WorldWideScience

Sample records for srs npdes outfalls

  1. Region 9 NPDES Outfalls 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for facilities which generally represent the site of the discharge. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from treated waste water that is discharged into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more dischargers. The location represents the discharge point of a discrete conveyance such as a pipe or man made ditch.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS)

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  4. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Outfall Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for facilities which generally represent the site of the discharge. NPDES (National...

  5. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Outfall Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for facilities which generally represent the site of the discharge. NPDES (National...

  6. Wildlife use of NPDES outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.; Blea-Edeskuty, B.

    1995-09-01

    From July through October of 1991, the Biological Resources Evaluation Team (BRET) surveyed 133 of the 140 National Pollutant Discharge and Elimination System outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of the survey was to determine the use of these wastewater outfalls by wildlife. BRET observed wildlife or evidence of wildlife (scat, tracks, or bedding) by 35 vertebrate species in the vicinity of the outfalls, suggesting these animals could be using water from outfalls. Approximately 56% of the outfalls are probably used or are suitable for use by large mammals as sources of drinking water. Additionally, hydrophytic vegetation grows in association with approximately 40% of the outfalls-a characteristic that could make these areas eligible for wetland status. BRET recommends further study to accurately characterize the use of outfalls by small and medium-sized mammals and amphibians. The team also recommends systematic aquatic macroinvertebrate studies to provide information on resident communities and water quality. Wetland assessments may be necessary to ensure compliance with wetland regulations if LANL activities affect any of the outfalls supporting hydrophytic vegetation.

  7. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  8. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  9. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  10. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  11. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  12. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000

  13. EPA Region 2 NPDES Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Outfalls (MS4) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.3 point feature class contains identification, location, and outfall attributes including outfall size and receiving water body, and class information...

  14. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  15. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  16. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams

  17. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.45 Section 122.45 Protection of Environment... (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Outfalls and discharge points. All permit effluent...

  18. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) All Facility Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES facilities, outfalls/dischargers, waste water treatment plant facilities and waste water treatment plants...

  19. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  20. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  1. Instream Biological Assessment of NPDES Point Source Discharges at the Savannah River Site, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) currently has 31 NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams. These studies were designed to detect biological impacts due to point source discharges. Sampling was initially conducted between November 1997 and July 1998 and was repeated in the summer and fall of 2000. A total of 18 locations were sampled (Table 1, Figure 1). Sampling locations for fish and macroinvertebrates were generally the same. However, different locations were sampled for fish (Road A-2) and macroinvertebrates (Road C) in the lower portion of Upper Three Runs, to avoid interference with ongoing fisheries studies at Road C. Also, fish were sampled in Fourmile Branch at Road 4 rather than at Road F because the stream at Road F was too narrow and shallow to support many fish. Sampling locations and parameters are detailed in Sections 2 and 3 of this report. In general, sampling locations were selected that would permit comparisons upstream and downstream of NPDES outfalls. In instances where this approach was not feasible because effluents discharge into the headwaters of a stream, appropriate unimpacted reference were used for comparison purposes. This report summarizes the results of the sampling that was conducted in 2000 and also compares these data to the data that were collected in 1997 and 1998

  2. Nevada NPDES Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Nevada, EPA’s Pacific Southwest (Region 9) issues all NPDES permits for any discharges on tribal lands. All other NPDES permits are issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  3. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021).

  4. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021)

  5. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater in the same pipe. Most of the time, combined sewer systems transport all of their wastewater to a sewage treatment plant, where it is treated and then discharged to a water body. During periods of heavy rainfall or snowmelt, however, the wastewater volume in a combined sewer system can exceed the capacity of the sewer system or treatment plant. For this reason, combined sewer systems are designed to overflow occasionally and discharge excess untreated wastewater directly to nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies. For further information visit: http://cfpub1.epa.gov/npdes/home.cfm?program_id=5

  6. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  7. CHRONIC ZINC SCREENING WATER EFFECT RATIO FOR THE H-12 OUTFALL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, D.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.

    2009-01-13

    In response to proposed Zn limits for the NPDES outfall H-12, a Zn screening Water Effects Ratio (WER) study was conducted to determine if a full site-specific WER is warranted. Using standard assumptions for relating the lab results to the stream, the screening WER data were consistent with the proposed Zn limit and suggest that a full WER would result in a similar limit. Addition of a humate amendment to the outfall water reduced Zn toxicity, but the toxicity reduction was relatively small and unlikely to impact proposed Zn limits. The screening WER data indicated that the time and expense required to perform a full WER for Zn is not warranted.

  8. Marine outfall location off South Chennai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; AshokKumar, K.

    Disposal of industrial effluents into open sea envisages a through study of the marine environment in the vicinity of the outfall. Sufficient dilution and dispersion of the effluent has to take place before it reaches the shore. The required...

  9. Outfall Pipeline Lines, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The outfalls extend from coastal points, originating from canneries and sewage treatment plants.Tafuna Outfall: This polyethylene pipeline installed in 1996, is...

  10. NPDES permits and water analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by P. L. 92-500, including an explanation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), and EPA's criteria for the analysis of pollutants are discussed. The need for a revision of current restrictive variance procedures is pointed out. References for the comparison of analytical methods for water pollutants under permits, including radioactive parameters, are tabulated. (U.S.)

  11. Water Dischargers/IGD: EF_NPDES

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_NPDES is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  12. Tracer a application in marine outfall studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, S.

    1979-01-01

    The applicability of radioactive and fluorescent tracers for field studies to predict or investigate waste water transport and dispersion from marine outfalls is evaluated. The application of either instantaneous or continuous tracer release, 'in situ' detection of tracers and data processing are considered. The necessity of a combined use of tracer techniques and conventional hydrographic methods for a statistical prediction of transport and dillution of waste water are pointed out. A procedure to determine an outlet distance from the coast, which satisfy bathing water criteria is outlined. (M.A.) [pt

  13. SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

    2006-03-01

    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  14. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.; Weber, D.; Stanley, R.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  15. Meeting NPDES permit limits for an effluent-dependent stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    When the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina received a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit containing very low copper and toxicity limits for an effluent-dependent stream, an innovative and cost-effective method to meet them was sought. The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control mandated that compliance with the new limits be achieved within three years of the effective date of the permit. SRS personnel studied various regulatory options for complying with the new limits including Water Effect Ratio, use of a Metals Translator, blending with additional effluents, and outfall relocation. Regulatory options were determined to not be feasible because the receiving stream is effluent dependent. Treatment options were studied after it was determined that none of the regulatory pathways were viable. Corrosion inhibitors were evaluated on a full-scale basis with only limited benefits. Ion exchange was promising, but not cost effective for a high flow effluent with a very low concentration of copper. A treatment wetlands, not normally given consideration for the removal of metals, proved to be the most cost effective method studied and is currently under construction

  16. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  17. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  18. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  19. 78 FR 46005 - NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's.... Direct users enter data into ICIS-NPDES using their computer keyboard and a web browser. All states that... Discharge Monitoring Report ECHO Enforcement and Compliance History Online ECOS Environmental Council of the...

  20. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facility Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...

  1. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facility Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: ICIS-NPDES Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Limits data set for Clean Water Act permitted...

  3. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem

  4. Some Hydraulic and Environmental Aspects of Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    The present work summarises the activities carried out by the author over a number of years in the area of environmental hydraulics in relation to sea outfalls for the discharge of sewage into the sea from urban areas through pipelines provided with diffusers. The substance of this monograph...

  5. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem.

  6. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  7. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  8. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  9. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  10. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): NPDES Sub Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), permit program controls water pollution by regulating point...

  11. State National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program Withdrawal Petitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Search for pending and resolved NPDES withdrawal petitions by state, region, date, or keyword. "Pending" means EPA has received the petition and is working with the...

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): NPDES Permitted Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spatial layer of the NPDES permitted facilities and their attributes. The layer contains attributes from two materialized views of tables that OECA maintains of...

  13. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  14. Electron beam measurements on the Daresbury SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundy, D.; Cummings, S.

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments which use hard x-ray synchrotron radiation have been carried out to allow us to monitor the electron beam on the Daresbury SRS. The beam spatial and angular vertical position and size was determined over a period of time when the SRS was operating normally. From these measurements, the position and angular stability of the electron beam during the measurement period was assessed and correlation of the beam emittance to the electron current was determined

  15. Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rear, M.G.; Steele, J.L.; Kitchen, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) [formerly the Savannah River Plant (SRP)] comprise one of the most comprehensive and extensive environmental monitoring programs in the United States. This overview contains monitoring data from routine and nonroutine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing of environmental permits (Appendix A) issued by regulatory agencies. This overview provides information about the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment. The SRS occupies a large area of approximately 300 square miles along the Savannah River, principally in Aiken and Barnwell counties of South Carolina. SRS's primary function is the production of tritium, plutonium, and other special nuclear materials for national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. From August 1950 to March 31, 1989, SRS was operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by E. I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Co. On April 1, 1989 the Westinghouse Savannah River Company assumed responsibility as the prime contractor for the Savannah River Site

  16. Modeling of Sediment Transport and Self-Cleansing in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Ibro, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes an on-going project on modeling of sediment transport in outfalls with special focus on the self-cleansing problem occurring due to the daily flow variations seen in outfalls. The two central elements of the project is the development of the numerical model and a matching phys...

  17. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques.

  18. The SRS analytical laboratories strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiland, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    There is an acute shortage of Savannah River Site (SRS) analytical laboratory capacity to support key Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management (EM) programs while making the transition from traditional defense program (DP) missions as a result of the cessation of the Cold War. This motivated Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to develop an open-quotes Analytical Laboratories Strategic Planclose quotes (ALSP) in order to provide appropriate input to SRS operating plans and justification for proposed analytical laboratory projects. The methodology used to develop this plan is applicable to all types of strategic planning

  19. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  20. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas

  1. Groundwater Treatment at SRS: An Innovative Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorque, M.A.; Golshir, G.H.; Davis, B.

    1998-03-01

    The SRS is located in southwestern South Carolina, occupying an almost circular area of approximately 800 km2 within Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties. The site lies approximately 36 km southeast of Augusta, Georgia, and is bounded by the Savannah River along its southwestern border. Prior to the establishment of the SRS in 1952, the area was largely a rural agricultural community. As part of the defense complex, the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the national defense.From 1955 until 1988, unlined earthen basins were used to dispose of wastewater from the SRS separations facilities located in the F and H areas. Approximately 300 million liters of wastewater was transported annually from the process area through underground piping to the basins. The wastewater was allowed to evaporate and to seep into the underlying formations. There were three basins in the F-Area covering a total of about 3 hectares; while the H-Area was served by four basins covering about 6 hectares. The seepage basins closure was started in 1989 and SCDHEC certified the closures as completed in 1991.Groundwater monitoring conducted in accordance with the provisions of the RCRA Permits determined that the underlying hydrogeologic units were contaminated by tritium, radioactive metals (primarily Cesium 137, Strontium 90, and Uranium 235), nitrate and heavy metals, some of which are defined as hazardous by RCRA. Under the terms and conditions of the RCRA Post- Closure Permits, it was necessary to remediate the contaminated groundwater plumes

  2. Mixing in SRS Closure Business Unit Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POIRIER, MICHAELR.

    2004-01-01

    The following equipment is commonly used to mix fluids: mechanical agitators, jets (pumps), shrouded axial impeller mixers (Flygt mixers), spargers, pulsed jet mixers, boiling, static mixers, falling films, liquid sprays, and thermal convection. This discussion will focus on mechanical agitators, jets, shrouded axial impeller mixers, spargers, and pulsed jet mixers, as these devices are most likely to be employed in Savannah River Site (SRS) Closure Business applications. In addressing mixing problems in the SRS Tank Farm, one must distinguish between different mixing objectives. These objectives include sludge mixing (e.g., Extended Sludge Processing), sludge retrieval (e.g., sludge transfers between tanks), heel retrieval (e.g., Tanks 18F and 19F), chemical reactions (e.g., oxalic acid neutralization) and salt dissolution. For example, one should not apply sludge mixing guidelines to heel removal applications. Mixing effectiveness is a function of both the mixing device (e.g., slurry pump, agitator, air sparger) and the properties of the material to be mixed (e.g., yield stress, viscosity, density, and particle size). The objective of this document is to provide background mixing knowledge for the SRS Closure Business Unit personnel and to provide general recommendations for mixing in SRS applications

  3. Roadmap to the SRS computing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.

    1994-07-05

    This document outlines the major steps that must be taken by the Savannah River Site (SRS) to migrate the SRS information technology (IT) environment to the new architecture described in the Savannah River Site Computing Architecture. This document proposes an IT environment that is {open_quotes}...standards-based, data-driven, and workstation-oriented, with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.{close_quotes} Achieving this vision will require many substantial changes in the computing applications, systems, and supporting infrastructure at the site. This document consists of a set of roadmaps which provide explanations of the necessary changes for IT at the site and describes the milestones that must be completed to finish the migration.

  4. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  5. Studies on waste field dilution in the vicinity of a marine outfall off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Results are obtained using dimensional analysis to describe the characteristics of waste field at the marine outfall site off Bombay with a thrust on intermediate scale dispersion processes, which are of relevance to the assessment...

  6. Coral reef community, Mokapu Ocean Outfall, Oahu, HI 1998, (NODC Accession 0000173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of the first quantitative survey of the coral reef communities in the vicinity of the Mokapu Ocean Outfall in Kailua Bay, Oahu,...

  7. Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Chris B; Richmond, Marshall C; Guensch, Greg

    2001-01-01

    The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating

  8. ICIS-NPDES Download Summary and Data Element ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  9. ICIS-NPDES DMR Summary and Data Element Dictionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  10. ICIS-NPDES Limit Summary and Data Element Dictionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  11. 300 Area TEDF NPDES Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loll, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This monitoring plan describes the activities and methods that will be employed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in order to ensure compliance with the National Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Included in this document are a brief description of the project, the specifics of the sampling effort, including the physical location and frequency of sampling, the support required for sampling, and the Quality Assurance (QA) protocols to be followed in the sampling procedures

  12. NPDES eRule Dashboard User Guide and Data Caveats ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  13. Report on SRS activities to March, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, I.H.

    1981-10-01

    In this first Annual Report on synchrotron radiation research and related activities since the completion of the storage ring (the SRS) at Daresbury Laboratory a summary is given of progress on the storage ring itself, on beamlines, experimental stations, data acquisition and processing facilities and on the build-up of ancillary laboratories and equipment. In appendices a bibliography of synchrotron radiation research publications from March 1977 to March 1981 and a cumulative list of research grants and agreements approved by the SRFC from March 1977 to March 1981 are given. (U.K.)

  14. Comparison of small mammal species diversity near wastewater outfalls, natural streams, and dry canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymer, D.F.; Biggs, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    A wide range of plant and wildlife species utilizes water discharged from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this study was to compare nocturnal small mammal communities at wet areas created by wastewater outfalls with communities in naturally created wet and dry areas. Thirteen locations within LANL boundaries were selected for small mammal mark-recapture trapping. Three of these locations lacked surface water sources and were classified as open-quotes dry,close quotes while seven sites were associated with wastewater outfalls (open-quotes outfallclose quotes sites), and three were located near natural sources of surface water (open-quotes naturalclose quotes sites). Data was collected on site type (dry, outfall or natural), location, species trapped, and the tag number of each individual captured. This data was used to calculate mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity at each type of site. When data from each type of site was pooled, there were no significant differences in these variables between dry, outfall, and natural types. However, when data from individual sites was compared, tests revealed significant differences. All sites in natural areas were significantly higher than dry areas in daily mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity. Most outfall sites were significantly higher than dry areas in all three variables tested. When volume of water from each outfall site was considered, these data indicated that the number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity of nocturnal small mammals were directly related to the volume of water at a given outfall

  15. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.4 Section 122.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... NPDES programs, see § 123.25). No permit may be issued: (a) When the conditions of the permit do not...

  16. ALBUQUERQUE BERNALILLO COUNTY WATER UTILITY AUTHORITY (ABCWUA) WWTP - DRAFT NPDES PERMIT NO. NM0022250

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Evelyn RosboroughU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyNPDES Management Section (6WQ-PO)1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200Dallas, Texas 75202-2733(214) 665-7515 or rosborough.evelyn@epa.govdraft npdes permit nm22250

  17. 75 FR 30395 - Stakeholder Input; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ..., the elderly and those with weakened immune systems, can be at a higher risk of illness from exposure... municipal collection systems including satellite portions. 4. What is the appropriate role of NPDES permits... Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Requirements for Municipal Sanitary Sewer Collection...

  18. 7Q10 flows for SRS streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Transport Group of the Environmental Technology Section was requested to predict the seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) for the SRS streams based on historical stream flow records. Most of the historical flow records for the SRS streams include reactor coolant water discharged from the reactors and process water released from the process facilities. The most straight forward way to estimate the stream daily natural flow is to subtract the measured upstream reactor and/or facility daily effluents from the measured downstream daily flow. Unfortunately, this method does not always work, as indicated by the fact that sometimes the measured downstream volumetric flow rates are lower than the reactor effluent volumetric flow rates. For those cases that cannot be analyzed with the simple subtracting method, an alternative method was used to estimate the stream natural flows by statistically separating reactor coolant and process water flow data. The correlation between the calculated 7Q10 flows and the watershed areas for Four Mile Branch and Pen Branch agrees with that calculated by the USGS for Upper Three Runs and Lower Three Runs Creeks. The agreement between these two independent calculations lends confidence to the 7Q10 flow calculations presented in this report

  19. Comparison of Srs-24 And Srs-22 Scores in Thirty Eight Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Who Had Undergone Surgical Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CYW Chan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity that affects patients’ self image and confidence. Surgery is offered when the curvature is greater than 50 degrees based on the likelihood of curvature progression. Outcome measures for scoliosis correction can be described in terms of radiological improvement or improvement of health related quality of life scores. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22 and Scoliosis Research Society 24 (SRS-24 questionnaires are widely accepted and used to characterize clinical results. Therefore, this prospective study of 38 patients aims to investigate how the SRS-24 and SRS-22 questionnaires compare to each other in terms of scoring when the same group of patients is evaluated. The SRS-22 questionnaire tends to give an inflated value in the overall score, pain and self image domain compared to the SRS-24 questionnaire.

  20. NPDES permit compliance and enforcement: A resource guide for oil and gas operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    During the fall of 1996, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission sponsored sessions for government and industry representatives to discuss concerns about the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program under the Clean Water Act. In January 1997, the NPDES Education/Communication/Training Workgroup (ECT Workgroup) was established with co-leaders from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and industry. The ECT Workgroup`s purpose was to develop ideas that would improve communication between NPDES regulators and the oil and gas industry regarding NPDES compliance issues. The Workgroup focused on several areas, including permit compliance monitoring and reporting, enforcement activity and options, and treatment technology. The ECT Workgroup also discussed the need for materials and information to help NPDES regulatory agency personnel understand more about oil and gas industry exploration and extraction operations and treatment processes. This report represents a compendium of the ECT Workgroup`s efforts.

  1. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  2. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  3. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  4. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  5. Diffuser Design for Marine Outfalls in Areas with Strong Currents, High waves and Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    The design of marine outfalls is often based on environmental criteria for a minimum initial dilution. Accordingly advanced diffuser arrangement are designed to fulfil these requirements. A large number of examples of malfunction and blocking in sea outfalls have occurred around the world...... as a result of this uncompromising consent to environmental demands. Two examples of unconventional design are given in this paper. Both cases involved risk of blockage of the diffuser section because of wave and current induced sediment transport The paper also discusses how acceptable far field dilution...

  6. Spatio-temporal changes in trophic categories of infaunal polychaetes near the four wastewater ocean outfalls on Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Xiufu; Bailey-Brock, Julie H; Lin, David T

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the effect of sewage discharge on benthic polychaete assemblages in the context of their functional trophic categories. We present data spanning 20 years of monitoring benthic invertebrate assemblages and sediment properties at all 4 primary- and secondary-treatment wastewater outfalls servicing Honolulu and the island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. Samples collected within mandated zones of initial dilution (ZIDs) near outfall discharge sites were compared to samples collected at reference stations at varying distances away. Our findings indicate that sediment properties were not affected by the outfall discharge rate or distance from each ZID. The number of polychaete species in 4 functional trophic categories (carnivore, detritivore, omnivore, and suspension feeder) did not change with the outfall solid loading rate or with distance from each ZID, thus suggesting relatively little organic enrichment. We find no evidence of heavy organic enrichment beyond the designated ZIDs at these 4 wastewater outfalls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  8. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs

  9. Kahe Generating Station NPDES Report 1996, Oahu, HI, (NODC Accession 9900012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaiian Electric Company Inc. (HECO), under requirements of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit HI0000019, Section C.5, annually...

  10. Final NPDES General Permit for New and Existing Sources and New Dischargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final NPDES General Permit for New and Existing Sources and New Dischargers in the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Category for the Western Portion of the Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico (PDF)

  11. EPA Region 2 Discharge Pipes for Facilites with NPDES Permits from the Permit Compliance GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Permit and Compliance System (PCS) contains data on the National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit-holding facilities. This includes...

  12. NPDES Permit for the Blackfeet Community Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030643, the Blackfeet Tribe is authorized to discharge from its Blackfoot Community Water Treatment Plant in Glacier County, Montana, to an unnamed intermittent stream which flows to Two Medicine River.

  13. NPDES Permit for Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  14. NPDES Draft Permit for Spirit Lake Water Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES draft permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  15. Report: Agency-Wide Application of Region 7 NPDES Program Process Improvements Could Increase EPA Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0315, July 6, 2011. Although Region 7 NPDES Kaizen event participants continued to follow up on the commitments and action items identified, no single authority was responsible for tracking the process improvement outcomes.

  16. NPDES Permit for Mesa Verde National Park Water Treatment Plant in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034462, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park water treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  17. NPDES Permit for Arboles Sand & Stone's Lob Lolly Industrial Site in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0048194, Arboles Sand & Stone, LLC is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility at the Lob Lolly Industrial Site in Archuleta County, Colorado, to the Piedra River.

  18. NPDES Permit for Rosebud Casino and Hotel Wastewater Treatment Facility in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  19. Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Shiprock Wastewater Treatment Facility; Draft NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to issue a NPDES permit (No. NN0020621) to Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) for the Shiprock wastewater treatment facility in San Juan County, New Mexico, within the northeastern portion of the Navajo Nation.

  20. Trace metals and organochlorines in sediments near a major ocean outfall on a high energy continental margin (Sydney, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthai, C; Birch, G F

    2000-12-01

    Sewage effluent from a large ocean outfall south of Sydney, southeastern Australia, is efficiently dispersed on this high energy continental margin. An enrichment of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn is only detectable in the fine fraction (mud content of surficial sediment, making an identification of the anthropogenic trace metal source difficult using total sediment analyses. The concentrations of HCB and DDE in the total sediment are also slightly elevated near the outfall. In the vicinity of the outfall, the estimated sewage component in the fine fraction of sediment, using Ag, Cu and Zn in a conservative, two-endmember physical mixing model, is sewage to Sydney continental margin sediments.

  1. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year

  2. Comparison of Srs-24 And Srs-22 Scores in Thirty Eight Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Who Had Undergone Surgical Correction

    OpenAIRE

    CYW Chan; LB Saw; MK Kwan

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity that affects patients’ self image and confidence. Surgery is offered when the curvature is greater than 50 degrees based on the likelihood of curvature progression. Outcome measures for scoliosis correction can be described in terms of radiological improvement or improvement of health related quality of life scores. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) and Scoliosis Research Society 24 (SRS-24) questionnaires are widely accepted and ...

  3. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Sand Island ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Sand Island ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size and sediment...

  4. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Barbers Point ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size...

  5. BOD-DO modeling and water quality analysis of a waste water outfall off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Das, V.K.; Vethamony, P.

    Water quality scenarios around an offshore outfall off Kochi were simulated using MIKE21 water quality model, assuming a high Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD=50 mgl sup(-1)) effluent discharge. The discharge is introduced into the model through...

  6. Calibration and validation of far field dilution models for outfall at Worli, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Dhage, Shivani; Jacob, Noble; Navada, S V; Kumar, Rakesh

    2006-03-01

    The city of Mumbai, India with a population of 15 million discharges about 2225 MLD of domestic wastewater after partial treatment to adjoining marine water body. Under the Mumbai Sewage Disposal Project Scheme, sewage is being disposed to the west coast at Worli and Bandra through 3.4 kms long submarine outfalls. A field study was conducted at recently commissioned outfall diffuser location at Worli, at the onset of neap flood tide to study the dispersion patterns and measure the far field dilutions using radio and dye tracers. Estimated dilutions using different tracers were compared with outputs from an empirical model (Brooks) and a 2D numerical model (DIVAST). Validation using parameters such as BOD and FC, indicated a good match for BOD in near field compared to FC. The radiotracer (82)Br and Rhodamine WT generally gave good correlation with Brooks' and DIVAST models for nearfield, however at further distances predictions were not accurate.

  7. Fifth Annual Report: 2008 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ronald M.; Sather, Nichole K.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    This is the fifth and final report in a series documenting progress of the pre-construction eelgrass restoration and mitigation activities for the proposed King County Brightwater marine outfall, discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions, after construction of the outfall. Major eelgrass mitigation program elements include: a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over a 5 year period prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagation and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring, occurring in 2009 and beyond. The overall program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2008).

  8. Marine outfalls monitoring at the CSIR: Evaluating the impact of wastewater discharge on our marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arabi, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available to monitor wastewater discharge impacts, including toxicity testing, environmental chemistry, benthic community status and bio-accumulation studies. The CSIR laboratories are accredited for the analysis of marine water, sediment and biological tissue... Programme has a history of 45 years, and continues to build capacity in the fi eld of marine pollution research and management. Identify the need for monitoring Monitor physical, biological and chemical parameters in the vicinity of the outfall...

  9. Coastal outfalls, a sustainable alternative for improving water quality in north-east Atlantic estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz; Juanes, José A; Puente, Araceli; Revilla, José A

    2010-09-01

    The city of Santander ceased the discharge of sewage effluents into the bay of Santander in June, 2001 and began discharging at a site 2.4 km offshore in the nearby coastal area (Virgen del Mar, Bay of Biscay) at a water depth of about 40 m. The present study investigates the effects of the new outfall discharges on the water quality of the high-energy coastal area and the recovery of the perturbed temperate estuarine area now only affected by combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and urban pollution indicators were analysed. No significant spatial or temporal change in water quality variables was found in the coastal area around the outfall. No signs of nutrification or increases in chlorophyll-a were observed throughout the study period, although a slight increase in phosphates, suspended solids and turbidity were observed two years after the relocation of the discharge. These changes were not attributed to outfall discharge but to a regional increase also observed at control stations and nearby coastal areas. Considerable reductions in indicators of urban discharges were observed in the estuary after the relocation of discharges, even at stations located around CSOs. Results from this study support the efficiency of ecological quality-driven designs of sanitation systems, which are used as management tools for sensitive and environmentally valuable coastal ecosystems in the north-east Atlantic.

  10. Outfall as a Suitable Alternative for Disposal of Municipal Wastewater in Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of raw municipal wastewater or effluent of preliminary treatment into the sea and ocean is economically more accepted and technically more efficient than secondary treatment. In this method, the wastewater disposed at the bottom of the sea in some points from diffuser. Nowadays, lots of researchers select outfall as a suitable alternative treatment method for coastal cities. The goal of this paper was to introduce the outfall as a wastewater treatment method and its design criteria considering different characteristics of the sea such as salinity, density, temperature, stratification etc. In addition, stagnant sea and thermal stratification is reviewed. In this paper the latest information were reviewed. In this alternative the wastewater treated under dilution, mixing and natural conditions. Moreover, sensitive coastal point are preserved from different wastewater pollutants. Usually, there is no limitation regarding discharge of coliform, DO, BOD, and nutrient concentrations in initial mixing zoom. The parameters such as thermal stratification, salinity stratification, density stratification, marine flows influence design of outfall.

  11. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Samad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gas (LNG processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.

  12. User guide to the SRS data logging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyson, B.E.

    1979-02-01

    The state of the SRS is recorded every two minutes, thus providing a detailed History of its parameters. Recording of History is done via the SRS Computer Network. This consists of a Master Computer, an Interdata 7/32, and three Minicomputers, Interdata 7/16s. Each of the Minicomputers controls one of the accelerators, Linac, Booster and Storage Ring. The Master Computer is connected to the Central Computer, an IBM 370/165, for jobs where greater computing power and storage are required. The Master Computer has a total of 20 Megabytes of fixed and movable disc space but only about 5 Megabytes are available for History storage. The Minicomputers have no storage facilities. The user guide is set out as follows: History filing system, History storage on the Master Computer, transfer of the History to the Central Computer, transferring History to tapes, job integrity, the SRS tape catalogue system. (author)

  13. 78 FR 70042 - Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... AGENCY Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical...). As proposed, the Geotechnical General Permit authorizes twelve types of discharges from facilities...

  14. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.28 Section 122.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Coverage. The Director may issue a general permit in...

  15. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.23 Section 122.23 Protection of Environment... Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Scope... owner or operator (see § 122.21(b)); (ii) The CAFO name and address, the county name and the latitude...

  16. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.24 Section 122.24 Protection of... § 122.24 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see...

  17. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquaculture projects (applicable to... DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.25 Aquaculture... aquaculture projects, as defined in this section, are subject to the NPDES permit program through section 318...

  18. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output

  19. Group NPDES stormwater permit application: The Conoco experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has reported that stormwater runoff is a major cause of pollution and use impairment to waters of the nation. Diffuse pollution sources (stormwater runoff) are increasingly important as controls for industrial process dischargers. On November 16, 1990 the Federal Clean Water Act National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) rules governing the discharge of stormwater were published (56 FR 40948). These rules potentially affect every type of business enterprise conducting work ''associated with industrial activity.'' Dischargers of stormwater associated with industrial activity ar required to either seek coverage under a federal or state general permit using notice of intent, apply for an individual permit, or apply for a permit through a two-part group application process. Conoco, Inc. Supply and Transportation (S and T) elected the latter alternative to attempt to comply with these new evolving complex, broad-ranging permitting requirements. This paper discusses specific details of S and T's strategy, BMP designs, data acquisition activities, monitoring results, as well as economic impacts on the corporation as a result of storm water permit requirements. S and T operates approximately 170 unique wholly and jointly owned petroleum product storage and transport facilities across the nation. Approximately one-third of these facilities were subject to stormwater permit application requirements

  20. A case of Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS): multiple pituitary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ham 1969; Albertsson-Wikland 1989; Chatelain 1993; Az- cona et al. 1998). The incidence of GHD, hypopituitarism in SRS is still controversial. GH insufficiency in low-birth weight syn- dromes has an incidence of 13–67% (Albertsson-Wikland. 1989; Rochiccioli et al. 1989; Stanhope et al. 1989; Bo- guszewski et al. 1995).

  1. Wastewaters at SRS where heavy metals are a potential problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of this report is to identify and prioritize heavy metal-containing wastewaters at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in terms of their suitability for testing of and clean-up by a novel bioremediation process being developed by SRTC. This process involves the use of algal biomass for sequestering heavy metal and radionuclides from wastewaters. Two categories of SRS wastewaters were considered for this investigation: (1) waste sites (primarily non-contained wastes managed by Environmental Restoration), and (2) waste streams (primarily contained wastes managed by Waste Management). An attempt was made to evaluate all sources of both categories of waste throughout the site so that rational decisions could be made with regard to selecting the most appropriate wastewaters for present study and potential future treatment. The investigation included a review of information on surface and/or groundwater associated with all known SRS waste sites, as well as waters associated with all known SRS waste streams. Following the initial review, wastewaters known or suspected to contain potentially problematic concentrations of one or more of the toxic metals were given further consideration

  2. VME applications to the Daresbury SRS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martlew, B.G.; McCarthy, M.; Rawlinson, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The control system for the Daresbury SRS has recently been extended with a VME based alarm system which is operational. A further development is a steering system to provide servo control of the electron beam orbit position in the storage ring. (author)

  3. Determination of diffusion parameters using radioactive tracers, aiming at a project of a submarine sewage outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.L. dos.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive tracers technology is applied to pollutant dispersion studies in water bodies, for the project of submarine sewage outfall. The models proposed by Hansen/Harremoes and Okubo, respectively, for the prediction of physical dilution rates and determination of turbulent diffusion laws, are discussed. The methodology for field work as well as data processing is described. The results from field investigations carried out in Brazilian litoral waters for submarine release of sewage in Santos - Sao Vicente, Guaruja and Maceio, are presented and commented. (Author) [pt

  4. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  5. Radioactive and dye tracer studies for the NWNT sewerage outfall, Hong Kong, and comparison to near-field modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A monitoring programme for the North West New Territories (NWNT) sewage outfall, located in the Urmston Road channel in Hong Kong, was completed in 1996. This included three surveys measuring effluent behaviour and oceanographic conditions near the outfall. Radioisotopes gold-198 (γ energy 0.42 MeV, half-life 2.7 days) and tritium (as tritiated water, HTO, β energy 0.018 MeV, half-life 12.3 years) were used to trace the effluent discharging from the outfall during both a wet season and dry season survey. The effluent was also simultaneously tagged with Rhodamine dye which was detected with fluorometers. The gold-198 was generally traced in real time using submersible detectors, while the tritium was measured in the laboratory from sea water samples using liquid scintillation techniques. The Radioisotopes and dye measurement techniques were progressively refined over the surveys and a reliable equipment arrangement and sampling procedure was established

  6. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  7. Planning and Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants Marine Outfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, S.; Yeh, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demands for water in urban areas and agricultural zones in arid and semi-arid regions have urged planners and regulators to look for alternative renewable water sources. Worldwide, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants have become an essential supply source for the production of fresh water in such regions. Disposal of their wastes, however, has not been fully and properly addressed. This study presents a strategy for the analysis and design of optimal disposal systems of hypersaline wastes that are generated by SWRO desalination plants. The study evaluates current disposal methods and recommends ways to effectively employ multiport marine outfalls for this purpose. Such outfalls emerged as reliable means for conveying wastes from process plants, to include wastewater treatment and power plants, into the coastal waters. Their proper use, however, in conjunction with SWRO desalination plants is still in its beginning stage, and much work needs to be done to employ them effectively. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to provide design engineers with effective procedures that meet environmental permitting requirements and restrictions, while ascertaining adequate hydrodynamic performance. The study is tested by employing a simulation model and examining its reliability under many parameter perturbation scenarios. This is further extended by providing a solution to the same problem using a heuristic approach.

  8. Modeling the Praia dos Ingleses submarine outfall, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J L B; Trevisan, A; Santos, V; Franklin-Silva, L; Alves, L A

    2013-01-01

    An outfall 1,800 m long was initially proposed by CASAN (Water and Sanitation Company of Santa Catarina) to dispose of treated domestic residual water effluent from Praia dos Ingleses beach. The final plan average flow, estimated for the summer season is 0.1543 m³/s. The characteristics on the near field of the diffuser were calculated using the NRFIELD model supplied by a series of current profiles and density, gathered at the diffuser location between March and April, 2007. Reliable information of raw sewage fecal coliform concentration and nutrients has been supplied by CASAN, based on continuous monitoring of sewage in its treatment plants. The diffuser was designed in such a way that it maximizes the initial dilution allowing the nutrients concentration to comply with legislation limits. However, results showed that the treatment plant should be designed to mainly reduce total phosphorus. A hydrodynamic model was implemented to generate current fields for the far field modeling. Information gathered in the field on variation in water level, wind, and current velocity and direction was used for boundary and/or initial conditions. Then, a Lagrangian advective-diffusive model was used to evaluate the extent of the plumes. The results of far field modeling showed a need to increase the outfall length. A new location 3,300 m from the beach has been proposed.

  9. 77 FR 21098 - Reissuance of NPDES General Permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Located in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9656-7] Reissuance of NPDES General Permit for Concentrated... Association, Jean Public, Jerome County Planning and Zoning, J.R. Simplot Company, Natural Resources.... Unfunded Mandates Reform Act Section 201 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA), Public Law 104-4...

  10. 77 FR 75429 - Notice of Availability of Proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability of Proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General... proposed general permit and fact sheet for public comment. For the most part, the proposed permit is very... protocol for analysis of the results. \\1\\ U.S. EPA. 2010. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  11. 77 FR 47380 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    .../region6/water/npdes/genpermit/index.htm . ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Diane Smith, Region 6, U... water quality-impaired waterbodies. Pursuant to section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA..., Water Quality Protection Division, EPA Region 6. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P ...

  12. 77 FR 25717 - Proposed Issuance of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... required by section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general... entities.'' EPA has concluded that NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or the RFA. Notwithstanding that general permits are...

  13. 78 FR 72676 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Discharges From Industrial Activities; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit for stormwater discharges from industrial... docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, the EPA recommends that...

  14. 75 FR 21625 - Notice of Availability of the Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... taken in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA), as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 10-014; FRL-9141-9] Notice of Availability of the Draft... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft NPDES general permits MAG910000 and...

  15. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-11-18

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  16. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)

  17. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  18. 77 FR 123 - Final Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA... NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking...

  19. 78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA... NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking...

  20. Necessity of Initial Dilution for Sea Outfall Diffusers in Respect to the European Directive on Municipal Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    The European Directive on municipal discharges prescribes that discharges of sewage to the sea should at least be treated biologically. The author claims that this treatment is an argument for reducing the requirement for initial dilution for sea outfall diffusers. By reducing the costs...... for the diffusers more emphasise can be laid on solving the bathing water problems rising from storm overflows....

  1. In-situ Kd values and geochemical behavior for inorganic and organic constituents of concern at the TNX Outfall Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2000-02-11

    A series of tests were conducted to provide site-specific Kd values for constituents of concern at the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit. These Kd values can be used to calculate contaminant migration within the operable unit and are, at this time considered to be the most defensible values.

  2. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity

  3. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment

  4. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessa, Denis M S; Carr, R Scott; Rachid, Bauer R F; Sousa, Eduinetty C P M; Hortelani, Marcos A; Sarkis, Jorge E

    2005-08-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the "Threshold Effect Level" values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  5. Accumulation and Risk of Triclosan in Surface Sediments Near the Outfalls of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Jing, Zhaoqian; Wang, Zhulai; Cao, Shiwei; Yu, Ting

    2015-10-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent which is widely used in many personal care products. This toxic chemical is frequently found in the aquatic environment. The municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been reported to be one of the major sources for triclosan in the aquatic system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the accumulation of triclosan in the surface sediments near the outfalls of the five major municipal WWTPs of Nanjing, China, as well as to evaluate its potential ecological risk. The concentration of triclosan in the sediment samples ranged from 48.3 to 226 ng/g dry weight, which was well correlated with the acute and genetic toxicity by bioassay. The results suggested that triclosan released from municipal WWTPs could accumulate in the surface sediments nearby and may pose undetermined risk to aquatic organisms.

  6. Intakes and outfalls for seawater reverse-osmosis desalination facilities innovations and environmental impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Burton; Maliva, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The book assembles the latest research on new design techniques in water supplies using desalinated seawater. The authors examine the diverse issues related to the intakes and outfalls of these facilities. They clarify how and why these key components of the facilities impact the cost of operation and subsequently the cost of water supplied to the consumers. The book consists of contributed articles from a number of experts in the field who presented their findings at the “Desalination Intakes and Outfalls” workshop held at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia in October, 2013. The book integrates coverage relevant to a wide variety of researchers and professionals in the general fields of environmental engineering and sustainable development.

  7. Reproductive success and mortality rates of Ceriodaphnia dubia maintained in water from Upper Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    It is anticipated that the new SRS NPDES permit will require toxicity testing of at numerous outfalls and receiving streams, using the standard test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because SRS surface waters differ markedly from the standard culture water that is used for Ceriodaphnia, studies were undertaken to determine if unimpacted SRS surface waters will support this species. Three SRS surface waters were evaluated; Upper Three Runs at Road 8-1, Pen Branch at Road B, and Fourmile Branch at Road F. Toxicity tests were performed monthly on each water source for eleven months. All three water sources exhibited varying degrees of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, with Pen Branch being the least toxic and Fourmile Branch being the most toxic. These results indicate that if in-stream toxicity testing is required, it may not be possible to separate the naturally occurring toxic effects of the receiving water from possible toxic effects of SRS effluents

  8. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: The role of sediment organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, Pamela M.; Johannessen, Sophia C.; Ross, Peter S.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Roodselaar, Albert van

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments and benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls in Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., Canada, two areas with contrasting receiving environments. PBDE concentrations in wastewater exceeded those of the legacy PCBs by eight times at Vancouver and 35 times at Victoria. Total PBDE concentrations in benthic invertebrates were higher near Vancouver than Victoria, despite lower concentrations in sediments, and correlated with organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediment. Principal Components Analysis indicated uptake of individual PBDE congeners was determined by sediment properties (organic carbon, grain size), while PCB congener uptake was governed by physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partitioning coefficient). Results suggest the utility of sediment quality guidelines for PBDEs and likely PCBs benefit if based on organic carbon-normalized concentrations. Also, where enhanced wastewater treatment increases the PBDEs to particulate organic carbon ratio in effluent, nearfield benthic invertebrates may face increased PBDE accumulation. - Highlights: ► Physical receiving environment affects PBDE bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates. ► PBDE uptake is correlated with organic-carbon normalized sediment concentrations. ► PBDE and PCB congener uptake are governed by different properties. ► PBDE sediment quality guidelines may benefit by using organic carbon-normalized data. ► Enhanced wastewater treatment may mean increased benthic invertebrate PBDE bioaccumulation. - The physical receiving environment affects the accumulation of PBDEs by benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls, and uptake of PBDE congeners is governed by different properties than for PCB congeners.

  9. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  10. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance nuclear fuel cycles research and development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.; Marra, J.E.; Wilmarth, W.R.; McGuire, P.W.; Wheeler, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets (including H Canyon - a nuclear chemical separation plant) to solve issues regarding advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies, nuclear materials processing, packaging, storage and disposition. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into SRS facilities but also in other facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research has been established in SRS

  11. Pump spectral linewidth influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang S.; Kuzmin, Andrey; Prasad, Paras N. [The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The threshold, temporal behavior, and conversion efficiency of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS) in three liquids (benzene, hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two crystals (calcite and barium nitrate) have been investigated under three largely different spectral linewidth conditions. Pumped with 532-nm and nanosecond duration laser pulses of ≤ 0.01 cm{sup -1} linewidth, only SBS can be generated in all tested liquids with a high nonlinear reflectivity. However when the pump spectral linewidth is ∝0.07 cm{sup -1} or ∝0.8 cm{sup -1}, both SBS and SRS can be observed in benzene while only SRS can be generated in dimethyl sulfoxide; in all these cases SRS is the dominant contribution to the stimulated scattering but the efficiency values are drastically decreased due to the self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids, which arises from the thermal self-defocusing of both pump beam and SRS beam owing to Stokes-shift related opto-heating effect. In contrast, for SRS process in the two crystals, the thermal self-defocusing influence is negligible benefitting from their much greater thermal conductivity, and a higher conversion efficiency of SRS generation can be retained under all three pump conditions. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Srs2: the "Odd-Job Man" in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Victoria; Krejci, Lumir

    2010-03-02

    Homologous recombination plays a key role in the maintenance of genome integrity, especially during DNA replication and the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Just a single un-repaired break can lead to aneuploidy, genetic aberrations or cell death. DSBs are caused by a vast number of both endogenous and exogenous agents including genotoxic chemicals or ionizing radiation, as well as through replication of a damaged template DNA or the replication fork collapse. It is essential for cell survival to recognise and process DSBs as well as other toxic intermediates and launch most appropriate repair mechanism. Many helicases have been implicated to play role in these processes, however their detail roles, specificities and co-operativity in the complex protein-protein interaction networks remain unclear. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about Saccharomyces cerevisiae helicase Srs2 and its effect on multiple DNA metabolic processes that generally affect genome stability. It would appear that Srs2 functions as an "Odd-Job Man" in these processes to make sure that the jobs proceed when and where they are needed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening dynamic evaluation of SRS cooling water line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Shteyngart, S.; Breidenbach, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been shut down due to perceived safety concerns. A major concern is the seismic integrity of the plant. A comprehensive program is underway to assess the seismic capacity of the existing systems and components and to upgrade them to acceptable levels. The evaluation of the piping systems at the SRS is a major element of this program. Many of the piping systems at the production reactors were designed without performing dynamic analyses. Instead their design complied with good design practice for dead weight supported systems with proper accommodation of thermal expansion effects. In order to gain some insight as to the seismic capacity of piping installed in this fashion, dynamic analyses were performed for some lines. Since the piping was not seismically supported, the evaluations involved various approximations and the results are only used as a screening test of seismic adequacy. In this paper, the screening evaluations performed for the raw water inlet line are described. This line was selected for evaluation since it was considered typical of the smaller diameter piping systems at the plant. It is a dead weight supported system made up of a run of small diameter piping which extends for great distances over many dead weight supports and through wall penetrations. The results of several evaluations for the system using different approximations to represent the support system are described. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Sediment Monitoring and Benthic Faunal Sampling Adjacent to the Barbers Point Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna and sediment in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment...

  15. Surveys of Selected Coral and Fish Assemblages Adjacent to the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 2003-2010 (NODC Accession 0084515)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1990, biota of the coral reef ecosystems have been annualy monitored at stations located at and in the vicinity of the Waianae Ocean Sewage Outfall. NODC...

  16. A survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1990-1999 (NODC Accession 0000794)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1990-1999, coral growth and fish abundance were monitored at stations located at and in the vicinity of the Waianae Ocean Outfall. Comparisons of results with...

  17. A Survey of Selected Coral and Fish Assemblages Near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1990-1999 (NODC Accession 0000794)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1990-1999, coral growth and fish abundance were monitored at stations located at and in the vicinity of the Waianae Ocean Outfall. Comparisons of results with...

  18. Community Structure of Fish and Macrobenthos at Selected Sites in the Vicinity of Mokapu Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1998 (NODC Accession 0000173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of the first quantitative survey of the coral reef communities in the vicinity of the Mokapu Ocean Outfall in Kailua Bay, Oahu,...

  19. Community Structure of Fish and Macrobenthos at Selected Shallow-water Sites in Relation to the Barber's Point Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991 - 1999 (NODC Accession 0000174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of the eight years of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Barbers Point Ocean Outfall...

  20. Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Keyamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ, and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability.

  1. Constitutive expression and characterization of a surface SRS (NcSRS67) protein of Neospora caninum with no orthologue in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marcos Alexandre; Pereira, Luiz Miguel; Bononi, Aline; Biella, Carla Agostino; Baroni, Luciana; Pollo-Oliveira, Leticia; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia

    2017-04-01

    Neospora caninum is a parasite of the Apicomplexa phylum responsible for abortion and losses of fertility in cattle. As part of its intracellular cycle, the first interaction of the parasite with the target cell is performed with the surface proteins known as the SRS superfamily (Surface Antigen Glycoprotein - Related Sequences). SAG related or SRS proteins have been a target of intense research due to its immunodominant pattern, exhibiting potential as diagnostic and/or vaccine candidates. The aim of this study was the cloning, expression and characterization of the gene NcSRS67 of N. caninum using a novel designed plasmid. The coding sequence of NcSRS67 (without the signal peptide and the GPI anchor) was cloned and expressed constitutively instead of the ccdB system of pCR-Blunt II-TOPO. The protein was purified in a nickel sepharose column and identified by mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The constitutive expression did not affect the final bacterial growth, with a similar OD 600nm compared to the non-transformed strains. The recombinant NcSRS67 was over expressed and the native form was detected by the anti-rNcSRS67 serum on 1D western blot as a single band of approximately 38kDa as predicted. On an in vitro assay, the inhibitory effect of the polyclonal antiserum anti-rNcSRS67 was nearly 20% on adhesion/invasion of host cells. The NcSRS67 native protein was localised on part of the surface of N. caninum tachyzoite when compared to the nucleus by confocal immunofluorescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m 3 to 4921 m 3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and product lubricated canned

  3. Development of a Rotary Microfilter for SRS HLW Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MICHAEL, POIRIER

    2004-01-01

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site high level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross flow filter, produces 0.02 gpm/ft2 of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel identified the rotary microfilter as a technology that could significantly increase filter flux, with throughput improvements of as much as 10X for that specific operation. With funding from the Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technologies, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. This work includes pilot-scale and actual waste testing to evaluate system reliability, the impact of radiation on system components, the filter flux for a variety of waste streams, and relative performance for alternative filter media

  4. Clemson final report: High temperature formulations for SRS soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-03-11

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate the application of a DC arc melter to in-situ vitrification of SRS soils. The melter that was available at the DOE/Industrial Vitrification Laboratory at Clemson University was equipped with opposing solid electrodes. To simulate field conditions, two hollow electrode configurations were evaluated which allowed fluxes to be injected into the melter while the soils were being vitrified. the first 4 runs utilized pre-blended flux (two runs) and attempted flux injection (two runs). These runs were terminated prematurely due to offgas sampling problems and melt freezing. The remaining four runs utilized a different electrode geometry, and the runs were not interrupted to change out the offgas sampling apparatus. These runs were conducted successfully.

  5. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  6. Questionário SRS-30 para adolescentes portadores de escoliose idiopática Cuestionario SRS-30 para adolescentes portadores de escoliosis idiopática SRS-30 Questionnaire for adolescents with idiophatic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carriço de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a medição da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde é uma prática comum na avaliação de doenças da coluna vertebral. O questionário SRS-30 (versão procedente do instrumento Scoliosis Research Society-22 é um instrumento válido para a avaliação clínica de pacientes portadores de escoliose idiopática nos Estados Unidos. Entretanto, sua adaptação em outros idiomas é necessária para uso multinacional. OBJETIVO: analisar os domínios e itens do questionário SRS-30 para adolescentes. Discutir a aplicação do questionário da Scoliosis Research Society (SRS em diversas versões. DESENHO DE ESTUDO: revisão narrativa da literatura sobre um questionário para mensurar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e suas versões em diferentes idiomas. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzida uma revisão narrativa da literatura em relação à tradução e validação dos questionários SRS-22, SRS-24 e SRS-30. RESULTADOS: oito publicações descrevendo a tradução e validação do questionário SRS nos idiomas espanhol, japonês, turco, chinês, italiano e alemão foram identificadas na literatura. Nenhum artigo sobre o questionário SRS-30 na versão brasileira foi localizado na literatura. O conteúdo dos itens de cada domínio se refere tanto a dados concretos e fáceis de precisar como também às experiências subjetivas das pessoas e às reações emocionais diante de determinados fatos. A maioria dos instrumentos que avaliam qualidade de vida foi desenvolvida no idioma inglês e existe a necessidade da adaptação destes questionários para o uso em países cuja língua oficial não seja o inglês. CONCLUSÕES: questionários que avaliam qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde devem sofrer adaptações culturais para manter a validade interna do instrumento. Para isso, urge outro desenho de estudo para a validação do questionário SRS-30 em português brasileiro para que se determine sua validade em comparação aos question

  7. Optimal Planning and Design of Seawater RO Brine Outfalls under Environmental Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, S.; Yeh, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination has emerged as the technology of choice, adopted in most arid and semi-arid coastal regions around the world to alleviate shortages in freshwater supply. Depleted traditional water resources, population growth, frequent droughts in these regions and climate change, are among a myriad of factors that have forced coastal communities to seek alternative reliable sources of potable water. The abundance of seawater (about 97% of the volume of water on earth) makes SWRO desalination an attractive supply source of potable water for coastal communities. SWRO desalination plants, however, create hypersaline brine disposal challenges. These challenges are due to elevated Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentration levels, of about twice of that of the receiving seawater body, and densities that are higher than the ambient seawater density. We present a model that is applied to optimize the design of a SWRO brine discharge system. We also address the need to develop a simulation-optimization framework that can be used to find the least-cost design of a multiport marine outfall system, while meeting regulatory constraints. Given the uncertainty of some of the input parameters, such as current speed, wind speed and ambient temperature, we demonstrate how one of these parameters is treated as a random variable in the development of the simulation-optimization framework. Finally, we present numerical results of a real-world problem.

  8. Proof-of-Concept of the Phytoimmobilization Technology for TNX Outfall Delta: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-06-04

    A series of proof-of-principle studies was initiated to evaluate the soil remediation technology, phytoimmobilization, for application at the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD) operable unit. Phytoimmobilization involves two steps. The first step is entitled phytoextraction, and it takes place mostly during the spring and summer. During this step the plants extract contaminants from the sediment into the roots and then translocate the contaminants to the aboveground plant parts. The second step is referred to as sequestration and it takes place largely during the autumn and winter when annual plants senesce or deciduous trees drop their leaves. This step involves the immobilization of the contaminant once it leaches form the fallen leaves into a ''geomat,'' a geotextile embedded with mineral sequestering agents. This final report describes the results to date, including those reported in the status report (Kaplan et al. 2000a), those completed since the report was issued, and the preliminary calculations of the phytoimmobilization effectiveness.

  9. Trace metal concentrations in mussels in the outfall zones of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Kumar, P.T.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Many trace elements (TE) like Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, occur naturally in marine environments and these TE accomplish decisive functions in humans to maintain good health. Living organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis are a rich source of TE and are grown extensively near the industrial water outfalls. Some of these TE tend to be pollutants when their elevated levels produce deleterious effects on the ecological system. As chemical analysis for TE toxicity are expensive, organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis can be used as monitors of environmental contamination. Most studies reported so far are directed towards the effect of a single environmental factor on marine bivalves. However in the areas receiving mixed effluents from various point and non-point sources, the studies on combined effect of two or more stresses would be a more practical approach. In this paper, We investigate the heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis to provide information on the pollution of water bodies by thermal and nuclear power plants for the choice of sites from where edible mussels can be harvested. We also propose a chemometric approach developed by us using information theory to mitigate trace element toxicity in the edible part of Mytilus galloprovincialis harvested in these sites. (author)

  10. Colloid and ionic tracer migration within SRS sediments: Final summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Seaman, J.C.; Bertsch, P.M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States). Div. of Biogeochemistry; Miller, W.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Soil Science

    1996-04-09

    The generation of a stable colloidal suspension in geologic materials has a number of environmental implications. Mobile colloids may act as vectors for the transport of adsorbed contaminants through soils and within aquifers and can cause serious problems related to well monitoring and formation permeability in an injections well system. Colloid-facilitated transport has been implicated in the migration of contaminants from seepage basins on the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) at a rate greater than was predicted in two- phase transport models. From 1955 to 1988, seepage basins overlying the water-table aquifer received acidic wastes containing high levels of Na+ and nitric acid, as well as trace radionuclides and metals from the nuclear materials processing facilities. Numerical simulations predicted that metal contaminants would not reach the water table, but measurable quantities of these contaminants have been detected in monitoring wells down gradient from the basins. Lack of agreement between predicted and observed contaminant migration in this and other studies has been attributed to both local non equilibrium situation, preferential flow paths within the geologic material, and to transport of the contaminant in association with a mobile solid phase, i.e. dispersed colloids. Additionally, the association of contaminants with a mobile colloidal phase has important ramifications for groundwater sampling on SRS intended to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of a given contaminant. As part of the F- and H-Area reclamation project, the Department of Energy has proposed the capture and treatment of the contaminant plume followed by reinjection of the treated water into the water table and upper confined aquifers. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. A Comprehensive Analysis of the SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification and Confounding Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Dennis Winge; Hansen, Lars Valentin; Dragsted, Casper Rokkjær

    2016-01-01

    hoc analyses were performed for each SRS-Schwab modifier. Age, history of spine surgery, and aetiology of spinal deformity were considered potential confounders and their influence on the association between SRS-Schwab modifiers and aggregated Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores was evaluated...

  12. Deployment of DGT units in marine waters to assess the environmental risk from a deep sea tailings outfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, John E; Barnett, Darlene; Barnett, Neil W; Dover, Kylie; Howitt, Julia; Ii, Hiroyuki; Kew, Peter; Mondon, Julie

    2009-10-12

    Measurements of total, filterable and DGT-labile concentrations of nine metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) have been made at five sites up to 4.2km from a deep sea tailings outfall operated by Lihir Gold Ltd. at Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. At each site, pairs of DGT units (one containing a 0.4mm and the other a 0.8mm diffusive gel layer) were deployed at three depths (50-70; 105-130; 135-155m) for 4-7 days. Comparison of predicted water column DGT-labile metal concentrations in field deployments showed the 0.8mm DGT units were relatively enriched in metals, with the effect being greatest closer to the outfall for Pb and Mn and least for Fe, Cr, Ni and Zn. The most likely explanation for this is that in addition to simple ion diffusion, kinetic factors associated with ageing or desorption processes govern release of metals from iron and aluminium oxyhydroxide colloids which diffuse through the gels. The thicker gels have a longer residence time over which metals can be released for adsorption. This model explains why enrichment is most pronounced near the outfall; more distant sites have lower colloid concentrations because of the longer time for coagulation to increase particle sizes to the extent they cannot enter the gels. Total and filterable metal (FM) concentrations were frequently below the limits of detection (LOD) achievable by conventional ICP-AES (1-52microgL(-1)) and this limited their usefulness for assessing environmental risk and for metal speciation determination. Because of its pre-concentration step DGT gave metal concentrations above their LODs and these decreased exponentially with distance from the outfall. Concentrations of DGT-labile metal fell below Australian water quality guidelines for protection of 99% of marine organisms within 0.13km of the outfall for Cd, Cr and Ni and below that for protection of 95% of marine organisms within 0.4, 0.7 and 3.6km for lead, zinc and copper, respectively.

  13. Blocking ELISA using recombinant NcSRS2 protein for diagnosing bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Francine A; Monte, Leonardo G; Collares, Thais F; De Matos, Bruno M; Pacheco, Diene B; Borsuk, Sibele; Andreotti, Renato; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2015-03-01

    Neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, which leads to economic impacts on cattle industry. The reference method for serodiagnosis of neosporosis is the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). However, IFAT is laborious, expensive, and is not practicable in high throughput screening. In order to facilitate the serological diagnosis of neosporosis, we developed a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-ELISA) based on NcSRS2 recombinant protein (rNcSRS2) and polyclonal antibodies against rNcSRS2 (b-ELISA/rNcSRS2). Compared to IFAT, b-ELISA/rNcSRS2 showed 93.7 % accuracy (98.7 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity), suggesting its potential as diagnostic assay to detect N. caninum antibodies in cattle sera.

  14. Alternate Approach To Hazard Categorization For Saltstone Facility At SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Saltstone Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) was originally segmented into two segments: the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Based on the inventory of radionuclides available for release the SPF and SDF were categorized as Nonreactor Hazard Category (HC)-3. The hazard categorization recognized the SDF will contain contributions of radionuclides which would exceed the HC-2 Threshold Quantity (TQ) in the form of grout. However it was determined not to impact the facility hazard categorization based on the grout being in a solid, monolithic form which was not easily dispersible. But, the impact of a quantity of unset grout expected to be present at the vault following operation of the process was not addressed. A Potential Inadequacy in Safety Analysis (PISA) was later issued based on the hazard categorization determination for the facility not addressing unset grout. This initiated a re-evaluation of the accident scenarios within the hazards analysis. During this re-evaluation, the segmentation of the facility was challenged based on the potential interaction between facility segments; specifically, the leachate return line and the grout transfer line, which were considered separate segments, are located in close proximity at one point. such that for certain events (NPH as well as External Vehicle Impact) both could be damaged simultaneously and spill contents on the ground that could commingle. This would violate the guideline for segmentation. Therefore, the Hazard Categorization (HC) was reevaluated based on the facility being a single segment and including the additional unset grout as part of total inventory. This total inventory far exceeded the limit for HC-2 TQ and made the facility's initial categorization as HC-2. However, alternative analysis methodology based on credible release fractions allowed in DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref.1) showed that the Saltstone facility could still be categorized as Hazard Category

  15. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of PSA to storage of Pu at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Pu is stored in a wide variety of physical forms and containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) techniques are used to determine the risk associated with each of these storage modes and assist in identification of the controls necessary to minimize the risk. One storage method involves solids in exposed drum storage where the drums are vulnerable to external events, natural phenomena, and release of material due to weathering of the containers. Another storage method may involve liquids being processed inside the canyon facilities where the greatest risks are not from external events but from process upsets. PSA techniques have been particularly useful in the evaluation of criticality situations concerning Pu processing and storage. The applications include ''normal'' operating situations, problems following a seismic event, and the identification of potential problems during the decontamination and decommissioning of a facility. In this paper I would like to discuss two specific examples of the use of PSA techniques. The first involves the analysis of potential accidents in a Pu receipt and storage facility. The second example involves processing solutions that have the potential for experiencing an uncontrolled ''red oil'' reaction

  17. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP

  18. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.27 Section 122.27 Protection of Environment..., prescribed burning, pest and fire control, harvesting operations, surface drainage, or road construction and...

  19. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population density... basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population or commercial... under the NPDES storm water discharge control program. This process must include the authority to...

  20. 75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... application sites, but they do require that the land application of wastewater from the lagoon systems be done in accordance with a written operational plan for the land application of the wastewater. The... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9195-3] Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater...

  1. 78 FR 72080 - Draft NPDES General Permit Modification for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...). ACTION: Notice; Proposal of NPDES general permit modification. SUMMARY: EPA Region 6 today proposes... determine whether your facility, company, business, organization, etc. is regulated by this action, you..., Paperwork Reduction Act, and Regulatory Flexibility Act. The scope of Today's permit modification action...

  2. GIS-based optimization for the locations of sewage treatment plants and sewage outfalls - A case study of Nansha District in Guangzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Qin, Y.; Chen, B.; Zhao, X.; Li, Y.; Yin, X. A.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on GIS technology, eco-suitability evaluation method integrating economic, social and ecological factors is employed to optimize the locations of the sewage treatment plants and outfalls in this paper. The ecological indices considering eco-sensitivity areas as key elements of the integrated evaluation system are allotted to the water subsystem, riparian zone subsystem, and land subsystem. A novel integrated eco-suitability evaluation index system encompassing ten criteria and fifteen indices is established to generate the distributed eco-suitability map of the concerned areas and determine the possible locations of sewage treatment plants and sewage outfalls according to the eco-suitability levels. With the case study of Nansha District in Guangzhou City, China, 212 km2 areas of land are found to be suitable for locating the sewage treatment plants, 87 km2 areas of water suitable for sewage release, and 6 km2 area of riparian zone unsuitable for sewage outfalls.

  3. Initial clinical results of linac stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Alexander, Eben; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Richardson, Gary E.; McL Black, Peter; Loeffler, Jay S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial clinical results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas with regard to tumor control and toxicity of the treatment, thus evaluate the feasibility of these technique for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. Subjects and Methods: 48 patients with either inoperable, recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma who underwent either SRS or SRT at the Brigham and Women's Hospital between 9/89 and 9/95 were analyzed. Of these, 18 received treatment with SRS, and 30 received SRT. SRS was contraindicated for the patients in whom the minimal distance of the target and optic chiasm or optic nerve was less than 5 mm. Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups, with the exception of tumor volume and previous irradiation. Median tumor volumes were 1.8 cm 3 and 7.7 cm 3 for SRS and SRT, respectively. Three of the SRS and none of the SRT patients had a history of previous external radiation therapy. Both SRS and SRT were performed by the use of dedicated stereotactic 6-MV linear accelerator with a treatment plan designed using a dedicated software. Doses were prescribed to the isodose distribution that covered the identified target. Dose and normalization used for SRS varied from 1000 cGy at 85 % isodose line to 1800 cGy at 80 % isodose line. For SRT patients, total dose of 4500 cGy was normalized at 90 or 95 % isodose line and this was delivered in 25 fractions of 180 cGy daily dose. Results: Local control: There was 1 case of local failure in each of SRS and SRT series (median follow up 42.5 months and 22 month, respectively). CNS adverse effects: There were 3 SRS cases in whom a ring enhancement in the temporal lobe was observed in follow-up MRI. (median follow up 32 months). Of these, one resolved spontaneously, whereas the other 2 lesion persisted and considered to be radiation necrosis. None of them required surgical intervention to date. These were observed in the

  4. Optical Properties of Rare Earth Doped SrS Phosphor: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ayush; Mishra, Shubhra; Kshatri, D. S.; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2017-02-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped SrS phosphor has attracted a lot of attention on a wide range of photo-, cathodo-, thermo-, and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with different RE elements (e.g., Ce, Pr, Eu, Yb), the luminescence from SrS can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the strontium sulfide host. The main applications include flat panel displays and SrS-based powder electroluminescence (EL) for back lights. Sulfide materials known for providing Eu2+ based red emission band and preferred as a color conversion material in white light emitting diodes are discussed. Especially, the applications of RE doped SrS are described in light of their utility as conversion and storage phosphors. The effect of energy level splitting, EL efficiency, post-annealing, milling time, and impurity on luminescence properties for SrS are also discussed.

  5. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, Nicholas; Whiteside, Tad

    2016-01-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied, and elements such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water; and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher-bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  6. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Nicholas [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, Tad [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied, and elements such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 241Am, 244Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water; and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher-bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  7. Ground motion following selection of SRS design basis earthquake and associated deterministic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a deterministic assessment of earthquake ground motions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The purpose of this study is to assist the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Laboratory in reevaluating the design basis earthquake (DBE) ground motion at SRS during approaches defined in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This work is in support of the Seismic Engineering Section's Seismic Qualification Program for reactor restart

  8. TU-A-BRB-00: PANEL DISCUSSION: SBRT/SRS Case Studies - Brain and Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are commonly treated by a multidisciplinary team of neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists. However the treatment objectives, constraints, and technical considerations involved can be quite different between the two techniques. In this interactive session an expert panel of speakers will present clinical brain SRS and spine SBRT cases in order to demonstrate real-world considerations for ensuring safe and accurate treatment delivery and to highlight the significant differences in approach for each treatment site. The session will include discussion of topic such as clinical indications, immobilization, target definition, normal tissue tolerance limits, and beam arrangements. Learning Objectives: Understand the differences in indications and dose/fractionation strategies for intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Describe the different treatment modalities which can be used to deliver intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Cite the major differences in treatment setup and delivery principles between intracranial and spine treatments. Identify key critical structures and clinical dosimetric tolerance levels for spine SBRT and intracranial SRS. Understand areas of ongoing work to standardize intracranial SRS and spine SBRT procedures. Schlesinger: Research support: Elekta Instruments, AB; D. Schlesinger, Elekta Instruments, AB - research support; B. Winey, No relevant external funding for this subject.

  9. Independent University Study to Assess the Performance of a Humate Amendment for Copper Detoxification at the H-12 Outfall at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harmon, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-06

    The overarching objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the copper detoxification process that is in place at the Savannah River Site H-12 Outfall. The testing was performed in two phases; Phase 1 assessed the safety and potential for intrinsic toxicity of the humate amendment being used at the H-12 Outfall, Borregro HA-1, as well as an alternative amendment sodium humic acid. The second phase assessed the effectiveness of Borregro HA-1 in mitigating and reducing toxic effects of copper.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-26

    The 100-F-42 waste site is the portion of the former emergency overflow spillway for the 1904-F Outfall Structure formerly existing above the ordinary high water mark of the Columbia River. The spillway consisted of a concrete flume designed to discharge effluent from the 107-F Retention Basin in the event that flows could not be completely discharged via the river outfall pipelines. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are

  12. The comparison of SRs' variation affected by solar events observed in America and in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Williams, E.

    2017-12-01

    Schumann Resonances(SRs) are the electromagnetic resonance wave propagating in the earth-ionosphere cavity. Its characteristic of propagation are modified by the variation of ionosphere. So SRs can be the tools of monitoring the ionosphere which is often perturbed by solar events, x-ray emission and some other space-weather events (Roldugin et.al., 2004, De et al., 2010; Satori et.al., 2015). In present work, the amplitude and intrinsic frequencies of SRs observed at RID station in America and YSH station in China are compared. The variation of SRs during the solar flare on Feb. 15, 2011 are analyzed. Two-Dimensional Telegraph Equation(TDTE) method is used to simulate the perturbation of ionosphere by solar proton events. From the simulation and observation, the asymmetric construction of ionoshphere which is perturbed by the solar event will affect the amplitudes and frequencies of SRs. Due to the interfere influence of forward and backward propagation of electromagnetic field, the SR amplitude on different station will present different variation. The distance among the lightning source, observer and perturbed area will produce the different variation of amplitude and frequency for different station' SR.

  13. Review of seismicity and ground motion studies related to development of seismic design at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.; Acree, J.R.

    1990-04-01

    The NRC response spectra developed in Reg. Guide 1.60 is being used in the studies related to restarting of the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. Because it envelopes all the other site specific spectra which have been developed for SRS, it provides significant conservatism in the design and analysis of the reactor systems for ground motions of this value or with these probability levels. This spectral shape is also the shape used for the design of the recently licensed Vogtle Nuclear Station, located south of the Savannah River from the SRS. This report provides a summary of the data base used to develop the design basis earthquake. This includes the seismicity, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and attenuation relationships. A summary is provided for the studies performed and methodologies used to establish the design basis earthquake for SRS. The ground motion response spectra developed from the various studies are also summarized. The seismic hazard and PGA's developed for other critical facilities in the region are discussed, and the SRS seismic instrumentation is presented. The programs for resolving outstanding issues are discussed and conclusions are presented

  14. Elimination of Whole Effluent Toxicity NPDES Permit Limits through the Use of an Alternative Testing Species and Reasonable Potential Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAYNE, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), is required by the State of South Carolina to be used in whole effluent toxicity (WET) compliance tests in order to meet limits contained within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) experienced WET test failures for no clear reason over a long period of time. Toxicity identification examinations on effluents did not indicate the presence of toxicants; therefore, the WET test itself was brought under suspicion. Research was undertaken with an alternate cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (D. ambigua). It was determined that this species survives better in soft water, so approval was obtained from regulating authorities to use this ''alternate'' species in WET tests. The result was better test results and elimination of non-compliances. The successful use of D. ambigua allowed WSRC to gain approval from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to remove WET limits from the NPDES permit

  15. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and {sup 137}Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  16. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and [sup 137]Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  17. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L.

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and 137 Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor

  18. The Tumor Radiobiology of SRS and SBRT: Are More Than the 5 Rs Involved?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. Martin, E-mail: mbrown@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Carlson, David J. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Brenner, David J. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), are rapidly becoming accepted practice for the radiation therapy of certain tumors. Typically, SRS and SBRT involve the delivery of 1 or a few large-dose fractions of 8 to 30 Gy per fraction: a major paradigm shift from radiation therapy practice over the past 90 years, when, with relatively large amounts of normal tissues receiving high doses, the goal was to maximize tumor response for an acceptable level of normal tissue injury. The development of SRS and SBRT have come about because of technologic advances in image guidance and treatment delivery techniques that enable the delivery of large doses to tumors with reduced margins and high gradients outside the target, thereby minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. Because the results obtained with SRS and SBRT have been impressive, they have raised the question whether classic radiobiological modeling, and the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, are appropriate for large doses per fraction. In addition to objections to the LQ model, the possibility of additional biological effects resulting from endothelial cell damage, enhanced tumor immunity, or both have been raised to account for the success of SRS and SBRT. In this review, we conclude that the available preclinical and clinical data do not support a need to change the LQ model or to invoke phenomena over and above the classic 5 Rs of radiobiology and radiation therapy, with the likely exception that for some tumors high doses of irradiation may produce enhanced antitumor immunity. Thus, we suggest that for most tumors, the standard radiobiology concepts of the 5 Rs are sufficient to explain the clinical data, and the excellent results obtained from clinical studies are the result of the much larger biologically effective doses that are delivered with SRS and SBRT.

  19. Mercury issues related to NPDES and the CERCLA watershed project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the current understanding of the issues and options surrounding compliance with the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions. This is a complicated issue that directly impacts, and will be directly impacted by, ongoing CERCLA activities in Lower East Fork Poplar Creek and the Clinch River/Poplar Creek. It may be necessary to reconstitute the whole and combine actions and decisions regarding the entire creek (origin to confluence with the Clinch River) to develop a viable long-term strategy that meets regulatory goals and requirements as well as those of DOE's 10-Year Plan and the new watershed management permitting approach. This document presents background information on the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluents (RMPE) and NPDES programs insofar as it is needed to understand the issues and options. A tremendous amount of data has been collected to support the NPDES/RMPE and CERCLA programs. These data are not presented, although they may be referenced and conclusions based on them may be presented, as necessary, to support discussion of the options

  20. Towards frameless maskless SRS through real-time 6DoF robotic motion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Andrew H; Liu, Xinmin; Chmura, Steven; Yenice, Kamil; Wiersma, Rodney D

    2017-11-13

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) uses precise dose placement to treat conditions of the CNS. Frame-based SRS uses a metal head ring fixed to the patient's skull to provide high treatment accuracy, but patient comfort and clinical workflow may suffer. Frameless SRS, while potentially more convenient, may increase uncertainty of treatment accuracy and be physiologically confining to some patients. By incorporating highly precise robotics and advanced software algorithms into frameless treatments, we present a novel frameless and maskless SRS system where a robot provides real-time 6DoF head motion stabilization allowing positional accuracies to match or exceed those of traditional frame-based SRS. A 6DoF parallel kinematics robot was developed and integrated with a real-time infrared camera in a closed loop configuration. A novel compensation algorithm was developed based on an iterative closest-path correction approach. The robotic SRS system was tested on six volunteers, whose motion was monitored and compensated for in real-time over 15 min simulated treatments. The system's effectiveness in maintaining the target's 6DoF position within preset thresholds was determined by comparing volunteer head motion with and without compensation. Comparing corrected and uncorrected motion, the 6DoF robotic system showed an overall improvement factor of 21 in terms of maintaining target position within 0.5 mm and 0.5 degree thresholds. Although the system's effectiveness varied among the volunteers examined, for all volunteers tested the target position remained within the preset tolerances 99.0% of the time when robotic stabilization was used, compared to 4.7% without robotic stabilization. The pre-clinical robotic SRS compensation system was found to be effective at responding to sub-millimeter and sub-degree cranial motions for all volunteers examined. The system's success with volunteers has demonstrated its capability for implementation with frameless and maskless SRS

  1. Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

    2012-09-30

    Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  2. Thermodynamic Modeling of the SRS Evaporators: Part II. The 3H System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2001-10-02

    Accumulations of two solid phases have formed scale deposits in the Savannah River Site 2H Evaporator system since late 1996. The aluminosilicate scale deposits caused the evaporator pot to become inoperable in October 1999. Accumulations of the diuranate phase have caused criticality concerns in the SRS 2H Evaporator. In order to ensure that similar deposits are not and will not form in the SRS 3H Evaporator, thermodynamically derived activity diagrams specific to the feeds processed from Tanks 30 and 32 are evaluated in this report.

  3. Input to the PRAST computer code used in the SRS probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearnaghan, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The PRAST (Production Reactor Algorithm for Source Terms) computer code was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Science Application International Corporation for the quantification of source terms for the SRS Savannah River Site (SRS) Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment. PRAST requires as input a set of release fractions, decontamination factors, transfer fractions and source term characteristics that accurately reflect the conditions that are evaluated by PRAST. This document links the analyses which form the basis for the PRAST input parameters. In addition, it gives the distribution of the input parameters that are uncertain and considered to be important to the evaluation of the source terms to the environment

  4. SU-F-T-638: Is There A Need For Immobilization in SRS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masterova, K; Sethi, A; Anderson, D; Prabhu, V; Rusu, I; Gros, S; Melian, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Frameless Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used in the clinic. Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) to simulation-CT match has replaced the 3-dimensional coordinate based set up using a stereotactic localizing frame. The SRS frame however served as both a localizing and immobilizing device. We seek to measure the quality of frameless (mask based) and frame based immobilization and evaluate its impact on target dose. Methods: Each SRS patient was set up by kV on-board imaging (OBI) and then fine-tuned with CBCT. A second CBCT was done at treatment-end to ascertain intrafraction motion. We compared pre- vs post-treatment CBCT shifts for both frameless and frame based SRS patients. CBCT to sim-CT fusion was repeated for each patient off-line to assess systematic residual image registration error. Each patient was re-planned with measured shifts to assess effects on target dose. Results: We analyzed 11 patients (12 lesions) treated with frameless SRS and 6 patients (11 lesions) with a fixed frame system. Average intra-fraction iso-center positioning errors for frameless and frame-based treatments were 1.24 ± 0.57 mm and 0.28 ± 0.08 mm (mean ± s.d.) respectively. Residual error in CBCT registration was 0.24 mm. The frameless positioning uncertainties led to target dose errors in Dmin and D95 of 15.5 ± 18.4% and 6.6 ± 9.1% respectively. The corresponding errors in fixed frame SRS were much lower with Dmin and D95 reduced by 4.2 ± 6.5% and D95 2.5 ± 3.8% respectively. Conclusion: Frameless mask provides good immobilization with average patient motion of 1.2 mm during treatment. This exceeds MRI voxel dimensions (∼0.43mm) used for target delineation. Frame-based SRS provides superior patient immobilization with measureable movement no greater than the background noise of the CBCT registration. Small lesions requiring submm precision are better served with a frame based SRS.

  5. SU-F-T-638: Is There A Need For Immobilization in SRS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masterova, K; Sethi, A; Anderson, D; Prabhu, V; Rusu, I; Gros, S; Melian, E [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Frameless Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used in the clinic. Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) to simulation-CT match has replaced the 3-dimensional coordinate based set up using a stereotactic localizing frame. The SRS frame however served as both a localizing and immobilizing device. We seek to measure the quality of frameless (mask based) and frame based immobilization and evaluate its impact on target dose. Methods: Each SRS patient was set up by kV on-board imaging (OBI) and then fine-tuned with CBCT. A second CBCT was done at treatment-end to ascertain intrafraction motion. We compared pre- vs post-treatment CBCT shifts for both frameless and frame based SRS patients. CBCT to sim-CT fusion was repeated for each patient off-line to assess systematic residual image registration error. Each patient was re-planned with measured shifts to assess effects on target dose. Results: We analyzed 11 patients (12 lesions) treated with frameless SRS and 6 patients (11 lesions) with a fixed frame system. Average intra-fraction iso-center positioning errors for frameless and frame-based treatments were 1.24 ± 0.57 mm and 0.28 ± 0.08 mm (mean ± s.d.) respectively. Residual error in CBCT registration was 0.24 mm. The frameless positioning uncertainties led to target dose errors in Dmin and D95 of 15.5 ± 18.4% and 6.6 ± 9.1% respectively. The corresponding errors in fixed frame SRS were much lower with Dmin and D95 reduced by 4.2 ± 6.5% and D95 2.5 ± 3.8% respectively. Conclusion: Frameless mask provides good immobilization with average patient motion of 1.2 mm during treatment. This exceeds MRI voxel dimensions (∼0.43mm) used for target delineation. Frame-based SRS provides superior patient immobilization with measureable movement no greater than the background noise of the CBCT registration. Small lesions requiring submm precision are better served with a frame based SRS.

  6. Genetic labelling and application of the isoproturon-mineralizing Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 in soil and rhizosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K.E.; Jacobsen, C.S.; Hansen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To construct a luxAB-labelled Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 maintaining the ability to mineralize the herbicide isoproturon and usable for monitoring the survival and distribution of strain SRS2 on plant roots in laboratory systems. METHODS AND RESULTS: We inserted the mini-Tn5-luxAB marker ...

  7. SRS-A leukotrienes decrease the activity of human respiratory cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) constituents leukotrienes (LT) C4 and D4 on the ciliary activity of human respiratory cells. The ciliary beat frequency on human nasal cells harvested by cell scraping from the inferior turbinate was measured...

  8. Maxdose-SR and popdose-SR routine release atmospheric dose models used at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trimor, P. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are used to calculate dose to the offsite Reference Person and to the surrounding Savannah River Site (SRS) population respectively following routine releases of atmospheric radioactivity. These models are currently accessed through the Dose Model Version 2014 graphical user interface (GUI). MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are personal computer (PC) versions of MAXIGASP and POPGASP, which both resided on the SRS IBM Mainframe. These two codes follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Regulatory Guides 1.109 and 1.111 (1977a, 1977b). The basis for MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are USNRC developed codes XOQDOQ (Sagendorf et. al 1982) and GASPAR (Eckerman et. al 1980). Both of these codes have previously been verified for use at SRS (Simpkins 1999 and 2000). The revisions incorporated into MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR Version 2014 (hereafter referred to as MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR unless otherwise noted) were made per Computer Program Modification Tracker (CPMT) number Q-CMT-A-00016 (Appendix D). Version 2014 was verified for use at SRS in Dixon (2014).

  9. Electron momentum density, band structure, and structural properties of SrS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G., E-mail: gsphysics@gmail.com [University of Kota, Department of Pure and Applied Physics (India); Munjal, N.; Vyas, V. [Banasthali University, Department of Physics (India); Kumar, R.; Sharma, B. K. [University of Rajasthan, Department of Physics (India); Joshi, K. B. [MLS University, Department of Physics (India)

    2013-10-15

    The electron momentum density, the electronic band structure, and the structural properties of SrS are presented in this paper. The isotropic Compton profile, anisotropies in the directional Compton profiles, the electronic band structure and density of states are calculated using the ab initio periodic linear combination of atomic orbitals method with the CRYSTAL06 code. Structural parameters of SrS-lattice constants and bulk moduli in the B1 and B2 phases-are computed together with the transition pressure. The computed parameters are well in agreement with earlier investigations. To compare the calculated isotropic Compton profile, measurement on polycrystalline SrS is performed using 5Ci-{sup 241}Am Compton spectrometer. Additionally, charge transfer is studied by means of the Compton profiles computed from the ionic model. The nature of bonding in the isovalent SrS and SrO compounds is compared on the basis of equal-valenceelectron-density profiles and the bonding in SrS is found to be more covalent than in SrO.

  10. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SRS-2 Teacher Ratings for Youth with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T.; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Dua, Elissa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264).…

  11. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-20

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed).

  12. Community structure of fish and macrobenthos at selected sites fronting Sand Island, Oahu, Hawaii in relation to the Sand Island Deep Ocean Sewage Outfall, 1990 - 1998 (NODC Accession 0000177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of nine years of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Sand Island Ocean Outfall, Oahu,...

  13. Reliability and Validity Study of the Finnish Adaptation of Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire Version SRS-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrölä, Kati; Järvenpää, Salme; Ylinen, Jari; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Repo, Jussi Petteri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2017-06-15

    A prospective clinical study to test and adapt a Finnish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 30 (SRS-30) questionnaire. The aim of this study was to perform cross-cultural adaptation and evaluate the validity of the adapted Finnish version of the SRS-30 questionnaire. The SRS-30 questionnaire has proved to be a valid instrument in evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescent and adult population with spine deformities in the United States. Multinational availability requires cross-cultural and linguistic adaptation and validation of the instrument. The SRS-30 was translated into Finnish using accepted methods for translation of quality-of-life questionnaires. A total of 274 adult patients with degenerative radiographic sagittal spinal disorder answered the questionnaire with sociodemographic data, RAND 36-item health survey questionnaire (RAND Corp. Health, Santa Monica, CA, US), Oswestry disability index, DEPS depression scale, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) back and leg pain scales within 2 weeks' interval. The cohort included patients with and without previous spine surgery. Internal consistency and validity were tested with Cronbach α, intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement, and Spearman correlation coefficient with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The internal consistency of SRS-30 was good in both surgery and nonsurgery groups, with Cronbach α 0.853 (95% CI, 0.670 to 0.960) and 0.885 (95% CI, 0.854 to 0.911), respectively. The test-retest reproducibility ICC of the SRS-30 total and subscore domains of patients with stable symptoms was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.870-0.930) and 0.904 (95% CI, 0.871-0.929), respectively. The questionnaire had discriminative validity in the pain, self-image, and satisfaction with management domains compared with other questionnaires. The SRS-30 questionnaire proved to be valid and applicable in evaluating HRQoL in Finnish adult spinal deformity patients. It has two domains related to deformity

  14. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance radioactive waste management technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Alice M.; Wilmarth, William; Marra, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key objective of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear materials management advancements and large-scale deployment of the technology by using SRS assets (e.g. facilities, staff, and property) for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R and D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R and D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the R and D team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform R and D demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact

  15. A RECOMMENDED PASQUILL-GIFFORD STABILITY CLASSIFICATION METHOD FOR SAFETY BASIS ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28

    Several of the most common methods for estimating Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability (turbulence) class were evaluated for use in modeling the radiological consequences of SRS accidental releases using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Ver. 2 (MACCS2). Evaluation criteria included: (1) the ability of the method to represent diffusion characteristics above a predominantly forested landscape at SRS, (2) suitability of the method to provide data consistent with the formulation of the MACCS2 model, and (3) the availability of onsite meteorological data to support implementation of the method The evaluation resulted in a recommendation that PG stability classification for regulatory applications at SRS should be based on measurements of the standard deviation of the vertical component of wind direction fluctuations, {sigma}{sub e}, collected from the 61-m level of the SRS meteorological towers, and processed in full accordance with EPA-454/R-99-005 (EPA, 2000). This approach provides a direct measurement that is fundamental to diffusion and captures explicitly the turbulence generated by both mechanical and buoyant forces over the characteristic surface (forested) of SRS. Furthermore, due to the potentially significant enhancement of horizontal fluctuations in wind direction from the occurrence of meander at night, the use of {sigma}{sub e} will ensure a reasonably conservative estimate of PG stability class for use in dispersion models that base diffusion calculations on a single value of PG stability class. Furthermore, meteorological data bases used as input for MACCS2 calculations should contain hourly data for five consecutive annual periods from the most recent 10 years.

  16. TRANSFORMING THE SRS ENVIRONMENTAL BUSINESS: COMMUNICATION AND APPLIED PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldivar, E.

    2010-01-20

    A process for communicating information relating to core business functions that also encourages improving internal communications has been established at SRS. This process continues to grow and strengthen as the multiple Contractors, Regulators and DOE-SR relationships mature. A number of management communication tools have been initiated, retooled, rebooted or continued with enhancements to ensure appropriate information is communicated to all levels with environmental responsibility at SRS. The types of information that are the focus of this improved process are feedback from the customer and from informational exchange forums (i.e., Challenge Opportunity and Resolution (COR), SRS Regulatory Integration Team (SRIT), Environmental Quality Management Division (EQMD), Senior Environmental Managers Council (SEMC), etc.). These forums, SRS environmental functions centralization, and the creation of a Regulatory Integration process allows for cross-functional decision making, problem solving and information sharing that involves the field organizations, Environmental Compliance Authorities (ECA), Subject Matter Experts (SME), DOE and the Regulators. Numerous examples of effective decision-making and problem solving will be shared. Lessons Learned involving inadequate communications and the resulting impacts on the environment, customer satisfaction, and relationships will also be discussed. Additionally, the focus on improved communications also includes maintaining awareness of business activities. The tools being utilized to facilitate the continuing improvement of internal communications include weekly staff meetings for all individuals within the organization, quarterly ECA and SME meeting, quarterly Regulatory Integration & Environmental Services (RI&ES) All-Hands meetings hosted by the Director, bi-weekly EQMD and EQMD Lite meetings with the customer, bi-annual SRIT meetings, and COR meetings on an as need basis. In addition, an existing Required Reading Program

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 116-F-8 waste site is the former 1904-F Outfall Structure used to discharge reactor cooling water effluent fro mthe 107-F Retention Basin to the Columbia River. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Determination of toxicity not related to calcium in a NPDES-regulated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duh, D.; Pallop, T.

    1995-01-01

    An electric-generating plant began operation of a new NPDES-regulated discharge in December of 1994. The new scrubber, state-of-the-art, wastewater treatment plant discharges effluent into the facility's non-contact cooling water which eventually discharges to a marine/estuarine environment. Toxicity was observed in the wastewater treatment plant discharge at levels greater than permitted (LC50 of 50% effluent). Investigatory toxicity tests indicated that calcium may be largely responsible for the measured toxicity. Since the instream concentration of calcium after dilution with the receiving water is insignificant compared to ambient concentrations it was necessary to determine the toxicity of the effluent that was not related to calcium. A pair of toxicity tests were conducted: one test used unadjusted effluent and one used effluent spiked with 1,000 mg/l of calcium. From the difference in toxicity between the two tests, the toxicity of calcium was determined within the effluent matrix. From that result, the effluent toxicity non accounted for by the presence of calcium was determined. A Monte-Carlo simulation was used in order to determine the probability that the toxicity of the effluent that was not related to calcium was within permit requirements

  19. Estimation of the dilution field near a marine outfall by using effluent turbidity as an environmental tracer and comparison with dye tracer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecly, José Otavio Goulart

    2018-01-01

    The alternative use of effluent turbidity to determine the dilution field of a domestic marine outfall located off the city of Rio de Janeiro was evaluated through field work comprising fluorescent dye tracer injection and tracking with simultaneous monitoring of sea water turbidity. A preliminary laboratory assessment was carried out with a sample of the outfall effluent whose turbidity was measured by the nephelometric method before and during a serial dilution process. During the field campaign, the dye tracer was monitored with field fluorometers and the turbidity was observed with an optical backscattering sensor interfaced to an OEM data acquisition system. About 4,000 samples were gathered, covering an area of 3 km × 3 km near the outfall diffusers. At the far field - where a drift towards the coastline was observed - the effluent plume was adequately labeled by the dye tracer. The turbidity plume was biased due to the high and variable background turbidity of sea water. After processing the turbidity dataset with a baseline detrending method, the plume presented high correlation with the dye tracer plume drawn on the near dilution field. However, dye tracer remains more robust than effluent turbidity.

  20. Decommissioning the physics laboratory, building 777-10A, at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musall, John C.; Cope, Jeff L.

    2008-01-01

    SRS recently completed a four year mission to decommission ∼250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS decommissioned a 48,000 ft 2 laboratory that housed four low-power test reactors, formerly used by SRS to determine reactor physics. This paper describes and reviews the decommissioning, with a focus on component segmentation and handling (i.e. hazardous material removal, demolition, and waste handling). The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers, who face similar decommissioning challenges. Building 777-10A, located at the south end of SRS's A/M-Area, was built in 1953 and had a gross area of ∼48,000 ft 2 . Building 777-10A had two main areas: a west wing, which housed four experimental reactors and associated equipment; and an east wing, which housed laboratories, and shops, offices. The reactors were located in two separate areas: one area housed the Process Development Pile (PDP) reactor and the Lattice Test Reactor (LTR), while the second area housed the Standard Pile (SP) and the Sub-critical Experiment (SE) reactors. The west wing had five levels: three below and three above grade (floor elevations of -37', -28', -15', 0', +13'/+16' and +27' (roof elevation of +62')), while the east wing had two levels: one below and one above grade (floor elevations of -15' and 0' (roof elevation of +16')). Below-grade exterior walls were constructed of reinforced concrete, ∼1' thick. In general, above-grade exterior walls were steel frames covered by insulation and corrugated, asbestos-cement board. The two interior walls around the PDP/LTR were reinforced concrete ∼5' thick and ∼30' high, while the SP/SE reactors resided in a reinforced, concrete cell with 3.5'-6' thick walls/roof. All other interior walls were constructed of metal studs covered with either asbestos-cement or gypsum board. In general, the floors were constructed of reinforced concrete on cast-in-place concrete beams below-grade and concrete on

  1. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations To Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycles Research And Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Alice M.; Marra, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Mcguire, Patrick W.; Wheeler, Vickie B.

    2013-07-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for ''all things nuclear'' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key proposition of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear fuel cycle processing discoveries and large commercial-scale-technology deployment by leveraging SRS assets as facilities for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R&D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R&D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the research team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform research demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact

  2. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (NOEMAIL), R

    2005-12-14

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  3. SU-F-T-647: Linac-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: Detailed Description of SRS Procedural Technique and Reported Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Stepp, T; Camarata, P; Wang, F [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: SRS is an effective non-invasive alternative treatment modality with minimal-toxicity used to treat patients with medically/surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia root(TNR) or those who may not tolerate surgical intervention. We present our linac-based SRS procedure for TNR treatment and simultaneously report our clinical outcomes. Methods: Twenty-eight TNR-patients treated with frame-based SRS at our institution (2009–2015) with a single-fraction point-dose of 60-80Gy to TNR were included in this IRB-approved study. Experienced neurosurgeon and radiation oncologist delineated the TNR on 1.0mm thin 3D-FIESTA-MRI that was co-registered with 0.7mm thin planning-CT. Treatment plans were generated in iPlan (BrainLAB) with a 4-mm diameter cone using 79 arcs with differential-weighting for Novalis-TX 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) beam and optimized to minimize brainstem dose. Winston-Lutz test was performed before each treatment delivery with sub-millimeter isocenter accuracy. Quality assurance of frame placement was maintained by helmet-bobble-measurement before simulation-CT and before patient setup at treatment couch. OBI-CBCT scan was performed for patient setup verification without applying shifts. On clinical follow up, treatment response was assessed using Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score(BNI-score:I–V). Results: 26/28 TNR-patients (16-males/10-females) who were treated with following single-fraction point-dose to isocenter: 80Gy(n=22),75Gy(n=1),70Gy(n=2) and 60Gy(n=1, re-treatment) were followed up. Median follow-up interval was 8.5-months (ranged:1–48.5months). Median age was 70-yr (ranged:43–93-yr). Right/left TNR ratio was 15/11. Delivered total # of average MUs was 19034±1204. Average beam-on-time: 19.0±1.3min. Brainstem max-dose and dose to 0.5cc were 13.3±2.4Gy (ranged:8.1–16.5Gy) and 3.6±0.4Gy (ranged:3.0–4.9Gy). On average, max-dose to optic-apparatus was ≤1.2Gy. Mean value of max-dose to eyes/lens was 0.26Gy/0.11Gy

  4. High-sensitivity chemical imaging for biomedicine by SRS microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Innovations in spectroscopy principles and microscopy technology have significantly impacted modern biology and medicine. While most of the contemporary bio-imaging modalities harness electronic transition, nuclear spin or radioactivity, vibrational spectroscopy has not been widely used yet. Here we will discuss an emerging chemical imaging platform, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, which can enhance the otherwise feeble spontaneous Raman eight orders of magnitude by virtue of stimulated emission. When coupled with stable isotopes (e.g., deuterium and 13C) or bioorthogonal chemical moieties (e.g., alkynes), SRS microscopy is well suited for probing in vivo metabolic dynamics of small bio-molecules which cannot be labeled by bulky fluorophores. Physical principle of the underlying optical spectroscopy and exciting biomedical applications such as imaging lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, DNA replication, protein degradation, RNA synthesis, glucose uptake, drug trafficking and tumor metabolism will be presented.

  5. Progress in the environmental restoration at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, J.M.; McClain, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has continued to achieve significant accomplishments important to the mission of cleaning up inactive waste sites, performing corrective actions on contaminated groundwater, planning for decontaminating/decommissioning surplus facilities and ensuring that the environment and the health and safety of people are protected. The multifaceted cleanup at SRS represents noteworthy milestones across the DOE complex. The associated lessons learned and key elements of the progress will be presented in the course of the paper

  6. Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Lisby, Michael; Altmannova, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR), although an important DNA repair mechanism, is dangerous to the cell if improperly regulated. The Srs2 "anti-recombinase" restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate preceding the exchange of homologous DNA strands. Here, we...... removes Rad51 indiscriminately from DNA, while the Rad52 protein coordinates appropriate filament reformation. This constant breakdown and rebuilding of filaments may act as a stringent quality control mechanism during HR....

  7. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  8. Measurement of dosimetric parameters and dose verification in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduan Abdullah; Nik Ruzman Nik Idris; Ahmad Lutfi Yusof; Mazurawati Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The purpose of this study was to measure the dosimetric parameters for small photon beams to be used as input data treatment planning computer system (TPS) and to verify dose calculated by TPS in Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) procedure. The beam data required were Percentage Depth Dose (PDD), Off-axis Ratio (OAR), and Scatter Factor of Relative Output Factor. Small beams of 5 mm to 45 mm diameter circular cone collimators used in SRS were utilized for beam data measurements measured using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber (0.016 cc). For second part of this study, we reported the important quality assurance (QA) procedures before SRS treatment that influenced the dose delivery. These QA procedures consist of measurements on the accuracy in target localization and room laser alignment. The dose calculated to be delivered for treatment was verified using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber and TLD 100H. The mean deviation of measured dose using TLD 100H compared to calculated dose was 3.37 %. Beside that, pinpoint ionization 3D chamber give more accurate results of dose compared to TLD 100H. The measured dose using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber are good agreement with calculated dose by TPS with deviation of 2.17 %. The results are acceptable such as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report No. 50 (1993) that dose delivered to the target volume must be within ±5 % error. (author)

  9. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  10. Shedding new light on lipid functions with CARS and SRS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Ramachandran, Prasanna V.; Wang, Meng C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern optical microscopy has granted biomedical scientists unprecedented access to the inner workings of a cell, and revolutionized our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and disease states. In spite of these advances, however, visualization of certain classes of molecules (e.g. lipids) at the sub-cellular level has remained elusive. Recently developed chemical imaging modalities – Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy – have helped bridge this gap. By selectively imaging the vibration of a specific chemical group, these non-invasive techniques allow high-resolution imaging of individual molecules in vivo, and circumvent the need for potentially perturbative extrinsic labels. These tools have already been applied to the study of fat metabolism, helping uncover novel regulators of lipid storage. Here we review the underlying principle of CARS and SRS microscopy, and discuss the advantages and caveats of each technique. We also review recent applications of these tools in the study of lipids as well as other biomolecules, and conclude with a brief guide for interested researchers to build and use CARS/SRS systems for their own research. PMID:24576891

  11. Computationally based methodology for reengineering the high-level waste planning process at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.K.; Gregory, M.V.; Wells, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has started processing its legacy of 34 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste into its final disposable form. The SRS high-level waste (HLW) complex consists of 51 waste storage tanks, 3 evaporators, 6 waste treatment operations, and 2 waste disposal facilities. It is estimated that processing wastes to clean up all tanks will take 30+ yr of operation. Integrating all the highly interactive facility operations through the entire life cycle in an optimal fashion-while meeting all the budgetary, regulatory, and operational constraints and priorities-is a complex and challenging planning task. The waste complex operating plan for the entire time span is periodically published as an SRS report. A computationally based integrated methodology has been developed that has streamlined the planning process while showing how to run the operations at economically and operationally optimal conditions. The integrated computational model replaced a host of disconnected spreadsheet calculations and the analysts' trial-and-error solutions using various scenario choices. This paper presents the important features of the integrated computational methodology and highlights the parameters that are core components of the planning process

  12. Genome-centric evaluation of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 resistant to high concentrations of uranium and nickel isolated from the Savannah River Site (SRS, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Pathak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Savannah River Site (SRS, an approximately 800-km2 former nuclear weapons production facility located near Aiken, SC remains co-contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. To gain a better understanding on microbially-mediated bioremediation mechanisms, several bacterial strains resistant to high concentrations of Uranium (U and Nickel (Ni were isolated from the Steeds Pond soils located within the SRS site. One of the isolated strains, designated as strain SRS-W-2-2016, grew robustly on both U and Ni. To fully understand the arsenal of metabolic functions possessed by this strain, a draft whole genome sequence (WGS was obtained, assembled, annotated and analyzed. Genome-centric evaluation revealed the isolate to belong to the Burkholderia genus with close affiliation to B. xenovorans LB400, an aggressive polychlorinated biphenyl-degrader. At a coverage of 90×, the genome of strain SRS-W-2-2016 consisted of 8,035,584 bases with a total number of 7071 putative genes assembling into 191 contigs with an N50 contig length of 134,675 bases. Several gene homologues coding for resistance to heavy metals/radionuclides were identified in strain SRS-W-2-2016, such as a suite of outer membrane efflux pump proteins similar to nickel/cobalt transporter regulators, peptide/nickel transport substrate and ATP-binding proteins, permease proteins, and a high-affinity nickel-transport protein. Also noteworthy were two separate gene fragments in strain SRS-W-2-2016 homologous to the spoT gene; recently correlated with bacterial tolerance to U. Additionally, a plethora of oxygenase genes were also identified in the isolate, potentially involved in the breakdown of organic compounds facilitating the strain's successful colonization and survival in the SRS co-contaminated soils. The WGS project of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 is available at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession #MSDV00000000.

  13. Postoperative Perfection: Ceiling Effects and Lack of Discrimination With Both SRS-22 and -24 Outcomes Instruments in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2015-12-01

    Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P self-image (P self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of treatment are crucial in advancing treatment, and improvement in the ability to assess subjective outcomes is essential. 3.

  14. Water quality monitoring of river Ravi from Mehmood buti bund road to downstream Sanda main outfall, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.; Ayub, M.; Tabinda, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Water quality of River Ravi was monitored at six different sites on a stretch from Mehmood Buti Bund Road to Sanda Main Outfall Lahore for different physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals. Different water quality parameters at different sites ranged as under. Temperature ranged between 19.5 to 22.3 deg. C. pH was between 7.8 to 8.1, and maximum at Mehmood Buti Bund. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.71 and 9.52 mg/L, minimum at main out fall and total dissolved solids were between 40 and 213 mg/L, conductivity was between 298 to 1146 Mmhos/Cm, total alkalinity was between 111 and 463 mg/L, minimum at Mehmood Buti Bund and maximum at main out fall, total hardness was between 116 and 287 mg/L minimum at Mehmood Buti Bund and maximum at old bridge, chloride values were between 51.5 to 174 mg/L minimum near Baradari and maximum at Mehmood Buti Bund. Concentrations of Chromium, Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc ranged between 0.01 and 2.78 mg/L, 0.4 and 1.72 mg/L, 0.97 and 1.38 mg/L, 0.09 and 2.89 mg/L respectively. Minimum metal concentrations were at Mehmood Buti Bund while maximum values were at down stream of main out fall indicating more deterioration of water quality of River Ravi down streams main out fall by addition of different types of untreated industrial effluents and domestic wastewater from different operations by inhabitants of Lahore City. (author)

  15. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j)) J Appendix J to Part 122 Protection of Environment... POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Pt. 122, App. J Appendix J to Part 122—NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j)) Table 1A—Effluent Parameters for All POTWS...

  16. 78 FR 77122 - Proposed Modification of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging-Permit Number IDG-37-0000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... required by section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general... entities.'' EPA has concluded that NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or the RFA. Notwithstanding that general permits are...

  17. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  18. Durabilities and Microstructures of Radioactive Glasses to Immobilize Excess Actinides and Reprocessing Wastes at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation of the microstructures and durabilities of glasses for immobilization of excess Pu, Am, and Cm, and of the reprocessing wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS). The reprocessing wastes will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. Another facility at SRS will be used for the Pu, Am, and Cm glasses. In this paper results are presented for a DWPF radioactive glass containing the actual fission product-actinide waste from one the million gallon storage tanks at SRS. This waste is the first radioactive sludge that will be processed in DWPF. The actinide glasses investigated had compositions based on a commercial borosilicate glass composition. All the glasses were so radioactive that they had to be prepared remotely in shielded cells and the analyses had to be performed in gloveboxes or radiobenches. Durabilities were measured using the ASTM C-1285 standard leach test. Results for four glasses are presented. The glasses are a DWPF type glass containing Tank 51 radioactive waste, two glasses containing 15 and 13 wt.percent Pu, respectively, and a glass containing Am and Cm. The radioactive DWPF glass contained 28 wtpercent waste from SRS Tank 51 and was homogeneous. The 15 wt percent Pu contained dissolved PuO2 and as well PuO2 crystals that were not dissolved but were trapped in the glass. The 13 wt percent Pu glass was homogenous. The Am/Cm glass contained <1 wt percent actinides and was homogenous. The PCT test indicated that B, Li, and Na were leaching congruently from the glass. Release rates for Tc-99 and Np-237 were also congruent while Cs-133, Th-232, U-238, and Pu-239 were slower. The two Pu glasses were 25 to 50 times more durable than the DWPF glass. B and Ba were leached congruently while Sm and Pu were lower. Release rates for B and Ba from the Am-Cm glass were equal and 27X lower than the DWPF glass

  19. Vadose Zone VOC Mass Transfer Testing At The SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B

    2005-10-30

    Active remedial activities have been ongoing since 1996 to address low levels of solvent contamination at the Miscellaneous Chemical Basin at SRS. Contaminant levels in the subsurface may be approaching levels where mass transfer limitations are impacting the efficiency of the remedial action. Rate limited mass transfer effects have been observed at other sites in the vadose zone at the SRS, however, detailed measurements and evaluation has not been undertaken. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the mass transfer rates are very slow from the fine grain sediments. This conclusion is based on the observation that measured soil gas concentrations tend to be low in permeable zones relative to the higher concentrations found in fine grain zones. Decreasing soil gas concentration with depth below the ''upland unit'' at several areas at SRS is also evidence of slow diffusion rates. In addition, due to the length of time since disposal ceased at the MCB, we hypothesize that mobile solvents have migrated downward, and the solvent remaining in the upper fine grain zone (''upland unit'') are trapped in fine grain material and are primarily released by gas diffusion (Riha and Rossabi 2004). Natural weathering and other chemical solutions disposed with the solvents can further enhance this effect by increasing the micro-porosity in the clays (kaolinite). This microporosity can result in increased entrapment of water and solvents by capillary forces (Powers, et. al., 2003). Also supporting this conclusion is the observation that active SVE has proven ineffective on VOC removal from the fine grain zones at the SRS. Adsorption and the very slow release phenomenon have been documented similarly in the literature especially for old solvent spills such as at the SRS (Pavlostathis and Mathavan 1992; Oostrom and Lenhard 2003). Mass transfer relationships need to be developed in order to optimize remediation activities and to determine actual

  20. Literature review of the potential impact of glycolic acid on the technetium chemistry of srs tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    This document presents a literature study of the impact of glycolate on technetium chemistry in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste system and specifically Saltstone. A predominant portion of the Tc at SRS will be sent to the Saltstone Facility where it will be immobilized. The Tc in the tank waste is in the highly soluble chemical form of pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) which is reduced by blast furnace slag (BFS) in Saltstone, rendering it highly insoluble and resistant to leaching.

  1. SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Results for Custom Reaction Intensity and Total Dead Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Lloyd A. [Leading Solutions, LLC.; Paresol, Bernard [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

    2014-09-01

    This report of the geostatistical analysis results of the fire fuels response variables, custom reaction intensity and total dead fuels is but a part of an SRS 2010 vegetation inventory project. For detailed description of project, theory and background including sample design, methods, and results please refer to USDA Forest Service Savannah River Site internal report “SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Report”, (Edwards & Parresol 2013).

  2. TU-FG-201-07: Development of SRS Conical Collimator Collision Prediction Software for Radiation Treatment Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutti, V; Morrow, A; Kim, S; Patel, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments using conical collimators can potentially result in gantry collision with treatment table due to limited collision-clear spaces. An in-house software was developed to help the SRS treatment planner mitigate potential SRS conical collimator (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) collisions with the treatment table. This software was designed to remove treatment re-planning secondary to unexpected collisions. Methods: A BrainLAB SRS ICT Frameless Extension used for SRS treatments in our clinic was mathematically modelled using surface points registered to the 3D co-ordinate space of the couch extension. The surface points are transformed based on the treatment isocenter point and potential collisions are determined in 3D space for couch and gantry angle combinations. The distance between the SRS conical collimators and LINAC isocenter is known. The collision detection model was programmed in MATLAB (Mathwork, Natick, MA) to display graphical plots of the calculations, and the plotted data is used to avoid the gantry and couch angle combinations that would likely result in a collision. We have utilized the cone collision tool for 23 SRS cone treatment plans (8 retrospective and 15 prospective for 10 patients). Results: Twenty one plans strongly agreed with the software tool prediction for collision. However, in two plans, a collision was observed with a 0.5 cm margin when the software predicted no collision. Therefore, additional margins were added to the clearance criteria in the program to achieve a lower risk of actual collisions. Conclusion: Our in-house developed collision check software successfully avoided SRS cone re-planning by 91.3% due to a reduction in cone collisions with the treatment table. Future developments to our software will include a CT image data set based collision prediction model as well as a beam angle optimization tool to avoid normal critical tissues as well as previously treated lesions.

  3. Reliability and validity of adapted French Canadian version of Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS-22) in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Marie; Joncas, Julie; Goulet, Lise; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Parent, Stefan; Grimard, Guy; Forcier, Martin; Lauriault, Sophie; Labelle, Hubert

    2009-03-15

    Prospective validation study of a cross-cultural adaptation of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Outcomes Questionnaire. To provide a French Canadian version of the SRS Outcomes Questionnaire and to empirically test its response in healthy adolescents and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in Québec. The SRS Outcomes Questionnaire is widely used for the assessment of health-related quality of life in AIS patients. French translation and back-translation of the SRS-22 (SRS-22-fv) were done by an expert committee. Its reliability was measured using the coefficient of internal consistency, construct validity with a factorial analysis, concurrent validity by using the short form-12 and discriminant validity using ANOVA and multivariate linear regression, on 145 AIS patients, 44 patients with non clinically significant scoliosis (NCSS), and 64 healthy patients. The SRS-22-fv showed a good global internal consistency (AIS: Cronbach alpha = 0.86, NCSS: 0.81, and controls: 0.79) and in all of its domains for AIS patients. The factorial structure was coherent with the original questionnaire (47.4% of explained variance). High correlation coefficients were obtained between SRS-22-fv and short form-12 corresponding domains. Boys had higher scores than girls, scores worsened with age, and with increasing body mass index. Mean Total, Pain, Self-image, and Satisfaction scores, were correlated with Cobb angle. Adjusted regression models showed statistically significant differences between the AIS, NCSS, and control groups in the Total, Pain, and Function scores. The SRS-22-fv showed satisfactory reliability, factorial, concurrent, and discriminant validity. This study provides scores in a significant group of healthy adolescents and demonstrates a clear gradient in response between subjects with AIS, NCSS, and controls.

  4. Development of SRS.php, a Simple Object Access Protocol-based library for data acquisition from integrated biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Silva, A; Pafilis, E; Ortega, J M; Schneider, R

    2007-12-11

    Data integration has become an important task for biological database providers. The current model for data exchange among different sources simplifies the manner that distinct information is accessed by users. The evolution of data representation from HTML to XML enabled programs, instead of humans, to interact with biological databases. We present here SRS.php, a PHP library that can interact with the data integration Sequence Retrieval System (SRS). The library has been written using SOAP definitions, and permits the programmatic communication through webservices with the SRS. The interactions are possible by invoking the methods described in WSDL by exchanging XML messages. The current functions available in the library have been built to access specific data stored in any of the 90 different databases (such as UNIPROT, KEGG and GO) using the same query syntax format. The inclusion of the described functions in the source of scripts written in PHP enables them as webservice clients to the SRS server. The functions permit one to query the whole content of any SRS database, to list specific records in these databases, to get specific fields from the records, and to link any record among any pair of linked databases. The case study presented exemplifies the library usage to retrieve information regarding registries of a Plant Defense Mechanisms database. The Plant Defense Mechanisms database is currently being developed, and the proposal of SRS.php library usage is to enable the data acquisition for the further warehousing tasks related to its setup and maintenance.

  5. Label-free biomolecular characterization of human breast cancer tissue with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectral imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fa-Ke F.; Calligaris, David; Suo, Yuanzhen; Santagata, Sandro; Golby, Alexandra J.; Xie, X. Sunney; Mallory, Melissa A.; Golshan, Mehra; Dillon, Deborah A.; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2017-02-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has been used for rapid label-free imaging of various biomolecules and drugs in living cells and tissues (Science, doi:10.1126/science.aaa8870). Our recent work has demonstrated that lipid and protein mapping of cancer tissue renders pathology-like images, providing essential histopathological information with subcellular resolution of the entire specimen (Cancer Research, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-027). We have also established the first SRS imaging Atlas of human brain tumors (Harvard Dataverse, doi: (doi:10.7910/DVN/EZW4EK). SRS imaging of tissue could provide invaluable information for cancer diagnosis and surgical guidance in two aspects: rapid surgical pathology and quantitative biomolecular characterization. In this work, we present the use of SRS microscopy for characterization of a few essential biomolecules in breast cancer. Human breast cancer tissue specimens at the tumor core, tumor margin and normal area (5 cm away from the tumor) from surgical cases will be imaged with SRS at multiple Raman shifts, including the peaks for lipid, protein, blood (absorption), collagen, microcalcification (calcium phosphates and calcium oxalate) and carotenoids. Most of these Raman shifts have relatively strong Raman cross sections, which ensures high-quality and fast imaging. This proof-of-principle study is sought to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of SRS imaging for ambient diagnosis and surgical guidance of breast cancer.

  6. Cloning, Nucleotide Sequencing and Bioinformatics Study of NcSRS2 Gene, an Immunogen from Iranian Isolate of Neospora Caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neosporosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoa Neospora caninum which infect variety of hosts. NcSRS2 is an immuno-dominant antigen of N. caninum which is consi­dered as one of the most promising targets for a recombinant or DNA vaccine against neosporosis. As no study has been carried out to identify the molecular structure of N. caninum in Iran, as first step, we prepared a scheme to identify this gene in this parasite in Iran.Methods: Tachyzoite total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and NcSRS2 gene was amplified using cDNA as template. Then the PCR product was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and transformed into E. coli (DH5α strain. Finally, the recombinant plasmid was extracted from trans­formed E. coli and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis also carried out.Results: The PCR product of NcSRS2 gene was sequenced and recorded in GenBank. The deduced amino acid sequence of NcSRS2 in current study was compared with other N. caninum NcSRS2 and showed some identities and differences.Conclusion: NcSRS2 gene of N. caninum successfully cloned in pTZ57R/T. Recombinant plasmid was confirmed by sequencing, colony PCR and enzymatic digestion. It is ready to express recombi­nant protein for further studies.

  7. Tidal Flushing Characteristics of Municipal and Industrial Waste in the Karachi Coastal Waters and Simulation of Waste Field Dilution at Sewage Outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T. M. A.; Abid, K.; Jaffery, S.; Ali, I.; Zakai, H. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of Karachi coast and the marine environment near to it cannot be ignored. Effluents from industries and untreated sewage discharge into the coastal waters through Malir and Lyari Rivers and this ultimately have a negative impact on marine life and also to human health. The toxicants present in the industrial wastewater play a vital role in declining the marine population and also cause contamination. The knowledge of flushing and residence times of estuaries and creeks is very important. However, the estimated flushing time by using the freshwater fraction method ranges 15-20 days at both sites. The freshwater fraction method is considered to be a reasonable estimation method as in this method salinity variation in the estuary and open sea are also incorporated in the calculation. Discharging the effluents in the estuary results the destruction of the ecosystem of the area. Thus the discharge of polluted water directly in the deep offshore water certainly improves the quality of life in the coastal areas. Therefore, submarine outfall construction is an effective way to discharge the sewage far away from the coast where diffusion, dispersion and dilution are enhanced. This paper deals with the estimation of flushing time scales and marine environmental parameters in the offshore waters of HawkesBay and Gizri creek/DHA coastlines. The outfall model, DESCAR, is used to determine the spreading and dilution of pollutants under different oceanographic and meteorological forcing. The other outfall parameters such as Initial dilution and Froude numbers and return back travel time are also estimated by using USEPA spread sheet and the ocean-atmosphere archived data. (author)

  8. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE'S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996 - February 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE's) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE's indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not

  9. Reliability and validity of adapted Turkish Version of Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanay, Ahmet; Cil, Akin; Berk, Haluk; Acaroglu, R Emre; Yazici, Muharrem; Akcali, Omer; Kosay, Can; Genc, Yasemin; Surat, Adil

    2005-11-01

    Outcome study to determine the internal consistency, and validity of adapted Turkish version of Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) Instrument. To evaluate the validity and reliability of adapted Turkish Version of SRS-22 questionnaire. The SRS-22 questionnaire is a widely accepted questionnaire to assess the health-related quality of life for scoliotic patients in the United States. However, its adaptation in languages other than the source language is necessary for its multinational use. Translation/retranslation of the English version of the SRS-22 was done, and all steps for cross-cultural adaptation process were performed properly by an expert committee. Later, SRS-22 questionnaires and previously validated Short Form-36 (SF-36) outcome instruments were mailed to 82 patients who had been surgically treated for idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Fifty-four patients (66%) responded to the first set of questionnaires. Forty-seven of the first time respondents returned their second survey. The average age of the 47 patients (12 male, 35 female) was 19.8 years (range, 14-31 years). The two measures of reliability as internal consistency and reproducibility were determined by Cronbach alpha statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively. Concurrent validity was measured by comparing with an already validated questionnaire (SF-36). Measurement was made using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The study demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency with high Cronbach alpha values for the four of the corresponding domains (pain, 0.72; self-image, 0.80; mental health, 0.72; and satisfaction, 0.83). However, the Cronbach alpha value for function/activity domain (0.48) was considerably lower than the original questionnaire. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the same domains was 0.80, 0.82, 0.78, 0.81, and 0.76, respectively, demonstrating a satisfactory test/retest reproducibility. Considering

  10. Incidence of spinal deformity in adults and its distribution according SRS-Schwab classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Amaral Barreto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of spinal deformity in adults, as well as its distribution according the curve type and the occurrence of sagittal modifiers of the SRS-Schwab classification..METHODS: Radiographs in frontal and lateral views of the entire column were performed and radiographic parameters were used to diagnose the vertebral deformity for the classification according to the SRS-Schwab system.RESULTS: We included 302 patients in the study, 236 (78.1% women and 66 (21.9% men. Fifty-six of the participants were diagnosed with ASD, 50 women and 6 men. The incidence of ASD was 18.5% in the total population, ranging from 9.1% in males and 21.2% in females (p=0.04. As to age group, the incidence was 11.9% in patients between 18 and 39 years, 12% between 40 and 59 years and 28.8% in patients with 60 years of age or older, significantly higher in the oldest group (p=0.002. When analyzing the correlation between age and progression of sagittal modifiers, there was no significant difference in the PI-LL and PT modifiers, but there was significant difference of SVA modifier (p=0.008, with a higher age in individuals "++".CONCLUSION: This study presented demographic data on ASD in a Brazilian population sample. There was a higher incidence of ASD in females and individuals aged ≥ 60 years. As for the sagittal modifiers of SRS-Schwab classification, there was a correlation between increasing age and degree of progression of SVA.

  11. SU-F-T-589: HybridArc Planning Criteria for Brain SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K; Basavatia, A; Mynampati, D; Garg, M; Kalnicki, S; Tome, W [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare VMAT SRS plans, dynamic conformal arc (DCA) plans, and Brainlab iPlan’s capability of planning and delivering brain SRS plans by employing HybridArc. HybridArc utilizes both DCA and IMRT. Using HybridArc, the amount of DCA versus IMRT needs to be optimized. Methods: Four SRS patients with the aim of reducing brainstem dose were selected for this study. All patients were contoured in iPlan and transferred to Eclipse for VMAT planning. In iPlan, DCA plans were created for each case. Moreover, nine HybridArc plans with DCA-IMRT ratios between 9:1 through 1:9 were created with a single ring structure generated by subtracting 3 mm expansion of target from a 10 mm expansion of the target. Two static IMRT beams were used in each of the five DCA arcs for HybridArc. The dose was prescribed to DCA only and HybridArc plans and normalized so that the target volume (TV) receives 100% dose to 99.5% of the TV to achieve 120% ∼ 130% max dose within targets. Following metrics were compared: PITV, V12Gy, CGIc, CGIg, CGI, brainstem max dose, and total monitor units (MUs). Results: A brainstem max dose comparable with VMAT from 30% IMRT and less with 50% or more IMRT could be achieved. PITV decreased with increasing IMRT portion and begins to saturate past an IMRT portion of 30%. The CGIg index, which represents how fast the dose falls off, was better with HybridArc in all HybridArc plans. Total MUs increased with increasing IMRT but less than VMAT in all cases. Conclusion: Overall, a lower brainstem max dose and a lower V12Gy with fewer MUs can be achieved with HybridArc. Considering all factors, it would be best to use a DCA-IMRT ratio of either 7:3 or 6:4.

  12. SU-F-T-589: HybridArc Planning Criteria for Brain SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K; Basavatia, A; Mynampati, D; Garg, M; Kalnicki, S; Tome, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare VMAT SRS plans, dynamic conformal arc (DCA) plans, and Brainlab iPlan’s capability of planning and delivering brain SRS plans by employing HybridArc. HybridArc utilizes both DCA and IMRT. Using HybridArc, the amount of DCA versus IMRT needs to be optimized. Methods: Four SRS patients with the aim of reducing brainstem dose were selected for this study. All patients were contoured in iPlan and transferred to Eclipse for VMAT planning. In iPlan, DCA plans were created for each case. Moreover, nine HybridArc plans with DCA-IMRT ratios between 9:1 through 1:9 were created with a single ring structure generated by subtracting 3 mm expansion of target from a 10 mm expansion of the target. Two static IMRT beams were used in each of the five DCA arcs for HybridArc. The dose was prescribed to DCA only and HybridArc plans and normalized so that the target volume (TV) receives 100% dose to 99.5% of the TV to achieve 120% ∼ 130% max dose within targets. Following metrics were compared: PITV, V12Gy, CGIc, CGIg, CGI, brainstem max dose, and total monitor units (MUs). Results: A brainstem max dose comparable with VMAT from 30% IMRT and less with 50% or more IMRT could be achieved. PITV decreased with increasing IMRT portion and begins to saturate past an IMRT portion of 30%. The CGIg index, which represents how fast the dose falls off, was better with HybridArc in all HybridArc plans. Total MUs increased with increasing IMRT but less than VMAT in all cases. Conclusion: Overall, a lower brainstem max dose and a lower V12Gy with fewer MUs can be achieved with HybridArc. Considering all factors, it would be best to use a DCA-IMRT ratio of either 7:3 or 6:4.

  13. Savannah River Site (SRS) implementation program plan for DNFSB Recommendation 90-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Loceff, F.

    1993-10-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) based on its review and evaluation of the content and implementation of standards relating to design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of Defense Nuclear Facilities has made the recommendations (90-2) which when implemented would assure comparable or equivalent levels of safety to the environment, public and workers as required for the commercial nuclear facilities. DOE has accepted the DNFSB 90-2 recommendations and have directed SRS and other M&Os to implement them. This report discusses implementation program which commits to developing Requirement Identification Documents (RID`s) for all defense nuclear facilities in the DOE complex.

  14. SRS waste removal and D and D program for underground waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, G.H.; McNatt, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of radioactive waste from 51 large underground storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS) has been planned. Waste removal equipment and techniques were demonstrated in one tank (Tank number-sign 16) in 1980. Remote inspection techniques were used to monitor the demonstration. This demonstration provided the basis for planning waste removal from the remaining tanks. Waste removal will allow decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the tanks. Some alternatives for D ampersand D have been evaluated. Facilities are being installed on other tanks with completion of waste removal from problem tanks scheduled for 2001

  15. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies

  16. Impact of Degraded RA-3 Fuel Condition on Transportation to and Storage in SRS Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel from the RA-3 Research and Test Reactor at the CNEA Ezeiza Atomic Center near Buenos Aires, Argentina, presently in wet storage at the Central Storage Facility, contains extensive corrosion and mechanical damage. Plans are being developed to return the fuel to the Savannah River Site in Fall 2000. The condition of the fuel and its impact on shipping, handling, and Basin storage when the fuel is returned to SRS, is discussed in this report

  17. Savannah River Site (SRS) implementation program plan for DNFSB Recommendation 90-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Loceff, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) based on its review and evaluation of the content and implementation of standards relating to design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of Defense Nuclear Facilities has made the recommendations (90-2) which when implemented would assure comparable or equivalent levels of safety to the environment, public and workers as required for the commercial nuclear facilities. DOE has accepted the DNFSB 90-2 recommendations and have directed SRS and other M ampersand Os to implement them. This report discusses implementation program which commits to developing Requirement Identification Documents (RID's) for all defense nuclear facilities in the DOE complex

  18. Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

    Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine

  19. Proposed Use of a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Metals in the S-04 Outfall of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, T.

    1999-01-01

    The DWPF is part of an integrated waste treatment system at the SRS to treat wastes containing radioactive contaminants. In the early 1980s the DOE recognized that there would be significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the radioactive waste in a stable solid form. The Defense Waste Processing Facility was designed and constructed to accomplish this task

  20. Proposed Use of a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Metals in the S-04 Outfall of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, T.

    1999-11-23

    The DWPF is part of an integrated waste treatment system at the SRS to treat wastes containing radioactive contaminants. In the early 1980s the DOE recognized that there would be significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the radioactive waste in a stable solid form. The Defense Waste Processing Facility was designed and constructed to accomplish this task.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-038 and 2006-045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-F-42 waste site is the portion of the former emergency overflow spillway for the 1904-F Outfall Structure formerly existing above the ordinary high water mark of the Columbia River. The spillway consisted of a concrete flume designed to discharge effluent from the 107-F Retention Basin in the event that flows could not be completely discharged via the river outfall pipelines. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  2. Immunogenicity and protective effect against murine cerebral neosporosis of recombinant NcSRS2 in different iscom formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinitkiatisakul, Sunan; Friedman, Mikaela; Wikman, Maria; Mattsson, Jens G; Lövgren-Bengtsson, Karin; Ståhl, Stefan; Lundén, Anna

    2007-05-04

    Recombinant NcSRS2, a major immunodominant surface antigen of the intracellular protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, was used as a model antigen to compare the immunogenicity of iscoms prepared according to three different methods. Two NcSRS2 fusion proteins were used, one that was biotinylated upon expression in Escherichia coli and linked to Ni2+-loaded iscom matrix (iscom without any protein) via a hexahistidyl (His6)-tagged streptavidin fusion protein, and another that contained both a His6-tag and streptavidin (His6-SA-SRS2') and was coupled to either Ni2+-loaded or biotinylated matrix. While all three iscom preparations induced N. caninum specific antibodies at similar levels, His6-SA-SRS2' coupled to biotinylated matrix generated the strongest cellular responses measured as in vitro proliferation and production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 after antigen stimulation of spleen cells. However, the relationship between the levels of these cytokines as well as between IgG1 and IgG2a titres in serum induced by the three iscom preparations were similar, indicating that the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses did not differ. After challenge infection, mice immunised with His6-SA-SRS2' coupled to biotinylated matrix had significantly lower amounts of parasite DNA in their brains compared to the other immunised groups. Possible reasons for the performance of the different iscom formulations are discussed.

  3. Peri-SRS Administration of Immune Checkpoint Therapy for Melanoma Metastatic to the Brain: Investigating Efficacy and the Effects of Relative Treatment Timing on Lesion Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mehran B; Amsbaugh, Mark J; Burton, Eric; Chesney, Jason; Woo, Shiao

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) administered with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and determine the effects of relative treatment timing on lesion response. A prospective institutional database of all patients with intact brain metastases treated with SRS from 2008 to 2015 was reviewed for patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma. Lesion response was determined using a modified RECIST v1.1 criteria. Patients were grouped according to if they received ICT and the timing of ICT relative to SRS. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of lesion failure (LF) and distant brain failure (DBF). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare median lesion regression after SRS between treatment groups. Fifty-one patients with 167 metastases were evaluated. Eighteen patients (59 lesions) were treated with peri-SRS ICT with anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 or antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 therapy. Peri-SRS ICT was a significant favorable predictor for reduced hazard of LF (hazard ratio, 0.131; confidence interval, 0.028-0.610). Concurrent ICT given with SRS (hazard ratio, 0.364; confidence interval, 0.161-0.825) significantly predicted freedom from DBF. When quantitative lesion response was examined, peri-SRS ICT resulted in a significantly greater median percent lesion regression than did SRS alone at 1.5 (-30.7% vs. -14.6%; P = 0.018), 4 (-42.3% vs. -18.8%; P = 0.031), and 5 months after SRS (-52.01 vs. -14.9%; P = 0.002). ICT combined with SRS was associated with greater lesion regression of melanoma brain metastases and decreased LF. When given concurrently, combined SRS and ICT may result in improved freedom from DBF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL WASTE CONFIGURATIONS AT THE SRS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V; Raymond Dewberry, R

    2007-01-01

    Job Control Waste (JCW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Solid Waste Management Facilities (SWMF) may be disposed of in special containers, and the analysis of these containers requires developing specific analysis methodologies. A method has been developed for the routine assay of prohibited items (liquids, etc.) contained in a 30-gallon drum that is then placed into a 55-gallon drum. Method development consisted of system calibration with a NIST standard at various drum-to-detector distances, method verification with a liquid sample containing a known amount of Pu-238, and modeling the inner container using Ortec Isotopic software. Using this method for measurement of the known standard in the drum-in-drum configuration produced excellent agreement (within 15%) with the known value. Savannah River Site Solid Waste Management also requested analysis of waste contained in large black boxes (commonly 18-feet x 12-feet x 7-feet) stored at the SWMF. These boxes are frequently stored in high background areas and background radiation must be considered for each analysis. A detection limit of less than 150 fissile-gram-equivalents (FGE) of TRU waste is required for the black-box analyses. There is usually excellent agreement for the measurements at different distances and measurement uncertainties of about 50% are obtained at distances of at least twenty feet from the box. This paper discusses the experimental setup, analysis and data evaluation for drum-in-drum and black box waste configurations at SRS

  5. ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL WASTE CONFIGURATIONS AT THE SRS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V; Raymond Dewberry, R

    2007-05-14

    Job Control Waste (JCW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Solid Waste Management Facilities (SWMF) may be disposed of in special containers, and the analysis of these containers requires developing specific analysis methodologies. A method has been developed for the routine assay of prohibited items (liquids, etc.) contained in a 30-gallon drum that is then placed into a 55-gallon drum. Method development consisted of system calibration with a NIST standard at various drum-to-detector distances, method verification with a liquid sample containing a known amount of Pu-238, and modeling the inner container using Ortec Isotopic software. Using this method for measurement of the known standard in the drum-in-drum configuration produced excellent agreement (within 15%) with the known value. Savannah River Site Solid Waste Management also requested analysis of waste contained in large black boxes (commonly 18-feet x 12-feet x 7-feet) stored at the SWMF. These boxes are frequently stored in high background areas and background radiation must be considered for each analysis. A detection limit of less than 150 fissile-gram-equivalents (FGE) of TRU waste is required for the black-box analyses. There is usually excellent agreement for the measurements at different distances and measurement uncertainties of about 50% are obtained at distances of at least twenty feet from the box. This paper discusses the experimental setup, analysis and data evaluation for drum-in-drum and black box waste configurations at SRS.

  6. Feasibility study of the usefulness of SRS thermoplastic mask for head and neck cancer in tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Jin; Kim, Chul Jong; Kwon, Dong Yeol; Kim, Jong Sik [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sam Sung Seoul hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    When head and neck cancer radiation therapy, thermoplastic mask is applied for patients with fixed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate usefulness of thermoplastic mask for SRS in tomotherapy by conparison with the conventional mask. Typical mask(conventional mask, C-mask) and mask for SRS are used to fix body phantom(rando phantom) on the same iso centerline, then simulation is performed. Tomotherapy plan for orbit and salivary glands is made by treatment planning system(TPS). A thick portion and a thin portion located near the treatment target relative to the mask S-mask are defined as region of interest for surface dose dosimetry. Surface dose variation depending on the type of mask was analyzed by measuring the TPS and EBT film. Surface dose variation due to the type of mask from the TPS is showed in orbit and salivary glands 0.65-2.53 Gy, 0.85-1.84 Gy, respectively. In case of EBT film, -0.2-3.46 Gy, 1.04-3.02 Gy. When applied to the S-mask, in TPS and Gafchromic EBT3 film, substrantially 4.26%, 5.82% showed maximum changing trend, respectively. To apply S-mask for tomotherapy, surface dose is changed, but the amount is insignificant and be useful when treatment target is close critical organs because decrease inter and intra fractional variation.

  7. Radionuclide field lysimeter experiment (RadFLEx): geochemical and hydrological data for SRS performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Powell, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Barber, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Devol, T. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Dixon, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Erdmann, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Maloubier, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Martinez, N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Montgomery, D. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Peruski, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Witmer, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The SRNL Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment (RadFLEx) is a one-of-a-kind test bed facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes in the Savannah River Site (SRS) vadose zone at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms of sediment) and temporal scale (from months to decade) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. RadFLEx is a decade-long project that was initiated on July 5, 2012 and is funded by six different sources. The objective of this status report is as follows: 1) to report findings to date that have an impact on SRS performance assessment (PA) calculations, and 2) to provide performance metrics of the RadFLEx program. The PA results are focused on measurements of transport parameters, such as distribution coefficients (Kd values), solubility, and unsaturated flow values. As this is an interim report, additional information from subsequent research may influence our interpretation of current results. Research related to basic understanding of radionuclide geochemistry in these vadose zone soils and other source terms are not described here but are referenced for the interested reader.

  8. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  9. Phenotype classification of single cells using SRS microscopy, RNA sequencing, and microfluidics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, Aaron M.; Cao, Chen; Zhang, Xiannian; Huang, Yanyi

    2016-03-01

    Phenotype classification of single cells reveals biological variation that is masked in ensemble measurement. This heterogeneity is found in gene and protein expression as well as in cell morphology. Many techniques are available to probe phenotypic heterogeneity at the single cell level, for example quantitative imaging and single-cell RNA sequencing, but it is difficult to perform multiple assays on the same single cell. In order to directly track correlation between morphology and gene expression at the single cell level, we developed a microfluidic platform for quantitative coherent Raman imaging and immediate RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of single cells. With this device we actively sort and trap cells for analysis with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (SRS). The cells are then processed in parallel pipelines for lysis, and preparation of cDNA for high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. SRS microscopy offers three-dimensional imaging with chemical specificity for quantitative analysis of protein and lipid distribution in single cells. Meanwhile, the microfluidic platform facilitates single-cell manipulation, minimizes contamination, and furthermore, provides improved RNA-Seq detection sensitivity and measurement precision, which is necessary for differentiating biological variability from technical noise. By combining coherent Raman microscopy with RNA sequencing, we can better understand the relationship between cellular morphology and gene expression at the single-cell level.

  10. Performance Modeling Applied to the Treatment and Disposal of a Mixed Waste at the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cook, J.R.; Whited, A.R.; Field, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    Performance modeling for Low Level Mixed Waste disposal was conducted using the measured leach rates from a number of vitrified waste formulations. The objective of the study was to determine if the improved durability of a vitrified mixed waste would allow trench disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Leaching data were compiled from twenty-nine diverse reference glasses, encompassing a wide range of exposed glass surface area to leachant volume ratios (SA/V), and various leachant solutions; all of which had been leached at 90 degrees Celsius, using the MCC-1 or PCT procedures (ASTM Procedures C1220-92 and C1285-94, respectively). The normalized leach rates were scaled to the ambient disposal temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, and compared to the allowable leach rate of uranium - which would meet the performance assessment requirements. The results indicated that a glass of above average durability (vs. the reference glasses) would meet the uranium leaching concentration for direct SRS trench disposal

  11. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  12. Literature review of the potential impact of glycolic acid on the technetium chemistry of srs tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-09

    This document presents a literature study of the impact of glycolate on technetium chemistry in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste system and specifically Saltstone. A predominant portion of the Tc at SRS will be sent to the Saltstone Facility where it will be immobilized. The Tc in the tank waste is in the highly soluble chemical form of pertechnetate ion (TcO4 -) which is reduced by blast furnace slag (BFS) in Saltstone, rendering it highly insoluble and resistant to leaching.

  13. SU-F-T-613: Multi-Lesion Cranial SRS VMAT Plan Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballangrud, A; Kuo, L; Happersett, L; Lim, S; Li, X; Beal, K; Yamada, Y; LoSasso, T; Mechalakos, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cranial SRS VMAT plans must have steep dose gradient around each target to reduce dose to normal brain. This study reports on the correlation between gradient index (GI=V50%/V100%), target size and target dose heterogeneity index (HI=PTV Dmax/prescription dose) for multi-lesion cranial SRS VMAT plans. Methods: VMAT plans for 10 cranial cases with 3 to 6 lesions (total 39 lesions) generated in Varian Eclipse V11.0.47 with a fine-tuned AAA beam model and 0.125 cm dose grid were analyzed. One or two iso centers were used depending on the spatial distribution of lesions. Two to nine coplanar and non-coplanar arcs were used per isocenter. Conformity index (CI= V100%/VPTV), HI, and GI were determined for each lesion. Dose to critical structures were recorded. Results: Lesion size ranged from 0.05–11.00 cm3. HI ranged from 1.2–1.4, CI ranged from 1.0–2.8 and GI from 3.1–8.4. Maximum dose to brainstem, chiasm, lenses, optic nerves and eyes ranged from 120–1946 cGy, 47–463 cGy, 9–121 cGy, 14–512 cGy, and 17–294 cGy, respectively. Brain minus PTV (Brain-PTV) V7Gy was in the range 1.1–6.5%, and Brain-PTV Dmean was in the range 94–324 cGy. Conclusion: This work shows that a GI < 5 can be achieved for lesions > 0.4cc. For smaller lesions, GI increases rapidly. GI is lower when HI is increased. Based on this study, recommend HI is 1.4, and recommended GI is for volumes <0.1cc GI<9, 0.1–0.4cc GI<6, 0.4–0.1.0cc GI<5, and for volumes >1.0cc GI<4. CI is < 1.3 for all lesions except for targets < 0.1cc. Cranial SRS VMAT plans must be optimized to lower the GI to reduce the dose to normal brain tissue.

  14. Experimental Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of SRS Waste Tank Supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-01

    SRS High Level Waste Tank Farm personnel rely on conductivity probes for detection of incipient overflow conditions in waste tanks. Minimal information is available concerning the sensitivity that must be achieved such that that liquid detection is assured. Overly sensitive electronics results in numerous nuisance alarms for these safety-related instruments. In order to determine the minimum sensitivity required of the probe, Tank Farm Engineering personnel need adequate conductivity data to improve the existing designs. Little or no measurements of liquid waste conductivity exist; however, the liquid phase of the waste consists of inorganic electrolytes for which the conductivity may be calculated. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Tank Farm Facility Engineering requested SRNL to determine the conductivity of the supernate resident in SRS waste Tank 40 experimentally as well as computationally. In addition, SRNL was requested to develop a correlation, if possible, that would be generally applicable to liquid waste resident in SRS waste tanks. A waste sample from Tank 40 was analyzed for composition and electrical conductivity as shown in Table 4-6, Table 4-7, and Table 4-9. The conductivity for undiluted Tank 40 sample was 0.087 S/cm. The accuracy of OLI Analyzer™ was determined using available literature data. Overall, 95% of computed estimates of electrical conductivity are within ±15% of literature values for component concentrations from 0 to 15 M and temperatures from 0 to 125 °C. Though the computational results are generally in good agreement with the measured data, a small portion of literature data deviates as much as ±76%. A simplified model was created that can be used readily to estimate electrical conductivity of waste solution in computer spreadsheets. The variability of this simplified approach deviates up to 140% from measured values. Generally, this model can be applied to estimate the conductivity within a factor of two. The comparison of the

  15. SU-F-T-613: Multi-Lesion Cranial SRS VMAT Plan Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballangrud, A; Kuo, L; Happersett, L; Lim, S; Li, X; Beal, K; Yamada, Y; LoSasso, T; Mechalakos, J [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cranial SRS VMAT plans must have steep dose gradient around each target to reduce dose to normal brain. This study reports on the correlation between gradient index (GI=V50%/V100%), target size and target dose heterogeneity index (HI=PTV Dmax/prescription dose) for multi-lesion cranial SRS VMAT plans. Methods: VMAT plans for 10 cranial cases with 3 to 6 lesions (total 39 lesions) generated in Varian Eclipse V11.0.47 with a fine-tuned AAA beam model and 0.125 cm dose grid were analyzed. One or two iso centers were used depending on the spatial distribution of lesions. Two to nine coplanar and non-coplanar arcs were used per isocenter. Conformity index (CI= V100%/VPTV), HI, and GI were determined for each lesion. Dose to critical structures were recorded. Results: Lesion size ranged from 0.05–11.00 cm3. HI ranged from 1.2–1.4, CI ranged from 1.0–2.8 and GI from 3.1–8.4. Maximum dose to brainstem, chiasm, lenses, optic nerves and eyes ranged from 120–1946 cGy, 47–463 cGy, 9–121 cGy, 14–512 cGy, and 17–294 cGy, respectively. Brain minus PTV (Brain-PTV) V7Gy was in the range 1.1–6.5%, and Brain-PTV Dmean was in the range 94–324 cGy. Conclusion: This work shows that a GI < 5 can be achieved for lesions > 0.4cc. For smaller lesions, GI increases rapidly. GI is lower when HI is increased. Based on this study, recommend HI is 1.4, and recommended GI is for volumes <0.1cc GI<9, 0.1–0.4cc GI<6, 0.4–0.1.0cc GI<5, and for volumes >1.0cc GI<4. CI is < 1.3 for all lesions except for targets < 0.1cc. Cranial SRS VMAT plans must be optimized to lower the GI to reduce the dose to normal brain tissue.

  16. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  17. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L; Taira, Randal Y

    2001-01-01

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site

  18. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  19. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F.; Westbrook, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area

  20. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Westbrook, T.M. [Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  1. Groundwater flow and tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground to Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Harris, M.K.

    1996-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation are twofold. The initial goal is to devise and demonstrate a technique for directly incorporating fine-scale lithologic data into heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, for improved groundwater flow and contaminant transport model accuracy. The ultimate goal is to rigorously simulate past and future tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground towards Fourmile Branch, to better understand the effects of various remediation alternatives such as no action and capping. Large-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity is usually the main influence on field-scale groundwater flow patterns and dispersive transport, following the relative locations of recharge and discharge areas. Incorporating realistic hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity into flow and transport models is paramount to accurate simulations, particularly for contaminant migration. Sediment lithologic descriptions and geophysical logs typically offer finer spatial resolution, and therefore more potential information about heterogeneity, than other site characterization data

  2. The steady SRS analysis theory of DWDM transmission system in single-mode silica fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jia-Min; Zuo, Xu; Zhao, Yun

    2015-09-01

    The formal solution for the couple equations of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) with different loss coefficients in the DWDM transmission system was discussed. The variation of each signal photon flux along the transmission distance is shown clearly by the formal solution. Then, the analytical solution is obtained from the formal solution when the loss coefficient is the same. Simultaneously, the analytical solution of the small-signal model is derived, too. We also proposed a novel algorithm according to the formal solution, and verified its correctness by showing that the curves for them are basically in coincidence. The result has a certain significance for study on DWDM transmission system and Raman fiber amplifier.

  3. Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , UO 2 2+ , and Cs + ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H + and Ca 2+ . Distribution constants, Kd's, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation

  4. RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TECHNETIUM KD VALUES IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) are risk calculations used to estimate the amount of low-level radioactive waste that can be disposed at DOE sites. Distribution coefficients (K d values) are input parameters used in PA calculations to provide a measure of radionuclide sorption to sediment; the greater the K d value, the greater the sorption and the slower the estimated movement of the radionuclide through sediment. Understanding and quantifying K d value variability is important for estimating the uncertainty of PA calculations. Without this information, it is necessary to make overly conservative estimates about the possible limits of K d values, which in turn may increase disposal costs. Finally, technetium is commonly found to be amongst the radionuclides posing potential risk at waste disposal locations because it is believed to be highly mobile in its anionic form (pertechnetate, TcO 4 - ), it exists in relatively high concentrations in SRS waste, and it has a long half-life (213,000 years). The objectives of this laboratory study were to determine under SRS environmental conditions: (1) whether and to what extent TcO 4 - sorbs to sediments, (2) the range of Tc K d values, (3) the distribution (normal or log-normal) of Tc K d values, and (4) how strongly Tc sorbs to SRS sediments through desorption experiments. Objective 3, to identify the Tc K d distribution is important because it provides a statistical description that influences stochastic modeling of estimated risk. The approach taken was to collect 26 sediments from a non-radioactive containing sediment core collected from E-Area, measure Tc K d values and then perform statistical analysis to describe the measured Tc K d values. The mean K d value was 3.4 ± 0.5 mL/g and ranged from -2.9 to 11.2 mL/g. The data did not have a Normal distribution (as defined by the Shapiro-Wilk's Statistic) and had a 95-percentile range of 2.4 to 4.4 mL/g. The E-Area subsurface is subdivided into three hydrostratigraphic

  5. TRENDS IN ATMOPSHERIC CLIMATE PARAMETERS MEASURED AT SRS 1964-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinbeck, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-20

    Meteorological data collected at SRS since the mid-1960’s have been analyzed for trends in minimum and maximum temperature, heating and cooling degree days, precipitation and relative humidity. The trends in meteorological data collected have been relatively small compared to the interannual variability that is observed. The observed increases, while small, appear to be real (statistically significant). Overnight low temperatures (3.1°F) have increased over twice as fast as the increases in daytime highs (1.4°F). Similarly, there are statistically significant increases in the number of cooling degree days as well. There has been a similar decrease in the number of HDD and freezing days, consistent with the overall increase in overnight low temperatures.

  6. Evaluation of no-MST operations in the SRS ARP for Hanford LAWPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-11-14

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Actinide Removal Process has been processing salt waste since 2008. This process includes a filtration step in the 512-S facility. Initial operations included the addition, or strike, of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium. The added MST and any entrained sludge solids were then separated from the supernate by cross flow filtration. During this time, the filter operations have, on many occasions, been the bottleneck process limiting the rate of salt processing. Recently, 512-S- has started operations utilizing “No-MST” where the MST actinide removal strike was not performed and the supernate was simply pre-filtered prior to Cs removal processing. Direct filtration of decanted tank supernate, as demonstrated in 512-S, is the proposed method of operation for the Hanford Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) facility. Processing decanted supernate without MST solids has been demonstrated for cross flow filtration to provide a significant improvement in production with the SRS Salt Batches 8 and 9 feed chemistries. The average filtration rate for the first 512-S batch processing cycle using No-MST has increased filtrate production by over 35% of the historical average. The increase was sustained for more than double the amount of filtrate batches processed before cleaning of the filter was necessary. While there are differences in the design of the 512-S and Hanford filter systems, the 512-S system should provide a reasonable indication of LAWPS filter performance with similar feed properties. Based on the data from the 512-S facility and with favorable feed properties, the LAWPS filter, as currently sized at over twice the size of the 512-S filter (532 square feet filtration area versus 235 square feet), has the potential to provide sustained filtrate production at the upper range of the planned LAWPS production rate of 17 gpm.

  7. SU-F-T-568: QA of a Multi-Target Multi-Dose VMAT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, D; Kuo, J [University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States); Gonzales, A [Clinica Aliada contra el Cancer, Lima (Peru)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To, experimentally, corroborated the prescribed doses utilizing dosimeters (e.g. films and TLDs) that can provide high spatial resolution, allow dose measurement of multiple targets at once, and provide accurate dosimetric results. Methods: A single-isocenter 6FFF SRS VMAT plan consisting of one 358° arc at 0° couch angle and four 179° arcs at 30°, 60°, 330° and 300° couch angles respectively, was generated in ECLIPSE v.11 using a Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic head phantom CT study. This plan was a reproduction of a clinical plan generated for a stage-IV melanoma patient diagnosed with 19 intracranial lesions. The phantom was loaded with axially mounted (between phantom slabs) Gafchromic EBT3 film and TLDs strategically positioned within various target volumes. Film and TLDS were calibrated according to established protocols. Target prescription doses were 16 Gy (3cc≤, 3 lesions), 18 Gy (∼1–3cc, 10 lesions) and 20 Gy (≤1cc, 6 lesions). Phantom setup was verified through CBCT imaging prior to irradiation. Gafchromic films were scanned in transmission mode and TLDs were read, respectively, ∼24 hrs after irradiation. Results: Dose calibrated Gafchromic film data were compared to the ECLIPSE calculated data using a 3% / 3mm gamma function analysis. Results for the gamma values were 96–99% in agreement with the calculated data and with 84–90% of the film pixels within the 3% dose difference. TLD data showed a dose difference of 0.4–8% while the film data for those same locations yielded a difference of 0.4–4%. It was observed that the highest dose discrepancies correlated with the location of the small volume targets. Conclusion: Overall this study corroborated that a VMAT SRS treatment, employing various treatment table rotations and arcs, to multiple intracranial lesions with multiple dose prescriptions can be delivered accurately with the existing radiotherapy technology.

  8. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast

  10. SU-E-J-221: Advantages of a New Surface Imaging Calibration Method for SRS Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, A; Manger, R; Pawlicki, T; Kim, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present calibration method used for the AlignRT surface imaging system relies on the placement of a calibration plate at the linac isocenter using isocenter surrogates (crosshairs, room lasers, etc.). This work investigated the potential advantages of a new calibration method that shifts the AlignRT isocenter to be coincident with the linac MV beam isocenter. Methods: To quantify the potential uncertainties associated with the present calibration method for SRS treatments, the calibration plate was intentionally shifted away from isocenter +/−3mm in the longitudinal and lateral directions and +/−1mm in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions. A head phantom was placed in a mock SRS treatment position and monitored with the AlignRT system. The AlignRT-indicated offsets were recorded at 270, 315, 0, 45, and 90° couch angles for each intentional calibration misalignment. The new isocenter calibration was applied after each misalignment, and the measurements were repeated and compared to the previous results. Results: With intentional longitudinal and lateral shifts of +/−3mm and +/−1mm in the calibration plate, the average indicated offsets at couch rotations of +/−90° were 4.3mm and 1.6mm, respectively. This was in agreement with the theoretical offset of sqrt(2)*(intentional shift of the calibration plate). Since vertical shifts were along the rotation axis of the couch, these shifts had little effect on the offsets with changing couch angle. When the new calibration was applied, the indicated offsets were all within 0.5mm for all couch angles. These offsets were in agreement with the known magnitude of couch walkout. Conclusion: The potential pitfalls of the present calibration method have been established, and the advantages of the new calibration method have been demonstrated. This new calibration method effectively removes the potential miscalibration artifacts of the present calibration method, giving the AlignRT user more

  11. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points; three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.

  12. Differential expression of calcium/calmodulin-regulated SlSRs in response to abiotic and biotic stresses in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbao; Peng, Hui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Jurick, Wayne M

    2013-07-01

    Calcium has been shown to enhance stress tolerance, maintain firmness and reduce decay in fruits. Previously we reported that seven tomato SlSRs encode calcium/calmodulin-regulated proteins, and that their expressions are developmentally regulated during fruit development and ripening, and are also responsive to ethylene. To study their expressions in response to stresses encountered during postharvest handling, tomato fruit at the mature-green stage was subjected to chilling and wounding injuries, infected with Botrytis cinerea and treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate. Gene expression studies revealed that the seven SlSRs differentially respond to different stress signals. SlSR2 was the only gene upregulated by all the treatments. SlSR4 acted as a late pathogen-induced gene; it was upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, but downregulated by cold treatment. SlSR3L was cold- and wound-responsive and was also induced by salicylic acid. SlSR1 and SlSR1L were repressed by cold, wounding and pathogen infection, but were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. Overall, results of these expression studies indicate that individual SlSRs have distinct roles in responses to the specific stress signals, and SlSRs may act as a coordinator(s) connecting calcium-mediated signaling with other stress signal transduction pathways during fruit ripening and storage. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Degradation and mineralisation of diuron by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 and its potential for remediating at a realistic µg L(-1) diuron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Juhler, René K; Aamand, Jens

    2013-11-01

    Low concentrations (10(-6)-10(-9) g L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron are occasionally detected as water contaminants in areas around the world where the herbicide is used extensively. Remediation of contaminated waters using diuron-mineralising bacteria is a possible approach for cleaning these resources. However, few diuron-mineralising strains have been isolated. Here, the ability of Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, a well-known soil bacterium capable of degrading the structurally related herbicide isoproturon, to mineralise diuron at realistically low concentrations is tested. Strain SRS2 readily degraded the dimethylurea side chain, while no or only slow mineralisation of the ring structure was determined. By monitoring metabolites, it was determined that SRS2 initially degraded diuron by two successive N-demethylations followed by cleavage of the urea group to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). Mineralisation of low diuron concentrations by SRS2 was detected and could be stimulated by the addition of a complex nutrient source. Further enhancement of the mineralisation activity was obtained by combining SRS2 with the 3,4-DCA-mineralising Variovorax sp. SRS16. This work demonstrates that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is a promising candidate for bioaugmentation, alone or in combination with other strains, and that enhanced diuron mineralisation at realistically low concentrations can be achieved. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Do the SRS-22 self-image and mental health domain scores reflect the degree of asymmetry of the back in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, James; Gardner, Adrian; Berryman, Fiona; Pynsent, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes are becoming increasingly recognised in the management of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Integrated Shape Imaging System 2 (ISIS2) surface topography is a validated tool to assess AIS. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate strong correlations between AIS and patient-reported outcomes highlighting the need for additional objective surface parameters to define the deformities associated with AIS. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) outcome questionnaire reflects the degree of measurable external asymmetry of the back in AIS and thus is a measure of patient outcome for external appearance. A total of 102 pre-operative AIS patients were identified retrospectively. Objective parameters were measured using ISIS2 surface topography. The associations between these parameters and the self-image and mental health domains of the SRS-22 questionnaire were investigated using correlation coefficients. All correlations between the parameters of asymmetry and SRS-22 self-image score were of weak strength. Similarly, all correlations between the parameters of asymmetry and SRS-22 mental health score were of weak strength. The SRS-22 mental health and self-image domains correlate poorly with external measures of deformity. This demonstrates that the assessment of mental health and self-image by the SRS-22 has little to do with external torso shape. Whilst the SRS-22 assesses the patient as a whole, it provides little information about objective measures of deformity over which a surgeon has control.

  15. Reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of scoliosis research society – 22 (SRS-22 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulou Evangelos A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRS-22 is a valid instrument for the assessment of the health related quality of life of patients with Idiopathic scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire was developed in USA and has been widely used in the English speaking countries. Recently it has been translated and validated in many other languages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire. Methods Following the steps of cross – cultural adaptation the adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire and a validated Greek version of the SF-36 questionnaire were mailed to 68 patients treated surgically for Idiopathic Scoliosis. 51 out of the 68 patients returned the 1st set of questionnaires, while a second set was emailed to 30 randomly selected patients of the first time responders. 20 out of the 30 patients returned the 2nd set. The mean age at the time of operation was16,2 years and the mean age at the time of evaluation was 21,2 years. Descriptive statistics for content analysis were calculated. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC respectively. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36 questionnaire using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r. Results The calculated Cronbach's α of internal consistency for three of the corresponding domains (pain 0.85; mental health 0.87; self image 0.83 were very satisfactory and for two domains (function/activity 0.72 and satisfaction 0.67 were good. The ICC of all domains of SRS-22 questionnaire was high (ICC>0.70, demonstrating very satisfactory or excellent test/retest reproducibility. Considering concurrent validity all correlations were found to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level among related domains and generally demonstrated high correlation coefficient. Conclusion

  16. Investigation of the thermal mixing in a T-junction flow with different SRS approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritskevich, M.S., E-mail: gritskevich@ymail.com [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Garbaruk, A.V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Frank, Th.; Menter, F.R. [Software Development Department, ANSYS, 83714 Otterfing (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Global (SAS, DDES) and zonal (ELES-WMLES) models are compared for the T-junction flow. • All the models accurately predict mean, RMS, and spectral quantities. • ELES-WMLES approach yields very good results independent of the advection scheme. • SAS and the DDES models are slightly less accurate. • SAS depends on the advection scheme. - Abstract: An investigation of different turbulence Scale-Resolving Simulation (SRS) modeling approaches for the flow in a T-junction has been conducted using the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS), the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) and the Embedded Large Eddy Simulation (ELES) methods. The results show that all models are able to accurately predict mean and RMS velocity profiles and velocity spectra, when are used in combination with a low dissipation advection scheme. However, when a slightly more dissipative scheme is used, the SAS model yields less accurate results, indicating that this flow does not produce a strong enough flow instability to allow the safe application of this model. The DDES and the ELES models show less sensitivity to the numerical setting compared to the SAS model. The main goal of the study is the accurate prediction of heat transfer on the walls in the mixing zone. In that respect, the ELES method produces the most consistent agreement with the experimental data.

  17. A review of vapor explosion information pertinent to the SRS reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyder, M.L.; Allison, D.K.

    1992-04-01

    Vapor explosions are explosive events resulting from the mixing of two liquids, one of which is heated to a temperature well above the boiling point of the second. Under some circumstances mixing of the liquids can boil part of the lower boiling liquid so quickly that the expanding vapor generates a strong pressure wave and explosion. If the lower boiling liquid is water, as is frequently the case, the event is called a ``steam explosion``. Analyses in support of the K-Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment have shown that steam explosions generated by the interaction of molten reactor fuel with water contribute significantly to the risk of reactor operation at the SRS. This calculated risk incorporates a conservative treatment of the uncertainties associated with such explosions. Study of steam explosions involving molten reactor materials has been included in the Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) in order to obtain a better evaluation of their importance, and, if possible, to find ways to avoid them. This paper presents a brief review and summary of steam explosion experience from literature accounts, along with the results of experimental studies from the SAAP. It concludes with an evaluation of current knowledge, and suggestions for future development. 71 refs.

  18. Optimizing Time Intervals of Meteorological Data Used with Atmospheric Dose Modeling at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Measured tritium oxide concentrations in air have been compared with calculated values using routine release Gaussian plume models for different time intervals of meteorological data. These comparisons determined an optimum time interval of meteorological data used with atmospheric dose models at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Meteorological data of varying time intervals (1-yr to 10-yr) were used for the comparison. Insignificant differences are seen in using a one-year database as opposed to a five-year database. Use of a ten-year database results in slightly more conservative results. For meteorological databases of length one to five years the mean ratio of predicted to measured tritium oxide concentrations is approximately 1.25 whereas for the ten-year meteorological database the ration is closer to 1.35. Currently at the Savannah River Site a meteorological database of five years duration is used for all dose models. This study suggests no substantially improved accuracy using meteorological files of shorter or longer time intervals

  19. Pro-recombination role of Srs2 protein requires SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) but is independent of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolesar, Peter; Altmannova, Veronika; Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    of SIM in asrs2ΔPIMstrain leads to a decrease in recombination, indicating a pro-recombination role of SUMO. Thus SIM has an ambivalent function in Srs2 regulation; it not only mediates interaction with SUMO-PCNA to promote the anti-recombination function but it also plays a PCNA-independent pro......Srs2 plays many roles in DNA repair, the proper regulation and coordination of which is essential. Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is one such possible mechanism. Here, we investigate the role of SUMO in Srs2 regulation and show that the SUMO...

  20. Comparison of SSS and SRS calculated from normal databases provided by QPS and 4D-MSPECT manufacturers and from identical institutional normals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollmann, Daniela; Knebel, Ingrid; Gebhard, Michael; Krohn, Thomas; Buell, Ulrich; Schaefer, Wolfgang M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Koch, Karl-Christian [University Hospital Aachen, Medical Clinic I (Cardiology), Aachen (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    There is proven evidence for the importance of myocardial perfusion-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with computerised determination of summed stress and rest scores (SSS/SRS) for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). SSS and SRS can thereby be calculated semi-quantitatively using a 20-segment model by comparing tracer-uptake with values from normal databases (NDB). Four severity-degrees for SSS and SRS are normally used: <4, 4-8, 9-13, and {>=}14. Manufacturers' NDBs (M-NDBs) often do not fit the institutional (I) settings. Therefore, this study compared SSS and SRS obtained with the algorithms Quantitative Perfusion SPECT (QPS) and 4D-MSPECT using M-NDB and I-NDB. I-NDBs were obtained using QPS and 4D-MSPECT from exercise stress data (450 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin, triple-head-camera, 30 s/view, 20 views/head) from 36 men with a low post-stress test CAD probability and visually normal SPECT findings. Patient group was 60 men showing the entire CAD-spectrum referred for routine perfusion-SPECT. Stress/rest results of automatic quantification of the 60 patients were compared to M-NDB and I-NDB. After reclassifying SSS/SRS into the four severity degrees, kappa ({kappa}) values were calculated to objectify agreement. Mean values (vs M-NDB) were 9.4 {+-} 10.3 (SSS) and 5.8 {+-} 9.7 (SRS) for QPS and 8.2 {+-} 8.7 (SSS) and 6.2 {+-} 7.8 (SRS) for 4D-MSPECT. Thirty seven of sixty SSS classifications ({kappa} = 0.462) and 40/60 SRS classifications ({kappa} = 0.457) agreed. Compared to I-NDB, mean values were 10.2 {+-} 11.6 (SSS) and 6.5 {+-} 10.4 (SRS) for QPS and 9.2 {+-} 9.3 (SSS) and 7.2 {+-} 8.6 (SRS) for 4D-MSPECT. Forty four of sixty patients agreed in SSS and SRS ({kappa} = 0.621 resp. 0.58). Considerable differences between SSS/SRS obtained with QPS and 4D-MSPECT were found when using M-NDB. Even using identical patients and identical I-NDB, the algorithms still gave substantial different results. (orig.)

  1. Reliability and concurrent validity of the adapted Chinese version of Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth M C; Senkoylu, Alpaslan; Alanay, Ahmet; Genc, Yasemin; Lau, Sarah; Luk, Keith D

    2007-05-01

    Validation study to define validity and reliability of an adapted and translated questionnaire. Assessment of the concurrent validity and reliability of a Chinese version of SRS-22 outcome instrument. No valid health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcome instrument exists for patients with spinal deformity in Chinese. The modified SRS-22 questionnaire was proven to be an appropriate outcome instrument in English, and has already been translated and validated in several other languages. The English version of the SRS-22 questionnaire was adapted to Chinese according to the International Quality of Life Assessment Project guidelines. To assess reliability, 48 subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 16.5 years) filled the questionnaire on 2 separate occasions (Group 1). To assess concurrent validity, 50 subjects (mean age, 21 years) filled in the same questionnaire and a previously validated Chinese version of the Short Form-36 (SF36) questionnaire (Group 2). Internal consistency, reproducibility and concurrent validity were determined with Cronbach's alpha coefficient, interclass correlation coefficient and Pearson correlation coefficient, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 4 major domains (function/activity, pain, self-image/appearance and mental health) were high. Intraclass correlation was also excellent for all domains. For concurrent validity, excellent correlation was found in 1 domain, good in 12 domains, moderate in 3 domains, and poor in 1 domain of the 17 relevant domains. Both cultural adaptation and linguistic translation are essential in any attempt to use a HRQL questionnaire across cultures. The Chinese version of the SRS-22 outcome instrument has satisfactory internal consistency and excellent reproducibility. It is ready for use in clinical studies on idiopathic scoliosis in Chinese-speaking societies.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-038 and 2006-045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 116-F-8 waste site is the former 1904-F Outfall Structure used to discharge reactor cooling water effluent from the 107-F Retention Basin to the Columbia River. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  3. Label-free chemical imaging of live Euglena gracilis by high-speed SRS spectral microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Yuta; Tokunaga, Kyoya; Hirose, Misa; Domon, Ryota; Akaho, Rina; Kuroshima, Mai; Tsumura, Norimichi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Iwata, Osamu; Suzuki, Kengo; Nakashima, Ayaka; Goda, Keisuke; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Microbes, especially microalgae, have recently been of great interest for developing novel biofuels, drugs, and biomaterials. Imaging-based screening of live cells can provide high selectivity and is attractive for efficient bio-production from microalgae. Although conventional cellular screening techniques use cell labeling, labeling of microbes is still under development and can interfere with their cellular functions. Furthermore, since live microbes move and change their shapes rapidly, a high-speed imaging technique is required to suppress motion artifacts. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy allows for label-free and high-speed spectral imaging, which helps us visualize chemical components inside biological cells and tissues. Here we demonstrate high-speed SRS imaging, with temporal resolution of 0.14 seconds, of intracellular distributions of lipid, polysaccharide, and chlorophyll concentrations in rapidly moving Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate. Furthermore, we show that our method allows us to analyze the amount of chemical components inside each living cell. Our results indicate that SRS imaging may be applied to label-free screening of living microbes based on chemical information.

  4. SRL in-situ tests in the United Kingdom: Part 2, Surface analyses of SRS waste glass buried for one and two years in limestone at Ballidon, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namboodri, C.G. Jr.; Wicks, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A multiphase experimental program to assess and understand waste glass behavior under a wide range of conditions has been in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for over a decade. An important part of this experimental effort is to assess the effects of repository relevant conditions on performance of SRS waste glass, in both controlled laboratory tests, as well as in actual field experiments. In laboratory test, SRS waste glass, simulated and in many cases also fully radioactive, has been tested in environments of salt, basalt, shale, granite, clay and tuff. In field experiments, there are four joint international programs being conducted in four different countries, involving burial of SRS simulated waste glass in granite, limestone, clay and salt geologies. This report discusses the SRS waste glass studies in limestone at Ballidon, UK

  5. EVALUATION OF THE DURABILITY OF THE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE OF REACTOR BUILDINGS AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-02-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) intends to close 100-150 facilities in the DOE complex using an in situ decommissioning (ISD) strategy that calls for grouting the below-grade interior volume of the structure and leaving the above-grade interior open or demolishing it and disposing of it in the slit trenches in E Area. These closures are expected to persist and remain stable for centuries, but there are neither facility-specific monitoring approaches nor studies on the rate of deterioration of the materials used in the original construction or on the ISD components added during closure (caps, sloped roofs, etc). This report will focus on the evaluation of the actual aging/degradation of the materials of construction used in the ISD structures at Savannah River Site (SRS) above grade, specifically P & R reactor buildings. Concrete blocks (six 2 to 5 ton blocks) removed from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building were turned over to SRNL as the first source for concrete cores. Larger cores were received as a result of grouting activities in P and R reactor facilities. The cores were sectioned and evaluated using microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), ion chromatography (IC) and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the aggregate and cement phases present in the concrete are consistent with the mix design and no degradation mechanisms are evident at the aggregate-cement interfaces. Samples of the cores were digested and analyzed for chloride ingress as well as sulfate attack. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions did not exceed the limits of the mix design and there is no indication of any degradation due to these mechanisms. Thermal analysis on samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the cores show that there is a 1 inch carbonation layer (i.e., no portlandite) present in the interior wall of the reactor building and a negligible carbonation layer in the exterior wall. A mixed layer of carbonate and portlandite extends deeper into the

  6. RAMI modeling of F-Area ground water facility at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    Reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) analysis tool has been used to help control life-cycle cost of several systems and facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS). Recently a RAMI assessment was performed to determine how well the installed F-Area Water Treatment Unit (WTU) will meet the established goal for plant availability committed to the State Regulatory Agency, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The mission of F-Area ground water remediation facility at SRS is to reduce concentration of RCRA metals, radionuclides and other contaminants in ground water influents to a level where it can safely be returned to the aquifer. The process chosen for treatment of the ground water was determined by review of chemical data, published reports, bench testing as well as discharge requirements that meet commitments made to SCDHEC. Contaminated water is drawn from an underground aquifer located at the F-Area seepage basin, pre-filtered through sand filters and then passed through the Reverse Osmosis (RO) system where the ground water is separated into permeate and concentrate. The permeate will have 99% of all suspended solids removed and suitable for discharge to the injection well system. The concentrate is further processed to reduce volume and then disposed of in standard containers. Per agreement with SCDHEC the unit must operate with an availability of at least 85% including scheduled shutdowns. The unit experienced troubles in meeting this goal from the very beginning. A preliminary RAMI analysis performed after unit commissioning identified problem components and sub-systems and need for redundancy in design of certain systems. Some of these were resolved through procurement of better performing components and elimination of a poor-performing process sub-system that was found to be non-essential. Additionally some new equipment were added to provide for greater operational flexibility. Some

  7. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  8. Refinement of MLC modeling improves commercial QA dosimetry system for SRS and SBRT patient-specific QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Yair; Kim, Josh; Chetty, Indrin; Wen, Ning

    2018-04-01

    Mobius 3D (M3D) provides a volumetric dose verification of the treatment planning system's calculated dose using an independent beam model and a collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm. However, there is a lack of investigation into M3D's accuracy and effectiveness for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) quality assurance (QA). Here, we collaborated with the vendor to develop a revised M3D beam model for SRS/SBRT cases treated with a 6X flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and high-definition multiple leaf collimator (HDMLC) on an Edge linear accelerator. Eighty SRS/SBRT cases, planned with AAA dose algorithm and validated with Gafchromic film, were compared to M3D dose calculations using 3D gamma analysis with 2%/2 mm gamma criteria and a 10% threshold. A revised beam model was developed by refining the HD-MLC model in M3D to improve small field dose calculation accuracy and beam profile agreement. All cases were reanalyzed using the revised beam model. The impact of heterogeneity corrections for lung cases was investigated by applying lung density overrides to five cases. For the standard and revised beam models, respectively, the mean gamma passing rates were 94.6% [standard deviation (SD): 6.1%] and 98.0% [SD: 1.7%] (for the overall patient), 88.2% [SD: 17.3%] and 93.8% [SD: 6.8%] (for the brain PTV), 71.4% [SD: 18.4%] and 81.5% [SD: 14.3%] (for the lung PTV), 83.3% [SD: 16.7%] and 67.9% [SD: 23.0%] (for the spine PTV), and 78.6% [SD: 14.0%] and 86.8% [SD: 12.5%] (for the PTV of all other sites). The lung PTV mean gamma passing rates improved from 74.1% [SD: 7.5%] to 89.3% [SD: 7.2%] with the lung density overridden. The revised beam model achieved an output factor within 3% of plastic scintillator measurements for 2 × 2 cm 2 MLC field size, but larger discrepancies are still seen for smaller field sizes which necessitate further improvement of the beam model. Special attention needs to be paid to small field

  9. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS WASTE TANKS TO IMPROVE ACTINIDE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Thompson, M.

    2011-09-20

    Processes for the removal of residual sludge from SRS waste tanks have historically used solutions containing up to 0.9 M oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining material following sludge removal. The selection of this process was based on a comparison of a number of studies performed to evaluate the dissolution of residual sludge. In contrast, the dissolution of the actinide mass, which represents a very small fraction of the waste, has not been extensively studied. The Pu, Np, and Am in the sludge is reported to be present as hydrated and crystalline oxides. To identify aqueous solutions which have the potential to increase the solubility of the actinides, the alkaline and mildly acidic test solutions shown below were selected as candidates for use in a series of solubility experiments. The efficiency of the solutions in solubilizing the actinides was evaluated using a simulated sludge prepared by neutralizing a HNO{sub 3} solution containing Pu, Np, and Am. The hydroxide concentration was adjusted to a 1.2 M excess and the solids were allowed to age for several weeks prior to starting the experiments. The sludge was washed with 0.01 M NaOH to prepare the solids for use. Following the addition of an equal portion of the solids to each test solution, the concentrations of Pu, Np, and Am were measured as a function of time over a 792 h (33 day) period to provide a direct comparison of the efficiency of each solution in solubilizing the actinide elements. Although the composition of the sludge was limited to the hydrated actinide oxides (and did not contain other components of demonstrated importance), the results of the study provides guidance for the selection of solutions which should be evaluated in subsequent tests with a more realistic surrogate sludge and actual tank waste.

  10. Chemical inventory control program for mixed and hazardous waste facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Vincent, A.M. III.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed Waste (MW) and Hazardous Waste (HW) are being stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) pending onsite and/or offsite treatment and disposal. The inventory control for these wastes has recently been brought under Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.22. With the TSRs was the question of the degree of rigor with which the inventory is to be tracked, considering that the variety of chemicals present, or that could be present, numbers in the hundreds. This paper describes the graded approach program to track Solid Waste (SW) inventories relative to TSRs. The approach uses a ratio of the maximum anticipated chemical inventory to the permissible inventory in accordance with Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) limits for on- and off-site receptors. A specific threshold ratio can then be determined. The chemicals above this threshold ratio are to be included in the chemical inventory control program. The chemicals that fall below the threshold ratio are managed in accordance with existing practice per State and RCRA hazardous materials requirements. Additionally, the facilities are managed in accordance with process safety management principles, specifically using process hazards analyses, which provides safety assurance for even the small quantities that may be excluded from the formal inventory control program. The method yields a practical approach to chemical inventory control, while maintaining appropriate chemical safety margins. The resulting number of specific chemicals that require inclusion in a rigorous inventory control program is greatly reduced by about 80%, thereby resulting in significant reduction in chemical data management while preserving appropriate safety margins

  11. Orthogonal image pairs coupled with OSMS for noncoplanar beam angle, intracranial, single-isocenter, SRS treatments with multiple targets on the Varian Edge radiosurgery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine A. Oliver, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, CR-induced shifts with the Varian Edge radiosurgery system will not produce noticeable dosimetric effects for SRS treatments. Thus, replacing cone beam CT with orthogonal kV/kV pairs coupled with OSMS at the treatment couch angle could reduce the number of cone beam CT scans that are acquired during a standard SRS treatment while providing an accurate and safe treatment with negligible dosimetric effects on the treatment plan.

  12. Massport Logan International Airport NPDES Permit | NPDES ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    Massport was issued a permit for discharging storm water to Boston Harbor on March 1, 1978. The permit expired five years later. However, EPA administratively continued the permit as allowed by regulations. EPA issued a draft permit and fact sheet (which provides EPA's technical basis for establishing effluent limits and monitoring) for public comment on July 25, 2006.

  13. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease

  14. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  15. EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B

    2005-10-31

    The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a

  16. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Tachibana, H; Baba, H; Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Shimizu, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Sugawara, Y; Sato, A; Nishiyama, S; Kawai, D; Miyaoka, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle 3 (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly

  17. Production of refolded Toxoplasma gondii recombinant SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) and its use for serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Abolfazl; Saadatnia, Geita; Golkar, Majid; Babaie, Jalal; Noordin, Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) is one of the major Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface antigens and has been shown to be potentially useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis. This protein is highly conformational due to the presence of six disulfide bonds. To achieve solubility and antigenicity, SRS3 depends on proper disulfide bond formation. The aim of this study was to over-express the SRS3 protein with correct folding for use in serodiagnosis of the disease. To achieve this, a truncated SRS3 fusion protein (rtSRS3) was produced, containing six histidyl residues at both terminals and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The refolding process was performed through three methods, namely dialysis in the presence of chemical additives along with reduced/oxidized glutathione and drop-wise dilution methods with reduced/oxidized glutathione or reduced DTT/oxidized glutathione. Ellman's assay and ELISA showed that the protein folding obtained by the dialysis method was the most favorable, probably due to the correct folding. Subsequently, serum samples from individuals with chronic infection (n = 76), probable acute infection (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 81) were used to determine the usefulness of the refolded rtSRS3 for Toxoplasma serodiagnosis. The results of the developed IgG-ELISA showed a diagnostic specificity of 91% and a sensitivity of 82.89% and 100% for chronic and acute serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, correctly folded rtSRS3 has the potential to be used as a soluble antigen for the detection of human toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  19. Receipt capability for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, William D. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The United Stated Department of Energy began implementation of the ten year FRR SNF return policy in May, 1996. Seventeen months into the thirteen year return program, four shipments have been made, returning 863 assemblies of aluminum clad SNF to SRS. Five additional shipments containing over 1,200 assemblies are scheduled in fiscal year 1998. During negotiation of contracts with various reactor operators, it has become apparent that many facilities wish to delay the return of their SNF until the latter part of the program. This has raised concern on the part of the DOE that insufficient receipt capability will exist during the last three to five years of the program to ensure the return of all of the SNF. To help quantify this issue and ensure that it is addressed early in the program, a computer simulation model has been developed at SRS to facilitate the planning, scheduling, and analysis of SNF shipments to be received from offsite facilities. The simulation model, called OFFSHIP, greatly reduces the time and effort required to analyze the complex global transportation system that involves dozens of reactor facilities, multiple casks and fuel types, and time-dependent SNF inventories. OFFSHIP allows the user to input many variables including priorities, cask preferences, shipping date preferences, turnaround times, and regional groupings. User input is easily managed using a spreadsheet format and the output data is generated in a spreadsheet format to facilitate detailed analysis and prepare graphical results. The model was developed in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications and runs native in Microsoft Excel. The receipt schedules produced by the model have been compared to schedules generated manually with consistent results. For the purposes of this presentation, four scenarios have been developed. The 'Base Case' accounts for those countries/facilities that DOE believes may not participate in the return program. The three additional scenarios look at the

  20. Physiological and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Arthrobacter sp. SRS-W-1-2016 Provides Insights on Niche Adaptation for Survival in Uraniferous Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashvini; Pathak, Ashish; Jaswal, Rajneesh; Edwards, Bobby; Chappell, Demario; Ball, Christopher; Garcia-Sillas, Reyna; Stothard, Paul; Seaman, John

    2018-01-11

    Arthrobacter sp. strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated on high concentrations of uranium (U) from the Savannah River Site (SRS) that remains co-contaminated by radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics. SRS is located on the northeast bank of the Savannah River (South Carolina, USA), which is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed ecosystem left historically contaminated from decades of nuclear weapons production activities. Predominant contaminants within the impacted SRS environment include U and Nickel (Ni), both of which can be transformed microbially into less toxic forms via metal complexation mechanisms. Strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated from the uraniferous SRS soils on high concentrations of U (4200 μM) and Ni (8500 μM), but rapid growth was observed at much lower concentrations of 500 μM U and 1000 μM Ni, respectively. Microcosm studies established with strain SRS-W-1-2016 revealed a rapid decline in the concentration of spiked U such that it was almost undetectable in the supernatant by 72 h of incubation. Conversely, Ni concentrations remained unchanged, suggesting that the strain removed U but not Ni under the tested conditions. To obtain a deeper understanding of the metabolic potential, a draft genome sequence of strain SRS-W-1-2016 was obtained at a coverage of 90×, assembling into 93 contigs with an N50 contig length of 92,788 bases. The genomic size of strain SRS-W-1-2016 was found to be 4,564,701 bases with a total number of 4327 putative genes. An in-depth, genome-wide comparison between strain SRS-W-1-2016 and its four closest taxonomic relatives revealed 1159 distinct genes, representing 26.7% of its total genome; many associating with metal resistance proteins (e.g., for cadmium, cobalt, and zinc), transporter proteins, stress proteins, cytochromes, and drug resistance functions. Additionally, several gene homologues coding for resistance to metals were identified in the strain, such as outer membrane efflux pump proteins, peptide

  1. Physiological and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Arthrobacter sp. SRS-W-1-2016 Provides Insights on Niche Adaptation for Survival in Uraniferous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Chauhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrobacter sp. strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated on high concentrations of uranium (U from the Savannah River Site (SRS that remains co-contaminated by radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics. SRS is located on the northeast bank of the Savannah River (South Carolina, USA, which is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE managed ecosystem left historically contaminated from decades of nuclear weapons production activities. Predominant contaminants within the impacted SRS environment include U and Nickel (Ni, both of which can be transformed microbially into less toxic forms via metal complexation mechanisms. Strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated from the uraniferous SRS soils on high concentrations of U (4200 μM and Ni (8500 μM, but rapid growth was observed at much lower concentrations of 500 μM U and 1000 μM Ni, respectively. Microcosm studies established with strain SRS-W-1-2016 revealed a rapid decline in the concentration of spiked U such that it was almost undetectable in the supernatant by 72 h of incubation. Conversely, Ni concentrations remained unchanged, suggesting that the strain removed U but not Ni under the tested conditions. To obtain a deeper understanding of the metabolic potential, a draft genome sequence of strain SRS-W-1-2016 was obtained at a coverage of 90×, assembling into 93 contigs with an N50 contig length of 92,788 bases. The genomic size of strain SRS-W-1-2016 was found to be 4,564,701 bases with a total number of 4327 putative genes. An in-depth, genome-wide comparison between strain SRS-W-1-2016 and its four closest taxonomic relatives revealed 1159 distinct genes, representing 26.7% of its total genome; many associating with metal resistance proteins (e.g., for cadmium, cobalt, and zinc, transporter proteins, stress proteins, cytochromes, and drug resistance functions. Additionally, several gene homologues coding for resistance to metals were identified in the strain, such as outer membrane efflux pump proteins

  2. Occurrence, Characterization and Synthesis of Hanford and SRS Tank Heel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRUMHANSL, JAMES L.

    2002-01-01

    , was produced by wicking the pore fluid out of a sludge gel (into packed diatomaceous earth), while simultaneously applying pressure to compact the sludge as it dehydrated. Osmotic gradients could provide the same function as the capillary forces provided by the diatomaceous earth sorbant placed in contact with the sludge. Tests on the anomalous materials added to the tanks all indicated potential problems. Hard granules, and maybe chunks, may be encountered where Portland cement was added to a tank. Sand, spent zeolite resin, and diatomaceous earth, will all react with the tank fluids to produce a sodalite/cancrinite material. The degree of reaction determines whether the grains become cemented together. SRS activities showed that heels formed when spent zeolites were added to tanks can be readily dislodged and it is expected that heels from sand would possess equal or less cohesion. Diatomaceous earth may form more resilient crusts or masses. To summarize, the existence of ''hard'' heels has yet to be documented. A broader definition suggests inclusion of poorly cohesive cancrinite-cemented masses and dense past-like accumulations of abnormally compacted ''normal'' sludges. Chemical treatments to remove these materials must focus on agents that are active against aluminosilicates and hydrous oxides of iron and aluminum. Exploiting the high pore-water content of these materials may provide a second avenue for dislodging such accumulations. Techniques were developed to produce synthetic sludges on which various removal technologies could be tried

  3. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms. Volume 1, State-of-the-art and potential applications at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  4. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  5. A logical source localization approach evaluating SRS-fields from backward atmospheric transport modeling for multiple detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification the use of atmospheric Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models is well established to confine possible source regions of radionuclide detections. For that Source Receptor Sensitivity (SRS) fields are calculated in backward mode. At the German National Data Center (NDC) the NOAA model HYSPLIT is operational using as well NCEP as ECMWF meteorological data in up to 0.2 degree horizontal resolution. For additional comparisons and tests FLEXPART is also available. Various localization approaches for atmospheric backtracking are introduced. Especially a logical approach for combining SRS fields for multiple detections and non-detections is presented and compared with the correlation based PSR given by the CTBT-Organization software tool Webgrape. Our logical method is based on an additive coincidence score value combining binary sensitivities of detecting and non-detecting samples pointing to areas of high source location probability. Additionally, weight-functions and variable threshold values are introduced accounting for radioactive decay and for detectable release terms, respectively. The presented test cases comprise detections related to the Fukushima release 2011, scenarios of the NDC Preparedness Exercises NPE2012 and NP2010, and recent radioxenon occurrences at Schauinsland, Germany (DEX 33). Furthermore, the differences in sensitivity results between simulations in backward and forward mode are discussed. Although the standard backward simulations have huge operational and political advantages in the CTBT context, additional forward simulations for specific cases are essential to provide the most consitent picture of a potential release scenario.

  6. SU-E-T-38: A Head to Head Comparison of Two Commercial Phantoms Used for SRS QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, V; Huang, L; Huang, Y; Szegedi, M; Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Zhao, H; Salter, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare and contrast two commercial SRS QA phantoms. Methods: Both phantoms were evaluated in terms of their ease of setup as well as the time required to switch inserts for different tests. They were both used to evaluate the coincidence of the radiation and laser isocenters of a linear accelerator. End-to-end dosimetric tests were also performed using both ion chambers and films along two planes through the center of the phantoms. Since one phantom allows for multiple ion chamber orientations, a test was also performed to determine the effect of having the chamber oriented along the radiation beam axis’. Results: Changing inserts took 2 minutes on average for one phantom compared to 5 minutes for the other. The laser/radiation isocenter coincidence as determined from each phantom showed a maximum difference of 0.2mm. Ion chamber results were within 0.5% of the expected values when the chamber was perpendicular to the beams but measured a 3% underdose when the chamber was along the beam direction. Gamma (2%,2mm) pass rates of corresponding films were within 1% between phantoms. Conclusion: The results of the corresponding tests run on both phantoms were comparable, showing that the phantoms were equivalent for the subset of SRS QA tests run here. However, the under dose observed when the chamber was parallel to the beam direction suggests that this configuration should be avoided

  7. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor`s heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degrees}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams & Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  8. Analysis Results for Sub-Samples of SRS Tanks 30, 32, and 39 to Support Evaluations of the I-129 Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-11

    In order to appropriately model and predict the chemical integrity and performance of cementitious materials used for waste immobilization at the Savannah River Site (SRS), it is critical to understand the I-129 solubility and distribution within the tank farm. Iodine in radioactive waste and in environmental media is typically highly mobile and long lived. Iodine is ubiquitous in SRS tank waste and waste forms. The iodine is assumed to be soluble and present at low levels in Performance Assessments (PAs) for SRS Tank Farms, and is one of the dose drivers in the PAs for both the SRS Salt Disposal Facility (SDF) and the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF). Analysis of tank waste samples is critical to understanding the Tank Farm iodine inventory and reducing disposal uncertainty. Higher than expected iodine levels have recently been observed in residual solids isolated from some SRS tanks prior to closure, indicating uncertainty regarding the chemical species involved. If the iodine inventory uncertainty is larger than anticipated, future work may be necessary to reduce the uncertainty. This memorandum satisfies a portion of the work scope identified in Task Plan SRNL-RP-2016-00651. A separate memorandum issued previously, reported historical unpublished I-129 data, a significant portion of which was below detectable analytical limits. This memorandum includes iodine and general chemical analysis results for six archived SRNL samples which were previously reported to have I-129 concentrations below detectable limits. Lower sample dilution factors were used for the current analyses in order to obtain concentrations above detection. The samples analyzed included surface and depth samples from SRS tanks 30, 32, and 39.

  9. Development of the Italian version of the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire, SRS-22r-I: cross-cultural adaptation, factor analysis, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Baiardi, Paola; Calabrò, David; Calabrò, Fabio; Foti, Calogero

    2010-11-15

    Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted questionnaire. Translating, culturally adapting, and validating the Italian version of the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22r-I) in order to allow its use with Italian-speaking patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Increasing attention is being given to health-related quality of life measures as a means of adding information about the evaluation of AIS. A translated form of the revised SRS-22 has never been validated in Italian patients with AIS. The development of the SRS-22 questionnaire involved its translation and back-translation, a final review by an Expert Committee, and testing of the prefinal version to establish its correspondence to the original English version. Psychometric testing included factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and test-retest repeatability (Intraclass Coefficient Correlation), and concurrent validity (Pearson correlation) by comparing the SRS-22r-I domains with the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) subscales. It took 4 months to develop a shared version of the SRS-22r-I, which proved to be satisfactorily acceptable when administered to 223 subjects with AIS. Factor analysis indicated a 4-factor solution (54% of the explained variance), and the questionnaire had an acceptable level of internal consistency (α = 0.77) and a high level of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.957). In terms of concurrent validity, the correlations with the related Short-Form-36 subscales were moderate to good in the case of the Pain and Mental Health domains, and moderate in the case of the Function and Self-Image domains. The Italian translation of the SRS-22r has a good factorial structure and psychometric properties, and replicates the results of existing English versions of the questionnaire. Its use for research purposes can therefore be recommended.

  10. SU-E-T-72: Commissioning of a Standardized SRS Cone Set: Determination of the Bolus Gap Factors in a Passively Scattered Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R; Gordon, I; Ghebremedhin, A; Wroe, A; Schulte, R; Bush, D; Slater, J; Patyal, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the proton output factors for an SRS cone set using standardized apertures and varied range compensators (bolus blanks); specifically, to determine the best method for modeling the bolus gap factor (BGF) and eliminate the need for patient specific calibrations. Methods: A Standard Imaging A-16 chamber was placed in a Plastic Water phantom to measure the change in dose/MU with different treatment combinations for a proton SRS cone, using standardized apertures and range compensators. Measurements were made with all apertures in the SRS cone set, with four different range compensator thicknesses and five different air gaps between the end of the SRS cone and the surface of the phantom. The chamber was located at iso-center and maintained at a constant depth at the center of modulation for all measurements. Each aperture was placed in the cone to measure the change in MU needed to maintain constant dose at the chamber, as the air gap was increased with different thicknesses of bolus. Results: The dose/MU varied significantly with decreasing aperture size, increasing bolus thickness, or increasing air gap. The measured data was fitted with the lowest order polynomials that accurately described the data, to create a model for determining the change in output for any potential combination of devices used to treat a patient. For a given standardized aperture, the BGF could be described by its constituent factors: the bolus thickness factor (BTF) and the nozzle extension factor (NEF). Conclusion: The methods used to model the dose at the calibration point could be used to accurately predict the change in output for SRS proton beams due to the BGF, eliminating the need for patient specific calibrations. This method for modeling SRS treatments could also be applied to model other treatments using passively scattered proton beams

  11. Assessment of plankton community and environmental conditions in São Sebastião Channel prior to the construction of a produced water outfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Flores Gianesella

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Plankton community and hydrological conditions were assessed as a part of ao environmental diagnosis in São Sebastião Channel, before the building of a submarine outfall of produced water from the oil maritime terminal of PETR08RÁS. Samples were collected in twenty oceanographic stations located in the oil terminal neighboring area, during the springtime of 1991. Oissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentrations observed indicate an oligo-mesotrophic environment. Phenols and sulfides were absent, 800 values, except for three sampling points, were characteristic of unpolluted environments, although oil and grease were found in half of the sampled stations. Phytoplankton and zooplankton communities presented high diversity and evenness indices for the entire area. Phytoplankton was dominated by phytoflagel1àtes and zooplankton was dominated by copepods, mostly Paracalanus quasimodo. Plankton community composition was similar to that from adjacent regions under low anthropogenic influence.A comunidade planctônica e condições hidrológicas foram avaliadas como parte de um diagnóstico ambiental no Canal de São Sebastião, previamente à construção de um emissário submarino de água de produção, oriunda do terminal marítimo da PETROBRÁS. As amostras foram coletadas em vinte estações oceanográficas situadas na área adjacente ao terminal petrolífero, durante a primavera de 1991. As concentrações de nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos e de cIorofila-a obtidas, indicam um ambiente oligo-mesotrófico. Fenóis e sulfetos não foram detectados e os valores de 080, com exceção de três pontos, foram característicos de ambientes não poluídos, apesar da contaminação por óleos e graxas ter sido observada em metade das estações amostradas. O fito e o zooplâncton apresentaram altos índices de diversidade e equitatividade para toda área estudada. O fitoplâncton foi dominado por fitoflagelados, enquanto que o zoopl

  12. Experimental study of energy, temporal, and spatial characteristics of miniature SRS self-conversion Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustimenko, Nikolai S.; Gulin, Alexander V.; Pashkov, Vadim A.

    2002-07-01

    The progress in development of new solid-state SRS lasers is to a great extent due to the use of the neodymium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate crystal, Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2(Nd:KGW). This laser crystal has a sufficiently low SRS conversion threshold, so it is often used as a self-frequency converter. We demonstrate two new miniature self-conversion lasers at 1.538 micrometers for application in eye-safe devices. The main characteristics of these lasers are presented. The features of these characteristics are discussed.

  13. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    a total dose of 3.95 x 10{sup 6} R, indicated little to no affect on the performance of the material to remove Sr and actinides. Previous testing established that mMST releases oxygen gas during the synthesis, and continues to off-gas during storage post synthesis. The post-synthesis gas release rate was measured under several conditions, including varying the pH of the wash water and at elevated temperature (49 C, typical of bounding summertime storage without air conditioning). Results indicated that a high pH (basic) wash reduced the initial gas release rate, but after 2 days the release rates from all different pH washed samples were not statistically different. The gas release rate at 49 C, a temperature at which the material may be exposed to during shipping and storage, was consistently about 2.5 times higher than the rate at room temperature. All gas release results indicated that vented containers would be necessary for shipping and storage of large quantities of material. Suspension of sorbate-loaded solids into diluted solutions representing intermediate and final stages of washing for 24-hours revealed no evidence of desorption of Sr, Pu or Np from the mMST solids. Based on the results of the Phase III testing as well as that from earlier studies (Phases I and II), SRNL researchers recommend adopting the use of the mMST material for the removal of strontium and actinides from the SRS HLW supernatant liquids in the Actinide Removal Process and Salt Waste Processing Facility. Given the decrease in Sr and Pu removal performance for the mMST having an age of 4 years and 8 months, we recommend that mMST be used within 30 months of production. Furthermore we recommend that DOE provide funding to conduct pilot-scale testing of the mixing and settling characteristics of the mMST and impact, if any, on the generation of hydrogen during processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  14. HRQoL assessment by SRS-30 for Chinese patients with surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcome questionnaire, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-30, had been well received since its establishment in 2003. Literatures from Asia on the use of SRS-30 mainly focused on the translation process and validation process, but not on measuring outcomes, particularly in the Chinese community. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate the HRQoL of Chinese AIS adolescents with severe scoliosis after surgery. Methods One hundred and four Chinese AIS patients with severe scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion between 2009 and 2013 were recruited in this study. They completed SRS-30 questions before surgery, before hospital discharge, and at follow-up. Mean scores and percentages of individual scores in different domains, and composite scores in terms of subtotal and total scores were calculated referring to the scoring system. Gender-specific and period-specific descriptive analyses were described. Correlation of mean domain scores at the three time points were explored to look for any time-specific relationship. Linear regression analysis looking for potential risk factors on domain scores at different time points by gender were also carried out. Results Mean age was 16.28 at surgery, and 83.6% were female. Significant correlations between pre-op scores and scores after surgery were observed in function/activity domain (p=0.05) in males, and pain (p=0.04) and satisfaction with management (p=0.04) domains in females. No gender difference in all 5 domain scores at the 3 time points was found. Pre-op maximum Cobb angle and corrected angle were found to be risk factors on self-image, as well as satisfaction with management, in male and female patients. Conclusions This is the first report on the evaluation of the clinical HRQoL outcomes of Chinese AIS patients with severe scoliosis after surgery. Medical professionals should pay attention to take care of the difference in personal perceptions of

  15. Sensitivity and variability of Presage dosimeter formulations in sheet form with application to SBRT and SRS QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Michael, E-mail: mdumas1127@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine and Karmanos Cancer Institute Detroit, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Rakowski, Joseph T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine and Karmanos Cancer Institute Detroit, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To measure sensitivity and stability of the Presage dosimeter in sheet form for various chemical concentrations over a range of clinical photon energies and examine its use for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) QA. Methods: Presage polymer dosimeters were formulated to investigate and optimize their sensitivity and stability. The dosimeter is composed of clear polyurethane base, leucomalachite green (LMG) reporting dye, and bromoform radical initiator in 0.9–1.0 mm thick sheets. The chemicals are mixed together for 2 min, cast in an aluminum mold, and left to cure at 60 psi for a minimum of two days. Dosimeter response was characterized at energies Co-60, 6 MV, 10 MV flattening-filter free, 15 MV, 50 kVp (mean 19.2 keV), and Ir-192. The dosimeters were scanned by a Microtek Scanmaker i800 at 300 dpi, 2{sup 16} bit depth per color channel. Red component images were analyzed with ImageJ and RIT. SBRT QA was done with gamma analysis tolerances of 2% and 2 mm DTA. Results: The sensitivity of the Presage dosimeter increased with increasing concentration of bromoform. Addition of tin catalyst decreased curing time and had negligible effect on sensitivity. LMG concentration should be at least as high as the bromoform, with ideal concentration being 2% wt. Gamma Knife SRS QA measurements of relative output and profile widths were within 2% of manufacturer’s values validated at commissioning, except the 4 mm collimator relative output which was within 3%. The gamma pass rate of Presage with SBRT was 73.7%, compared to 93.1% for EBT2 Gafchromic film. Conclusions: The Presage dosimeter in sheet form was capable of detecting radiation over all tested photon energies and chemical concentrations. The best sensitivity and photostability of the dosimeter were achieved with 2.5% wt. LMG and 8.2% wt. bromoform. Scanner used should not emit any UV radiation as it will expose the dosimeter, as with the Epson 10000 XL scanner

  16. SU-D-BRA-02: Motion Assessment During Open Face Mask SRS Using CBCT and Surface Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, BB; Fox, CJ; Hartford, AC; Gladstone, DJ [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (Lebanon)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the robustness of immobilization using open-face mask technology for linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with multiple non-coplanar arcs via repeated CBCT acquisition, with comparison to contemporaneous optical surface tracking data. Methods: 25 patients were treated in open faced masks with cranial SRS using 3–4 non-coplanar arcs. Repeated CBCT imaging was performed to verify the maintenance of proper patient positioning during treatment. Initial patient positioning was performed based on prescribed shifts and optical surface tracking. Positioning refinements employed rigid 3D-matching of the planning CT and CBCT images and were implemented via automated 6DOF couch control. CBCT imaging was repeated following the treatment of all non-transverse beams with associated couch kicks. Detected patient translations and rotations were recorded and automatically corrected. Optical surface tracking was applied throughout the treatments to monitor motion, and this contemporaneous patient positioning data was recorded to compare against CBCT data and 6DOF couch adjustments. Results: Initial patient positions were refined on average by translations of 3±1mm and rotations of ±0.9-degrees. Optical surface tracking corroborated couch corrections to within 1±1mm and ±0.4-degrees. Following treatment of the transverse and subsequent superior-oblique beam, average translations of 0.6±0.4mm and rotations of ±0.4-degrees were reported via CBCT, with optical surface tracking in agreement to within 1.1±0.6mm and ±0.6-degrees. Following treatment of the third beam, CBCT indicated additional translations of 0.4±0.2mm and rotations of ±0.3-degrees. Cumulative couch corrections resulted in 0.7 ± 0.4mm average magnitude translations and rotations of ±0.4-degrees. Conclusion: Based on CBCT measurements of patients during SRS, the open face mask maintained patient positioning to within 1.5mm and 1-degree with >95% confidence. Patient positioning

  17. FSI ANALYSIS OF SUBMARINE OUTFALL

    OpenAIRE

    Engin GÜCÜYEN; R. Tuğrul ERDEM; Ümit GÖKKUŞ

    2016-01-01

    In the scope of this study, main pipe of the diffuser, risers, ports, internal and external environments forming the discharge system which is used in application are modelled by Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) program to obtain discharge and structural behaviour. The last two spans of the system (20 m) and four ports on these spans are investigated. While the diameter and geometry of the risers and ports remain constant, the diffuser pipe is modelled in three different ways. These are constan...

  18. FSI ANALYSIS OF SUBMARINE OUTFALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜCÜYEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of this study, main pipe of the diffuser, risers, ports, internal and external environments forming the discharge system which is used in application are modelled by Finite Elements Analysis (FEA program to obtain discharge and structural behaviour. The last two spans of the system (20 m and four ports on these spans are investigated. While the diameter and geometry of the risers and ports remain constant, the diffuser pipe is modelled in three different ways. These are constant sectioned (Model 1, contracting with sharp edge entrance sectioned (Model 2 and gradually contracting sectioned (Model 3 respectively. Among them, only Model 1 is treated as Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF system and it is simulated by FEA to verify FEA solver in the first place. After structural suitability is confirmed, rest of the models are analysed to determine reaction forces and stresses. The discharge is performed as unsteady external flow as well as steady external flow assumption which is widely used in external flow model in the literature. The discharge analyses are performed in two different ways to verify FEA program. Iterative method is accompanying to FEA program. As a result of this study, proper model for structural and discharge behaviour and external flow effects on discharge velocities are obtained.

  19. A comparison of three methods for determining the amount of nitric acid needed to treat HLW sludge at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegwald, S.F.; Ferrara, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison was made of three methods for determining the amount of nitric acid which will be needed to treat a sample of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm. The treatment must ensure the resulting melter feed will have the necessary rheological and oxidation-reduction properties, reduce mercury and manganese in the sludge, and be performed in a fashion which does not produce a flammable gas mixture. The three methods examined where an empirical method based on pH measurements, a computational method based on known reactions of the species in the sludge and a titration based on neutralization of carbonate in the solution

  20. Relation between self-image score of SRS-22 with deformity measures in female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, Y P; Yu, B; Zhang, J G; Shen, J X; Qiu, G X; Li, Y

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a pathology which affects the individual's functioning in the widely understood physical, psychic, and social aspects. More attention should be paid to patients' perception of self-image when evaluating the spine deformity. The present retrospective study evaluated the associations between the deformity measures and self-image score as determined by the SRS-22 questionnaire in Chinese female AIS patients. The self-image score correlates significantly with deformity measures. The location of main curve apex and the number of curve could affect the self-image score. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 202 female patients, collected data on patient's age, body mass index, radiographic and physical measures and self-image score of SRS-22 questionnaire. According to the location of main curve apex and the number of curve, the patients were divided to different subgroups. Correlations between deformity measures and self-image score of different groups were evaluated by the Spearman correlation test. The self-image score correlated negatively with the main Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation (AVT), and razor hump height. There is no significant difference of self-image score between thoracic curve (TC) and thoracolumbar curve (TL/LC) subgroups. And the self-image scores of one-curve, two-curve and three-curve subgroups are similar. For Chinese female AIS patients in our study, self-image was found to correlate negatively with the main Cobb angle, AVT and razor hump height. And the location of scoliosis apex and the number of curve are not influencing factors of self-image perception. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Test Review: Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). "Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition" ("SRS-2"). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Teryn P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition (SRS-2), a 65-item rating scale measuring deficits in social behavior associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as outlined by the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association,…

  2. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Schell, Michael C.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Komaki, Ritsuko; Souhami, Luis; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Khuntia, Deepak; Demas, William; Shah, Sunjay A.; Nedzi, Lucien A.; Perry, Gad; Suh, John H.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m 2 /day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m 2 /day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms

  3. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperduto, Paul W., E-mail: psperduto@mropa.com [Metro MN CCOP, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Wang, Meihua [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Robins, H. Ian [University of Wisconsin Medical School Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Schell, Michael C. [Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Souhami, Luis [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Khuntia, Deepak [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Demas, William [Akron City Hospital, Akron, Ohio (United States); Shah, Sunjay A. [Christiana Care Health Services, Inc, CCOP, Newark, Delaware (United States); Nedzi, Lucien A. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Perry, Gad [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Suh, John H. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  4. SU-F-T-576: Characterization of Two Dimensional Liquid Filled Detector Array(SRS 1000) in High Precision Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, M [Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Manigandan, D [Fortis Cancer Institute, Mohali, Punjab (India); Murali, V; Chitra, S; Ganapathy, K [Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Vikraman, S [Jaypee Hospital – Radiation Onology, Noida, UTTAR PRADESH (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to characterize a two dimensional liquid filled detector array SRS 1000 for routine QA in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system. Methods: SRS 1000 consists of 977 liquid filled ionization chambers and is designed to be used in small field SRS/SBRT techniques. The detector array has got two different spacial resolutions. Till field size of 5.5×5.5 cm the spacial resolution is 2.5mm (center to center) and after that till field size of 11 × 11 cm the spacial resolution is 5mm. The size of the detector is 2.3 × 2.3 0.5 mm with a volume of .003 cc. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system in which a LINAC is mounted on a robotic manipulator to deliver beams with a high sub millimeter accuracy. The SRS 1000’s MU linearity, stability, reproducibility in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system was measured and investigated. The output factors for fixed and IRIS collimators for all available collimators (5mm till 60 mm) was measured and compared with the measurement done with PTW pin-point ionization chamber. Results: The MU linearity was measured from 2 MU till 1000 MU for doserates in the range of 700cGy/min – 780 cGy/min and compared with the measurement done with pin point chamber The MU linearity was with in 3%. The detector arrays stability and reproducibility was excellent and was withinin 0.5% The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 2% when compared with the measurements with pinpoint chamber for both fixed and IRIS collimators with all available field sizes. Conclusion: We have characterised PTW 1000 SRS as a precise and accurate measurement tool for routine QA of Cyberknife Robotic radiosurgery system.

  5. Reduced cerebral infection of Neospora caninum in BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant Brucella abortus RB51 strains expressing N. caninum SRS2 and GRA7 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Gulani, Jatinder; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Boyle, Stephen M; Lindsay, David S; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar

    2007-09-30

    Neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of bovine neosporosis, an important disease affecting the reproductive performance of cattle worldwide. Currently there is no effective vaccine available to prevent N. caninum infection in cattle. In this study, we examined the feasibility of developing a live, recombinant N. caninum vaccine using Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 as the expression and delivery vector. We generated two recombinant RB51 strains each expressing SRS2 (RB51/SRS2) or GRA7 (RB51/GRA7) antigens of N. caninum. BALB/c mice immunized by single intraperitoneal inoculation of the recombinant RB51 strains developed IgG antibodies specific to the respective N. caninum antigen. In vitro stimulation of splenocytes from the vaccinated mice with specific antigen resulted in the production of interferon-gamma, but not IL-5 or IL-10, suggesting the development of a Th1 type immune response. Upon challenge with N. caninum tachyzoites, mice vaccinated with strain RB51/SRS2, but not RB51/GRA7, showed significant resistance to cerebral infection when compared to the RB51 vaccinated mice, as determined by the tissue parasite load using a real-time quantitative TaqMan assay. Interestingly, mice vaccinated with either strain RB51 or RB51/GRA7 also contained significantly lower parasite burden in their brains compared to those inoculated with saline. Mice vaccinated with strain RB51/SRS2 or RB51/GRA7 were protected to the same extent as the strain RB51 vaccinated mice against challenge with B. abortus virulent strain 2308. These results suggest that a recombinant RB51 strain expressing an appropriate protective antigen(s), such as SRS2 of N. caninum, can confer protection against both neosporosis and brucellosis.

  6. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, W. T.; Villasor, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included

  7. The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1991-12-15

    L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indigenous) Biological Communities (BBCs) in accordance with Section 316(a) of the Pollution Control (Clean Water) Act (Public Law 92-500). In response to this requirement the Environmental Sciences Section/Ecology Group initiated a comprehensive biomonitoring program which documented the development of BBCs in L Lake from January 1986 through December 1989. This report summarizes the principal results of the program with regards to BBC compliance issues and community succession in L Lake. The results are divided into six sections: water quality, macronutrients, and phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and community succession. One of the prime goals of the program was to detect potential reactor impacts on L Lake.

  8. SU-F-J-25: Position Monitoring for Intracranial SRS Using BrainLAB ExacTrac Snap Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S; McCaw, T; Huq, M [University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of position monitoring with BrainLAB ExacTrac snap verification following couch rotations during intracranial SRS. Methods: A CT scan of an anthropomorphic head phantom was acquired using 1.25mm slices. The isocenter was positioned near the centroid of the frontal lobe. The head phantom was initially aligned on the treatment couch using cone-beam CT, then repositioned using ExacTrac x-ray verification with residual errors less than 0.2mm and 0.2°. Snap verification was performed over the full range of couch angles in 15° increments with known positioning offsets of 0–3mm applied to the phantom along each axis. At each couch angle, the smallest tolerance was determined for which no positioning deviation was detected. Results: For couch angles 30°–60° from the center position, where the longitudinal axis of the phantom is approximately aligned with the beam axis of one x-ray tube, snap verification consistently detected positioning errors exceeding the maximum 8mm tolerance. Defining localization error as the difference between the known offset and the minimum tolerance for which no deviation was detected, the RMS error is mostly less than 1mm outside of couch angles 30°–60° from the central couch position. Given separate measurements of patient position from the two imagers, whether to proceed with treatment can be determined by the criterion of a reading within tolerance from just one (OR criterion) or both (AND criterion) imagers. Using a positioning tolerance of 1.5mm, snap verification has sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 75%, respectively, with the AND criterion, and 67% and 93%, respectively, with the OR criterion. If readings exceeding maximum tolerance are excluded, the sensitivity and specificity are 88% and 86%, respectively, with the AND criterion. Conclusion: With a positioning tolerance of 1.5mm, ExacTrac snap verification can be used during intracranial SRS with sensitivity and specificity between 85

  9. Minimum 20 Years Long-term Clinical Outcome After Spinal Fusion and Instrumentation for Scoliosis: Comparison of the SRS-22 Patient Questionnaire With That in Nonscoliosis Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takahiro; Suzuki, Nobumasa; Kono, Katsuki; Ohyama, Yasumasa; Imura, Jyunya; Ato, Akihisa; Ozeki, Satoru; Nohara, Yutaka

    2015-08-15

    A retrospective minimum 20-year follow-up study using 4 standard self-administered questionnaires, one of which, the SRS-22 was also administered to control groups. To evaluate long-term postoperative pain and other clinical outcomes of scoliosis correction and fusion surgery with Harrington instrumentation using Moe square-ended rods for better preservation of sagittal alignment. Only a few long-term outcome studies have used standardized and validated self-administered tools, and no studies have established SRS-22 control data within their own population. There is no previous minimum 20-year follow-up evaluation after correction surgery preserving thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. Of 86 consecutive patients who underwent instrumentation surgery for scoliosis by a single surgeon, 61 patients participated using Japanese Orthopaedic Association, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) questionnaires and 51 patients were included in this study. Results were analyzed for pain and other clinical outcomes. A total of 771 hospital employees were sent SRS-22 questionnaires. A total of 763 responded, resulting in 2 control groups composed of nonscoliosis and untreated mild scoliosis controls of the same culture and language as the long-term follow-up group. The prevalence of continuous low back pain was about 15%. Average Japanese Orthopaedic Association, Oswestry Disability Index, and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores at follow-up were 25 points, 7.3%, and 1.6, respectively. The average SRS-22 scores were 4.2 (function), 4.3 (pain), 3.7 (self-image), and 3.9 (mental health) for the postoperative follow-up group compared with 4.5 (function), 4.3 (pain), 3.5 (self-image), and 3.5 (mental health) for the nonscoliosis controls. Improved preservation of normal sagittal alignment resulted in a prevalence of low back pain comparable with the age-matched general population. Moreover, SRS-22

  10. Trends in Attendance at Scoliosis Research Society Annual Meetings (SRS AM) and International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (IMAST): Location, Location, Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Foster; Cho, Woojin; Kim, Han Jo; Levine, David B

    2017-07-01

    Descriptive, respective. Although overall membership in Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) has grown over the years, we were curious to see the effects of changing event venue location and timing on conference attendance. Every year, the SRS hosts two major meetings: the Annual Meeting (SRS AM) in the autumn, and the International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (IMAST) in the summer. Sites have alternated from within and outside North America. Often, these meetings have also overlapped with several holidays in certain countries. This was an observational study of attendance from past SRS AM and IMAST meetings. Fourteen years of AM and 8 years of IMAST data were made available from the SRS. Participation based on delegate type and countries were tallied. Details from the 10 most represented nations and host nations per year were also tallied, and their national holidays were reviewed for overlaps with the AM. Membership in AM and IMAST increased from 820 in 2003 to 1,323 in 2016. Attendance at the AM has increased, whereas attendance at IMAST has declined, even after adjusting for membership size. Trends in participation were highly influenced by location. Participation by attendees from the host continent, and especially the host country, is generally high. The negative impact of distant meetings is profoundly seen with North Americans, whereas the positive impact of a nearby meeting was mostly clearly demonstrated by South Americans. Although SRS AM overlapped with holidays in China, Japan, or Korea nearly 50% of the time, this did not influence participation by delegates from these countries. Participation in the AM is highly influenced by location. Although North Americans represented the largest constituency, their presence was not needed to drive total attendance and was not sufficient to turn around the downturn in IMAST attendance. Choice of location can encourage the participation of delegates from the host and neighboring nations; through strategic

  11. Environmental restoration: Integrating hydraulic control of groundwater, innovative contaminant removal technologies and wetlands restoration--A case study at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.M.; Serkiz, S.M.; Adams, J.; Welty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater remediation program at the F and H Seepage Basins, Savannah River Sits (SRS) is a case study of the integration of various environmental restoration technologies at a single waste site. Hydraulic control measures are being designed to mitigate the discharge of groundwater plumes to surface water. One of the primary constituents of the plumes is tritium. An extraction and reinjection scenario is being designed to keep the tritium in circulation in the shallow groundwater, until it can naturally decay. This will be accomplished by extracting groundwater downgradient of the waste sites, treatment, and reinjection of the tritiated water into the water table upgradient of the basins. Innovative in-situ technologies, including electrolytic migration, are being field tested at the site to augment the pump-treat-reinject system. The in-situ technologies target removal of contaminants which are relatively immobile, yet represent long term risks to human health and the environment. Wetland restoration is an integral part of the F and H remediation program. Both in-situ treatment of the groundwater discharging the wetlands to adjust the pH, and replacement of water loss due to the groundwater extraction program ar being considered. Toxicity studies indicate that drought and the effects of low pH groundwater discharge have been factors in observed tree mortality in wetlands near the waste sites

  12. SRS Tank 38H and 43H Supernate Foaming Studies and Tank 38H Reel Tape Solids Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-04

    Radioactive waste samples retrieved from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tanks 38H and 43H (concentrate receipt and feed tanks, respectively, for the 2H Evaporator system) were evaluated with regard to their tendency to form foams during air sparging. This work was conducted due to recent processing issues and outages in the evaporator that were believed to have resulted from sample foaming. The samples evaluated for foam formation included supernate collected in April of 2014 (near the time of the evaporator outage) as well as historical samples available within the SRNL shielded cells facility. The April samples included one Tank 43H surface sample (HTF-43-14-42), one Tank 43H sub-surface sample (HTF-43-14-43), and one Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-41) surface sample. In addition, two Tank 43H samples (HTF-43-14-8 and HTF-43-14-9) and one Tank 38H sample (HTF-38-14-6) were also evaluated along with a blended sample of various historical Tank 38H and 43H samples. Characterization results for the April samples are also provided. The composition of the samples was similar to historical evaporator system samples received at SRNL.

  13. SRS lasers with self-conversion of radiation frequency based on NaLa(MoO4)2:Nd 3+ and KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Alexander V.; Pashkov, Vadim A.; Ustimenko, Nikolai S.

    2001-03-01

    Efficient multi-wave generation in nanosecond regime SRS self-converter based on NaLa(MoO4)2:Nd3+ crystals by SRS-active mode (omega) equals 888 cm-1 has been obtained. Also parameters of new miniature eye-safe SRS laser ((lambda) equals 1538nm) with self-conversion based on KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal is demonstrated. This laser has differential efficiency 0.3% by pump energy threshold about 1J.

  14. Two items: Transcription of a presentation by Dr. E. L. Albenesius, ''SRS burial ground operation from an historical perspective''; video tape entitled ''Burial ground operation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    On February 6, 1992, approximately 35 SRS personnel from DOE, WSRC, and Dames and Moore attended a very informative talk given by Dr. E.L. Albenesius who discussed the operation of the SRS Burial Ground from an historical perspective. Dr. Albenesius, a Du Point retiree, formerly served as research manager of SRL's Environmental Effects and Solid Waste Management Technology Divisions among other assignments. One notable point Dr. Albenesius made was in answer to a question concerning what was the most important thing that could be done to reduce the hazard to man from buried waste. His response was to remove as much plutonium as practical prior to closure. In order to preserve this valuable information for the record, the program was audiotaped from which a point-by-point chronological transcription, with minor editing, was prepared

  15. Postoperative perceived health status in adolescent following idiopathic scoliosis surgical treatment: results using the adapted French version of Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes questionnaire (SRS-22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Y; Bachy, M; Zakine, S; Mary, P; Khouri, N; Vialle, R

    2013-06-01

    Assessing functional outcome from patient-based outcomes questionnaires are essential to the evaluation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgical treatment At the minimum follow-up of 2 years, 45 operated on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were mailed the French version of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument (SRS-22) questionnaires containing items on pain, activities of daily living, and satisfaction. Mean values of the SRS-22 domains were 3,66 for the Pain domain, 3,85 for the Self-perceived image domain, 4,32 for the Function domain, 3,52 for the Mental health domain and 4,12 for the Global satisfaction with management domain. Mean value of the global SRS-22 score was 3,88. We showed no differences in functional SRS-22 health status in patients according to the type of curve (Lenke classification). We showed statistically significant correlations between the gain of Cobb angle and Patients self-image and function domain scores. There was a statistically significant correlation between preoperative Cobb angle and patient satisfaction with management. Even if Function and Self-image scores in our patients are close to control group values, indicating good short to mid-term outcome of surgical treatment, scores for pain and mental health status were significantly lower in patients than controls. Long-term follow-up studies conducted by multiple surgeons over successive generations are mandatory to assess clinical significance of these differences. Level IV. Retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The efficiency of parameter estimation of latent path analysis using summated rating scale (SRS) and method of successive interval (MSI) for transformation of score to scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimun, Fernandes, Adji Achmad Rinaldo; Arisoesilaningsih, Endang

    2017-12-01

    Research in various fields generally investigates systems and involves latent variables. One method to analyze the model representing the system is path analysis. The data of latent variables measured using questionnaires by applying attitude scale model yields data in the form of score, before analyzed should be transformation so that it becomes data of scale. Path coefficient, is parameter estimator, calculated from scale data using method of successive interval (MSI) and summated rating scale (SRS). In this research will be identifying which data transformation method is better. Path coefficients have smaller varieties are said to be more efficient. The transformation method that produces scaled data and used in path analysis capable of producing path coefficients (parameter estimators) with smaller varieties is said to be better. The result of analysis using real data shows that on the influence of Attitude variable to Intention Entrepreneurship, has relative efficiency (ER) = 1, where it shows that the result of analysis using data transformation of MSI and SRS as efficient. On the other hand, for simulation data, at high correlation between items (0.7-0.9), MSI method is more efficient 1.3 times better than SRS method.

  17. Comparison of indirect ELISA based on recombinant protein NcSRS2 and IFAT for detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep Comparação entre ELISA baseado no antígeno recombinante NcSRS2 e RIFI para detecção de anticorpos de Neospora caninum em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum, an Apicomplexan parasite that can causes abortion, is responsible for considerable economic and reproductive losses in livestock. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether recombinant NcSRS2 is a suitable indirect ELISA antigen for determining specific immune response to N. caninum in sheep. A total of 441 serum samples were subjected to IFAT and rNcSRS2 based-ELISA, with both tests performing similarly. The sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA were 98.6 and 98.3%, respectively. The kappa index shows 0.98 concordance between the two tests, which is considered excellent. Seroprevalences of 30.8 and 32.0% were detected by IFAT and indirect ELISA, respectively, showing these tests did not differ significantly on this measure (p > 0.05. Serological analysis showed that HisG tag was detected by Western Blotting recognizing rNcSRS2 protein. The potential value of rNcSRS2-based ELISA as a highly specific and sensitive tool for serological diagnosis is also supported by the strong agreement found between IFAT and ELISA. The results support the potential use of recombinant protein NcSRS2 as an antigen in indirect ELISA in sheep.Neospora caninum é um parasito Apicomplexa que pode causar abortos e é reconhecido como agente importante responsável por perdas econômicas e reprodutivas. Este estudo avaliou a proteína recombinante NcSRS2 como antígeno para ELISA indireto na determinação de resposta imune para N. caninum em ovinos. 441 amostras de soro foram analisadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto com rNcSRS2 e ambos os testes revelaram comportamento similar. A sensibilidade e especificidade de ELISA indireto foram 98,6 e 98,3%, respectivamente. O índice kappa mostrou uma concordância entre os dois testes com valor de 0,98, que é considerado excelente. Prevalências de 30,8 e 32,0% detectadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto, respectivamente, mostraram que os testes não diferiram significativamente nesse aspecto (P

  18. Remedial technology and characterization development at the SRS F/H Retention Basins using the DOE SAFER methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, W.C. Jr.; Kuelske, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) is a strategy used to accelerate and improve the environmental assessment and remediation of the F/H Retention Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). TMs strategy combines the data quality objectives (DQO) process and the observational approach to focus on data collection and converge on a remedial action early. This approach emphasizes stakeholder involvement throughout the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. The SAFER methodology is being applied to the characterization, technology development, and remediation tasks for the F/H Retention Basins. This ''approach was initiated in the scoping phase of these projects through the involvment of major stakeholders; Department of Energy (DOE)-Savannah River Field Office, DOE-Headquarters, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the state of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), in the development of the Remedial Investigation (RI) workplans. A major activity that has been initiated is the development and implementation of a phase I workplan to identify preliminary contaminants of concern (pCOCs). A sampling plan was developed and approved by the major stakeholders for preliminary characterization of wastes remaining in the F/H Retention Basins. The involvement of stakeholders, development of a site conceptual model, development of remedial objectives for probable conditions, identification of the problem and reasonable deviations, and development of initial decision rules in the planning stages will ensure that preliminary data needs are identified and obtained prior to the initiation of the assessment and implementation phases of the projects resulting in the final remediation of the sites in an accelerated and more cost effective manner

  19. Mapping the SRS-22r questionnaire onto the EQ-5D-5L utility score in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos King Ho Wong

    Full Text Available This is a prospective study to establish prediction models that map the refined Scoliosis Research Society 22-item (SRS-22r onto EuroQoL-5 dimension 5-level (EQ-5D-5L utility scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS patients. Comparison of treatment outcomes in AIS can be determined by cost-utility analysis. However, the mainstay spine-specific health-related quality of life outcome measure, the SRS-22r questionnaire does not provide utility assessment. In this study, AIS patients were prospectively recruited to complete both the EQ-5D-5L and SRS-22r questionnaires by trained interviewers. Ordinary least squares regression was undertaken to develop mapping models, which the validity and robustness were assessed by using the 10-fold cross-validation procedure. EQ-5D-5L utility scores were regressed on demographics, Cobb angle, curve types, treatment modalities, and five domains of the SRS-22r questionnaire. Three models were developed using stepwise selection method. EQ-5D-5L scores were regressed on 1 main effects of SRS-22r subscale scores, 2 as per 1 plus squared and interaction terms, and 3 as per 2 plus demographic and clinical characteristics. Model goodness-of-fit was assessed using R-square, adjusted R-square, and information criteria; whereas the predictive performance was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, and the proportion of absolute error within the threshold of 0.05 and 0.10. A total of 227 AIS patients with mean age of 15.6 years were recruited. The EQ-5D-5L scores were predicted by four domains of SRS-22r (main effects of 'Function', 'Pain', 'Appearance' and 'Mental Health', and squared term of 'Function' and 'Pain', and Cobb angle in Model 3 with the best goodness-of-fit (R-square/adjusted R-square: 62.1%/60.9%. Three models demonstrated an acceptance predictive performance in error analysis applying 10-fold cross-validation to three models where RMSE and MAE were between 0

  20. Spinopelvic Changes Based on the Simplified SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification: Relationships With Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Patients With Prolonged Degenerative Spinal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrölä, Kati; Repo, Jussi; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Ylinen, Jari; Kautiainen, Hannu; Häkkinen, Arja

    2018-04-01

    Cross-sectional, observational study. To study the occurrence of sagittal malalignment, the adaptability of a simplified sagittal modifiers grading of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab adult spinal deformity (ASD) classification, and the deformity-specific SRS questionnaire version 30 (SRS-30) in an unselected adult cohort with symptomatic degenerative spinal disorders. The sagittal modifiers of the SRS-Schwab ASD classification correlate with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures in patients with ASD. The deformities and disabilities caused by sagittal malalignment in patients with common degenerative spinal disorders of multiple etiologies are rarely studied. A simplified and categorizing version of the SRS-Schwab ASD classification in relation to the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the SRS-30 outcomes has not yet been developed. We recruited 874 consecutive patients with degenerative spinal disorders between March 2013 and February 2014. Full spine radiographs were taken and the patients divided into sagittal deformity severity groups: mild or none, moderate, and marked deformity. Participants completed the ODI, SRS-30, and a general health questionnaire. We included 637 patients in the analysis. The severity of sagittal deformity was mild or none in 407 (63.9%) patients, moderate in 159 (25.0%), and marked in 71 (11.1%). Linearity across the modifier grades and deformity classes was found for ODI total score (P = 0.033), and the function/activity (P = 0.004) and self-image/appearance (P = 0.030) domains of the SRS-30. Age, body mass index, duration of symptoms, and the use of painkillers increased while physical activity, working, and educational status decreased significantly with deformity severity. Sagittal spinopelvic malalignment is significantly related to deterioration of the ODI and the SRS-30 in symptomatic adults with degenerative spinal disorders. The SRS-Schwab classification sagittal modifiers categorized into

  1. Change in classification grade by the SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification predicts impact on health-related quality of life measures: prospective analysis of operative and nonoperative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S; Klineberg, Eric; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Moal, Bertrand; Ames, Christopher P; Hostin, Richard; Fu, Kai-Ming G; Burton, Douglas; Akbarnia, Behrooz; Gupta, Munish; Hart, Robert; Bess, Shay; Lafage, Virginie

    2013-09-01

    Multicenter, prospective, consecutive series. To evaluate responsiveness of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab adult spinal deformity (ASD) classification to changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after treatment for ASD. Ideally, a classification system should describe and be responsive to changes in a disease state. We hypothesized that the SRS-Schwab classification is responsive to changes in HRQOL measures after treatment for ASD. A multicenter, prospective, consecutive series from the International Spine Study Group. ASD, age more than 18, operative or nonoperative treatment, baseline and 1-year radiographs, and HRQOL measures (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], SRS-22, Short Form [SF]-36). The SRS-Schwab classification includes a curve descriptor and 3 sagittal spinopelvic modifiers (sagittal vertical axis [SVA], pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence/lumbar lordosis [PI-LL] mismatch). Changes in modifiers at 1 year were assessed for impact on HRQOL from pretreatment values based on minimal clinically important differences. Three hundred forty-one patients met criteria (mean age = 54; 85% females; 177 operative and 164 nonoperative). Change in pelvic tilt modifier at 1-year follow-up was associated with changes in ODI and SRS-22 (total and appearance scores) (P ≤ 0.034). Change in SVA modifier at 1 year was associated with changes in ODI, SF-36 physical component score, and SRS-22 (total, activity, and appearance scores) (P ≤ 0.037). Change in PI-LL modifier at 1 year was associated with changes in SF-36 physical component score and SRS-22 (total, activity, and appearance scores) (P ≤ 0.03). Patients with improvement of pelvic tilt, SVA, or PI-LL modifiers were significantly more likely to achieve minimal clinically important difference for ODI, SF-36 physical component score (SVA and PI-LL only), SRS activity, and SRS pain (PI-LL only). The SRS-Schwab classification provides a validated system to evaluate ASD, and the classification components

  2. SU-D-BRB-04: Plan Quality Comparison of Intracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) for Gamma Knife and VMAT Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, V; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare treatment plan quality of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for VMAT (RapidArc) and Gamma Knife (GK) systems. Methods: Ten patients with 24 tumors (seven with 1–2 and three with 4–6 lesions), previously treated with GK 4C (prescription doses ranging from 14–23 Gy) were re-planned for RapidArc. Identical contour sets were kept on MRI images for both plans with tissues assigned a CT number of zero. RapidArc plans were performed using 6 MV flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams with dose rate of 1400 MU/minute using two to eight arcs with the following combinations: 2 full coplanar arcs and the rest non-coplanar half arcs. Beam selection was based on target depth. Areas that penetrated more than 10 cm of tissue were avoided by creating smaller arcs or using avoidance sectors in optimization. Plans were optimized with jaw tracking and a high weighting to the normal-brain-tissue and Normal-Tissue-Objective without compromising PTV coverage. Plans were calculated on a 1 mm grid size using AAA algorithm and then normalized so that 99% of each target volume received the prescription dose. Plan quality was assessed by target coverage using Paddick Conformity Index (PCI), sparing of normal-brain-tissue through analysis of V4, V8, and V12 Gy, and integral dose. Results: In all cases critical structure dose criteria were met. RapidArc had a higher PCI than GK plans for 23 out of 24 lesions. The average PCI was 0.76±0.21 for RapidArc and 0.46±0.20 for GK plans (p≤0.001), respectively. Integral dose and normal-brain-tissue doses for all criteria were lower for RapidArc in nearly all patients. The average ratio of GK to RapidArc plans was 1.28±0.27 (p=0.018), 1.31±0.25 (p=0.017), 1.81±0.43 (p=0.005), and 1.50±0.61 (p=0.006) for V4, V8, and V12 Gy, and integral dose, respectively. Conclusion: VMAT was capable of producing higher quality treatment plans than GK when using optimal beam geometries and proper optimization techniques.

  3. A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Andrew A; Haher, Thomas R; Brkaric, Mario; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Mathur, Samir; Kohani, Omid; Lowe, Thomas G; Lenke, Larry G; Wenger, Dennis R; Newton, Peter O; Clements, David H; Betz, Randal R

    2002-09-15

    A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire (SRS 24). To evaluate the patient based outcome of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A paucity of information exists with respect to patient measures of outcome regarding the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To our knowledge, no prospective outcome study on this topic thus far exists. Using the SRS 24 questionnaire, seven scoliosis centers agreed to prospectively assess outcome for surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Data were collected before surgery and at 24 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using paired and independent samples t test for all seven SRS 24 questionnaire domains (Pain, General Self-Image, Postoperative Self-Image, Postoperative Function, Function From Back Condition, General Level of Activity, and Satisfaction) using Statistical Package for Social Science. The domains were analyzed with respect to the total cohort, gender, curve magnitude, and type of surgery using independent-samples t tests. A total of 242 patients were included in our analysis. A baseline preoperative pain level of 3.68 of 5 was found. This improved to 4.63 after surgery, representing an improvement of 0.95 points. Surgical intervention was associated with improving outcome when compared with preoperative status. Pain, General Self-Image, Function From Back Condition, and Level of Activity all demonstrated statistically significant improvement as compared with preoperative status (P adolescent scoliosis population. Pain scores were improved in our study population at the 2-year postsurgical follow-up. Statistically significant improvements were likewise seen in the General Self-Image, Function From Back Condition, and Level of Activity domains. The present study demonstrates the ability of surgery to improve the outcome of patients afflicted with

  4. Pantanal of Cáceres: granulometric composition of bottom sediments in the Paraguay River between the outfall of the Cabaçal River and the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Roberto dos Santos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to verify the granulometric composition of bottom sediments along the longitudinal profile of the Paraguay River between the outfall of the Cabaçal River and the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, comprised by the geographic coordinates 15°58’00’’ and 16°50’00’’ South Latitude and 57°40’00’’ and 57°44’00’’ West Longitude. Work activity was conducted to characterize the sites and sediments collection with Van Veen sediment sampler (seven samples; textural analysis of the sediments by the pipetting and sieving method (the method uses a combination of sieving and sedimentation. The Paraguay River exhibits a meandering style with two distinct periods (periodic flooding regime and drought that associated with of bottom sediments alternate processes of erosion, transport and deposition from the discernible changes in the complex landscaping. Thus, the concentration of sand in the bed load transported in the channel (five samples is related to environmental elements and land use. The fine sediments are transferred to the features (bays and ponds and flood plain; the intense fluvial dynamics and the course (alluvial deposition areas contribute to changes in channel and morphologic features (capacity transport and sediment depositions.

  5. Use of ELISA based on NcSRS2 of Neospora caninumexpressed in Pichia pastoris for diagnosing neosporosis in sheep and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Fernandes Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is a disease caused by the protozoon Neospora caninum that leads to significant economic losses in many countries. In the present study, we report on use of the recombinant protein NcSRS2 of N. caninum expressed in Pichia pastoris in an indirect immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA for diagnosing neosporosis infection in sheep and dogs. We observed that the ELISA test yielded specificity of 94.5% and sensitivity of 100% for sheep and specificity of 93.3% and sensitivity of 100% for dogs. We observed that the sensitivity was higher than shown by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, and this was confirmed by means of Western blot. The results from this study suggest that the recombinant protein expressed in P. pastoris is a suitable antigen for use in immunodiagnosis to detect N. caninum in two important species exposed to this parasitosis.

  6. Use of ELISA based on NcSRS2 of Neospora caninum expressed in Pichia pastoris for diagnosing neosporosis in sheep and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Amanda Fernandes; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Andreotti, Renato; Roos, Talita; Roloff, Barbara Couto; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2015-01-01

    Neosporosis is a disease caused by the protozoon Neospora caninum that leads to significant economic losses in many countries. In the present study, we report on use of the recombinant protein NcSRS2 of N. caninum expressed in Pichia pastoris in an indirect immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) for diagnosing neosporosis infection in sheep and dogs. We observed that the ELISA test yielded specificity of 94.5% and sensitivity of 100% for sheep and specificity of 93.3% and sensitivity of 100% for dogs. We observed that the sensitivity was higher than shown by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, and this was confirmed by means of Western blot. The results from this study suggest that the recombinant protein expressed in P. pastoris is a suitable antigen for use in immunodiagnosis to detect N. caninum in two important species exposed to this parasitosis.

  7. NESHAP Area-Specific Dose-Release Factors for Potential Onsite Member-of-the-Public Locations at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). In this report, the DRFs were calculated for potential radionuclide atmospheric releases from 13 SRS release points. The three potential onsite MEI locations to be evaluated are B-Area, Three Rivers Landfill (TRL), and Savannah River Ecology Lab Conference Center (SRELCC) with TRL’s onsite workers considered as members-of-the-public, and the potential future constructions of dormitories at SRELCC and Barracks at B-Area. Each MEI location was evaluated at a specified compass sector with different area to receptor distances and was conducted for both ground-level and elevated release points. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014). The resulting DRFs are compared to the 2014 NESHAP offsite MEI DRFs for three operational areas; A-Area, H-Area, and COS for a release rate of 1 Ci of tritium oxide at 0 ft. elevation. CAP88 was executed again using the 2016 NESHAP MEI release rates for 0 and 61 m stack heights to determine the radionuclide dose at TRL from the center-of-site (COS).

  8. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and unconventional spin-glass freezing in the site-disordered kagome ferrite SrS n2F e4O11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyk, L.; Strobel, S.; Farmer, B.; De Long, L. E.; Niewa, R.

    2018-02-01

    Single-crystal x-ray diffraction refinements indicate SrS n2F e4O11 crystallizes in the hexagonal R -type ferrite structure with noncentrosymmetric space group P 63m c and lattice parameters a =5.9541 (2 )Å , c =13.5761 (5 )Å , Z =2 (R (F )=0.034 ). Octahedrally coordinated 2 a [M (1) and M (1a)] and 6 c sites [M (2 )] have random, mixed occupation by Sn and Fe; whereas the tetrahedrally coordinated 2 b sites [Fe(3) and Fe(3a)] are exclusively occupied by Fe, whose displacement from the ideal position with trigonal-bipyramidal coordination causes the loss of inversion symmetry. Our dc and ac magnetization data indicate SrS n2F e4O11 single crystals undergo a ferro- or ferri-magnetic transition below a temperature TC=630 K with very low coercive fields μoHc ⊥=0.27 Oe and μoHc ∥=1.5 Oe at 300 K, for applied field perpendicular and parallel to the c axis, respectively. The value for TC is exceptionally high, and the coercive fields exceptionally low, among the known R-type ferrites. Time-dependent dc magnetization and frequency-dependent ac magnetization data indicate the onset of short-range, spin-glass freezing below Tf=35.8 K , which results from crystallographic disorder of magnetic F e3 + and nonmagnetic S n4 + ions on a frustrated Kagome sublattice. Anomalous ac susceptibility and thermomagnetic relaxation behavior in the short-range-ordered state differs from that of conventional spin glasses. Optical measurements in the ultraviolet to visible frequency range in a diffuse reflectance geometry indicate an overall optical band gap of 0.8 eV, consistent with observed semiconducting properties.

  9. SRS06, a new semisynthetic andrographolide derivative with improved anticancer potency and selectivity, inhibits nuclear factor-κB nuclear binding in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonathan Chee Woei; Jeyaraj, Ethel Jeyaseela; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Wong, Wai Shiu Fred; Stanslas, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide has been reported with anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties through the inhibition of the activity of signaling molecules such as v-Src, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), STAT3, and PI3K. NF-κB has been proven to promote cancer cell survival, and targeting this pathway will halt the growth of cancer cells. Efforts have been made to produce semisynthetic derivatives of andrographolide with improved anticancer potency and selectivity. Subsequently, the effect of a selected derivative, 3,14,19-tripropionylandrographolide (SRS06), was tested for its action against NF-κB. Screening against 60 US National Cancer Institute (NCI) human cancer cell lines representing leukemia and non-small cell lung (NSCL), colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate, and breast cancers was performed to determine the tumor type selectivity and potency of SRS06. Microculture tetrazolium, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays were used to determine the in vitro anticancer activity, while Western blot studies were performed to ascertain the inhibitory effect of SRS06 on the NF-κB signaling cascade. The TransAM™ p65 assay kit was used to determine NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity in the NSCL cancer cell line A549. From the NCI screening, SRS06 was found to exhibit potent growth-inhibitory effects on multiple cancer cell lines with 10-fold lower 50% growth inhibition (GI50) compared with andrographolide. It was also discerned that the compound preferentially targeted melanoma, CNS, renal, colon, ovarian, prostate, and NSCL cancer cell lines. The DNA fragmentation assay indicated that the main mode of cell death of SRS06-treated A549 cells was via apoptosis. At 5 µmol/l the compound decreased NF-κB protein expression and caused a significant reduction in the nuclear p65 DNA binding activity. SRS06 displayed improved anticancer selectivity and potency when compared with andrographolide. We alluded its anticancer

  10. 12q14 microdeletion syndrome: A family with short stature and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS)-like phenotype and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldt, Frederik; Wallaschek, Hannah; Ripperger, Tim; Morlot, Susanne; Illig, Thomas; Eggermann, Thomas; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Scholz, Caroline; Steinemann, Doris

    2018-03-01

    We report here on the first family with short stature and Silver-Russell-like phenotype due to a microdeletion in 12q14.3. The Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system was used for the clinical diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). The three affected first-degree relatives (index patient, mother and brother) presented with prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, feeding difficulties, a prominent forehead and a failure to thrive, but did not show relative macrocephaly. In addition, our index patient showed dysmorphic facial features, periodically increased sweating, and scoliosis. Learning problems and cardiac arrhythmia presented as additional features of her brother. Using high-resolution array-CGH, heterozygosity for a 1.67 Mb deletion in 12q14.3 was detected in the index patient. The heterozygous loss was confirmed by MLPA in the index patient and the other two affected family members. The deletion includes the genes HMGA2, LLPH, TMBIM4, IRAK3, HELB, GRIP1, and the pseudogene RPSAP52. We conclude from these results and from the data of other patients reported in the literature that haploinsufficiency of HMGA2 leads to the short stature in this family. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. An undulator based high flux and high resolution beamline for atomic, molecular and optical science (AMOS) research at INDUS-2 synchrotron radiation source (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Asim Kumar; Rajasekhar, B.N.; Sahoo, N.K.

    2014-08-01

    A dedicated UV-VUV and soft X-ray beamline to provide several new research opportunities in Photon induced processes in the energy range of 6-250 eV for Atomic Molecular and Optical Science (AMOS) research, a domain still less explored both at national as well international level, has been proposed by Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC. This beamline will use a planar permanent magnet (PPM) undulator based on Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), a 2.5 GeV third generation electron storage ring at RRCAT, Indore, India and is expected to offer a variety of opportunities for more advanced and sustained investigations for AMOS research. A plane mirror and a toroidal mirror are used as the pre-focusing optics of the AMOS beamline. A varied line spacing plane grating monochromator (VLSPGM) in a converging beam, constant included angle mode containing one toroidal focusing mirror and four interchangeable gratings is to be used to cover the energy range of 6 to 250 eV and obtain resolving powers ∼10 4 and intensity ∼10 12 ph/s at the sample position. A toroidal mirror is used to focus the diverging monochromatic light from the monochromator at a distance of 150 cm with a 1:1 magnification. As the first step towards the beamline optics design, the evaluation of the PPM undulator radiation characteristics relevant to beamline design has been performed using the Indus-2 SRS parameters in the long straight section of the ring, PPM undulator parameters, and the empirical expressions available in literature. The software resources such as XOPS, ESRF, France and SPECTRA, Photon factory, Japan have been used for detailed modelling and verification of the empirical computations. Beamline layout preparation, optimization, imaging performance evaluation, and resolving power calculations for ideal beamline optics are carried out using SHADOWVUI, an extension of XOPS software resource. A new mounting of the optical components in the monochromator has been proposed

  12. SU-F-T-569: Implementation of a Patient Specific QA Method Using EBT-XD for CyberKnife SRS/SBRT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerouali, K; Aubry, J; Doucet, R [Centre hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement the new EBT-XD Gafchromic films for accurate dosimetric and geometric validation of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) CyberKnife (CK) patient specific QA. Methods: Film calibration was performed using a triplechannel film analysis on an Epson 10000XL scanner. Calibration films were irradiated using a Varian Clinac 21EX flattened beam (0 to 20 Gy), to ensure sufficient dose homogeneity. Films were scanned to a resolution of 0.3 mm, 24 hours post irradiation following a well-defined protocol. A set of 12 QA was performed for several types of CK plans: trigeminal neuralgia, brain metastasis, prostate and lung tumors. A custom made insert for the CK head phantom has been manufactured to yield an accurate measured to calculated dose registration. When the high dose region was large enough, absolute dose was also measured with an ionization chamber. Dose calculation is performed using MultiPlan Ray-tracing algorithm for all cases since the phantom is mostly made from near water-equivalent plastic. Results: Good agreement (<2%) was found between the dose to the chamber and the film, when a chamber measurement was possible The average dose difference and standard deviations between film measurements and TPS calculations were respectively 1.75% and 3%. The geometric accuracy has been estimated to be <1 mm, combining robot positioning uncertainty and film registration to calculated dose. Conclusion: Patient specific QA measurements using EBT-XD films yielded a full 2D dose plane with high spatial resolution and acceptable dose accuracy. This method is particularly promising for trigeminal neuralgia plan QA, where the positioning of the spatial dose distribution is equally or more important than the absolute delivered dose to achieve clinical goals.

  13. SU-E-T-642: Safety Procedures for Error Elimination in Cyberknife Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A; Alkafi, A; Al-Najjar, W; Moftah, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cyberknife system is used for providing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) hypofractionation scheme. The whole treatment delivery is based on live imaging of the patient. The minor error made at any stage may bring severe radiation injury to the patient or damage to the system itself. Several safety measures were taken to make the system safer. Methods: The radiation treatment provided thru a 6MV linac attached to Kuka robot (Cyberknife G4, Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Several possible errors were identified related to patient alignment, treatment planning, dose delivery and physics quality assurance. During dose delivery, manual and visual checks were introduced to confirm pre and intra-treatment imaging to reduce possible errors. One additional step was introduced to confirm that software tracking-tools had worked correctly with highest possible confidence level. Robotic head move in different orientations over and around the patient body, the rigidity of linac-head cover and other accessories was checked periodically. The vender was alerted when a tiny or bigger piece of equipment needed additional interlocked support. Results: As of our experience treating 525 patients on Cyberknife during the last four years, we saw on and off technical issues. During image acquisition, it was made essential to follow the site-specific imaging protocols. Adequate anatomy was contoured to document the respective doses. Followed by auto-segmentation, manual tweaking was performed on every structure. The calculation box was enclosing the whole image during the final calculation. Every plan was evaluated on slice-by slice basis. To review the whole process, a check list was maintained during the physics 2nd-check. Conclusion: The implementation of manual and visual additional checks introduced along with automated checks for confirmation was found promising in terms of reduction in systematic errors and making the system

  14. SU-F-T-637: Single-Isocenter Versus Multiple-Isocenter VMAT SRS for Unusual Multiple Metastasis Case with Two Widely Separated Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, EM; Popple, RA; Fiveash, JB [The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Single-isocenter (SI) volumetric modulated arc therapy has been shown to be an effective and efficient approach to multiple metastasis radiosurgery. However, certain extreme cases raise the question of whether multiple-isocenter (MI) approaches can still generate superior plans. In this study, we ask this question with respect to a clinical case with two very widely separated lesions. Methods: A patient with two widely separated (d = 12cm) tumors was treated with SI-VMAT SRS using 10MV flattening filter free (FFF) beam with high-definition multi-leaf collimator (HD-MLC, 2.5/5mm) in two non-coplanar arcs using concentric rings to enforce steep gradient. Because of lesion positioning with respect to collimator angle selection, lesions were treated by 5mm leaves. We re-planned the case with a congruent arc arrangement but separate isocenter for each lesion. In this manner, lesions were treated by 2.5mm leaves. Conformity index (CI), V50%, and mean brain dose were compared. Results: Neither conformity (CI-SI = 1.12, CI-MI = 1.08) nor V50% (V50%-SI =8.82cc, V50%-MI =8.81cc) were improved by utilizing a separate isocenter for each lesion. Mean brain dose was slightly reduced (dmean-SI = 118.4 cGy, dmean-MI = 88.7 cGy) by using multiple isocenters. Conclusion: For this case with a lesion at the apex of the brain and another distantly located at the base of skull, employing a separate isocenter for each target did not meaningfully improve plan quality. Single-isocenter VMAT has been shown feasible and equivalent to multiple-isocenter VMAT for multiple metastasis cases in general. In this extreme case, single- and multiple- isocenter VMAT were also equivalent. If rotational setup errors are appropriately corrected, the increased delivery efficiency of the single-isocenter approach renders it preferable to the multiple isocenter approach. Dr’s Thomas, Popple, and Fiveash have all received honoraria from Varian Medical Systems for discussing their experiences with

  15. SU-F-T-459: ArcCHECK Machine QA : Highly Efficient Quality Assurance Tool for VMAT, SRS & SBRT Linear Accelerator Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhatre, V; Patwe, P; Dandekar, P [Sir HN RF Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of complex linear accelerators is critical and highly time consuming. ArcCHECK Machine QA tool is used to test geometric and delivery aspects of linear accelerator. In this study we evaluated the performance of this tool. Methods: Machine QA feature allows user to perform quality assurance tests using ArcCHECK phantom. Following tests were performed 1) Gantry Speed 2) Gantry Rotation 3) Gantry Angle 4)MLC/Collimator QA 5)Beam Profile Flatness & Symmetry. Data was collected on trueBEAM stX machine for 6 MV for a period of one year. The Gantry QA test allows to view errors in gantry angle, rotation & assess how accurately the gantry moves around the isocentre. The MLC/Collimator QA tool is used to analyze & locate the differences between leaf bank & jaw position of linac. The flatness & Symmetry test quantifies beam flatness & symmetry in IEC-y & x direction. The Gantry & Flatness/Symmetry test can be performed for static & dynamic delivery. Results: The Gantry speed was 3.9 deg/sec with speed maximum deviation around 0.3 deg/sec. The Gantry Isocentre for arc delivery was 0.9mm & static delivery was 0.4mm. The maximum percent positive & negative difference was found to be 1.9 % & – 0.25 % & maximum distance positive & negative diff was 0.4mm & – 0.3 mm for MLC/Collimator QA. The Flatness for Arc delivery was 1.8 % & Symmetry for Y was 0.8 % & X was 1.8 %. The Flatness for gantry 0°,270°,90° & 180° was 1.75,1.9,1.8 & 1.6% respectively & Symmetry for X & Y was 0.8,0.6% for 0°, 0.6,0.7% for 270°, 0.6,1% for 90° & 0.6,0.7% for 180°. Conclusion: ArcCHECK Machine QA is an useful tool for QA of Modern linear accelerators as it tests both geometric & delivery aspects. This is very important for VMAT, SRS & SBRT treatments.

  16. SU-E-T-213: Comparison of Treatment Efficiency of Gamma Knife SRS Plans for Brain Metastases with Different Planning Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y; Huang, Z; Lo, S; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To improve Gamma Knife SRS treatment efficiency for brain metastases and compare the differences of treatment time and radiobiological effects between two different planning methods of automatic filling and manual placement of shots with inverse planning. Methods: T1-weighted MRI images with gadolinium contrast from five patients with a single brain metastatic-lesion were used in this retrospective study. Among them, two were from primary breast cancer, two from primary melanoma cancer and one from primary prostate cancer. For each patient, two plans were generated in Leksell GammaPlan10.1.1 for radiosurgical treatment with a Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion machine: one with automatic filling, automatic sector configuration and inverse optimization (Method1); and the other with manual placement of shots, manual setup of collimator sizes, manual setup of sector blocking and inverse optimization (Method2). Dosimetric quality of the plans was evaluated with parameters of Coverage, Selectivity, Gradient-Index and DVH. Beam-on Time, Number-of-Shots and Tumor Control Probability(TCP) were compared for the two plans while keeping their dosimetric quality very similar. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time and Number-of-Shots were calculated as the ratios among the two plans and used for quantitative analysis. Results: With very similar dosimetric and radiobiological plan quality, plans created with Method 2 had significantly reduced treatment time. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time ranged from 20% to 51 % (median:29%,p=0.001), and reduction of Number-of-Shots ranged from 5% to 67% (median:40%,p=0.0002), respectively. Time of plan creation for Method1 and Method2 was similar, approximately 20 minutes, excluding the time for tumor delineation. TCP calculated for the tumors from differential DVHs did not show significant difference between the two plans (p=0.35). Conclusion: The method of manual setup combined with inverse optimization in LGP for treatment of brain

  17. SU-E-T-213: Comparison of Treatment Efficiency of Gamma Knife SRS Plans for Brain Metastases with Different Planning Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y [East Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC (United States); Huang, Z [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Lo, S [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve Gamma Knife SRS treatment efficiency for brain metastases and compare the differences of treatment time and radiobiological effects between two different planning methods of automatic filling and manual placement of shots with inverse planning. Methods: T1-weighted MRI images with gadolinium contrast from five patients with a single brain metastatic-lesion were used in this retrospective study. Among them, two were from primary breast cancer, two from primary melanoma cancer and one from primary prostate cancer. For each patient, two plans were generated in Leksell GammaPlan10.1.1 for radiosurgical treatment with a Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion machine: one with automatic filling, automatic sector configuration and inverse optimization (Method1); and the other with manual placement of shots, manual setup of collimator sizes, manual setup of sector blocking and inverse optimization (Method2). Dosimetric quality of the plans was evaluated with parameters of Coverage, Selectivity, Gradient-Index and DVH. Beam-on Time, Number-of-Shots and Tumor Control Probability(TCP) were compared for the two plans while keeping their dosimetric quality very similar. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time and Number-of-Shots were calculated as the ratios among the two plans and used for quantitative analysis. Results: With very similar dosimetric and radiobiological plan quality, plans created with Method 2 had significantly reduced treatment time. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time ranged from 20% to 51 % (median:29%,p=0.001), and reduction of Number-of-Shots ranged from 5% to 67% (median:40%,p=0.0002), respectively. Time of plan creation for Method1 and Method2 was similar, approximately 20 minutes, excluding the time for tumor delineation. TCP calculated for the tumors from differential DVHs did not show significant difference between the two plans (p=0.35). Conclusion: The method of manual setup combined with inverse optimization in LGP for treatment of brain

  18. SU-E-T-331: Dosimetric Impact of Multileaf Collimator Leaf Width On Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) RapidArc Treatment Plans for Single and Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S; Keeling, V; Ahmad, S; Algan, O

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on normal-brain-tissue doses and dose conformity of SRS RapidArc treatment plans for brain tumors. Methods: Ten patients with 24 intracranial tumors (seven with 1–2 and three with 4–6 lesions) were planned using RapidArc for both Varian Millennium 120 MLC (5 mm leaf width) and high definition (HD) MLC (2.5 mm leaf width). Between 2 and 8 arcs were used with two full coplanar arcs and the rest non-coplanar half arcs. 6 MV beams were used and plans were optimized with a high priority to the Normal Tissue Objective (to achieve dose conformity and sharp dose fall-off) and normal brain tissue. Calculation was done using AAA on a 1 mm grid size. The prescription dose ranged from 14–22 Gy. Plans were normalized such that 99% of the target received the prescription dose. Identical beam geometries, optimizations, calculations, and normalizations were used for both plans. Paddick Conformity Index (PCI), V4, V8 and V12 Gy for normal brain tissue and Integral Dose were used for analysis. Results: In all cases, HD MLC plans performed better in sparing normal brain tissue, achieving a higher PCI with a lower Integral Dose. The average PCI for all 24 targets was 0.75±0.23 and 0.70±0.23 (p ≤0.0015) for HD MLC and Millennium MLC plans, respectively. The average ratio of normal brain doses for Millennium MLC to HD MLC plans was 1.30±0.16, 1.27±0.15, and 1.31±0.18 for the V4, V8, and V12, respectively. The differences in normal brain dose for all criteria were statistically significant with p-value < 0.02. On average Millennium MLC plans had a 16% higher integral dose than HD MLC plans. Conclusion: Significantly better dose conformity with reduced volume of normal brain tissue and integral dose was achieved with HD MLC plans compared to Millennium MLC plans

  19. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    In February 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for total mercury in the middle and lower Savannah River. The initial TMDL, which would have imposed a 1 ng/l mercury limit for discharges to the middle/lower Savannah River, was revised to 2.8 ng/l in the final TMDL released in February 2001. The TMDL was intended to protect people from the consumption of contaminated fish, which is the major route of mercury exposure to humans. The most bioaccumulative form of mercury is methylmercury, which is produced in aquatic environments by the action of microorganisms on inorganic mercury. Because of the environmental and economic significance of the mercury discharge limits that would have been imposed by the TMDL, the Savannah River Site (SRS) initiated several studies concerning: (1) mercury in SRS discharges, SRS streams and the Savannah River, (2) mercury bioaccumulation factors for Savannah River fish, (3) the use of clams to monitor the influence of mercury from tributary streams on biota in the Savannah River, and (4) mercury in rainwater falling on the SRS. The results of these studies are presented in detail in this report. The first study documented the occurrence, distribution and variation of total and methylmercury at SRS industrial outfalls, principal SRS streams and the Savannah River where it forms the border with the SRS. All of the analyses were performed using the EPA Method 1630/31 ultra low-level and contaminant-free techniques for measuring total and methylmercury. Total mercury at National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls ranged from 0.31-604 ng/l with a mean of 8.71 ng/l. Mercury-contaminated groundwater was the source for outfalls with significantly elevated mercury concentrations. Total mercury in SRS streams ranged from 0.95-15.7 ng/l. Mean total mercury levels in the streams varied from 2.39 ng/l in Pen Branch to 5.26 ng/l in Tims Branch

  20. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking: A rationalization of apparent differences among stress corrosion cracking tendencies for sensitized regions in the process water piping and in the tanks of SRS reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequency of stress corrosion cracking in the near weld regions of the SRS reactor tank walls is apparently lower than the cracking frequency near the pipe-to-pipe welds in the primary cooling water system. The difference in cracking tendency can be attributed to differences in the welding processes, fabrication schedules, near weld residual stresses, exposure conditions and other system variables. This memorandum discusses the technical issues that may account the differences in cracking tendencies based on a review of the fabrication and operating histories of the reactor systems and the accepted understanding of factors that control stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steels

  1. SU-F-T-587: Quality Assurance of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Patient Specific Plans: A Comparison Between MATRIXX and Delta4 QA Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, YC; Lu, SH; Chen, LH; Kuo, SH; Wang, CW [National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) is necessary to accurately deliver high dose radiation to the target, especially for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Unlike previous 2 dimensional (D) array QA devices, Delta{sup 4} can verify the dose delivery in 3D. In this study, the difference between calculated and measured dose distribution was compared with two QA devices (MATRIXX and Delta{sup 4}) to evaluate the delivery accuracy. Methods: Twenty-seven SRS/SBRT plans with VMAT were verified with point-dose and dose-map analysis. We use an ion chamber (A1SL, 0.053cc) for point-dose measurement. For verification of the dose map, the differences between the calculated and measured doses were analyzed with a gamma index using MATRIXX and Delta{sup 4} devices. The passing criteria for gamma evaluation were set at 3 mm for distance-to-agreement (DTA) and 3% for dose-difference. A gamma index less than 1 was defined as the verification passing the criteria and satisfying at least 95% of the points. Results: The mean prescribed dose and fraction was 40 ± 14.41 Gy (range: 16–60) and 10 ± 2.35 fractions (range: 1–8), respectively. In point dose analysis, the differences between the calculated and measured doses were all less than 5% (mean: 2.12 ± 1.13%; range: −0.55% to 4.45%). In dose-map analysis, the average passing rates were 99.38 ± 0.96% (range: 95.31–100%) and 100 ± 0.12% (range: 99.5%–100%) for MATRIXX and Delta{sup 4}, respectively. Even using criteria of 2%/2 mm, the passing rate of Delta{sup 4} was still more than 95% (mean: 99 ± 1.08%; range: 95.6%–100%). Conclusion: Both MATRIXX and Delta{sup 4} offer accurate and efficient verification for SRS/SBRT plans. The results measured by MATRIXX and Delta{sup 4} dosimetry systems are similar for SRS/SBRT performed with the VMAT technique.

  2. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

  3. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL's sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL's outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE's purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives

  4. DNA repair genes RAD52 and SRS2, a cell wall synthesis regulator gene SMI1, and the membrane sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 are important in efficient Agrobacterium-mediated yeast transformation with chromosomal T-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmine, Yuta; Satoh, Yukari; Kiyokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shinji; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2016-04-02

    Plant pathogenic Agrobacterium strains can transfer T-DNA regions of their Ti plasmids to a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, including fungi, in vitro. In the recent decade, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a model host to reveal important host proteins for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT). Further investigation is required to understand the fundamental mechanism of AMT, including interaction at the cell surface, to expand the host range, and to develop new tools. In this study, we screened a yeast mutant library for low AMT mutant strains by advantage of a chromosome type T-DNA, which transfer is efficient and independent on integration into host chromosome. By the mutant screening, we identified four mutant strains (srs2Δ, rad52Δ, smi1Δ and erg28Δ), which showed considerably low AMT efficiency. Structural analysis of T-DNA product replicons in AMT colonies of mutants lacking each of the two DNA repair genes, SRS2 and RAD52, suggested that the genes act soon after T-DNA entry for modification of the chromosomal T-DNA to stably maintain them as linear replicons and to circularize certain T-DNA simultaneously. The cell wall synthesis regulator SMI1 might have a role in the cell surface interaction between the donor and recipient cells, but the smi1Δ mutant exhibited pleiotropic effect, i.e. low effector protein transport as well as low AMT for the chromosomal T-DNA, but relatively high AMT for integrative T-DNAs. The ergosterol synthesis regulator/enzyme-scaffold gene ERG28 probably contributes by sensing a congested environment, because growth of erg28Δ strain was unaffected by the presence of donor bacterial cells, while the growth of the wild-type and other mutant yeast strains was suppressed by their presence. RAD52 and the DNA helicase/anti-recombinase gene SRS2 are necessary to form and maintain artificial chromosomes through the AMT of chromosomal T-DNA. A sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 is important in the high

  5. SU-E-T-05: 4D Measurement-Guided Dose Reconstruction (4D-MGDR) in End-End Quality Assurance (E2E QA) for Assessing Safety Margin in Radiosurgery (SRS) From Clinical Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, M; Leung, R; Wong, M; Lee, V; Law, G; Lee, K; Tung, S [Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Blanck, O [University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the plan robustness and safety margin in SRS from 4DMGDR in E2E QA based on clinical objectives. Methods: OCTAVIUS SRS 1000 detector array and 4D phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used to measure 5 coplanar SRS plans with 1 and 2 mm planning target volume (PTV). 3 targets were clinical, and 2 were virtual simulated to be 1mm from the brainstem (BS), and between chiasm (CS) and optic nerve (ON). Planning was done on Monaco v5.0 (Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO) to achieve 95–99% PTV and 100% gross tumor volume (GTV) prescription dose coverage. CBCT setup of the 4D phantom by 6D robotic couch was performed as for real patient. 4D-MGDR in patient CT and dosimetric analysis were performed in PTW Verisoft v6.1. The safety margin that achieved 100% GTV coverage was determined, and doses to 2% (D2%) of BS, ON and CS were assessed from E2E QA. Results: 100% GTV coverage was achieved with 1mm margin for 2 plans and 2mm margin for all plans. 98.3% and 99.4% GTV coverage were found in E2E QA for 1mm PTVs that either had sharp changing contour, or was nearby CS and ON or BS, and had either low planned minimum GTV dose (∼101% of the prescribed dose vs.∼106%) or compromised PTV coverage (95% vs. 99%). D2% to CS obtained with 4D-MGDR for one virtual target were 18.8Gy for 1mm PTV and 19.2Gy for 2mm PTV, exceeding the planned tolerance of 18Gy/3 fractions for prescription dose of 24Gy. Conclusion: 1mm margin is generally sufficient for dose planning and machine delivery errors. Irregular GTV with just enough dose coverage to spare critical organs may need 2mm margin at the costs of possible higher organ doses. 4D MGDR in an E2E QA approach can put the treatment plan evaluation in clinical perspectives.

  6. Rosebud Casino and Hotel NPDES Proposed Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Country, Minor Permit, proposed permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  7. NESHAP Dose-Release Factor Isopleths for Five Source-to-Receptor Distances from the Center of Site and H-Area for all Compass Sectors at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). This report presents the DRFs of tritium oxide released at two onsite locations, center-of-site (COS) and H-Area, at 0 ft. elevation to maximally exposed individuals (MEIs) located 1000, 3000, 6000, 9000, and 12000 meters from the release areas for 16 compass sectors. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014).

  8. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams' biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL

  9. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  10. Hydrofoil controls outfall effluents in rivers and oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costen, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    System, which consists of vertical semispan hydrofoil anchored in water bed and set at angle of attack with respect to ambient water flow, works by keeping pollutants concentrated within long trailing vortex generated by hydrofoil and either deflecting vortex away from sensitive regions or sweeping it from side to side for rapid dispersion.

  11. Ocean outfall off Mangalore, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Chandramohan, P.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.

    Various industries like refineries, petrochemicals, thermal power, iron and steel, copper smelter, nylon and resins, etc. are coming up along the coastal belt of India. They generally intend to discharge the effluent, brine and warm water from...

  12. Physical oceanographic investigation procedure for a sea - Outfall project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.

    Coastal areas of the oceans have long been used for the disposal of domestic and industrial effluents. With growing interest in environmental problems came the realization that there is a limit to assimilate all pollutants. Much need to be done...

  13. Use of tracers for locating and designing sea outfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, M.; Quetin, B.

    1976-01-01

    Various tracers are used for investigating the propagation of substances in solution or suspension (radioactive, biological, chemical substances and floats). Floats and dyes are the most employed. The main problems associated with the use of such tracers and data interpretation are discussed and it is shown how effective quantitative data can be obtained, especially as regards estimation of turbulent diffusion parameters and identification of suitable dispersion methods for purposes of determining pollutant concentration and areas affected thereby [fr

  14. The practical outfall of Department of Energy compliance agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Henrie, G.O.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most effective methods used by the US Department of Energy and its regulators to address mixed waste management issue is the negotiation of compliance agreements. These agreements establish formal milestones for bringing the US Department of Energy sites into compliance. The milestones are to be completed without overcoming technical roadblocks and a struggle for funding. However, agreements can establish technically attainable compliance methods that take into account the special problems radiation introduces into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 waste management. Compliance agreements help promote a cooperative relationship within the US Department of Energy and between the US Department of Energy and its regulators in that all parties have reached agreement and have a stake in attaining the same goal. Where agreements exist, mixed waste compliance efforts can proceed in a situation where all parties have a full understanding of each other's needs and expectations

  15. Does education level affect the efficacy of a community based salt reduction program? - A post-hoc analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L; Hoes, Arno W; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-11

    Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. The China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS) was a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in 120 villages from five Northern Chinese provinces. The intervention comprised a village-wide health education program and availability of salt substitute at village shops. 24-h urine samples were collected among 1903 participants for primary evaluation of the intervention effect. A post-hoc analysis was done to explore for heterogeneity of intervention effects by education level using generalized estimating equations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and province. Daily salt intake was lower in intervention than in control at all educational levels with no evidence of a difference in the effect of the intervention across different levels of education. P value for the interaction term between education level and the intervention was 0.35. There was likewise no evidence of an interaction for effects of the intervention on potassium intake (p = 0.71), the sodium to potassium ratio (p = 0.07), or knowledge and behaviors related to salt (all p > 0.05). The study suggests that the effects of the intervention were achieved regardless of the level of education and that the intervention should therefore be broadly effective in rural Chinese populations. The trial was registered with clinicaltrial.gov ( NCT01259700 ).

  16. Does education level affect the efficacy of a community based salt reduction program? - A post-hoc analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. Methods The China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS was a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in 120 villages from five Northern Chinese provinces. The intervention comprised a village-wide health education program and availability of salt substitute at village shops. 24-h urine samples were collected among 1903 participants for primary evaluation of the intervention effect. A post-hoc analysis was done to explore for heterogeneity of intervention effects by education level using generalized estimating equations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and province. Results Daily salt intake was lower in intervention than in control at all educational levels with no evidence of a difference in the effect of the intervention across different levels of education. P value for the interaction term between education level and the intervention was 0.35. There was likewise no evidence of an interaction for effects of the intervention on potassium intake (p = 0.71, the sodium to potassium ratio (p = 0.07, or knowledge and behaviors related to salt (all p > 0.05. Conclusions The study suggests that the effects of the intervention were achieved regardless of the level of education and that the intervention should therefore be broadly effective in rural Chinese populations. Trial registration The trial was registered with clinicaltrial.gov ( NCT01259700 .

  17. Risk-Based Remediation Approach for Cs-137 Contaminated Sediment/Soils at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Lower Three Runs Tail (U) - 13348 - SRNS-RP-2012-00546

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Candice [Department of Energy- Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Bergren, Christopher; Blas, Susan; Kupar, James [Area Completion Projects, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Lower Three Runs is a large blackwater stream that runs through the eastern and southern portion of the Savannah River Site. The Lower Three Runs watershed includes two SRS facility areas: P Area (P Reactor) and R Area (R Reactor) that provided effluent discharges to Lower Three Runs. During reactor operations, effluent discharges were well above natural (pre-industrial) or present day stream discharges. The watershed contains a 2,500-acre mainstream impoundment (PAR Pond), several smaller pre-cooler ponds, and a canal system that connects the pre-cooler ponds and discharges surface water to PAR Pond. From the PAR Pond dam, Lower Three Runs flows approximately 36 kilometers braiding through bottom-land/flood-plain forests before it enters the Savannah River. About eight kilometers downstream from the PAR Pond dam, the SRS boundary narrows (termed the Lower Three Runs tail) providing a limited buffer of DOE property for the Lower Three Runs stream and associated flood-plain. Previous screening characterization efforts revealed Cs-137 contamination in the sediment/soils of the flood-plain. As a part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus package, a comprehensive characterization effort was executed on the sediment/soils of the Lower Three Runs tail flood-plain providing a comprehensive look at the contaminant signature of the area. As a follow-up to that characterization, a regulatory decision Core Team, comprised of members of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Environmental Protection Agency - Region IV, and DOE, conducted negotiations on a risk-based approach to address the level of contamination found in the tail flood-plain as an early action that provided a long-term solution to exposure scenarios. For evaluation purposes, the adolescent trespasser was selected as the most likely human receptor for the Lower Three Runs tail portion because of the natural attractiveness of the area for recreational activities (i

  18. Inline CBET Model Including SRS Backscatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-26

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been used as a tool on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) since the first energetics experiments in 2009 to control the energy deposition in ignition hohlraums and tune the implosion symmetry. As large amounts of power are transferred between laser beams at the entrance holes of NIF hohlraums, the presence of many overlapping beat waves can lead to stochastic ion heating in the regions where laser beams overlap [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 195004 (2012)]. Using the CBET gains derived in this paper, we show how to implement these equations in a ray-based laser source for a rad-hydro code.

  19. SRS environmental technology development field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    A critical and difficult step in the development and implementation of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is successfully transferring these technologies to industry and government users for routine assessment and compliance activities. The Environmental Sciences Section of the DOE Savannah River Technology Center provides a forum for developers, potential users, and regulatory organizations to evaluate new technologies in comparison with baseline technologies in a well characterized field test bed. The principal objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive, objective field tests of monitoring and characterization technologies that are not currently used in EPA standard methods and evaluate their performance during actual operating conditions against baseline methods. This paper provides an overview of the field test site and a description of some of the technologies demonstrated at the site including their field applications

  20. Laser SRS tracker for reverse prototyping tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, Egor; Redka, Dmitriy; Grishkanich, Aleksandr; Tsvetkov, Konstantin

    2017-10-01

    According to the current great interest concerning Large-Scale Metrology applications in many different fields of manufacturing industry, technologies and techniques for dimensional measurement have recently shown a substantial improvement. Ease-of-use, logistic and economic issues, as well as metrological performance, are assuming a more and more important role among system requirements. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of chip and microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The system consists of a distributed network-based layout, whose modularity allows to fit differently sized and shaped working volumes by adequately increasing the number of sensing units. Differently from existing spatially distributed metrological instruments, the remote sensor devices are intended to provide embedded data elaboration capabilities, in order to share the overall computational load.

  1. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used

  2. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  3. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  4. Introduction to: GTR-SRS-226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin O. Sills; R. David Simpson; E. Evan Mercer

    2017-01-01

    Given the economic importance of wood products in the U.S. South, the value of southern forests as timberlands is well known and acknowledged in State policy decisions. However, timber represents only part of the value of forests, and forestry leaders are increasingly interested in quantifying the full value of the South’s forests, i.e., the value of all final...

  5. Smart Ride Seeker (SRS) An Introductory Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A diverse range of architectures and concepts was proposed by scholars within the theme of Car Pooling Problem solving. Most of these scholars have attempted to put together two major elements: the need for people to move from a place to another, and the resources used to accomplish this action. Based on the use of location and available car seats, Car sharing systems allowed a substantial number of people to share car rides. These systems would, among other advantages, rationalize energy con...

  6. SU-E-J-138: An IGRT QA Device for Measuring with Tenths-Millimeter Accuracy KV and MV Isocenter Congruence, Couch Travel and Laser Alignment of Accelerators Used for SRS and SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezovich, I; Popple, R; Duan, J; Huang, M; Benhabib, S; Shen, S; Cardan, R; Wu, X [University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a practical device having sufficient accuracy for daily QA tests of accelerators used for SRS and SBRT. Methods: The UAB (Universal Alignment Ball) consists of a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) diameter tungsten sphere located concentrically within a 25.4 mm (1 inch) diameter acrylic plastic (PMMA) sphere. The spheres are embedded in polystyrene foam, which, in turn, is surrounded by a cylindrical PMMA shell. The UAB is placed on the couch and aligned with wall lasers according to marks that have known positions in relation to the center of the spheres. Using planar and cone beam images the couch is shifted till the surface of the PMMA sphere matches Eclipse-generated circular contours. Anterior and lateral MV images taken with small MLC openings allow measurement of distance between kV and MV isocenter, laser and MLC alignment. Measurements were taken over a one-month period. Results: Artifacts from the tungsten sphere were confined within the PMMA sphere and did not affect cone beam localization of the sphere boundary, allowing 0.1 mm precise alignment with a computer-generated circle centered at kV isocenter. In tests extending over a one-month period, the distance between kV and MV isocenters along the vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions was 0.125 +/−0.06, 0.19 +/−0.08, and 0.02 +/−0.08 mm, respectively. Laser misalignment along these directions was 0.34 +/- 0.15, 0.74 +/−0.29, and 0.49 +/−0.22 mm. Automated couch shifts moved the spheres to within 0.1 mm of the selected position. The center of a 1cmx1cm MLC-defined field remained within +/−0.2 mm of the tungsten sphere center as the gantry was rotated. Conclusion: The UAB is practical for daily end-to-end QA tests of accelerator alignment. It provides tenths-mm accuracy for measuring agreement of kV and MV isocenters, couch motions, gantry flex and laser alignment.

  7. SU-E-J-70: Feasibility Study of Dynamic Arc and IMRT Treatment Plans Utilizing Vero Treatment Unit and IPlan Planning Computer for SRS/FSRT Brain Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, S; Lee, S; Dagan, R; Malyapa, R; Mendenhall, N; Mendenhall, W; Ho, M; Hough, D; Yam, M; Li, Z

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of utilizing Dynamic Arc (DA) and IMRT with 5mm MLC leaf of VERO treatment unit for SRS/FSRT brain cancer patients with non-invasive stereotactic treatments. The DA and IMRT plans using the VERO unit (BrainLab Inc, USA) are compared with cone-based planning and proton plans to evaluate their dosimetric advantages. Methods: The Vero treatment has unique features like no rotational or translational movements of the table during treatments, Dynamic Arc/IMRT, tracking of IR markers, limitation of Ring rotation. Accuracies of the image fusions using CBCT, orthogonal x-rays, and CT are evaluated less than ∼ 0.7mm with a custom-made target phantom with 18 hidden targets. 1mm margin is given to GTV to determine PTV for planning constraints considering all the uncertainties of planning computer and mechanical uncertainties of the treatment unit. Also, double-scattering proton plans with 6F to 9F beams and typical clinical parameters, multiple isocenter plans with 6 to 21 isocenters, and DA/IMRT plans are evaluated to investigate the dosimetric advantages of the DA/IMRT for complex shape of targets. Results: 3 Groups of the patients are divided: (1) Group A (complex target shape), CI's are same for IMRT, and DGI of the proton plan are better by 9.5% than that of the IMRT, (2) Group B, CI of the DA plans (1.91+/−0.4) are better than cone-based plan, while DGI of the DA plan is 4.60+/−1.1 is better than cone-based plan (5.32+/−1.4), (3) Group C (small spherical targets), CI of the DA and cone-based plans are almost the same. Conclusion: For small spherical targets, cone-based plans are superior to other 2 plans: DS proton and DA plans. For complex or irregular plans, dynamic and IMRT plans are comparable to cone-based and proton plans for complex targets

  8. Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The A-01 effluent outfall, which collects both normal daily process flow and stormwater runoff from a industrial park area, did not meet the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for metals, toxicity, and total residual chlorine at the outfall sampling point. Copper was the constituent of primary concern and the effluent consistently failed to meet that NPDES limit. Installation of a constructed wetland system including a basin to manage stormwater surges was required to reduce the problematic constituent concentrations to below the NPDES permit limits before the effluent reaches the sampling point. Both bench-scale and on-site pilot scale physical models were constructed to refine and optimize the preliminary design as well as demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach prior to construction, which was completed in October 2000. The constructed treatment wetlands system has prov en its ability to treat industrial wastewaters containing metals with low O and M costs since there are no mechanical parts. With an anticipated life of over 50 years, this system is exceptionally cost effective

  9. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  10. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act

  11. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-03-31

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ''Guideline'' for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application

  14. NPDES Permit for National World War II Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000345, the National World War II Memorial is authorized to discharge from a facility located at 17th St. and Independence Ave., S.W. Washington DC 20024.

  15. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): PCS_NPDES

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  16. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): PCS_NPDES_MAJOR

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that are...

  17. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): ER_WWTP_NPDES

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry System (FRS) for the subset of Waste Water Treatment...

  18. 77 FR 13601 - Notice of Proposed NPDES General Permit; Proposed NPDES General Permit for New and Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    .../ . Supplementary Information: Statutory and Regulatory History The Clean Water Act (``CWA'') establishes a.... Covered operators would fall primarily under the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) 211 and 213 code series (previously the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 13 code series). To...

  19. 77 FR 61605 - Notice of Proposed NPDES General Permit; Final NPDES General Permit for New and Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... the Region's responses to comments and the final permit may be obtained from the EPA Region 6 internet... discharges containing methanol up to 20 bbl/ event and ethylene glycol up to 200 bbl/event; 5. Change the...

  20. A process control software package for the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, V.R.; Poole, D.E.; Rawlinson, W.R.

    1980-03-01

    The development of software to give high level access from application programs for monitoring and control of the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source on a network-wide basis is described. The design and implementation of the control system database, a special supervisor call and and 'executive' type task handling of all process input/output services for the 7/32 (which runs under 05/32-MT), and process control 'device driver' software for the 7/16 (run under L5/16-MT) are included. (UK)

  1. SRS station guide. Station 2.3 manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.; Miller, M.; Laundy, D.

    1996-06-01

    The object of the manual is to effectively provide assistance to users so that they can perform successful experiments at station 2.3 during their visits. In order to compile a comprehensive document, the functions of the instrument hardware and software are described in detail. Where appropriate it also contains useful information and other documentation for help and/or reference. In addition, suggestions and instructions are available to overcome problems which inevitably face the users as the instrument is quite advanced in the performing of complex experimental tasks. This document can provide help as part of the overall user support facility and it is therefore intended that the manual is readily available in hardcopy as well as in electronic form. (author)

  2. Remediation of SRS Basins by In Situ Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the late summer of 1998, the Savannah River Site began remediation of two radiologically contaminated basins using in situ stabilization. These two high-risk, unlined basins contain radiological contaminants, which potentially pose significant risks to human health and the environment. The selected remedy involves in situ stabilization/solidification of the contaminated wastes (basin and pipeline soils, pipelines, vegetation, and other debris) followed by installation of a low permeability soil cover

  3. SRS K-area material storage. Expanding capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s continued plans to de-inventory and reduce the footprint of Cold War era weapons’ material production sites, the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, located in the K-Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site reservation, has expanded since its startup authorization in 2000 to accommodate DOE’s material consolidation mission. During the facility’s growth and expansion, KAMS will have expanded its authorization capability of material types and storage containers to allow up to 8200 total shipping containers once the current expansion effort completes in 2014. Recognizing the need to safely and cost effectively manage other surplus material across the DOE Complex, KAC is constantly evaluating the storage of different material types within K area. When modifying storage areas in KAC, the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) must undergo extensive calculations and reviews; however, without an extensive and proven security posture the possibility for expansion would not be possible. The KAC maintains the strictest adherence to safety and security requirements for all the SNM it handles. Disciplined Conduct of Operations and Conduct of Projects are demonstrated throughout this historical overview highlighting various improvements in capability, capacity, demonstrated cost effectiveness and utilization of the KAC as the DOE Center of Excellence for safe and secure storage of surplus SNM.

  4. The TOTEM DAQ based on the Scalable Readout System (SRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Michele; Cafagna, Francesco S.; Fiergolski, Adrian; Radicioni, Emilio

    2018-02-01

    The TOTEM (TOTal cross section, Elastic scattering and diffraction dissociation Measurement at the LHC) experiment at LHC, has been designed to measure the total proton-proton cross-section and study the elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC energies. In order to cope with the increased machine luminosity and the higher statistic required by the extension of the TOTEM physics program, approved for the LHC's Run Two phase, the previous VME based data acquisition system has been replaced with a new one based on the Scalable Readout System. The system features an aggregated data throughput of 2GB / s towards the online storage system. This makes it possible to sustain a maximum trigger rate of ˜ 24kHz, to be compared with the 1KHz rate of the previous system. The trigger rate is further improved by implementing zero-suppression and second-level hardware algorithms in the Scalable Readout System. The new system fulfils the requirements for an increased efficiency, providing higher bandwidth, and increasing the purity of the data recorded. Moreover full compatibility has been guaranteed with the legacy front-end hardware, as well as with the DAQ interface of the CMS experiment and with the LHC's Timing, Trigger and Control distribution system. In this contribution we describe in detail the architecture of full system and its performance measured during the commissioning phase at the LHC Interaction Point.

  5. HB-Line Material Control and Accountability Measurements at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Presently, HB-Line work at the Savannah River Site consists primarily of the stabilization and packaging of nuclear materials for storage and the characterization of materials for disposition in H-Area. In order to ensure compliance with Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Regulations, accountability measurements are performed throughout the HB-Line processes. Accountability measurements are used to keep track of the nuclear material inventory by constantly updating the amount of material in the MBAs (Material Balance Area) and sub-MBAs. This is done by subtracting the amount of accountable material that is added to a process and by adding the amount of accountable material that is put back in storage. A Physical Inventory is taken and compared to the ''Book Value'' listed in the Nuclear Material Accounting System. The difference (BPID) in the Book Inventory minus the Physical Inventory of a sub-account for bulk material must agree within the measurement errors combined in quadrature to provide assurance that nuclear material is accounted for. This work provides an overview of HB-Line processes and accountability measurements. The Scrap Recovery Line and Neptunium-237/Plutonium-239 Oxide Line are described and sampling and analyses for Phase II are provided. Recommendations for improvements are provided to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness

  6. Online analytical systems for the uranium solidification facility at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaymeh, S.R.; O'Rourke, P.E.; Van Hare, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    A new Uranium Solidification Facility (USF) is scheduled for completion in the latter part of 1990. This facility will convert liquid uranyl nitrate product from the Savannah River Site reactor reprocessing plant to solid uranium trioxide for shipment to Oak Ridge Y-12 plant. High- and low-level online uranium measurement systems have been developed to provide nuclear safety, process control, material control, and accountability information to the facility operator. The low level uranium concentration will be determined by an improved online alpha monitoring system for aqueous streams developed at the Savannah River Site. High uranium concentrations will be measured by a fiber-optic-based diode array absorption spectrophotometer. The online alpha monitor (OLAM-100S) consists of a 5-in. circular sample chamber and an alpha particle detector (a thin film of polyvinyl toluene plastic scintillation material) attached to a light guide and processing electronics. The light guide is optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Processing electronics include: amplifier/single channel analyzer, a dual counter/timer, and a high and low level alarm module. In order to implement the system online, a cell drain, automatic flushing mechanism, heat exchanger, temperature readout, and flow monitor will be used. The absorption spectrophotometer system consists of a xenon arc lamp, a nine-position fiber optic multiplexer (to allow a single system to monitor up to nine process locations), automated process samplers, diode array spectrometer, and a central computer system. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  7. SRS H1616 Hydride Transport Vessel Qualification Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    This report serves as the design qualification basis for both transport and facility use. Headings identify report sections as containing qualification information for transport use, facility use, or both transport and facility use

  8. Luminescent studies of impurity doped SrS phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lated luminescence imaging (Gaslot et al 1982). Recently,. ZnS phosphors prepared by Davies et al (2001) for cathode ray tube showed potential luminescence properties .... (1949) in neutron irradiated LiF. In LiF, a single broad line (linewidth, ~ 100 gauss) with a g-factor of 2⋅008 was observed. A similar centre has been ...

  9. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories (``UC`` categories) established by the Department of Energy`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  10. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories ( UC'' categories) established by the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  11. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project

  12. Summary of recent Raman Spectroscopy testing of SRS processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lascola, R. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    This report describes several scoping projects conducted at SRNL using Raman spectroscopic methods for monitoring different aspects of nuclear waste and materials processing. One project examined the suitability of a Raman telescope for in situ measurement of solid residues in waste tanks. Characteristics evaluated for this equipment included radiation resistance, ease of use, and sensitivity. A second project monitored the nitrate content in liquid filtrate from the testing of a rotary microfilter using a fiber-based insertion probe. The third project made Raman measurements of various gases, including H2 and NOx, in the headspace of a vessel while dissolving aluminum coupons in nitric acid. Measurements followed the evolution of these species in real time. Although the majority of these projects occurred in the laboratory environment, SRNL has substantial experience with implementing other optical techniques into nuclear materials processing environments. The work described in this report shows the potential of the Raman technology to provide real time measurements of species such as nitrate or hydroxide during sludge washing or evolved gases such as hydrogen or NOx during waste processing.

  13. SRS ES and H Standards Compliance Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    On March 8, 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 90-2 to the Secretary of Energy. This recommendation, based upon the DNFSB's initial review and evaluation of the content and implementation of standards relating to the design, construction, operations, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), called for three actions: identification of specific standards that apply to design, construction, operation and decommissioning of DOE facilities; assessment of the adequacy of those standards for protecting public health and safety; and determination of the extent to which they have and are being implemented. The purpose of this Implementation Plan is to define the single program for all sitewide and facility 90-2 ES and H Standards Compliance efforts, which will satisfy the HQ Implementation Plan, avoid duplicate efforts, be as simple and achievable as possible, include cost-saving innovations, use a graded approach based on facility hazards and future needs of facilities, and support configuration control for facility requirements. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been designated a pilot facility for the 90-2 program and has progressed with their facility program ahead of the site-level program. The DWPF, and other Government-Owned Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facilities that progress on an enhanced schedule, will serve as pilot facilities for the site-level program. The lessons learned with their requirement identifications, and their assessments of the adequacy of and their compliance with these requirements will be used to improve the efficiency of the site-level and subsequent programs

  14. A case of Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS): multiple pituitary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The patient had normomethylation, and in addition hypopituitarism, with low levels of growth hormone (GH) (provocative testing before the start and after termination of GH treatment), thyroxin, TSH, FSH, LH and testosterone. The GH was given for six years, growth response was satisfactory and he reached an adult height ...

  15. The steam explosion potential for an unseated SRS reactor septifoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, D.K.; Hyder, M.L.; Yau, W.W.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, D.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Control rods in the Savannah River Site`s K Reactor are contained within housings composed of seven channels (``septifoils``). Each septifoil is suspended from the top of the reactor and is normally seated on an upflow pin that channels coolant to the septifoil. Forced flow to the septifoil would be eliminated in the unlikely event of a septifoil unseated upon installation, i.e., if the septifoil is not aligned with its upflow pin. If this event were not detected, control rod melting and the interaction of molten metal with water might occur. This paper describes a methodology used to address the issue of steam explosions that might arise by this mechanism. The probability of occurrence of a damaging steam explosion given an unseated septifoil was found to be extremely low. The primary reasons are: (1) the high probability that melting will not occur, (2) the possibility of material holdup by contact with the outer septifoil housing, (3) the relative shallowness of the pool `Of water into which molten material might fall, (4) the probable absence of a trigger, and (5) the relatively large energy release required to damage a nearby fuel assembly. The methodology is based upon the specification of conditions prevailing within the septifoil at the time molten material is expected to contact water, and upon information derived from the available experimental data base, supplemented by recent prototypic experiments.

  16. The steam explosion potential for an unseated SRS reactor septifoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, D.K.; Hyder, M.L.; Yau, W.W.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Smith, D.C. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Control rods in the Savannah River Site's K Reactor are contained within housings composed of seven channels ( septifoils''). Each septifoil is suspended from the top of the reactor and is normally seated on an upflow pin that channels coolant to the septifoil. Forced flow to the septifoil would be eliminated in the unlikely event of a septifoil unseated upon installation, i.e., if the septifoil is not aligned with its upflow pin. If this event were not detected, control rod melting and the interaction of molten metal with water might occur. This paper describes a methodology used to address the issue of steam explosions that might arise by this mechanism. The probability of occurrence of a damaging steam explosion given an unseated septifoil was found to be extremely low. The primary reasons are: (1) the high probability that melting will not occur, (2) the possibility of material holdup by contact with the outer septifoil housing, (3) the relative shallowness of the pool 'Of water into which molten material might fall, (4) the probable absence of a trigger, and (5) the relatively large energy release required to damage a nearby fuel assembly. The methodology is based upon the specification of conditions prevailing within the septifoil at the time molten material is expected to contact water, and upon information derived from the available experimental data base, supplemented by recent prototypic experiments.

  17. A case of Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS): multiple pituitary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and adolescence: summary statement of the GH research society. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85, 3990–3993. Gicquel C., Rossignol S., Cabrol S., Houang M., Steunou V., Barbu. V. et al. 2005 Epimutation of the telomeric imprinting centre region on chromosome 11p15 in Silver-Russell syndrome. Nat. Genet. 37, 1003–1007 ...

  18. Environmental impact assessment of disposal of liquid waste through marine outfall - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of wastewaters and nature of anthropogenic pollutants entering coastal waters are discussed. Site spcific information and field data acquisition through planned studies for selection of location...

  19. Sea Outfall Design Based on a Stochastic Transport/Dispersion Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    /dispersion phenomena can easily be modelled by the stochastic approach without going into advanced methods as finite differences or elements. The advantage of this approach is the simple programming and Iow need of computer memory. The disadvantage could be the need for excessive computing time....

  20. Benthic Sampling Adjacent to the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 2001-2010 (NODC Accession 0084994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual surveys are undertaken to sample bottom-sediment for biological and geochemical analyses at six stations at a depth of approximately 34 m in the vicinity of...

  1. Some ecological studies of the lower Cape Fear River Estuary, ocean outfall, and Dutchman Creek, 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, B.J.; Birkhead, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    A survey of the hydrography and biological components of the Cape Fear River Estuary and nearshore ocean off Oak Island was conducted. Species diversity indices were computed from nekton samples and phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos samples are being analysed. A computer program was developed whereby data were alphabetized by species, sorted by location, station, and date, and printed. Experiments were conducted to determine the Critical Thermal Maximum of shrimp. Measurements were made on water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen from June through October. (U.S.)

  2. Marine Biological Survey, Peacock Point Outfall, Wake Atoll June 1998 (NODC Accession 0000247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC), in support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored a marine biological survey at Wake...

  3. IGP2010 microbial - Bacterial community profiling at sewage treatment plant outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Penn Cove (in the Whidbey Basin) is designated as a category 5, 303d impaired water body due to low dissolved oxygen. In addition to runoff from adjacent developed...

  4. Barbers Point Sewage Outfall Fish Census from Annual Surveys 1991-2010 (NODC Accession 0073346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Honouliuli Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) located in Ewa, Oahu, Hawaii, near Barbers Point (Kalaeloa) has been in operation since 1982. It releases...

  5. Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

    1999-12-01

    In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The results obtained from this study showed that the test area contamination is extremely heterogeneous, and that it contains extremely high levels of the three major contaminants, HMX, RDX and TNT. The potential for success of a bioremediation strategy is discussed.

  6. 2-D model for pollutant dispersion at the coastal outfall off Paradip

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Gouveia, A.D.

    Simulation of dispersion of the effluent discharge has been carried out using 2-D Model to verify the advection and diffusion of the pollutant patch of the proposed effluent disposal off Paradip, Orissa, India. The simulation of dispersion...

  7. Identification of optimum outfall location for desalination plant in the coastal waters off Tuticorin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; NaveenKumar, K.R.; Muraleedharan, K.R.

    of dilutions were assessed based on the results of a 2D model using the advection-dispersion theory. It is observed that under prevailing currents in the region, the dispersion of the discharge will be advected away as a combined plume. Ambient conditions...

  8. Investigation of a plant and fish kill downstream from BNL sewage treatment outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    During the period May 13 to May 17, 1974, a plant and fish kill occurred in a headwater of the Peconic River, which originates on the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) site. Although the stream itself, and hence the magnitude of the mortality, was small, the fish kill was near total in the impacted reach, and therefore received more attention than the numbers alone would warrant. The Laboratory has utilized the stream for the past 25 years for the discharge of treated sanitary wastes containing low levels of radioactivity, without perceptible effect up to the time of this incident. Although an investigation during the following several months has not disclosed a completely satisfactory explanation, it has pointed out weaknesses in the Laboratory's knowledge of the on site amounts and locations of environmentally toxic agents, as well as of the accountability for their use. The investigation also suggested the need for additional monitoring to detect unusual agents in the sanitary treatment plant influent for prompt analyses of suspect samples, and for a means of holding up the effluent until such analyses can be accomplished. Additionally, the investigation led to the identification of supporting analytical capabilities of other government agencies, without which a competent investigation would have been difficult. It also revealed the desirability for the prompt submission of relevant samples to them, in the event of a recurrence

  9. Treatment of ORNL liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Fowler, V.L.; Robinson, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Discontinuation of the hydrofracture disposal method at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has caused intensive efforts to reduce liquid waste generation. Improving the treatment of slightly radioactive liquid waste, called process waste, has reduced the volume of the resulting contaminated liquid radioactive waste effluent by 66%. Proposed processing improvements could eliminate the contaminated liquid effluent and reduce solid low-level waste by an additional one-third. The improved process meets stringent discharge limits for radionuclides. Discharge limits for radionuclides are expected to be enforced at the outfall of the treatment plant to a creek; currently, limits are enforced at the reservation boundary. Plant discharge is monitored according to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for ORNL. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls

  11. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

  12. Final report for the Central Mercury Treatment System in Building 9623 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This document discusses the construction of the Central Mercury Treatment System (CMTS) in Building 9623 at the Y-12 Plant, the remediation activities involved, waste generated from the project, and the monitoring schedule of the CMTS. As part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent Program, the project treats groundwater contaminated with mercury from Buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4 at the Y-12 Plant to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits for discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek. The CMTS, located in Building 9623, will treat water from the sumps of buildings in which mercury was used in operations and which have been shown to be significant contributors to the overall levels of mercury in plant effluents. This project was anticipated when the NPDES Permit was issued, and the contamination limits and frequency of monitoring for the system discharge are detailed in the permit as Outfall 551. This project was performed as an Incentive Task Order and included the advance procurement of the carbon columns, removal of existing equipment in Building 9623, and system installation and checkout. Construction activities for installing the system started in January 1996 after the area in Building 9623 had been cleared of existing, obsolete equipment. The CMTS became operational on November 26, 1996, well ahead of the permit start date of January 1, 1998. The early completion date allows Hg concentrations in EFPC to be evaluated to determine whether further actions are required to meet NPDES permit limits for reduced Hg loading to the creek

  13. Annual Report: 2010-2011 Storm Season Sampling For NON-DRY DOCK STORMWATER MONITORING FOR PUGET SOUND NAVAL SHIPYARD, BREMERTON, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Metallo, David; Johnston, Robert K.; Gebhardt, Christine; Hsu, Larry

    2012-09-01

    This interim report summarizes the stormwater monitoring conducted for non-dry dock outfalls in both the confined industrial area and the residential areas of Naval Base Kitsap within the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (referred to as the Shipyard). This includes the collection, analyses, and descriptive statistics for stormwater sampling conducted from November 2010 through April 2011. Seven stormwater basins within the Shipyard were sampled during at least three storm events to characterize non-dry dock stormwater discharges at selected stormwater drains located within the facility. This serves as the Phase I component of the project and Phase II is planned for the 2011-2012 storm season. These data will assist the Navy, USEPA, Ecology and other stakeholders in understanding the nature and condition of stormwater discharges from the Shipyard and inform the permitting process for new outfall discharges. The data from Phase I was compiled with current stormwater data available from the Shipyard, Sinclair/Dyes Inlet watershed, and Puget Sound in order to support technical investigations for the Draft NPDES permit. The permit would require storm event sampling at selected stormwater drains located within the Shipyard. However, the data must be considered on multiple scales to truly understand potential impairments to beneficial uses within Sinclair and Dyes Inlets.

  14. Radioactive contamination in the marine environment adjacent to the outfall of the radioactive waste treatment plant at ATOMFLOT, northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J E; Nikitin, A; Valetova, N K; Chumichev, V B; Katrich, I Yu; Berezhnoy, V I; Pegoev, N N; Kabanov, A I; Pichugin, S N; Vopiyashin, Yu Ya; Lind, B; Grøttheim, S; Sickel, M; Strand, P

    2002-01-01

    RTP "ATOMFLOT" is a civilian nuclear icebreaker base located on the Kola Bay of northwest Russia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distributions of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment adjacent to the base, to explain the form of the distributions in sediments and to derive information concerning the fate of radionuclides discharged from ATOMFLOT. Mean activity concentrations (d.w.) for surface sediment, of 63 Bq kg(-1 137Cs, 5.8 Bq kg(-1) 90Sr and 0.45 Bq kg(-1 239,240)Pu were measured. Filtered seawater activity levels were in the range of 3--6.9 Bq m(-3) 137Cs, 2.0-11.2 Bq m(-3) 90Sr, and 16-40 m Bq m(-3), 239,240Pu. Short-lived radionuclides were present at sediment depths in excess of 10cm indicating a high degree of sediment mixing. Correlations of radionuclide activity concentrations with grain-size appear to be absent; instead, the presence of relatively contaminated sediment appears to be related to the existence of radioactive particles.

  15. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Storm Water Detection System at Storm Water Outfall #3, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    embankment and a retaining wall with gabions . 26 2.2 NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE 27 While the No Action Alternative does not satisfy the purpose and...Ravine is located within the Upper Missouri-Dearborn Hydrologic Basin Hydrologic 12 Unit Code 10030102) and Missouri-Sun-Smith Watershed . The storm water...impaired for turbidity. That material represents 200 acres of valuable, high producing farmland. The impacts of the watershed urbanization on stream

  16. Full scale evaluation of combined sewer overflows disinfection using performic acid in a sea-outfall pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Flagstad, Rasmus; Sonne Munch, Ebbe; Hørning, Claus; Berner, Jesper; Kolte-Olsen, Annette; Thornberg, Dines; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters with pathogens from combined sewer overflows limits recreational use of surface waters. Large retention basins are a satisfactory solution but they are rarely sufficient for economic or space reasons. Fast disinfection during the overflow is an alternative, but few methods are known and each has problems. This work evaluated for the first time the full-scale disinfection using performic acid by the removal of the two currently regulated indicator bacteria for bathi...

  17. Full scale evaluation of combined sewer overflows disinfection using performic acid in a sea-outfall pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Flagstad, Rasmus; Sonne Munch, Ebbe

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters with pathogens from combined sewer overflows limits recreational use of surface waters. Large retention basins are a satisfactory solution but they are rarely sufficient for economic or space reasons. Fast disinfection during the overflow is an alternative, but few...... but it is indicated that online control could benefit treatments efficiency....

  18. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xuemei [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Yeung, Leo Wai Yin [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Xu Muqi [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Taniyasu, Sachi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r{sup 2} = 0.85, p < 0.05) was observed between ln PFOS concentrations (ln ng/ml) and trophic level (based on {delta}{sup 15}N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing.

  19. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuemei; Yeung, Leo Wai Yin; Xu Muqi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K.S.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai Jiayin

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r 2 = 0.85, p 15 N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing

  20. Location of marine outfall and design of diffuser for a shore based industry off southeast coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Ilangovan, D.; Jayakumar, S.

    Disposal of industrial effluent in the sea necessitates exhaustive study on the marine environment and the hydrodynamic behavior of the plume discharge with the ocean. Site specific baseline information on currents, waves, tide, density...

  1. Dissolved Oxygen decrease near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf affected by the Athens Sewage Outfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, A.; Hatzianestis, I.; Psillidou-Giouranovits, R.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the depletion of dissolved oxygen near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf caused by the sewage discharges from the Psittalia Sewage Treatment Plant of Athens is studied. Evidence of the sewage plume diffusion is given by examining the distribution of the concentrations of coprostanol, a common fecal sterol, in the surface sediments of the area. The environmental quality of Saronikos Gulf has been studied since 1987 within the framework of monitoring programs of Hellenic Center for Marine Research, providing important evidence of environmental change, especially after the operation of the Sewage Treatment Plant on the Psittalia Island. Since 1994, the sewage generated by the city of Athens (population approx. four millions) has been primarily treated in Psittalia Treatment Plant, diverting the effluent from the untreated shoreline discharged to sea-surface, to primarily treated deepwater by using multi-port diffusers at the depth of 63 m. Since the end of 2004, the sewage of Athens city has been secondary treated. An approximate of 800.000 m3 d-1 of treated waste is discharged into the inner Saronikos Gulf, carrying ~100 x 106gC d-1. This area is practically flat with a mean depth of ~90 m, and a volume of ~14 km3. Apart from the treated sewage, no other potential sources of anthropogenic inputs exist in the area of the Inner Gulf. Low Dissolved Oxygen (DO) values (zoobenthic and the benthopelagic communities.

  2. Ações de Vigilância Sanitária em laboratórios clínicos em relação ao cumprimento da RDC nº 302/2005/Anvisa no âmbito da SRS/Patos de Minas | Sanitary Surveillance Actions in clinical laboratories as to Compliance with Resolution nº 302/2015 of the Collegiate Board of Directors of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusa Helena Gonçalves Machado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Este estudo trata da efetividade das ações de Vigilância Sanitária (VISA municipal em relação ao cumprimento da Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC nº 302/2005 no contexto de laboratórios clínicos (LC jurisdicionados à Superintendência Regional de Saúde de Patos de Minas, Minas Gerais (SRS/PM/MG. Objetivos: Buscou-se verificar se a VISA, ao liberar o alvará sanitário, tem cumprido as exigências de onze itens da referida RDC. Método: Os dados foram obtidos de 181 relatórios anuais de inspeção sanitária realizados de 2006 a 2013. A análise se deu por meio de frequências simples e por cruzamento de dados. Resultados: As ações de VISA mostraram-se incipientes nos anos de 2006 e 2007. A partir do ano de 2008, constatou-se um aumento significativo dessas ações, que foram menos efetivas em relação ao cumprimento de itens que estão sobremaneira ligados à acurácia dos exames laboratoriais e à segurança dos funcionários e dos pacientes. Conclusão: Essa falta de efetividade das ações de VISA pode ser considerada grave e revela problemas vivenciados pela equipe de VISA que devem ser investigados a fim de que essa situação seja solucionada oferecendo, assim, mais qualidade na prestação de serviços dos LC à população. ======================================= Introduction: This study focused on the effectiveness of municipal Sanitary Surveillance actions carried out in the context of clinical laboratories under the jurisdiction of the Regional Health Superintendence of Patos de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Objective: To verify if the Sanitary Surveillance followed eleven regulations set forth by Resolution No. 302/2015 of the Collegiate Board of Directors of the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency when issuing sanitary permits to such laboratories. Methods: Data were collected from 181 annual health inspection reports from 2006 to 2013. Simple frequency and cross-checking analyses were

  3. 78 FR 20316 - Final Issuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Small Suction Dredges in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA exempts... permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or...

  4. 75 FR 20592 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... control is necessary based on wasteload allocations in the Lower Charles River Phosphorus TMDL (``the TMDL... as follows: A Designated Discharge is two or more acres of impervious surfaces located: (1) In the... communities; d. Detached single-family homes located on individual lots; and e. Stand-alone multi-family...

  5. 77 FR 42679 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... nitrogen, phosphorus, pathogens, and other pollutants. The EPA continues to believe that the gathering and... topographic map of the geographic area in which the CAFO is located showing the specific location of the...

  6. 75 FR 31775 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... be required for all point source discharges to waters of the United States of biological pesticides... (Sixth Cir. 2009). The Court held that the CWA unambiguously includes ``biological pesticides,'' and... further found that biological pesticides are pollutants regardless of whether the application results in...

  7. 76 FR 68750 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... regulation that excluded discharges of biological pesticides and chemical pesticides that leave a residue.... 2009). The Court held that the CWA unambiguously includes ``biological pesticides,'' and ``chemical... pesticides is from a point source. Thus, point source discharges of biological pesticides and chemical...

  8. 77 FR 12286 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... building materials, building products, construction wastes, trash, landscape materials, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, detergents, sanitary waste, and other materials present on the site to precipitation... September 9, 2010, the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) filed a motion for clarification (which...

  9. 76 FR 22882 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ..., building products, construction wastes, trash, landscape materials, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, detergents, sanitary waste, and other materials present on the site to precipitation and to stormwater; and 3... Home Builders (NAHB) filed a motion for clarification (which EPA did not oppose) asking the Court to (1...

  10. 78 FR 59672 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... of Intent (NOI), the Notice of Termination (NOT), the Conditional No Exposure Exclusion, Discharge... minimizing exposure, good housekeeping, maintenance, spill prevention and response procedures, and employee..., lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver and zinc. 11. Industry Sector-specific Requirements. The draft...

  11. 76 FR 65431 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    .... Environmental and Human Health Impacts of CAFOs Despite more than 35 years of regulating CAFOs, reports of water... impairment. U.S. EPA, National Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress--2004 Reporting Cycle, January... important contributor of surface water pollution. For example, the GAO found in its 2008 Report to...

  12. Impingement and entrainment of fishes at the Savannah River Plant: an NPDES 316b demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.W.; Frietsche, R.F.; Miracle, R.D.

    1978-02-01

    Environmental impacts of the Savannah River Plant's withdrawal of Savannah River water include impingement of juvenile and adult fish on trash removal screens, and entrainment of planktonic fish eggs and larval fish into the pumping system. The Savannah River Plant (SRP) has the capacity to pump 3.6 million cubic meters of water per day--25% of the minimal river discharge--for cooling and other purposes. Present removal is 7% of the actual river discharge. In the river and intake canals reside sixty-nine species of fishes. The species composition of the resident fish community of the intake canals is similar to the species composition in the river, but different in relative species abundance. The dominant sunfishes tend to reside in the canals for long periods and seldom go from canal to canal. The fish impingement rate at the plant ranks very low in comparison with electric power plants on inland waters. Thirty-five species of fishes were impinged during 1977. The average impingement rate of 7.3 fish per day extrapolates to 2,680 fish per year. No single species comprised more than 10% of the sample. The most commonly impinged species were bluespotted sunfish, warmouth, channel catfish, and yellow perch. The relative abundance of those species impinged deviates from their relative abundance in the canal fish population

  13. 77 FR 6112 - Notice of Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... the permitting authority (See Part VII Definitions, ``CAFOs'') and that are subject to 40 CFR part 412... feeding operations listed above which meet the definition of a CAFO and discharge pollutants to waters of... Enterprises (Jason Hitch); Hitch Enterprises (Patricia Burt); JBS Five Rivers Cattle Feeding LLC, Oklahoma...

  14. 76 FR 76716 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Discharges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Advisory Board (SAB) and evaluated the status of ballast water treatment technologies. EPA designed the SAB... and disinfection regime is identified, such technology might be a potentially useful treatment... January 1, 2009, however, would be required to meet ballast water treatment numeric technology-based...

  15. 75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Permits Division, Office of Wastewater Management (4203M), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200.... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address... ``permitting authorities''). These point source dischargers include publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and...

  16. 75 FR 67960 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...) of the CWA for the control of toxic pollutants and hazardous substances from ancillary industrial... establish Notice of Intent (NOI) requirements, prohibitions, and management practices for stormwater... designated and approved management agency under section 208 of the CWA that discharges to waters of the...

  17. 78 FR 21938 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... economic impacts of revised VGP requirements on the water transportation, fishing, and mining industries.... Summary of the VGP and Significant Changes from the Proposed VGP IV. Analysis of Economic Impacts of VGP V... produce the best possible scientific compendium of ballast water information relevant to the development...

  18. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CWA; (6) Ensure consistency with the requirements of a Water Quality Management plan approved by EPA... storm water discharges associated with industrial activity from inactive mining operations may, where... No. W498); Storm Water Management for Construction Activities: Developing Pollution Prevention Plans...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2 2 2 Coil Coating 2 2 2 Copper Forming 2 2 2 Electric and Electronic Components 2 2 2 2... Chemicals Manufacturing 2 2 2 2 Paint and Ink Formulation 2 2 2 2 Pesticides 2 2 2 2 Petroleum Refining 2 2... Mills Subcategory of the Textile Mills industry (Subpart C—Low water use processing of 40 CFR part 410...

  20. NPDES Permit for Soap Creek Associates Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  1. 75 FR 76984 - Notice Regarding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES); General Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... certification pursuant to section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) from Hawaii and a final response on the... INFORMATION: A. General Information Pursuant to Clean Water Act section 401(a) and EPA's implementing... that the permit complies with the Clean Water Act and other appropriate requirements of State law...

  2. 76 FR 35431 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Puerto Rico, contact Sergio Bosques at ] tel.: (787) 977-5838 or e-mail at [email protected] . For... Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact... established an official public docket for this action under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0782. The official...

  3. 76 FR 78599 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m... Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the Water Docket is (202) 566-2426. FOR...''). An animal feeding operation (AFO) is a CAFO if it meets the regulatory definition of a Large or...

  4. 75 FR 4554 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    [email protected] . For EPA Region 10, contact Dick Hetherington at tel.: (206) 553-1941 or e-mail at hetherington.dick@epa.gov . II. Background of Permit A. Statutory and Regulatory History The Clean Water Act...

  5. 75 FR 5788 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ..., and policy questions considered in the development of the draft permit. A reasonable fee may be... permit contains BMPs, including development and implementation of a comprehensive stormwater management... views the MEP standard in the CWA as an iterative process. MEP should continually adapt to current...

  6. Hypomethylation of the H19 Gene Causes Not Only Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) but Also Isolated Asymmetry or an SRS-Like Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliek, Jet; Terhal, Paulien; van den Bogaard, Marie-José; Maas, Saskia; Hamel, Ben; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette; Simon, Marleen; Letteboer, Tom; van der Smagt, Jasper; Kroes, Hester; Mannens, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) controls the allele-specific expression of both the imprinted H19 tumor-suppressor gene and the IGF2 growth factor. Hypermethylation of this DMR—and subsequently of the H19 promoter region—is a major cause of the clinical features of gigantism and/or asymmetry seen in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or in isolated hemihypertrophy. Here, we report a series of patients with hypomethylation of the H19 locus. Their main clinical features of asymmetry and growth retardation are the opposite of those seen in patients with hypermethylation of this region. In addition, we show that complete hypomethylation of the H19 promoter is found in two of three patients with the full clinical spectrum of Silver-Russell syndrome. This syndrome is also characterized by growth retardation and asymmetry, among other clinical features. We conclude that patients with these clinical features should be analyzed for H19 hypomethylation. PMID:16532391

  7. Hypomethylation of the H19 gene causes not only Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) but also isolated asymmetry or an SRS-like phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, Jet; Terhal, Paulien; van den Bogaard, Marie-José; Maas, Saskia; Hamel, Ben; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette; Simon, Marleen; Letteboer, Tom; van der Smagt, Jasper; Kroes, Hester; Mannens, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) controls the allele-specific expression of both the imprinted H19 tumor-suppressor gene and the IGF2 growth factor. Hypermethylation of this DMR--and subsequently of the H19 promoter region--is a major cause of the clinical features of gigantism and/or

  8. Hypomethylation of the H19 gene causes not only Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) but also isolated asymmetry or an SRS-like phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, J.; Terhal, P.; Bogaard, M.J. van den; Maas, S.M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Salieb-Beugelaar, G.; Simon, M.; Letteboer, T.; Smagt, J. van der; Kroes, H.Y.; Mannens, M.

    2006-01-01

    The H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) controls the allele-specific expression of both the imprinted H19 tumor-suppressor gene and the IGF2 growth factor. Hypermethylation of this DMR--and subsequently of the H19 promoter region--is a major cause of the clinical features of gigantism and/or

  9. Petrology and Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Arc Plutons Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, SRS, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryak, M.

    1998-10-21

    In this report is presented first a brief review of the regional geologic setting of the Savannah River Site, descriptions of the plutonic rock units sampled here, whole rock geochemical data on the plutonic igneous rocks, and finally, a discussion of how the crystalline basement rocks of the Savannah River Site formed and how they may correlate with other terranes exposed in the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia.

  10. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  11. X-ray diffraction using the time structure of the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (advances in the techniques of X-ray topography; comparison with transmission electron microscopy); stroboscopic X-ray topography; stroboscopic X-ray topography of travelling surface acoustic waves; possible general diffraction experiments. (U.K.)

  12. Computation of wall bounded flows with heat transfer in the framework of SRS approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritskevich, M. S.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Menter, F. R.

    2014-12-01

    A detailed assessment of Scale Adaptive Simulation (SAS) and Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) is performed for prediction of heat transfer for several wall bounded flow. For that purpose a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, a backward facing step, and a thermal mixing in a T-Junction test cases are considered. The results, obtained with the use of ANSYS-FLUENT, show that both approaches are capable to predict both mean and RMS velocity and temperature with sufficient accuracy.

  13. A probabilistic method for determining effluent temperature limits for flow instability for SRS reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, B.J.; White, A.M.

    1990-06-01

    This manual describes the uncertainty analysis used to determine the effluent temperature limits for a Mark 22 charge in the Savannah River Site production reactors. The postulated accident scenario is a DEGB/LOCA resulting from a coolant pipe break at the plenum inlet accompanied by the safety rod failure described in the previous chapter. The analysis described in this manual is used to calculate the limits for the flow instability phase of the accident. For this phase of the accident, the limits criterion is that the Stanton number does not exceed 0.00455 [1]. The limits are determined for a specified 84% probability that the Stanton number will not exceed 0.00455 in any assembly in the core

  14. Preliminary Performance Assessment for Disposal of APT and CLWR/TEF Wastes at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    This section provides the descriptive information for understanding the analyses presented in this preliminary performance assessment. This section addresses the approach taken in the PA, provides a general description of the Savannah River Site E-Area low-level waste facility, and discusses the performance criteria used for evaluating performance

  15. The Science & Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States. An SRS Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report provides comparisons of U.S. and Japanese science resources and some initial evidence that Japan is expanding the human and financial resources for science while improving the environment for basic research. The data cover science and technology trends in research and development from 1975 to 1994, as well as more recent changes in…

  16. Large break frequency for the SRS (Savannah River Site) production reactor process water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Bush, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results and conclusions of an evaluation of the large break frequency for the process water system (primary coolant system), including the piping, reactor tank, heat exchangers, expansion joints and other process water system components. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break. This evaluation encompasses three specific areas: the failure probability of large process water piping directly from imposed loads, the indirect failure probability of piping caused by the seismic-induced failure of surrounding structures, and the failure of all other process water components. The first two of these areas are discussed in detail in other papers. This paper primarily addresses the failure frequency of components other than piping, and includes the other two areas as contributions to the overall process water system break frequency

  17. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R and D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  18. AAPM-RSS Medical Physics Practice Guideline 9.a. for SRS-SBRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Per H; Cirino, Eileen; Das, Indra J; Garrett, Jeffrey A; Yang, Jun; Yin, Fang-Fang; Fairobent, Lynne A

    2017-09-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science, education, and professional practice of medical physics. The AAPM has more than 8,000 members and is the principal organization of medical physicists in the United States. The AAPM will periodically define new practice guidelines for medical physics practice to help advance the science of medical physics and to improve the quality of service to patients throughout the United States. Existing medical physics practice guidelines will be reviewed for revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner. Each medical physics practice guideline represents a policy statement by the AAPM, has undergone a thorough consensus process in which it has been subjected to extensive review, and requires the approval of the Professional Council. The medical physics practice guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology requires specific training, skills, and techniques, as described in each document. Reproduction or modification of the published practice guidelines and technical standards by those entities not providing these services is not authorized. The following terms are used in the AAPM practice guidelines: Must and Must Not: Used to indicate that adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary to conform to this practice guideline. Should and Should Not: Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made in appropriate circumstances. Approved by AAPM Professional Council 3-31-2017 and Executive Committee 4-4-2017. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Seismic Qualification Program Plan for continued operation at DOE-SRS Nuclear Material Processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Facilities for the most part were constructed and maintained to standards that were developed by Du Pont and are not rigorously in compliance with the current General Design Criteria (GDC); DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. In addition, any of the facilities were built more than 30 years ago, well before DOE standards for design were issued. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a program to address the evaluation of the Nuclear Material Processing (NMP) facilities to GDC requirements. The program includes a facility base-line review, assessment of areas that are not in compliance with the GDC requirements, planned corrective actions or exemptions to address the requirements, and a safety assessment. The authors from their direct involvement with the Program, describe the program plan for seismic qualification including other natural phenomena hazards for existing NMP facility structures to continue operation. Professionals involved in similar effort at other DOE facilities may find the program useful.

  20. Seismic Qualification Program Plan for continued operation at DOE-SRS Nuclear Material Processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Facilities for the most part were constructed and maintained to standards that were developed by Du Pont and are not rigorously in compliance with the current General Design Criteria (GDC); DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. In addition, any of the facilities were built more than 30 years ago, well before DOE standards for design were issued. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a program to address the evaluation of the Nuclear Material Processing (NMP) facilities to GDC requirements. The program includes a facility base-line review, assessment of areas that are not in compliance with the GDC requirements, planned corrective actions or exemptions to address the requirements, and a safety assessment. The authors from their direct involvement with the Program, describe the program plan for seismic qualification including other natural phenomena hazards for existing NMP facility structures to continue operation. Professionals involved in similar effort at other DOE facilities may find the program useful.