitrate) have been investigated under three largely different spectral linewidth conditions. Pumped with 532-nm and nanosecond duration laser pulses of ≤ 0.01 cm{sup -1} linewidth, only SBS can be generated in all tested liquids with a high nonlinear reflectivity. However when the pump spectral linewidth is ∝0.07 cm{sup -1} or ∝0.8 cm{sup -1}, both SBS and SRS can be observed in benzene while only SRS can be generated in dimethyl sulfoxide; in all these cases SRS is the dominant contribution to the stimulated scattering but the efficiency values are drastically decreased due to the self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids, which arises from the thermal self-defocusing of both pump beam and SRS beam owing to Stokes-shift related opto-heating effect. In contrast, for SRS process in the two crystals, the thermal self-defocusing influence is negligible benefitting from their much greater thermal conductivity, and a higher conversion efficiency of SRS generation can be retained under all three pump conditions. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Dismantlement and decontamination of a plutonium-238 facility at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H. Jr.; Hootman, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been very little, documented decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) experience on which to project cleanup costs and schedules for plutonium facilities at SRS and other DOE sites. A portion of the HB-Line, a plutonium-238 processing facility at SRS, has been undergoing D ampersand D intermittently since 1984. Although this cleanup effort was not originally intended to quantify results, some key data have been project has demonstrated effective methods of accumulated, and the performing D ampersand D work, and has demonstrated cleanup equipment and techniques under conditions of high contamination. Plutonium facilities where D ampersand D is already underway provide an opportunity for' timely field testing of characterization, size reduction, and decontamination techniques. Some data are presented here; however, more specific tests and data may be obtained during the remainder of this project. This project has been recommended as a candidate test facility for a DOE planned ''Integrated D ampersand D Demonstration'' managed by EM-50 to develop and demonstrate technology for D ampersand D and surplus facilities deactivation. Both the remainder of this project and the Integrated D ampersand D Demonstration Program can benefit from a joint effort, and the, overall costs should be reduced

  16. SRS ES ampersand H standards compliance program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    On March 8, 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 90-2 to the Secretary of Energy. This recommendation, based upon the DNFSB's initial review and evaluation of the content and implementation of standards relating to the design, construction, operations, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities of the Department of Energy (DOE), called for three actions: (1) identification of specific standards that apply to design, construction, operation and decommissioning of DOE facilities; (2) assessment of the adequacy of those standards for protecting public health and safety; and (3) determination of the extent to which they have and are being implemented. This document defines the elements of the SRS program required to support the HQ program in response to DNFSB Recommendation 90-2. The objective is to ensure a consistent approach for all sitewide ES and H Standards Compliance Program efforts that satisfied the intent of Recommendation 90-2 and the HQ 90-2 Implementation Plan in a cost-effective manner. The methodology and instructions for implementation of the SRS program are contained in the Standards Compliance Program Implementation Plan. The Management Plan shall be used in conjunction with the Implementation Plan

  17. Development of a Rotary Microfilter for SRS HLW Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MICHAEL, POIRIER

    2005-01-01

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces approximately 0.02 gpm/sq. ft. of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel identified the rotary microfilter as a technology that could significantly increase filter flux, with throughput improvements of as much as 10X for that specific operation. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. This work includes pilot-scale and actual waste testing to evaluate system reliability, the impact of radiation on system components, the filter flux for a variety of waste streams, and relative performance for alternative filter media. Personnel revised the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service

  18. Plasma treatment of diamond nanoparticles for dispersion improvement in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingsong; Kim, Young Jo; Ma, Hongbin

    2006-01-01

    Low-temperature plasmas of methane and oxygen mixtures were used to treat diamond nanoparticles to modify their surface characteristics and thus improve their dispersion capability in water. It was found that the plasma treatment significantly reduced water contact angle of diamond nanoparticles and thus rendered the nanoparticles with strong water affinity for dispersion enhancement in polar media such as water. Surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that polar groups were imparted on nanoparticle surfaces. As a result, improved suspension stability was observed with plasma treated nanoparticles when dispersed in water

  19. Use of ionizing radiation in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of methods and possibilities of applying ionizing radiation in industrial waste water treatment. The most frequently used radiation sources include the 60 Co and 137 Cs isotopes and the 90 Sr- 90 Y combined source. The results are reported and the methods used are described of waste water treatment by sedimenting impurities and decomposing organic and inorganic compounds by ionizing radiation. It was found that waste water irradiation accelerated sedimentation and decomposition processes. The doses used varied between 50 and 500 krads. Ionizing radiation may also be used in waste water disinfection in which the effects are used of radiation on microorganisms and of the synthesis of ozone which does not smell like normally used chlorine. The described methods are still controversial from the economic point of view but the cost of waste water treatment by irradiation will significantly be reduced by the use of spent fuel elements. (J.B.)

  20. Isolation of viruses from drinking water at the Point-Viau water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payment, P.

    1981-04-01

    Viruses were isolated from every sample of raw (100 L) and treated (1000 L) water collected at a water treatment plant drawing sewage-contaminated river water. Few plaque-forming isolates were formed but cytopathogenic viruses were isolated as frequently in drinking water as in raw water. In drinking water some samples contained more than 1 cytopathogenic unit per litre, but most contained 1-10/100 L. These viruses had not been inactivated or removed by prechlorination, flocculation, filtration, ozonation, and postchlorination. There were no coliforms present and a residual chlorine level had been maintained. Poliovirus type 1 was a frequent isolate but many isolates were nonpoliovirus. The presence of these viruses in drinking water raises questions about the efficacy of some water treatment processes to remove viruses from polluted water.

  1. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  2. Modeling Jambo wastewater treatment system to predict water re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    C++ programme to implement Brown's model for determining water quality usage ... predicting the re-use options of the wastewater treatment system was a ... skins from rural slaughter slabs/butchers, slaughter .... City (Karnataka State, India).

  3. Produced water treatment for beneficial use : emulsified oil removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, Basma

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  4. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied

  5. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  6. Treatment of waters before use. Processes and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Some industrial processes require a water without any particulate in suspension and stable with respect to various aspects: no post-precipitations, no interference with storage and distribution equipments (corrosion or fouling), no development of bacterial, algal or other type of fauna (no chemical nutrients) etc. The water preparation process used will be different depending on the origin of the water (surface or underground). This article describes, first, the different type of treatments depending on the origin of the water and on the quality requested (clear and stable water, drinkable water, specific complementary processes, different processing files). Then, in a second part, the application of these processes to some industries are given (beverage, food, textile, paper, steel-making, aerospace and automotive, petroleum, power plants, ultra-pure waters) and in particular the preparation of demineralized water for nuclear power plants is described. (J.S.)

  7. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Westbrook, T.M. (Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  8. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F.; Westbrook, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area

  9. Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Stafslien, Shane (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-01

    Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter

  10. Selection of water treatment processes special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering

  11. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  12. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  13. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; Gaalen FW van; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; Technische Universiteit Delft; LWD

    2001-01-01

    The 'Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer' (TAPWAT) model has been developed for describing drinking-water quality in integral studies in the context of the Environmental Policy Assessment of the RIVM. The model consists of modules that represent individual steps in a treatment

  14. Selenium Adsorption To Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water-and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solut...

  15. Validation Aspects of Water Treatment Systems for Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of conducting validation is to demonstrate that a process, when operated within established limits, produces a product of consistent and specified quality with a high degree of assurance. Validation of water treatment systems is necessary to obtain water with all desired quality attributes. This also provides a ...

  16. Effectiveness of home water treatment methods in Dschang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MPN (Most Probable Number) technique was used to assess the bacteriological quality of nine of the important drinking water sources in Dschang. Water from the most polluted source was then subjected to six home-based treatment methods, commonly used by the population. Boiling for up to thirty minutes was the ...

  17. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Chunqi Li; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-10-01

    The effect of water treatment at 500 and 600 K on solvent extractions of Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) coals was investigated. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly in the extractions with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent, NMP, or 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). However, the water treatments at 500 K and the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave only a slight increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were performed using ultimate and proximate compositions, Fourier transform infrared analysis, solvent swelling, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The swelling degree in methanol and toluene was increased by the water treatment at 600 K, suggesting that crosslinks become loosened by the treatment. The results of infrared analysis and the extraction temperature dependency of the extraction yields with NMP and 1-MN suggest that the loosening of {pi} - interactions, and of both {pi} - interactions and hydrogen bonds, are responsible for the yield enhancements for PO and UF coals, respectively. However, for IL coal, which exhibited a decrease in oxygen content and the amount of hydrogen-bonded OH, suggesting the occurrence of some chemical reactions, the yield enhancements may be due to the relaxation of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups, such as the breaking of ether bonds. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. The treatment of river water by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.J.; Jenkins, M.A.; Coates, A.

    1977-01-01

    The suitability of rod, spirally would and hollow fibre reverse osmosis systems has been assessed for the treatment of River Trent water to produce water of boiler feed quality. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of the suspended solids level of the influent water supply on operating and cleaning regimes. The best performance was given by the rod-type membranes which could be used with relatively dirty water if suitable chemical and/or physical cleaning techniques were applied. However, even this system, requires some form of clarification of the raw supply, and this affects capital and overall running costs. The hollow fibre membrane, which cannot be readily cleaned required an excessively clean water supply to avoid rapid and irreversible loss of output and is unlikely to have full-scale application on this, or similar, water. The spirally wound membranes, whilst not so susceptible to suspended solids as the hollow fibre system, did not tolerate dirty water, and required the raw water to be clarified to a level that is unlikely to be continuously guaranteed. In its current stage of development reverse osmosis is unlikely to give a cost advantage over the main cation/anion exchange stage of present water treatment plant, even for the treatment of waters relatively high in dissolved salts (500 mg kg -1 ). Moreover, conventional pretreatment and final mixed ion-exchange beds would still be required to produce water of boiler feed quality. Reverse osmosis does, however, remove organic species and non reactive silicon; its selection is likely to be dictated by such requirements or where space is at a premium e.g. extensions to existing water treatment plants. (orig.) [de

  19. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2013-06-01

    Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

  1. MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B; Darman M Z

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m 3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

  2. Treatment of Highly Turbid Water by Polyaluminum Ferric Chloride (PAFCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Fazel Mohammadi-Moghaddam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In some situation like rainfall seasons raw water become very turbid so it affected the water treatment plant processes and quality of produced water. Treatment of very high turbid water has some concerns like precursors for disinfection by-products and very loading rate of particle on filter's media and consequently increases in water consumption for filter backwash. This paper investigates the performance of a composite inorganic polymer of aluminium and ferric salt, Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl, for the removal of turbidity, color and natural organic matter (NOM from high turbid water. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out by Jar test experiment by synthetic water samples with 250 and 500 NTU turbidity that prepared in laboratory. Results: The results of conventional jar test showed that the optimum pH for coagulation of water sample was 7.5 to 8 and optimum dosage of the coagulant was 10 mg/L. Removal efficiency of turbidity, color and UV adsorbent at 254 nm at optimum dose and pH without filtration was 99.92%, 100% and 80.6% respectively for first sample (250 NTU and 99.95%, 99.49% and 84.77 for second sample (500 NTU respectively. Conclusion: It concluded that polyaluminium ferric chloride has a very good efficiency for the removal of turbidity, color and organic matter in high turbid water. Also it can be select as a coagulant for high turbid water and some waste water from water treatment plant like filter backwash water.

  3. Review of iron oxides for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Many processes have utilized iron oxides for the treatment of liquid wastes containing radioactive and hazardous metals. These processes have included adsorption, precipitation and other chemical and physical techniques. For example, a radioactive wastewater precipitation process includes addition of a ferric hydroxide floc to scavenge radioactive contaminants, such as americium, plutonium and uranium. Some adsorption processes for wastewater treatment have utilized ferrites and a variety of iron containing minerals. Various ferrites and natural magnetite were used in batch modes for actinide and heavy metal removal from wastewater. Supported magnetite was also used in a column mode, and in the presence of an external magnetic field, enhanced capacity was found for removal of plutonium and americium from wastewater. These observations were explained by a nano-level high gradient magnetic separation effect, as americium, plutonium and other hydrolytic metals are known to form colloidal particles at elevated pHs. Recent modeling work supports this assumption and shows that the smaller the magnetite particle the larger the induced magnetic field around the particle from the external field. Other recent studies have demonstrated the magnetic enhanced removal of arsenic, cobalt and iron from simulated groundwater. (author)

  4. Hygiena 3, a Forgotten Project for Electrolytic Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryštof Drnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the interwar period, the city of Prague had to resolve the problem of treating the polluted water produced by its citizens. From 1933 - 1936 an ambitious competition was held. The idea behind the competition was to bring in new ideas and projects for a new water treatment station.Hygiena 3 was one of the projects that was submitted. It proposed a treatment procedure based on electrolytic consolidation of contaminants in water into flocks. The project was found to be inventive and interesting but too expensive and not effective. Nevertheless it was evaluated as a well developed proposal and received an award from the city.

  5. Biological black water treatment combined with membrane separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorthuizen, E.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph; Temmink, Hardy

    2008-01-01

    Separate treatment of black (toilet) water offers the possibility to recover energy and nutrients. In this study three combinations of biological treatment and membrane filtration were compared for their biological and membrane performance and nutrient conservation: a UASB followed by effluent

  6. Effects of Hot Water Treatment and Temperature on Seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, to study the effect of hot water treatment and temperature on the morphological characteristics of Arabic gum. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement. The treatments included a ...

  7. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  8. Effects of source, water conditioning and thermal treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at 15 % moisture content amounting to 61.3 MJ was the optimum thermal treatment for achieving germination of 69 %. R. heudelotii seeds soaked in water for 15 days at moisture content of 24 % over dry weight followed by thermal treatment improved germination by 22 %. The highest germination of 79 % was obtained for ...

  9. Potential applications of plasma science techniques for water treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, D.

    1994-01-01

    The historical evolution of water treatment techniques and their impact on man and his environment are presented. Ancient man recognized the relationship between good water and good health. However, it was not until the late 1800's that man's own contribution to the pollution of water via biological and chemical contamination of the water stream was recognized as having adverse affects on water quality. Since that time virtually every nation has adopted laws and regulations to ensure that safe sources of unpolluted water are available to its citizens. In the United States, water quality is governed by the Clean Water Act of 1972 administered at the federal level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Further, each state has established its equivalent agency which administers its own laws and regulations. Different biological and chemical biohazards present in the water system are discussed. Biological contaminants include various types of viruses, bacteria, fungii, molds, yeasts, algae, amoebas, and parasites. Chemical contaminates include elemental heavy metals and other organic and inorganic compounds which interfere with normal biological functions. Conventional water treatments for both consumption and sewage effluent commonly employ four different principals: mechanical filtration, quiescent gravity settling, biological oxidation, and chemical treatment. Although these techniques have greatly reduced the incidence of water-borne disease recent studies suggest that more effective means of eliminating biohazards are needed. Regulatory requirements for more aggressive treatment and elimination of residual contaminants present a significant opportunity for the application of various forms of electromagnetic radiation techniques. A comparison between conventional techniques and more advanced methods using various forms of electromagnetic radiation is discussed

  10. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedar Yusran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  11. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedar, Yusran; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  12. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

  13. Cooling water treatment for heavy water project (Paper No. 6.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsangkar, H.N.

    1992-01-01

    With minor exceptions, water is the preferred industrial medium for the removal of unwanted heat from process systems. The application of various chemical treatments is required to protect the system from water related and process related problems of corrosion, scale and deposition and biofouling. The paper discusses the cooling water problems for heavy water industries along with the impact caused by associated fertilizer units. (author). 6 figs

  14. BTEX compounds in water - future trends and directions for water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fayemiwo, OM; Daramola, MO; Moothi, K

    2017-01-01

    BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds are common water resource and potable water pollutants that are often left undetected and untreated by municipal treatment systems in spite of the negative repercussions associated with their ingestion. The US EPA has classified these pollutants as priority pollutant, yet they are persistently present in a variety of water resources. In this review paper, we highlight the sources and reported concentrations of BTEX compounds in water...

  15. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation in ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Kompare, Boris; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd

    2015-05-01

    Ballast water is, together with hull fouling and aquaculture, considered the most important factor of the worldwide transfer of invasive non-indigenous organisms in aquatic ecosystems and the most important factor in European Union. With the aim of preventing and halting the spread of the transfer of invasive organisms in aquatic ecosystems and also in accordance with IMO's International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, the systems for ballast water treatment, whose work includes, e.g. chemical treatment, ozonation and filtration, are used. Although hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is used in many different areas, such as science and engineering, implied acoustics, biomedicine, botany, chemistry and hydraulics, the application of HC in ballast water treatment area remains insufficiently researched. This paper presents the first literature review that studies lab- and large-scale setups for ballast water treatment together with the type-approved systems currently available on the market that use HC as a step in their operation. This paper deals with the possible advantages and disadvantages of such systems, as well as their influence on the crew and marine environment. It also analyses perspectives on the further development and application of HC in ballast water treatment.

  16. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  17. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  18. Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Keyamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ, and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability.

  19. Photocatalytic Water Treatment by Titanium Dioxide: Recent Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A. Lazar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic water treatment using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (NTO is a well-known advanced oxidation process (AOP for environmental remediation. With the in situ generation of electron-hole pairs upon irradiation with light, NTO can mineralize a wide range of organic compounds into harmless end products such as carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic ions. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of pollutants by NTO is a topic of debate and the mostly reporting Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics must accompanied with proper experimental evidences. Different NTO morphologies or surface treatments on NTO can increase the photocatalytic efficiency in degradation reactions. Wisely designed photocatalytic reactors can decrease energy consumption or can avoid post-separation stages in photocatalytic water treatment processes. Doping NTO with metals or non-metals can reduce the band gap of the doped catalyst, enabling light absorption in the visible region. Coupling NTO photocatalysis with other water-treatment technologies can be more beneficial, especially in large-scale treatments. This review describes recent developments in the field of photocatalytic water treatment using NTO.

  20. SU-F-T-568: QA of a Multi-Target Multi-Dose VMAT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, D; Kuo, J [University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States); Gonzales, A [Clinica Aliada contra el Cancer, Lima (Peru)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To, experimentally, corroborated the prescribed doses utilizing dosimeters (e.g. films and TLDs) that can provide high spatial resolution, allow dose measurement of multiple targets at once, and provide accurate dosimetric results. Methods: A single-isocenter 6FFF SRS VMAT plan consisting of one 358° arc at 0° couch angle and four 179° arcs at 30°, 60°, 330° and 300° couch angles respectively, was generated in ECLIPSE v.11 using a Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic head phantom CT study. This plan was a reproduction of a clinical plan generated for a stage-IV melanoma patient diagnosed with 19 intracranial lesions. The phantom was loaded with axially mounted (between phantom slabs) Gafchromic EBT3 film and TLDs strategically positioned within various target volumes. Film and TLDS were calibrated according to established protocols. Target prescription doses were 16 Gy (3cc≤, 3 lesions), 18 Gy (∼1–3cc, 10 lesions) and 20 Gy (≤1cc, 6 lesions). Phantom setup was verified through CBCT imaging prior to irradiation. Gafchromic films were scanned in transmission mode and TLDs were read, respectively, ∼24 hrs after irradiation. Results: Dose calibrated Gafchromic film data were compared to the ECLIPSE calculated data using a 3% / 3mm gamma function analysis. Results for the gamma values were 96–99% in agreement with the calculated data and with 84–90% of the film pixels within the 3% dose difference. TLD data showed a dose difference of 0.4–8% while the film data for those same locations yielded a difference of 0.4–4%. It was observed that the highest dose discrepancies correlated with the location of the small volume targets. Conclusion: Overall this study corroborated that a VMAT SRS treatment, employing various treatment table rotations and arcs, to multiple intracranial lesions with multiple dose prescriptions can be delivered accurately with the existing radiotherapy technology.

  1. Water treatment in the EBR-II steam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.A.; Hurst, H.

    1975-01-01

    Boiler-water treatment in the EBR-II steam system consists of demineralizing makeup water and using hydrazine to remove traces of oxygen and morpholine to adjust pH to 8.8-9.2. This treatment is called a ''zero-solids'' method, because the chemical agents and reaction products are either volatile or form water and do not contribute solids to the boiler water. A continuous blowdown is cooled, filtered, and deionized to remove impurities and maintain high purity of the water. If a cooling-water leak occurs, phosphate is added to control scaling, and the ''zero-solids'' eatment is suspended until the leak is repaired. Water streams are sampled at six points to control water purity. Examination of the steam drum and an evaporator show the metal surfaces to be in excellent condition with minimal corrosion. The EBR-II steam-generating plant has accumulated over 85,000 hours of in-service operation and has operated successfully for over ten years with the ''zero-solids'' treatment. (auth)

  2. Anaerobia Treatments of the domestic residual waters. Limitations potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Gomez, Eugenio

    1993-01-01

    The quick growth of the Latin American cities has prevented that an appropriate covering of public services is achieved for the whole population, One of the undesirable consequences of this situation is the indiscriminate discharge from the domestic and industrial residual waters to the nearest bodies of water with its consequent deterioration and with disastrous consequences about the ecology and the public health. The developed countries have controlled this situation using systems of purification of the residual waters previously to their discharge in the receptor source. The same as the technology of the evacuation of the served waters, they have become numerous efforts for the application of the purification systems used in the countries developed to the socioeconomic, climatic and cultural conditions of our means. One of the results obtained in these efforts is the economic inability of the municipalities to pay the high investment costs and of operation of the traditional systems for the treatment of the residual waters. Contrary to another type of public services, the treatment of the residual waters needs of appropriate technological solutions for the Climatic and socioeconomic means of the developing countries, One of the technological alternatives for the purification of the residual waters that has had a great development in the last decades has been that of the biological treatments in t anaerobia ambient. The objective of this contribution is to present, to author's trial, the limitations and potentialities of this technology type with special emphasis in the case of the domestic residual waters

  3. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, V.; Baude, I.

    2012-04-01

    As a biology and geology teacher, I have worked on water, from the source to the treatment plant, with pupils between 14 and 15 years old. Lesson 1. Introduction, the water in Vienna Aim: The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2. Soil, rock and water Aim: Permeability/ impermeability of the different layers of earth Activities: The pupils have measure the permeability and porosity of different stones: granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt. Lesson 3. Relationship between water's ion composition and the stone's mineralogy Aim: Each water source has the same ion composition as the soil where the water comes from. Activities: Comparison between the stone's mineralogy and ions in water. They had a diagram with the ions of granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt and the label of different water. They had to make hypotheses about the type of soil where the water came from. They verified this with a geology map of France and Austria. They have to make a profile of the area where the water comes from. They had to confirm or reject their hypothesis. Lesson 4 .Water-catchment and reservoir rocks Aim: Construction of a confined aquifer and artesian well Activities: With sand, clay and a basin, they have to model a confined aquifer and make an artesian well, using what they have learned in lesson 2. Lesson 5. Organic material breakdown and it's affect on the oxygen levels in an aquatic ecosystem Aim: Evaluate the relationship between oxygen levels and the amount of organic matter in an aquatic ecosystem. Explain the relationship between oxygen levels, bacteria and the breakdown of organic matter using an indicator solution. Activities: Put 5 ml of a different water sample in each tube with 20 drops of methylene blue. Observe the tubes after 1 month. Lesson 6. Visit to the biggest water treatment plant in

  4. Biochemical, Environmental Engineering and Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.A.E.; Ibrahem, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    to Environmental Considerations - The environmental impacts of a proposed wastewater treatment facility are as important,t, if not more so, as cost considerations, a few comments regarding applicable environmental considerations that must also be addressed are appropriate. - The environmental evaluations should focus on social, technical, ecological, economic, political, legal, and institutional (STEEPLI) criteria. - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for any proposed governmental action that is determined to have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment. - The regulations ensure that the probable environmental effects are identified, that a reasonable number of alternative actions and their environmental impacts are considered, that the environmental information is available for public understanding and scrutiny, and that the public and governmental agencies participate as a part of the decision process. - All pertinent regulations and the inherent participate afforded must be disclosed in the EIS. - National Environmental Policy Act of USA (NEP A ) neither prohibits nor permits any action but requires full disclosure of environmental information and public participation in the decision making process

  5. Development of a Rotary Microfilter for SRS HLW Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MICHAEL, POIRIER

    2004-01-01

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site high level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross flow filter, produces 0.02 gpm/ft2 of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel identified the rotary microfilter as a technology that could significantly increase filter flux, with throughput improvements of as much as 10X for that specific operation. With funding from the Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technologies, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. This work includes pilot-scale and actual waste testing to evaluate system reliability, the impact of radiation on system components, the filter flux for a variety of waste streams, and relative performance for alternative filter media

  6. Clemson final report: High temperature formulations for SRS soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate the application of a DC arc melter to in-situ vitrification of SRS soils. The melter that was available at the DOE/Industrial Vitrification Laboratory at Clemson University was equipped with opposing solid electrodes. To simulate field conditions, two hollow electrode configurations were evaluated which allowed fluxes to be injected into the melter while the soils were being vitrified. the first 4 runs utilized pre-blended flux (two runs) and attempted flux injection (two runs). These runs were terminated prematurely due to offgas sampling problems and melt freezing. The remaining four runs utilized a different electrode geometry, and the runs were not interrupted to change out the offgas sampling apparatus. These runs were conducted successfully

  7. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  8. Stereotactic treatment. Definitions and literature overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    The topics discussed include, among others, the following: Radiosurgery definitions; Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT); Available uncertainties in SRS; Gamma knife; Linac-based SRS; Components of a radiosurgery system; Stereotactic hardware (brain lab); m3 linac attachment; Radiosurgery - clinical procedure; Cancer management; Rationale for SRT; Role of radiosurgery in the management of intracranial tumors; Indications for stereotactic SRS/SRT; Physical components required for SRS/SRT; Stereotactic patient set-up; Stereotactic CT scan for SRS; Physical components required for SRT: Relocatable head frame (GTC); Patient immobilization; Treatment planning system; Basic requirements for SRS dosimetry (Linac based); Stereotactic set-up QA (Linac); Stereotactic frames and QA; Beam dose measurements; Dose evaluation tools; Phantoms. (P.A.)

  9. Questionário SRS-30 para adolescentes portadores de escoliose idiopática Cuestionario SRS-30 para adolescentes portadores de escoliosis idiopática SRS-30 Questionnaire for adolescents with idiophatic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carriço de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a medição da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde é uma prática comum na avaliação de doenças da coluna vertebral. O questionário SRS-30 (versão procedente do instrumento Scoliosis Research Society-22 é um instrumento válido para a avaliação clínica de pacientes portadores de escoliose idiopática nos Estados Unidos. Entretanto, sua adaptação em outros idiomas é necessária para uso multinacional. OBJETIVO: analisar os domínios e itens do questionário SRS-30 para adolescentes. Discutir a aplicação do questionário da Scoliosis Research Society (SRS em diversas versões. DESENHO DE ESTUDO: revisão narrativa da literatura sobre um questionário para mensurar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e suas versões em diferentes idiomas. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzida uma revisão narrativa da literatura em relação à tradução e validação dos questionários SRS-22, SRS-24 e SRS-30. RESULTADOS: oito publicações descrevendo a tradução e validação do questionário SRS nos idiomas espanhol, japonês, turco, chinês, italiano e alemão foram identificadas na literatura. Nenhum artigo sobre o questionário SRS-30 na versão brasileira foi localizado na literatura. O conteúdo dos itens de cada domínio se refere tanto a dados concretos e fáceis de precisar como também às experiências subjetivas das pessoas e às reações emocionais diante de determinados fatos. A maioria dos instrumentos que avaliam qualidade de vida foi desenvolvida no idioma inglês e existe a necessidade da adaptação destes questionários para o uso em países cuja língua oficial não seja o inglês. CONCLUSÕES: questionários que avaliam qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde devem sofrer adaptações culturais para manter a validade interna do instrumento. Para isso, urge outro desenho de estudo para a validação do questionário SRS-30 em português brasileiro para que se determine sua validade em comparação aos question

  10. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  11. Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P.; Nesta, S.; Anderson, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am

  12. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  13. The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Peter K; Barton, Geoffrey W; Mitchell, Cynthia A

    2005-04-01

    Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles) at the cathode. Electrocoagulation has a long history as a water treatment technology having been employed to remove a wide range of pollutants. However electrocoagulation has never become accepted as a 'mainstream' water treatment technology. The lack of a systematic approach to electrocoagulation reactor design/operation and the issue of electrode reliability (particularly passivation of the electrodes over time) have limited its implementation. However recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale decentralised water treatment facilities have led to a re-evaluation of electrocoagulation. Starting with a review of electrocoagulation reactor design/operation, this article examines and identifies a conceptual framework for electrocoagulation that focuses on the interactions between electrochemistry, coagulation and flotation. In addition detailed experimental data are provided from a batch reactor system removing suspended solids together with a mathematical analysis based on the 'white water' model for the dissolved air flotation process. Current density is identified as the key operational parameter influencing which pollutant removal mechanism dominates. The conclusion is drawn that electrocoagulation has a future as a decentralised water treatment technology. A conceptual framework is presented for future research directed towards a more mechanistic understanding of the process.

  14. Utilizing the fluidized bed to initiate water treatment on site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadvand, H.; Germann, G.; Gandee, J.P.; Buehler, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Escalating wastewater disposal costs coupled with enforcement of stricter regulations push industrial sites previously without water treatment to treat on site. These sites, inexperienced in water treatment, require a treatment technology that is easily installed, operated, and maintained. The aerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized bed incorporates biological and adsorptive technologies into a simple, cost-effective process capable of meeting strict effluent requirements. Two case studies at industrial sites illustrate the installation and operation of the fluidized bed and emphasize the ability to use the fluidized bed singularly or as an integral component of a treatment system capable of achieving treatment levels that allow surface discharge and reinjection. Attention is focused on BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes)

  15. The increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Iino; T. Takanohashi; C. Li; N. Kashimura; K. Masaki; T. Shishido; I. Saito; H. Kumagai [Institute for Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have reported that the water treatments of bituminous coals at 600 K for 1 h increased their extraction yields greatly (Energy Fuels, 2005, 18, 1414). In this paper the effect of coal rank on the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment has been investigated using four Argonne Premium coals, i.e., Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), Illinois No.6 (IL), and Beulah Zap (BZ) coals with C % (daf) in the range 67 - 90%. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly with a 1:1 carbon disulfide / N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone mixed solvent (CS2 / NMP) at room temperature. While, the water treatments at 500 K or the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave little increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were carried out from ultimate and proximate compositions, FT-IR spectrum, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The effect of extraction temperature on the extraction yield enhancement was also investigated using polar NMP or non-polar 1-MN solvent. From these results it is concluded that for high coal rank coals the loosening of non-covalent bonds is responsible for the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment. The loosening non-covalent bonds may be {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic rings for PO, and both {pi}-{pi} interactions and hydrogen bonds for UF. While, for lower rank IL and BZ, which showed decrease in O% and hydrogen-bonded OH, the yield enhancements may be due to the loosening of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  17. Grey water treatment in UASB reactor at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, T A; Shalabi, M; Wendland, C; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of grey water treatment in a UASB reactor was investigated. The batch recirculation experiments showed that a maximum total-COD removal of 79% can be obtained in grey-water treatment in the UASB reactor. The continuous operational results of a UASB reactor treating grey water at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 12 and 8 hours at ambient temperature (14-24 degrees C) showed that 31-41% of total COD was removed. These results were significantly higher than that achieved by a septic tank (11-14%), the most common system for grey water pre-treatment, at HRT of 2-3 days. The relatively lower removal of total COD in the UASB reactor was mainly due to a higher amount of colloidal COD in the grey water, as compared to that reported in domestic wastewater. The grey water had a limited amount of nitrogen, which was mainly in particulate form (80-90%). The UASB reactor removed 24-36% and 10-24% of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively, in the grey water, due to particulate nutrients removal by physical entrapment and sedimentation. The sludge characteristics of the UASB reactor showed that the system had stable performance and the recommended HRT for the reactor is 12 hours.

  18. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baude, I.; Marquet, V.

    2012-04-01

    Isabelle BAUDE isa.baude@free.fr Lycee français de Vienne Liechtensteinstrasse 37AVienna As a physics and chemistry teacher, I have worked on water from the source to the treatment plant with 27 pupils between 14 and 15 years old enrolled in the option "Science and laboratory". The objectives of this option are to interest students in science, to introduce them to practical methods of laboratory analyses, and let them use computer technology. Teaching takes place every two weeks and lasts 1.5 hours. The theme of water is a common project with the biology and geology teacher, Mrs. Virginie Marquet. Lesson 1: Introduction: The water in Vienna The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) and where tap water comes from. Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2: Objectives of the session: What are the differences between mineral waters? Activities: Compare water from different origins (France: Evian, Vittel, Contrex. Austria: Vöslauer, Juvina, Gasteiner and tap water from Vienna) by tasting and finding the main ions they contain. Testing ions: Calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, and potassium Lesson 3: Objectives of the session: Build a hydrometer Activities: Producing a range of calibration solutions, build and calibrate the hydrometer with different salt-water solutions. Measure the density of the Dead Sea's water and other mineral waters. Lesson 4: Objectives of the session: How does a fountain work? Activities: Construction of a fountain as Heron of Alexandria with simple equipment and try to understand the hydrostatic principles. Lesson 5: Objectives of the session: Study of the physical processes of water treatment (decantation, filtration, screening) Activities: Build a natural filter with sand, stone, carbon, and cotton wool. Retrieve the filtered water to test it during lesson 7. Lesson 6: Visit of the biggest treatment

  19. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  20. Refinement of MLC modeling improves commercial QA dosimetry system for SRS and SBRT patient-specific QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Yair; Kim, Josh; Chetty, Indrin; Wen, Ning

    2018-04-01

    Mobius 3D (M3D) provides a volumetric dose verification of the treatment planning system's calculated dose using an independent beam model and a collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm. However, there is a lack of investigation into M3D's accuracy and effectiveness for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) quality assurance (QA). Here, we collaborated with the vendor to develop a revised M3D beam model for SRS/SBRT cases treated with a 6X flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and high-definition multiple leaf collimator (HDMLC) on an Edge linear accelerator. Eighty SRS/SBRT cases, planned with AAA dose algorithm and validated with Gafchromic film, were compared to M3D dose calculations using 3D gamma analysis with 2%/2 mm gamma criteria and a 10% threshold. A revised beam model was developed by refining the HD-MLC model in M3D to improve small field dose calculation accuracy and beam profile agreement. All cases were reanalyzed using the revised beam model. The impact of heterogeneity corrections for lung cases was investigated by applying lung density overrides to five cases. For the standard and revised beam models, respectively, the mean gamma passing rates were 94.6% [standard deviation (SD): 6.1%] and 98.0% [SD: 1.7%] (for the overall patient), 88.2% [SD: 17.3%] and 93.8% [SD: 6.8%] (for the brain PTV), 71.4% [SD: 18.4%] and 81.5% [SD: 14.3%] (for the lung PTV), 83.3% [SD: 16.7%] and 67.9% [SD: 23.0%] (for the spine PTV), and 78.6% [SD: 14.0%] and 86.8% [SD: 12.5%] (for the PTV of all other sites). The lung PTV mean gamma passing rates improved from 74.1% [SD: 7.5%] to 89.3% [SD: 7.2%] with the lung density overridden. The revised beam model achieved an output factor within 3% of plastic scintillator measurements for 2 × 2 cm 2 MLC field size, but larger discrepancies are still seen for smaller field sizes which necessitate further improvement of the beam model. Special attention needs to be paid to small field

  1. Proceedings of the international conference on vacuum science and technology and SRS vacuum systems. V.1: accelerators and SRS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Sinha, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    An International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology, INCOVAST-95 was held during January 30 - February 2, 1995 at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore under the aegis of the Indian Vacuum Society. Centre for Advanced Technology has a major programme of design and construction of a 450 MeV electron storage ring, synchrotron radiation source Indus-1 followed by the 1.25 GeV Indus-2. To match the activities at the centre, the present conference had ultrahigh vacuum for Synchrotron Radiation Sources (SRSs) as the main theme. Three major topics, namely accelerators and SRS systems, thin films and surfaces, vacuum components and applications were covered in detail. A short summary of the discussions is also included in the proceedings. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon.

  3. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung

    2013-01-01

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon

  4. First Derivative UV Spectra of Surface Water as a Monitor of Chlorination in Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zitko

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries require the presence of free chlorine at about 0.1 mg/l in their drinking water supplies. For various reasons, such as cast-iron pipes or long residence times in the distribution system, free chlorine may decrease below detection limits. In such cases it is important to know whether or not the water was chlorinated or if nonchlorinated water entered the system by accident. Changes in UV spectra of natural organic matter in lakewater were used to assess qualitatively the degree of chlorination in the treatment to produce drinking water. The changes were more obvious in the first derivative spectra. In lakewater, the derivative spectra have a maximum at about 280 nm. This maximum shifts to longer wavelengths by up to 10 nm, decreases, and eventually disappears with an increasing dose of chlorine. The water treatment system was monitored by this technique for over 1 year and changes in the UV spectra of water samples were compared with experimental samples treated with known amounts of chlorine. The changes of the UV spectra with the concentration of added chlorine are presented. On several occasions, water, which received very little or no chlorination, may have entered the drinking water system. The results show that first derivative spectra are potentially a tool to determine, in the absence of residual chlorine, whether or not surface water was chlorinated during the treatment to produce potable water.

  5. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

  6. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies...... which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...

  7. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast

  8. Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on Godavari river water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Ravi Kumar; Ajay Kumar, V.; Reddy, T. Rakesh; Vinod, B.; Shravani, S.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for the development of water treatment technologies. In the area of water purification, nanotechnology offers the possibility of an efficient removal of pollutants and germs. Nanomaterials reveal good results than other techniques used in water treatment because of its high surface area to volume ratio. In the present work, iron oxide and copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were used to purify Godavari river water. The effect of nanoparticles at 70°C temperature, 12 centimeter of sand bed height and pH of 8 shows good results as compared to simple sand bed filter. The attained values of BOD5, COD and Turbidity were in permissible limit of world health organization.

  9. Minireview: the health implications of water treatment with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, N G; Winder, C; Borges, S H; Backhouse, B L; Lewis, P D

    1982-01-11

    Ozone is a highly efficient disinfectant which may have significant advantages in water treatment compared to chlorine. It has, however, been shown that mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic byproducts may be produced under certain conditions of ozonation. Light chlorination following ozonization may meet the highest standards of disinfection. In addition the destruction of much of the organic matter by prior ozone treatment may well result in less harmful chlorinated and brominated products in the finished water. In many cases ozone treatment alone may suffice. It would be desirable to test with long term in vivo experiments which of the alternatives produces the best combination of microbiologically clean and pleasant water with minimum mutagenic and carcinogenic effect.

  10. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  11. Advances in treatment methods for uranium contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Water and soil contaminated with actinides, such as uranium and plutonium, are an environmental concern at most U.S. Department of Energy sites, as well as other locations in the world. Remediation actions are on going at many sites, and plans for cleanup are underway at other locations. This paper will review work underway at Clemson University in the area of treatment and remediation of soil and water contaminated with actinide elements. (author)

  12. Treatment of offshore produced water - an effective membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Larson, R.; Scherer, B.

    1991-01-01

    The conference paper describes a new membrane technology being extremely effective in separating hydrocarbons from water streams. The membrane is composed of a completely natural cellulose and is resistant to all hydrocarbons and organic solvents, and preliminary tests have shown that it is resistant to fouling by oily molecules and calcium scaling. The membrane system being designed shows good potential for the treatment of offshore produced water with a hydrocarbon content well within present and emerging standards. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  14. Sterols indicate water quality and wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ho, Wei Y; Zhou, Wenxu; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, water pollution is presenting one of the biggest challenges worldwide. More wastewater is being generated and the demand for clean water is increasing. To ensure the safety and health of humans and the environment, highly efficient wastewater treatment systems, and a reliable assessment of water quality and pollutants are required. The advance of holistic approaches to water quality management and the increasing use of ecological water treatment technologies, such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), challenge the appropriateness of commonly used water quality indicators. Instead, additional indicators, which are direct measures of the processes involved in the stabilisation of human waste, have to be established to provide an in-depth understanding of system performance. In this study we identified the sterol composition of wastewater treated in WSPs and assessed the suitability of human sterol levels as a bioindicator of treatment efficiency of wastewater in WSPs. As treatment progressed in WSPs, the relative abundance of human faecal sterols, such as coprostanol, epicoprostanol, 24-ethylcoprostanol, and sitostanol decreased significantly and the sterol composition in wastewater changed significantly. Furthermore, sterol levels were found to be correlated with commonly used wastewater quality indicators, such as BOD, TSS and E. coli. Three of the seven sterol ratios that have previously been used to track sewage pollution in the environment, detected a faecal signal in the effluent of WSPs, however, the others were influenced by high prevalence of sterols originating from algal and fungal activities. This finding poses a concern for environmental assessment studies, because environmental pollution from waste stabilisation ponds can go unnoticed. In conclusion, faecal sterols and their ratios can be used as reliable indicators of treatment efficiency and water quality during wastewater

  15. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  16. Validade concorrente da versão Brasileira do SRS-22r com o Br-SF-36 Concurrent validity of the Brazilian version of SRS-22r with Br-SF-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle C. L. Rosanova

    2010-04-01

    performance of an instrument of interest and the performance of a similar instrument with known validity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the concurrent validity of the Brazilian version of the revised questionnaire of the Scoliosis Research Society (Br-SRS-22r and the Brazilian version of the Short-Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis were selected. The mean age was 19.9 yrs. (±7.7 and the mean Cobb angle of curvature was 31.6° (±20.5°, ranging from 10º to 92º. The results from each questionnaire were converted into scores and, in the statistical analyses, the relationships between the concurrent domains were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The best correlations were found between the function and pain domains: function in the Br-SRS-22r and physical function in the Br-SF-36 (r=0.83; pain in the Br-SRS-22r and pain in the Br-SF-36 (r=0.86. However, the domains of self-image and satisfaction with treatment with the Br-SRS-22r showed moderate and poor correlations with their corresponding domains in the Br-SF-36. There were moderate correlations between the questionnaires, with the best correlations showing greater similarity in the evaluated parameters between the respective instruments. Unlike the function and pain domains, the mental health domains did not have a good correlations, possibly because of difficulties in interpreting of the questions in the Br-SF-36. For the self-image and satisfaction domains, the correlations were moderate and poor because these topics were not specifically covered by the SF-36. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the SRS-22r demonstrated moderate concurrent validity results in relation to the Br-SF-36, and this version adapted for the Brazilian culture was deemed valid.

  17. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: ARS CFU-50 APC ELECTROFLOCCULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV testing of the ARS CFU-50 APC Electroflocculation and Filtration Water Treatment System (ARS CFU-50 APC) for arsenic removal was conducted at the Town of Bernalillo Well #3 site from April 18 through May 2, 2006. The source water was chlorinated groundwater from two supply w...

  18. Occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in finished drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, Kathryn L.; Pflug, Nicholas C.; DeWald, Eden M.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cwiertny, David M.; LeFevre, Gergory H.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin is susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo at least partial transformation during chlorination. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as an effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.

  19. Plant wide chemical water stability modelling with PHREEQC for drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Hooft, J.F.M.; De Moel, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In practice, drinking water technologists use simplified calculation methods for aquatic chemistry calculations. Recently, the database stimela.dat is developed especially for aquatic chemistry for drinking water treatment processes. The database is used in PHREEQC, the standard in geohydrology for

  20. Estrogen-related receptor gamma disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors. Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects. To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported. We used ERRgamma two-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRgamma disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonistic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Results showed that ERRgamma antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found. When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 microg/L. In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRgamma antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRgamma antagonistic activity. The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRgamma antagonists. To our knowledge, the occurrence of ERRgamma disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously. It is vital, therefore, to increase our understanding of ERRy disrupting activities in drinking water.

  1. Radiation chemical studies on the treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumoto, Akihisa; Miyata, Teijiro; Arai, Michimasa; Arai, Hidehiko

    1982-10-01

    The radiation induced reaction in aqueous solution was studied to develope the radiation treatment as a new technique for waste water and to elevate the effectiveness of radiation. The effectiveness of radiation was enhanced by combination of radiation induced reaction with conventional methods such as biological treatment and coagulation treatment. The synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was studied by using phenol and ethylene glycol. The chain reaction was observed in the radiation induced oxidation. The combination of radiation and ozone is considered to be one of the most useful method. In this report, the mechanism of each reaction and the applicability of the reaction to the treatment of waste water are discussed. (author)

  2. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  3. Mine water treatment with yellowcake by-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csicsak, J.; Csoevari, M.; Eberfalvy, J.; Lendvai, Zs.

    2002-01-01

    Mining and milling of uranium ore in Hungary was terminated at the end of 1997. From that time rehabilitation works have been carrying out, which include manly the relocation of different solid wastes, such as waste rocks, heap leached residues, demolishing of former industrial buildings, clean up contaminated sites. Overall rehabilitation of the tailings ponds has also started. At first step the ground water restoration system is under construction, aiming at protecting the drinking water aquifer situated in the immediate vicinity of the tailings ponds. Former mining activity has been carried out also in the vicinity of the drinking water catchment area, for protection of that is compulsory to maintain appropriate depression in the mine in question. This means that mine water has to be pumped out continuously and because of the elevated uranium concentration in mine water, the water has to be treated. Thus the water quality protection is connected with uranium removal from the mine water. Mine water treatment process developed is based on anion-exchange process and removal of the uranium from the eluates with hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, F; Fraga Sampaio, F; Blumberga, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga’s waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact –eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Cl...

  5. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  7. Grey water treatment concept integrating water and carbon recovery and removal of micropollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    A total treatment concept was developed for grey water from 32 houses in Sneek, The Netherlands. A thorough characterization of COD, nutrients, metals, micropollutants and anions was carried out. Four biological treatment systems were tested: aerobic, anaerobic, combined anaerobic¿+¿aerobic and a

  8. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  9. Simulation of gamma irradiation system for a ballast water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faez, T. P.; Sarkar, S.

    2006-01-01

    Invasion by different kinds of ballast the water microorganisms is one of the most important marine environment problems around the world therefore preventing the invasion of these unwanted and harmful stowaways is one of the main strategies of responsible agencies. Some of these methods such as ocean exchange, heating, filtration, hydro cyclones, UV irradiation and chemical treatment, have various problems such as technical deficiency, high costs, lack of safety and environmental side effects. Materials and Methods: A novel system of treatment by Gamma irradiation is designed to irradiate the blast water uniformly and effectively. To determine the dose distribution as a function of distance from the irradiation source, the MCNP code was used. The systems used for source implant in this simulation were Paterson-Parker, Paris and Network systems. In each system, Sivert-integral and inverse square law were used in MATLAB program to determine the dose distribution. Results: Results of initial laboratory tests on offshore water samples of Siri Island indicated that the appropriate dose for deactivation of organisms of water samples is approximately one kGy. It has been demonstrated that the dose can be provided by twenty five 100,000 Ci line sources of ' 60 Co in a triangle implant arranged in a 1*1*1 m3 cubic shape water pipe. In order to increase efficiency and radiation safety, water passed from two other coaxial and bigger cubes, after passing from the first cube. A one meter thick wall of concrete around the cubes was adequate to shield the system completely. Conclusion: The main advantages of this system such as high efficiency, safety, reliability, minimum environmental adverse effects, proves that this novel method not only can be used for ballast water treatment, but is also effective for drinking water purification

  10. Mixing Modeling Analysis For SRS Salt Waste Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended

  11. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2013-11-12

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall.

  12. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  13. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  14. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  15. Dispersed droplet dynamics during produced water treatment in oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    For Lagrangian particle tracking applied to swirling flow produced water treatment the influence of the history force is investigated. In the expression for the history force an existing Reynolds number dependent kernel is adapted and validated for a range of experimental data for settling spheres.

  16. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  17. Selenium-Water Treatment Residual Adsorption And Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) have the ability to adsorb tremendous quantities of soil-borne P, and have been shown to adsorb other anions, such as As (V), As (III), and ClO4-. Environmental issues associated with Se in the Western US led us to study W...

  18. Laser removal of water repellent treatments on limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta; Fort, Rafael

    2003-12-15

    Protective and water repellent treatments are applied on stone materials used on buildings or sculptures of artistic value to reduce water intrusion without limiting the natural permeability to water vapour of the material. The effect of the wavelength associated with the laser removal of two water repellent treatments applied on limestone, Paraloid B-72, a copolymer of methyl acrylate and ethyl methacrylate, and Tegosivin HL-100, a modified polysiloxane resin, was investigated by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). The modifications induced on the surface of limestone samples by laser irradiation were studied using colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The removal of the treatments was found to be dependent on the laser irradiation conditions and on the characteristics of the coatings. The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing both treatments, but thermal alteration processes were induced on the constituent calcite crystals. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.

  19. 207 EFFECTS OF HOT AND COLD WATER PRE- TREATMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments used were immersion of the seeds in cold water (at room o temperature) for 8, 12 and ... goat, sheep and cattle in the semi arid regions due to the palatability of its ... visible signs of infestation were selected out of the total seeds ...

  20. Environmental life cycle assessments for water treatment processes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to generate information on the environmental profile of the life cycle of water, including treatment, distribution and collection and disposal (including recycling), in an urban context. As a case study the eThekwini Municipality (with its main city Durban) in South Africa was used. Another aim of ...

  1. Model-Based Control of Drinking-Water Treatment Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schagen, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process

  2. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  3. Waste water treatment through public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of the regional government of Aragon (Spain) that has extensively used public-private partnerships for the construction and operation of waste water treatment plants. The paper argues that although overall the implementation of this PPP program might be considered...

  4. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  5. Some techniques used in the treatment of phenolic waters residual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzate S, Rafael A.; Botero, Carlos Andre

    2000-01-01

    The current state of the diverse processes of treatment of phenolic waters residual is presented, beginning with the methods traditionally employees, until finishing with those but recent innovations, which have been derived of the necessity of increasing the removal of these pollutants without increasing the costs of such processes in excessive form

  6. [Newly Designed Water Treatment Systems for Hospital Effluent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Takashi

    2018-01-01

     Pharmaceuticals are indispensable to contemporary life. Recently, the emerging problem of pharmaceutical-based pollution of river environments, including drinking water sources and lakes, has begun to receive significant attention worldwide. Because pharmaceuticals are designed to perform specific physiological functions in targeted regions of the human body, there is increasing concern regarding their toxic effects, even at low concentrations, on aquatic ecosystems and human health, via residues in drinking water. Pharmaceuticals are consistently employed in hospitals to treat disease; and Japan, one of the most advanced countries in medical treatment, ranks second worldwide in the quantity of pharmaceuticals employed. Therefore, the development of technologies that minimize or lessen the related environmental risks for clinical effluent is an important task as well as that for sewage treatment plants (STPs). However, there has been limited research on clinical effluent, and much remains to be elucidated. In light of this, we are investigating the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, and the development of water treatment systems for clinical effluent. This review discusses the current research on clinical effluent and the development of advanced water treatment systems targeted at hospital effluent, and explores strategies for future environmental risk assessment and risk management.

  7. Effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and nutrients absorption of maize. The pot experiment was conducted using three methods: no ventilation, two day ventilation and four day ventilation, under conditions of the different levels of irrigation methods.

  8. Bacterial Diversity in a Mine Water Treatment Plant▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Heinzel, Elke; Hedrich, Sabrina; Janneck, Eberhard; Glombitza, Franz; Seifert, Jana; Schlömann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the microbial community in a pilot plant for treatment of acid mine water by biological ferrous iron oxidation using clone library analysis and calculated statistical parameters for further characterization. The microbial community in the plant was conspicuously dominated by a group of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with “Ferribacter polymyxa”.

  9. Ultrasound applications and ionizing radiations in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Application of ultrasound irradiation is one of the innovative techniques that was used for improvement of water treatment process and lowering levels of contaminants in waste water. The main mechanism of sonication is based on the cavitation phenomenon which includes the whole procedure of creation, expansion and collapsing of micro bubbles throughout liquid phase when negative pressure is applied to the medium during sonication. Consequently, hydroxyl and hydrogen radicals would be formed by thermal dissociation of water and hydrogen. These radicals penetrate into water and oxidize dissolved organic compounds. Hydrogen peroxide is formed as a consequence of hydroxyl and water radical recombination. During the free radical attack, the cell membranes of microorganisms are ruptured physically. The application of ionizing radiation for the removal of odorific substances and organic pollutants from water is an advanced oxidation process based on fast reactions with hydroxyl radicals formed as a result of radiolysis of water. GEO and MIB are the main responsible organic composites for the taste and odor in water. These compounds and other organic pollutants such as herbicide 2,4-DCP can be removed by different doses of gamma rays depending on magnitude, rate of radiation dose, chemical condition of the process and other factors. (author)

  10. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Tachibana, H; Baba, H; Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Shimizu, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Sugawara, Y; Sato, A; Nishiyama, S; Kawai, D; Miyaoka, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle 3 (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly

  11. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T [The Cancer Institute Hospital of JFCR, Koto-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, H; Baba, H [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Itano, M; Yamazaki, T [Inagi Municipal Hospital, Inagi, Tokyo (Japan); Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Shimizu, H [Kitasato University Medical Center, Kitamoto, Saitama (Japan); Yamamoto, T [Otemae Hospital, Chuou-ku, Osaka-city (Japan); Yamashita, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Sugawara, Y [The National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, A [Itabashi Central General Hospital, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nishiyama, S [Kuki General Hospital, Kuki, Saitama (Japan); Kawai, D [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa-prefecture (Japan); Miyaoka, S [Kamitsuga General Hospital, Kanuma, Tochigi (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle{sup 3} (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly.

  12. Treatment of water contaminated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, K; Lakanowski, C; Somers, A; Whittaker, H; Hamid, H B [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Anantaraman, A [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A series of remediation technologies for contaminated soil and water at former nuclear missile sites in the countries of Eastern Europe have been developed. As part of this project the applicability of electrolytic reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in groundwater, using relatively cheap materials, was evaluated. It was found that reduction of NDMA in water could be achieved using inexpensive carbon electrodes and a simple two-electrode cell, making the process potentially applicable for the treatment of contaminated surface and groundwater in field conditions. Best results were achieved at pH 1 and a potential difference of 3 to 3.5 V. It is worth noting that the residual concentration of NDMA was still too high to discharge the water into the environment without additional treatment.

  13. Progress report: Use of water hyacinth in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof, Abdullah bin

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that water hyacinth shows remarkable ability to remove, besides heavy metals, BOD and COD load from wastewaters which contain mainly organic pollutants. A survey was conducted to select suitable industrial effluents for pilot field studies, in particular wastewaters which were organic in nature such as those from food industries. A proposal to set up a pilot treatment system for field studies m addition to laboratory investigations was consistent with the recommendation put forward at the First Interim Project Review Meeting held in 1980 . It has been reported that introduction of water hyacinth into digested sugar waste would significantly enhance the efficiency of purification of the waste. Brief trials with a sugar refinery effluent in the laboratory showed the possibility of subjecting the wastewater to the water hyacinth treatment system in a pilot field study and arrangements were then made for the study to be carried out at site

  14. Treatment of radioactive waste water by flocculation method, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Tsutsui, Tenson.

    1976-01-01

    Coagulation property of particle on the treatment of radioactive waste water by floculation method is varied with its electrical potential and mixing condition. The surface state of the particle is influenced by contents of coexistent materials in the waste water and added materials at the treatment process. In the case of using ferric hydroxide as coagulant, assuming the ions which decide the potential of the particle surface are Fe(OH) 2 + and Fe(OH) 4 - , calculated values of the potential agree with zeta-potential of ferric hydroxide particle which is formed from FeCl 4 and NaOH in demineralized water. When Na 2 CO 3 is in the waste water as coexistent materials, anion HCO 3 - adsorbs on the particle surface in connection with pH variation and thus the surface charge is being minus. If Ca 2+ ion is present in the waste water, the surface charge plus. ABS acts as single molecule anion at low concentration, but it forms micell at high concentration and influences zeta-potential of the particle. The potential of the particle is correlated to the coprecipitation rate of 90 Sr in the waste water. (auth.)

  15. Assessment of drinking water quality and rural household water treatment in Balaka District, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkwate, Raphael C.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Access to drinking water from unsafe sources is widespread amongst communities in rural areas such as Balaka District in Malawi. This situation puts many individuals and communities at risk of waterborne diseases despite some households adopting household water treatment to improve the quality of the water. However, there still remains data gaps regarding the quality of drinking water from such sources and the household water treatment methods used to improve public health. This study was, therefore, conducted to help bridge the knowledge gap by evaluating drinking water quality and adoption rate of household water treatment and storage (HWTS) practices in Nkaya, Balaka District. Water samples were collected from eleven systematically selected sites and analyzed for physico-chemical and microbiological parameters: pH, TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, F-, Cl-, NO3-, Na, K, Fe, Faecal Coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococcus (FS) bacteria using standard methods. The mean results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) (MS 733:2005) to ascertain the water quality for drinking purposes. A total of 204 randomly selected households were interviewed to determine their access to drinking water, water quality perception and HWTS among others. The majority of households (72%, n = 83) in Njerenje accessed water from shallow wells and rivers whilst in Phimbi boreholes were commonly used. Several households (>95%, n = 204) were observed to be practicing HWST techniques by boiling or chlorination and water storage in closed containers. The levels of pH (7.10-7.64), F- (0.89-1.46 mg/L), Cl- (5.45-89.84 mg/L), NO3- (0-0.16 mg/L), Na (20-490 mg/L), K (2.40-14 mg/L) and Fe (0.10-0.40 mg/L) for most sites were within the standard limits. The EC (358-2220 μS/cm), turbidity (0.54-14.60 NTU), FC (0-56 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-120 cfu/100 mL) - mainly in shallow wells, were found to be above the WHO and MBS water quality

  16. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  17. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2018-06-15

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F - removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F - removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F - at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SU-F-T-575: Verification of a Monte-Carlo Small Field SRS/SBRT Dose Calculation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhyadhom, A; McGuinness, C; Descovich, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a methodology for validation of a Monte-Carlo dose calculation model for robotic small field SRS/SBRT deliveries. Methods: In a robotic treatment planning system, a Monte-Carlo model was iteratively optimized to match with beam data. A two-part analysis was developed to verify this model. 1) The Monte-Carlo model was validated in a simulated water phantom versus a Ray-Tracing calculation on a single beam collimator-by-collimator calculation. 2) The Monte-Carlo model was validated to be accurate in the most challenging situation, lung, by acquiring in-phantom measurements. A plan was created and delivered in a CIRS lung phantom with film insert. Separately, plans were delivered in an in-house created lung phantom with a PinPoint chamber insert within a lung simulating material. For medium to large collimator sizes, a single beam was delivered to the phantom. For small size collimators (10, 12.5, and 15mm), a robotically delivered plan was created to generate a uniform dose field of irradiation over a 2×2cm 2 area. Results: Dose differences in simulated water between Ray-Tracing and Monte-Carlo were all within 1% at dmax and deeper. Maximum dose differences occurred prior to dmax but were all within 3%. Film measurements in a lung phantom show high correspondence of over 95% gamma at the 2%/2mm level for Monte-Carlo. Ion chamber measurements for collimator sizes of 12.5mm and above were within 3% of Monte-Carlo calculated values. Uniform irradiation involving the 10mm collimator resulted in a dose difference of ∼8% for both Monte-Carlo and Ray-Tracing indicating that there may be limitations with the dose calculation. Conclusion: We have developed a methodology to validate a Monte-Carlo model by verifying that it matches in water and, separately, that it corresponds well in lung simulating materials. The Monte-Carlo model and algorithm tested may have more limited accuracy for 10mm fields and smaller.

  19. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP

  20. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms. Volume 1, State-of-the-art and potential applications at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  1. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  2. Release of natural radionuclides in the Czech Republic - from water treatment plants where water from underground water sources is treated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinaglova, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this abstract author deals with the treatment of drinking water in the Czech Republic with removing of natural radionuclides as well as with treatment of filter cartridges. The advantage of these technologies is that flushing is not required so no wastewater occurs. Used ion exchangers with higher content of uranium are processed in the chemical treatment of uranium ores, managed by DIAMO, state enterprise. (authors)

  3. Multicausal analysis on water deterioration processes present in a drinking water treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Pang, Changlong; Firdoz, Shaik

    2013-03-01

    The fluctuation of water turbidity has been studied during summer in the settling tanks of a drinking water treatment plant. Results from the multiple cause-effect model indicated that five main pathways interactively influenced thequalityof tank water. During rain, turbidity levels increased mainly as a result of decreasing pH and anaerobic reactions (partial effect = 68%). Increasing water temperature combined with dissolved oxygen concentration (partial effect = 64%) was the key parameterforcontrolling decreases in water turbidity during nighttime periods after a rainy day. The dominant factor influencing increases in turbidity during sunny daytime periods was algal blooms (partial effect = 86%). However, short-circuiting waves (partial effect = 77%) was the main cause for increased nighttime water turbidity after a sunny day. The trade offbetween regulatory pathways was responsible for environmental changes, and the outcome was determined by the comparative strengths of each pathway.

  4. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and turbidity (R{sup 2} = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity

  5. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeke, Benedict C.; Thomson, M. Sue; Moss, Elica M.

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R 2 = 0.998) and turbidity (R 2 = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern

  6. State of the art of produced water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, S; Micó, M M; Arnaldos, M; Medina, F; Contreras, S

    2018-02-01

    Produced water (PW) is the wastewater generated when water from underground reservoirs is brought to the surface during oil or gas extraction. PW is generated in large amounts and has a complex composition, containing various toxic organic and inorganic compounds. PW is currently treated in conventional trains that include phase separators, decanters, cyclones and coarse filters in order to comply with existing regulation for discharge. These treatment trains do not achieve more restrictive limitations related to the reuse of the effluent (reinjection into extraction wells) or other beneficial uses (e.g., irrigation). Therefore, and to prevent environmental pollution, further polishing processes need to be carried out. Characterization of the PW to determine major constituents is the first step to select the optimum treatment for PW, coupled with environmental factors, economic considerations, and local regulatory framework. This review tries to provide an overview of different treatments that are being applied to polish this type of effluents. These technologies include membranes, physical, biological, thermal or chemical treatments, where special emphasis has been made on advanced oxidation processes due to the advantages offered by these processes. Commercial treatments, based on the combination, modification and improvement of simpler treatments, were also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of microalgal treatments on pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Bodin, Hristina; Ardal, Embla; Asp, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on a wide range of different pesticides in water was studied. Treatments included short-term exposure (1 h) to living and dead microalgal biomass and long-term exposure (4 days) to actively growing microalgae. The initial pesticide concentration was 63.5 ± 3.9 µg L(-1). There was no significant overall reduction of pesticides after short-term exposure. A significant reduction of the total amount of pesticides was achieved after the long-term exposure to growing microalgae (final concentration 29.7 ± 1.0 µg L(-1)) compared with the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L(-1)). The concentrations of 10 pesticides out of 38 tested were significantly lowered in the long-term algal treatment. A high impact of abiotic factors such as sunlight and aeration for pesticide reduction was observed when the initial control (63.5 ± 3.9 µg L(-1)) and the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L(-1)) were compared. The results suggest that water treatment using microalgae, natural inhabitants of polluted surface waters, could be further explored not only for removal of inorganic nutrients but also for removal of organic pollutants in water.

  8. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  9. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  10. Modulation of the formation and release of bovine SRS-A in vitro by several anti-anaphylactic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burka, J F; Eyre, P

    1975-01-01

    Slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) is released immunologically from bovine lung in vitro. Various drugs known to protect calves and other animals during anaphylaxis were tested to investigate their modulation of the formation and release of SRS-A. The anti-inflammatory drugs, meclofenamate and aspirin, potentiated SRS-A release. Chlorphenesin and diethylcarbamazine citrate at high concentrations both inhibited SRS-A release. Two new anti-anaphylactic drugs, PR-D-92-EA and M&B 22,948, were particularly effective in inhibiting SRS-A release at low concentrations. The possible modes of actions of these drugs are discussed.

  11. Treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This rule is to be applied to the design, construction, and operation of facilities for treatment of water contaminated with radioactive material in stationary nuclear power plants with LWRs and HTRs. According to the requirements of the rule these facilities are to be designed, constructed, and operated in such a way that a) uncontrolled discharge of water contaminated with radioactive material is avoided, b) the activity discharged with water is as low as possible, c) water contaminated with radioactive material will not reach the ground, d) the radiation exposure as a consequence of direct radiation, contamination, and inhalation of the persons occupied in the facilities is as low as possible and as a maximum corresponds to the values laid down in the radiation protection regulation or to the values of the operating license. This rule is not to be applied to facilities for coolant and storage pit clean-up as well as facilities for the treatment of concentrates produced during the contamination of the water. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Investigations on the treatment of waste waters from pig breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cute, E; Mambet, E; Juriari, E; Murgoci, C

    1967-01-01

    The introduction of intensive methods of pig breeding has caused changes in the characteristics, particularly the strength, of the piggeries waste waters; analytical data are tabulated for waste waters from 3 pig-breeding farms and 1 large pig-breeding combine in Romania. At older piggeries, waste waters are treated by sedimentation and sludge digestion in Imhoff tanks. In more recent establishments, treatment comprises primary sedimentation followed by storage of the settled waste waters in ponds to be used for irrigation, and separate digestion of sludge in open tanks. Experiments showed that precautions are necessary to prevent blocking of the sewerage system by easily-settleable material before reaching the sedimentation tanks; sedimentation is more efficient in horizontal sedimentation tanks than in the older Imhoff tanks; biological treatment is possible without addition of nutrients, but the waste waters must be diluted; and digestion requires a longer period than that for sewage sludge, difficulties being caused by the presence of coarse suspended particles of waste feeding stuffs.

  13. Treatment of low level waste water by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaijun; Zhang Chuanzhi; Xue Qinhua; Liu Meijun

    1987-11-01

    A Study on the removal of certain radioactive elements Such as 141 Ce, 51 Cr 134 Cu, 106 Ru and 131 I by Reverse Osmosis and the effect of surface activity agent on property of membrance are described in this paper. RO model is carried out to examine the treatment of actual reactor waste water and radioactive laundry waste water. The removal efficiency of total β is 98%. Three preprocessing (cloth pocket filtrator, hivefiltrator and zone) and membrane cleaning methods (acid, ozone and spongeball) are also investigated

  14. Analysis and assessment of water treatment plant reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the publication is the analysis and assessment of the reliability of the surface water treatment plant (WTP. In the study the one parameter method of reliability assessment was used. Based on the flow sheet derived from the water company the reliability scheme of the analysed WTP was prepared. On the basis of the daily WTP work report the availability index Kg for the individual elements included in the WTP, was determined. Then, based on the developed reliability scheme showing the interrelationships between elements, the availability index Kg for the whole WTP was determined. The obtained value of the availability index Kg was compared with the criteria values.

  15. Hydraulic modeling of clay ceramic water filters for point-of-use water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Ryan W; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-02

    The acceptability of ceramic filters for point-of-use water treatment depends not only on the quality of the filtered water, but also on the quantity of water the filters can produce. This paper presents two mathematical models for the hydraulic performance of ceramic water filters under typical usage. A model is developed for two common filter geometries: paraboloid- and frustum-shaped. Both models are calibrated and evaluated by comparison to experimental data. The hydraulic models are able to predict the following parameters as functions of time: water level in the filter (h), instantaneous volumetric flow rate of filtrate (Q), and cumulative volume of water produced (V). The models' utility is demonstrated by applying them to estimate how the volume of water produced depends on factors such as the filter shape and the frequency of filling. Both models predict that the volume of water produced can be increased by about 45% if users refill the filter three times per day versus only once per day. Also, the models predict that filter geometry affects the volume of water produced: for two filters with equal volume, equal wall thickness, and equal hydraulic conductivity, a filter that is tall and thin will produce as much as 25% more water than one which is shallow and wide. We suggest that the models can be used as tools to help optimize filter performance.

  16. Water Treatment Using Plasma Discharge with Variation of Electrode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan, N.; Kusumandari; Saraswati, T. E.

    2018-03-01

    This research studied water treatment using plasma discharge. Plasma generated in this study produced active species that played a role in organic compound decomposition. The plasma reactor consisted of two needle electrodes made from stainless steel, tungsten, aluminium and grafit. It placed approximately 2 mm above the solution and connected with high-AC voltage. A solution of methylene blue used as an organic solution model. Plasma treatment times were 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min. The absorbance, temperature and pH of the solution were measured before and after treatment using various electrodes. The best electrode used in plasma discharging for methylene blue absorbance reduction was the graphite electrode, which provided the highest degradation efficiency of 98% at 6 min of treatment time.

  17. Physico-chemical pre-treatment for drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanien, W. A. M.

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work is to attempt to improve the quality of town water by application of alternating current, direct current and magnetic field to raw water as pre-treatment to enhance the coagulation and flocculation. The design and operation for these processes and the evaluation there of have been mentioned. Treatment generally requires application of electric current Ac or Dc (0.1-1.0 A) for residence current time 2-12 minutes, or application of magnetic field (20-400 mt). The measurement of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw water were determined before and after treatment to obtain the efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal. Total bacteria count was determined using standard plate count method. Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to determine the number of coliform organisms that were present in water to obtain the efficiency of water purification. The results obtain revealed that treatment by Ac and Dc electric current gave turbidity removal efficiency in the range 40-81%, 17-76% and TSS in the range 37-61%, 9-57%, respectively. Coagulation of natural colloids and other material suspended in water is faster in water impacted by an electric current. When alum and polymer was used as coagulant together with Ac electric current, clarification rate was greater by 1.8-2.4 times in Damira 2001; 1.5-3.3 times by poly aluminum chloride together with Ac electric current ; 2.4-4.5 times by alum and poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with Dc electric current in Damira 2002. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 57-83% and of total coliform was 58-93% when exposed to electric current for an extended residence current times between 2 to 11 minutes. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 60-85%, and of total coliform was 53-95% when exposed to current between 0.16-0.60 A at constant current time. The results obtained from physical and chemical analysis of raw water and water treated by Ac, Dc

  18. Physico-chemical pre-treatment for drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, W A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work is to attempt to improve the quality of town water by application of alternating current, direct current and magnetic field to raw water as pre-treatment to enhance the coagulation and flocculation. The design and operation for these processes and the evaluation there of have been mentioned. Treatment generally requires application of electric current Ac or Dc (0.1-1.0 A) for residence current time 2-12 minutes, or application of magnetic field (20-400 mt). The measurement of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw water were determined before and after treatment to obtain the efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal. Total bacteria count was determined using standard plate count method. Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to determine the number of coliform organisms that were present in water to obtain the efficiency of water purification. The results obtain revealed that treatment by Ac and Dc electric current gave turbidity removal efficiency in the range 40-81%, 17-76% and TSS in the range 37-61%, 9-57%, respectively. Coagulation of natural colloids and other material suspended in water is faster in water impacted by an electric current. When alum and polymer was used as coagulant together with Ac electric current, clarification rate was greater by 1.8-2.4 times in Damira 2001; 1.5-3.3 times by poly aluminum chloride together with Ac electric current ; 2.4-4.5 times by alum and poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with Dc electric current in Damira 2002. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 57-83% and of total coliform was 58-93% when exposed to electric current for an extended residence current times between 2 to 11 minutes. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 60-85%, and of total coliform was 53-95% when exposed to current between 0.16-0.60 A at constant current time. The results obtained from physical and chemical analysis of raw water and water treated by Ac, Dc

  19. Catalytic Enzyme-Based Methods for Water Treatment and Water Distribution System Decontamination. 1. Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    best examples of this is glucose isomerase, which has been used in the commercial production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) since 1967.230 Most...EDGEWOOD CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL CENTER U.S. ARMY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING COMMAND ECBC-TR-489 CATALYTIC ENZYME-BASED METHODS FOR WATER ...TREATMENT AND WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DECONTAMINATION 1. LITERATURE SURVEY Joseph J. DeFrank RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE June 2006 Approved for

  20. Characterization of hydraulic fracturing flowback water in Colorado: implications for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Yaal; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E Michael; Sitterley, Kurban A; Korak, Julie A; Aiken, George; Linden, Karl G

    2015-04-15

    A suite of analytical tools was applied to thoroughly analyze the chemical composition of an oil/gas well flowback water from the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) basin in Colorado, and the water quality data was translated to propose effective treatment solutions tailored to specific reuse goals. Analysis included bulk quality parameters, trace organic and inorganic constituents, and organic matter characterization. The flowback sample contained salts (TDS=22,500 mg/L), metals (e.g., iron at 81.4 mg/L) and high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOC=590 mgC/L). The organic matter comprised fracturing fluid additives such as surfactants (e.g., linear alkyl ethoxylates) and high levels of acetic acid (an additives' degradation product), indicating the anthropogenic impact on this wastewater. Based on the water quality results and preliminary treatability tests, the removal of suspended solids and iron by aeration/precipitation (and/or filtration) followed by disinfection was identified as appropriate for flowback recycling in future fracturing operations. In addition to these treatments, a biological treatment (to remove dissolved organic matter) followed by reverse osmosis desalination was determined to be necessary to attain water quality standards appropriate for other water reuse options (e.g., crop irrigation). The study provides a framework for evaluating site-specific hydraulic fracturing wastewaters, proposing a suite of analytical methods for characterization, and a process for guiding the choice of a tailored treatment approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of softening sequencing on electrocoagulation treatment of produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilirad, Nasim; Carlson, Ken; Omur Ozbek, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has been used to remove solids and some metals from both water and wastewater sources for decades. Additionally, chemical softening is commonly employed in water treatment systems to remove hardness. This paper assesses the combination and sequence of softening and EC methods to treat hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water from shale oil and gas operations. EC is one of the available technologies to treat produced water for reuse in frac fluids, eliminating not only the need to transport more water but also the costs of providing fresh water. In this paper, the influence of chemical softening on EC was studied. In the softening process, pH was raised to 9.5 and 10.2 before and after EC, respectively. Softening, when practiced before EC was more effective for removing turbidity with samples from wells older than one month (99% versus 88%). However, neither method was successful in treating samples collected from early flowback (1-day and 2-day samples), likely due to the high concentration of organic matter. For total organic carbon, hardness, Ba, Sr, and B removal, application of softening before EC appeared to be the most efficient approach, likely due to the formation of solids before the coagulation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  3. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E. [Ashland Hercules Water Technologies, Krefeld (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  4. Methods of removing uranium from drinking water. 1. A literature survey. 2. Present municipal water treatment and potential removal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.; Lee, S.Y.; White, S.K.

    1982-12-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. U.S. manufacturers and users of water-treatment equipment and products were also contacted regarding methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it was recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water-treatment facilities be analyzed to determine the extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures, and that additional laboratory studies be performed to determine what changes are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water-treatment plants

  5. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: Water costs and scope for advanced treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiter, Helfrid M.A.; Owusu, Peter A.; Awuah, Esi; MacDonald, Alan M.; Schaefer, Andrea I.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGO's and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a water source has been improved. Water supplies were sampled across Ghana from mostly boreholes, wells and rivers as well as some piped water from the different regions and analysed for the chemical quality. Chemical water quality was found to exceed the WHO guidelines in 38% of samples, while pH varied from 3.7 to 8.9. Excess levels of nitrate (NO 3 - ) were found in 21% of the samples, manganese (Mn) and fluoride (F - ) in 11% and 6.7%, respectively. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and uranium (U) were localised to mining areas. Elements without health based guideline values such as aluminium (Al, 95%) and chloride (Cl, 5.7%) were found above the provisional guideline value. Economic information was gathered to identify water costs and ability to pay. Capital costs of wells and boreholes are about Pounds 1200 and Pounds 3800 respectively. The majority of installation costs are generally paid by the government or NGO's, while the maintenance is expected to be covered by the community. At least 58% of the communities had a water payment system in place, either an annual fee/one-off fee or 'pay-as-you-fetch'. The annual fee was between Pounds 0.3-21, while the boreholes had a water collection fee of Pounds 0.07-0.7/m 3 , many wells were free. Interestingly, the most expensive water ( Pounds 2.9-3.5/m 3 ) was brought by truck. Many groundwater sources were not used due to poor chemical water quality. Considering the cost of unsuccessful borehole development, the potential for integrating suitable water treatment into the capital and maintenance costs of water sources is discussed. Additionally, many sources were not in use due to lack of water capacity, equipment malfunction or lack of economic resources to repair and maintain equipment

  6. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: Water costs and scope for advanced treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossiter, Helfrid M.A. [School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Owusu, Peter A.; Awuah, Esi [Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); MacDonald, Alan M. [British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA (United Kingdom); Schaefer, Andrea I., E-mail: Andrea.Schaefer@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGO's and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a water source has been improved. Water supplies were sampled across Ghana from mostly boreholes, wells and rivers as well as some piped water from the different regions and analysed for the chemical quality. Chemical water quality was found to exceed the WHO guidelines in 38% of samples, while pH varied from 3.7 to 8.9. Excess levels of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) were found in 21% of the samples, manganese (Mn) and fluoride (F{sup -}) in 11% and 6.7%, respectively. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and uranium (U) were localised to mining areas. Elements without health based guideline values such as aluminium (Al, 95%) and chloride (Cl, 5.7%) were found above the provisional guideline value. Economic information was gathered to identify water costs and ability to pay. Capital costs of wells and boreholes are about Pounds 1200 and Pounds 3800 respectively. The majority of installation costs are generally paid by the government or NGO's, while the maintenance is expected to be covered by the community. At least 58% of the communities had a water payment system in place, either an annual fee/one-off fee or 'pay-as-you-fetch'. The annual fee was between Pounds 0.3-21, while the boreholes had a water collection fee of Pounds 0.07-0.7/m{sup 3}, many wells were free. Interestingly, the most expensive water ( Pounds 2.9-3.5/m{sup 3}) was brought by truck. Many groundwater sources were not used due to poor chemical water quality. Considering the cost of unsuccessful borehole development, the potential for integrating suitable water treatment into the capital and maintenance costs of water sources is discussed. Additionally, many sources were not in use due to lack of water capacity, equipment malfunction or lack of economic

  7. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: water costs and scope for advanced treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Helfrid M A; Owusu, Peter A; Awuah, Esi; Macdonald, Alan M; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2010-05-01

    To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGO's and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a water source has been improved. Water supplies were sampled across Ghana from mostly boreholes, wells and rivers as well as some piped water from the different regions and analysed for the chemical quality. Chemical water quality was found to exceed the WHO guidelines in 38% of samples, while pH varied from 3.7 to 8.9. Excess levels of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) were found in 21% of the samples, manganese (Mn) and fluoride (F(-)) in 11% and 6.7%, respectively. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and uranium (U) were localised to mining areas. Elements without health based guideline values such as aluminium (Al, 95%) and chloride (Cl, 5.7%) were found above the provisional guideline value. Economic information was gathered to identify water costs and ability to pay. Capital costs of wells and boreholes are about pound1200 and pound3800 respectively. The majority of installation costs are generally paid by the government or NGO's, while the maintenance is expected to be covered by the community. At least 58% of the communities had a water payment system in place, either an annual fee/one-off fee or "pay-as-you-fetch". The annual fee was between pound0.3-21, while the boreholes had a water collection fee of pound0.07-0.7/m(3), many wells were free. Interestingly, the most expensive water ( pound2.9-3.5/m(3)) was brought by truck. Many groundwater sources were not used due to poor chemical water quality. Considering the cost of unsuccessful borehole development, the potential for integrating suitable water treatment into the capital and maintenance costs of water sources is discussed. Additionally, many sources were not in use due to lack of water capacity, equipment malfunction or lack of economic resources to repair and maintain equipment. Those

  8. Membrane bioreactors in waste water treatment - status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraume, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Chair of Chemical and Process Engineering, Berlin (Germany); Drews, A. [HTW Berlin, FB II, Life Science Engineering, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Due to their unique advantages like controlled biomass retention, improved effluent quality, and decreased footprint, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are being increasingly used in waste water treatment up to a capacity of several 100,000 p.e. This article reviews the current status of MBRs and reports trends in MBR design and operation. Typical operational and design parameters are given as well as guidelines for waste water treatment plant revamping. To further improve the biological performance, specific or hybrid process configurations are shown to lead to, e.g., enhanced nutrient removal. With regards to reducing membrane fouling, optimized modules, advanced control, and strategies like the addition of flux enhancers are currently emerging. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

  10. Ground motion following selection of SRS design basis earthquake and associated deterministic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a deterministic assessment of earthquake ground motions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The purpose of this study is to assist the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Laboratory in reevaluating the design basis earthquake (DBE) ground motion at SRS during approaches defined in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This work is in support of the Seismic Engineering Section's Seismic Qualification Program for reactor restart

  11. Water Wells Monitoring Using SCADA System for Water Supply Network, Case Study: Water Treatment Plant Urseni, Timis County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Lucian, Cococeanu; Ioana-Alina, Cretan; Ivona, Cojocinescu Mihaela; Teodor Eugen, Man; Narcis, Pelea George

    2017-10-01

    The water supply system in Timisoara Municipality is insured with about 25-30 % of the water demand from wells. The underground water headed to the water treatment plant in order to ensure equal distribution and pressure to consumers. The treatment plants used are Urseni and Ronaţ, near Timisoara, in Timis County. In Timisoara groundwater represents an alternative source for water supply and complementary to the surface water source. The present paper presents a case study with proposal and solutions for rehabilitation /equipment /modernization/ automation of water drilling in order to ensure that the entire system can be monitored and controlled remotely through SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The data collected from the field are designed for online efficiency monitoring regarding the energy consumption and water flow intake, performance indicators such as specific energy consumption KW/m3 and also in order to create a hydraulically system of the operating area to track the behavior of aquifers in time regarding the quality and quantity aspects.

  12. Household pasteurization of drinking-water: the chulli water-treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Fakhrul; Johnston, Richard B

    2006-09-01

    A simple flow-through system has been developed which makes use of wasted heat generated in traditional clay ovens (chullis) to pasteurize surface water. A hollow aluminium coil is built into the clay chulli, and water is passed through the coil during normal cooking events. By adjusting the flow rate, effluent temperature can be maintained at approximately 70 degrees C. Laboratory testing, along with over 400 field tests on chulli systems deployed in six pilot villages, showed that the treatment completely inactivated thermotolerant coliforms. The chulli system produces up to 90 litres per day of treated water at the household level, without any additional time or fuel requirement. The technology has been developed to provide a safe alternative source of drinking-water in arsenic-contaminated areas, but can also have wide application wherever people consume microbiologically-contaminated water.

  13. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  14. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine. Apart from degradation, additional problems are transportation, storage and handling of such hazardous compounds. Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the development of electrochemical devices for in situ production of chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite as efficient disinfectants for water treatment. The most important part of such a device is the electrochemical reactor. Electrochemical reactor uses external source of direct current in order to produce disinfectants in electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes. Construction of an electrochemical device for water treatment is based on evaluation of optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions during continues production of disinfectants. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost electrochemical device for the production of disinfectant, active chlorine, at the place of its usage, based on newly developed technical solutions and newest commercial components. The projected electrochemical device was constructed and mounted, and its operation was investigated. Investigations involved both functionality of individual components and device in general. The major goal of these investigations was to achieve maximal efficiency in extreme condition of elevated room temperature and humidity with a novel device construction involving coaxial heat exchanger at the solution inlet. Room operation of the proposed device was investigated when relative humidity was set to 90% and the ambient temperature of 38°C. The obtained

  15. Granular filters for water treatment: heterogeneity and diagnostic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose

    the last barrier against disinfection resistant protozoan pathogens and this has led to increased regulation of the filtration process. To be able to produce high-quality filtrate in a constant and reliable manner while meeting stricter drinking water guideline values, it is important to be able......Rapid granular filters are the most commonly used filters in drinking water treatment plants and are the focus of this PhD study. They are usually constructed with sand, anthracite, activated carbon, garnet sand, and ilmenite and have filtration rates ranging from 3 to 15 m/h. Filters are often...... options prescribed. The diagnostic tools are then used again to verify the efficiency of the solution applied. If the problem is not solved the whole process starts again. These tools are of significant interest for the development of the Water Safety Plans recommended by WHO to monitor filters...

  16. OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-03-14

    This project was an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum-industry problem of treating produced water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project was to maximize oxidation of hexane-extractable organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigated: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Several types of methodologies for treatment of soluble organics in synthetic and actual produced waters have been performed. The technologies tested may be categorized as follows: (1) Destruction via sonochemical oxidation at different pH, salt concentration, ultraviolet irradiation, and ferrous iron concentrations. (2) Destruction via ozonation at different pH, salt concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentrations, ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and reactor configurations.

  17. Process water treatment at the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, H; Russell, H; Davidson, J; Jones, D; Levy, V; Gilderdale, M; Davis, S; Ring, R; Conway, G; Macintosh, P; Sertorio, L

    2003-01-01

    The conceptual development and piloting of an innovative water treatment system for process water produced by a uranium mine mill is described. The process incorporates lime/CO2 softening (Stage 1), reverse osmosis (Stage 2) and biopolishing (Stage 3) to produce water of quality suitable for release to the receiving environment. Comprehensive performance data are presented for each stage. The unique features of the proposed process are: recycling of the lime/CO2 softening sludge to the uranium mill as a neutralant, the use of power station off-gas for carbonation, the use of residual ammonia as the pH buffer in carbonation; and the recovery and recycling of ammonia from the RO reject stream.

  18. Solar photocatalysis - a possible step in drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubas, Davor

    2005-01-01

    Possibility of the use of solar radiation for reduction of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) content in natural lake water, as a source for drinking water preparation, was the topic of this research. Solar radiation alone does not have enough energy for sufficient degradation of NOM, but in combination with heterogeneous photocatalyst-titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), with or without other chemicals, the degradation potential could increase. In specific geographical conditions in Republic of Croatia, e.g. Adriatic islands or Dalmatia, solar radiation could be used for photocatalytic degradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters and therewith lighten the process of preparing them to the potable water. Specific quality of the geographical locality appears in fact that it is a very attractive tourist destination, especially in period June-September. In this period the drinking water demand is the biggest and, fortunately, the intensity of the solar radiation, too. So, there is a proportion between the drinking water demand and solar radiation available for the use in drinking water treatment. A number of tests with lake water exposed to solar radiation in non-concentrating reactors were performed and photodegradation of NOM for various combinations of doses and crystal forms of TiO 2 with H 2 O 2 was studied. Irradiation intensity was estimated from global solar radiation measurements. The best performance for the NOM degradation had combination of 1 g/L TiO 2 both anatase and rutile+solar radiation+H 2 O 2 , but - economically - it was not the best combination. An estimation of the biodegradation potential of dissolved organic matter after the photocatalytic step is given, too

  19. Dispersion of C(60) in natural water and removal by conventional drinking water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2009-05-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine the fate of C(60) under two disposal scenarios through which pristine C(60) is introduced to water containing natural organic matter (NOM). A method based on liquid-liquid extraction and HPLC to quantify nC(60) in water containing NOM was also developed. When pristine C(60) was added to water either in the form of dry C(60) or in organic solvent, it formed water stable aggregates with characteristics similar to nC(60) prepared by other methods reported in the literature. The second objective of this study is to examine the fate of the nC(60) in water treatment processes, which are the first line of defense against ingestion from potable water -- a potential route for direct human consumption. Results obtained from jar tests suggested that these colloidal aggregates of C(60) were efficiently removed by a series of alum coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration processes, while the efficiency of removal dependent on various parameters such as pH, alkalinity, NOM contents and coagulant dosage. Colloidal aggregates of functionalized C(60) could be well removed by the conventional water treatment processes but with lesser efficiency compared to those made of pristine C(60).

  20. Photocatalytic Treatment of Shower Water Using a Pilot Scale Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Boyjoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of shower water deserves special consideration for reuse not only because of its low pollutant loading but also because it is produced in large quantities. In this study, a pilot scale study of photocatalytic degradation of impurities in real shower water was performed in a 31 L volume reactor using titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst. The reactor was operated in a continuous slurry recirculation mode. Several operational parameters were studied including the slurry initial pH, catalyst concentration, air flow rate, and slurry recirculation rate. Up to 57% of total organic carbon (TOC elimination was obtained after 6 hours of treatment (for 3.0 slurry initial pH, 0.07 gL−1 catalyst concentration, 1.8 Lmin−1 air flow rate, and 4.4 Lmin−1 slurry recirculation rate. This study showed that photocatalysis could be successfully transposed from bench scale to pilot scale. Furthermore, the ease of operation and the potential to use solar energy make photocatalysis an attractive prospect with respect to treatment of grey water.

  1. Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residue Reuse for Phosphorus Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Yoke Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based water treatment residue (Al-WTR generated during the drinking water treatment process is a readily available recycled material with high phosphorus (P adsorption capacity. The P adsorption capacity of Al-WTR generated from Singapore’s water treatment plant was evaluated with reference to particle size range, adsorption pH and temperature. Column tests, with WTR amendments in sand with and without compost, were used to simulate the bioretention systems. The adsorption rate decreased with increasing WTR sizes. Highest P adsorption capacity, 15.57 mg PO43−-P/g WTR, was achieved using fine WTR particles (>50% particles at less than 0.30 mm. At pH 4, the contact time required to reduce effluent P concentration to below the detectable range was half compared with pH 7 and 9. The adsorption rate observed at 40 ± 2 °C was 21% higher compared with that at 30 ± 2 °C. Soil mixes amended with 10% WTR and compost were able to maintain consistently high (90% total phosphorus (TP removal efficiency at a TP load up to 6.45 g/m3. In contrast, TP removal efficiencies associated with columns without WTR amendment decreased to less than 45% as the TP load increased beyond 4.5 g/m3. The results showed that WTR application is beneficial for enhanced TP removal in bioretention systems.

  2. Treatment of contaminated greywater using pelletised mine water sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Suhail N; Almuktar, Suhad A; Scholz, Miklas

    2017-07-15

    Precipitated sludge (ochre) obtained from a mine water treatment plant was considered as an adsorbent substance for pollutants, since ochre is relatively free from problematic levels of toxic elements, which could impair on the quality of water to be treated. Artificially created ochre pellets from mixing Portland cement with raw ochre sludge were utilised to remediate either high (HC) or low (LC) contaminated synthetic greywater (SGW) in mesocosm-scale stabilisation ponds at 2-day and 7-day contact times under real weather conditions in Salford. After a specific retention time, treated SGW was agitated before sampling to evaluate pollutant removal mechanisms (other than sedimentation) such as adsorption by ochre pellets, before replacing the treated water with new inflow SGW. The results showed that cement-ochre pellets have a high ability to adsorb ortho-phosphate-phosphorous (PO 4 -P) significantly (p treatment for HC-SGW at 2- and 7-day contact times, respectively. Cadmium was still adsorbed significantly (p treatment of LC-SGW. However, the calcium (Ca) content decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within ochre pellets treating both types of greywaters due to mobilisation. The corresponding increases of Ca in greywater were significant (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of UV disinfection for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.Y.; Osman, H.; Kang, C.W.; Ba, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • UV irradiation for water treatment is numerically and experimentally investigated. • Fluence rate E increases exponentially with the increase of UVT. • UV dose distribution moves to a high range with increase of UVT and lamp power. • A linear relationship is observed between fluence rate E and average UV dose D_a_v_e. • D_a_v_e decreases with the increase of UVT and fluid flow rate. - Abstract: Disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) for water treatment in a UV reactor is numerically and experimentally investigated in this paper. The flow of water, UV radiation transportation as well as microorganism particle trajectories in the UV reactor is simulated. The effects of different parameters including UV transmittance (UVT), lamp power and water flow rate on the UV dose distribution and average UV dose are studied. The UV reactor performance in terms of average UV dose under these parameters is analysed. Comparisons are made between experiments and simulations on the average UV dose and reasonable agreement is achieved. The results show that the fluence rate increases exponentially with the increase of UVT. The UV dose distribution profiles moves to a high range of UV dose with the increase of UVT and lamp power. The increase of water flow rate reduces the average exposure time of microorganism particles to the UV light, resulting in the shifting of UV dose distribution to a low range of UV dose. A linear relationship is observed between fluence rate and the average UV dose. The average UV dose increases with the increase of lamp power while it decreases with the increase of UVT and water flow rate.

  4. Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

    2009-12-19

    The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

  5. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Field experience for energy-positive water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2016-12-01

    An urban net-zero water treatment system, designed for energy-positive water management, 100% recycle of comingled black/grey water to drinking water standards, and mineralization of hormones and other organics, without production of concentrate, was constructed and operated for two years, serving an occupied four-bedroom, four-bath university residence hall apartment. The system comprised septic tank, denitrifying membrane bioreactor (MBR), iron-mediated aeration (IMA) reactor, vacuum ultrafilter, and peroxone or UV/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation, with 14% rainwater make-up and concomitant discharge of 14% of treated water (ultimately for reuse in irrigation). Chemical oxygen demand was reduced to 12.9 ± 3.7 mg/L by MBR and further decreased to below the detection limit (treatment. The process produced a mineral water meeting 115 of 115 Florida drinking water standards that, after 10 months of recycle operation with ∼14% rainwater make-up, had a total dissolved solids of ∼500 mg/L, pH 7.8 ± 0.4, turbidity 0.12 ± 0.06 NTU, and NO 3 -N concentration 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/L. None of 97 hormones, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals analyzed were detected in the product water. For a typical single-home system with full occupancy, sludge pumping is projected on a 12-24 month cycle. Operational aspects, including disinfection requirements, pH evolution through the process, mineral control, advanced oxidation by-products, and applicability of point-of-use filters, are discussed. A distributed, peroxone-based NZW management system is projected to save more energy than is consumed in treatment, due largely to retention of wastewater thermal energy. Recommendations regarding design and operation are offered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  7. Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste)water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dular, Matevž; Griessler-Bulc, Tjaša; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Oder, Martina; Petkovšek, Martin; Rački, Nejc; Ravnikar, Maja; Šarc, Andrej; Širok, Brane; Zupanc, Mojca; Žitnik, Miha; Kompare, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic cavitation for cleaning of water and wastewater is presented. In the second part of the paper the focus is on our own most recent work using hydrodynamic cavitation for removal of pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine), toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) and viruses (Rotavirus) from water and wastewater. As will be shown, hydrodynamic cavitation, like acoustic, can manifest itself in many different forms each having its own distinctive properties and mechanisms. This was until now neglected, which eventually led to poor performance of the technique. We will show that a different type of hydrodynamic cavitation (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of different pollutants. The path to use hydrodynamic cavitation as a routine water cleaning method is still long, but recent results have already shown great potential for optimisation, which could lead to a low energy tool for water and wastewater cleaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. J. M. de Vet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the river bank infiltrate but also by water percolating through covering layers. In the polder areas, these top layers consist of peat and deposits from river sediments and sea intrusions.

    This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the dominant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.

  9. Studies on the treatment of surface water using rajma seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin S. Babitha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indiscriminate disposal of wastewater with suspended solids have led to higher amount of pollution to the natural water bodies. Turbidity removal becomes an essential part in the water treatment when surface water is used for drinking purpose, this can be achieved by means of coagulation process. Coagulation process is the dosing of a coagulant in water, resulting in the destabilization of negatively charged particles. Commercial coagulants which were widely used can synthesize by-products in turn may pollute the environment and deteriorate the ecosystem at a slow rate. So, now-a-days natural coagulants are used as a potential substitute because it’s biodegradable, ecofriendly and non-toxic. In this study, the turbid surface water samples were treated using powdered seeds of Rajma (natural coagulant followed by variations in dosage, settling time and pH were also studied. From the results obtained, it was found that the Rajma seeds powder achieved 48.80% efficiency for 0.5 g/l of optimum dose at pH 6 for 20 min settling time respectively.

  10. Studies on the treatment of surface water using rajma seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, S. Babitha; Abirami, M.; Kumar, R. Suresh

    2018-03-01

    Indiscriminate disposal of wastewater with suspended solids have led to higher amount of pollution to the natural water bodies. Turbidity removal becomes an essential part in the water treatment when surface water is used for drinking purpose, this can be achieved by means of coagulation process. Coagulation process is the dosing of a coagulant in water, resulting in the destabilization of negatively charged particles. Commercial coagulants which were widely used can synthesize by-products in turn may pollute the environment and deteriorate the ecosystem at a slow rate. So, now-a-days natural coagulants are used as a potential substitute because it's biodegradable, ecofriendly and non-toxic. In this study, the turbid surface water samples were treated using powdered seeds of Rajma (natural coagulant) followed by variations in dosage, settling time and pH were also studied. From the results obtained, it was found that the Rajma seeds powder achieved 48.80% efficiency for 0.5 g/l of optimum dose at pH 6 for 20 min settling time respectively.

  11. Feasibility study of an aeration treatment system in a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source

    OpenAIRE

    Fronk, Robert Charles

    1996-01-01

    The systems engineering process has been utilized to determine the feasibility of an aeration treatment system for a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source. This system will be used to ensure a consistently high quality of raw water by the addition of dissolved oxygen into the reservoir. A needs analysis establishes the importance and requirements for a consistently high quality of raw water used as a source for a potable water treatment facility. This s...

  12. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, E.; Zanoni, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD

  13. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, E; Zanoni, G [Passavant Impianti, Novate Milanese (Italy)

    1992-03-01

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD.

  14. Summary report for 1990 inservice inspection (ISI) of SRS 100-K reactor tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Loibl, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    The integrity of the SRS reactor tanks is a key factor affecting their suitability for continued service since, unlike the external piping system and components, the tanks are virtually irreplaceable. Cracking in various areas of the process water piping systems has occurred beginning in about 1960 as a result of several degradation mechanisms, chiefly intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and chloride-induced transgranular cracking. The purpose of this inspection was to determine if selected welds in the K Reactor tank wall contained any indications of IGSCC. These portions included areas in and beyond the weld HAZ, extending out as far as two to three inches from the centerline of the welds, plus selected areas of base metal at the intersection of the main tank vertical and mid-girth welds. No evidence of such degradation was found in any of the areas examined. This inspection comprised approximately 60% of the accessible weld length in the K Reactor tank. Initial setup of the tank, which prior to inspection contained Mark 60B target assemblies but no Mark 22 fuel assemblies, began on January 14, 1990. The inspection was completed on March 9, 1990

  15. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  16. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

  17. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  18. Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW using coagulant mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW before injection into oil reservoirs is necessary to reduce formation damage. This can be done using chemo-physical process to minimize the oil droplets in water. In this respect, this work aims to extract natural polymer (chitosan from shrimp shells and mix it with coagulants (chitosan/carboxy methyl cellulose and chitosan/aluminum sulfate to adsorb oil from OPW. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode firstly to choose the best coagulants in water treatment, also to investigate the effects of pH on the adsorption uptake, adsorbent dosage, coagulant mixture doses and contact time. It was found that the oil removal by chitosan reached 96.35% and 59% at pH = 4 and pH = 9, respectively. The ability of chitosan to remove oil was increased after adding different coagulants CMC/or aluminum sulfate at average mixing time between 30 and 60 min. It was also found that the highest removal efficiency of chitosan/CMC is 99% at (90% chitosan: 10% CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 is 85% at (80% chitosan: 20% Al2(SO43. The SEM photographs of chitosan, chitosan/CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 mixture as oil removal showed that chitosan/Al2(SO43 lies between chitosan alone and chitosan/CMC mixture. Generally chitosan/CMC characterized significantly by its high ability to adsorb petroleum oil and suspended solids from OPW, additionally, reduces the economic cost of water treatment.

  19. Application of Self Cleaning Rapid Sand Filter in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rahmani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid sand filter is one of the most important units in the water treatment plants. It has some difficulties in operation such as backwashing. For the solving of this problem a rapid sand filter has designed and built with the self-cleaning backwashing system. This system consist of 3 main constituents; one galvanized siphon and two galvanized steel tanks. One of them is used for filtration and the other used for the storage of filtrated water in elevation for backwashing the system. Water enter from upside of the filter through the inlet pipe, and collected from the under drainage pipe. Then filter water conduct to the storage tank and exit from outlet pipe. In the beginning, the head loss was low, but because of bed clogging by suspended solids, it increases gradually to the designed head loss (1.2m. Then the system is outed of the service automatically and the backwash is began. The main data for the design of system selected from the hydraulic rules of siphons and rapid sand filter criteria. After essential calculations it was constructed and was started operation. For the hydraulic studies a known volume of storage tank was selected and the time needed for the fill (in filtration stage and empty (in backwash stage of water volume with volumetric method were measured. In hydraulic studies the filter surface rate (SOR was selected about 5-7.5m3/m2/hr (1.39-2.08 lit/sec and the flow of water in siphon, during the backwashing was measured 8.7 lit/sec. It can be seen that the siphon passes 4-6 times the inlet raw water thus a negative pressure will created in the siphon which causes the water above the sand bed to be discharged automatically and rinse water from elevated tank flow under the sand bed and back wash it. So according to this study self cleaning rapid sand filter is very useful for water filtration, especially in small population community. The construction of system is rapid, simple and economic.

  20. SU-E-P-16: A Feasibility Study of Using Eclipse AAA for SRS Treatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S; LoSasso, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To commission Varian Eclipse AAA for SRS treatment and compare the accuracy with Brainlab iPlan system for clinical cases measured with radiochromic film. Methods: A 6MV AAA clinical model for a Varian TrueBeam STx is used as baseline. The focal spot and field size of the baseline model(BASE) are (1.75,0.75) and 40×40cm 2 respectively. Maximum field sizes, output factors(S t ), FWHM focal spot and secondary source sizes are systematically adjusted to obtain an optimized model(OPT) by comparing the calculated PDD’s, profiles, and output factors with measurements taken with a stereotactic diode(SD) and, cc01 and cc04 ion chambers in Blue Phantom. In-phantom dose distributions of clinical SRS fields are calculated using the OPT and the clinical Brainlab iPlan pencil-beam. Within the 90% isodose-line(ROI), the average dose difference between the calculations and radiochromic film measurements are assessed. Results: The maximum field, focal spot and secondary source sizes for the OPT are 15×15cm 2 , (0,0), and 32.3mm respectively. The OPT St input at 1.0 and 2.0cm fields are increased by 4.5% and 1.5% from BASE. The calculated output of the BASE and OPT underestimate by 16.1%–3.2% respectively at 0.5×0.5cm 2 field and 3.1%−0.02% respectively at 1.0×1.0cm 2 field. The depth doses at 10cm are within 3.5% and 0.4% of measurements for 0.5×0.5 and 1.0×1.0cm 2 . The ROI dose of OPT and iPlan are within 1.6% and 0.6% of film measurements for 3.0cm clinical fields. For 1.0cm fields, the ROI dose of OPT underestimate 0.0–2.0% and iPlan overestimates 1.7–2.9% relative to measurements. Conclusion: The small field dose calculation of Eclipse AAA algorithm can be significantly improved by carefully adjusting the input parameters. The larger deviation of the OPT for 0.5×0.5cm 2 field from measurements can be attributed to the lowest 1.0cm field size input limit of AAA. The OPT compares reasonably well with the iPlan pencil-beam and measurements