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Sample records for sr-90 applicator modeled

  1. Dosimetry of Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reft, C.S.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Rosenberg, I.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators are commonly used for the treatment of superficial eye disorders. Although a variety of dosimetric devices such as film, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), ion chambers, and radiochromic foils have been used to measure the peak dose at the applicator surface, there is no internationally agreed upon calibration procedure. Recently, large discrepancies among calibrations of the same applicator at three institutions have been reported. Here we describe a technique to obtain the peak dose rate at the applicator surface using LiF TLD's. The technique can be used for the calibration of flat as well as curved surface applicators. Results for two flat and three concave applicators are presented. Our measurement of the surface dose rate for one of the flat applicators is compared with those obtained by four other institutions, each using different dosimetric devices

  2. Calibration of the 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic and dermatological applicators with an extrapolation ionization minichamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Oliveira, Mércia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2014-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. 90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. - Highlights: • 90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators were calibrated using a mini-extrapolation chamber. • An extrapolation curve was obtained for each applicator during its calibration. • The results were compared with those provided by the calibration certificates. • All results of the dermatological applicators presented lower differences than 5%

  3. Dosimetric comparison of electron beam and 90Sr+90Y applicator for keloids treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Tada, Ariane; Antonio, Patricia L.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Fernandes, Marco A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have been shown that among several methods that have been used for the treatment of keloids the surgical excision followed by the adjuvant radiotherapy presents the lowest relapsed rate of the injury. In this work a comparative dosimetric study has been performed using a 4 MeV electron beam from a Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator at the radiotherapy service of the Hospital das Clinicas of UNESP-HC, Botucatu-SP and an Amershan 90 Sr+ 90 Y brachytherapy applicator with 1491 MBq of activity. Percentage depth dose curves from ionization chamber measurements and through Monte Carlo simulation have been obtained and compared. Dose measurements have been obtained using parallel plates ionization chamber (Esradin A12) and extrapolation mini-chamber developed at IPEN. The dose calculations have been obtained using the well-known Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. Maximum dose differences obtained between measured/calculated values for 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicator and for the electron beam were, respectively: 7.8 % and 8.0%. The profiles of the depth and superficial tissue dose distribution produced by the electron beam revealed themselves flatter and more homogeneous than those produced by the 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicator, especially to wider fields, which cannot be obtained with beta therapy applicators because of their geometric limitations. In conclusion this present work has shown that 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators could be efficient for small and very superficial lesions but in most cases electron beam sources are more adequate especially for large and deeper lesions. (author)

  4. Depth dose curves from 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators using the thermoluminescent technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2009-01-01

    The 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta-ray sources widely used in brachytherapy applications were developed in the 1950's. Many of these sources, called clinical applicators, are still routinely used in several Brazilian radiotherapy clinics for the treatment of superficial lesions in the skin and eyes, although they are not commercialized anymore. These applicators have to be periodically calibrated, according to international recommendations, because these sources have to be very well specified in order to reach the traceability of calibration standards. In the case of beta-ray sources, the recommended quantity is the absorbed dose rate in water at a reference distance from the source. Moreover, there are other important quantities, as the depth dose curves and the source uniformity for beta-ray plaque sources. In this work, depth dose curves were obtained and studied of five dermatological applicators, using thin thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO 4 :Dy and phantoms of PMMA with different thicknesses (between 1.0 mm and 5.0 mm) positioned between each applicator and the TL pellets. The depth dose curves obtained presented the expected attenuation response in PMMA, and the results were compared with data obtained for a 90 Sr+ 90 Y standard source reported by the IAEA, and they were considered satisfactory. (author)

  5. Development of a dosimetric system for 90Sr + 90Y betatherapy applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Talita Salles

    2010-01-01

    The 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators, used in betatherapy for prevention of keloids and pterigium, are imported and many times their dosimetric features are shown only in an illustrated form by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents the development of a methodology for the dosimetry of 90 Sr+ 90 Y betatherapy applicators. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves and dose distribution profiles produced by these applicators. The experimental measurements of the radial and axial radiation attenuation, have been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic films. The experimental results have been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage depth dose curves and the radial dose profiles, the theoretical and the experimental ones, have presented good agreement, which may validate the use of the MCNP5 for these simulations, confirming the viability of the usage of this method in procedures of beta emitter sources dosimetry. (author)

  6. Depth dose distribution in the water for clinical applicators of 90Sr + 90Y, with a extrapolation mini chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia de Lara; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2009-01-01

    This work determines the depth dose in the water for clinical applicators of 90 Sr + 90 Y, using a extrapolation mini chamber developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and different thickness acrylic plates. The obtained results were compared with the international recommendations and were considered satisfactory

  7. Preliminary study of zeolite-pva composite application in removal of SR-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Las, Thamzil; Zamroni, Huzen; Sugiarto; Darsono

    1998-01-01

    Zeolite-PAN composite was prepared by contacting the purified Bayah and Lampung zeolites with poly-vinyl alcohol binder and cured by using Gamma-ray of Co-60 at various doses, i.e., 10, 20, 30 dan 40 kGray with dose rates 7.5 kGy/hour. Zeolite-PAN composites were treated with solution containing Sr-90 up to 5 days and the Sr sorption was measured by Liquid Scintillation Counter for determination of their sorption efficiencies. The result obtained that, zeolite-PAN composites were shown high sorption efficiencies on the composites zeolite-PVA which was formulated from 20% zeolite, irradiated by 40 kGy and obtained the sorption efficiency of 94% with the Kd values similar to the purified zeolites. (author)

  8. Absorbed doses to the main parts of eyeball due to use 90Sr + 90Y ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-05-01

    The ophthalmic radiotherapy dosimetry and some affecting factors are introduced. The distributions of absorbed doses to the main parts of a fresh eyeball such as the cornea, sclera, lens and anterior chamber, during the radiotherapy by using a 90 Sr + 90 Y ophthalmic applicator are presented. An tissue-equivalent extrapolation ionization chamber was used in the dose measurement. The reasonable doses during ophthalmic radiotherapy for different depths have been obtained. Therefore, the absorbed dose to the lens, the most sensitive organ, can be given. These data are useful for radiation protection in ophthalmic radiotherapy

  9. To the predicted calculations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 migration in soil in the frame of the compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knat'ko, B.A.; Skomorokhov, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    The method of calculation of migration of radionuclides in soil according to compartment model and based on analitical solution of the system of differential equations of the model is proposed. Calculations of the content of radionuclides in the soil layer for Cs-137 and Sr-90 for four types of soil for the periods of 0, 21, 34,46 and 73 months are carried out. Calculations were done for three upper soil layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5.0-15.0 cm, which give the main contribution into transport of radionuclides into plants on meadows and pastures. Such method increases precision of calculations of cesium-137 and strontium-90 migration in comparison with the prosedure, which uses the system of finite difference equations. 6 refs., 1 fig

  10. Methodology development for dosimetry of 90Sr + 90Y beta therapy applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, T.S.; Yoriyaz, H.; Fernandes, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The 9 0Sr+ 9 0Y applicators, used in beta therapy for prevention of keloids and pterigio, are imported and its dosimetric features are only illustrated by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents a methodology development for dosimetry in two 9 0Sr+ 9 0Y beta therapy applicators of the Amersham brand. The Monte Carlo code MCNP 4 C was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves. The experimental measurements of the radiation attenuation had been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber. The results of the experimental measures had been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage deep dose curves, the theoretical and the experimental ones, had presented similar behavior, which may validate the use of the MCNP 4 C for these simulations, strengthening the usage of this method at procedures of dosimetry of these beta radiation sources. (author)

  11. A method for the calibration of concave 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the Amersham Laboratory (Amersham, UK) absorbed-dose rate in tissue at a depth of 7 mg cm -2 from curved ophthalmic applicators is measured with calibrated scintillator probes (Amersham International 1979, Sinclair and Trott 1956). The probes are approximately 3 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm thick and are covered with 7 mg cm -2 of aluminium. They are calibrated using standard sources whose dose rate has been determined using an extrapolation chamber equipped with a 3 mm diameter collecting electrode. Crucial to this technique is the availability of well calibrated sources of nearly the same geometry and dose rate as the source to be calibrated. A technique is presented here which yields accurate measurement of the surface absorbed-dose rate in a very simple and straightforward fashion. (author)

  12. Annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 from the 1961 - 1980 nuclear explosions: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Katsuragi, Y.; Sugimura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, 240, and Pu-238 were observed from 1959 to 1984 at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). In order to interpret the serial trends of the annual radioactive deposition at the MRI, a semi-empirical box model of atmospheric transport was developed. The model divides the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere into four compartments: the atmosphere above 21 km, stratosphere below 21 km, active mixing and exchange (AME) layer near the tropopause, and the troposphere. The transfer between the compartments follows the first-order kinetics. The half residence times for transfer between upper and lower stratospheric compartments, between the lower and AME layer compartments, and between the AME layer and troposphere are 0.5, 0.7 and 0.3 yrs, respectively. It is revealed that as a long-term monitoring of the annual deposition of radioactive debris in the mid-latitude area, the model quantitatively permits the calculation of stratospheric inventories and trends of annual deposition of debris injected into the stratosphere which are characterized by apparent residence times of 0.5 to 1.7 yrs. This simple model is useful to predict the annual deposition amount of radioactive debris from the thermonuclear explosion for practical purposes. (author)

  13. SU-G-201-12: Investigation of Beta-Emitter 90Sr-90Y Dose Distribution Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film for Application On Conformal Skin Brachytherapy Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C; Johnson, D; Ahmad, S; Rasmussen, K; Jung, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate 90 Sr- 90 Y as a high dose rate (HDR) source for application in a conformal skin brachytherapy (CSBT) device. The CSBT device has been previously developed to provide patient specific treatment for small inoperable lesions and irregular surfaces. Methods: A popular beta emitter, 90 Sr- 90 Y was tested for feasibility in a CSBT device. A 1 cm diameter plaque was used to deliver dose to a solid water phantom containing EBT3 Gafchromic films arranged at the surface and perpendicular to it. Additionally, a 1 cm diameter 6 MeV electron beam was used to irradiate EBT3 film at 100 cm SSD with a 0.5 cm bolus. Films were digitized with an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner and calibrated with a 6 MeV electron specific dose curve. Normalized percent depth doses (PDD) and dose profiles for both techniques were analyzed using ImageJ. Results: Dose distributions achieved with the 90 Sr- 90 Y sources were compared with those of external electron beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Penumbra (20%- 80%) for EBRT and 90Sr-90Y were 4.3 mm and 1.6 mm, respectively. PDD values of 50% (normalized to 2 mm) were 10.1 mm and 2.8 mm for electron and 90 Sr- 90 Y, respectively. Flatness (80% of the central beam profile) was 14.1% at a 5 mm depth for EBRT and 4.0% at surface for the 90 Sr- 90 Y. Conclusion: As expected, the PDDs of 90 Sr- 90 Y in water are shallower than that of external electron beams for the same field size. 90 Sr- 90 Y can be used in CSBT to provide patient specific treatment where shallower depth doses than that provided by electron external beams may be required: e.g. eyelids, nose, lips, ears, etc. The customizability of EBRT could be replicated by using multiple adjacent 90 Sr- 90 Y plaque placements.

  14. Wash-off of Sr-90 and Cs-137 from two experimental plots. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A.; Bulgakov, A.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    Surface water runoff from contaminated land is one of the major processes responsible for the contamination of water bodies. For example, the large area of land contaminated after the Chernobyl accident has become a continuing source of radionuclide contamination for natural waters and the aquatic ecosystem. Based on data from the Chernobyl accident, the 'Wash-off' scenario was developed to provide an opportunity to test models concerned with the movement of trace contaminants from terrestrial sources to water bodies. In particular, this scenario provides an opportunity for (1) evaluation of the movement of contaminants from soil to water, (2) calculation of the alteration and migration of contaminants in soil over different time scales, (3) increased understanding of contaminant transport at the process level, and (4) development and use of methods for estimation of key parameters. Modelers were provided with descriptions of two experimental plots near the Chernobyl NPP, one using simulated heavy rain (plot HR) and one using snow melt (plot SM). Initial information for plot HR included soil properties; hydrographs of rainfall and runoff dynamics; the time of application of rainfall; rainfall amounts, duration, and intensities; soil moisture content before the application of rainfall; regional data on average monthly precipitation and temperature; recorded information on naturally occurring precipitation between May and October 1986; and chemical forms of radionuclides in the soil of the plots prior to the experiments. Information for plot SM included the soil description and properties, snow storage in the snow melt period of 1988, chemical composition of the snow water, a hydrograph of the runoff dynamics, chemical radionuclide forms in the soil at the end of the experiment, and air and soil temperatures for the plot during the snow melt period. For each experimental plot, modelers were requested to estimate the vertical distribution of radionuclides (137 Cs and

  15. A method for determination of Sr-90 Y-90 by using EDTA and ion-exchangers-Applications to the determination of those radioisotopes in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M.; Lima, F.W. de.

    1987-05-01

    Amethod in which the complex of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with yttrium, used in conjunction with ion-exchangers for determination of Sr-90 is described. The method was to the determination of concentration of Sr-90 in milk, avoiding, in this way, protein elimination by acid precipitation or by evaporation of milk and ashing the residue. Analysis of samples of milk from various places in the state of Sao Pa ulo, Brazil, were carried out and the results are reported. Values found are much lower than maximum permissible concentration. (Author) [pt

  16. Development of 90Sr-90Y generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Graciela

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium-90 is a radioisotope of great interest in the field of Nuclear Medicine. It is considered one of the most important and most used radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutical applications, especially promising for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Another important application of 90 Y is radio synovectomy. This radionuclide has a half-life of 64 hours, emits long range beta particles (maximum energy of 2.3 MeV) and decays, without intermediate nuclides, to a stable daughter. 90 Y may be obtained carrier-free, generated by the decay of its parent 90 Sr (half-life=28 years). 90 Sr is a product from uranium fission, and due to its long half-life, can be indefinitely used, which is certainly advantageous. It is present in great amounts, and needs to be processed and purified in order to be used as raw material for the generators. Generators of 90 Sr- 90 Y may thus be used during various months, due to 90 Sr long half-life. Several methods for the separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr by solvent extraction and ion exchange have been reported in literature. Thanks to its simplicity, ion exchange techniques have been more commonly used for this generator system. The main objective of this work was to develop a methodology for the preparation of 90 Sr- 90 Y generators, using cationic exchange resins. In such method, 90 Sr is strongly adsorbed in the resin and 90 Y is eluted by a 0.003 M EDTA solution. According to the quality control carried out, results showed that elution yields are greater than 65%, thus confirming the efficiency of the separation method used.

  17. Determination of Sr-90 in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Bajlo, M.; Bauman, A.

    1983-01-01

    Sr-90 concentrations were determined in high-volume air samples (up to 10000 m 3 ) during 12 months. In 1981 radioactivity varied around a value of 2.7 x 10 - 5 Bq m 3 . The results are in agreement with the activities recorded in the same year in New York, USA and in France. (author)

  18. Verification dosimetry of intravascular 90Sr/90Y source trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.D.; Shanta, A.; Tripathi, U.B.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    90 Sr/ 90 Y source trains (Novoste Beta-Cath System) are currently under clinical trials in India and abroad for intracoronary brachytherapy for prevention of restenosis. Each source train of the Beta-Cath system is supplied with a source certificate giving dose rate at the reference distance of 2 mm from the centerline of the source train. It is essential that the user should check dose rates of brachytherapy sources before its application on the patients. Dose rates and depth dose measurements for 90 Sr/ 90 Y source trains of active length 40 mm using radiochromic films in a tissue equivalent phantom have been carried out. The objectives of these measurements were (1) to verify the dose rates stated in the source certificate, and (2) to obtain relative depth dose data for treatment planning. This paper presents the results of these measurements

  19. Preparation of 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaohai; Yu Haibin; Zhang Jinming; Zhang Peixin; Lin Qiongfang

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, 90 Y has been considered as one of the best radionuclides for tumor radioimmunotherapy when chelated to tumor-associated antibodies. This evaluation is based on the superior properties of this radionuclide (suitable half-life, pure β-ray emitter of intermediate energy, stable daughters, and suitable chemical properties) and because it is available as a radionuclide generator product by decay of its 28a parent 90 Sr. The experimental conditions of 90 Sr- 90 Y generator are described. The elution efficiency of 90 Sr- 90 Y generator reaches 98%. One of the most important problems is the 90 Sr contamination breakthrough from the generator. The level of 90 Sr contamination must be controlled to the clinical standard. The cation exchange resin 732 (100-150 mesh) was successfully used for the separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr. The method used by the authors provides a 90 Y-HAc solution which is very simple and safe for administration to the patients. 90 Y was separated from 90 Sr almost completely, the level of the 90 Sr contamination per 740 MBq 90 Y product was only 0.74 kBq. However the toxicity of 90 Sr is extremely high, the human life-time permissible dose is 74 kBq, then 740 MBq of 90 Y is allowed to be administrated to a patient for 50-100 times

  20. Peculiarities of Sr-90 migration in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, G.N.; Stukin, D.A.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Eastern Urals radioactive track which formed as a result of the Kyshtym accident constituted a natural experimental base for studying the dynamics of Sr-90 behaviour and migration in the environment. Sr-90 behaviour in soil depends on the processes involved in its physical migration horizontally (water runoff, wind transport) and vertically (effective diffusion), on the intensity with which the physico-chemical forms of strontium change, and primarily on Sr-90 incorporation into the soil-absorptive complex. Over 30 years the effective diffusion processes led to downward displacement of Sr-90 in undisturbed soil to a depth of 30 to 50 cm. In 1988 84-94% of the Sr-90 was located in the 10 cm layer as against 90% in the 2 cm layer in the initial 1 or 2 years. The amount of Sr-90 in mobile forms in leached chernozem and grey forest soil hardly changed over time, amounting to between 76 and 90%. In the first 5-10 years Sr-90 surface water runoff was about 0.2% (and Sr-90 wind resuspension 0.1-1.0%) per year of the Sr-90 inventory per unit area. Due to Sr-90 loss from the top soil layer the water runoff and wind resuspension processes decreased exponentially, halving every 4 to 5 years. In most cases, Sr-90 transfer from soil to plants via the roots does not involve discrimination of Sr-90 with regard to calcium, and therefore the Sr-90 accumulation level in various species of natural and agricultural plants depends on their calcium requirements and the amount of exchangeable calcium in the soil. This made it possible to work out quantitative indices for forecasting Sr-90 accumulation in various species of plants for given types of soil. As Sr-90 moves through the trophic chains (including the agricultural one) we find - depending on whether two adjoining links discriminate against it or not as regards calcium - that some organisms reject it while others concentrate it. When restoring farming on the contaminated territory the fact that cattle discriminated against Sr

  1. A special mini-extrapolation chamber for calibration of 90Sr+90Y sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L; Caldas, Linda V E

    2005-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators are commonly utilized in brachytherapy, including ophthalmic procedures. The recommended instruments for the calibration of these applicators are extrapolation chambers, which are ionization chambers that allow the variation of their sensitive volume. Using the extrapolation method, the absorbed dose rate at the applicator surface can be determined. The aim of the present work was to develop a mini-extrapolation chamber for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta ray applicators. The developed mini-chamber has a 3.0 cm outer diameter and is 11.3 cm in length. An aluminized polyester foil is used as the entrance window while the collecting electrode is made of graphited polymethylmethacrylate. This mini-chamber was tested in 90 Sr+ 90 Y radiation beams from a beta particle check source and with a plane ophthalmic applicator, showing adequate results

  2. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusov, G.D.; Kudryashova, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  3. SU-G-201-12: Investigation of Beta-Emitter 90Sr-90Y Dose Distribution Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film for Application On Conformal Skin Brachytherapy Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C; Johnson, D; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Rasmussen, K [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Jung, J [East Carolina University Greenville, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y as a high dose rate (HDR) source for application in a conformal skin brachytherapy (CSBT) device. The CSBT device has been previously developed to provide patient specific treatment for small inoperable lesions and irregular surfaces. Methods: A popular beta emitter, {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y was tested for feasibility in a CSBT device. A 1 cm diameter plaque was used to deliver dose to a solid water phantom containing EBT3 Gafchromic films arranged at the surface and perpendicular to it. Additionally, a 1 cm diameter 6 MeV electron beam was used to irradiate EBT3 film at 100 cm SSD with a 0.5 cm bolus. Films were digitized with an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner and calibrated with a 6 MeV electron specific dose curve. Normalized percent depth doses (PDD) and dose profiles for both techniques were analyzed using ImageJ. Results: Dose distributions achieved with the {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y sources were compared with those of external electron beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Penumbra (20%- 80%) for EBRT and 90Sr-90Y were 4.3 mm and 1.6 mm, respectively. PDD values of 50% (normalized to 2 mm) were 10.1 mm and 2.8 mm for electron and {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y, respectively. Flatness (80% of the central beam profile) was 14.1% at a 5 mm depth for EBRT and 4.0% at surface for the {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y. Conclusion: As expected, the PDDs of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in water are shallower than that of external electron beams for the same field size. {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y can be used in CSBT to provide patient specific treatment where shallower depth doses than that provided by electron external beams may be required: e.g. eyelids, nose, lips, ears, etc. The customizability of EBRT could be replicated by using multiple adjacent {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y plaque placements.

  4. Cs-137 and Sr-90 level in diary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.L.; Dukhanov, Y.A.; Sevryuk, I.Z.; Patrashkov, S.A.; Korotkevich, O.S.; Gorb, T.S.; Petukhov, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    About 70% of radioactive substances fell on the territory of the Byelorussian Republic after the Chernobyl Atom Power Station Disaster. Cs-137 and Sr-90 accumulation dynamics was studied in milk of the cows from the highest polluted Braginsky area. 408 milk samples of Black and White cows were investigated. In 1995 average Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 61.00 and 3.73 Bk/dm 3 respectively. Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded Byelorussian Republic upper limits RDU - 96 in 10 and 50% of milk samples respectively. After 5 years (by 2000) Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels had become almost 3 and 2 times less (21.70 Bk/dm 3 and 1.72 Bk/dm 3 respectively). Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded RDU - 96 in 1.5 and 5.5% of milk samples respectively. In the same periods Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 7 and 2 times higher than the similar indexes in the relatively clean Novosibirsk area. Thus, radioactive element levels in milk of Black and White cows of the Byelorussian Republic decreased significantly for the past years. (authors)

  5. Mobility of Cs137 and Sr90 in organic soils and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovdan, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the management of the radionuclide contaminated areas and application of a countermeasure strategy for reduction of both the external and internal doses to the population it is extremely important to know the environmental mechanisms governing the behaviour of radionuclides in soil ecosystems. The purpose of work is to investigate by means of laboratory, field experiments and mathematical modelling the mechanisms and dynamics of radionuclide transfer in the organic soil to propose measures for control their mobility. The Chernobyl radionuclides behaviour was studied for ameliorated peat-mire soil (peat deposit Pogonyanskoye, 21 km off the ChNPP). To control the mobility of radionuclides in soils the characteristics of the migration and sorption of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in sedge peat, quartz sand, bentonite, kaolin, sapropel as well as the electrolytes impact upon the radionuclide behaviour have been experimentally investigated

  6. Sr-90 determination in aqueous and soils samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sintas, Maria F.; Cerchietti, Maria L.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the method for Sr-90 determination in aqueous sample and soils. Area and Personal Dosimetry laboratory (DPA) determines the presence of Sr-90 by Liquid Scintillation (LSC) by applying method of the double window and corresponding adjustments. Calibration is performed by standard solutions of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, where spectral 90 Sr and 90 Y zones are optimized. The initial treatment of the liquid samples includes the concentration for evaporation, while the solid ones dissolve for microwave and acidic digestion. The separation of the analyte involves a selective chromatographic extraction. An average efficiency for 90 Sr of 77 ± 1 % was obtained; the factor a/b was 0,85 ± 0,01 and recovery of 82 ± 8 %. The resultant MAD was 0,10 Bq/L in aqueous samples and 0,10 Bq/g in solid samples. (author)

  7. Determination of Sr-90 in rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A work that aim is to establish radiochemical method for the determination of Sr-90 in rain water samples has been studied, as a step in an environmental monitoring program of radioactive elements. The analysis includes the preconcentration of strontium diluted in a large volume sample by precipitation of strontium as carbonate, separation of strontium from interfering elements (calcium, barium and rare earths), separation of strontium from ytrium, precipitation of purified strontium and ytrium respectively as carbonate and oxalate, and counting of Sr-90 and Y-90 activities in a low background anticoincidence beta counter. (author) [pt

  8. Determination of Sr90 activity in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Anamelia Habib

    1970-01-01

    Several studies have been published in the literature on the extent and levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by fallout from nuclear weapon tests. According to UNSCEAR, these studies cover a great number of:-areas of the developed world, though large, areas of Asia, Africa and South-America are left aside with only, unsatisfactory information about the levels, of radioactive contamination. In 1968, UNSCEAR recommended that a survey on the contamination of biological materials such as human - bone by fission products and particularly Sr 90 should be encouraged on those areas where only fragmentary information was available. UNSCEAR recommendations call upon the fact that many individuals on such areas of the world have been exposed to Sr 90 contamination from birth to their adult area. Therefore, that group have an Sr 90 skeletal burden very much different from people exposed only at adult age. Based on these considerations, UNSCEAR recommendations called for Sr 90 analysis on human bones from different age groups. In Brazil, studies on the of Sr 90 in human bone are practically non-existent, except for the year of 1959. Following UNSCEAR recommendations, we decided to perform such a survey on Sr 90 levels in human bones. Samples were collected from individuals that died in Rio de Janeiro from accidents. These samples were firstly classified according to social level in very poor and poor groups. Samples were then classified in three age groups ranging 0-18, 18-30 and 30-40 years of age. Results show that levels found in the Brazilian age groups are close to the ones observed in Chile (1969), Argentina and Australia (1966-1968) and slightly, higher than -those observed in Venezuela, Senegal and Jamaica (1969). If one compares the results obtained for the North and South hemispheres respectively, one sees that there was a more pronounced decrease in the levels of Sr 90 content of the of some regions of South America. Our results show no

  9. Radioactivity precipitation Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Plock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakiewicz, W.; Majkowska, I.; Bonkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of research and results for beta-activity measurements of precipitation in 1977-1983 with regard to Sr-90, Cs-137 - are presented. Climatic changes caused by big industrial plant, conditions of pollution propagation in atmosphere, parameters of pollution load of Plock region are described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  10. The effect of 90Sr/90Y β-rays on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangbo; Ma Qingjie; Gu Xinquan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 90Sr/90Y β-rays on Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: In order to carry out β intracavitary irradiation, the active area of the applicator was located into prostate gland section of urethra in 37 patients. The dose was controlled 30∼50Gy in each patient and the patients were observed for 3 months. Results: After two weeks 26 cases were remarkably improved, 7 cases were improved and 4 cases were ineffective. There was significant difference on MFR, PVR, I-PSS and volume of prostate gland before and after treatment (P<0.01=. Conclusion: Clinical tests indicate that the 90Sr/90Y prostatic hyperplasia applicators provide a safe, effective ,non-invasive and economical therapeutic method for BPH. It is especially applicable for old and high-risk patients. (authors)

  11. Enrichment and determination of small amounts of 90Sr/90Y in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1979-01-01

    Small amounts of 90 Sr/ 90 Y can be concentrated from large volumes of surface water (100 l) by precipitation of the phosphates, using bentonite as adsorber matrix. In the case of samples containing no or nearly no suspended matter (tap water, ground water, sea water), the daughter 90 Y can be extracted directly by using filter beds impregnated with HDEHP. The applicability of both techniques is demonstrated under realistic conditions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  12. Role river flow for Sr 90 decontamination of polluted territories of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudel'skij, A.V.; Smith, J.T.; Zhukova, O.M.; Rudaya, S.M.; Sasina, N.V.

    2002-01-01

    Sr 90 contamination of the water flow Dnepr, Pripyat', Sozh, Besed', Iput' rivers is considered. The dynamics of reducing the average year activities of Sr 90 and the variations of the levels of Sr 90 activities in river water during spring-autumn high water are shown. The results of investigation of Sr 90 activity of the sediments of Pripyat' and Braginka rivers are connected with the second effects of the contamination of the river flowing off Sr 90 during high water period. Sr 90 transfer in composition of the flowing off river during 1990-1995 (from Belarus to Ukraine) is being estimated. (authors)

  13. Determination of Sr-90 in environmental samples using solid phase extraction disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    A method is described for determination of Sr-90 in environmental samples using solid phase extraction disk (Empore TM Strontium Rad Disk) and GM counter. To determine the optimum condition for capacity of Empore TM Strontium Rad Disk, its characterization studies such as the effects Sr content, acidity (molarity) of acids, presence of Ca 2+ and other major ions (Na + , Mg 2+ etc), influence of interference (Pb and Bi) and others were carried out. An optimized the using of Empore TM Strontium Rad Disk for determination of Sr-90 was validated by application to environmental samples. Quantitative recoveries above 95%for Sr (stable) were recorded in 6M HCl condition. Typical environmental samples may contain an assortment of anionic and cationic species, but in general, Empore TM Strontium Rad Disk has enough capacity to effectively separate Sr for wide variety of aqueous solutions. Sr recovery in a matrix-free or the content of matrix less than 300 mg/sample is typically greater than 99% is reported in this research work. In particular, sample, which may contain interference such as Pb and Bi would require an addition separation step before processing to ensure an accurate measurement of Sr. In this research work, radiotracer 85 Sr was used to monitor the behavior of Sr and calculation its recovery. For analytical methods that can count Y-90, the Sr-90 activity/concentration in environmental sample was calculated. The concentration of Sr-90 in ash sample (Quality Controled Sample) of 276 ± 18 Bq/kg ash was determined from Y-90 activity. The relative percent difference of 1.1% was achievable for Empore TM Sr-Rad Disk methods when compared to the conventional method (fumed-HNO 3 method) - 279 ± 11 Bq/kg ash. (Author)

  14. Migration of Sr 90 pine forest ecosystems in the modern technogenesis of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzha, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    The migration of Sr 90 in modern technogenesis against contamination from the Chernobyl accident was investigated. Radiometry and bioindication methods of were applied. The investigated area was divided into sections on the basis of the migration of Sr 90. (authors)

  15. Sr 90 in lake Drukshiai hydroecosystem - cooling basin of Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushauskene-Duzh, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of these investigations were to investigate Sr 90 migration in lake Drukshiai hydroecosystem and determine factors stipulating the specific character of Sr 90 biological migration under the chemical and thermal pollution before and after Ignalina NPP acting

  16. Study of the FeSO4 effectivity as a carrier for Sr 90 separation from liquid strontium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Sardjono.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of FeSO 4 as a carrier for removing Sr 90 from the strontium liquid waste is studied. This research is concerned with the study of the capacity of FeSO 4 as a carrier for removing Sr 90 from the strontium liquid waste. The method being used in the experiment is an application of the coprecipitation method to reduce the activity of the strontium liquid waste to a certain activity that is safe enough to be discharged in the environment. (author)

  17. Determination of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison between the Ca concentration in the soil and the transfer factors involved indicates a clear dependence of Sr-90 soil-to-plant transport from the soil's Ca-content with the concentration level of 0.1 g Ca/kg soil appearing to be the limit level. Soil concentrations of Cs-137 determined to-date indicate a very even deposition density of Cs-137. The transfer factors of plant/soil in Chile differ but negligeably from those in Europe. (DG) [de

  18. Characterisation of a Sr-90 based electron monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaoui, S; CERN; Casella, C; ETH Zurich

    2015-01-01

    This note describes the characterisation of an energy filtered Sr-90 source to be used in laboratory studies that require Minimum Ionising Particles (MIP) with a kinetic energy of up to approx. 2 MeV. The energy calibration was performed with a LYSO scintillation crystal read out by a digital Silicon Photomultiplier (dSiPM). The LYSO/dSiPM set-up was pre-calibrated using a Na-22 source. After introducing the motivation behind the usage of such a device, this note presents the principle and design of the electron monochromator as well as its energy and momentum characterisation.

  19. General regularities of Sr 90 distribution in system soil-plant under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudeliene, I.; Marchiulioniene, D.; Petroshius, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sr 90 distribution in system 'soil - underground part of plant - aboveground part of plant' was investigated. It was determined that Sr 90 activity concentration in underground and aboveground part of plants and in mosses was not dependent on its activity concentration in soil. There was direct dependence of Sr 90 activity concentration in aboveground on underground parts of plants. Sr 90 transfer factor from soil to underground part of plants and mosses was directly dependent on this radionuclide activity concentration in them. (authors)

  20. Using Cherenkov Counting For Fast Determination of 90Sr/90Y Activity in Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsroya, S.; Dolgin, B.; German, U.; Pelled, O.; Alfassi, Z. B.

    2014-01-01

    90Sr is one of the main long-lived fission products, and it is transferred into human body primarily by food, with milk being a substantial contributor. Due to its biochemical similarity to calcium, most strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissues. 90Sr is characterized by a long physical half life (28.8 y) and decays by beta particles with an Emax of 0.546 MeV to 90Y. This daughter isotope has a half life of 64 h and decays into 90Zr by beta particles with an Emax of 2.284 MeV. The milk components produce a high turbidity and light attenuation, causing a significant decrease of the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation counting (LSC) systems, mostly used for beta emitters detection. Most methods proposed in the past are time-consuming, as they are based on several stages of chemical and physical treatments, including precipitation, ashing, ion exchange and extraction (Wikins et al., 1984, Porter et al, 1961, Kimura et al., 1979). When measuring 90Sr/90Y activity by Cherenkov counting, most of the Cherenkov radiation is produced by 90Y (about 98.6%), due to the much higher energy of its beta particles relative to these from 90Sr. The counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, at a greater extent than in standard liquid scintillation counting (L'Annunziata, 2012), and therefore the quench correction is critical. The ‘‘external source area ratio’’ (ESAR) quench correction method was applied to measure 90Sr/90Y activities in aqueous samples with a wide range of quenching levels (Tsroya et al., 2009). This method was proved to be superior to all other quench correction methods (Tsroya et al., 2012) and is applicable also for determination of 90Sr/90Y in human urine (Tsroya et al., 2013). In the present work the applicability of the ESAR method to measurement of 90Sr/90Y activities in milk and some of its products was investigated

  1. 90Sr-90Y radionuclide generator based on ionex chromatography. Part 1 - project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miler, V.; Budsky, F.; Malek, Z.

    2003-09-01

    This part contains a proposal for the generator column design, materials to be used (chemicals, ionexes) and technological procedures. The proposal was inspired by the 90 Sr- 90 Y generator operated by Zfk Rossendorf. The aim was to develop and launch a generator for the preparation of carrier-free 90 Y in the form of [ 90 Y] chloride solution in dilute hydrochloric acid. The separation of Y from Sr is based on ionex chromatography by sorbing the two radionuclides on a catex. While Sr remains sorbed, 90 Y is eluted with lithium citrate. During this process, 90 Y is bonded in a citrate complex which, having a negative charge, is subsequently trapped by an anex. A guard column is inserted before the anex column to trap any traces of 90 Sr. 90 Y is eluted from the anex in the yttrium chloride form by using dilute hydrochloric acid. The product from the generator can be used for the preparation of [ 90 Y] - Fe colloid injection or [ 90 Y] - yttrium citrate injection for intra-articular application or for the development of monoclonal antibodies and peptides

  2. Transfer coefficient study of Sr-90 in the soil-grass-milk chain for Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, J. T.; Sarria P, R.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most important problems in modern radioecology is the lack of able information about the features of radionuclide migration in tropical and subtropical environment. The development of nuclear energy and the enhancing in the applications of nuclear techniques in those latitudes indicate that studies in this area are necessary. Cuba is carrying out studies on radioecological characterization of the principal food chains in the country. One of the objectives of these studies is to define the values of the transfer coefficients to be used in the evaluation programs for the assessment of the radiological impact of practices which involve ionizing radiation. This paper shows the results obtained in the determination of Sr-90 transfer coefficients in soil-grass-milk food chain in 'La Quebrada', a place near the Havana City where an important part of the milk that the citizens consume is produced. Transfer coefficients for Sr-90 were calculated on the basis of data collected during 5 years in the region. Soil-grass transfer coefficients are in the range 0.18-5 while grass-milk coefficients are in the range of 1.2x10 -4 - 6x10 -3 day/L. These values are in accordance with values reported by other authors in the literature. (authors). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Study of radionuclide 90Sr-90Y on cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Wei Wei; Zou Benjie; Liu Fang; Xu Zhishun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 90 Sr- 90 Yon cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: The apoptosis and expression of Ki-67 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after irradiation 90 Sr- 90 Y were detected by transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. Results: The proliferation index (PI) of BPH after 90 Sr- 90 Y irradiation was much lower than that before irradiation, but there was no significant change in apoptosis index (AI). Conclusion: Irradiation with 90 Sr- 90 Y could restrain cell proliferation of BPH, but could not induce apoptosis

  4. Study on the Sr-90 content in the spontaneous vegetations with fodder value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiciu, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author presents the results of a study concerning the Sr-90 activity in the spontaneous vegetation with fodder value (grass on the natural hay), during the spring - summer season of 1988, 1989 and 1990. It was possible to obtain information from 17 sampling points located in different zones of the country, at different altitudes concerning: Sr-90 accumulation in the grass (Bq/m 2 ), Sr-90 concentration of the grass in fresh state and in preserved state (Bq/kg), as well as the variation limits of the Sr-90 concentration factor in the preserved grass by drying. (author). 4 tabs., 3 refs

  5. Development of methodology for the preparation of 90Sr-90Y generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Graciela; Osso, Joao A.

    2008-01-01

    Among the more attractive radionuclides for therapeutic applications is yttrium-90. Its relatively short half-life (64.0h), maximum beta energy (2.28 MeV) make it well suited for a variety of applications, ranging from the radiolabeling of antibodies for tumor therapy to the production of radiolabeled particles for the treatment of liver malignancies. Yttrium-90 results from the decay of strontium-90 (28y) and decays to a stable daughter ( 90 Zr) and has no γ-ray, what makes this nuclide very attractive for therapeutic applications. 90 Y is produced through a generator system, from the decay of 90 Sr. Before it can safely employed in clinical applications, the 90 Y must be made essentially free of 90 Sr, an isotope known to cause bone marrow suppression. The objective of this work is to develop 90 Sr- 90 Y generator using a cation exchange method resin. This method was the most effects for the separation of 90 Y and 90 Sr. 90 Sr is strongly adsorbed in the resin and 90 Y is eluted in 0.003M EDTA. The generator efficiency and radionuclide control results were also evaluated using 85 Sr (γ-ray emitter). The generator was developed, using AG 50WX8 exchange resin converted to the Na+ form and then conditioned with 0.003M EDTA solution (pH=4.8). The quality control showed that 90 Y had no 8 '5Sr impurities, inside the detection limits of the detector. The results presented here are very promising, showing that the methodology is able to separate the two nuclides, with low quantities of 90 Sr impurity and satisfactory elution yields. (author)

  6. Research And Establishment Of The Analytical Procedure For/Of Sr-90 In Milk Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thi Tuyet Mai; Duong Duc Thang; Nguyen Thi Linh; Bui Thi Anh Duong

    2014-01-01

    Sr-90 is an indicator for the transfer radionuclides from environment to human. This work was setup to build a procedure for Sr-90 determination in main popular foodstuff and focus to fresh milk. The deal of this work was establish procedure for Sr-90 , assessment for chemical yield and test sample of Vietnam fresh milk, also in this work, the QA, QC for the procedure was carried out using standard sample of IAEA. The work has been completed for the procedure of determination Sr-90 in milk. The chemical yield of recovery for Y-90 and Sr-90 were at 46.76 % ±1.25% and 0.78 ± 0.086, respectively. The QA & QC program was carried out using reference material IAEA-373. The result parse is appropriate equally and well agreement with the certificate value. Three reference samples were analyses with 15 measurements. The results of Sr-90 concentration after processing statistics given a value at 3.69 Bq/kg with uncertainty of 0.23 Bq/kg. The certificate of IAEA-154 for Sr-90 (half live 28.8 year) is the 6.9 Bq/kg, with the range 95% Confidence Interval as (6.0 -8.0 ) Bq/kg at 31st August 1987. After adjusting decay, the radioactivity at this time is 3.67 Bq/kg. It means that such the result of this work was perfect matching the value of stock index IAEA. Five Vietnam fresh milk samples were analyzed for Sr-90, the specific radioactivity of Sr-90 in milk were in a range from 0.032 to 0.041 Bq/l. (author)

  7. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Oehlenschlaeger, M. [National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Broenshoej (Denmark); Karlberg, O. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-04-01

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.).

  8. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Karlberg, O.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.)

  9. Parameters of Cs 137 and Sr 90 transition from soil into salad crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevich, T.M.; Barashenko, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Transition coefficients of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from soil into plants for potherb of bulb onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), celery (Apium graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been defined. (authors)

  10. The characteristics of intake Cs-137 and Sr-90 with food by Ozersk's inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronova, M.

    2000-01-01

    This work is based on a questionnaire of production plant 'MAYAK' workers eating habits. Cs-137 and Sr-90 were chosen as experimental radionuclides. Cs-137 is distributed in organisms equally. It is considered to be a source of genetic damage after entry into the human body. This radionuclide is almost completely absorbed as it passes into the bowels after peroral entry. In the blood Cs-137 is distributed almost evenly between organs and tissues. It was established that Cs-137 accumulates in muscle, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, and liver to a higher degree. Although the half-life of Cs-137 exceeds Sr-90, Cs-137 leaves the body more rapidly. The radiation dose of Cs-137 per unit of intake is less than for Sr-90. In addition, Cs-137 is absorbed by plants to a lesser degree than Sr-90. Taking into account that a considerable part of the daily diet consists of vegetables, it should be noted that different radionuclides get into plants in different amounts and different ways. Cs-137 concentrates in cereal, beans, oil plants, potatoes. beets and tomatoes. Meat and milk are also a main source of Cs-137 in a person's diet. Sr-90 contributes to radiation dose for bone and marrow, almost all Sr-90 is taken up by organisms through milk, greens, and cereal. (authors)

  11. WE-D-BRE-01: A Sr-90 Irradiation Device for the Study of Cutaneous Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorand, JE; Bourland, JD [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Burnett, LR [KeraNetics, LLC, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Tytell, M [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To determine dosimetric character for a custom-built Sr-90 beta irradiator designed for the study of Cutaneous Radiation Injury (CRI) in a porcine animal model. In the event of a radiological accident or terrorist event, Sr-90, a fission by-product, will likely be produced. CRI is a main concern due to the low energy and superficial penetration in tissue of beta particles from Sr-90. Seven 100 mCi plaque Sr-90 radiation sources within a custom-built irradiation device create a 40 mm diameter region of radiation-induced skin injury as part of a larger project to study the efficacy of a topical keratin-based product in CRI healing. Methods: A custom-built mobile irradiation device was designed and implemented for in vivo irradiations. Gafchromic™ EBT3 radiochromic film and a PTW Markus chamber type 23343 were utilized for dosimetric characterization of the beta fluence at the surface produced by this device. Films were used to assess 2-dimensional dose distribution and percent depth dose characteristics of the radiation field. Ion chamber measurements provided dose rate data within the field. Results: The radiation field produced by the irradiation device is homogeneous with high uniformity (∼5%) and symmetry (∼3%) with a steep dose fall-off with depth from the surface. Dose rates were determined to be 3.8 Gy/min and 3.3 Gy/min for film and ion chamber measurements, respectively. A dose rate of 3.4 Gy/min was used to calculate irradiation times for in vivo irradiations. Conclusion: The custom-built irradiation device enables the use of seven Sr-90 beta sources in an array to deliver a 40 mm diameter area of homogeneous skin dose with a dose rate that is useful for research purposes and clinically relevant for the induction of CRI. Doses of 36 and 42 Gy successfully produce Grade III CRI and are used in the study of the efficacy of KeraStat™. This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and

  12. Dynamics of Sr90 and its analogs accumulation by the vegetative parts of cabbage (Brassica oleracea l.) during its ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenasheva, M.N.; Timofeev, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    Field experiment demonstrated that the maximal content of Sr90 was observed in assimilative leaves of cabbage while the minimal content of Sr90 was traced in upper leaves. In conductive tissues Sr90 concentration increased insignificantly during the growth season. For assimilative plant parts the discrimination coefficient of Sr90 in relation to calcium was less than 1. It was revealed the positive correlative dependence between the contents of calcium, magnesium, stable strontium and manganese in vegetative tissues on the one hand and accumulation of Sr90 by these tissues on the other hand

  13. Dynamics of Sr 90 and its analogs accumulation by the vegetative parts of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) during its ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenasheva, M.N.; Timofeev, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    Field experiment demonstrated that the maximal content of Sr 90 was observed in assimilative leaves of cabbage while the minimal content of Sr 90 was traced in upper leaves. In conductive tissues Sr 90 concentration increased insignificantly during the growth season. For assimilative plant parts the discrimination coefficient of Sr 90 in relation to calcium was less than 1. The authors revealed the positive correlative dependence between the contents of calcium, magnesium, stable strontium and manganese in vegetative tissues on the one hand and accumulation of Sr 90 by these tissues on the other hand. (Authors)

  14. On the geochemistry of 'Chernobyl' Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, G.F.; Chudinovskikh, T.V.; Zemlyanoi, A.D.; Eremeev, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The following correlations for Cs 137 and Sr 90 were found. For Cs-137, the relation of its concentration in suspended matter to that in the dissolved component is 2.4 centre dot 10 5 in the Dnieper waters and 0.0037 centre dot 10 5 in the North-West shelf waters; for Sr-90 - 0.44 centre dot 10 3 and 2.8 centre dot 10 3 , respectively. The relation of the concentration of dissolved Cs-137 in the sea and in the Dnieper waters is 4.3, and for Sr-90 - 0.25. It is evident that these basic correlations for Cs-137 are close to those for stable cesium. These correlations for Sr-90 differ very much from those for stable strontium. So, the situation formed for the last time in the boundary area 'the Dnieper river - the North-Western Black Sea' is close to the balanced one for Cs-137, while it is very far from that for Sr-90

  15. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I 131 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Sr 90 . As in many other countries, in the first days, I 131 had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs 137 and Sr 90 remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs

  16. In-flow technology for the determination of Sr-90 concentrations in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines for a future work concerning in-flow surveillance of Sr-90 in nuclear plant process treams have been studied. The many problems involved with the task of on-line Sr-90 determination were approached in two different ways, one applying β-counting of the 64-hour daughter Y-60 with the use of the process stream itself as a Cerenkov scintillator and the other - indirect - using simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of Sr-91 and Sr-92 for the determination of the leakage route for strontium. (Author)

  17. Beta dosimetry in teeth from SR-90 exposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, P.; De Coste, V.; Onori, S.; Veronese, I.; Giussani, A.; Cantone, M.C.; Shishkina, E.

    2006-01-01

    Tooth enamel is a well recognized dosimeter for retrospective dose reconstruction of individuals accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. The measurements of the absorbed dose in tooth enamel is conventionally carried out with the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique. Tooth enamel is sensitive to all kind of ionizing radiation. Its response to photons has been widely investigated. For application to contaminated teeth with 90 Sr, one of the most common osteo tropic radionuclides, the effectiveness of tooth enamel response to the β spectrum needs be evaluated. The response function to 90 Sr of the EPR/tooth enamel systems, its linearity and reproducibility have been investigated under a controlled geometry, and the results will be presented and compared to those obtained with photons. When the subject has been exposed to both external and internal radiation, a combined EPR/T.L. method can be used to distinguish the internal from the external contribution to the cumulative dose in tooth (Gosku et al., 2002;=Veronese et al. 2004, Shishkina et al. 2005). The T.L. measurement, performed putting thin ± Al 2 O 3 :C dosimeters at contact with the tooth surfaces, enables to estimate the beta dose rate due to the radionuclides present in tooth. The combination of this information with that coming from EPR allows, under specific assumptions, to evaluate separately the internal and external contribution to the tooth dose. In a previous work (Veronese et al., 2004) the dose in enamel measured by EPR in a tooth contaminated with 90 Sr of a Techa River resident was compared to the dose rate measured by TLDs. The test has been extended to a larger number of 90 Sr contaminated teeth. EPR measurements have been also performed in other portions of the teeth, i.e. tooth dentin and root. The correlation between the results, obtained from EPR and TLD measurements, and the evaluation of the relative proportion of internal and external dose are presented and discussed. (authors)

  18. Seasonal variation of Sr-90 fallout in Japan through the end of 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragi, Yukio; Aoyama, Michio

    1986-01-01

    Time variation of Sr-90 fallout together with that of Cs-137 is given through the end of 1983. The results at 12 stations in Japan indicate that the recent fallout in Japan was mainly derived from the 26th Chinese nuclear detonation. Relatively short stratospheric residence time of radioactive debris was obtained for the 26th Chinese detonation. The activity ratio of Cs-137 to Sr-90 in the fallout ranged from 0.8 to 6.0 with the average at 2.03. It is noted that the activity ratio of Cs-137 to Sr-90 decreased just after the detonation and then it increased. The meridional distribution of Sr-90 fallout over the Japan Islands indicates that it increased from south to north, whereas the amount of precipitation decreased in the same direction. After the thermonuclear detonation, the amount of fallout increased in the following year and the appearance of maximum fallout was delayed by one to two months from normal pattern of the spring maximum. (author)

  19. Sr 90 behaviour in the soil-plant system of moors of the Gomel' range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostereva, I.V.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Shamal', N.V.; Matusevich, Zh.L.

    2005-01-01

    The wavy dependence is installed between pH of the soil of moors and rate of accumulation (RA) of Sr 90 by phytomass of plants. The direct correlation is marked between concentration of mineral materials and RA of an above - ground part of herbaceous plants. Is abnormal high values RA are observed for the green forms of semifrutexs and undershrubs. (authors)

  20. Rapid method for determining Sr-89 and Sr-90 using Cherenkov and proportional counting; Schnellmethode zur Bestimmung von SR-89 und SR-90 durch Cerenkov- und Proportionalzaehlermessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Wende, C.; Schwokowski, R.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Abraham, A.; Heinrich, T. [Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Radebeul (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A rapid method for determining Sr-89 and Sr-90 in water, milk and biological samples has been developed and tested. After sample preparation strontium is separated by extraction chromatography using Sr resin. Eluate is divided and transfered to LSC vial and filter paper by SrCO{sub 3} precipitation. A Hidex 300 SL TDCR liquid scintillation counter and Thermo Fisher low level proportional counter have been used. Chemical yield of Sr-85 tracer is determined by Gamma spectroscopy. Uncertainty budget, decision threshold and detection limit are calculated in accordance with GUM and ISO 11929.

  1. Accumulation of Sr90-Y90 by the developing spawn and larvae of Coregonus lavaretus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, N.V.; Ozhegov, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    The results are given of laboratory experiments aimed at studying accumulation of Sr-90 and its daughter product Y-90 in the spawn and larvae of whitefish, a representative of autumn spawning fish species. The results are of interest for predicting possible consequences of radioactive contamination of water bodies and introduction of limits for permissible concentration of radioactive substances in aqueous medium. The accumulation coefficient of Sr-90 in the spawn reaches its maximum after the first twenty four hours of the experiment. Subsequently throughout the incubation period the accumulation coefficient (AC) of radionuclide does not undergo any changes being about 3. Besides it has been established that the equilibrium distribution of Sr-90 in whitefish spawn and the surrounding solution occurs during the first two hours. Unlike Sr-90 the accumulation of Y-90 occurs during the whole incubation period and results in the AC value of 80 by the end of the spawn incubation. The experiments aimed at determining the strength of radionuclide fixation by whitefish spawn and larvae revealed that both radionuclides in the spawn are rather mobile. Strontium separates fully from it during the first twenty four hours and yttrium marked by higher fixation strength transfers completely from the spawn into surrounding aqueous medium by the end of the experiment. In larvae the radionuclides are fixed stroger than in the spawn. The approximate radiation doses of embryos by the time of their hatching have been estimated. The estimates indicate that the total radiation dose of the spawn developing in aqueous solution of Sr-90 - Y-90 with 1.1 curie/0 -5 concentration is about 500 radl

  2. Measurements of Sr-90 radionuclide in Slovenian soils before and after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Ambroz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Strontium-90 is a long-lived fission product (half life of 28,7 years) that is globally dispersed in the environment. It had been transported by air masses from the nuclear weapon tests sites in the period of 1951-1980 and also from Chernobyl (1986) and deposited elsewhere, especially over northern hemisphere. Contamination of surface layer (0-10 cm) of undisturbed soil in Slovenia was measured in the middle of the seventies (1973-75) and recently (2002). In parallel, long-lived radionuclide, Cs-137 was measured too, the second campaign was performed ten years after Chernobyl accident. Maps on Sr-90 and Cs-137 contents in soil were elaborated, showing different distributions of area contamination and different levels for a case of nuclear weapon tests and due to Chernobyl accident for both radionuclides. The past contamination from atmospheric nuclear tests Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Slovenian territory was characterised with the high values on western part of the country (with the exception of the coastal region) and typical values of 1,5-2 kBq/m 2 for Sr-90 and 3-4 kBq/m 2 for Cs-137. The Chernobyl accident raised the contamination with Cs-137 mostly in northwest part (Alpine region), with an average value of 20-25 kBq/m 2 for the country. Contamination with Sr-90 was much lower, the existing levels increased for about 0,2 kBq/m 2 . Recently measured levels of Sr-90 in the upper layer of soil hardly approach to 0,3 kBq/m 2 . (author)

  3. Complexation studies with 90Y from a novel 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.; Pandey, U.; Banerjee, S.; Samuel, G.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Dhami, P.S.; Kannan, R.; Achuthan, P.V.; Chitnis, R.R.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanujam, A.

    2001-01-01

    Some features of a novel 90 Sr- 90 Y generator which employs supported liquid membrane (SLM) to separate carrier-free 90 Y from 90 Sr present in the high level waste of the spent fuel of reactor are described. After ascertaining the purity of 90 Y particularly with respect to 90 Sr breakthrough, its complexation was studied with a few oxo/aza donor ligands, such as DTPA, EDTMP, DOTA, TETA and a cyclic phosphonate, CTMP. These studies were primarily carried out to adjudge the quality of the 90 Y obtained from a novel 90 Sr- 90 Y generator and ascertain its usability for labelling biomolecules such as antibodies and peptides. The DOTA complexes are most stable at 37 C in human serum; they appear to be ideal bifunctional chelating agent for use in radioimmunotherapy with 90 Y. (orig.)

  4. Soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in digestate amended agricultural soils- a lysimeter scale experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E.; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Zoriy, Myroslav; Flucht, Reinhold; Opitz, Thorsten; Hofmann, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium are among the most problematic soil contaminants following nuclear fallout due to their long half-lives and high fission yields. Their chemical resemblance to potassium, ammonium and calcium facilitates their plant uptake and thus enhances their chance to reach humans through the food-chain dramatically. The plant uptake of both radionuclides is affected by the type of soil, the amount of organic matter and the concentration of competitive ions. In the present lysimeter scale experiment, soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 was investigated in an agricultural silty soil amended with digestate, a residue from a biogas plant. The liquid fraction of the digestate, liquor, was used to have higher nutrient competition. Digestate application was done in accordance with the field practice with an application rate of 34 Mg/ha and mixing it in top 5 cm soil, yielding a final concentration of 38 g digestate/Kg soil. The top 5 cm soil of the non-amended reference soil was also submitted to the same mixing procedure to account for the physical disturbance of the top soil layer. Six months after the amendment of the soil, the soil contamination was done with water-soluble chloride salts of both radionuclides, resulting in a contamination density of 66 MBq/m2 for Cs-137 and 18 MBq/m2 for Sr-90 in separate experiments. Our results show that digestate application led to a detectable difference in soil-plant transfer of the investigated radionuclides, effect was more pronounced for Cs-137. A clear difference was observed in plant uptake of different plants. Pest plants displayed higher uptake of both radionuclides compared to wheat. Furthermore, lower activity values were recorded in ears compared to stems for both radionuclides.

  5. The content of K-40, Sr-90 and Cs-137 in milk in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, D.; Maracic, M.; Marovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    Milk is one of the most important foodstuffs. The children's diet is based on milk and quality of milk has always been a subject of concern and continuous control. investigation of radioactivity in milk in Croatia has been started in 1960. The samples of milk were collected daily in the towns Osijek, Zadar and Zagreb. In monthly samples specific Sr-90 activities were determined by radiochemical separation, and Cs-137 and K-40 by gammaspectrometric analysis. The values obtained are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The ratio of Sr-90, Cs-137 and K-40 specific activities was calculated as well as the ratio of their maximum prmissible levels. By the division of these two ratios the ratio of their effectiveness was calculated. On basis of the obtained data the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The level of Sr-90 in milk had been increasing by 1964. in the period that followed Sr-90 was exponentially decreasing which indicated that its content in milk originated mostly from nuclear weapon tests carried out in the period 1945 to 1962. 2. The content of Cs-137 in milk in Croatia has been exponentially decreasing since 1965 in spite of a great increase in 1986. This points to the fact that Cs-137 content in milk originated mostly from nuclear weapon tests in the period 1945 to 1962, and to a lesser degree from Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. 3. The content of K-40 in milk has not changed significantly over the investigated period, but its level was not the same at all sampling locations. 4. The ratio of the impact of investigated radionuclides on man obtained from the samples of milk in the territory of Croatia is: 90 Sr : 137 Cs : 40 K = 1 : 2 : 5. (author)

  6. The Sr-90 waste treatment by using sodium carbonat as a carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suroto.

    1978-01-01

    The coprecipitation processes of the Sr-90 wastes, with the lime-soda treatment, that followed by the mechanism of isomorph substitution, have shown a good performance in pH 7-8. Excess of natrium carbonate in the lime-soda treatment caused the decrease of the decontamination factor. This research shows that the coprecipitation by calcite-phosphate was better than the lime-soda treatment. (author)

  7. Influence of soil fungi (basidiomycetes) on the migration of Cs 134 + 137 and Sr 90 in coniferous forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemmelt, R.; Hiersche, L.; Schaller, G.; Wirth, E.

    1990-01-01

    During the first three years after the Chernobyl event high Cs 134 + 137 activities in fruitbodies of basidiomycetes have been measured. A decline of activities with time has not yet been observed. The activities are considerably higher compared to agricultural products from the same area. In order to study the movement of radiocesium in coniferous forest sites, the activities in soil, fungi, and plants have been measured. Based on these results a model to describe the cesium cycling in coniferous forest ecosystems is proposed with special emphasis on the influence of soil fungi and plants on the migration of cesium. As measurements of Sr 90 in forest ecosystems are rare this nuclide has been included in the investigations. (author)

  8. Preliminary concentration and determination of Sr-90 in natural and waste water of Kursk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basargin, N.N.; Rozovskij, Yu.G.; Grebennikova, R.V.; Salikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    Synthesis and study of cheating sorbents containing functional analytical ortho-oxy-aza-ortho'-sulfonyl group are presented. Physicochemical properties of sorbents and chemisorption of Sr and Sr 90 are studied. A rapid method of preliminary concentration with subsequent atomic absorption and radiometric determination of Sr in natural and waste water is proposed. Samples of aqua-objects of Kursk region were analyzed using developed method. The results of radiometric investigations into control of strontium-90 content in cooling systems of Kursk NPP, waste waters, waters of Sejm river testifies higher values of concentration in the april - september period [ru

  9. Some analytical aspects about determination of Sr89 and Sr90 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Alvarez Garcia, A.

    1988-01-01

    Some problems about determination of Sr 89 and Sr 90 in environmental samples have been studied. The main difficulties are due to the wide range in the concentration of their components and the contents of chemical and radiochemical interferent elements. The behaviour of strontium on ion exchange resin has been described by some experiments in various media: aqueous media, calcium concentration and matrix variable. The differences of alkaline-earth nitrate and carbonate solubilities have been analyzed in nitric acid. The chemical recovery in environmental samples has been determined. (Author)

  10. Determination of Cs-137, Sr-89 and Sr-90 and gamma spectroscopy of water samples from the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactivity concentration of Cs-137, Sr-90, Sr-89, Co-60 and K-40 from the Danube water in the period of 1977-1979. A few systematic changes in the radioactivity concentrations were observed and presented. (author)

  11. Method for rapid screening analysis of Sr-90 in edible plant samples collected near Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Sakamoto, Hideaki; Shiga, Norikatsu; Suzuki, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin, and the 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with this method. - Highlights: • A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. • 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. • The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin. • 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. • 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in edible plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi NPPs with this method.

  12. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using ZrO2: Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M.; Rivera M, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ ) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The powders of ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ , previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO 2 doped with the (Eu 3+ ) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO 2 ) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  13. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using amorphous ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera M, T.; Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO 2 -a) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H 3 and Zr-O 2 . One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO 2 -a, previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO 2 -a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of ± 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  14. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of 90Sr/90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2010-09-01

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D w ; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of 90 Sr / 90 Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  15. A data acquisition system for indentification of 90Sr/ 90Y in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medin, G.; Brajnik, D.; Starcic, M.; Stanovnik, A.

    1996-01-01

    Often, in the stage of research and development of new techniques for detection of ionizing radiation, elaborate electronic systems are required. In this paper, we describe the relatively complex detector and electronic system used for a relatively simple but nevertheless demanding measurement of the beta emitting radionuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y in environmental samples. The detection limit of 1 Bq in a thin, disc-shaped sample, was obtained by careful elimination of background. Contribution of other radionuclides in the sample, were eliminated or at least considerably reduced by using a silica aerogel as Cherenkov radiator and thin multiwire chamber in coincidence. Cosmic ray signals were reduced by large scintillation counters in anticoincidence. Finally, persisting RF pick-up signals were eliminated by using the signal from a wire antenna and identical MWPC preamplifier and discriminator for a veto to the master coincidence. For each accepted event, both timing and pulse height information was recorded with a personal computer

  16. Changes induced to eye lens membrane characterization after treatments with beta radiation from Sr90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Refaei, F.M.; Morris, M.; Gamal, M.M.; Fadel, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The effect of β-particles on Na + and k + content, Na + -k + ATPase and histopathological changes of cell membrane were studied in the present work. One of the two eyes of New Zealand rabbits from both sexes were irradiated with β-particles from Sr 90 source to 10, 20, 40 and 60 Gy. The effect of β-particles on lens membrane after 3 months of exposure to 20 and 60 Gy was also studied. The results indicated that the treated and untreated eyes suffered pronounced injuries which deduced from the distribution of ATPase in comparison with the normal control which showed a decrease (reached 52%). As well as uncontrolled transport of the Na + and k + through the membrane and injuries appeared in the histopathological studies. (author). 12 refs, 15 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Tamayo Garcia, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Bragg-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents the characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta radiation field. The absorbed dose rate to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm was calculated and is (0.13206±0.0028) μGy. The extrapolation chamber null depth was determined and its value is 60 μm. The influence of temperature, pressure and humidity on the value of the corrected current was also evaluated. Temperature is the parameter that has more influence on this value and the influence of pressure and the humidity is not very significant. Extrapolation curves were obtained. (Author)

  18. Dynamics of Sr-90 content in environmental objects of Ukrainian-Byelorussian Poles'e after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.A.; Kajro, I.A.; Shandala, N.K.; Los', I.N.; Repin, V.S.; Gul'ko, G.M.; Chepurnoj, N.I.; Berkovskij, V.B.; Tsygankov, N.Ya.; Pozhivalova, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Ecological, dosemetric and radiation-sanitary aspects of the problem of Sr-90 contamination of environmental objects and food in Ukrainian-Byelorussian Poles'e in three-year period after the Chernobyl' NPP accident are discussed. Analysis of the materials collected shows that efficient equivalent radiation doses from Sr-90 being intaken into the region of Urkainian-Byelorussian Poles'e after the Chernobyl' NPP accident expected to be gained during 70 years of critical population group life are not exceed 1 mSv; this value is by the factor of 10-100 smaller than the dose values connected with radioactive cesium. The problem of environment contamination with Sr-90 transforms from hot radiation-sanitary situation into more quiet radioecological one

  19. Therapeutic result of radioactive nuclide 90Sr/90Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hanchao; Li Yuying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Methods: Sixty patients with BPH were treated with a course of transurethral radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy. Results: The severity of BPH was assessed with four parameters: maximal flow rate (MFR), volume of residual urine (VRU), international prostatic symptom score (IPSS) and volume (size) of prostate. In this series, the total effective rate was 93.33% with no treatment- related mortality. Favorable changes of the parameters after a course of radioactive nuclide therapy were significant. Conclusion: Radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy for patients with BPH was safe, easily performed and quite effective. This procedure is worth popularizing in appropriate patients. (authors)

  20. Development of 90Sr/90Y Generator Systems Based on SLM Techniques for Radiolabelling of Therapeutic Biomolecules with 90Y. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thu, N.T.; Van Dong, D.; Van Cuong, B.; Van Khoa, C.; Cam Hoa, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    Yttrium-90 is one of the most useful radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutic applications, especially for labelling peptides and antibodies. Studies were carried out to develop a 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator system based on the SLM technique. Two stages of 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator systems were developed at different activity levels of 5, 20, 50 and 100 mCi and operated with semiautomation in sequential mode. In the first stage of the system, PC88A based SLM was used, which transported 90 Y from a nitric acid medium containing 0.01–4M HNO 3 . In the second stage, the 90 Y from the first stage was transferred to the first compartment of the second stage using carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) based SLM where 1M acetic acid was used as the receiving phase for 90 Y. Quality control was carried out for the products of 90 Y using EPC with paper chromatography and Tec control chromatography. Peptides and antibodies were labelled using the 90 Y product obtained from the generator developed in house. (author)

  1. Forecasting of accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the herbage of the main types of the Belarus Palessje meadows utilizing agrochemical soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolyak, A.G.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Ivashkova, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established that the minimum accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the herbage of the waterless valley, marshed and flood types of the Belarus Palessje meadows contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides is seen when the optimum basic agrochemical soil properties are achieved with the application of the scientifically reasonable protective measures. It was demonstrated that in the remote period of the accident for the prognosis of radionuclides contents in natural and cultural meadows herbage it is advisable to use of transfer factors (TFa, Bq/kg : kBq/m2) based on the complex agrochemical parameters - basic saturation degree (V, %) and agrochemical cultivation soils index (Iac), which take into account several soil characteristics simultaneously. This article provides the equations of linear and multiple regressions that can be used to calculate the transfer factors for Cs 137 and Sr 90 uptake and the herbage contamination degree for the main types of meadows of the region, which will allow one to reduce the volume of forages production (hay, green bulk) that is not adequate to the established permissible levels: Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in agricultural raw material and forages. (authors)

  2. Transfer of Cs137 and Sr90 from contaminated soil to some crops in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassine, T.; Al-Oudat, M.; Othman, I.; Sharaneq, A.

    1998-07-01

    Transfer factors of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from contaminated soil to some common crops were investigated under field conditions for a period of three years. The results showed large variations in transfer factor values (expressed as Bq/g of dried material to Bq/g of soil) among crops. The highest values for both radionuclides were found in green vegetables up to 0.067 for 137 Cs and 3.78 for 90 Sr, whereas cereal grains had the lowest values. The transfer factor values of 90 Sr were generally much higher than that of 137 Cs for the same crop by factors ranged up to 263. The values for both radionuclides were found to be in the lower limits of that obtained in other areas. This was attributed to the effect of several parameters such as high ph, low organic matter and high exchangeable potassium and calcium in the soil. The transfer factor values of 137 Cs were decreased from the first year to the third year for most crops by factor up to 4, while this approach was not found for 90 Sr. (author)

  3. Influence of cultivar specificity on Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation in green part and seeds of soya plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutseva, G.Z.; Goloveshkin, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of investigation carried out with soya sorts zoned in Belarus on soddy-podsolic sandy soils contaminated as a result of Chernobyl accident with Cs 137 and Sr 90 a high sort selectivity in accumulation of the radionuclides is established. (authors)

  4. Validation of Extraction Paper Chromatography as a Quality Control Technique for Analysis of Sr-90 in Y-90 Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipavan, Poramatikul; Jatupol, Sangsuriyan; Wiranee, Sriweing

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Yttrium-90 (Y-90) is a daughter product of strontium-90 (Sr-90). It is specified that there should be less than 2 micro-curie of Sr-90 in Y-90 radiopharmaceuticals. Since both nuclides are beta emitting and there is always a contamination of Y-90 in Sr-90 sample, validation of the analytical method is necessary. In this study, commercial Y-90 and Sr-85 (a gamma emitting isotope of strontium) were used as daughter and mother nuclides, respectively. Extraction paper chromatography technique and its efficient validation method were investigated. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) diphosphonate was dropped at the origin of chromatography paper and air dried prior to sample drops. Validation of the separation was done by radio-chromatography scanning of the chromatography paper. Their energy spectra were identified in the spectra mode of Packard Cobra II automatic gamma counter, which can differentiate a pure gamma, a pure beta and a mixture of beta and gamma nuclides. Results showed that yttrium acetate remained fixed at the origin of the chromatography paper while strontium acetate moved to the solvent front when developed in saline. In conclusion, the extraction paper chromatography technique can effectively separate Sr-90 from Y-90

  5. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF2 for beta radiation of 90Sr + 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2003-01-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF 2 commercial dosimetry for detection of 90 Sr + 90 Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves

  6. Methods of determination of the dynamics of mobile form of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in soils within Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetskaya, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the most significant mechanisms of migration of radionuclides are considered: diffusion of free and absorbed ions, migration colloid atoms transmission etc. on the dynamics of mobile forms of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in soils

  7. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawan, Budi, E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id [Radwaste Technology Center-National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong-Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia); Mila, Oktri; Safni [Dept. of Chemistry, Fac. of Math. and Nat. Sci., Andalas University, Kampus Limau Manis, Padang-West Sumatra 25163 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr{sup +} ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10{sup −2} g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  8. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations VI. Theoretical analysis of the radioactive contamination due to Sr90 and Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    In view of the considerably different values of the fallout rate and the cumulative deposition of Sr 90 and Cs 137 reported from different parts of Japan, the author attempted to estimate the ranges of the fallout rate and of the cumulative deposition of Sr 90 and Cs 137 for different parts of Japan based upon the theoretical consideration

  9. On interrelations of Sr90 contents in the soil-forage plants-milk chain under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupka, Sh.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were made on 150 soil damples, 58 plant root samples, and 98 milk samples. Four types of soil from western Slovakia (chernozem, brown, sandy, and carbonate) and two types of plant roots (alfalfa and mixed grasses) were studied. A relation was shown between the type of soil, its physico-chemical properties, the Sr 90 accumulation in the plant roots, and the degree of contamination of milk by this radionuclide. (V.A.P.)

  10. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sr 90 and Cs 137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovich, B.S.; Vlasov, V.K.; Sak, M.M.; Golushko, R.M.; Afmogenov, A.M.; Kirykhin, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors provided field-proven study of Sr 90 and Cs 137 absorption activity demonstrated by Pinus silvestris L.; Piceae abies (L.) Roth.; Quercus rubra L.; Acer platanoides L.; Betula pendula Roth.; Tilia cordata Mill, under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. (Authors)

  11. Fast and sensitive determination of Sr-90 and SR-89 activity in milk by ion-chromatography and liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, V.; Herrmann, A.

    1992-01-01

    A method for fast and exact determination of both strontium isotopes in milk and other foodstuffs, combination high performance ion chromatographic separation with by liquid scintillation counting, which enables the desired results to be obtained with very satisfactory precision and reproducibility within 24 hours, has been developed. The lowest detectable activity lies by 3 Bq/liter for Sr-90 and 1 Bq/liter for Sr-89 which is satisfactory for assessing a situation in a time crisis. (author)

  12. The dynamics of Cs-137 and Sr-90 pollution of surface water systems of Belarus of Chernobyl origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskevich, P.O.; Dolgov, V.M.; Golikov, Yu.N.; Zemskov, V.N.; Komissarov, F.D.; Khvaley, O.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Belarus water ecosystems have been the object of investigation concerning currents and reservoirs affected by the Chernobyl APS catastrophe. The radio monitoring of samples of water systems components was implemented with the use of modern methods of radiochemistry and ionizing radiations registration. The factual material of water ecosystems sites observation presented its analysis is done and the regularities, tendencies and anomalies are revealed in the Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution, transport and accumulation for water components.

  13. Country report: Thailand. Development of Sr-90/ Y-90 Generator and Development of Radiopharmaceuticals Using Y-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipavan, Poramatikul

    2010-01-01

    The research project has been conducted at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology in accordance to the 1st RCM plan during the IAEA meeting in Warsaw. The objectives of the project include the following 5 specific aims: 1. Development of Sr-90/Y-90 ion-exchange chromatography generator 2. Development of Sr-90/Y-90 extraction chromatography generator 3. Development of quality control technique 4. Development of herapeutic radiopharmaceuticals Y-90 particulates/colloids 5. Development of Re-188 DMSA–bis-phosphonates Currently we have achieved specific aims 1 to 3. The specific aims 4 and 5 are during investigation. For specific aim 4, we are during the process to extract high purity 90 Y from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator that will yield the starting 90 Y for the production of Y-90 particulates and colloids. For the 5 th specific aim, we are on hold to receive the starting agent, bis- Phosphonates, from Dr. Blower group. Therefore, this progress report will cover our work focusing on specific aims 1 to 3

  14. Monte Carlo dose characterization of a new 90Sr/90Y source with balloon for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruqing; Li, X. Allen; Lobdell, John

    2003-01-01

    Beta emitting source wires or seeds have been adopted in clinical practice of intravascular brachytherapy for coronary vessels. Due to the limitation of penetration depth, this type of source is normally not applicable to treat vessels with large diameter, e.g., peripheral vessel. In the effort to extend application of its beta source for peripheral vessels, Novoste has recently developed a new catheter-based system, the Corona trade mark sign 90 Sr/ 90 Y system. It is a source train of 6 cm length and is jacketed by a balloon. The existence of the balloon increases the penetration of the beta particles and maintains the source within a location away from the vessel wall. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system, we have calculated the two-dimensional (2-D) dose rate distribution of the Corona trade mark sign system in water for a balloon diameter of 5 mm. The dose rates on the transverse axis obtained in this study are in good agreement with calibration results of the National Institute of Standards and Technology for the same system for balloon diameters of 5 and 8 mm. Features of the 2-D dose field were studied in detail. The dose parameters based on AAPM TG-60 protocol were derived. For a balloon diameter of 5 mm, the dose rate at the reference point (defined as r 0 =4.5 mm, 2 mm from the balloon surface) is found to be 0.010 28 Gy min -1 mCi -1 . A new formalism for a better characterization of this long source is presented. Calculations were also performed for other balloon diameters. The dosimetry for this source is compared with a 192 Ir source, commonly used for peripheral arteries. In conclusion, we have performed a detailed dosimetric characterization for a new beta source for peripheral vessels. Our study shows that, from dosimetric point of view, the Corona trade mark sign system can be used for the treatment of an artery with a large diameter, e.g., peripheral vessel

  15. Sorption and desorption of Sr-90 and Cs-137 by sediments of the Sozh-river valley and border water collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoshko, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    collections taking into account landscape conditions and lithologic breed features. The sediments of various genesis and granulometric structure were investigated in the number of complexes: breeds of the water collection (starved clay, loam, humus light loam, sandy loam) and breeds of the valley (meadow marl, peat, humus horizon of buried soil, loam). Characteristics of the sediment structure used in experiment are given in the table. The model samples enriched by Sr-90 and Cs-137 were prepared for experiments. Amounts of the radioisotopes absorbed by sediments of different of structure, practically did not differ and did not depend on capacity of absorption of a sample. It means that cation-exchange abilities of samples are higher, than radioisotope amounts in a solution, therefore their absorption by soils and exchange with the absorbed bases is provided by minimal sorption abilities. In the desorption experiments breed samples after interaction with radioisotopes was filled by leaching-out solution taken in the ratio 1:20. The further processing of samples was carried out according to the method described above at saturation by radioisotopes. For radiocaesium the desorption value, according to the received data, grows from valley sediments to the sediments from water collection. Water collection breeds give back this isotope better, than sediments of the valley. High desorption ability to Cs-137 of sandy and light loamy sediments of the water collection by all reagents (35,4-57,8 %) may promote secondary redistribution of this radioisotope. Its fixation in breeds of the water collections, is especial in starved loam, below, than at valley sediments. One of the possible reasons of the observably order of the increase of durability of connection of the isotope with sorption breeds complexes are distinctions in exchange capacity. The efficiency of all reagents that replace Cs-137 from the water collections sediments are close. Desorption radiostrontium just as for

  16. The volumes of accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 per species and variety of agricultural plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Shmigelskaya, I.D.; Efimova, I.A.; Putyatin, Yu.V.

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides in various species and varieties of agricultural plants on the same conditions of soil contaminated by radionuclides and agrochemical exponents can differ hundred times. The differences in accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are less -up to 3-4 times. The article grades the basic plants cultivated on contaminated soils per volume of Cs-137 and Sr-90 as well as per crop yield. It is possible to recommend selecting the species and varieties of agricultural plants having minimal capabilities of accumulation as a simple economically justified way of reducing the contamination of agricultural produce in general. The solving of problems connected with agriculture on the contaminated territory occupies one of the leading places in the complex of actions on the consequences of Chernobyl disaster liquidation. The researches revealed that 70% of collective dose is formed by the radionuclides receipt into a human organism with food. Eventually radionuclides contents in agricultural production reduce. This process is more expressed for Cs-137 caused by protective actions realization as well as gradually fixing of Cs-137 in soils due to natural factors of decay and fixation. Sr-90 mobility and its availability to plants is not reduced, even tends to increase. Biological features of plants reveal in their different ability to absorb nutritional elements from soil. Because of that radionuclides availability and amount of their including in food chains essentially depend on the level of contra actions applied, natural conditions (soil types, granulometric structure, humidifying mode, agrochemical conditions) and features of crops. The action of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the system soil-plant has a range of distinctive features. At same density of soil contamination Sr-90 penetration into plants much higher than Cs-137 one. The cause is in difference of radionuclides contents forms in soils. Cs-137 is strongly fixed in soil, but Sr-90 is in exchange form

  17. Evaluation of a pyrex glass shield for the dose reduction in extremities to manipulate a 90 Sr- 90 Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayra P, F.E.; Xiques C, A.; Torres B, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The production of Y-90 of high activity it specifies (free of payee) for their use in radioimmunotherapy uses the Strontium 90 as isotope source. Depending on the method employee for the separation of both isotopes several types of generators are described in different bibliographies. The column generator used in the facilities of the Center of Isotopes requires of a frequent manipulation causing significant dose in the skin of the extremities due to the exhibition to the radiation beta of high energy. The properties of the shieldings for this radiation type have been well studied Y they consist in several publications. To be in correspondence with requirements of radiological protection in the Cuban legislation, the column was covered with a tube of glass pyrex of 5 mm of thickness and it was monitored the exposure with an ionization chamber. At the own time, the shielding using the Monte Carlo method was evaluated. It was used the MCNP 4C code to simulate the absorption of the beta particles generated in the process of disintegration of the Sr-90 and Y-90 in the glass shielding. The column generator and the fluence of beta particles were modeled in different points inside the shielding to determine if the experimentally measured values correspond to electrons that were not absorbed or to the weak stopping radiation generated in the glass due to the deceleration of these particles. A cylinder of 4 mm of diameter simulates the source (it dilutes) and a tube of walls of 6 mm of thickness simulates the shielding more the wall of the column around the generator. This it was divided in cells of 1 mm of thickness and the energy deposited in them was evaluated. The results show that all the electrons generated in the source are absorbed in the shielding and the exposure rates decrease in more of 78 times using the 5 mm of pyrex glass. The doses in extremities to the operators of the generator don't surpass the 70 mSv by year that is the dose restriction imposed in the

  18. Transfer of Sr-90 in the environment to human bone, and radiation dose due to the atomic bomb and weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Shiraishi, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Sakurai, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The major source of artificial radioactivities in Japan has been the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Some results obtained for activities of Sr-90 in bone, particulary in Japanese, are mentioned, including trends in levels, distribution in bone, transfer from diet to bone and absorbed doses. Some litterature data on pathways of Sr-90 from environment to man are referred to, that is on contribution of different foods to the ingestion intake and transfer of Sr-90 from soil to crops. Recent topics of radioecological studies on soil-plant relationships are shortly introduced

  19. Assessment of the Mechanisms for Sr-90 and TRU Removal from Complexant-Containing Tank Wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallen, Richard T.; Geeting, John GH; Lilga, Michael A.; Hart, Todd R.; Hoopes, Francis V.

    2005-01-01

    Small-scale tests (∼20 mL) were conducted with samples from Hanford underground storage tanks AN-102 and AN-107 to assess the mechanisms for removing Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU) from the liquid (supernatant) portion of the waste. The Sr-90 and TRU must be removed (decontaminated), in addition to Cs-137 and the entrained solids, before the supernatant can be disposed of as low-activity waste. Experiments were conducted with various reagents and modified Sr/TRU removal process conditions to more fully understand the reaction mechanisms. The optimized treatment conditions--no added hydroxide, addition of Sr (0.02M target concentration) followed by sodium permanganate (0.02M target concentration) with mixing at ambient temperature--were used as a reference for comparison. The waste was initially two orders of magnitude undersaturated with Sr; the addition of nonradioactive Sr(NO?) ? saturated the supernatant, resulting in isotopic dilution and precipitation of Sr-90 as SrCO?. The reaction chemistry of Mn species relevant to the mechanism of TRU removal by permanganate treatment was evaluated, along with the importance of various mechanisms for decontamination, such as precipitation, absorption, ligand exchange, and oxidation of organic complexants. For TRU removal, permanganate addition generally gave the highest DF. The addition of Mn of lower oxidation states (II, IV, and VI) also resulted in good TRU removal, as did complexant oxidation with periodate and addition of Zr(IV) for ligand exchange. These results suggest that permanganate treatment leads to TRU removal by multiple routes

  20. Estimation and justification of permissible levels of Sr 90 in firewood and timber produced on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabrodskij, V.N.; Bondar', Yu.I.; Sadchikov, V.I.; Kalinin, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    The permissible levels of Sr 90 in firewood and timber produced on the radioactively contaminated territory are calculated and justified. They are proposed to be used on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  1. Country report: Thailand. Development of Sr-90/ Y-90 Generator and Development of Radiopharmaceuticals Using Y-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipavan, Poramatikul [Nuclear Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization), Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-07-01

    The research project has been conducted at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology in accordance to the 1st RCM plan during the IAEA meeting in Warsaw. The objectives of the project include the following 5 specific aims: 1. Development of Sr-90/Y-90 ion-exchange chromatography generator 2. Development of Sr-90/Y-90 extraction chromatography generator 3. Development of quality control technique 4. Development of herapeutic radiopharmaceuticals Y-90 particulates/colloids 5. Development of Re-188 DMSA–bis-phosphonates Currently we have achieved specific aims 1 to 3. The specific aims 4 and 5 are during investigation. For specific aim 4, we are during the process to extract high purity {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator that will yield the starting {sup 90}Y for the production of Y-90 particulates and colloids. For the 5{sup th} specific aim, we are on hold to receive the starting agent, bis- Phosphonates, from Dr. Blower group. Therefore, this progress report will cover our work focusing on specific aims 1 to 3.

  2. The exploration of nursing care for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia treated using 90Sr-90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lizhen; Bai Xuemei; Zhang Bihui; Yang Xiaoling

    2004-01-01

    An exploration of nursing care for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treated using 90 Sr- 90 Y through the rectum was carried out . The treatment result and nursing experience in 90 cases were reported in this paper. Before the therapy nurses explained the method and principle of this treatment to the patients for the sake of increasing their confidence and to help them complete the treatment course successfully. During the radiotherapy, nurses practiced strictly radiation protection principles and operating instructions. They assisted the patients to have a healthy life style and good diet . The result of treatment indicated that the total effectiveness rate was 96.7%. The symptoms of lower urinary obstruction were improved evidently and the life quality of the patients elevated. Observation of clinical system confirmed that 90 Sr- 90 Y may be a new treatment method of BPH with benefits of safe irradiation dos, easy operation, non-traumatization, painlessness, and remarkable curative effects. However, it should be stressed that nursing care plays a pivotal role in the treatment result. (authors)

  3. Influences of Sr-90 beta-ray irradiation on electrical characteristics of carbon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasani, H. [Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghi Ahmadi, M., E-mail: ahmadi1351@gmail.com [Nano-Technology Research Center, Nano-Electronic Group, Physics Department, Urmia University, 57147 Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Khoda-bakhsh, R., E-mail: r.khodabakhsh16@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); RezaeiOchbelagh, D. [Departments of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ismail, Razali [Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-03-28

    This work is concerned with the low cost fabrication of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), and its application to beta ray detection. The structural and morphological properties of the CNPs were obtained by spectral and microscopy techniques. A system based on CNPs application in the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) junction platform, which acts as a beta-ray (β-ray) sensor, is fabricated. The prototype is characterised by modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, and electrical investigations. Changes to the electrical behaviour of the proposed MSM system due to β-ray irradiation are validated by experimental results in both Ohmic and non-Ohmic (Schottky) contacts. The simulation was performed using the MCNPX code, which showed that most of the β-ray energies are deposited into CNPs and electrodes. However, in the Ohmic contact, because the β-ray is induced, the current of CNPs is decreased. The reduction of the current might be due to the change of the carrier properties by increasing the scattering of electrons. The current-density equation for electrons was employed for understanding the effects of β-ray in Ohmic contact of CNPs. On the contrary, in the Schottky contact case, CNPs current was increased with constant voltage when biased by β-ray irradiation. In this paper, the electron–hole generation using β-rays is dominant when compared to other significant effects of radiation exposure on semiconducting CNP-based Schottky contact. Hence, the current increment of CNPs can be justified by electron–hole generation in the depletion region.

  4. Experimental autoabsorption curve 90Sr in SrCO3. Efficiency calculation to detection of 90Sr, 90Y and 90Sr + 90Y in a beta gas proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Alvarez, A.

    1987-01-01

    Strontium-90 has been determined by radiochemical separation techniques in environmental samples. These techniques, of course, cannot separate the two strontium radionuclides from each other of from stable strontium. Consequently the end product of the chemical separation contains all strontium isotopes in SrCO 3 . The beta particules emitted by 90 Sr are absorbed by the SrCO 3 precipitate. This is the main source of error in the activity measurement. It has been prepared sources of 90 Sr in SrCO 3 in order to determinate the counting efficiency and autoabsorption curve. Also detection efficiencies have been calibrated using known activities of 90 Y and equilibrium mixture of 90 Sr+ 90 Y in the same geometry than our samples. The activity of 90 Sr by ingrowth of 90 Y has been calculated by our computer program. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  5. 90Sr- 90Y and 89Sr beta radioactivity measurement in milk samples using a proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananes, A.; Perez Santos, C.; Martinez Churiaque, F.

    1987-01-01

    A thin window glas flow proportional counter is used to measure the 90 Sr- 90 Y and 89 Sr beta radioactivity in milk samples. A chemical procedure is used to separate strontium-yttrium from the other radionuclides present in milk. A calculation of the total efficiency of the system is performed which includes an empirical estimation of the backscattering factor. The calibration of the whole process allows the determination of the 90 Sr activity within 10% relative error in spite of uncertainties in the recovery yields of strontium and yttrium. No 89 Sr activity has been detected, and the mean value obtained for the 90 Sr activity in nine milk samples of Cantabria is 0.115 Bq/1 with a minimum detectable activity of 0.0105 Bq. (author) 18 refs

  6. Validation of an extraction paper chromatography (EPC) technique for estimation of trace levels of 90Sr in 90Y solutions obtained from 90Sr/90Y generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha Pandey; Yogendra Kumar; Ashutosh Dash

    2014-01-01

    While the extraction paper chromatography (EPC) technique constitutes a novel paradigm for the determination of few Becquerels of 90 Sr in MBq quantities of 90 Y obtained from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator, validation of the technique is essential to ensure its usefulness as a real time analytical tool. With a view to explore the relevance and applicability of EPC technique as a real time quality control (QC) technique for the routine estimation of 90 Sr content in generator produced 90 Y, a systematic validation study was carried out diligently not only to establish its worthiness but also to broaden its horizon. The ability of the EPC technique to separate trace amounts of Sr 2+ in the presence of large amounts of Y 3+ was verified. The specificity of the technique for Y 3+ was demonstrated with 90 Y obtained by neutron irradiation. The method was validated under real experimental conditions and compared with a QC method described in US Pharmacopeia for detection of 90 Sr levels in 90 Y radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  7. Electrochemical separation of 90-yttrium in the electrochemical 90Sr/90Y generator and its use for radiolabelling of DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analog [DOTA0, Tyr3] octreotate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Đorđe Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals based on 90Y are widely used in the treatment of malignant deseases. In order to meet the requirements for their future application, a 90Sr/90Y generator was developed and 90Y eluted from this locally produced generator was used for the radiolabelling of the DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analog [DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate and the preparation of [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate (90Y-DOTATATE for peptide receptore radionuclide therapy. 90Sr/90Y generator was based on the electrochemical separation of 90Y from 90Sr in a two-cycle electrolysis procedure. Three electrode cells were used to perform both electrolyses. In both cycles, working electrodes were kept on constant potential. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 2.7 of the value before the electrolyses. The radionuclidic purity of the 90Y solution was analysed by ITLC and extraction paper chromatography. The labelling of peptide (100 mg DOTATATE with 90YCl3 was performed at 95°C for 30 minutes. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and chromatographic separation, using a solid SepPak C-18 column. Results obtained confirmed the efficiency of our electrochemical separation technique and quality control methods for 90Y. The achieved efficiency of the 90Sr/90Y generator above 96% of the theoretical value represents a good basis for the further development of this generator. The labelling of the DOTATATE with 90Y exhibited a high efficiency, too: there was less than 1% of 90Y3+in the 90Y-DOTATATE.

  8. THE CLIMATIC AND HYDROLOGIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE REDISTRIBUTION OF SR-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    leaching solution present and the chemical and cation exchange properties of the soil solution ; a mathematical model of movement was established...manual for using high speed computers to compute the factors of the daily water balance was prepared; the influence of the soil solution in

  9. Improvement of compressive strength of segmentation of zeolites as absorber of Sr-90 liquid waste using coconut fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasmudin; Kusnanto

    2002-01-01

    The use of the coconut fibres to increase compressive strength of segmentation of zeolites as absorber of Sr-90 liquid waste was studied. The purpose of this research was to find the optimum content and length of fibres that give maximum compressive strength. This research was done with mortar-zeolites specimen of cylinder 2,2 cm diameter and 4,4 cm high, the content of zeolites was 13% volume of specimen, weight ratio of water and cement 0,3, length of fibres 1,5 cm, 2 cm, 2,5 cm, and 3 cm (aspect ratio ± 60, ± 80, ± 100 and ± 120) with the fibres content of each fibre 0%, 0,5%, 0,10%, 0,25%, 0,50%, 0,75%, and 1,00%. Addition of fibres was done with a direction of orientation longitudinal to the specimen. The specimens were tested on 28 days old test specimens. The result showed that addition of coconut fibres until certain content would increase compressive strength. The optimum size of fibres with 92,313 N/MM 2 of compressive strength or increased 119,21% of no fibres specimen were 0,50% of volume and 3 cm in length

  10. Assessment of transferring Sr-90 and Cs-137 in products of processing of seeds raps for getting raps' oil and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsino, T.S.; Mironov, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    The objects of research are soil assays, seeds of raps, straw and the stalks selected on polluted radio nuclides of territory. The work purpose is to measure specific activity of strontium and cesium in assays, to calculate factors of transition Sr 90 and Sr 137 in products of processing of seeds of raps. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuhr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Lysimeter experiments were undertaken in a controlled experimental field to study the root uptake of Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54 under outdoor conditions. Parallel experiments were set up using the Kick - Brauckman experimental pots under greenhouse and the Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The results obtained from the three types of experiments are compared. (H.K.)

  12. Probability distribution of dose rates in the body tissue as a function of the rhytm of Sr90 administration and the age of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, I.M.; Sarapul'tsev, I.A.

    1975-01-01

    The probability distribution of tissue radiation doses in the skeleton were studied in experiments on swines and dogs. When introducing Sr-90 into the organism from the day of birth till 90 days dose rate probability distribution is characterized by one, or, for adult animals, by two independent aggregates. Each of these aggregates correspond to the normal distribution law

  13. Development of an electrochemical 90Sr-90Y generator for separation of 90Y suitable for targeted therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Pandey, Usha; Manolkar, Remani B.; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera; Pillai, M.R. Ambikalmajan

    2008-01-01

    90 Y of high specific activity and very high radionuclidic purity (>99.998%) is essential for targeted therapy. Since the current methods used for the preparation of 90 Y from 90 Sr are not adaptable for use in a central/hospital radiopharmacy, a simple 90 Sr- 90 Y generator system based on electrochemical separation technique was developed. Methods: Two-cycle electrolysis procedure was developed for separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr in nitrate solution. The first electrolysis was performed for 90 min in 90 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 feed solution at pH 2-3 at a potential of -2.5V with 100-200 mA current using platinum electrodes. The second electrolysis was performed for 45 min in 3 mM HNO 3 at a potential of -2.5V with 100 mA current. In this step, the cathode from the first electrolysis containing 90 Y was used as anode along with a fresh circular platinum electrode as cathode. The 90 Y deposited on the circular cathode after the second electrolysis was dissolved in acetate buffer to obtain 90 Y acetate, suitable for radiolabeling. Results: >96% recovery of 90 Y could be achieved in each cycle, with an overall decay corrected yield of >90%. The recovered 90 Y had high radionuclidic purity with barely 30.2±15.2 kBq (817±411 nCi) of 90 Sr per 37 GBq (1 Ci) of 90 Y (0.817±0.411 ppm). Consistent and repeated separation could be demonstrated using up to 1.85 GBq (50 mCi) of 90 Sr. The generator was named 'Kamadhenu,' the eternally milk-yielding Indian mythological cow. Conclusions: A technique suitable for adaptation at central radiopharmacies for obtaining therapeutic quantities of pure 90 Y has been developed

  14. Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in the Kozloduy NPP environment; Soderzhanie 137Cs i 90Sr v obektakh okruzhayushchej sredy v rajone AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaivanova, R; Totseva, R; Badulin, V; Zlatanova, R; Fajtondzhieva, K [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The radioactivity status of soil and plant samples collected in the 12 km controlled zone surrounding Kozloduy has been investigated in the period 1990-1993. The average annual concentrations of Sr-90 and Cs-137 are compared to the values taken at 40 km distance. Cs-137 has in general higher concentrations in soil samples from the NPP close surroundings - e.g. 50-55 Bq/kg in 1992 versus 2-2.5 Bq/kg for Sr-90. Radionuclide concentrations in grass do not differ significantly from the data at 40 km distance. It is concluded that the average annual doses follow the radionuclide dynamics in the global fallout and the effect of Kozloduy operation can not be separated from the background radioactivity status. 4 refs., 21 figs.

  15. Radioactive contamination of the significant fish species in fish-ponds and in natural waters with particular respect to the accumulation of Sr-90 Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, D.; Szentjobi, O.

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of omnivorous fish species (Cyprinus carpio, Hypophtalmictys nobilis Richardson), of herbivorous fish species (Hypophtalmictys molitrix Valenciennes) and carnivorous fish species (Silurus glanis L., Esox Lucius L.) has been investigated. Orientative data have been obtained by analyzing samples originating from various sites. Though differences appeared between the analyzed samples, no incorporations of outstanding nature have been observed. In accordance with experiences described in literature, the isotope Sr-90 is accumulated in an increased degree in the skeleton of fish living in ponds. This is valid in all cases when the vital processes are regulated artificially by fishery methods. A particularly important factor is that the individual fish living in ponds are 2-3 or at most 4 years of age i.e. from the aspect of their ontogenesis their organism is in a strongly build-up phase. Sr-90 proved to be accumulated in a relatively greater amount in the organisms of herbivorous fish. (P.J.)

  16. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  17. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of 90Sr/90Y, 147Pm and 204TI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern s four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): 90 Sr/ 90 Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); 147 Pm, (518 MBq) and 204 TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of 147 Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, (α 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: 90 Sr/ 90 Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s -1 and 0.027 mGy s -1 , respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; 90 Sr / 90 Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s -1 and 0.002 mGy s -1 , with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the 147 Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 μGy s -1 and 0.43 μGy s -1 , with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the 204 TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 μGy s -1 with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with separations different from zero, models of simple lineal regression were used. However for the case of the

  18. Country report: Vietnam. Setting Up of a 90Sr/90Y Generator System Based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) Technique and Radiolabeling of Eluted 90Y with Biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Thu; Duong Van Dong; Bui Van Cuong; Chu Van Khoa

    2010-01-01

    In the course of participating in the IAEA-CRP during the last two years, Vietnam has achieved the goal of setting up a 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator system based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technique and also radiolabeling of the eluted 90 Y with antibody, peptides and albumin. A two stage SLM based 90 Sr- 90 Y generator was set up in-house to generate carrier-free 90 Y at different activity levels viz. 5, 20, 50 mCi. The generator system was operated in sequential mode in which 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (PC88A) based SLM was used in the first stage for the transport 90 Y in 4.0 M nitric acid from source phase where 90 Sr- 90 Y equilibrium mixture is placed in nitric acid medium at pH to 1-2. In the second stage, octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) based SLM was used for the transport of 90 Y selectively to 1.0 M acetic acid which is the best medium for radiolebeling. The eluted 90 Y from the generator was tested for the presence of any traces of 90 Sr using the Extraction Paper Chromatography (EPC) and was found suitable for radiolabeling. The generator system could be upgraded to 100 mCi level successfully due to an expert mission from India through IAEA. The 90 Y product obtained from the generator system was used for radiolabeling of antibody and peptides viz. Rituximab, DOTATATE and albumin particles under different experimental conditions. A new chromatography system could be developed for analyzing 90 Y labeled albumin using the TAE buffer as mobile phase in PC and ITLC

  19. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  20. Development of techniques for rapid analysis of 90Sr breakthrough and 90Y activity from a 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, S.E.; Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Recently there has been interest in labelling monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic amounts of a pure beta emitting isotope. 90 Y offers many desirable features and may be conveniently and economically obtained from a 90 Sr- 90 Y generator. A potential hazard with this system is breakthrough of the parent 90 Sr which has a half life of 28 years and is an extremely toxic bone seeking isotope. Therefore it is essential that the daughter be completely separated from its parent. We have devised two simple techniques which allow us to monitor rapidly the amount of 90 Sr breakthrough and quantitate the 90 Y activity over a 5 log range. (author)

  1. Use of MnO2 and MnO2 SiO2 for sorbing of Sr-90 from liquid rad waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subiarto; Las, Thamzil; Aan BH, Martin; Utomo, Cahyo Hari

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis of MnO 2 adsorbent and MnO 2 -SiO 2 composite has been done. MnO 2 synthesis is done by the reaction of KMnO 4 , Mn(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and Na 2 S 2 O 4 ( MnO 2 -A, MnO 2 -B, and MnO 2 -T ). MnO 2 . SiO 2 is made from KMnO 4 , Na 2 SiO 3 , and H 2 O 2 . The result obtained show the best Sr-90 sorption by MnO 2 -A with Kd = 2085.63 ml/g, by MnO 2 -L with Kd = 755.09 ml/g, and by MnO 2 - SiO 2 composite with Kd = 1466.51 ml/g. From this result, we can conclude that MnO 2 -SiO 2 can be expanded for Sr-90 sorption from liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  2. Development of Technology for the Preparation of 90Sr/90Y Generators at the Radiopharmacy Directory of IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    90 Y (T /2 = 2,67 d; Eβmax = 2,28 MeV) is a radionuclide with efficacy established for various cancer therapies, labeling biomolecules and treating of radiosinovectomy. Due to its nuclear properties, is obtained through the decay of 90 Sr T /2 = 28 y in the form of a generator. Several types of 90 Sr/ 90 Y generators were developed, and the most employed are the cation exchange resins, where Sr and Y are adsorbed and 90 Y is selectively eluted with acetate or EDTA. The disadvantage of this type of generator is the radiolysis, which degrades its use. The electrochemical generator is a proposed solution because there is no significant effect of radiation. In this concept, the difference between the electrochemical potentials of the elements Sr and Y is used to obtain a rapid separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr. The production of 90 Y via colloid formation is the simplest method for the separation, based on the colloid formation of Y in high alkaline pH, which can be filtered and separated from Sr, and subsequently dissolved in HCl. The objective of this work was the development of technologies for the preparation of 90 Sr/ 90 Y generators, and three technologies were developed: generators using cation resins columns, generators through colloid formation and electrochemical generators. Radionuclidic quality control of 90 Y was also evaluated by liquid scintillation, radionuclide identity, extraction paper chromatography (EPC) using complexing agents for 90 Y and by Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES). The results showed that generators using cation resins have the best results related to the elution efficiency (∼83%), the reproducibility and radionuclidic purity. The electrochemical generator showed a potential for development, having the advantage of not suffering the effects of radiolysis of the pair 90 Sr/ 90 Y as the resin. A comparison and evaluation of the methods of the radionuclidic quality control showed that the EPC is very

  3. Time and dose-related changes in the thickness of pig skin after irradiation with single doses of 90Sr/90Y β-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, M.; Hamlet, R.; Hopewell, J.W.; Sieber, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Time-related changes in pig skin thickness have been evaluated using a non-invasive ultrasound technique after exposure to a range of single doses of 90 Sr/ 90 Yr β-rays. The reduction in relative skin thickness developed in two distinct phases: the first was between 12 and 20 weeks postirradiation. No further changes were then seen until 52 weeks postirradiation when a second phase of skin thinning was observed. This was complete after 76 weeks and no further changes in relative skin thickness were seen in the maximum follow up period of 129 weeks. The timings of these phases of damage were independent of the radiation dose, however, the severity of both phases of radiation-induced skin thinning were dose related. (Author)

  4. Results of study of Sr-90 and Cs-137 content in organism and effective doses of internal and external irradiation of Ukrainian population residing in different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.; Gur, E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied effective doses of internal and external radiation for 1992-1994 in the residents of Chernigov and Kharkov Regions of Ukraine, i.e. those who live in the zone of strict radioecologic control and in relatively ''clean'' zones, respectively. In 95% of the investigated residents of Chernigov Region Cs-137 activity in the organism was lower than 1500 Bq, maximum amount being 11 kBq. Conditioned Cs-137 effective dose of internal radiation did not exceed 250 micro Sv per year, in 96% of the investigated subjects it was less than 30 micro Sv per year. Mean amount of this radionuclide in the organisms of both adults and children aged 3-6 years residing in Kharkov Region was 90 and 6 Bq respectively, dose being 2 and 0.4 micro Sv per year. Sr-90 amount in the bone tissue decreases with the age and for the residents of Chernigov region it was 7-23 Bq/kg of bone, for the adult residents of Kharkov region it was about 3 Bq/kg of bone. Mean effective dose of internal radiation due to Sr-90 incorporation for the residents of both Kharkov and Chernigov Regions was 0.7 and 1.9 micro Sv per year. Effective dose of external radiation for the residents of Kharkov Region has not changed since the Chernobyl accident. Total effective dose of external and internal radiation in various professional groups for the residents of Chernigov region increased by 80 micro Sv per year which makes up 14% of mean population dose in Ukraine. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Separation of 90Sr from Purex high level waste and development of a 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Chitnis, R.R.; Achuthan, P.V.; Kannan, R.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Balu, K.

    2000-04-01

    90 Y (T 1/2 =64.2 h) finds several applications in nuclear medicine. It is formed from the decay of 90 Sr which has a long half-life of 28.8 years. 90 Sr can be used as a long-lasting source for the production of carrier-free 90 Y. 90 Sr itself is abundantly available in high level waste (HLW) of PUREX origin. The present studies deal with the separation of pure 90 Sr from HLW and the subsequent separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr. Actinides and some of the fission products like lanthanides, zirconium, molybdenum and cesium were first removed from the HLW using methods based on solvent extraction and ion-exchange studied earlier in our laboratory. The resulting waste solution was used as a feed for the present process. The separation of 90 Sr from HLW was based on radiochemical method which involved a repeated scavenging with ferric hydroxide followed by strontium carbonate precipitation. The separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr was achieved by membrane separation technique. A compact generator is developed for this separation using a commercially available polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane, impregnated with indigenously synthesised 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (KSM-17). Generator system overcomes the drawbacks associated with conventional solvent extraction and ion-exchange based generators. The product is in chloride form and is suitable for complexation studies. After gaining an operating experience of ∼3 years in generating carrier-free 90 Y at 2 mCi level for initial studies in radiotherapeutic applications, the process was scaled up for the production of about 12 mCi of 90 Y to be used for animal studies before its application to patients. Radiochemical and chemical purity of the product was critically assayed by radiometry, ICP-AES, etc. The process is amenable for further scaling up. (author)

  6. Study of contamination by 100 {mu}Ci of Sr 90 in the rat: clinical, hematological and osseous effects (appearance of osteosarcomas); Etude d'une contamination par 100 {mu}Ci de Sr 90 chez le rat: consequences cliniques, hematologiques et osseuses (apparition d'osteosarcomes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, B; Lafuma, J; Parmentier, C; Parmentier, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Clinical, hematological and osseous effects following an intramuscular injection of 100 {mu}Ci 90 Sr were studied in the rat. In spite of the magnitude of the injection and the resulting damage, the elimination of strontium could compare with what occurs after an injection at tracer doses. Comparing with the controls at the outcoming time, clinical monitoring mainly brought out a loss of body weight. Fairly early (20. - 30. day) there occurred severe hematological damage, especially on lymphocyte line, which subsided spontaneously. As foreseen, the anatomo-pathological survey of the early period showed bone and medullar lesions in the areas of enchondral ossification. In the late period, bone sarcomas occurred in nine animals out of ten. The outstanding histological type was osteogenic osteosarcomas; besides, two animals experienced bilateral tumors. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient les consequences cliniques, hematologiques et osseuses d'une contamination par 100 microcuries de Sr 90 injectes par voie intramusculaire chez le rat. Malgre l'importance de la contamination et les lesions consequentes, l'elimination du Sr 90 est comparable a celle que l'on observe apres injection de doses traceuses. La surveillance clinique ne met essentiellement en evidence, a la periode terminale, qu'une diminution du poids par rapport aux temoins. Les lesions hematologiques sont importantes, predominant sur la lignee lymphocytaire. Elles sont relativement precoces (20e - 30e jours) et regressent spontanement. La surveillance anatomo-pathologique de la periode precoce a montre, comme il etait previsible, des lesions osseuses et medullaires dans les zones d'ossification enchondrale. A la periode tardive, la survenue de sarcomes osseux a ete observee chez neuf animaux sur dix. Le type histologique predominant est l'osteosarcome osteogenique et il faut signaler egalement les tumeurs bilaterales observees chez deux animaux. (auteurs)

  7. Study of contamination by 100 {mu}Ci of Sr 90 in the rat: clinical, hematological and osseous effects (appearance of osteosarcomas); Etude d'une contamination par 100 {mu}Ci de Sr 90 chez le rat: consequences cliniques, hematologiques et osseuses (apparition d'osteosarcomes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, B.; Lafuma, J.; Parmentier, C.; Parmentier, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Clinical, hematological and osseous effects following an intramuscular injection of 100 {mu}Ci 90 Sr were studied in the rat. In spite of the magnitude of the injection and the resulting damage, the elimination of strontium could compare with what occurs after an injection at tracer doses. Comparing with the controls at the outcoming time, clinical monitoring mainly brought out a loss of body weight. Fairly early (20. - 30. day) there occurred severe hematological damage, especially on lymphocyte line, which subsided spontaneously. As foreseen, the anatomo-pathological survey of the early period showed bone and medullar lesions in the areas of enchondral ossification. In the late period, bone sarcomas occurred in nine animals out of ten. The outstanding histological type was osteogenic osteosarcomas; besides, two animals experienced bilateral tumors. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient les consequences cliniques, hematologiques et osseuses d'une contamination par 100 microcuries de Sr 90 injectes par voie intramusculaire chez le rat. Malgre l'importance de la contamination et les lesions consequentes, l'elimination du Sr 90 est comparable a celle que l'on observe apres injection de doses traceuses. La surveillance clinique ne met essentiellement en evidence, a la periode terminale, qu'une diminution du poids par rapport aux temoins. Les lesions hematologiques sont importantes, predominant sur la lignee lymphocytaire. Elles sont relativement precoces (20e - 30e jours) et regressent spontanement. La surveillance anatomo-pathologique de la periode precoce a montre, comme il etait previsible, des lesions osseuses et medullaires dans les zones d'ossification enchondrale. A la periode tardive, la survenue de sarcomes osseux a ete observee chez neuf animaux sur dix. Le type histologique predominant est l'osteosarcome osteogenique et il faut signaler egalement les tumeurs bilaterales observees chez deux animaux. (auteurs)

  8. Study on the source of optical activity: Pt. 6. ESR spectroscopy on the asymmetrical radical yields in 90Sr-90Y β irradiated D-and L-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenqing; Zhao Jian; Ding Xiang

    1993-01-01

    Free radical formation in 90 Sr- 90 Y β irradiated D- and L-alanine is studied by ESR spectroscopy. To calibrate the probable differences in the size of ESR tubes, the different densities of alanine and the incidental different impurities, samples are firstly irradiated with 60 Co γ rays. Then the D- and L- alanine samples are irradiated with 90 Sr- 90 Y source at 77 K. Soon after irradiation, ESR measurement is performed on each sample. The average ratio H β+γ /H γ of D- alanine is 0.147 higher than that of L- alanine, indicating that more free radicals are induced in D- alanine by β irradiation. Irradiation at 77 K is capable of diminishing the effect of thermal movement on the polarization of β electrons and freezing the free radical formation. The experiments show the stereoselective interaction of β electrons with D- and L- amino acids, and so supports the Vester-ulbricht hypothesis

  9. National pattern for the realization of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for beta radiation. (Method: Ionometer, cavity of Bragg-Gray implemented in an extrapolation chamber with electrodes of variable separation, exposed to a field of beta radiation of 90Sr/90Y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, M. T.; Morales P, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: 90 Sr/ 90 Y; Ophthalmic applicators 9 0 S r/ 90 Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)

  10. Chemical Equilibrium Modeling of Hanford Waste Tank Processing: Applications of Fundamental Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Wang, Zheming; Dixon, David A.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2004-01-01

    The development of computational models based upon fundamental science is one means of quantitatively transferring the results of scientific investigations to practical application by engineers in laboratory and field situations. This manuscript describes one example of such efforts, specifically the development and application of chemical equilibrium models to different waste management issues at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The development of the chemical models is described with an emphasis on the fundamental science investigations that have been undertaken in model development followed by examples of different waste management applications. The waste management issues include the leaching of waste slurries to selective remove non-hazardous components and the separation of Sr90 and transuranics from the waste supernatants. The fundamental science contributions include: molecular simulations of the energetics of different molecular clusters to assist in determining the species present in solution, advanced synchrotron research to determine the chemical form of precipitates, and laser based spectroscopic studies of solutions and solids.

  11. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations V. The radioactive contamination of human body by Sr90 and Cs137 and its correlation with the fallout rate and ground deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    About 60 bone samples were analysed for Sr 90 during the period from January 1957 to July 1959. The highest average concentration was found to be about 1 S.U for the age group of 5 to 10 years old. However since most of the cases are more or less pathological ones after long period of hospitalization the results may not be considered to be the representative values for the average normal person. The highest concentration among the cases whose past history is known was 175 S.U. or roughly, about 2 S.U. During the period of observation occasionally we have found higher concentration than 2 S.U, in the bone samples of a few cases obtained from the crematory. However, since the past history of these cases is not known, it is not clear whether they depended on the rainwater or on the brown ice with much higher contamination than the white rice. In view of these findings it may not be to, much to assume that the concentration of Sr 90 in te bones of the average normal children might reach 2 S.U c corresponding to the cumulative ground deposition and the fallout rate. The concentration of Cs whose physical half-life is very much similar to Sr 90 was in the range of about 30 - 100 cesium unit in 1957 to early 1958. However, during the period from 1958 to early 1959 the concentration of Cs 137 in come of the organs of the human body has been reported to be about two to three times higher on the average in Tokyo than the above value in 1957

  12. Regression models in the determination of the absorbed dose with extrapolation chamber for ophthalmological applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Morales P, R.

    1992-06-01

    The absorbed dose for equivalent soft tissue is determined,it is imparted by ophthalmologic applicators, ( 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 1850 MBq) using an extrapolation chamber of variable electrodes; when estimating the slope of the extrapolation curve using a simple lineal regression model is observed that the dose values are underestimated from 17.7 percent up to a 20.4 percent in relation to the estimate of this dose by means of a regression model polynomial two grade, at the same time are observed an improvement in the standard error for the quadratic model until in 50%. Finally the global uncertainty of the dose is presented, taking into account the reproducibility of the experimental arrangement. As conclusion it can infers that in experimental arrangements where the source is to contact with the extrapolation chamber, it was recommended to substitute the lineal regression model by the quadratic regression model, in the determination of the slope of the extrapolation curve, for more exact and accurate measurements of the absorbed dose. (Author)

  13. Power-law distribution of Sr-90 concentration in soil samples taken in the South part of Sverdlovsk Oblast, contaminated in the result of the Kyshtym accident at the Mayak facility in 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobitsyn, B.; Manzhurov, I.; Sergeev, A.; Subbotina, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    In September 1957, a chemical explosion occurred in one of the Mayak facility's nuclear waste storage tank, spreading 740 PBq of radiation over a 23,000-km{sup 2} area. To determine a present contamination of the territory of Kamensk region of Sverdlovsk Oblast, soil samples at 315 locations were collected and analyzed in the course of the field campaign of 1993 and 1994. It was found that a distribution of Sr-90 activity in soil samples is a distribution with 'heavy tail'. Analysis of a histogram representing its frequency distribution and plotting this histogram on doubly logarithmic axes allows to conjecture that this distribution follows the power low. Testing of the power-low hypothesis provided objective evidence that the power-low is a reasonable description of the data. In this case a conclusion follows that radioactive contamination levels of the territory are not well characterized by their averages. (author)

  14. Modelling Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications, held in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, in July 2012. The 20 revised full foundations track papers and 10 revised full applications track papers presented were carefully reviewed...

  15. Sr90 determination in calcareous water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Pardo, G.; Wormser, G.

    1958-01-01

    The Straub method (ref. 2) for determination of radioactive strontium in water containing calcium is valid within very wide limits, and particularly in the case of residual water from the chemical purification treatment of the radioactive liquid effluent at the C.E.N. Saclay. (author) [fr

  16. Evaluation algorithm for Hp (10), Hp (0.07) and response matrix in mixed fields of 137Cs+90Sr/90Y for badge TLD without use of its commercial holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, Jose T.; Tovar M, Victor M.; Castaneda P, Mario; Padilla, Ismael

    2008-01-01

    American standards HPS N 13.11 (1993, 2001) set up performance category tests for deep and shallow personal equivalent dose evaluated by dosimetry processors. These standards establish the parameters bias B, standard deviation S and tolerance level L, whose values indicate the deviations from the conventionally true value for the equivalent dose. On the other hand, for a right evaluation of the equivalent dose, all personal dosimetry systems have four basic components: badge, holder, reading protocol and dose evaluation algorithm. However, in Nuclear Plant Laguna Verde NPP dosimetry laboratory uses the badges Panasonic 802 A without Panasonic UD874AT holder, and instead employs a polyethylene holder bag to protect the badge from misuse. This situation disables the manufacturer algorithm designed for the combination: badge + holder. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to design a personal equivalent dose algorithm for this badge + bag, such this corrected algorithm let fulfill the HPS N 13.11 (1993) categories II, IV, V and VII. The algorithm starts from the readings of the elements: E1, E2, E3 and E4, only corrected by their element correction factor ECF. Additionally, we characterize the badge + bag by means of the response function for: 137 Cs, 85 Kr and 90 Sr/ 90 Y radiation fields. Finally, for validation of the algorithm one verifies that parameters B, S and L accomplish with the limits indicated by the standard. (author)

  17. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr / 90Y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;α). Since H' (O. 07;α) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm -2 ); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, S tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of 60 Co , J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of 90 Sr/ 90 Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of 90 Sr/ 90 Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass; four positions of irradiation is used: glass 1 (window of

  18. Laboratory studies and model simulations of sorbent material behavior for an in-situ passive treatment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloysius, D.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study combining laboratory experiments and model simulations in support of the design and construction of a passive treatment barrier (or filter wall) for retarding the migration of Sr-90 within a water-bearing surficial sand and gravel layer. Preliminary evaluation was used to select materials for column testing. A one-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate the laboratory column results and extrapolation of the calibrated model was then used to assess barrier performance over extended time frames with respect to Sr-90 breakthrough and loading on the filter media. The final results of the study showed that 20 by 50 mesh clinoptilolite will attenuate Sr-90 with a maximum life expentancy of approximately 10 years. This time period is based on allowable limits of Sr-90 activity on the filter media and is also a function of site-specific conditions

  19. Mathematical modeling with multidisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2013-01-01

    Features mathematical modeling techniques and real-world processes with applications in diverse fields Mathematical Modeling with Multidisciplinary Applications details the interdisciplinary nature of mathematical modeling and numerical algorithms. The book combines a variety of applications from diverse fields to illustrate how the methods can be used to model physical processes, design new products, find solutions to challenging problems, and increase competitiveness in international markets. Written by leading scholars and international experts in the field, the

  20. Topical application of β-radiation to reduce intimal hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in rabbit A possible application for brachytherapy in vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, David; Stevens, Scott L.; Skillern, C.S.; Wellons, Eric D.; Robinson, Keith; Matsuura, John H.; Gannon, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Endovascular brachytherapy for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis after balloon/stent angioplasty has proven effective both in animal preparations and clinical trials. A variety of β-emitting isotopes and catheter-based devices have been developed for the delivery of low-dose radiation in clinical coronary and peripheral trials. No platform, however, has yet been developed for brachytherapy in concert with vascular surgical operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular histopathologic response following balloon injury to rabbit carotid arteries with and without topically applied low-dose β-radiation. Methods: The β-emitting isotope strontium-90 (Sr-90) was conjugated onto the matrix of polypropylene (PLYP) mesh. Rabbit carotid arteries were balloon-injured with a no. 2 embolectomy catheter. Six carotid arteries were wrapped with nonradioactive PLYP mesh (controls) and Sr-90 (∼90 μCi) PLYP mesh in order to deliver low-dose radiation to the vessel wall from the external (adventitial) surface. Tissue was harvested at 6 weeks and processed for histologic examination. Results: There was consistent blockade of fibrocellular neointima formation with virtually no neointima present in all treated segments, compared to moderate neointima formation in controls. Medial thinning and smooth muscle cell (SMC) necrosis were also associated with topical brachytherapy. Conclusion: β-Radiation applied by an externally wrapped PLYP mesh labeled with Sr-90 markedly suppressed neointima formation in an animal vascular surgical injury model. Further studies, however, are necessary to determine a suitable isotope and dosage for clinical application

  1. Finite mathematics models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Features step-by-step examples based on actual data and connects fundamental mathematical modeling skills and decision making concepts to everyday applicability Featuring key linear programming, matrix, and probability concepts, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications emphasizes cross-disciplinary applications that relate mathematics to everyday life. The book provides a unique combination of practical mathematical applications to illustrate the wide use of mathematics in fields ranging from business, economics, finance, management, operations research, and the life and social sciences.

  2. Models for Dynamic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers aspects of the dynamic modelling and simulation of several complex operations that include a controlled blending tank, a direct methanol fuel cell that incorporates a multiscale model, a fluidised bed reactor, a standard chemical reactor and finally a polymerisation reactor...... be applied to formulate, analyse and solve these dynamic problems and how in the case of the fuel cell problem the model consists of coupledmeso and micro scale models. It is shown how data flows are handled between the models and how the solution is obtained within the modelling environment....

  3. Modeling Philosophies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    All models begin with a framework and a set of assumptions and limitations that go along with that framework. In terms of fracing and RA, there are several places where models and parameters must be chosen to complete hazard identification.

  4. Engine Modelling for Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1997-01-01

    In earlier work published by the author and co-authors, a dynamic engine model called a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) was developed. This model is physically based and is intended mainly for control applications. In its newer form, it is easy to fit to many different engines and requires little...... engine data for this purpose. It is especially well suited to embedded model applications in engine controllers, such as nonlinear observer based air/fuel ratio and advanced idle speed control. After a brief review of this model, it will be compared with other similar models which can be found...

  5. Geological and physicochemical controls of the spatial distribution of partition coefficients for radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240 and Am-241) at a site of nuclear reactors and radioactive waste disposal (St. Petersburg region, Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumynin, Vyacheslav G; Nikulenkov, Anton M

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a study of the sorption properties of sediments of different geological ages and lithological types, governing radionuclide retention in the subsurface (up to 160 m beneath the surface) within the area of potential influence of the Northwestern Center of Atomic Energy (NWCAE), St. Petersburg region, RF. The focus of this work is mostly on the sedimentary rocks of two types, i.e., weakly cemented sandstone and lithified clay formations of Cambrian and Vendian series. The first lithological unit is associated with a groundwater reservoir (Lomonosov aquifer), and the second one, with both a relative aquitard in the upper part of the Vendian formation (Kotlin clay) and a regional aquifer (Gdov aquifer) in the lower part of the formation. The main mechanisms responsible for the variability of the sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, defined as the ratio of the concentration of solute on solid phase to its concentration in solution at equilibrium) was identified for radionuclides such as Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240, and Am-241. It was shown that the main factors contributing to the chemical heterogeneity of the Cambrian sandstone were related to the presence of secondary minerals (iron and magnesium oxides and hydroxides produced by the weathering process) in trace amounts, forming correlated layer structures. The statistical analysis of nonlinear isotherms confirmed this conclusion. For the Vendian formation, a determinate trend was established in the Kd change over depth as a result of temporal trends in the sedimentation process and pore-water chemistry. The geostatistical characteristics and the spatial correlation models for describing linear sorption of different radionuclides are not identical, and the exhibition of chemical heterogeneity of sedimentary rock of a particular lithological type depends on radionuclide chemistry. Moreover, variogram analysis for some Kd data sets (both in Cambrian and Vendian formations) demonstrates the

  6. Multilevel models applications using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan; Fisher, James F

    2011-01-01

    This book covers a broad range of topics about multilevel modeling. The goal is to help readers to understand the basic concepts, theoretical frameworks, and application methods of multilevel modeling. It is at a level also accessible to non-mathematicians, focusing on the methods and applications of various multilevel models and using the widely used statistical software SAS®. Examples are drawn from analysis of real-world research data.

  7. MARKETING MODELS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Rymanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing models are used for the assessment of such marketing elements as sales volume, market share, market attractiveness, advertizing costs, product pushing and selling, profit, profitableness. Classification of buying process decision taking models is presented. SWOT- and GAPbased models are best for selling assessments. Lately, there is a tendency to transfer from the assessment on the ba-sis of financial indices to that on the basis of those non-financial. From the marketing viewpoint, most important are long-term company activities and consumer drawingmodels as well as market attractiveness operative models.

  8. Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    and the development of a short-path evaporator. The oil shale processing problem illustrates the interplay amongst particle flows in rotating drums, heat and mass transfer between solid and gas phases. The industrial application considers the dynamics of an Alberta-Taciuk processor, commonly used in shale oil and oil...... the steady state, distributed behaviour of a short-path evaporator....

  9. Insertion Modeling and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Letichevsky; Oleksandr Letychevskyi; Vladimir Peschanenko

    2016-01-01

    The paper relates to the theoretical and practical aspects of insertion modeling. Insertion modeling is a theory of agents and environments interaction where an environment is considered as agent with a special insertion function. The main notions of insertion modeling are presented. Insertion Modeling System is described as a tool for development of different kinds of insertion machines. The research and industrial applications of Insertion Modeling System are presented.

  10. A Robust Design Applicability Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebro, Martin; Lars, Krogstie; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    to be applicable in organisations assigning a high importance to one or more factors that are known to be impacted by RD, while also experiencing a high level of occurrence of this factor. The RDAM supplements existing maturity models and metrics to provide a comprehensive set of data to support management......This paper introduces a model for assessing the applicability of Robust Design (RD) in a project or organisation. The intention of the Robust Design Applicability Model (RDAM) is to provide support for decisions by engineering management considering the relevant level of RD activities...

  11. Human mobility: Models and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Hugo; Barthelemy, Marc; Ghoshal, Gourab; James, Charlotte R.; Lenormand, Maxime; Louail, Thomas; Menezes, Ronaldo; Ramasco, José J.; Simini, Filippo; Tomasini, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of extensive geolocated datasets related to human movement, enabling scientists to quantitatively study individual and collective mobility patterns, and to generate models that can capture and reproduce the spatiotemporal structures and regularities in human trajectories. The study of human mobility is especially important for applications such as estimating migratory flows, traffic forecasting, urban planning, and epidemic modeling. In this survey, we review the approaches developed to reproduce various mobility patterns, with the main focus on recent developments. This review can be used both as an introduction to the fundamental modeling principles of human mobility, and as a collection of technical methods applicable to specific mobility-related problems. The review organizes the subject by differentiating between individual and population mobility and also between short-range and long-range mobility. Throughout the text the description of the theory is intertwined with real-world applications.

  12. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  13. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  14. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very....... Such association models have been, especially over the last 20 years, proved to be very successful in predicting many thermodynamic properties in the oil & gas industry. They have not so far replaced cubic equations of state, but the results obtained by using these models are very impressive in many cases, e...

  15. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Diverse cost-estimating techniques and data combined into single program. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model (STACOM 1.0) is interactive accounting software tool providing means for combining several independent cost-estimating programs into fully-integrated mathematical model capable of assessing costs, analyzing benefits, providing file-handling utilities, and putting out information in text and graphical forms to screen, printer, or plotter. Program based on Lotus 1-2-3, version 2.0. Developed to provide clear, concise traceability and visibility into methodology and rationale for estimating costs and benefits of operations of Space Station tether deployer system.

  16. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr/90Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), 204TI (18.5 MBq) and 147Pm (518 MBq)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-02-01

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; α). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of 90 Sr/ 90 Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and 147 Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; α) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  17. Comparison of predictions from internationally recognized assessment models for the transfer of selected radionuclides through terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Bergstroem, U.; Gyllander, C.; Wilkens, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Six internationally recognized terrestrial food-chain models developed in Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the International Atomic Energy Agency are compared. This comparison includes the data bases and predictions for the transfer of Co-60, Sr-90, I-131, and Cs-137 into milk, and leafy and nonleafy vegetables from a hypothetical 30-yr continuous rate of atmospheric deposition onto agricultural systems. Model predictions are compared against United Nations summaries of empirical relationships between atmospheric deposition and concentrations in food of Sr-90 and Cs-137. The results of statistical analyses of the effect of parameter uncertainties on model predictions are also included for Sr-90, Cs-137, and I-131. Discrepancies among model predictions vary between factors of 6 and 30. These results reflect differences in model assumptions rather than uncertainties in model parameters

  18. Integration of design applications with building models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eastman, C. M.; Jeng, T. S.; Chowdbury, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews various issues in the integration of applications with a building model... (Truncated.)......This paper reviews various issues in the integration of applications with a building model... (Truncated.)...

  19. Performability Modelling Tools, Evaluation Techniques and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with three aspects of quantitative evaluation of fault-tolerant and distributed computer and communication systems: performability evaluation techniques, performability modelling tools, and performability modelling applications. Performability modelling is a relatively new

  20. Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Hu, Kaiyan; Chen, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge and application of model play an important role in students' development of modeling ability and scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated Chinese chemistry teachers' knowledge and application of models. Data were collected through test questionnaire and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result indicated…

  1. Assessment of Sr-90 in water samples: precision and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo B.; Saueia, Cátia H.R.; Castilho, Bruna; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.br, E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br, E-mail: bcastilho@ipen.br, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The study of artificial radionuclides dispersion into the environment is very important to control the nuclear waste discharges, nuclear accidents and nuclear weapons testing. The accidents in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, released several radionuclides in the environment by aerial deposition and liquid discharge, with various level of radioactivity. The {sup 90}Sr was one of the elements released into the environment. The {sup 90}Sr is produced by nuclear fission with a physical half-life of 28.79 years with decay energy of 0.546 MeV. The aims of this study are to evaluate the precision and accuracy of three methodologies for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in water samples: Cerenkov, LSC direct method and with radiochemical separation. The performance of the methodologies was evaluated by using two scintillation counters (Quantulus and Hidex). The parameters Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and Figure Of Merit (FOM) were determined for each method, the precision and accuracy were checked using {sup 90}Sr standard solutions. (author)

  2. Assessment of Sr-90 in water samples: precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo B.; Saueia, Cátia H.R.; Castilho, Bruna; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2017-01-01

    The study of artificial radionuclides dispersion into the environment is very important to control the nuclear waste discharges, nuclear accidents and nuclear weapons testing. The accidents in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, released several radionuclides in the environment by aerial deposition and liquid discharge, with various level of radioactivity. The 90 Sr was one of the elements released into the environment. The 90 Sr is produced by nuclear fission with a physical half-life of 28.79 years with decay energy of 0.546 MeV. The aims of this study are to evaluate the precision and accuracy of three methodologies for the determination of 90 Sr in water samples: Cerenkov, LSC direct method and with radiochemical separation. The performance of the methodologies was evaluated by using two scintillation counters (Quantulus and Hidex). The parameters Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and Figure Of Merit (FOM) were determined for each method, the precision and accuracy were checked using 90 Sr standard solutions. (author)

  3. Extensions and applications of degradation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.; Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Component degradation modeling being developed to understand the aging process can have many applications with potential advantages. Previous work has focused on developing the basic concepts and mathematical development of a simple degradation model. Using this simple model, times of degradations and failures occurrences were analyzed for standby components to detect indications of aging and to infer the effectiveness of maintenance in preventing age-related degradations from transforming to failures. Degradation modeling approaches can have broader applications in aging studies and in this paper, the authors discuss some of the extensions and applications of degradation modeling. The extensions and applications of the degradation modeling approaches discussed are: (a) theoretical developments to study reliability effects of different maintenance strategies and policies, (b) relating aging-failure rate to degradation rate, and (c) application to a continuously operating component

  4. A Classification of PLC Models and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Boel, R.; Stremersch, G.

    In the past years there is an increasing interest in analysing PLC applications with formal methods. The first step to this end is to get formal models of PLC applications. Meanwhile, various models for PLCs have already been introduced in the literature. In our paper we discuss several

  5. Structural equation modeling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan

    2012-01-01

    A reference guide for applications of SEM using Mplus Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus is intended as both a teaching resource and a reference guide. Written in non-mathematical terms, this book focuses on the conceptual and practical aspects of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Basic concepts and examples of various SEM models are demonstrated along with recently developed advanced methods, such as mixture modeling and model-based power analysis and sample size estimate for SEM. The statistical modeling program, Mplus, is also featured and provides researchers with a

  6. Applications and extensions of degradation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.; Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Component degradation modeling being developed to understand the aging process can have many applications with potential advantages. Previous work has focused on developing the basic concepts and mathematical development of a simple degradation model. Using this simple model, times of degradations and failures occurrences were analyzed for standby components to detect indications of aging and to infer the effectiveness of maintenance in preventing age-related degradations from transforming to failures. Degradation modeling approaches can have broader applications in aging studies and in this paper, we discuss some of the extensions and applications of degradation modeling. The application and extension of degradation modeling approaches, presented in this paper, cover two aspects: (1) application to a continuously operating component, and (2) extension of the approach to analyze degradation-failure rate relationship. The application of the modeling approach to a continuously operating component (namely, air compressors) shows the usefulness of this approach in studying aging effects and the role of maintenance in this type component. In this case, aging effects in air compressors are demonstrated by the increase in both the degradation and failure rate and the faster increase in the failure rate compared to the degradation rate shows the ineffectiveness of the existing maintenance practices. Degradation-failure rate relationship was analyzed using data from residual heat removal system pumps. A simple linear model with a time-lag between these two parameters was studied. The application in this case showed a time-lag of 2 years for degradations to affect failure occurrences. 2 refs

  7. Applications and extensions of degradation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Vesely, W.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Component degradation modeling being developed to understand the aging process can have many applications with potential advantages. Previous work has focused on developing the basic concepts and mathematical development of a simple degradation model. Using this simple model, times of degradations and failures occurrences were analyzed for standby components to detect indications of aging and to infer the effectiveness of maintenance in preventing age-related degradations from transforming to failures. Degradation modeling approaches can have broader applications in aging studies and in this paper, we discuss some of the extensions and applications of degradation modeling. The application and extension of degradation modeling approaches, presented in this paper, cover two aspects: (1) application to a continuously operating component, and (2) extension of the approach to analyze degradation-failure rate relationship. The application of the modeling approach to a continuously operating component (namely, air compressors) shows the usefulness of this approach in studying aging effects and the role of maintenance in this type component. In this case, aging effects in air compressors are demonstrated by the increase in both the degradation and failure rate and the faster increase in the failure rate compared to the degradation rate shows the ineffectiveness of the existing maintenance practices. Degradation-failure rate relationship was analyzed using data from residual heat removal system pumps. A simple linear model with a time-lag between these two parameters was studied. The application in this case showed a time-lag of 2 years for degradations to affect failure occurrences. 2 refs.

  8. Applications and extensions of degradation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.; Samanta, P.K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Vesely, W.E. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Component degradation modeling being developed to understand the aging process can have many applications with potential advantages. Previous work has focused on developing the basic concepts and mathematical development of a simple degradation model. Using this simple model, times of degradations and failures occurrences were analyzed for standby components to detect indications of aging and to infer the effectiveness of maintenance in preventing age-related degradations from transforming to failures. Degradation modeling approaches can have broader applications in aging studies and in this paper, we discuss some of the extensions and applications of degradation modeling. The application and extension of degradation modeling approaches, presented in this paper, cover two aspects: (1) application to a continuously operating component, and (2) extension of the approach to analyze degradation-failure rate relationship. The application of the modeling approach to a continuously operating component (namely, air compressors) shows the usefulness of this approach in studying aging effects and the role of maintenance in this type component. In this case, aging effects in air compressors are demonstrated by the increase in both the degradation and failure rate and the faster increase in the failure rate compared to the degradation rate shows the ineffectiveness of the existing maintenance practices. Degradation-failure rate relationship was analyzed using data from residual heat removal system pumps. A simple linear model with a time-lag between these two parameters was studied. The application in this case showed a time-lag of 2 years for degradations to affect failure occurrences. 2 refs.

  9. Application of some turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Sho; Kato, Masanobu; Fujimoto, Ken; Moriya, Shoichi

    1985-01-01

    In order to predict numerically the thermal stratification and the thermal striping phenomena in pool-type FBRs, it is necessary to simulate adequately various turbulence properties of flows with good turbulence models. This report presents numerical simulations of two dimensional isothermal steady flows in a rectangular plenum using three types of turbulence models. Three models are general k-ε model and two Reynolds stress models. The agreements of these results are examined and the properties of these models are compared. The main results are summarized as follows. (1) Concerning the mean velocity distributions, although a little differences exist, all results of three models agree with experimental values. (2) It can be found that non-isotropy of normal Reynolds stresses (u' 2 , v' 2 ) distributions is qwite well simulated by two Reynolds stress models, but not adequately by k-ε model, shear Reynolds stress (-u', v') distribations of three models have little differences and agree good with experiments. (3) Balances of the various terms of Reynolds stress equations are examined. Comparing the results obtained by analyses and those of previous experiments, both distributions show qualitative agreements. (author)

  10. Photocell modelling for thermophotovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J -C; Durisch, W; Grob, B; Panitz, J -C [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Goal of the modelling described here is the extrapolation of the performance characteristics of solar photocells to TPV working conditions. The model accounts for higher flux of radiation and for the higher temperatures reached in TPV converters. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  11. Markov chains models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, Wai-Ki; Ng, Michael K; Siu, Tak-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    This new edition of Markov Chains: Models, Algorithms and Applications has been completely reformatted as a text, complete with end-of-chapter exercises, a new focus on management science, new applications of the models, and new examples with applications in financial risk management and modeling of financial data.This book consists of eight chapters.  Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the classical theory on both discrete and continuous time Markov chains. The relationship between Markov chains of finite states and matrix theory will also be highlighted. Some classical iterative methods

  12. Mathematical Ship Modeling for Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the models for describing the motion of a ship in four degrees of freedom suitable for control applications. We present the hydrodynamic models of two ships: a container and a multi-role naval vessel. The models are based on experimental results in the four degrees...

  13. The MVP Model: Overview and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter contains an overview of the MVP model that is used as a basis for the other chapters in this issue. It also contains a description of key steps in the ARCS-V design process that is derived from the MVP model and a summary of a design-based research study illustrating the application of the ARCS-V model.

  14. Dynamic programming models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denardo, Eric V

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to sequential decision processes covers use of dynamic programming in studying models of resource allocation, methods for approximating solutions of control problems in continuous time, production control, more. 1982 edition.

  15. Markov and mixed models with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard

    This thesis deals with mathematical and statistical models with focus on applications in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling. These models are today an important aspect of the drug development in the pharmaceutical industry and continued research in statistical methodology within...... or uncontrollable factors in an individual. Modelling using SDEs also provides new tools for estimation of unknown inputs to a system and is illustrated with an application to estimation of insulin secretion rates in diabetic patients. Models for the eect of a drug is a broader area since drugs may affect...... for non-parametric estimation of Markov processes are proposed to give a detailed description of the sleep process during the night. Statistically the Markov models considered for sleep states are closely related to the PK models based on SDEs as both models share the Markov property. When the models...

  16. Computational nanophotonics modeling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, Sarhan M

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers tools for engineers, scientists, biologists, and others working with the computational techniques of nanophotonics. It introduces the key concepts of computational methods in a manner that is easily digestible for newcomers to the field. The book also examines future applications of nanophotonics in the technical industry and covers new developments and interdisciplinary research in engineering, science, and medicine. It provides an overview of the key computational nanophotonics and describes the technologies with an emphasis on how they work and their key benefits.

  17. HTGR Application Economic Model Users' Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrik, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Application Economic Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Application Economic Model calculates either the required selling price of power and/or heat for a given internal rate of return (IRR) or the IRR for power and/or heat being sold at the market price. The user can generate these economic results for a range of reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for up to 16 reactor modules; and for module ratings of 200, 350, or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Application Economic Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Application Economic Model. This model was designed for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel and engineering economics. Modification of the HTGR Application Economic Model should only be performed by users familiar with the HTGR and its applications, Excel, and Visual Basic.

  18. Moving objects management models, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.

  19. Registry of EPA Applications, Models, and Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — READ is EPA's authoritative source for information about Agency information resources, including applications/systems, datasets and models. READ is one component of...

  20. Formal models, languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangarajan, K; Mukund, M

    2006-01-01

    A collection of articles by leading experts in theoretical computer science, this volume commemorates the 75th birthday of Professor Rani Siromoney, one of the pioneers in the field in India. The articles span the vast range of areas that Professor Siromoney has worked in or influenced, including grammar systems, picture languages and new models of computation. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (150 KB). Contents: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (A Atanasiu et al.); Hexagonal Contextual Array P Systems (K S Dersanambika et al.); Con

  1. Applications of computer modeling to fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Progress achieved during this report period is presented on the following topics: Development and application of gyrokinetic particle codes to tokamak transport, development of techniques to take advantage of parallel computers; model dynamo and bootstrap current drive; and in general maintain our broad-based program in basic plasma physics and computer modeling

  2. Generating Performance Models for Irregular Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Ryan D.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2017-05-30

    Many applications have irregular behavior --- non-uniform input data, input-dependent solvers, irregular memory accesses, unbiased branches --- that cannot be captured using today's automated performance modeling techniques. We describe new hierarchical critical path analyses for the \\Palm model generation tool. To create a model's structure, we capture tasks along representative MPI critical paths. We create a histogram of critical tasks with parameterized task arguments and instance counts. To model each task, we identify hot instruction-level sub-paths and model each sub-path based on data flow, instruction scheduling, and data locality. We describe application models that generate accurate predictions for strong scaling when varying CPU speed, cache speed, memory speed, and architecture. We present results for the Sweep3D neutron transport benchmark; Page Rank on multiple graphs; Support Vector Machine with pruning; and PFLOTRAN's reactive flow/transport solver with domain-induced load imbalance.

  3. Vacation queueing models theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Naishuo

    2006-01-01

    A classical queueing model consists of three parts - arrival process, service process, and queue discipline. However, a vacation queueing model has an additional part - the vacation process which is governed by a vacation policy - that can be characterized by three aspects: 1) vacation start-up rule; 2) vacation termination rule, and 3) vacation duration distribution. Hence, vacation queueing models are an extension of classical queueing theory. Vacation Queueing Models: Theory and Applications discusses systematically and in detail the many variations of vacation policy. By allowing servers to take vacations makes the queueing models more realistic and flexible in studying real-world waiting line systems. Integrated in the book's discussion are a variety of typical vacation model applications that include call centers with multi-task employees, customized manufacturing, telecommunication networks, maintenance activities, etc. Finally, contents are presented in a "theorem and proof" format and it is invaluabl...

  4. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shichang; Yang, Wu; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangchuan

    2016-01-01

    Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers). Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  5. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Xuan

    Full Text Available Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers. Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  6. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

  7. Modelling of Tape Casting for Ceramic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud

    was increased by improving the steady state model with a quasi-steady state analytical model. In order to control the most important process parameter, tape thickness, the two-doctor blade configuration was also modeled analytically. The model was developed to control the tape thickness based on the machine...... for magnetic refrigeration applications. Numerical models were developed to track the migration of the particles inside the ceramic slurry. The results showed the presence of some areas inside the ceramic in which the concentration of the particles is higher compared to other parts, creating the resulting...

  8. Modeling Medical Services with Mobile Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of mobile health technology (m-Health provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services. As the bridge between doctors and patients, mobile health applications enable patients to communicate with doctors through their smartphones, which is becoming more and more popular among people. To evaluate the influence of m-Health applications on the medical service market, we propose a medical service equilibrium model. The model can balance the supply of doctors and demand of patients and reflect possible options for both doctors and patients with or without m-Health applications in the medical service market. In the meantime, we analyze the behavior of patients and the activities of doctors to minimize patients’ full costs of healthcare and doctors’ futility. Then, we provide a resolution algorithm through mathematical reasoning. Lastly, based on artificially generated dataset, experiments are conducted to evaluate the medical services of m-Health applications.

  9. Artificial Immune Networks: Models and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Immune Systems (AIS, which is inspired by the nature immune system, has been applied for solving complex computational problems in classification, pattern rec- ognition, and optimization. In this paper, the theory of the natural immune system is first briefly introduced. Next, we compare some well-known AIS and their applications. Several representative artificial immune networks models are also dis- cussed. Moreover, we demonstrate the applications of artificial immune networks in various engineering fields.

  10. A model for assessment of telemedicine applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ekeland, Anne Granstrøm; Jensen, Lise Kvistgaard

    2012-01-01

    the European Commission initiated the development of a framework for assessing telemedicine applications, based on the users' need for information for decision making. This article presents the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine applications (MAST) developed in this study.......Telemedicine applications could potentially solve many of the challenges faced by the healthcare sectors in Europe. However, a framework for assessment of these technologies is need by decision makers to assist them in choosing the most efficient and cost-effective technologies. Therefore in 2009...

  11. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  12. Sparse Multivariate Modeling: Priors and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo

    This thesis presents a collection of statistical models that attempt to take advantage of every piece of prior knowledge available to provide the models with as much structure as possible. The main motivation for introducing these models is interpretability since in practice we want to be able...... a general yet self-contained description of every model in terms of generative assumptions, interpretability goals, probabilistic formulation and target applications. Case studies, benchmark results and practical details are also provided as appendices published elsewhere, containing reprints of peer...

  13. Crop modeling applications in agricultural water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisekka, Isaya; DeJonge, Kendall C.; Ma, Liwang; Paz, Joel; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces the fourteen articles that comprise the “Crop Modeling and Decision Support for Optimizing Use of Limited Water” collection. This collection was developed from a special session on crop modeling applications in agricultural water management held at the 2016 ASABE Annual International Meeting (AIM) in Orlando, Florida. In addition, other authors who were not able to attend the 2016 ASABE AIM were also invited to submit papers. The articles summarized in this introductory article demonstrate a wide array of applications in which crop models can be used to optimize agricultural water management. The following section titles indicate the topics covered in this collection: (1) evapotranspiration modeling (one article), (2) model development and parameterization (two articles), (3) application of crop models for irrigation scheduling (five articles), (4) coordinated water and nutrient management (one article), (5) soil water management (two articles), (6) risk assessment of water-limited irrigation management (one article), and (7) regional assessments of climate impact (two articles). Changing weather and climate, increasing population, and groundwater depletion will continue to stimulate innovations in agricultural water management, and crop models will play an important role in helping to optimize water use in agriculture.

  14. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  15. Ionospheric Modeling for Precise GNSS Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memarzadeh, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a procedure for modeling and predicting ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) for high precision differential GNSS applications. As the ionosphere is a highly dynamic medium, we believe that to have a reliable procedure it is necessary to transfer

  16. Modelling Safe Interface Interactions in Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco; Cabot, Jordi; Grossniklaus, Michael

    Current Web applications embed sophisticated user interfaces and business logic. The original interaction paradigm of the Web based on static content pages that are browsed by hyperlinks is, therefore, not valid anymore. In this paper, we advocate a paradigm shift for browsers and Web applications, that improves the management of user interaction and browsing history. Pages are replaced by States as basic navigation nodes, and Back/Forward navigation along the browsing history is replaced by a full-fledged interactive application paradigm, supporting transactions at the interface level and featuring Undo/Redo capabilities. This new paradigm offers a safer and more precise interaction model, protecting the user from unexpected behaviours of the applications and the browser.

  17. Large-scale multimedia modeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Castleton, K.J.; Gelston, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    Over the past decade, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies have faced increasing scrutiny for a wide range of environmental issues related to past and current practices. A number of large-scale applications have been undertaken that required analysis of large numbers of potential environmental issues over a wide range of environmental conditions and contaminants. Several of these applications, referred to here as large-scale applications, have addressed long-term public health risks using a holistic approach for assessing impacts from potential waterborne and airborne transport pathways. Multimedia models such as the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were designed for use in such applications. MEPAS integrates radioactive and hazardous contaminants impact computations for major exposure routes via air, surface water, ground water, and overland flow transport. A number of large-scale applications of MEPAS have been conducted to assess various endpoints for environmental and human health impacts. These applications are described in terms of lessons learned in the development of an effective approach for large-scale applications

  18. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  19. Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Pina, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2012 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2012) which was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in Rome, Italy. SIMULTECH 2012 was technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), GDR I3, Lionphant Simulation, Simulation Team and IFIP and held in cooperation with AIS Special Interest Group of Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and the Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS).

  20. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF A MODEL FOR ASSESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr NOVOTNÝ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an important sub-sector of transport infrastructure. Disruption of its operation due to emergencies can result in a reduction in functional parameters of provided services with consequent impacts on society. Identification of critical elements of this system enables its timely and effective protection. On that ground, the article presents a draft model for assessing the criticality of railway infrastructure elements. This model uses a systems approach and multicriteria semi-quantitative analysis with weighted criteria for calculating the criticality of individual elements of the railway infrastructure. In the conclusion, it presents a practical application of the proposed model including the discussion of results.

  1. Multilevel modelling: Beyond the basic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; London, Kamala

    2009-05-01

    Over the last 30 years statistical algorithms have been developed to analyse datasets that have a hierarchical/multilevel structure. Particularly within developmental and educational psychology these techniques have become common where the sample has an obvious hierarchical structure, like pupils nested within a classroom. We describe two areas beyond the basic applications of multilevel modelling that are important to psychology: modelling the covariance structure in longitudinal designs and using generalized linear multilevel modelling as an alternative to methods from signal detection theory (SDT). Detailed code for all analyses is described using packages for the freeware R.

  2. Mixed models theory and applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Demidenko, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Mixed modeling is one of the most promising and exciting areas of statistical analysis, enabling the analysis of nontraditional, clustered data that may come in the form of shapes or images. This book provides in-depth mathematical coverage of mixed models' statistical properties and numerical algorithms, as well as applications such as the analysis of tumor regrowth, shape, and image. The new edition includes significant updating, over 300 exercises, stimulating chapter projects and model simulations, inclusion of R subroutines, and a revised text format. The target audience continues to be g

  3. Reputation based security model for android applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Welderufael Berhane; Booth, Todd; Andersson, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The market for smart phones has been booming in the past few years. There are now over 400,000 applications on the Android market. Over 10 billion Android applications have been downloaded from the Android market. Due to the Android popularity, there are now a large number of malicious vendors targeting the platform. Many honest end users are being successfully hacked on a regular basis. In this work, a cloud based reputation security model has been proposed as a solution which greatly mitiga...

  4. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  5. Modeling and Optimization : Theory and Applications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terlaky, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of contributions that were presented at the Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications Conference (MOPTA) held at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA on August 17-19, 2016. The conference brought together a diverse group of researchers and practitioners, working on both theoretical and practical aspects of continuous or discrete optimization. Topics presented included algorithms for solving convex, network, mixed-integer, nonlinear, and global optimization problems, and addressed the application of deterministic and stochastic optimization techniques in energy, finance, logistics, analytics, health, and other important fields. The contributions contained in this volume represent a sample of these topics and applications and illustrate the broad diversity of ideas discussed at the meeting.

  6. Modeling and Optimization : Theory and Applications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terlaky, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of contributions that were presented at the Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications Conference (MOPTA) held at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA on August 13-15, 2014. The conference brought together a diverse group of researchers and practitioners, working on both theoretical and practical aspects of continuous or discrete optimization. Topics presented included algorithms for solving convex, network, mixed-integer, nonlinear, and global optimization problems, and addressed the application of deterministic and stochastic optimization techniques in energy, finance, logistics, analytics, healthcare, and other important fields. The contributions contained in this volume represent a sample of these topics and applications and illustrate the broad diversity of ideas discussed at the meeting.

  7. Stochastic biomathematical models with applications to neuronal modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Batzel, Jerry; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic biomathematical models are becoming increasingly important as new light is shed on the role of noise in living systems. In certain biological systems, stochastic effects may even enhance a signal, thus providing a biological motivation for the noise observed in living systems. Recent advances in stochastic analysis and increasing computing power facilitate the analysis of more biophysically realistic models, and this book provides researchers in computational neuroscience and stochastic systems with an overview of recent developments. Key concepts are developed in chapters written by experts in their respective fields. Topics include: one-dimensional homogeneous diffusions and their boundary behavior, large deviation theory and its application in stochastic neurobiological models, a review of mathematical methods for stochastic neuronal integrate-and-fire models, stochastic partial differential equation models in neurobiology, and stochastic modeling of spreading cortical depression.

  8. Application of photometric models to asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowell, E.; Dominque, D.; Hapke, B.

    1989-01-01

    The way an asteroid or other atmosphereless solar system body varies in brightness in response to changing illumination and viewing geometry depends in a very complicated way on the physical and optical properties of its surface and on its overall shape. The authors summarize the formulation and application of recent photometric models by Hapke and by Lumme and Bowell. In both models, the brightness of a rough and porous surface is parametrized in terms of the optical properties of individual particles, by shadowing between particles, and by the way in which light scattered among collections of particles. Both models succeed in their goal of fitting the observed photometric behavior of a wide variety of bodies, but neither has led to a very complete understanding of the properties of asteroid regoliths, primarily because in most cases the parameters in the present models cannot be adequately constrained by observations of integral brightness alone over a restricted range of phase angles

  9. Models and applications of the UEDGE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensink, M.E.; Knoll, D.A.; Porter, G.D.; Rognlien, T.D.; Smith, G.R.; Wising, F.

    1996-09-01

    The transport of particles and energy from the core of a tokamak to nearby material surfaces is an important problem for understanding present experiments and for designing reactor-grade devices. A number of fluid transport codes have been developed to model the plasma in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions. This report will focus on recent model improvements and illustrative results from the UEDGE code. Some geometric and mesh considerations are introduced, followed by a general description of the plasma and neutral fluid models. A few comments on computational issues are given and then two important applications are illustrated concerning benchmarking and the ITER radiative divertor. Finally, we report on some recent work to improve the models in UEDGE by coupling to a Monte Carlo neutrals code and by utilizing an adaptive grid

  10. Chapter 5: Summary of model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  11. Applications of model theory to functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iovino, Jose

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades, methods that originated within mathematical logic have exhibited powerful applications to Banach space theory, particularly set theory and model theory. This volume constitutes the first self-contained introduction to techniques of model theory in Banach space theory. The area of research has grown rapidly since this monograph's first appearance, but much of this material is still not readily available elsewhere. For instance, this volume offers a unified presentation of Krivine's theorem and the Krivine-Maurey theorem on stable Banach spaces, with emphasis on the

  12. Wave model downscaling for coastal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Davidan, Georgi; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Nataliya

    2010-05-01

    Downscaling is a suitable technique for obtaining high-resolution estimates from relatively coarse-resolution global models. Dynamical and statistical downscaling has been applied to the multidecadal simulations of ocean waves. Even as large-scale variability might be plausibly estimated from these simulations, their value for the small scale applications such as design of coastal protection structures and coastal risk assessment is limited due to their relatively coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. Another advantage of the high resolution wave modeling is that it accounts for shallow water effects. Therefore, it can be used for both wave forecasting at specific coastal locations and engineering applications that require knowledge about extreme wave statistics at or near the coastal facilities. In the present study downscaling is applied to both ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis of atmospheric pressure over the Black Sea with 2.5 degrees spatial resolution. A simplified regional atmospheric model is employed for calculation of the surface wind field at 0.5 degrees resolution that serves as forcing for the wave models. Further, a high-resolution nested WAM/SWAN wave model suite of nested wave models is applied for spatial downscaling. It aims at resolving the wave conditions in a limited area at the close proximity to the shore. The pilot site is located in the northern part the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. The system involves the WAM wave model adapted for basin scale simulation at 0.5 degrees spatial resolution. The WAM output for significant wave height, mean wave period and mean angle of wave approach is used in terms of external boundary conditions for the SWAN wave model, which is set up for the western Black Sea shelf at 4km resolution. The same model set up on about 400m resolution is nested to the first SWAN run. In this case the SWAN 2D spectral output provides boundary conditions for the high-resolution model run. The models are implemented for a

  13. Neural Network Based Models for Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Orso; Tema Biwole, Arsene; Luda, Teobaldo; Zywicki, Bailey; Rea, Cristina; Smith, Sterling; Snyder, Phil; Belli, Emily; Staebler, Gary; Canty, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Whole device modeling, engineering design, experimental planning and control applications demand models that are simultaneously physically accurate and fast. This poster reports on the ongoing effort towards the development and validation of a series of models that leverage neural-­network (NN) multidimensional regression techniques to accelerate some of the most mission critical first principle models for the fusion community, such as: the EPED workflow for prediction of the H-Mode and Super H-Mode pedestal structure the TGLF and NEO models for the prediction of the turbulent and neoclassical particle, energy and momentum fluxes; and the NEO model for the drift-kinetic solution of the bootstrap current. We also applied NNs on DIII-D experimental data for disruption prediction and quantifying the effect of RMPs on the pedestal and ELMs. All of these projects were supported by the infrastructure provided by the OMFIT integrated modeling framework. Work supported by US DOE under DE-SC0012656, DE-FG02-95ER54309, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Recent developments in volatility modeling and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thavaneswaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In financial modeling, it has been constantly pointed out that volatility clustering and conditional nonnormality induced leptokurtosis observed in high frequency data. Financial time series data are not adequately modeled by normal distribution, and empirical evidence on the non-normality assumption is well documented in the financial literature (details are illustrated by Engle (1982 and Bollerslev (1986. An ARMA representation has been used by Thavaneswaran et al., in 2005, to derive the kurtosis of the various class of GARCH models such as power GARCH, non-Gaussian GARCH, nonstationary and random coefficient GARCH. Several empirical studies have shown that mixture distributions are more likely to capture heteroskedasticity observed in high frequency data than normal distribution. In this paper, some results on moment properties are generalized to stationary ARMA process with GARCH errors. Application to volatility forecasts and option pricing are also discussed in some detail.

  15. A comprehensive model for piezoceramic actuators: modelling, validation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quant, Mario; Elizalde, Hugo; Flores, Abiud; Ramírez, Ricardo; Orta, Pedro; Song, Gangbing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive model for piezoceramic actuators (PAs), which accounts for hysteresis, non-linear electric field and dynamic effects. The hysteresis model is based on the widely used general Maxwell slip model, while an enhanced electro-mechanical non-linear model replaces the linear constitutive equations commonly used. Further on, a linear second order model compensates the frequency response of the actuator. Each individual model is fully characterized from experimental data yielded by a specific PA, then incorporated into a comprehensive 'direct' model able to determine the output strain based on the applied input voltage, fully compensating the aforementioned effects, where the term 'direct' represents an electrical-to-mechanical operating path. The 'direct' model was implemented in a Matlab/Simulink environment and successfully validated via experimental results, exhibiting higher accuracy and simplicity than many published models. This simplicity would allow a straightforward inclusion of other behaviour such as creep, ageing, material non-linearity, etc, if such parameters are important for a particular application. Based on the same formulation, two other models are also presented: the first is an 'alternate' model intended to operate within a force-controlled scheme (instead of a displacement/position control), thus able to capture the complex mechanical interactions occurring between a PA and its host structure. The second development is an 'inverse' model, able to operate within an open-loop control scheme, that is, yielding a 'linearized' PA behaviour. The performance of the developed models is demonstrated via a numerical sample case simulated in Matlab/Simulink, consisting of a PA coupled to a simple mechanical system, aimed at shifting the natural frequency of the latter

  16. Modelling and application of stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The subject of modelling and application of stochastic processes is too vast to be exhausted in a single volume. In this book, attention is focused on a small subset of this vast subject. The primary emphasis is on realization and approximation of stochastic systems. Recently there has been considerable interest in the stochastic realization problem, and hence, an attempt has been made here to collect in one place some of the more recent approaches and algorithms for solving the stochastic realiza­ tion problem. Various different approaches for realizing linear minimum-phase systems, linear nonminimum-phase systems, and bilinear systems are presented. These approaches range from time-domain methods to spectral-domain methods. An overview of the chapter contents briefly describes these approaches. Also, in most of these chapters special attention is given to the problem of developing numerically ef­ ficient algorithms for obtaining reduced-order (approximate) stochastic realizations. On the application side,...

  17. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  18. Genetic demographic networks: Mathematical model and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Marek; Wojdyła, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    Recent improvement in the quality of genetic data obtained from extinct human populations and their ancestors encourages searching for answers to basic questions regarding human population history. The most common and successful are model-based approaches, in which genetic data are compared to the data obtained from the assumed demography model. Using such approach, it is possible to either validate or adjust assumed demography. Model fit to data can be obtained based on reverse-time coalescent simulations or forward-time simulations. In this paper we introduce a computational method based on mathematical equation that allows obtaining joint distributions of pairs of individuals under a specified demography model, each of them characterized by a genetic variant at a chosen locus. The two individuals are randomly sampled from either the same or two different populations. The model assumes three types of demographic events (split, merge and migration). Populations evolve according to the time-continuous Moran model with drift and Markov-process mutation. This latter process is described by the Lyapunov-type equation introduced by O'Brien and generalized in our previous works. Application of this equation constitutes an original contribution. In the result section of the paper we present sample applications of our model to both simulated and literature-based demographies. Among other we include a study of the Slavs-Balts-Finns genetic relationship, in which we model split and migrations between the Balts and Slavs. We also include another example that involves the migration rates between farmers and hunters-gatherers, based on modern and ancient DNA samples. This latter process was previously studied using coalescent simulations. Our results are in general agreement with the previous method, which provides validation of our approach. Although our model is not an alternative to simulation methods in the practical sense, it provides an algorithm to compute pairwise

  19. Language Modelling for Collaborative Filtering: Application to Job Applicant Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt , Thomas; Gonard , François; Caillou , Philippe; Sebag , Michèle

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses a collaborative retrieval problem , the recommendation of job ads to applicants. Specifically, two proprietary databases are considered. The first one focuses on the context of unskilled low-paid jobs/applicants; the second one focuses on highly qualified jobs/applicants. Each database includes the job ads and applicant resumes together with the collaborative filtering data recording the applicant clicks on job ads. The proposed approach, called LA...

  20. Evaluation process radiological in ternopil region method of box models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Матвєєва

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  Results of radionuclides Sr-90 flows analyses in the ecosystem of Kotsubinchiky village of Ternopolskaya oblast were analyzed. The block-scheme of ecosystem and its mathematical model using the box models method were made. It allowed us to evaluate the ways of dose’s loadings formation of internal irradiation for miscellaneous population groups – working people, retirees, children, and also to prognose the dynamic of these loadings during the years after the Chernobyl accident.

  1. Hydrodynamic Modeling and Its Application in AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Mattia; Byron, Olwyn

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamic parameters measured in an AUC experiment, s(20,w) and D(t)(20,w)(0), can be used to gain information on the solution structure of (bio)macromolecules and their assemblies. This entails comparing the measured parameters with those that can be computed from usually "dry" structures by "hydrodynamic modeling." In this chapter, we will first briefly put hydrodynamic modeling in perspective and present the basic physics behind it as implemented in the most commonly used methods. The important "hydration" issue is also touched upon, and the distinction between rigid bodies versus those for which flexibility must be considered in the modeling process is then made. The available hydrodynamic modeling/computation programs, HYDROPRO, BEST, SoMo, AtoB, and Zeno, the latter four all implemented within the US-SOMO suite, are described and their performance evaluated. Finally, some literature examples are presented to illustrate the potential applications of hydrodynamics in the expanding field of multiresolution modeling. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Agent Based Modeling Applications for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    Agent-based modeling techniques have successfully been applied to systems in which complex behaviors or outcomes arise from varied interactions between individuals in the system. Each individual interacts with its environment, as well as with other individuals, by following a set of relatively simple rules. Traditionally this "bottom-up" modeling approach has been applied to problems in the fields of economics and sociology, but more recently has been introduced to various disciplines in the geosciences. This technique can help explain the origin of complex processes from a relatively simple set of rules, incorporate large and detailed datasets when they exist, and simulate the effects of extreme events on system-wide behavior. Some of the challenges associated with this modeling method include: significant computational requirements in order to keep track of thousands to millions of agents, methods and strategies of model validation are lacking, as is a formal methodology for evaluating model uncertainty. Challenges specific to the geosciences, include how to define agents that control water, contaminant fluxes, climate forcing and other physical processes and how to link these "geo-agents" into larger agent-based simulations that include social systems such as demographics economics and regulations. Effective management of limited natural resources (such as water, hydrocarbons, or land) requires an understanding of what factors influence the demand for these resources on a regional and temporal scale. Agent-based models can be used to simulate this demand across a variety of sectors under a range of conditions and determine effective and robust management policies and monitoring strategies. The recent focus on the role of biological processes in the geosciences is another example of an area that could benefit from agent-based applications. A typical approach to modeling the effect of biological processes in geologic media has been to represent these processes in

  3. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  4. Development of a reference system and a methodology for the calibration of ophthalmic applicators utilized in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia Liane de

    2005-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y beta radiation sources are widely utilized in brachytherapy, in the treatment of superficial lesions of eyes and skin. According to international recommendations, these applicators should be specified in terms of the absorbed dose rate to water at the reference point (1 mm from the source surface, along its axis of symmetry). Two mini-extrapolation chambers were developed with adequate geometrical characteristics for the dosimetry of plane and concave 90 Sr+ 90 Y sources. These chambers have 3.0 cm of outer diameter and 11.3 cm of length. Aluminized polyester foils are used as entrance windows, and the collecting electrodes were made of graphited polymethylmethacrylate. The mini-chambers were tested in 90 Sr+ 90 Y radiation beams from a beta check source and plane and concave ophthalmic applicators. All results obtained show the usefulness of these chambers as reference primary standards for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators. The previous calibration of the mini-chambers in relation to a standard ionization chamber or to a standard beta source is unnecessary. The minichamber with plane window showed utility for low energy X-rays too. In order to establish an alternative method for the calibration of beta radiation sources, different thermoluminescent materials were tested: LiF, CaF 2 :Mn, CaF 2 :Dy and CaS0 4 :Dy. For their characterization, the response reproducibility, calibration curves, TL response as a function of the source-detector distance, transmission factors and the linearity of the sample response were determined. The calibration procedures of ophthalmic applicators were established utilizing the ionometric technique and thermoluminescence dosimetry. (author)

  5. Application of model systems in nanobiotechnology safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilov, R.I.; Aliev, E.Sh.; Khudaverdieva, S.R.

    2010-11-01

    Full text : Last 10-15 years the human civilization, as a result of fast development of biotechnology, cases of new and known illnesses and increase of danger of bioterrorism, collides with new biological dangers. Now, all necessity of actions for biology for prevention of possible dangers admits. Nanobiotechnological researches and offers on application of the scientific results reached in this area prevail of all others. And thus, in many cases or it is at all left outside of attention possible harmful effects of application in an expert of nanoparticles, or it is limited to researches on subcellular level. Adequate results can be received only in case of carrying out of such researches on organism level. Greater prospects in this area have the model systems consisting the culture of unicellular green seaweed, on which now we have been studying the ionizing radiation influence effects. It speaks that on behalf of such cultures we have simultaneously cellular, organism and population levels of the structural organization. Some optimal laboratory methods of maintenance and propagating of this unicellular green seaweed have already been developed. The way offered was a studying at cellular-organism level of the structural organization of effects of action on vital systems of nanoparticles (especially what are offered for application in pharmaceutics) with use of culture of unicellular green seaweed Chlamydomonas reinhardti. Genes of many enzymes of this eucariotic seaweed are established, and also its perspective value in biological synthesis of hydrogen is shown. Studying of negative effects of action of nanoparticles in an example of the object, many molecular features of which are investigated, will allow to establish borders of safety of all biosystems.

  6. Emulsification: modelling, technologies and applications (preface)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheibat-Othman, Nida; Charton, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This special issue section offers an overview of the papers presented at the conference 'Emulsification: Modelling, Technologies and Applications' held in Lyon, France from 19 to 21 November 2012. The conference was part of the 'Vingt cinquiemes Entretiens du Centre Jacques Cartier', a series of meetings organised by the Centre Jacques Cartier and chaired by Dr. Alain Bideau. The symposium dealt with the topic of Emulsification, highlighting the common issues shared by different sectors of activity, including the chemical, petrochemical, nuclear, cosmetics, and food industries. Despite the recent significant advances, the research presented in this special issue section highlights the inadequacies of our knowledge of the complex, and often coupled, phenomena involved in the emulsification process. Indeed in order to understand how emulsions are created, it is necessary to determine how the droplet size and size distribution are related to the relevant fields of Physics, and in particular one can identify fluid dynamics and interfacial chemistry as the key disciplines. Furthermore, due to a lack of appropriate and accurate measurements of the important physical properties of emulsions, modelling and numerical simulation appear as essential tools for R and D in emulsion processes and control. This of course implies that physically realistic models are developed and implemented. The knowledge and control of the concentration and drop size distribution (DSD) in a given apparatus are indeed of primary importance for optimal process performances and minimal environmental impact. In order to address some of these needs, the current special issue section focuses on the main chemical engineering aspects of emulsification systems. It gathers papers that treat the generation of emulsions, their implementation and characterisation, as well as the current research studies regarding interfacial chemistry and dynamics, and the basic models of breakage/coalescence, without

  7. Validation of nuclear models used in space radiation shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2013-01-01

    A program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as these models are developed over time. In this work, simple validation metrics applicable to testing both model accuracy and consistency with experimental data are developed. The developed metrics treat experimental measurement uncertainty as an interval and are therefore applicable to cases in which epistemic uncertainty dominates the experimental data. To demonstrate the applicability of the metrics, nuclear physics models used by NASA for space radiation shielding applications are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by examining subsets of the model parameter space.

  8. Comparison between beta radiation dose distribution due to LDR and HDR ocular brachytherapy applicators using GATE Monte Carlo platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Laoues; Rachid, Khelifi; Ahmed, Sidi Moussa

    2016-08-01

    Eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources are generally used in brachytherapy for the treatment of eye diseases as uveal melanoma. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The aim of this work consisted in using the Monte Carlo GATE platform to calculate the 3D dose distribution on a mathematical model of the human eye according to international recommendations. Mathematical models were developed for four ophthalmic applicators, two HDR 90Sr applicators SIA.20 and SIA.6, and two LDR 106Ru applicators, a concave CCB model and a flat CCB model. In present work, considering a heterogeneous eye phantom and the chosen tumor, obtained results with the use of GATE for mean doses distributions in a phantom and according to international recommendations show a discrepancy with respect to those specified by the manufacturers. The QC of dosimetric parameters shows that contrarily to the other applicators, the SIA.20 applicator is consistent with recommendations. The GATE platform show that the SIA.20 applicator present better results, namely the dose delivered to critical structures were lower compared to those obtained for the other applicators, and the SIA.6 applicator, simulated with MCNPX generates higher lens doses than those generated by GATE. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface effects in solid mechanics models, simulations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews current understanding, and future trends, of surface effects in solid mechanics. Covers elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity, modeling based on continuum theories and molecular modeling and applications of different modeling approaches.

  10. Source-term development for a contaminant plume for use by multimedia risk assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, Gene; McDonald, John P.; Taira, Randal Y.; Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel K.; Yu, Charley; Lew, Christine S.; Mills, William B.

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia modelers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are collaborating to conduct a comprehensive and quantitative benchmarking analysis of four intermedia models: DOE's Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), EPA's MMSOILS, EPA's PRESTO, and DOE's RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD). These models represent typical analytically, semi-analytically, and empirically based tools that are utilized in human risk and endangerment assessments for use at installations containing radioactive and/or hazardous contaminants. Although the benchmarking exercise traditionally emphasizes the application and comparison of these models, the establishment of a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) should be viewed with equal importance. This paper reviews an approach for developing a CSM of an existing, real-world, Sr-90 plume at DOE's Hanford installation in Richland, Washington, for use in a multimedia-based benchmarking exercise bet ween MEPAS, MMSOILS, PRESTO, and RESRAD. In an unconventional move for analytically based modeling, the benchmarking exercise will begin with the plume as the source of contamination. The source and release mechanism are developed and described within the context of performing a preliminary risk assessment utilizing these analytical models. By beginning with the plume as the source term, this paper reviews a typical process and procedure an analyst would follow in developing a CSM for use in a preliminary assessment using this class of analytical tool

  11. Novel applications of the dispersive optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoff, W. H.; Charity, R. J.; Mahzoon, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    A review of recent developments of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Starting from the original work of Mahaux and Sartor, several necessary steps are developed and illustrated which increase the scope of the DOM allowing its interpretation as generating an experimentally constrained functional form of the nucleon self-energy. The method could therefore be renamed as the dispersive self-energy method. The aforementioned steps include the introduction of simultaneous fits of data for chains of isotopes or isotones allowing a data-driven extrapolation for the prediction of scattering cross sections and level properties in the direction of the respective drip lines. In addition, the energy domain for data was enlarged to include results up to 200 MeV where available. An important application of this work was implemented by employing these DOM potentials to the analysis of the (d, p) transfer reaction using the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. We review these calculations which suggest that physically meaningful results are easier to obtain by employing DOM ingredients as compared to the traditional approach which relies on a phenomenologically-adjusted bound-state wave function combined with a global (nondispersive) optical-model potential. Application to the exotic 132Sn nucleus also shows great promise for the extrapolation of DOM potentials towards the drip line with attendant relevance for the physics of FRIB. We note that the DOM method combines structure and reaction information on the same footing providing a unique approach to the analysis of exotic nuclei. We illustrate the importance of abandoning the custom of representing the non-local Hartree-Fock (HF) potential in the DOM by an energy-dependent local potential as it impedes the proper normalization of the solution of the Dyson equation. This important step allows for the interpretation of the DOM potential as representing the nucleon self-energy permitting the calculations of

  12. Building adaptable and reusable XML applications with model transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach in which the semantics of an XML language is defined by means of a transformation from an XML document model (an XML schema) to an application specific model. The application specific model implements the intended behavior of documents written in the language. A transformation

  13. Business model framework applications in health care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Jens Jacob; Mazzocato, Pamela; Muhammed, Rafiq; Savage, Carl

    2017-11-01

    It has proven to be a challenge for health care organizations to achieve the Triple Aim. In the business literature, business model frameworks have been used to understand how organizations are aligned to achieve their goals. We conducted a systematic literature review with an explanatory synthesis approach to understand how business model frameworks have been applied in health care. We found a large increase in applications of business model frameworks during the last decade. E-health was the most common context of application. We identified six applications of business model frameworks: business model description, financial assessment, classification based on pre-defined typologies, business model analysis, development, and evaluation. Our synthesis suggests that the choice of business model framework and constituent elements should be informed by the intent and context of application. We see a need for harmonization in the choice of elements in order to increase generalizability, simplify application, and help organizations realize the Triple Aim.

  14. Computational nanotechnology modeling and applications with MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musa, Sarhan M

    2012-01-01

    .... Offering thought-provoking perspective on the developments that are poised to revolutionize the field, the author explores both existing and future nanotechnology applications, which hold great...

  15. Template for Conceptual Model Construction: Model Review and Corps Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Jim E; O'Neil, L. J

    2007-01-01

    .... The template will expedite conceptual model construction by providing users with model parameters and potential model components, building on a study team's knowledge and experience, and promoting...

  16. Application of multidimensional IRT models to longitudinal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Marvelde, J.M.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Van Landeghem, Georges; Van Damme, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The application of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to longitudinal educational surveys where students are repeatedly measured is discussed and exemplified. A marginal maximum likelihood (MML) method to estimate the parameters of a multidimensional generalized partial credit model

  17. A biological compression model and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Dix, Trevor I; Allison, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    A biological compression model, expert model, is presented which is superior to existing compression algorithms in both compression performance and speed. The model is able to compress whole eukaryotic genomes. Most importantly, the model provides a framework for knowledge discovery from biological data. It can be used for repeat element discovery, sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. We demonstrate that the model can handle statistically biased sequences and distantly related sequences where conventional knowledge discovery tools often fail.

  18. Simple Spreadsheet Thermal Models for Cryogenic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Alfred

    1995-01-01

    Self consistent circuit analog thermal models that can be run in commercial spreadsheet programs on personal computers have been created to calculate the cooldown and steady state performance of cryogen cooled Dewars. The models include temperature dependent conduction and radiation effects. The outputs of the models provide temperature distribution and Dewar performance information. these models have been used to analyze the SIRTF Telescope Test Facility (STTF). The facility has been brought on line for its first user, the Infrared Telescope Technology Testbed (ITTT), for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) at JPL. The model algorithm as well as a comparison between the models' predictions and actual performance of this facility will be presented.

  19. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  20. Adaptive streaming applications : analysis and implementation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhai, Jiali Teddy

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a highly automated design framework, called DaedalusRT, and several novel techniques. As the foundation of the DaedalusRT design framework, two types of dataflow Models-of-Computation (MoC) are used, one as timing analysis model and another one as the implementation model. The

  1. Pinna Model for Hearing Instrument Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A novel model of the pinna (outer ear) is presented. This is to increase the understanding of the effect of the pinna on the on-body radiation pattern of an antenna placed inside the ear. Simulations of the model and of a realistically shaped ear are compared to validate the model. The radiation...

  2. Identifiability of PBPK Models with Applications to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Any statistical model should be identifiable in order for estimates and tests using it to be meaningful. We consider statistical analysis of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in which parameters cannot be estimated precisely from available data, and discuss different types of identifiability that occur in PBPK models and give reasons why they occur. We particularly focus on how the mathematical structure of a PBPK model and lack of appropriate data can lead to statistical models in which it is impossible to estimate at least some parameters precisely. Methods are reviewed which can determine whether a purely linear PBPK model is globally identifiable. We propose a theorem which determines when identifiability at a set of finite and specific values of the mathematical PBPK model (global discrete identifiability) implies identifiability of the statistical model. However, we are unable to establish conditions that imply global discrete identifiability, and conclude that the only safe approach to analysis of PBPK models involves Bayesian analysis with truncated priors. Finally, computational issues regarding posterior simulations of PBPK models are discussed. The methodology is very general and can be applied to numerous PBPK models which can be expressed as linear time-invariant systems. A real data set of a PBPK model for exposure to dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA(V)) is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology. We consider statistical analy

  3. Mixture Modeling: Applications in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hodis, Flaviu A.

    2016-01-01

    Model-based clustering methods, commonly referred to as finite mixture modeling, have been applied to a wide variety of cross-sectional and longitudinal data to account for heterogeneity in population characteristics. In this article, we elucidate 2 such approaches: growth mixture modeling and latent profile analysis. Both techniques are…

  4. Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2011-01-01

    Modeled after Barbara Byrne's other best-selling structural equation modeling (SEM) books, this practical guide reviews the basic concepts and applications of SEM using Mplus Versions 5 & 6. The author reviews SEM applications based on actual data taken from her own research. Using non-mathematical language, it is written for the novice SEM user. With each application chapter, the author "walks" the reader through all steps involved in testing the SEM model including: an explanation of the issues addressed illustrated and annotated testing of the hypothesized and post hoc models expl

  5. Application of autoregressive moving average model in reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri

    1993-01-01

    The application of an autoregressive (AR) model to estimating noise measurements has achieved many successes in reactor noise analysis in the last ten years. The physical processes that take place in the nuclear reactor, however, are described by an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model rather than by an AR model. Consequently more correct results could be obtained by applying the ARMA model instead of the AR model to reactor noise analysis. In this paper the system of the generalised Yule-Walker equations is derived from the equation of an ARMA model, then a method for its solution is given. Numerical results show the applications of the method proposed. (author)

  6. Nonlinear dynamics new directions models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ugalde, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    This book, along with its companion volume, Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Theoretical Aspects, covers topics ranging from fractal analysis to very specific applications of the theory of dynamical systems to biology. This second volume contains mostly new applications of the theory of dynamical systems to both engineering and biology. The first volume is devoted to fundamental aspects and includes a number of important new contributions as well as some review articles that emphasize new development prospects. The topics addressed in the two volumes include a rigorous treatment of fluctuations in dynamical systems, topics in fractal analysis, studies of the transient dynamics in biological networks, synchronization in lasers, and control of chaotic systems, among others. This book also: ·         Develops applications of nonlinear dynamics on a diversity of topics such as patterns of synchrony in neuronal networks, laser synchronization, control of chaotic systems, and the study of transient dynam...

  7. Application of Actuarial Modelling in Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Burcã Ana-Maria; Bãtrînca Ghiorghe

    2011-01-01

    In insurance industry, the financial stability of insurance companies represents an issue of vital importance. In order to maintain the financial stability and meet minimum regulatory requirements, actuaries apply actuarial modeling. Modeling has been at the center of actuarial science and of all the sciences from the beginning of their journey. In insurance industry, actuarial modeling creates a framework that allows actuaries to identify, understand, quantify and manage a wide range of risk...

  8. Applications: simple models and difficult theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van de Geer, Sara; Wegkamp, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In this short article I will discuss three papers written by Willem van Zwet with three different co-authors: Mathisca de Gunst, Marta Fiocco, and myself. Each of the papers focuses on one particular application: growth of the number of biological cells [3], spreading of an infection [7], and the

  9. New advances in statistical modeling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Rui; Oliveira, Maria; Paulino, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents selected papers from the XIXth Congress of the Portuguese Statistical Society, held in the town of Nazaré, Portugal, from September 28 to October 1, 2011. All contributions were selected after a thorough peer-review process. It covers a broad range of papers in the areas of statistical science, probability and stochastic processes, extremes and statistical applications.

  10. Application of lumped-parameter models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the lumped-parameter models for a suction caisson with a ratio between skirt length and foundation diameter equal to 1/2, embedded into an viscoelastic soil. The models are presented for three different values of the shear modulus of the subsoil (section 1.1). Subse...

  11. Model Driven Architecture: Foundations and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend

    The OMG's Model Driven Architecture (MDA) initiative has been the focus of much attention in both academia and industry, due to its promise of more rapid and consistent software development through the increased use of models. In order for MDA to reach its full potential, the ability to manipulate

  12. Super-Hubbard models and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, James M.; Feverati, Giovanni; Frappat, Luc; Ragoucy, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We construct XX- and Hubbard-like models based on unitary superalgebras gl(N/M) generalising Shastry's and Maassarani's approach of the algebraic case. We introduce the R-matrix of the gl(N/M) XX model and that of the Hubbard model defined by coupling two independent XX models. In both cases, we show that the R-matrices satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation, we derive the corresponding local Hamiltonian in the transfer matrix formalism and we determine the symmetry of the Hamiltonian. Explicit examples are worked out. In the cases of the gl(1/2) and gl(2/2) Hubbard models, a perturbative calculation at two loops a la Klein and Seitz is performed

  13. Mobile Application Identification based on Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xinyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of mobile applications, there has more challenging network management tasks to resolve. Users also face security issues of the mobile Internet application when enjoying the mobile network resources. Identifying applications that correspond to network traffic can help network operators effectively perform network management. The existing mobile application recognition technology presents new challenges in extensibility and applications with encryption protocols. For the existing mobile application recognition technology, there are two problems, they can not recognize the application which using the encryption protocol and their scalability is poor. In this paper, a mobile application identification method based on Hidden Markov Model(HMM is proposed to extract the defined statistical characteristics from different network flows generated when each application starting. According to the time information of different network flows to get the corresponding time series, and then for each application to be identified separately to establish the corresponding HMM model. Then, we use 10 common applications to test the method proposed in this paper. The test results show that the mobile application recognition method proposed in this paper has a high accuracy and good generalization ability.

  14. Development and application of air quality models at the US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of the development and application of air quality models at the U.S. EPA, particularly focused on the development and application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model developed within the Computation Exposure Division (CED) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). This presentation will provide a simple overview of air quality model development and application geared toward a non-technical student audience. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  15. Modelling for Bio-,Agro- and Pharma-Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Singh, Ravendra; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This chapter considers a range of modelling applications drawn from biological, agrochemical and pharma fields. Microcapsule controlled release of an active ingredient is considered through a time dependent model. Burst-time and lag-time effects are considered and the model adopts a multiscale...... of a milling process within pharmaceutical production as well as a dynamic model representing a fluidised granulation bed for pharma products. The final model considers the tablet pressing process....

  16. Multilevel Models: Conceptual Framework and Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Otilia-Sonia Hrițcu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and the social or organizational groups they belong to can be viewed as a hierarchical system situated on different levels. Individuals are situated on the first level of the hierarchy and they are nested together on the higher levels. Individuals interact with the social groups they belong to and are influenced by these groups. Traditional methods that study the relationships between data, like simple regression, do not take into account the hierarchical structure of the data and the effects of a group membership and, hence, results may be invalidated. Unlike standard regression modelling, the multilevel approach takes into account the individuals as well as the groups to which they belong. To take advantage of the multilevel analysis it is important that we recognize the multilevel characteristics of the data. In this article we introduce the outlines of multilevel data and we describe the models that work with such data. We introduce the basic multilevel model, the two-level model: students can be nested into classes, individuals into countries and the general two-level model can be extended very easily to several levels. Multilevel analysis has begun to be extensively used in many research areas. We present the most frequent study areas where multilevel models are used, such as sociological studies, education, psychological research, health studies, demography, epidemiology, biology, environmental studies and entrepreneurship. We support the idea that since hierarchies exist everywhere, multilevel data should be recognized and analyzed properly by using multilevel modelling.

  17. Fuzzy modeling and control theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Matía, Fernando; Jiménez, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Much work on fuzzy control, covering research, development and applications, has been developed in Europe since the 90's. Nevertheless, the existing books in the field are compilations of articles without interconnection or logical structure or they express the personal point of view of the author. This book compiles the developments of researchers with demonstrated experience in the field of fuzzy control following a logic structure and a unified the style. The first chapters of the book are dedicated to the introduction of the main fuzzy logic techniques, where the following chapters focus on concrete applications. This book is supported by the EUSFLAT and CEA-IFAC societies, which include a large number of researchers in the field of fuzzy logic and control. The central topic of the book, Fuzzy Control, is one of the main research and development lines covered by these associations.

  18. Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jiming

    2007-01-01

    This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested

  19. Some Issues of Biological Shape Modelling with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Skoglund, Karl

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates current research at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations to, modifications to, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appearance...

  20. Application of capital replacement models with finite planning horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarf, P.A.; Christer, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Capital replacement models with finite planning horizons can be used to model replacement policies in complex operational contexts. They may also be used to investigate the cost consequences of technological change. This paper reviews the application of these models in various such contexts. We also

  1. Simple mathematical models of symmetry breaking. Application to particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, L.

    1976-01-01

    Some mathematical facts relevant to symmetry breaking are presented. A first mathematical model deals with the smooth action of compact Lie groups on real manifolds, a second model considers linear action of any group on real or complex finite dimensional vector spaces. Application of the mathematical models to particle physics is considered. (B.R.H.)

  2. Modeling Students' Memory for Application in Adaptive Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelánek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Human memory has been thoroughly studied and modeled in psychology, but mainly in laboratory setting under simplified conditions. For application in practical adaptive educational systems we need simple and robust models which can cope with aspects like varied prior knowledge or multiple-choice questions. We discuss and evaluate several models of…

  3. Application of various FLD modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banabic, D.; Aretz, H.; Paraianu, L.; Jurco, P.

    2005-07-01

    This paper focuses on a comparison between different modelling approaches to predict the forming limit diagram (FLD) for sheet metal forming under a linear strain path using the recently introduced orthotropic yield criterion BBC2003 (Banabic D et al 2005 Int. J. Plasticity 21 493-512). The FLD models considered here are a finite element based approach, the well known Marciniak-Kuczynski model, the modified maximum force criterion according to Hora et al (1996 Proc. Numisheet'96 Conf. (Dearborn/Michigan) pp 252-6), Swift's diffuse (Swift H W 1952 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1 1-18) and Hill's classical localized necking approach (Hill R 1952 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1 19-30). The FLD of an AA5182-O aluminium sheet alloy has been determined experimentally in order to quantify the predictive capabilities of the models mentioned above.

  4. Software reliability models for critical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, H.; Pham, M.

    1991-12-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the ongoing EG&G Idaho, Inc. Software Reliability Research Program. The program is studying the existing software reliability models and proposes a state-of-the-art software reliability model that is relevant to the nuclear reactor control environment. This report consists of three parts: (1) summaries of the literature review of existing software reliability and fault tolerant software reliability models and their related issues, (2) proposed technique for software reliability enhancement, and (3) general discussion and future research. The development of this proposed state-of-the-art software reliability model will be performed in the second place. 407 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Software reliability models for critical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, H.; Pham, M.

    1991-12-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the ongoing EG G Idaho, Inc. Software Reliability Research Program. The program is studying the existing software reliability models and proposes a state-of-the-art software reliability model that is relevant to the nuclear reactor control environment. This report consists of three parts: (1) summaries of the literature review of existing software reliability and fault tolerant software reliability models and their related issues, (2) proposed technique for software reliability enhancement, and (3) general discussion and future research. The development of this proposed state-of-the-art software reliability model will be performed in the second place. 407 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Mathematical modeling and applications in nonlinear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Merdan, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The book covers nonlinear physical problems and mathematical modeling, including molecular biology, genetics, neurosciences, artificial intelligence with classical problems in mechanics and astronomy and physics. The chapters present nonlinear mathematical modeling in life science and physics through nonlinear differential equations, nonlinear discrete equations and hybrid equations. Such modeling can be effectively applied to the wide spectrum of nonlinear physical problems, including the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM)) theory, singular differential equations, impulsive dichotomous linear systems, analytical bifurcation trees of periodic motions, and almost or pseudo- almost periodic solutions in nonlinear dynamical systems. Provides methods for mathematical models with switching, thresholds, and impulses, each of particular importance for discontinuous processes Includes qualitative analysis of behaviors on Tumor-Immune Systems and methods of analysis for DNA, neural networks and epidemiology Introduces...

  7. System identification application using Hammerstein model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saban Ozer

    results of the Hammerstein model focused on this study. *For correspondence. 597 ..... Example 1: In this sample study, considering the block structure given in ..... Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Turkey. [20] Cui M, Liu H, Li Z ...

  8. Models in Science Education: Applications of Models in Learning and Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss different types of models in science education and applications of them in learning and teaching science, in particular physics. Based on the literature, I categorize models as conceptual and mental models according to their characteristics. In addition to these models, there is another model called "physics model" by the…

  9. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom...... is missing, the atom connectivity based model is employed to predict the missing group interaction. In this way, a wide application range of the property modeling tool is ensured. Based on the property models, targeted computer-aided techniques have been developed for design and analysis of organic chemicals......, polymers, mixtures as well as separation processes. The presentation will highlight the framework (ICAS software) for property modeling, the property models and issues such as prediction accuracy, flexibility, maintenance and updating of the database. Also, application issues related to the use of property...

  10. The Channel Network model and field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Channel Network model describes the fluid flow and solute transport in fractured media. The model is based on field observations, which indicate that flow and transport take place in a three-dimensional network of connected channels. The channels are generated in the model from observed stochastic distributions and solute transport is modeled taking into account advection and rock interactions, such as matrix diffusion and sorption within the rock. The most important site-specific data for the Channel Network model are the conductance distribution of the channels and the flow-wetted surface. The latter is the surface area of the rock in contact with the flowing water. These parameters may be estimated from hydraulic measurements. For the Aespoe site, several borehole data sets are available, where a packer distance of 3 meters was used. Numerical experiments were performed in order to study the uncertainties in the determination of the flow-wetted surface and conductance distribution. Synthetic data were generated along a borehole and hydraulic tests with different packer distances were simulated. The model has previously been used to study the Long-term Pumping and Tracer Test (LPT2) carried out in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden, where the distance travelled by the tracers was of the order hundreds of meters. Recently, the model has been used to simulate the tracer tests performed in the TRUE experiment at HRL, with travel distance of the order of tens of meters. Several tracer tests with non-sorbing and sorbing species have been performed

  11. Integrated identification, modeling and control with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guojun

    This thesis deals with the integration of system design, identification, modeling and control. In particular, six interdisciplinary engineering problems are addressed and investigated. Theoretical results are established and applied to structural vibration reduction and engine control problems. First, the data-based LQG control problem is formulated and solved. It is shown that a state space model is not necessary to solve this problem; rather a finite sequence from the impulse response is the only model data required to synthesize an optimal controller. The new theory avoids unnecessary reliance on a model, required in the conventional design procedure. The infinite horizon model predictive control problem is addressed for multivariable systems. The basic properties of the receding horizon implementation strategy is investigated and the complete framework for solving the problem is established. The new theory allows the accommodation of hard input constraints and time delays. The developed control algorithms guarantee the closed loop stability. A closed loop identification and infinite horizon model predictive control design procedure is established for engine speed regulation. The developed algorithms are tested on the Cummins Engine Simulator and desired results are obtained. A finite signal-to-noise ratio model is considered for noise signals. An information quality index is introduced which measures the essential information precision required for stabilization. The problems of minimum variance control and covariance control are formulated and investigated. Convergent algorithms are developed for solving the problems of interest. The problem of the integrated passive and active control design is addressed in order to improve the overall system performance. A design algorithm is developed, which simultaneously finds: (i) the optimal values of the stiffness and damping ratios for the structure, and (ii) an optimal output variance constrained stabilizing

  12. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  13. HTGR Application Economic Model Users' Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Application Economic Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Application Economic Model calculates either the required selling price of power and/or heat for a given internal rate of return (IRR) or the IRR for power and/or heat being sold at the market price. The user can generate these economic results for a range of reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for up to 16 reactor modules; and for module ratings of 200, 350, or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Application Economic Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Application Economic Model. This model was designed for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel and engineering economics. Modification of the HTGR Application Economic Model should only be performed by users familiar with the HTGR and its applications, Excel, and Visual Basic.

  14. Linear accelerator modeling: development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Jule, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the parameters of a modern linear accelerator can be selected by simulating the desired machine characteristics in a computer code and observing how the parameters affect the beam dynamics. The code PARMILA is used at LAMPF for the low-energy portion of linacs. Collections of particles can be traced with a free choice of input distributions in six-dimensional phase space. Random errors are often included in order to study the tolerances which should be imposed during manufacture or in operation. An outline is given of the modifications made to the model, the results of experiments which indicate the validity of the model, and the use of the model to optimize the longitudinal tuning of the Alvarez linac

  15. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes

  16. Simulation models generator. Applications in scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Danilo Castrillón

    2013-08-01

    Rev.Mate.Teor.Aplic. (ISSN 1409-2433 Vol. 20(2: 231–241, July 2013 generador de modelos de simulacion 233 will, in order to have an approach to reality to evaluate decisions in order to take more assertive. To test prototype was used as the modeling example of a production system with 9 machines and 5 works as a job shop configuration, testing stops processing times and stochastic machine to measure rates of use of machines and time average jobs in the system, as measures of system performance. This test shows the goodness of the prototype, to save the user the simulation model building

  17. Optical Coherence Tomography: Modeling and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars

    this system. A demonstration of the imaging capabilities of the OCT system is given. Moreover, a novel truereflection OCT imaging algorithm, based on the new OCT model presented in this thesis, is demonstrated. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the Wigner phase-space distribution function for the OCT...... geometry, i.e., reflection geometry, is developed. As in the new OCT model, multiple scattered photons has been taken into account together with multiple scattering effects. As an important result, a novel method of creating images based on measurements of the momentum width of the Wigner phase...

  18. Co-clustering models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Govaert, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Cluster or co-cluster analyses are important tools in a variety of scientific areas. The introduction of this book presents a state of the art of already well-established, as well as more recent methods of co-clustering. The authors mainly deal with the two-mode partitioning under different approaches, but pay particular attention to a probabilistic approach. Chapter 1 concerns clustering in general and the model-based clustering in particular. The authors briefly review the classical clustering methods and focus on the mixture model. They present and discuss the use of different mixture

  19. Tire Models for Use in Braking Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Svendenius, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The tire is a significant part for control of a vehicle. For a well-working brake system the contact properties between the tire and the ground is the limiting factor for a safe braking. To get optimal performance it is important that the system can utilize all friction resources. The brush tire model was a popular method in the 1960's and 1970's before the empirical approaches became dominating. The brush model gives an educational interpretation of the physics behind the tire behavi...

  20. A cutting force model for micromilling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius.......In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius....

  1. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk

  2. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing-season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing-season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk

  3. Modeling Answer Change Behavior: An Application of a Generalized Item Response Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul; van der Linden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel application of a generalized item response tree model to investigate test takers' answer change behavior. The model allows us to simultaneously model the observed patterns of the initial and final responses after an answer change as a function of a set of latent traits and item parameters. The proposed application is illustrated…

  4. Bacteriophages: update on application as models for viruses in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriophages: update on application as models for viruses in water. ... the resistance of human viruses to water treatment and disinfection processes. ... highly sensitive molecular techniques viruses have been detected in drinking water ...

  5. Application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in electronic ticket purchase for ... current study examined the perceived usefulness and ease of use of online technology ... The findings are discussed in the light of these perspectives.

  6. An application of artificial intelligence for rainfall–runoff modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study proposes an application of two techniques of artificial intelligence (AI) ... (2006) applied rainfall–runoff modeling using ANN ... in artificial intelligence, engineering and science .... usually be estimated from a sample of observations.

  7. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-23

    May 23, 2012 ... In this paper, the physical meaning of parameters in the CRD and previous ... ity; the utility of the RIB model for application in different climatic areas under ...... TMG Aquifer feasibility study and pilot project ecological and.

  8. An ontology model for execution records of Grid scientific applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliś, B.; Bubak, M.

    2008-01-01

    Records of past application executions are particularly important in the case of loosely-coupled, workflow driven scientific applications which are used to conduct in silico experiments, often on top of Grid infrastructures. In this paper, we propose an ontology-based model for storing and querying

  9. Turbulence models development and engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetzbach, G.; Ammann, T.; Dorr, B.; Hiltner, I.; Hofmann, S.; Kampczyk, M.; Kimhi, Y.; Seiter, C.; Woerner, M.; Alef, M.; Hennemuth, A.

    1995-01-01

    The FLUTAN code is used for analyzing the decay heat removal in new reactor concepts. The turbulence models applied in FLUTAN are improved by the development of the TURBIT code. TURBIT serves for a numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow. (orig.)

  10. Part 7: Application of the IAWQ model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    Model predictions and observed data in respect of polyphosphate (polyP) and suspended solids are also compared and ... that investigation with the aim of evaluating the predictive power .... comparing it to the behaviour of the test unit with metal salt ... Based on the measured RBCOD during these periods and subtracting.

  11. A universal throw model and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Verolme, E.K.; Weerheijm, J.

    2008-01-01

    A deterministic model has been developed that describes the throw of debris or fragments from a source with an arbitrary geometry and for arbitrary initial conditions. The initial conditions are defined by the distributions of mass, launch velocity and launch direction. The item density in an

  12. Integrated Safety Culture Model and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪磊; 孙瑞山; 刘汉辉

    2009-01-01

    A new safety culture model is constructed and is applied to analyze the correlations between safety culture and SMS. On the basis of previous typical definitions, models and theories of safety culture, an in-depth analysis on safety culture's structure, composing elements and their correlations was conducted. A new definition of safety culture was proposed from the perspective of sub-cuhure. 7 types of safety sub-culture, which are safety priority culture, standardizing culture, flexible culture, learning culture, teamwork culture, reporting culture and justice culture were defined later. Then integrated safety culture model (ISCM) was put forward based on the definition. The model divided safety culture into intrinsic latency level and extrinsic indication level and explained the potential relationship between safety sub-culture and all safety culture dimensions. Finally in the analyzing of safety culture and SMS, it concluded that positive safety culture is the basis of im-plementing SMS effectively and an advanced SMS will improve safety culture from all around.

  13. A marketing model: applications for dietetic professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, S C; Moody, D L

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally, dietitians have communicated the availability of their services to the "public at large." The expectation was that the public would respond favorably to nutrition programs simply because there was a consumer need for them. Recently, however, both societal and consumer needs have changed dramatically, making old communication strategies ineffective and obsolete. The marketing discipline has provided a new model and new decision-making tools for many health professionals to use to more effectively make their services known to multiple consumer groups. This article provides one such model as applied to the dietetic profession. The model explores a definition of the business of dietetics, how to conduct an analysis of the environment, and, finally, the use of both in the choice of new target markets. Further, the model discusses the major components of developing a marketing strategy that will help the practitioner to be competitive in the marketplace. Presented are strategies for defining and re-evaluating the mission of the profession, for using future trends to identify new markets and roles for the profession, and for developing services that make the profession more competitive by better meeting the needs of the consumer.

  14. Applied probability models with optimization applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    1992-01-01

    Concise advanced-level introduction to stochastic processes that frequently arise in applied probability. Largely self-contained text covers Poisson process, renewal theory, Markov chains, inventory theory, Brownian motion and continuous time optimization models, much more. Problems and references at chapter ends. ""Excellent introduction."" - Journal of the American Statistical Association. Bibliography. 1970 edition.

  15. Modelling and Generating Ajax Applications : A Model-Driven Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharavi, V.; Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: IWWOST 2008 - 7th International Workshop on Web-Oriented Software Technologies, 14-15 July 2008 AJAX is a promising and rapidly evolving approach for building highly interactive web applications. In AJAX, user interface components and the event-based interaction

  16. Handbook of mixed membership models and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Airoldi, Edoardo M; Erosheva, Elena A; Fienberg, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    In response to scientific needs for more diverse and structured explanations of statistical data, researchers have discovered how to model individual data points as belonging to multiple groups. Handbook of Mixed Membership Models and Their Applications shows you how to use these flexible modeling tools to uncover hidden patterns in modern high-dimensional multivariate data. It explores the use of the models in various application settings, including survey data, population genetics, text analysis, image processing and annotation, and molecular biology.Through examples using real data sets, yo

  17. Adaptive Networks Theory, Models and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Thilo

    2009-01-01

    With adaptive, complex networks, the evolution of the network topology and the dynamical processes on the network are equally important and often fundamentally entangled. Recent research has shown that such networks can exhibit a plethora of new phenomena which are ultimately required to describe many real-world networks. Some of those phenomena include robust self-organization towards dynamical criticality, formation of complex global topologies based on simple, local rules, and the spontaneous division of "labor" in which an initially homogenous population of network nodes self-organizes into functionally distinct classes. These are just a few. This book is a state-of-the-art survey of those unique networks. In it, leading researchers set out to define the future scope and direction of some of the most advanced developments in the vast field of complex network science and its applications.

  18. Phenomenological BRDF modeling for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafolla, James C.; Stokes, Jeffrey A.; Sullivan, Robert J.

    1997-09-01

    The application of analytical light scattering techniques for virtual prototyping the optical performance of paint coatings provides an effective tool for optimizing paint design for specific optical requirements. This paper describes the phenomenological basis for the scattering coatings computer aided design (ScatCad) code. The ScatCad code predicts the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the hemispherical directional reflectance (HDR) of pigmented paint coatings for the purpose of coating design optimization. The code uses techniques for computing the pigment single scattering phase function, multiple scattering radiative transfer, and rough surface scattering to calculate the BRDF and HDR based on the fundamental optical properties of the pigment(s) and binder, pigment number density and size distribution, and surface roughness of the binder-interface and substrate. This is a significant enhancement to the two- flux, Kubelka-Munk analysis that has traditionally been used in the coatings industry. Example calculations and comparison with measurements are also presented.

  19. Application of Prognostic Mesoscale Modeling in the Southeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    A prognostic model is being used to provide regional forecasts for a variety of applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Emergency response dispersion models available at SRS use the space and time-dependent meteorological data provided by this model to supplement local and regional observations. Output from the model is also used locally to aid in forecasting at SRS, and regionally in providing forecasts of the potential time and location of hurricane landfall within the southeast United States

  20. Desublimation process: verification and applications of a theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model simulating the simultaneous heat and mass transfer which takes place during the desublimation of a gas to a solid is presented. Desublimer column loading profiles to experimentally verify the model were obtained using a gamma scintillation technique. The data indicate that, if the physical parameters of the desublimed frost material are known, the model can accurately predict the desublimation phenomenon. The usefulness of the model in different engineering applications is also addressed

  1. Business model driven service architecture design for enterprise application integration

    OpenAIRE

    Gacitua-Decar, Veronica; Pahl, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, organisations are using a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) as an approach to Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), which is required for the automation of business processes. This paper presents an architecture development process which guides the transition from business models to a service-based software architecture. The process is supported by business reference models and patterns. Firstly, the business process models are enhanced with domain model elements, applicat...

  2. Computational hemodynamics theory, modelling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Jiyuan; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses geometric and mathematical models that can be used to study fluid and structural mechanics in the cardiovascular system.  Where traditional research methodologies in the human cardiovascular system are challenging due to its invasive nature, several recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid and solid mechanics modelling now provide new and exciting research opportunities. This emerging field of study is multi-disciplinary, involving numerical methods, computational science, fluid and structural mechanics, and biomedical engineering. Certainly any new student or researcher in this field may feel overwhelmed by the wide range of disciplines that need to be understood. This unique book is one of the first to bring together knowledge from multiple disciplines, providing a starting point to each of the individual disciplines involved, attempting to ease the steep learning curve. This book presents elementary knowledge on the physiology of the cardiovascular system; basic knowl...

  3. Fuzzy Stochastic Optimization Theory, Models and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shuming

    2012-01-01

    Covering in detail both theoretical and practical perspectives, this book is a self-contained and systematic depiction of current fuzzy stochastic optimization that deploys the fuzzy random variable as a core mathematical tool to model the integrated fuzzy random uncertainty. It proceeds in an orderly fashion from the requisite theoretical aspects of the fuzzy random variable to fuzzy stochastic optimization models and their real-life case studies.   The volume reflects the fact that randomness and fuzziness (or vagueness) are two major sources of uncertainty in the real world, with significant implications in a number of settings. In industrial engineering, management and economics, the chances are high that decision makers will be confronted with information that is simultaneously probabilistically uncertain and fuzzily imprecise, and optimization in the form of a decision must be made in an environment that is doubly uncertain, characterized by a co-occurrence of randomness and fuzziness. This book begins...

  4. Atmospheric dispersion models for environmental pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutants are introduced into the air by many of man's activities. The potentially harmful effects these can cause are, broadly speaking, of two kinds: long-term, possibly large-scale and wide-spread chronic effects, including long-term effects on the earth's climate; and acute, short-term effects such as those associated with urban air pollution. This section is concerned with mathematical cloud or plume models describing the role of the atmosphere, primarily in relation to the second of these, the acute effects of air pollution, i.e., those arising from comparatively high concentration levels. The need for such air pollution modeling studies has increased spectacularly as a result of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1968 and, especially, two key court decisions; the Calvert Cliffs decision, and the Sierra Club ruling on environmental non-degradation

  5. Application of Digital Terrain Model to volcanology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Achilli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional reconstruction of the ground surface (Digital Terrain Model, DTM, derived by airborne GPS photogrammetric surveys, is a powerful tool for implementing morphological analysis in remote areas. High accurate 3D models, with submeter elevation accuracy, can be obtained by images acquired at photo scales between 1:5000-1:20000. Multitemporal DTMs acquired periodically over volcanic area allow the monitoring of areas interested by crustal deformations and the evaluation of mass balance when large instability phenomena or lava flows have occurred. The work described the results obtained from the analysis of photogrammetric data collected over the Vulcano Island from 1971 to 2001. The data, processed by means of the Digital Photogrammetry Workstation DPW 770, provided DTM with accuracy ranging between few centimeters to few decimeters depending on the geometric image resolution, terrain configuration and quality of photographs.

  6. Application of pyrolysis models in COCOSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein-Hessling, W.; Roewekamp, M.; Allelein, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    For the assessment of the efficiency of severe accident management measures the simulation of severe accident development, progression and potential consequences in containments of nuclear power plants is required under conditions as realistic as possible. Therefore, the containment code item (COCOSYS) has been developed by GRS. The main objective is to provide a code system on the basis of mechanistic models for the comprehensive simulation of all relevant processes and plant states during severe accidents in the containment of light water reactors also covering the design basis accidents. In this context the simulation of oil and cable fires is of high priority. These processes strongly depend on the thermal hydraulic boundary conditions. An input-definition of the pyrolysis rate by the user is not consistent with the philosophy of COCOSYS. Therefore, a first attempt has been made for the code internal simulation of the pyrolysis rate and the following combustion process for oil and cable fires. The oil fire model used has been tested against the HDR E41.7 experiment. Because the cable fire model is still under development, a so-called 'simplified cable burning' model has been implemented in COCOSYS and tested against the HDR E42 cable fire experiments. Furthermore, in the frame of the bilateral (between German and Ukrainian government) project INT9131 in the field of fire safety at nuclear power plants (NPP), an exemplary fire hazard analysis (FHA) has been carried out for the cable spreading rooms below the unit control room of a VVER-1000/W-320 type reference plant. (authors)

  7. Applicability Of Resources Optimization Model For Mitigating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    previous work. The entire model can be summarized as algorithm below. F u ll L en g th. Research. Article. 1 .... performance metric used is the total sum of utilities of all the peers in the system at .... Hua, J. S., Huang, D. C. Yen, S. M. and Chena, C. W. (2012) “A dynamic ... Workshop on Quality of Service: 174-192. Yahaya ...

  8. Applications of Molecular and Materials Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Chimica Industriale Molecular modeling of solvation Prof. Jacopo Tomasi http://www.dcci.unipi.it/attivita /attivita.html; http://www.dcci.unipi.it...solutions/ cases/notes/scale.html BNFL Sorption of gases in zeolites Dr. Scott L. Owens http://www.bnfl.co.uk/ BAE (British Aerospace Engineering) Rare...permeation of gases ; adhesion and interfacial interactions of siloxane networks; chemical reactivity and catalysis; environmental and cosmetics

  9. Robot modelling; Control and applications with software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranky, P G; Ho, C Y

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a ''picture'' of robotics covering both the theoretical aspect of modeling as well as the practical and design aspects of: robot programming; robot tooling and automated hand changing; implementation planning; testing; and software design for robot systems. The authors present an introduction to robotics with a systems approach. They describe not only the tasks relating to a single robot (or arm) but also systems of robots working together on a product or several products.

  10. Development and application of earth system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  11. Voronoi cell patterns: Theoretical model and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-11-01

    We use a simple fragmentation model to describe the statistical behavior of the Voronoi cell patterns generated by a homogeneous and isotropic set of points in 1D and in 2D. In particular, we are interested in the distribution of sizes of these Voronoi cells. Our model is completely defined by two probability distributions in 1D and again in 2D, the probability to add a new point inside an existing cell and the probability that this new point is at a particular position relative to the preexisting point inside this cell. In 1D the first distribution depends on a single parameter while the second distribution is defined through a fragmentation kernel; in 2D both distributions depend on a single parameter. The fragmentation kernel and the control parameters are closely related to the physical properties of the specific system under study. We use our model to describe the Voronoi cell patterns of several systems. Specifically, we study the island nucleation with irreversible attachment, the 1D car-parking problem, the formation of second-level administrative divisions, and the pattern formed by the Paris Métro stations.

  12. Nonlinear Inertia Classification Model and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification model of support vector machine (SVM overcomes the problem of a big number of samples. But the kernel parameter and the punishment factor have great influence on the quality of SVM model. Particle swarm optimization (PSO is an evolutionary search algorithm based on the swarm intelligence, which is suitable for parameter optimization. Accordingly, a nonlinear inertia convergence classification model (NICCM is proposed after the nonlinear inertia convergence (NICPSO is developed in this paper. The velocity of NICPSO is firstly defined as the weighted velocity of the inertia PSO, and the inertia factor is selected to be a nonlinear function. NICPSO is used to optimize the kernel parameter and a punishment factor of SVM. Then, NICCM classifier is trained by using the optical punishment factor and the optical kernel parameter that comes from the optimal particle. Finally, NICCM is applied to the classification of the normal state and fault states of online power cable. It is experimentally proved that the iteration number for the proposed NICPSO to reach the optimal position decreases from 15 to 5 compared with PSO; the training duration is decreased by 0.0052 s and the recognition precision is increased by 4.12% compared with SVM.

  13. Modeling protein structures: construction and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, C S; Cohen, F E

    1993-06-01

    Although no general solution to the protein folding problem exists, the three-dimensional structures of proteins are being successfully predicted when experimentally derived constraints are used in conjunction with heuristic methods. In the case of interleukin-4, mutagenesis data and CD spectroscopy were instrumental in the accurate assignment of secondary structure. In addition, the tertiary structure was highly constrained by six cysteines separated by many residues that formed three disulfide bridges. Although the correct structure was a member of a short list of plausible structures, the "best" structure was the topological enantiomer of the experimentally determined conformation. For many proteases, other experimentally derived structures can be used as templates to identify the secondary structure elements. In a procedure called modeling by homology, the structure of a known protein is used as a scaffold to predict the structure of another related protein. This method has been used to model a serine and a cysteine protease that are important in the schistosome and malarial life cycles, respectively. The model structures were then used to identify putative small molecule enzyme inhibitors computationally. Experiments confirm that some of these nonpeptidic compounds are active at concentrations of less than 10 microM.

  14. Ocean modelling aspects for drift applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane, L.; Pierre, D.

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, many authorities in charge of rescue-at-sea operations lean on operational oceanography products to outline research perimeters. Moreover, current fields estimated with sophisticated ocean forecasting systems can be used as input data for oil spill/ adrift object fate models. This emphasises the necessity of an accurate sea state forecast, with a mastered level of reliability. This work focuses on several problems inherent to drift modeling, dealing in the first place with the efficiency of the oceanic current field representation. As we want to discriminate the relevance of a particular physical process or modeling option, the idea is to generate series of current fields of different characteristics and then qualify them in term of drift prediction efficiency. Benchmarked drift scenarios were set up from real surface drifters data, collected in the Mediterranean sea and off the coasts of Angola. The time and space scales that we are interested in are about 72 hr forecasts (typical timescale communicated in case of crisis), for distance errors that we hope about a few dozen of km around the forecast (acceptable for reconnaissance by aircrafts) For the ocean prediction, we used some regional oceanic configurations based on the NEMO 2.3 code, nested into Mercator 1/12° operational system. Drift forecasts were computed offline with Mothy (Météo France oil spill modeling system) and Ariane (B. Blanke, 1997), a Lagrangian diagnostic tool. We were particularly interested in the importance of the horizontal resolution, vertical mixing schemes, and any processes that may impact the surface layer. The aim of the study is to ultimately point at the most suitable set of parameters for drift forecast use inside operational oceanic systems. We are also motivated in assessing the relevancy of ensemble forecasts regarding determinist predictions. Several tests showed that mis-described observed trajectories can finally be modelled statistically by using uncertainties

  15. An introduction to queueing theory modeling and analysis in applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, U Narayan

    2015-01-01

    This introductory textbook is designed for a one-semester course on queueing theory that does not require a course on stochastic processes as a prerequisite. By integrating the necessary background on stochastic processes with the analysis of models, the work provides a sound foundational introduction to the modeling and analysis of queueing systems for a wide interdisciplinary audience of students in mathematics, statistics, and applied disciplines such as computer science, operations research, and engineering. This edition includes additional topics in methodology and applications. Key features: • An introductory chapter including a historical account of the growth of queueing theory in more than 100 years. • A modeling-based approach with emphasis on identification of models. • Rigorous treatment of the foundations of basic models commonly used in applications with appropriate references for advanced topics. • Applications in manufacturing and, computer and communication systems. • A chapter on ...

  16. Initiating Events Modeling for On-Line Risk Monitoring Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.

    1998-01-01

    In order to make on-line risk monitoring application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment more complete and realistic, a special attention need to be dedicated to initiating events modeling. Two different issues are of special importance: one is how to model initiating events frequency according to current plant configuration (equipment alignment and out of service status) and operating condition (weather and various activities), and the second is how to preserve dependencies between initiating events model and rest of PRA model. First, the paper will discuss how initiating events can be treated in on-line risk monitoring application. Second, practical example of initiating events modeling in EPRI's Equipment Out of Service on-line monitoring tool will be presented. Gains from application and possible improvements will be discussed in conclusion. (author)

  17. Application of Bayesian Model Selection for Metal Yield Models using ALEGRA and Dakota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portone, Teresa; Niederhaus, John Henry; Sanchez, Jason James; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2018-02-01

    This report introduces the concepts of Bayesian model selection, which provides a systematic means of calibrating and selecting an optimal model to represent a phenomenon. This has many potential applications, including for comparing constitutive models. The ideas described herein are applied to a model selection problem between different yield models for hardened steel under extreme loading conditions.

  18. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata

    2016-05-12

    This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application.

  19. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application. PMID:27187394

  20. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Venčkauskas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS. We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application.

  1. Dimensions for hearing-impaired mobile application usability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily; Omar, Mohd Adan

    2017-10-01

    This paper discuss on the dimensions that has been derived for the hearing-impaired mobile applications usability model. General usability model consist of general dimension for evaluating mobile application however requirements for the hearing-impaired are overlooked and often scanted. This led towards mobile application developed for the hearing-impaired are left unused. It is also apparent that these usability models do not consider accessibility dimensions according to the requirement of the special users. This complicates the work of usability practitioners as well as academician that practices research usability when application are developed for the specific user needs. To overcome this issue, dimension chosen for the hearing-impaired are ensured to be align with the real need of the hearing-impaired mobile application. Besides literature studies, requirements for the hearing-impaired mobile application have been identified through interview conducted with hearing-impaired mobile application users that were recorded as video outputs and analyzed using Nvivo. Finally total of 6 out of 15 dimensions gathered are chosen for the proposed model and presented.

  2. Development and application of degradation modeling to define maintenance practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, D.; Samanta, P.; Vesely, W.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the development and application of component degradation modeling to analyze degradation effects on reliability and to identify aspects of maintenance practices that mitigate degradation and aging effects. Using continuous time Markov approaches, a component degradation model is discussed that includes information about degradation and maintenance. The component model commonly used in probabilistic risk assessments is a simple case of this general model. The parameters used in the general model have engineering interpretations and can be estimated using data and engineering experience. The generation of equations for specific models, the solution of these equations, and a methodology for estimating the needed parameters are all discussed. Applications in this report show how these models can be used to quantitatively assess the benefits that are expected from maintaining a component, the effects of different maintenance efficiencies, the merits of different maintenance policies, and the interaction of surveillance test intervals with maintenance practices

  3. Molecular modeling and multiscaling issues for electronic material applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Nancy; Yuen, Matthew; Fan, Haibo

    Volume 1 : Molecular Modeling and Multiscaling Issues for Electronic Material Applications provides a snapshot on the progression of molecular modeling in the electronics industry and how molecular modeling is currently being used to understand material performance to solve relevant issues in this field. This book is intended to introduce the reader to the evolving role of molecular modeling, especially seen through the eyes of the IEEE community involved in material modeling for electronic applications.  Part I presents  the role that quantum mechanics can play in performance prediction, such as properties dependent upon electronic structure, but also shows examples how molecular models may be used in performance diagnostics, especially when chemistry is part of the performance issue.  Part II gives examples of large-scale atomistic methods in material failure and shows several examples of transitioning between grain boundary simulations (on the atomistic level)and large-scale models including an example ...

  4. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Application of evolutionary games to modeling carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierniak, Andrzej; Krzeslak, Michal

    2013-06-01

    We review a quite large volume of literature concerning mathematical modelling of processes related to carcinogenesis and the growth of cancer cell populations based on the theory of evolutionary games. This review, although partly idiosyncratic, covers such major areas of cancer-related phenomena as production of cytotoxins, avoidance of apoptosis, production of growth factors, motility and invasion, and intra- and extracellular signaling. We discuss the results of other authors and append to them some additional results of our own simulations dealing with the possible dynamics and/or spatial distribution of the processes discussed.

  6. Watershed modeling applications in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Diana E.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    Watershed models can be used to simulate natural and human-altered processes including the flow of water and associated transport of sediment, chemicals, nutrients, and microbial organisms within a watershed. Simulation of these processes is useful for addressing a wide range of water-resource challenges, such as quantifying changes in water availability over time, understanding the effects of development and land-use changes on water resources, quantifying changes in constituent loads and yields over time, and quantifying aquifer recharge temporally and spatially throughout a watershed.

  7. Management Model Applicable to Metallic Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Ioana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithmic analysis of the marketing mix in metallurgy. It also analyzes the main correlations and their optimizing possibilities through an efficient management. Thus, both the effect and the importance of the marketing mix, for components (the four “P-s” areanalyzed in the materials’ industry, but their correlations as well, with the goal to optimize the specific management. There are briefly presented the main correlations between the 4 marketing mix components (the 4 “P-s” for a product within the materials’ industry, including aspects regarding specific management.Keywords: Management Model, Materials Industry, Marketing Mix, Correlations.

  8. Nuclear physics for applications. A model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prussin, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    Written by a researcher and teacher with experience at top institutes in the US and Europe, this textbook provides advanced undergraduates minoring in physics with working knowledge of the principles of nuclear physics. Simplifying models and approaches reveal the essence of the principles involved, with the mathematical and quantum mechanical background integrated in the text where it is needed and not relegated to the appendices. The practicality of the book is enhanced by numerous end-of-chapter problems and solutions available on the Wiley homepage. (orig.)

  9. Applications of Historical Analyses in Combat Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    causes of those results [2]. Models can be classified into three descriptive types [8], according to the degree of abstraction required:  iconic ...22 ( A5 ) Hence the first bracket of Equation A3 is zero. Therefore:         022 22 22 122 22 22 2      o o o o xx xxy yy yyx...A6) Equation A5 can also be used to replace the term in Equation A6, leaving: 22 oxx     222 2 22 1 2222 2 oo xxa byyyx

  10. Hydromechanical modelling with application in sealing for underground waste deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasal, Martin, E-mail: martin.hasal@vsb.cz; Michalec, Zdeněk; Blaheta, Radim [Institute of Geonics AS CR, Studentska 1768, 70800 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    Hydro-mechanical models appear in simulation of many environmental problems related to construction of engineering barriers for contaminant spreading. The presented work aims in modelling bentonite-sand barriers, which can be used for nuclear waste isolation and similar problems. Particularly, we use hydro-mechanical model coupling unsaturated flow and (nonlinear) elasticity, implement such model in COMSOL software and show application in simulation of an infiltration test (2D axisymmetric model) and the SEALEX Water test WT1 experiment (3D model). Finally, we discuss the needs and possibilities of parallel high performance computing.

  11. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  12. Long-term modelling for estimation of man-induced environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J.H.; Tridvornov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: As a part of the EU coordination action project ENVIRO-RISKS the long-term regional and transboundary atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition of atmospheric pollutants is investigated. Focus is on pollutants originating at nuclear and chemical risk sites of the NIS countries. Potential sources of atmospheric pollution include chemical and metallurgical enterprises and smelters, former testing polygons of nuclear weapons, and nuclear plants and facilities. These are situated within territories of Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Russia (the Siberian, Ural, Krasnoyarsk, and Kola regions). The atmospheric pollutants considered are radionuclides such as Cs-137, I-131, and Sr-90 as well as sulphates and heavy metals. The Danish Emergency Model for Atmosphere (DERMA) is employed for simulations using 3D meteorological fields from the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. The modeled concentration and deposition fields of atmospheric pollutants are used as input into further collaborative studies to estimate the man-induced environmental risks from regionally and remotely located potential sources with a focus on Siberian territories. The temporal and spatial variability of these fields and the probabilities and contribution of removal during atmospheric transport are evaluated. Possible approaches for further GIS integration and use of obtained results are discussed with respect to estimation of man-received doses and risks, impact on environment with a focus on forests, applicability for integrated systems for regional environmental monitoring and management, and others. (author)

  13. NUMERICAL MODEL APPLICATION IN ROWING SIMULATOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chmátal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to carry out a hydraulic design of rowing/sculling and paddling simulator. Nowadays there are two main approaches in the simulator design. The first one includes a static water with no artificial movement and counts on specially cut oars to provide the same resistance in the water. The second approach, on the other hand uses pumps or similar devices to force the water to circulate but both of the designs share many problems. Such problems are affecting already built facilities and can be summarized as unrealistic feeling, unwanted turbulent flow and bad velocity profile. Therefore, the goal was to design a new rowing simulator that would provide nature-like conditions for the racers and provide an unmatched experience. In order to accomplish this challenge, it was decided to use in-depth numerical modeling to solve the hydraulic problems. The general measures for the design were taken in accordance with space availability of the simulator ́s housing. The entire research was coordinated with other stages of the construction using BIM. The detailed geometry was designed using a numerical model in Ansys Fluent and parametric auto-optimization tools which led to minimum negative hydraulic phenomena and decreased investment and operational costs due to the decreased hydraulic losses in the system.

  14. Simulation and Modeling Application in Agricultural Mechanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Hudzari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the equations relating the Hue digital values of the fruits surface of the oil palm with maturity stage of the fruit in plantation. The FFB images were zoomed and captured using Nikon digital camera, and the calculation of Hue was determined using the highest frequency of the value for R, G, and B color components from histogram analysis software. New procedure in monitoring the image pixel value for oil palm fruit color surface in real-time growth maturity was developed. The estimation of day harvesting prediction was calculated based on developed model of relationships for Hue values with mesocarp oil content. The simulation model is regressed and predicts the day of harvesting or a number of days before harvest of FFB. The result from experimenting on mesocarp oil content can be used for real-time oil content determination of MPOB color meter. The graph to determine the day of harvesting the FFB was presented in this research. The oil was found to start developing in mesocarp fruit at 65 days before fruit at ripe maturity stage of 75% oil to dry mesocarp.

  15. Application of the RADTRAN 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A number of environmental impact analyses with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials (e.g., USDOE, 1994). The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modeled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group -- inspectors

  16. Application of the radtran 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    A number of environmental impact analyzes with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials. The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modelled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN 4 and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group-inspectors. (authors)

  17. Radiation repair models for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Roger G

    2018-02-28

    A number of newly emerging clinical techniques involve non-conventional patterns of radiation delivery which require an appreciation of the role played by radiation repair phenomena. This review outlines the main models of radiation repair, focussing on those which are of greatest clinical usefulness and which may be incorporated into biologically effective dose assessments. The need to account for the apparent "slowing-down" of repair rates observed in some normal tissues is also examined, along with a comparison of the relative merits of the formulations which can be used to account for such phenomena. Jack Fowler brought valuable insight to the understanding of radiation repair processes and this article includes reference to his important contributions in this area.

  18. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  19. Applications of species distribution modeling to paleobiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Marske, Katharine Ann

    2011-01-01

    -Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions, past community assembly, human paleobiogeography, Holocene paleoecology, and even deep-time biogeography (notably, providing insights into biogeographic dynamics >400 million years ago). We discuss important assumptions and uncertainties that affect the SDM approach to paleobiology......Species distribution modeling (SDM: statistical and/or mechanistic approaches to the assessment of range determinants and prediction of species occurrence) offers new possibilities for estimating and studying past organism distributions. SDM complements fossil and genetic evidence by providing (i......) quantitative and potentially high-resolution predictions of the past organism distributions, (ii) statistically formulated, testable ecological hypotheses regarding past distributions and communities, and (iii) statistical assessment of range determinants. In this article, we provide an overview...

  20. A review of thermoelectric cooling: Materials, modeling and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Tan, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the recent advances of thermoelectric materials, modeling approaches, and applications. Thermoelectric cooling systems have advantages over conventional cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no working fluid, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. In this study, historical development of thermoelectric cooling has been briefly introduced first. Next, the development of thermoelectric materials has been given and the achievements in past decade have been summarized. To improve thermoelectric cooling system's performance, the modeling techniques have been described for both the thermoelement modeling and thermoelectric cooler (TEC) modeling including standard simplified energy equilibrium model, one-dimensional and three-dimensional models, and numerical compact model. Finally, the thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed in aspects of domestic refrigeration, electronic cooling, scientific application, and automobile air conditioning and seat temperature control, with summaries for the commercially available thermoelectric modules and thermoelectric refrigerators. It is expected that this study will be beneficial to thermoelectric cooling system design, simulation, and analysis. - Highlights: •Thermoelectric cooling has great prospects with thermoelectric material's advances. •Modeling techniques for both thermoelement and TEC have been reviewed. •Principle thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed and summarized

  1. Models of the Organizational Life Cycle: Applications to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kim S.; Whetten, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A review of models of group and organization life cycle development is provided and the applicability of those models for institutions of higher education are discussed. An understanding of the problems and characteristics present in different life cycle stages can help institutions manage transitions more effectively. (Author/MLW)

  2. IVIM: modeling, experimental validation and application to animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournet, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis is centered on the study of the IVIM ('Intravoxel Incoherent Motion') MRI sequence. This sequence allows for the study of the blood microvasculature such as the capillaries, arterioles and venules. To be sensitive only to moving groups of spins, diffusion gradients are added before and after the 180 degrees pulse of a spin echo (SE) sequence. The signal component corresponding to spins diffusing in the tissue can be separated from the one related to spins travelling in the blood vessels which is called the IVIM signal. These two components are weighted by f IVIM which represents the volume fraction of blood inside the tissue. The IVIM signal is usually modelled by a mono-exponential (ME) function and characterized by a pseudo-diffusion coefficient, D*. We propose instead a bi-exponential IVIM model consisting of a slow pool, characterized by F slow and D* slow corresponding to the capillaries as in the ME model, and a fast pool, characterized by F fast and D* fast, related to larger vessels such as medium-size arterioles and venules. This model was validated experimentally and more information was retrieved by comparing the experimental signals to a dictionary of simulated IVIM signals. The influence of the pulse sequence, the repetition time and the diffusion encoding time was also studied. Finally, the IVIM sequence was applied to the study of an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. (author) [fr

  3. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  4. Generalized Linear Models with Applications in Engineering and the Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Raymond H; Vining, G Geoffrey; Robinson, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "The obvious enthusiasm of Myers, Montgomery, and Vining and their reliance on their many examples as a major focus of their pedagogy make Generalized Linear Models a joy to read. Every statistician working in any area of applied science should buy it and experience the excitement of these new approaches to familiar activities."-Technometrics Generalized Linear Models: With Applications in Engineering and the Sciences, Second Edition continues to provide a clear introduction to the theoretical foundations and key applications of generalized linear models (GLMs). Ma

  5. Solutions manual to accompany finite mathematics models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications In order to emphasize the main concepts of each chapter, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications features plentiful pedagogical elements throughout such as special exercises, end notes, hints, select solutions, biographies of key mathematicians, boxed key principles, a glossary of important terms and topics, and an overview of use of technology. The book encourages the modeling of linear programs and their solutions and uses common computer software programs such as LINDO. In addition to extensive chapters on pr

  6. Computer-aided modelling template: Concept and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    decomposition technique which identifies generic steps and workflow involved, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps and guidance through the steps providing additional......Modelling is an important enabling technology in modern chemical engineering applications. A template-based approach is presented in this work to facilitate the construction and documentation of the models and enable their maintenance for reuse in a wider application range. Based on a model...

  7. Elastic models application for thorax image registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Prado, Lorena S; Diaz, E Andres Valdez; Romo, Raul

    2007-01-01

    This work consist of the implementation and evaluation of elastic alignment algorithms of biomedical images, which were taken at thorax level and simulated with the 4D NCAT digital phantom. Radial Basis Functions spatial transformations (RBF), a kind of spline, which allows carrying out not only global rigid deformations but also local elastic ones were applied, using a point-matching method. The applied functions were: Thin Plate Spline (TPS), Multiquadric (MQ) Gaussian and B-Spline, which were evaluated and compared by means of calculating the Target Registration Error and similarity measures between the registered images (the squared sum of intensity differences (SSD) and correlation coefficient (CC)). In order to value the user incurred error in the point-matching and segmentation tasks, two algorithms were also designed that calculate the Fiduciary Localization Error. TPS and MQ were demonstrated to have better performance than the others. It was proved RBF represent an adequate model for approximating the thorax deformable behaviour. Validation algorithms showed the user error was not significant

  8. Steam generator asset management model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, M. G.; Shoemaker, P.; Colgan, K.; Griffith, J.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced economic model in SG Asset Management, called B-Factor Methodology Tool, was developed by AREVA NP (Patent Pending), and used during the summer of 2006. The Tool allowed prediction of the future cost for a selected combination of mitigation techniques at a utility, while considering the tube deposit evolution and its effects on their particular SGs. The Tool, which was presented in its basic theoretical form at the ICAPP Meeting in Nice in 2007, has been greatly improved and was applied again at the end of 2007 at another utility. The elements of the B-Factor Methodology are the annual and cumulative net present value, and the annual escalated direct and indirect costs/benefits. All these are relative to a base case for a selected combination of mitigation techniques, considering the tube deposit evolution and its effects on the SG tubing area and SG pressure losses and ultimately on the plant power production. This paper will present the actual progress made in improving the Tool during 2007 so that it successfully predicts the optimum combination of various SG maintenance activities for any given utility. Simulated results of the operation of the B-Factor Methodology Tool for a complex scenario of Asset Management reasoning are also presented. (authors)

  9. Application of Multiple Evaluation Models in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Victal Saliba

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on two different samples, this article tests the performance of a number of Value Drivers commonly used for evaluating companies by finance practitioners, through simple regression models of cross-section type which estimate the parameters associated to each Value Driver, denominated Market Multiples. We are able to diagnose the behavior of several multiples in the period 1994-2004, with an outlook also on the particularities of the economic activities performed by the sample companies (and their impacts on the performance through a subsequent analysis with segregation of companies in the sample by sectors. Extrapolating simple multiples evaluation standards from analysts of the main financial institutions in Brazil, we find that adjusting the ratio formulation to allow for an intercept does not provide satisfactory results in terms of pricing errors reduction. Results found, in spite of evidencing certain relative and absolute superiority among the multiples, may not be generically representative, given samples limitation.

  10. A Surface Modeling Paradigm for Electromagnetic Applications in Aerospace Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, RM; Bokhari, SA; Sudhakar, V; Mahapatra, PR

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach has been developed to model the surfaces encountered in aerospace engineering for EM applications. The basis of this modeling is the quadric canonical shapes which are the coordinate surfaces of the Eisenhart Coordinate systems. The building blocks are visualized as sections of quadric cylinders and surfaces of revolution. These truncated quadrics can successfully model realistic aerospace structures which are termed a s hybrid quadrics, of which the satellite launch veh...

  11. Functional Modelling for Fault Diagnosis and its application for NPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents functional modelling and its application for diagnosis in nuclear power plants.Functional modelling is defined and it is relevance for coping with the complexity of diagnosis in large scale systems like nuclear plants is explained. The diagnosis task is analyzed and it is demon...... operating modes. The FBR example illustrates how the modeling development effort can be managed by proper strategies including decomposition and reuse....

  12. Code Development for Control Design Applications: Phase I: Structural Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bir, G. S.; Robinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The design of integrated controls for a complex system like a wind turbine relies on a system model in an explicit format, e.g., state-space format. Current wind turbine codes focus on turbine simulation and not on system characterization, which is desired for controls design as well as applications like operating turbine model analysis, optimal design, and aeroelastic stability analysis. This paper reviews structural modeling that comprises three major steps: formation of component equations, assembly into system equations, and linearization

  13. Top-Down Enterprise Application Integration with Reference Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem-Jan van den Heuvel

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available For Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems such as SAP R/3 or IBM SanFrancisco, the tailoring of reference models for customizing the ERP systems to specific organizational contexts is an established approach. In this paper, we present a methodology that uses such reference models as a starting point for a top-down integration of enterprise applications. The re-engineered models of legacy systems are individually linked via cross-mapping specifications to the forward-engineered reference model's specification. The actual linking of reference and legacy models is done with a methodology for connecting (new business objects with (old legacy systems.

  14. An investigation of modelling and design for software service applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Maria; Budgen, David

    2017-01-01

    Software services offer the opportunity to use a component-based approach for the design of applications. However, this needs a deeper understanding of how to develop service-based applications in a systematic manner, and of the set of properties that need to be included in the 'design model'. We have used a realistic application to explore systematically how service-based designs can be created and described. We first identified the key properties of an SOA (service oriented architecture) and then undertook a single-case case study to explore its use in the development of a design for a large-scale application in energy engineering, modelling this with existing notations wherever possible. We evaluated the resulting design model using two walkthroughs with both domain and application experts. We were able to successfully develop a design model around the ten properties identified, and to describe it by adapting existing design notations. A component-based approach to designing such systems does appear to be feasible. However, it needs the assistance of a more integrated set of notations for describing the resulting design model.

  15. Studying and modelling variable density turbulent flows for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabard, J.P.; Simonin, O.; Caruso, A.; Delalondre, C.; Dalsecco, S.; Mechitoua, N.

    1996-07-01

    Industrial applications are presented in the various fields of interest for EDF. A first example deals with transferred electric arcs couplings flow and thermal transfer in the arc and in the bath of metal and is related with applications of electricity. The second one is the combustion modelling in burners of fossil power plants. The last one comes from the nuclear power plants and concerns the stratified flows in a nuclear reactor building. (K.A.). 18 refs.

  16. Nuclear model developments in FLUKA for present and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Empl, Anton; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ruben, GarciaAlia; Sala, Paola R.; Smirnov, George; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2017-09-01

    The FLUKAS code [1-3] is used in research laboratories all around the world for challenging applications spanning a very wide range of energies, projectiles and targets. FLUKAS is also extensively used for in hadrontherapy research studies and clinical planning systems. In this paper some of the recent developments in the FLUKAS nuclear physics models of relevance for very different application fields including medical physics are presented. A few examples are shown demonstrating the effectiveness of the upgraded code.

  17. Studying and modelling variable density turbulent flows for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabard, J.P.; Simonin, O.; Caruso, A.; Delalondre, C.; Dalsecco, S.; Mechitoua, N.

    1996-07-01

    Industrial applications are presented in the various fields of interest for EDF. A first example deals with transferred electric arcs couplings flow and thermal transfer in the arc and in the bath of metal and is related with applications of electricity. The second one is the combustion modelling in burners of fossil power plants. The last one comes from the nuclear power plants and concerns the stratified flows in a nuclear reactor building. (K.A.)

  18. Systems modeling and simulation applications for critical care medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Critical care delivery is a complex, expensive, error prone, medical specialty and remains the focal point of major improvement efforts in healthcare delivery. Various modeling and simulation techniques offer unique opportunities to better understand the interactions between clinical physiology and care delivery. The novel insights gained from the systems perspective can then be used to develop and test new treatment strategies and make critical care delivery more efficient and effective. However, modeling and simulation applications in critical care remain underutilized. This article provides an overview of major computer-based simulation techniques as applied to critical care medicine. We provide three application examples of different simulation techniques, including a) pathophysiological model of acute lung injury, b) process modeling of critical care delivery, and c) an agent-based model to study interaction between pathophysiology and healthcare delivery. Finally, we identify certain challenges to, and opportunities for, future research in the area. PMID:22703718

  19. Systems modeling and simulation applications for critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Chbat, Nicolas W; Gupta, Ashish; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen

    2012-06-15

    Critical care delivery is a complex, expensive, error prone, medical specialty and remains the focal point of major improvement efforts in healthcare delivery. Various modeling and simulation techniques offer unique opportunities to better understand the interactions between clinical physiology and care delivery. The novel insights gained from the systems perspective can then be used to develop and test new treatment strategies and make critical care delivery more efficient and effective. However, modeling and simulation applications in critical care remain underutilized. This article provides an overview of major computer-based simulation techniques as applied to critical care medicine. We provide three application examples of different simulation techniques, including a) pathophysiological model of acute lung injury, b) process modeling of critical care delivery, and c) an agent-based model to study interaction between pathophysiology and healthcare delivery. Finally, we identify certain challenges to, and opportunities for, future research in the area.

  20. AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF EVOLVING TAKAGI-SUGENO-KANG FUZZY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Emil Precup

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and application results concerning the development of evolving Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy models for two dynamic systems, which will be viewed as controlled processes, in the field of automotive applications. The two dynamic systems models are nonlinear dynamics of the longitudinal slip in the Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS and the vehicle speed in vehicles with the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT systems. The evolving Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy models are obtained as discrete-time fuzzy models by incremental online identification algorithms. The fuzzy models are validated against experimental results in the case of the ABS and the first principles simulation results in the case of the vehicle with the CVT.

  1. Algebraic Modeling of Topological and Computational Structures and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorou, Doros; Stefaneas, Petros; Kauffman, Louis

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary book covers a wide range of subjects, from pure mathematics (knots, braids, homotopy theory, number theory) to more applied mathematics (cryptography, algebraic specification of algorithms, dynamical systems) and concrete applications (modeling of polymers and ionic liquids, video, music and medical imaging). The main mathematical focus throughout the book is on algebraic modeling with particular emphasis on braid groups. The research methods include algebraic modeling using topological structures, such as knots, 3-manifolds, classical homotopy groups, and braid groups. The applications address the simulation of polymer chains and ionic liquids, as well as the modeling of natural phenomena via topological surgery. The treatment of computational structures, including finite fields and cryptography, focuses on the development of novel techniques. These techniques can be applied to the design of algebraic specifications for systems modeling and verification. This book is the outcome of a w...

  2. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuum-Kinetic Models and Numerical Methods for Multiphase Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Isaac Michael

    This thesis presents a continuum-kinetic approach for modeling general problems in multiphase solid mechanics. In this context, a continuum model refers to any model, typically on the macro-scale, in which continuous state variables are used to capture the most important physics: conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A kinetic model refers to any model, typically on the meso-scale, which captures the statistical motion and evolution of microscopic entitites. Multiphase phenomena usually involve non-negligible micro or meso-scopic effects at the interfaces between phases. The approach developed in the thesis attempts to combine the computational performance benefits of a continuum model with the physical accuracy of a kinetic model when applied to a multiphase problem. The approach is applied to modeling a single particle impact in Cold Spray, an engineering process that intimately involves the interaction of crystal grains with high-magnitude elastic waves. Such a situation could be classified a multiphase application due to the discrete nature of grains on the spatial scale of the problem. For this application, a hyper elasto-plastic model is solved by a finite volume method with approximate Riemann solver. The results of this model are compared for two types of plastic closure: a phenomenological macro-scale constitutive law, and a physics-based meso-scale Crystal Plasticity model.

  4. Hydraulic modeling development and application in water resources engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Francisco J.; Yang, Chih Ted; Wang, Lawrence K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling has become widespread in water resources engineering and science to study rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. For example, computer models are commonly used to forecast anthropogenic effects on the environment, and to help provide advanced mitigation measures against catastrophic events such as natural and dam-break floods. Linking hydraulic models to vegetation and habitat models has expanded their use in multidisciplinary applications to the riparian corridor. Implementation of these models in software packages on personal desktop computers has made them accessible to the general engineering community, and their use has been popularized by the need of minimal training due to intuitive graphical user interface front ends. Models are, however, complex and nontrivial, to the extent that even common terminology is sometimes ambiguous and often applied incorrectly. In fact, many efforts are currently under way in order to standardize terminology and offer guidelines for good practice, but none has yet reached unanimous acceptance. This chapter provides a view of the elements involved in modeling surface flows for the application in environmental water resources engineering. It presents the concepts and steps necessary for rational model development and use by starting with the exploration of the ideas involved in defining a model. Tangible form of those ideas is provided by the development of a mathematical and corresponding numerical hydraulic model, which is given with a substantial amount of detail. The issues of model deployment in a practical and productive work environment are also addressed. The chapter ends by presenting a few model applications highlighting the need for good quality control in model validation.

  5. A complex autoregressive model and application to monthly temperature forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Gu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex autoregressive model was established based on the mathematic derivation of the least squares for the complex number domain which is referred to as the complex least squares. The model is different from the conventional way that the real number and the imaginary number are separately calculated. An application of this new model shows a better forecast than forecasts from other conventional statistical models, in predicting monthly temperature anomalies in July at 160 meteorological stations in mainland China. The conventional statistical models include an autoregressive model, where the real number and the imaginary number are separately disposed, an autoregressive model in the real number domain, and a persistence-forecast model.

  6. Mathematical modeling and computational intelligence in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Silva Neto, Antônio José da; Silva, Geraldo Nunes

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together a rich selection of studies in mathematical modeling and computational intelligence, with application in several fields of engineering, like automation, biomedical, chemical, civil, electrical, electronic, geophysical and mechanical engineering, on a multidisciplinary approach. Authors from five countries and 16 different research centers contribute with their expertise in both the fundamentals and real problems applications based upon their strong background on modeling and computational intelligence. The reader will find a wide variety of applications, mathematical and computational tools and original results, all presented with rigorous mathematical procedures. This work is intended for use in graduate courses of engineering, applied mathematics and applied computation where tools as mathematical and computational modeling, numerical methods and computational intelligence are applied to the solution of real problems.

  7. Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics Model and Design of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    In, Visarath; Palacios, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This edited book is aimed at interdisciplinary, device-oriented, applications of nonlinear science theory and methods in complex systems. In particular, applications directed to nonlinear phenomena with space and time characteristics. Examples include: complex networks of magnetic sensor systems, coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, nano-detectors, microscale devices, stochastic resonance in multi-dimensional chaotic systems, biosensors, and stochastic signal quantization. "applications of nonlinear dynamics: model and design of complex systems" brings together the work of scientists and engineers that are applying ideas and methods from nonlinear dynamics to design and fabricate complex systems.

  8. An investigation of modelling and design for software service applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Software services offer the opportunity to use a component-based approach for the design of applications. However, this needs a deeper understanding of how to develop service-based applications in a systematic manner, and of the set of properties that need to be included in the ‘design model’. We have used a realistic application to explore systematically how service-based designs can be created and described. We first identified the key properties of an SOA (service oriented architecture) and then undertook a single-case case study to explore its use in the development of a design for a large-scale application in energy engineering, modelling this with existing notations wherever possible. We evaluated the resulting design model using two walkthroughs with both domain and application experts. We were able to successfully develop a design model around the ten properties identified, and to describe it by adapting existing design notations. A component-based approach to designing such systems does appear to be feasible. However, it needs the assistance of a more integrated set of notations for describing the resulting design model. PMID:28489905

  9. Instruction-level performance modeling and characterization of multimedia applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Scientific Computing Group; Cameron, K.W. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1999-06-01

    One of the challenges for characterizing and modeling realistic multimedia applications is the lack of access to source codes. On-chip performance counters effectively resolve this problem by monitoring run-time behaviors at the instruction-level. This paper presents a novel technique of characterizing and modeling workloads at the instruction level for realistic multimedia applications using hardware performance counters. A variety of instruction counts are collected from some multimedia applications, such as RealPlayer, GSM Vocoder, MPEG encoder/decoder, and speech synthesizer. These instruction counts can be used to form a set of abstract characteristic parameters directly related to a processor`s architectural features. Based on microprocessor architectural constraints and these calculated abstract parameters, the architectural performance bottleneck for a specific application can be estimated. Meanwhile, the bottleneck estimation can provide suggestions about viable architectural/functional improvement for certain workloads. The biggest advantage of this new characterization technique is a better understanding of processor utilization efficiency and architectural bottleneck for each application. This technique also provides predictive insight of future architectural enhancements and their affect on current codes. In this paper the authors also attempt to model architectural effect on processor utilization without memory influence. They derive formulas for calculating CPI{sub 0}, CPI without memory effect, and they quantify utilization of architectural parameters. These equations are architecturally diagnostic and predictive in nature. Results provide promise in code characterization, and empirical/analytical modeling.

  10. Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models. PMID:24742252

  11. Electromagnetic Modelling of MMIC CPWs for High Frequency Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinulingga, E. P.; Kyabaggu, P. B. K.; Rezazadeh, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Realising the theoretical electrical characteristics of components through modelling can be carried out using computer-aided design (CAD) simulation tools. If the simulation model provides the expected characteristics, the fabrication process of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) can be performed for experimental verification purposes. Therefore improvements can be suggested before mass fabrication takes place. This research concentrates on development of MMIC technology by providing accurate predictions of the characteristics of MMIC components using an improved Electromagnetic (EM) modelling technique. The knowledge acquired from the modelling and characterisation process in this work can be adopted by circuit designers for various high frequency applications.

  12. Modelling of a Hybrid Energy System for Autonomous Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid energy system (HES is a trending power supply solution for autonomous devices. With the help of an accurate system model, the HES development will be efficient and oriented. In spite of various precise unit models, a HES system is hardly developed. This paper proposes a system modelling approach, which applies the power flux conservation as the governing equation and adapts and modifies unit models of solar cells, piezoelectric generators, a Li-ion battery and a super-capacitor. A generalized power harvest, storage and management strategy is also suggested to adapt to various application scenarios.

  13. Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials Advances and New Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zheng, Hong; Yao, Yangping

    2013-01-01

    The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007.   Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geote...

  14. Distributionally Robust Return-Risk Optimization Models and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the risk control of conditional value-at-risk, distributionally robust return-risk optimization models with box constraints of random vector are proposed. They describe uncertainty in both the distribution form and moments (mean and covariance matrix of random vector. It is difficult to solve them directly. Using the conic duality theory and the minimax theorem, the models are reformulated as semidefinite programming problems, which can be solved by interior point algorithms in polynomial time. An important theoretical basis is therefore provided for applications of the models. Moreover, an application of the models to a practical example of portfolio selection is considered, and the example is evaluated using a historical data set of four stocks. Numerical results show that proposed methods are robust and the investment strategy is safe.

  15. 12th Workshop on Stochastic Models, Statistics and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rafajłowicz, Ewaryst; Szajowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest advances and trends in stochastic models and related statistical procedures. Selected peer-reviewed contributions focus on statistical inference, quality control, change-point analysis and detection, empirical processes, time series analysis, survival analysis and reliability, statistics for stochastic processes, big data in technology and the sciences, statistical genetics, experiment design, and stochastic models in engineering. Stochastic models and related statistical procedures play an important part in furthering our understanding of the challenging problems currently arising in areas of application such as the natural sciences, information technology, engineering, image analysis, genetics, energy and finance, to name but a few. This collection arises from the 12th Workshop on Stochastic Models, Statistics and Their Applications, Wroclaw, Poland.

  16. Mathematical and numerical foundations of turbulence models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chacón Rebollo, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    With applications to climate, technology, and industry, the modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent flows are rich with history and modern relevance. The complexity of the problems that arise in the study of turbulence requires tools from various scientific disciplines, including mathematics, physics, engineering, and computer science. Authored by two experts in the area with a long history of collaboration, this monograph provides a current, detailed look at several turbulence models from both the theoretical and numerical perspectives. The k-epsilon, large-eddy simulation, and other models are rigorously derived and their performance is analyzed using benchmark simulations for real-world turbulent flows. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics. It is also a valuable resource for advanced graduate students in fluid dynamics,...

  17. Gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in radiation control and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manushev, B [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet; Koleva, K [National Metrology Centre, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    A method for stabilization of gamma-ray spectrometers energy calibration is proposed. It is based on recalibration of the spectrum by numerical filtration. The possibility of efficiency auto-calibration is considered in the case when a reference source with appropriate shape is unavailable. The method is tested by estimation of the effective thickness of a lead plate (self-absorption). Potential applications include the evaluation of surface pollution infiltration depth as well as the development of pure beta sources (e.g. Sr-90) using the registration of their Bremsstrahlung. 6 refs.

  18. Applicability of models to estimate traffic noise for urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ricardo A; Pimentel, Roberto L; Lacerda, Diego M; Silva, Wekisley M

    2015-01-01

    Traffic noise is a highly relevant environmental impact in cities. Models to estimate traffic noise, in turn, can be useful tools to guide mitigation measures. In this paper, the applicability of models to estimate noise levels produced by a continuous flow of vehicles on urban roads is investigated. The aim is to identify which models are more appropriate to estimate traffic noise in urban areas since several models available were conceived to estimate noise from highway traffic. First, measurements of traffic noise, vehicle count and speed were carried out in five arterial urban roads of a brazilian city. Together with geometric measurements of width of lanes and distance from noise meter to lanes, these data were input in several models to estimate traffic noise. The predicted noise levels were then compared to the respective measured counterparts for each road investigated. In addition, a chart showing mean differences in noise between estimations and measurements is presented, to evaluate the overall performance of the models. Measured Leq values varied from 69 to 79 dB(A) for traffic flows varying from 1618 to 5220 vehicles/h. Mean noise level differences between estimations and measurements for all urban roads investigated ranged from -3.5 to 5.5 dB(A). According to the results, deficiencies of some models are discussed while other models are identified as applicable to noise estimations on urban roads in a condition of continuous flow. Key issues to apply such models to urban roads are highlighted.

  19. Applications of system dynamics modelling to support health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An M; Wells, Robert; Page, Andrew; Dominello, Amanda; Haines, Mary; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-07-09

    The value of systems science modelling methods in the health sector is increasingly being recognised. Of particular promise is the potential of these methods to improve operational aspects of healthcare capacity and delivery, analyse policy options for health system reform and guide investments to address complex public health problems. Because it lends itself to a participatory approach, system dynamics modelling has been a particularly appealing method that aims to align stakeholder understanding of the underlying causes of a problem and achieve consensus for action. The aim of this review is to determine the effectiveness of system dynamics modelling for health policy, and explore the range and nature of its application. A systematic search was conducted to identify articles published up to April 2015 from the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. The grey literature was also searched. Papers eligible for inclusion were those that described applications of system dynamics modelling to support health policy at any level of government. Six papers were identified, comprising eight case studies of the application of system dynamics modelling to support health policy. No analytic studies were found that examined the effectiveness of this type of modelling. Only three examples engaged multidisciplinary stakeholders in collective model building. Stakeholder participation in model building reportedly facilitated development of a common 'mental map' of the health problem, resulting in consensus about optimal policy strategy and garnering support for collaborative action. The paucity of relevant papers indicates that, although the volume of descriptive literature advocating the value of system dynamics modelling is considerable, its practical application to inform health policy making is yet to be routinely applied and rigorously evaluated. Advances in software are allowing the participatory model building approach to be extended to

  20. Applications of computational modeling in metabolic engineering of yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    a preferred flux distribution. These methods point to strategies for altering gene expression; however, fluxes are often controlled by post-transcriptional events. Moreover, GEMs are usually not taking into account metabolic regulation, thermodynamics and enzyme kinetics. To facilitate metabolic engineering......, it is necessary to expand the modeling of metabolism to consider kinetics of individual processes. This review will give an overview about models available for metabolic engineering of yeast and discusses their applications....

  1. Application of postured human model for SAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkovikj, M.; Munteanu, I.; Weiland, T.

    2013-07-01

    In the last two decades, the increasing number of electronic devices used in day-to-day life led to a growing interest in the study of the electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissues. The design of medical devices and wireless communication devices such as mobile phones benefits a lot from the bio-electromagnetic simulations in which digital human models are used. The digital human models currently available have an upright position which limits the research activities in realistic scenarios, where postured human bodies must be considered. For this reason, a software application called "BodyFlex for CST STUDIO SUITE" was developed. In its current version, this application can deform the voxel-based human model named HUGO (Dipp GmbH, 2010) to allow the generation of common postures that people use in normal life, ensuring the continuity of tissues and conserving the mass to an acceptable level. This paper describes the enhancement of the "BodyFlex" application, which is related to the movements of the forearm and the wrist of a digital human model. One of the electromagnetic applications in which the forearm and the wrist movement of a voxel based human model has a significant meaning is the measurement of the specific absorption rate (SAR) when a model is exposed to a radio frequency electromagnetic field produced by a mobile phone. Current SAR measurements of the exposure from mobile phones are performed with the SAM (Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin) phantom which is filled with a dispersive but homogeneous material. We are interested what happens with the SAR values if a realistic inhomogeneous human model is used. To this aim, two human models, a homogeneous and an inhomogeneous one, in two simulation scenarios are used, in order to examine and observe the differences in the results for the SAR values.

  2. On the limits of application of the Stephens model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, A.; Piepenbring, R.

    1977-01-01

    The limits of the rotation alignment model of Stephens are studied. The conditions of applicability of the assumption of constant j for a unique parity isolated sub-shell (extended to N=4 and N=3) are discussed and explanations are given. A correct treatment of the eigenstates of the intrinsic motion allows however a simple extension of the model to non-isolated sub-shells without enlarging the basis of diagonalisation [fr

  3. Polynomial model inversion control: numerical tests and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Novara, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A novel control design approach for general nonlinear systems is described in this paper. The approach is based on the identification of a polynomial model of the system to control and on the on-line inversion of this model. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the numerical efficiency of the approach. Numerical examples of applicative interest are presented, concerned with control of the Duffing oscillator, control of a robot manipulator and insulin regulation in a type 1 diabetic p...

  4. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Flanagan; J. R. Frankenberger; T. A. Cochrane; C. S. Renschler; W. J. Elliot

    2013-01-01

    At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillslopes and channels can be created and simulated with this GUI. However,...

  5. Application of Simple CFD Models in Smoke Ventilation Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; la Cour-Harbo, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines the possibilities of using simple CFD models in practical smoke ventilation design. The aim is to assess if it is possible with a reasonable accuracy to predict the behaviour of smoke transport in case of a fire. A CFD code mainly applicable for “ordinary” ventilation design...

  6. Application of mixed models for the assessment genotype and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of mixed models for the assessment genotype and environment interactions in cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) cultivars in Mozambique. ... The cultivars ISA 205, STAM 42 and REMU 40 showed superior productivity when they were selected by the Harmonic Mean of Genotypic Values (HMGV) criterion in relation ...

  7. Application of multilinear regression analysis in modeling of soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of Multi-Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA) model for predicting soil properties in Calabar South offers a technical guide and solution in foundation designs problems in the area. Forty-five soil samples were collected from fifteen different boreholes at a different depth and 270 tests were carried out for CBR, ...

  8. Mathematical annuity models application in cash flow analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical annuity models application in cash flow analysis. ... We also compare the cost efficiency between Amortisation and Sinking fund loan repayment as prevalent in financial institutions. Keywords: Annuity, Amortisation, Sinking Fund, Present and Future Value Annuity, Maturity date and Redemption value.

  9. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa. ... the data from Oudebosch with different rainfall and groundwater abstraction inputs are simulated to explore individual effects on water levels as well as recharge rate estimated on a daily basis.

  10. Application of Markovian model to school enrolment projection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Markovian model to school enrolment projection process. VU Ekhosuehi, AA Osagiede. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 9-16. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  12. Credibilistic programming an introduction to models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    It provides fuzzy programming approach to solve real-life decision problems in fuzzy environment. Within the framework of credibility theory, it provides a self-contained, comprehensive and up-to-date presentation of fuzzy programming models, algorithms and applications in portfolio analysis.

  13. Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Zurita Milla, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Cudlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The potential applicability of the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT (version 3.01) was tested for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needles collected from stress resistant and resilient trees. Direct comparison of the measured and simulated leaf optical properties between 450¿1000 nm

  14. An application of artificial intelligence for rainfall–runoff modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study proposes an application of two techniques of artificial intelligence (AI) for rainfall–runoff modeling: the artificial neural networks (ANN) and the evolutionary computation (EC). Two diff- erent ANN techniques, the feed forward back propagation (FFBP) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) methods ...

  15. An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate Sources In Lagos, Nigeria. FS Olise, OK Owoade, HB Olaniyi. Abstract. There have been no clear demarcations between industrial and residential areas of Lagos with focus on industry as the major source. There is need to identify potential source types in ...

  16. Crop model usefulness in drylands of southern Africa: an application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data limitations in southern Africa frequently hinder adequate assessment of crop models before application. ... three locations to represent varying cropping and physical conditions in southern Africa, i.e. maize and sorghum (Mohale's Hoek, Lesotho and Big Bend, Swaziland) and maize and groundnut (Lilongwe, Malawi).

  17. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...

  18. A spatial haplotype copying model with applications to genotype imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yun; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Eskin, Eleazar; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    Ever since its introduction, the haplotype copy model has proven to be one of the most successful approaches for modeling genetic variation in human populations, with applications ranging from ancestry inference to genotype phasing and imputation. Motivated by coalescent theory, this approach assumes that any chromosome (haplotype) can be modeled as a mosaic of segments copied from a set of chromosomes sampled from the same population. At the core of the model is the assumption that any chromosome from the sample is equally likely to contribute a priori to the copying process. Motivated by recent works that model genetic variation in a geographic continuum, we propose a new spatial-aware haplotype copy model that jointly models geography and the haplotype copying process. We extend hidden Markov models of haplotype diversity such that at any given location, haplotypes that are closest in the genetic-geographic continuum map are a priori more likely to contribute to the copying process than distant ones. Through simulations starting from the 1000 Genomes data, we show that our model achieves superior accuracy in genotype imputation over the standard spatial-unaware haplotype copy model. In addition, we show the utility of our model in selecting a small personalized reference panel for imputation that leads to both improved accuracy as well as to a lower computational runtime than the standard approach. Finally, we show our proposed model can be used to localize individuals on the genetic-geographical map on the basis of their genotype data.

  19. Degradation modeling with application to aging and maintenance effectiveness evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Hsu, F.; Subduhi, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach to analyze component degradation and failure data to understand the aging process of components. As used here, degradation modeling is the analysis of information on component degradation in order to develop models of the process and its implications. This particular modeling focuses on the analysis of the times of component degradations, to model how the rate of degradation changes with the age of the component. The methodology presented also discusses the effectiveness of maintenance as applicable to aging evaluations. The specific applications which are performed show quantitative models of component degradation rates and component failure rates from plant-specific data. The statistical techniques which are developed and applied allow aging trends to be effectively identified in the degradation data, and in the failure data. Initial estimates of the effectiveness of maintenance in limiting degradations from becoming failures also are developed. These results are important first steps in degradation modeling, and show that degradation can be modeled to identify aging trends. 2 refs., 8 figs

  20. Degradation modeling with application to aging and maintenance effectiveness evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach to analyze light water reactor component degradation and failure data to understand the aging process of components. As used here, degradation modeling is the analysis of information on component degradation in order to develop models of the process and its implications. This particular modeling focuses on the analysis of the times of component degradations, to model how the rate of degradation changes with the age of the component. The methodology presented also discusses the effectiveness of maintenance as applicable to aging evaluations. The specific applications which are performed show quantitative models of component degradation rates and component failure rates from plant-specific data. The statistical techniques which are developed and applied allow aging trends to be effectively identified in the degradation data, and in the failure data. Initial estimates of the effectiveness of maintenance in limiting degradations from becoming failures also are developed. These results are important first steps in degradation modeling, and show that degradation can be modeled to identify aging trends

  1. FUNCTIONAL MODELLING FOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORTEN LIND

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional modelling and its application for diagnosis in nuclear power plants. Functional modelling is defined and its relevance for coping with the complexity of diagnosis in large scale systems like nuclear plants is explained. The diagnosis task is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the levels of abstraction in models for diagnosis must reflect plant knowledge about goals and functions which is represented in functional modelling. Multilevel flow modelling (MFM, which is a method for functional modelling, is introduced briefly and illustrated with a cooling system example. The use of MFM for reasoning about causes and consequences is explained in detail and demonstrated using the reasoning tool, the MFMSuite. MFM applications in nuclear power systems are described by two examples: a PWR; and an FBR reactor. The PWR example show how MFM can be used to model and reason about operating modes. The FBR example illustrates how the modelling development effort can be managed by proper strategies including decomposition and reuse.

  2. Functional Modelling for fault diagnosis and its application for NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xin Xin [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-12-15

    The paper presents functional modelling and its application for diagnosis in nuclear power plants. Functional modelling is defined and its relevance for coping with the complexity of diagnosis in large scale systems like nuclear plants is explained. The diagnosis task is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the levels of abstraction in models for diagnosis must reflect plant knowledge about goals and functions which is represented in functional modelling. Multilevel flow modelling (MFM), which is a method for functional modelling, is introduced briefly and illustrated with a cooling system example. The use of MFM for reasoning about causes and consequences is explained in detail and demonstrated using the reasoning tool, the MFMSuite. MFM applications in nuclear power systems are described by two examples: a PWR; and an FBR reactor. The PWR example show how MFM can be used to model and reason about operating modes. The FBR example illustrates how the modelling development effort can be managed by proper strategies including decomposition and reuse.

  3. Functional Modelling for fault diagnosis and its application for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xin Xin

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents functional modelling and its application for diagnosis in nuclear power plants. Functional modelling is defined and its relevance for coping with the complexity of diagnosis in large scale systems like nuclear plants is explained. The diagnosis task is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the levels of abstraction in models for diagnosis must reflect plant knowledge about goals and functions which is represented in functional modelling. Multilevel flow modelling (MFM), which is a method for functional modelling, is introduced briefly and illustrated with a cooling system example. The use of MFM for reasoning about causes and consequences is explained in detail and demonstrated using the reasoning tool, the MFMSuite. MFM applications in nuclear power systems are described by two examples: a PWR; and an FBR reactor. The PWR example show how MFM can be used to model and reason about operating modes. The FBR example illustrates how the modelling development effort can be managed by proper strategies including decomposition and reuse.

  4. Cellular potts models multiscale extensions and biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scianna, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A flexible, cell-level, and lattice-based technique, the cellular Potts model accurately describes the phenomenological mechanisms involved in many biological processes. Cellular Potts Models: Multiscale Extensions and Biological Applications gives an interdisciplinary, accessible treatment of these models, from the original methodologies to the latest developments. The book first explains the biophysical bases, main merits, and limitations of the cellular Potts model. It then proposes several innovative extensions, focusing on ways to integrate and interface the basic cellular Potts model at the mesoscopic scale with approaches that accurately model microscopic dynamics. These extensions are designed to create a nested and hybrid environment, where the evolution of a biological system is realistically driven by the constant interplay and flux of information between the different levels of description. Through several biological examples, the authors demonstrate a qualitative and quantitative agreement with t...

  5. Application of parameters space analysis tools for empirical model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloma del Barrio, E. [LEPT-ENSAM UMR 8508, Talence (France); Guyon, G. [Electricite de France, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

    2004-01-01

    A new methodology for empirical model validation has been proposed in the framework of the Task 22 (Building Energy Analysis Tools) of the International Energy Agency. It involves two main steps: checking model validity and diagnosis. Both steps, as well as the underlying methods, have been presented in the first part of the paper. In this part, they are applied for testing modelling hypothesis in the framework of the thermal analysis of an actual building. Sensitivity analysis tools have been first used to identify the parts of the model that can be really tested on the available data. A preliminary diagnosis is then supplied by principal components analysis. Useful information for model behaviour improvement has been finally obtained by optimisation techniques. This example of application shows how model parameters space analysis is a powerful tool for empirical validation. In particular, diagnosis possibilities are largely increased in comparison with residuals analysis techniques. (author)

  6. The characteristics of intaking Cs-137 and Sr-90 with food by Ozyorsk's inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronova, M.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of intaking of radioactive substances with into the human organism food is interest of specialists now. It was actually when man made radiation especially nuclear weapons tests and nuclear power systems incidents has increased the global radiation average. It's known that radionuclides containing in the food are basic source of additional exposure of people. Radionuclides can move in biological systems. (author)

  7. Sr90 and Cs137 content in major types of food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Tables of 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in the major types of food stuffs in different regions of the USSR from 1963 to 1973, are presented. Maximum contamination is observed in 1963 and 1964. Variations of contamination of food stuffs depending upon fallout alterations during 1963-1964 are analyzed. The increased contamination of fish products, bread, deer meat and tea is observed in these years. The dependence of contamination of certain products on the area of their production is pointed out which makes possible a wide variation of results of investigations. It is established that the less contamination of food stuffs is observed in the areas with black soil. It is stated that 137 Cs contamination of food stuffs is several times higher than 90 Sr contamination, which is probably connected with a better 137 Cs uptake by vegetation from aerial fallouts

  8. The determination of Sr-90 in environmental material using an improved rapid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, A.; Veselsky, J.C.; Zhu, S.; Mirna, A.; Schelenz, R.

    1989-01-01

    A short report on strontium 90, its occurrence in the biosphere and its rapid determination methods is given. Classification of determination methods suitable for various environmental and biological materials is established. Interference due to Y-91 and a method to eliminate the activity of Y-90 and Y-91 is discussed. Tabs

  9. Determination of an Environmental Background Level of Sr-90 in Urine for the Hanford Bioassay Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Cheryl L.; Rivard, James W.

    2009-01-01

    During the decommissioning and maintenance of some of the facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, workers have potential for a 90Sr intake. However, because of worldwide radioactive fallout, 90Sr is present in our environment, and can be detectable in routine urine bioassay samples. It is important for the Hanford Site bioassay program to discern an occupational intake from a non-occupational environmental one. A detailed study of the background 90Sr in the urine of unexposed Hanford workers was performed. A survey of the Hanford Site bioassay database found 128 Hanford workers who were hired between 1997 and 2002 and who had a very low potential for an occupational exposure prior to the baseline strontium urinalysis. Each urinalysis sample represented excretion during an approximate 24-hr period. The arithmetic mean value for the 128 pre-exposure baselines was 3.6 ± 5.1 mBq d-1. The 90Sr activities in urine varied from -12 to 20 mBq. The 99th percentile result was 16.4 mBqd-1, which was interpreted to mean that 1% of Hanford workers not occupationally exposed to strontium might exceed 16.4 mBq d-1.

  10. Detection of Sr-90 in bones using a photoluminescence imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drissner, J [Inst. fuer Innovation und Transfer, Fachhochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, Weingarten (Germany); Kaminski, S [Inst. fuer Innovation und Transfer, Fachhochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, Weingarten (Germany); Koulikov, A O [A.N. Severtzov Inst. of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lindner, G [Inst. fuer Innovation und Transfer, Fachhochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, Weingarten (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Using a photoluminescence imaging system with BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} imaging plates and digital image processing the distribution of {sup 90}Sr radionuclides incorporated from the Chernobyl fallout in bones of fish was measured, which were caught in Kiev reservoir in 1992. According to the rings of annual growth of the analyzed bones (kleitrum) the time sequence of incorporation could be reconstructed resulting in incorporation maxima in 1986 for most samples, but n some samples also maxima corresponding to subsequent years were observed. The system was calibrated with synthetical samples of similar thickness made from bone powder and homogeneously doped with {sup 90}Sr standard solutions. The amount of {sup 90}Sr radioactivity in the bone samples, which was determined quantitatively after about one day of exposition, was in the order of 0,1 Bq. (orig.)

  11. Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ce-144 in commercial tea from several areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Qiu Yundian; Wang Zhihui; Wang Fenghua

    1993-01-01

    18 kinds of tea, most of which are famous products, were collected in 1985 from 10 provinces of China. More than 1 kg of manufactured tea was collected from each sampling location and ashed in a stainless steel pan by a rapid ashing apparatus made in China Institute for Radiation Protection. A 10 g aliquot of the ashed sample was subjected to radiochemical analysis for 90 Sr. 117 Cs and 144 Ce. Strontium, Cesium and Cerium carriers were added to the samples. The chemical yield of Sr, Cs and Ce were determined by weighting. After the radiochemical separation the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using a thin window methane gas-flow proportional counter normally for 100 min. Statistical error due to counting in generally was 90 Sr, 2.2 +- 0.9 Bq/kg for 137 Cs and 0.8 +- 0.2 Bq/kg for 144 Ce. Among these data, the content of 144 Ce in each tea sample is the lowest for its shorter lift. Higher values of 90 Sr concentration occurred in each tea sample than that of 137 Cs. This seems to be due to the fact that 137 Cs is tightly bound by soil than 90 Sr and the extent to which 90 Sr is absorbed from the soil by plants is greater than 137 Cs. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  12. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toader, M; Vasilache, R A [Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-09-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I{sup 131}, Cs{sup 134}, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90}. As in many other countries, in the first days, I{sup 131} had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs.

  13. Aminoacids used as radioprotective substances against Cs137 and Sr90 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danetskaya, E.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.; Troitskaya, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study on white rats into the radioprotective action of ten essential amino acids has that valine, arginine, and histidine all effect appreciably the life span and absorbed doses of the principal radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. When these amino acids are fed to rats, the survival rate increases and hemopoiesis tends to return to normal more rapidly; the reproductive function is unaffected. The mechanism of radioprotective action of these amino acids has been studied inadequately, but they seem to have a role to play in the metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds. The remaining amino acids have no protective action

  14. Blastomogenic effect of Cs137, Sr90 and Ca45 in single and chronic administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The blastomogenic actions of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 45 Ca were considered in experiments on white rats, and it was found that the site and type of tumor were determined by the organotropism of the radionuclide. With chronic administration of radionuclides, the tumor rate was low as compared to single-occasion administration

  15. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination transported by the river [3]. Local zones of enhanced 137Cs accumulation in soil samples and some plant species were found in island systems, and the Yenisey upper delta island in particular. Hydromica identified in samples was considered significant for 137Cs accumulation in floodplain soils. The distinct tendency of secondary redistribution of the global 137Cs fallout in soils due to wind and water transport and subsequent accumulation, 137Cs accumulation in topsoil and slightly over the permafrost table were characteristic for both catchments. Therefore 137Cs proved to be an effective isotope tracer for studying and mapping technogenic contamination and the recent processes of water and particulate mass transport on the global, regional and local scales. Obtained results may be useful for monitoring, eco-geochemical evaluation and regionalizing of the areas contaminated by artificial radionuclides. 1. Korobova E.M., Ermakov A., Linnik V., 1998. Applied Geochemistry 13, .7, 803-814. 2. E.M. Korobova, S.L. Romanov, 2009. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 99, 1-8. 3. E.M. Korobova, N.G. Ukraintseva, V.V. Surkov, J.E. Brown, W. Standring and A.P. Borisov, 2009. Eds: Mattia N. Gallo, Marco N. Ferrari. River Pollution Research Progress. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. N-Y, 91-156.

  16. Determination of Sr-90 in milk samples from the study of statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero-Pazos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of 90Sr in milk samples is the main objective of radiation monitoring laboratories because of its environmental importance. In this paper the concentration of activity of 39 milk samples was obtained through radiochemical separation based on selective retention of Sr in a cationic resin (Dowex 50WX8, 50-100 mesh and subsequent determination by a low-level proportional gas counter. The results were checked by performing the measurement of the Sr concentration by using the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy technique, to finally obtain the mass of 90Sr. From the data obtained a statistical treatment was performed using linear regressions. A reliable estimate of the mass of 90Sr was obtained based on the gravimetric technique, and secondly, the counts per minute of the third measurement in the 90Sr and 90Y equilibrium, without having to perform the analysis. These estimates have been verified with 19 milk samples, obtaining overlapping results. The novelty of the manuscript is the possibility of determining the concentration of 90Sr in milk samples, without the need to perform the third measurement in the equilibrium.

  17. Use of Chelex-100 for selectively removing Y-90 from its parent Sr-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A method for selectively removing yttrium-90 from its parent strontium-90 contained in an environmental sample includes loading the sample onto a column containing a chelating ion-exchange resin capable of retaining yttrium-90; washing the column with a solution capable of removing strontium, calcium, and other contaminants from the yttrium-90 fraction retained on the column; removing excess acetate salts from the column; eluting yttrium-90 solution from the column and adjusting the pH of this solution to about 2.7; filtering the yttrium-90 solution and weighing this solution for gravimetric yield; and, counting the yttrium-90 containing solution with a radiological counter for a time sufficient to achieve the statistical accuracy desired. It is preferred that the chelating ion-exchange resin is a ligand having the chemical name iminodiacetic acid mounted on a divinyl benzene substrate, converted from sodium form to ammonia form

  18. Application of Markowitz Model on Romanian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavera Ioana Coralia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of financial instruments has become a concern for more and more economists, while security trading activities have developed over time. “Modern portfolio theory” comprises statistical and mathematical models which describe various ways in order to evaluate and especially analyse profitability and risk of these portfolios. This article offers an application of this type of model on Romanian stock market, the Markowitz model, by focusing on portfolios comprising three securities, and determining the efficient frontier and the minimum variance portfolio.

  19. Equicontrollability and its application to model-following and decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. T.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of 'model following,' a term used to describe a class of problems characterized by having two dynamic systems, generically known as the 'plant' and the 'model,' it being required to find a controller to attach to the plant so as to make the resultant compensated system behave, in an input/output sense, in the same way as the model. The approach presented to the problem takes a structural point of view. The result is a complex but informative definition which solves the problem as posed. The application of both the algorithm and its basis, equicontrollability, to the decoupling problem is considered.

  20. Modelling and simulation of diffusive processes methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, SK

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the key issues in the modeling and simulation of diffusive processes from a wide spectrum of different applications across a broad range of disciplines. Features: discusses diffusion and molecular transport in living cells and suspended sediment in open channels; examines the modeling of peristaltic transport of nanofluids, and isotachophoretic separation of ionic samples in microfluidics; reviews thermal characterization of non-homogeneous media and scale-dependent porous dispersion resulting from velocity fluctuations; describes the modeling of nitrogen fate and transport

  1. New applications of a model of electromechanical impedance for SHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Vitalijs

    2014-03-01

    The paper focuses on the further development of the model of the electromechanical impedance (EMI) of the piezoceramics transducer (PZT) and its application for aircraft structural health monitoring (SHM). There was obtained an expression of the electromechanical impedance common to any dimension of models (1D, 2D, 3D), and directly independent from imposed constraints. Determination of the dynamic response of the system "host structure - PZT", which is crucial for the practical application supposes the use of modal analysis. This allows to get a general tool to determine EMI regardless of the specific features of a particular application. Earlier there was considered the technology of separate determination of the dynamic response for the PZT and the structural element". Here another version that involves the joint modal analysis of the entire system "host structure - PZT" is presented. As a result, the dynamic response is obtained in the form of modal decomposition of transducer mechanical strains. The use of models for the free and constrained transducer, analysis of the impact of the adhesive layer to the EMI is demonstrated. In all cases there was analyzed the influence of the dimension of the model (2D and 3D). The validity of the model is confirmed by experimental studies. Correlation between the fatigue crack length in a thin-walled Al plate and EMI of embedded PZT was simulated and compared with test result.

  2. Statistical modelling for recurrent events: an application to sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Gabbett, Tim J; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-09-01

    Injuries are often recurrent, with subsequent injuries influenced by previous occurrences and hence correlation between events needs to be taken into account when analysing such data. This paper compares five different survival models (Cox proportional hazards (CoxPH) model and the following generalisations to recurrent event data: Andersen-Gill (A-G), frailty, Wei-Lin-Weissfeld total time (WLW-TT) marginal, Prentice-Williams-Peterson gap time (PWP-GT) conditional models) for the analysis of recurrent injury data. Empirical evaluation and comparison of different models were performed using model selection criteria and goodness-of-fit statistics. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. The modelling approach is demonstrated through direct application to Australian National Rugby League recurrent injury data collected over the 2008 playing season. Of the 35 players analysed, 14 (40%) players had more than 1 injury and 47 contact injuries were sustained over 29 matches. The CoxPH model provided the poorest fit to the recurrent sports injury data. The fit was improved with the A-G and frailty models, compared to WLW-TT and PWP-GT models. Despite little difference in model fit between the A-G and frailty models, in the interest of fewer statistical assumptions it is recommended that, where relevant, future studies involving modelling of recurrent sports injury data use the frailty model in preference to the CoxPH model or its other generalisations. The paper provides a rationale for future statistical modelling approaches for recurrent sports injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Systems and models with anticipation in physics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, A

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of recent physics processes and real applications of models require the new more and more improved models which should involved new properties. One of such properties is anticipation (that is taking into accounting some advanced effects).It is considered the special kind of advanced systems – namely a strong anticipatory systems introduced by D. Dubois. Some definitions, examples and peculiarities of solutions are described. The main feature is presumable multivaluedness of the solutions. Presumable physical examples of such systems are proposed: self-organization problems; dynamical chaos; synchronization; advanced potentials; structures in micro-, meso- and macro- levels; cellular automata; computing; neural network theory. Also some applications for modeling social, economical, technical and natural systems are described.

  4. Modelling of a cross flow evaporator for CSP application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Franco, Alessandro; Pelagotti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    ) applications. Heat transfer and pressure drop prediction methods are an important tool for design and modelling of diabatic, two-phase, shell-side flow over a horizontal plain tubes bundle for a vertical up-flow evaporator. With the objective of developing a model for a specific type of cross flow evaporator...... the available correlations for the definition of two-phase flow heat transfer, void fraction and pressure drop in connection with the operation of steam generators, focuses attention on a comparison of the results obtained using several different models resulting by different combination of correlations......Heat exchangers consisting of bundles of horizontal plain tubes with boiling on the shell side are widely used in industrial and energy systems applications. A recent particular specific interest for the use of this special heat exchanger is in connection with Concentrated Solar Power (CSP...

  5. Model Oriented Application Generation for Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Copy, B; Blanco Vinuela, E; Fernandez Adiego, B; Nogueira Ferandes, R; Prieto Barreiro, I

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Unified Industrial Control Systems framework (UNICOS) is a software generation methodology and a collection of development tools that standardizes the design of industrial control applications [1]. A Software Factory, named the UNICOS Application Builder (UAB) [2], was introduced to ease extensibility and maintenance of the framework, introducing a stable metamodel, a set of platformindependent models and platformspecific configurations against which code generation plugins and configuration generation plugins can be written. Such plugins currently target PLC programming environments (Schneider and SIEMENS PLCs) as well as SIEMENS WinCC Open Architecture SCADA (previously known as ETM PVSS) but are being expanded to cover more and more aspects of process control systems. We present what constitutes the UNICOS metamodel and the models in use, how these models can be used to capture knowledge about industrial control systems and how this knowledge can be leveraged to generate both code and configuratio...

  6. Modelling of Electrokinetic Processes in Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    conditions are assumed between the aqueous species and the solid matrix for a set of feasible chemical equilibrium reactions defined for each specific application. A module for re-establishing the chemical equilibrium has been developed and included in the system for this purpose. Changes in the porosity......A mathematical model for the electrokinetic phenomena is described. Numerical simulations of different applications of electrokinetic techniques to the fields of civil and environmental engineering are included, showing the versatility and consistency of the model. The electrokinetics phenomena......-Nernst-Planck system of equations, accounting for ionic migration, chemical diffusion and advection is used for modeling the transport process. The advection term contributor is studied by including in the system the water transport through the porous media, mainly due to electroosmosis. The pore solution filling...

  7. Modelling, simulation and applications of longitudinal train dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Wu, Qing; Sun, Yan Quan

    2017-10-01

    Significant developments in longitudinal train simulation and an overview of the approaches to train models and modelling vehicle force inputs are firstly presented. The most important modelling task, that of the wagon connection, consisting of energy absorption devices such as draft gears and buffers, draw gear stiffness, coupler slack and structural stiffness is then presented. Detailed attention is given to the modelling approaches for friction wedge damped and polymer draft gears. A significant issue in longitudinal train dynamics is the modelling and calculation of the input forces - the co-dimensional problem. The need to push traction performances higher has led to research and improvement in the accuracy of traction modelling which is discussed. A co-simulation method that combines longitudinal train simulation, locomotive traction control and locomotive vehicle dynamics is presented. The modelling of other forces, braking propulsion resistance, curve drag and grade forces are also discussed. As extensions to conventional longitudinal train dynamics, lateral forces and coupler impacts are examined in regards to interaction with wagon lateral and vertical dynamics. Various applications of longitudinal train dynamics are then presented. As an alternative to the tradition single wagon mass approach to longitudinal train dynamics, an example incorporating fully detailed wagon dynamics is presented for a crash analysis problem. Further applications of starting traction, air braking, distributed power, energy analysis and tippler operation are also presented.

  8. Semantic Information Modeling for Emerging Applications in Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-04-16

    Smart Grid modernizes power grid by integrating digital and information technologies. Millions of smart meters, intelligent appliances and communication infrastructures are under deployment allowing advanced IT applications to be developed to secure and manage power grid operations. Demand response (DR) is one such emerging application to optimize electricity demand by curtailing/shifting power load when peak load occurs. Existing DR approaches are mostly based on static plans such as pricing policies and load shedding schedules. However, improvements to power management applications rely on data emanating from existing and new information sources with the growth of Smart Grid information space. In particular, dynamic DR algorithms depend on information from smart meters that report interval-based power consumption measurement, HVAC systems that monitor buildings heat and humidity, and even weather forecast services. In order for emerging Smart Grid applications to take advantage of the diverse data influx, extensible information integration is required. In this paper, we develop an integrated Smart Grid information model using Semantic Web techniques and present case studies of using semantic information for dynamic DR. We show the semantic model facilitates information integration and knowledge representation for developing the next generation Smart Grid applications.

  9. Medical applications of model-based dynamic thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Antoni; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Ruminski, Jacek; Hryciuk, Marcin; Renkielska, Alicja; Grudzinski, Jacek; Siebert, Janusz; Jagielak, Dariusz; Rogowski, Jan; Roszak, Krzysztof; Stojek, Wojciech

    2001-03-01

    The proposal to use active thermography in medical diagnostics is promising in some applications concerning investigation of directly accessible parts of the human body. The combination of dynamic thermograms with thermal models of investigated structures gives attractive possibility to make internal structure reconstruction basing on different thermal properties of biological tissues. Measurements of temperature distribution synchronized with external light excitation allow registration of dynamic changes of local temperature dependent on heat exchange conditions. Preliminary results of active thermography applications in medicine are discussed. For skin and under- skin tissues an equivalent thermal model may be determined. For the assumed model its effective parameters may be reconstructed basing on the results of transient thermal processes. For known thermal diffusivity and conductivity of specific tissues the local thickness of a two or three layer structure may be calculated. Results of some medical cases as well as reference data of in vivo study on animals are presented. The method was also applied to evaluate the state of the human heart during the open chest cardio-surgical interventions. Reference studies of evoked heart infarct in pigs are referred, too. We see the proposed new in medical applications technique as a promising diagnostic tool. It is a fully non-invasive, clean, handy, fast and affordable method giving not only qualitative view of investigated surfaces but also an objective quantitative measurement result, accurate enough for many applications including fast screening of affected tissues.

  10. Challenges of Microgrids in Remote Communities: A STEEP Model Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Akinyele

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the application of microgrids around the world because of their potential for achieving a flexible, reliable, efficient and smart electrical grid system and supplying energy to off-grid communities, including their economic benefits. Several research studies have examined the application issues of microgrids. However, a lack of in-depth considerations for the enabling planning conditions has been identified as a major reason why microgrids fail in several off-grid communities. This development requires research efforts that consider better strategies and framework for sustainable microgrids in remote communities. This paper first presents a comprehensive review of microgrid technologies and their applications. It then proposes the STEEP model to examine critically the failure factors based on the social, technical, economic, environmental and policy (STEEP perspectives. The model details the key dimensions and actions necessary for addressing the challenge of microgrid failure in remote communities. The study uses remote communities within Nigeria, West Africa, as case studies and demonstrates the need for the STEEP approach for better understanding of microgrid planning and development. Better insights into microgrid systems are expected to address the drawbacks and improve the situation that can lead to widespread and sustainable applications in off-grid communities around the world in the future. The paper introduces the sustainable planning framework (SPF based on the STEEP model, which can form a general basis for planning microgrids in any remote location.

  11. Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

  12. Human eye modelling for ophthalmic simulators project for clinic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Santos, Adimir dos; Yoriyaz, Helio

    2002-01-01

    Most of eye tumors are treated by surgical means, which involves the enucleation of affected eyes. In terms of treatment and control of diseases, there is brachytherapy, which often utilizes small applicator of Co-60, I-125, Ru-106, Ir-192, etc. These methods are shown to be very efficient but highly cost. The objective of this work is propose a detailed simulator modelling for eye characterization. Additionally, this study can contribute to design and build a new applicator in order to reduce the cost and to allow more patients to be treated

  13. Application of online modeling to the operation of SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, M.D.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Shoaee, H.

    1987-01-01

    Online computer models of first order beam optics have been developed for the commissioning, control and operation of the entire SLC including Damping Rings, Linac, Positron Return Line and Collider Arcs. A generalized online environment utilizing these models provides the capability for interactive selection of a desire optics configuration and for the study of its properties. Automated procedures have been developed which calculate and load beamline component set-points and which can scale magnet strengths to achieve desired beam properties for any Linac energy profile. Graphic displays facilitate comparison of design, desired and actual optical characteristics of the beamlines. Measured beam properties, such as beam emittance and dispersion, can be incorporated interactively into the models and used for beam matching and optimization of injection and extraction efficiencies and beam transmissions. The online optics modeling facility also serves as the foundation for many model-driven applications such as autosteering, calculation of beam launch parameters, emittance measurement and dispersion correction

  14. Application of online modeling to the operation of SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, M.D.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Shoaee, H.

    1987-02-01

    Online computer models of first order beam optics have been developed for the commissioning, control and operation of the entire SLC including Damping Rings, Linac, Positron Return Line and Collider Arcs. A generalized online environment utilizing these models provides the capability for interactive selection of a desired optics configuration and for the study of its properties. Automated procedures have been developed which calculate and load beamline component set-points and which can scale magnet strengths to achieve desired beam properties for any Linac energy profile. Graphic displays facilitate comparison of design, desired and actual optical characteristics of the beamlines. Measured beam properties, such as beam emittance and dispersion, can be incorporated interactively into the models and used for beamline matching and optimization of injection and extraction efficiencies and beam transmission. The online optics modeling facility also serves as the foundation for many model-driven applications such as autosteering, calculation of beam launch parameters, emittance measurement and dispersion correction

  15. Structural Equation Modeling: Theory and Applications in Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Yih Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystem dynamics are driven by a complex array of simultaneous cause-and-effect relationships. Understanding this complex web requires specialized analytical techniques such as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The SEM framework and implementation steps are outlined in this study, and we then demonstrate the technique by application to overstory-understory relationships in mature Douglas-fir forests in the northwestern USA. A SEM model was formulated with (1 a path model representing the effects of successively higher layers of vegetation on late-seral herbs through processes such as light attenuation and (2 a measurement model accounting for measurement errors. The fitted SEM model suggested a direct negative effect of light attenuation on late-seral herbs cover but a direct positive effect of northern aspect. Moreover, many processes have indirect effects mediated through midstory vegetation. SEM is recommended as a forest management tool for designing silvicultural treatments and systems for attaining complex arrays of management objectives.

  16. Road Assessment Model and Pilot Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of roads is an effective approach for road agencies to determine safety improvement investments. It can increases the cost-effective returns in crash and injury reductions. To get a powerful Chinese risk assessment model, Research Institute of Highway (RIOH is developing China Road Assessment Programme (ChinaRAP model to show the traffic crashes in China in partnership with International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP. The ChinaRAP model is based upon RIOH’s achievements and iRAP models. This paper documents part of ChinaRAP’s research work, mainly including the RIOH model and its pilot application in a province in China.

  17. Application of 3-dimensional CAD modeling system in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Minoru; Saito, Shunji; Nobuhiro, Minoru

    1990-01-01

    Until now, the preliminary work for mutual components in nuclear plant were readied by using plastic models. Recently with the development of computer graphic techniques, we can display the components on the graphics terminal, better than with use of plastic model and actual plants. The computer model can be handled, both telescopically and microscopically. A computer technique called 3-dimensional CAD modeling system was used as the preliminary work and design system. Through application of this system, database for nuclear plants was completed in arrangement step. The data can be used for piping design, stress analysis, shop production, testing and site construction, in all steps. In addition, the data can be used for various planning works, even after starting operation of plant. This paper describes the outline of the 3-dimensional CAD modeling system. (author)

  18. Application of Metamodels to Identification of Metallic Materials Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Pietrzyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the efficiency of the inverse analysis (IA for various material tests was the objective of the paper. Flow stress models and microstructure evolution models of various complexity of mathematical formulation were considered. Different types of experiments were performed and the results were used for the identification of models. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all the models and the importance of parameters in these models was evaluated. Metamodels based on artificial neural network were proposed to simulate experiments in the inverse solution. Performed analysis has shown that significant decrease of the computing times could be achieved when metamodels substitute finite element model in the inverse analysis, which is the case in the identification of flow stress models. Application of metamodels gave good results for flow stress models based on closed form equations accounting for an influence of temperature, strain, and strain rate (4 coefficients and additionally for softening due to recrystallization (5 coefficients and for softening and saturation (7 coefficients. Good accuracy and high efficiency of the IA were confirmed. On the contrary, identification of microstructure evolution models, including phase transformation models, did not give noticeable reduction of the computing time.

  19. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkhardt, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, I.; Cobaleda, C.; Hauer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  20. Computational spectrotemporal auditory model with applications to acoustical information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Tai-Shih

    A computational spectrotemporal auditory model based on neurophysiological findings in early auditory and cortical stages is described. The model provides a unified multiresolution representation of the spectral and temporal features of sound likely critical in the perception of timbre. Several types of complex stimuli are used to demonstrate the spectrotemporal information preserved by the model. Shown by these examples, this two stage model reflects the apparent progressive loss of temporal dynamics along the auditory pathway from the rapid phase-locking (several kHz in auditory nerve), to moderate rates of synchrony (several hundred Hz in midbrain), to much lower rates of modulations in the cortex (around 30 Hz). To complete this model, several projection-based reconstruction algorithms are implemented to resynthesize the sound from the representations with reduced dynamics. One particular application of this model is to assess speech intelligibility. The spectro-temporal Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF) of this model is investigated and shown to be consistent with the salient trends in the human MTFs (derived from human detection thresholds) which exhibit a lowpass function with respect to both spectral and temporal dimensions, with 50% bandwidths of about 16 Hz and 2 cycles/octave. Therefore, the model is used to demonstrate the potential relevance of these MTFs to the assessment of speech intelligibility in noise and reverberant conditions. Another useful feature is the phase singularity emerged in the scale space generated by this multiscale auditory model. The singularity is shown to have certain robust properties and carry the crucial information about the spectral profile. Such claim is justified by perceptually tolerable resynthesized sounds from the nonconvex singularity set. In addition, the singularity set is demonstrated to encode the pitch and formants at different scales. These properties make the singularity set very suitable for traditional

  1. Risk Measurement and Risk Modelling Using Applications of Vine Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper features an application of Regular Vine copulas which are a novel and recently developed statistical and mathematical tool which can be applied in the assessment of composite financial risk. Copula-based dependence modelling is a popular tool in financial applications, but is usually applied to pairs of securities. By contrast, Vine copulas provide greater flexibility and permit the modelling of complex dependency patterns using the rich variety of bivariate copulas which may be arranged and analysed in a tree structure to explore multiple dependencies. The paper features the use of Regular Vine copulas in an analysis of the co-dependencies of 10 major European Stock Markets, as represented by individual market indices and the composite STOXX 50 index. The sample runs from 2005 to the end of 2013 to permit an exploration of how correlations change indifferent economic circumstances using three different sample periods: pre-GFC (January 2005–July 2007, GFC (July 2007– September 2009, and post-GFC periods (September 2009–December 2013. The empirical results suggest that the dependencies change in a complex manner, and are subject to change in different economic circumstances. One of the attractions of this approach to risk modelling is the flexibility in the choice of distributions used to model co-dependencies. The practical application of Regular Vine metrics is demonstrated via an example of the calculation of the VaR of a portfolio made up of the indices.

  2. Structural equation modeling with EQS basic concepts, applications, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2013-01-01

    Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models. Written in a "user-friendly" style, the author "walks" the reader through the varied steps involved in the process of testing SEM models: model specification and estimation, assessment of model fit, EQS output, and interpretation of findings. Each of the book's applications is accompanied by: a statement of the hypothesis being tested, a schematic representation of the model, explanations of the EQS input and output files, tips on how to use the pull-down menus, and the data file upon which ...

  3. MOGO: Model-Oriented Global Optimization of Petascale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D.; Shende, Sameer S.

    2012-09-14

    The MOGO project was initiated under in 2008 under the DOE Program Announcement for Software Development Tools for Improved Ease-of-Use on Petascale systems (LAB 08-19). The MOGO team consisted of Oak Ridge National Lab, Argonne National Lab, and the University of Oregon. The overall goal of MOGO was to attack petascale performance analysis by developing a general framework where empirical performance data could be efficiently and accurately compared with performance expectations at various levels of abstraction. This information could then be used to automatically identify and remediate performance problems. MOGO was be based on performance models derived from application knowledge, performance experiments, and symbolic analysis. MOGO was able to make reasonable impact on existing DOE applications and systems. New tools and techniques were developed, which, in turn, were used on important DOE applications on DOE LCF systems to show significant performance improvements.

  4. Modelling and application of the inactivation of microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oğuzhan, P.; Yangılar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of consuming contaminated food with toxic microorganisms causing infections and consideration of food protection and new microbial inactivation methods are obligatory situations. Food microbiology is mainly related with unwanted microorganisms spoiling foods during processing and transporting stages and causing diseases. Determination of pathogen microorganisms is important for human health to define and prevent dangers and elongate shelf life. Inactivation of pathogen microorganisms can provide food security and reduce nutrient losses. Microbial inactivation which is using methods of food protection such as food safety and fresh. With this aim, various methods are used such as classical thermal processes (pasteurisation, sterilisation), pressured electrical field (PEF), ionised radiation, high pressure, ultrasonic waves and plasma sterilisation. Microbial inactivation modelling is a secure and effective method in food production. A new microbiological application can give useful results for risk assessment in food, inactivation of microorganisms and improvement of shelf life. Application and control methods should be developed and supported by scientific research and industrial applications

  5. Nonparametric model validations for hidden Markov models with applications in financial econometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2011-06-01

    We address the nonparametric model validation problem for hidden Markov models with partially observable variables and hidden states. We achieve this goal by constructing a nonparametric simultaneous confidence envelope for transition density function of the observable variables and checking whether the parametric density estimate is contained within such an envelope. Our specification test procedure is motivated by a functional connection between the transition density of the observable variables and the Markov transition kernel of the hidden states. Our approach is applicable for continuous time diffusion models, stochastic volatility models, nonlinear time series models, and models with market microstructure noise.

  6. Beginning SQL Server Modeling Model-driven Application Development in SQL Server

    CERN Document Server

    Weller, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Get ready for model-driven application development with SQL Server Modeling! This book covers Microsoft's SQL Server Modeling (formerly known under the code name "Oslo") in detail and contains the information you need to be successful with designing and implementing workflow modeling. Beginning SQL Server Modeling will help you gain a comprehensive understanding of how to apply DSLs and other modeling components in the development of SQL Server implementations. Most importantly, after reading the book and working through the examples, you will have considerable experience using SQL M

  7. Environmental Impacts of Large Scale Biochar Application Through Spatial Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, I.; Archontoulis, S.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to study the environmental (emissions, soil quality) and production (yield) impacts of biochar application at regional scales we coupled the APSIM-Biochar model with the pSIMS parallel platform. So far the majority of biochar research has been concentrated on lab to field studies to advance scientific knowledge. Regional scale assessments are highly needed to assist decision making. The overall objective of this simulation study was to identify areas in the USA that have the most gain environmentally from biochar's application, as well as areas which our model predicts a notable yield increase due to the addition of biochar. We present the modifications in both APSIM biochar and pSIMS components that were necessary to facilitate these large scale model runs across several regions in the United States at a resolution of 5 arcminutes. This study uses the AgMERRA global climate data set (1980-2010) and the Global Soil Dataset for Earth Systems modeling as a basis for creating its simulations, as well as local management operations for maize and soybean cropping systems and different biochar application rates. The regional scale simulation analysis is in progress. Preliminary results showed that the model predicts that high quality soils (particularly those common to Iowa cropping systems) do not receive much, if any, production benefit from biochar. However, soils with low soil organic matter ( 0.5%) do get a noteworthy yield increase of around 5-10% in the best cases. We also found N2O emissions to be spatial and temporal specific; increase in some areas and decrease in some other areas due to biochar application. In contrast, we found increases in soil organic carbon and plant available water in all soils (top 30 cm) due to biochar application. The magnitude of these increases (% change from the control) were larger in soil with low organic matter (below 1.5%) and smaller in soils with high organic matter (above 3%) and also dependent on biochar

  8. Handbook of EOQ inventory problems stochastic and deterministic models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Tsan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This book explores deterministic and stochastic EOQ-model based problems and applications, presenting technical analyses of single-echelon EOQ model based inventory problems, and applications of the EOQ model for multi-echelon supply chain inventory analysis.

  9. Bifurcation software in Matlab with applications in neuronal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Willy; Sautois, Bart

    2005-02-01

    Many biological phenomena, notably in neuroscience, can be modeled by dynamical systems. We describe a recent improvement of a Matlab software package for dynamical systems with applications to modeling single neurons and all-to-all connected networks of neurons. The new software features consist of an object-oriented approach to bifurcation computations and the partial inclusion of C-code to speed up the computation. As an application, we study the origin of the spiking behaviour of neurons when the equilibrium state is destabilized by an incoming current. We show that Class II behaviour, i.e. firing with a finite frequency, is possible even if the destabilization occurs through a saddle-node bifurcation. Furthermore, we show that synchronization of an all-to-all connected network of such neurons with only excitatory connections is also possible in this case.

  10. Instructional Storytelling: Application of the Clinical Judgment Model in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbrell, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the teaching and learning implications of instructional storytelling (IST) in nursing education or its potential connection to nursing theory. The literature establishes storytelling as a powerful teaching-learning method in the educational, business, humanities, and health sectors, but little exploration exists that is specific to nursing. An example of a story demonstrating application of the domains of Tanner's clinical judgment model links storytelling with learning outcomes appropriate for the novice nursing student. Application of Tanner's clinical judgment model offers consistency of learning experience while preserving the creativity inherent in IST. Further research into student learning outcomes achievement using IST is warranted as a step toward establishing best practices with IST in nursing education. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(5):305-308.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  12. Knowledge gobernanza model ah its applications in OTRIS. Two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno Campos, E.; Plaz Landela, R.; Albert Berenguer, J.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of I+D and knowledge transfer in European economies and in Technology and Innovation in Spain, is a key issue to achieve the Europe target for 2010 to become the European society of knowledge for growth. This article shows, with certain detail, the structure and functions of the MTT model used as a reference of processes needed to fulfil the mission of an OTRI and its function of knowledge transfer.Two concrete applications show the effectiveness and functionality of the model; CARTA and PRISMA applications are case studies of the MTT implementation process. They represent a first step through new developments that are being carried out in other OTRIS. (Author) 35 refs

  13. On Helical Projection and Its Application in Screw Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riliang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As helical surfaces, in their many and varied forms, are finding more and more applications in engineering, new approaches to their efficient design and manufacture are desired. To that end, the helical projection method that uses curvilinear projection lines to map a space object to a plane is examined in this paper, focusing on its mathematical model and characteristics in terms of graphical representation of helical objects. A number of interesting projective properties are identified in regard to straight lines, curves, and planes, and then the method is further investigated with respect to screws. The result shows that the helical projection of a cylindrical screw turns out to be a Jordan curve, which is determined by the screw's axial profile and number of flights. Based on the projection theory, a practical approach to the modeling of screws and helical surfaces is proposed and illustrated with examples, and its possible application in screw manufacturing is discussed.

  14. Modeling Types of Pedal Applications Using a Driving Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqing; Boyle, Linda Ng; McGehee, Daniel; Roe, Cheryl A; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variations in drivers' foot behavior and identify factors associated with pedal misapplications. Few studies have focused on the foot behavior while in the vehicle and the mishaps that a driver can encounter during a potentially hazardous situation. A driving simulation study was used to understand how drivers move their right foot toward the pedals. The study included data from 43 drivers as they responded to a series of rapid traffic signal phase changes. Pedal application types were classified as (a) direct hit, (b) hesitated, (c) corrected trajectory, and (d) pedal errors (incorrect trajectories, misses, slips, or pressed both pedals). A mixed-effects multinomial logit model was used to predict the likelihood of one of these pedal applications, and linear mixed models with repeated measures were used to examine the response time and pedal duration given the various experimental conditions (stimuli color and location). Younger drivers had higher probabilities of direct hits when compared to other age groups. Participants tended to have more pedal errors when responding to a red signal or when the signal appeared to be closer. Traffic signal phases and locations were associated with pedal response time and duration. The response time and pedal duration affected the likelihood of being in one of the four pedal application types. Findings from this study suggest that age-related and situational factors may play a role in pedal errors, and the stimuli locations could affect the type of pedal application. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Calibration Modeling Methodology to Optimize Performance for Low Range Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Raymond A.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration is a vital process in characterizing the performance of an instrument in an application environment and seeks to obtain acceptable accuracy over the entire design range. Often, project requirements specify a maximum total measurement uncertainty, expressed as a percent of full-scale. However in some applications, we seek to obtain enhanced performance at the low range, therefore expressing the accuracy as a percent of reading should be considered as a modeling strategy. For example, it is common to desire to use a force balance in multiple facilities or regimes, often well below its designed full-scale capacity. This paper presents a general statistical methodology for optimizing calibration mathematical models based on a percent of reading accuracy requirement, which has broad application in all types of transducer applications where low range performance is required. A case study illustrates the proposed methodology for the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System that employs seven strain-gage based pressure transducers mounted on the heatshield of the Mars Science Laboratory mission.

  16. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  17. Identifying influences on model uncertainty: an application using a forest carbon budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty is an important consideration for both developers and users of environmental simulation models. Establishing quantitative estimates of uncertainty for deterministic models can be difficult when the underlying bases for such information are scarce. We demonstrate an application of probabilistic uncertainty analysis that provides for refinements in...

  18. Sensitivity analysis technique for application to deterministic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, T.; Cazzoli, E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Unwin, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of sever accident source terms for light water reactors should include consideration of uncertainties. An important element of any uncertainty analysis is an evaluation of the sensitivity of the output probability distributions reflecting source term uncertainties to assumptions regarding the input probability distributions. Historically, response surface methods (RSMs) were developed to replace physical models using, for example, regression techniques, with simplified models for example, regression techniques, with simplified models for extensive calculations. The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for sensitivity analysis that does not utilize RSM, but instead relies directly on the results obtained from the original computer code calculations. The merits of this approach are demonstrated by application of the proposed method to the suppression pool aerosol removal code (SPARC), and the results are compared with those obtained by sensitivity analysis with (a) the code itself, (b) a regression model, and (c) Iman's method

  19. A sample application of nuclear power human resources model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgen, A.; Ergun, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important issues for a new comer country initializing the nuclear power plant projects is to have both quantitative and qualitative models for the human resources development. For the quantitative model of human resources development for Turkey, “Nuclear Power Human Resources (NPHR) Model” developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory was used to determine the number of people that will be required from different professional or occupational fields in the planning of human resources for Akkuyu, Sinop and the third nuclear power plant projects. The number of people required for different professions for the Nuclear Energy Project Implementation Department, the regulatory authority, project companies, construction, nuclear power plants and the academy were calculated. In this study, a sample application of the human resources model is presented. The results of the first tries to calculate the human resources needs of Turkey were obtained. Keywords: Human Resources Development, New Comer Country, NPHR Model

  20. Mathematical modeling for surface hardness in investment casting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2012-01-01

    Investment casting (IC) has many potential engineering applications. Not much work hitherto has been reported for modeling the surface hardness (SH) in IC of industrial components. In the present study, outcome of Taguchi based macro model has been used for developing a mathematical model for SH; using Buckingham's π theorem. Three input parameters namely volume/surface area (V/A) ratio of cast components, slurry layer's combination (LC) and molten metal pouring temperature were selected to give output in form of SH. This study will provide main effects of these variables on SH and will shed light on the SH mechanism in IC. The comparison with experimental results will also serve as further validation of model

  1. Modern methodology and applications in spatial-temporal modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a modern introductory tutorial on specialized methodological and applied aspects of spatial and temporal modeling. The areas covered involve a range of topics which reflect the diversity of this domain of research across a number of quantitative disciplines. For instance, the first chapter deals with non-parametric Bayesian inference via a recently developed framework known as kernel mean embedding which has had a significant influence in machine learning disciplines. The second chapter takes up non-parametric statistical methods for spatial field reconstruction and exceedance probability estimation based on Gaussian process-based models in the context of wireless sensor network data. The third chapter presents signal-processing methods applied to acoustic mood analysis based on music signal analysis. The fourth chapter covers models that are applicable to time series modeling in the domain of speech and language processing. This includes aspects of factor analysis, independent component an...

  2. Overview of the EPRI CONTRACTMIX model for natural gas applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Contract Mix Model (CONTRACTMIX) is designed to assist gas supply planners in analyzing the costs and risks of alternative supply strategies. By explicitly incorporating uncertainty about gas demand and market conditions into the analysis, the methodology permits the analyst to compare contracting strategies on the basis of cost and risk and to assess the value of flexible strategies and contracts. The model is applicable to purchase decisions for natural gas and other fuels. CONTRACTMIX may be used at all phases of supply decision-making, from broad strategy formulation to detailed contract design and evaluation. This document introduces the prospective user to the model's capability for analysis of gas supply contracting decisions. The document describes the types of problems CONTRACTMIX is designed to address as well as the model's structure, inputs, outputs, and unique features

  3. Quantummechanical multi-step direct models for nuclear data applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-10-01

    Various multi-step direct models have been derived and compared on a theoretical level. Subsequently, these models have been implemented in the computer code system KAPSIES, enabling a consistent comparison on the basis of the same set of nuclear parameters and same set of numerical techniques. Continuum cross sections in the energy region between 10 and several hundreds of MeV have successfully been analysed. Both angular distributions and energy spectra can be predicted in an essentially parameter-free manner. It is demonstrated that the quantum-mechanical MSD models (in particular the FKK model) give an improved prediction of pre-equilibrium angular distributions as compared to the experiment-based systematics of Kalbach. This makes KAPSIES a reliable tool for nuclear data applications in the afore-mentioned energy region. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghe Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionocovalency (IC, a quantitative dual nature of the atom, is defined and correlated with quantum-mechanical potential to describe quantitatively the dual properties of the bond. Orbiotal hybrid IC model scale, IC, and IC electronegativity scale, XIC, are proposed, wherein the ionicity and the covalent radius are determined by spectroscopy. Being composed of the ionic function I and the covalent function C, the model describes quantitatively the dual properties of bond strengths, charge density and ionic potential. Based on the atomic electron configuration and the various quantum-mechanical built-up dual parameters, the model formed a Dual Method of the multiple-functional prediction, which has much more versatile and exceptional applications than traditional electronegativity scales and molecular properties. Hydrogen has unconventional values of IC and XIC, lower than that of boron. The IC model can agree fairly well with the data of bond properties and satisfactorily explain chemical observations of elements throughout the Periodic Table.

  5. Development and application of new quality model for software projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnavel, K; Dillibabu, R

    2014-01-01

    The IT industry tries to employ a number of models to identify the defects in the construction of software projects. In this paper, we present COQUALMO and its limitations and aim to increase the quality without increasing the cost and time. The computation time, cost, and effort to predict the residual defects are very high; this was overcome by developing an appropriate new quality model named the software testing defect corrective model (STDCM). The STDCM was used to estimate the number of remaining residual defects in the software product; a few assumptions and the detailed steps of the STDCM are highlighted. The application of the STDCM is explored in software projects. The implementation of the model is validated using statistical inference, which shows there is a significant improvement in the quality of the software projects.

  6. Advances in Intelligent Modelling and Simulation Simulation Tools and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oplatková, Zuzana; Carvalho, Marco; Kisiel-Dorohinicki, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity to abstract complex systems and phenomena into simplified models has played a critical role in the rapid evolution of our modern industrial processes and scientific research. As a science and an art, Modelling and Simulation have been one of the core enablers of this remarkable human trace, and have become a topic of great importance for researchers and practitioners. This book was created to compile some of the most recent concepts, advances, challenges and ideas associated with Intelligent Modelling and Simulation frameworks, tools and applications. The first chapter discusses the important aspects of a human interaction and the correct interpretation of results during simulations. The second chapter gets to the heart of the analysis of entrepreneurship by means of agent-based modelling and simulations. The following three chapters bring together the central theme of simulation frameworks, first describing an agent-based simulation framework, then a simulator for electrical machines, and...

  7. Generalisation of geographic information cartographic modelling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackaness, William A; Sarjakoski, L Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale MappingUsers have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review

  8. Modeling of bubble dynamics in relation to medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, P.A.; London, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Strauss, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)]|[Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev] [and others

    1997-03-12

    In various pulsed-laser medical applications, strong stress transients can be generated in advance of vapor bubble formation. To better understand the evolution of stress transients and subsequent formation of vapor bubbles, two-dimensional simulations are presented in channel or cylindrical geometry with the LATIS (LAser TISsue) computer code. Differences with one-dimensional modeling are explored, and simulated experimental conditions for vapor bubble generation are presented and compared with data. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Modeling of bubble dynamics in relation to medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, P.A.; London, R.A.; Strauss, M.; Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba

    1997-01-01

    In various pulsed-laser medical applications, strong stress transients can be generated in advance of vapor bubble formation. To better understand the evolution of stress transients and subsequent formation of vapor bubbles, two-dimensional simulations are presented in channel or cylindrical geometry with the LATIS (LAser TISsue) computer code. Differences with one-dimensional modeling are explored, and simulated experimental conditions for vapor bubble generation are presented and compared with data. 22 refs., 8 figs

  10. Defined Contribution Model: Definition, Theory and an Application for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Ercen; Deniz Gokce

    1998-01-01

    Based on a numerical application that employs social and economic parameters of the Turkish economy, this study attempts to demonstrate that the current collapse in the Turkish social security system is not unavoidable. The present social security system in Turkey is based on the defined benefit model of pension provision. On the other hand, recent proposals for reform in the social security system are based on a multipillar system, where one of the alternatives is a defined contribution pens...

  11. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  12. Generalized Bogoliubov Polariton Model: An Application to Stock Exchange Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, Chu Thuy; Anh, Truong Thi Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-01-01

    A generalized Bogoliubov method for investigation non-simple and complex systems was developed. We take two branch polariton Hamiltonian model in second quantization representation and replace the energies of quasi-particles by two distribution functions of research objects. Application to stock exchange market was taken as an example, where the changing the form of return distribution functions from Boltzmann-like to Gaussian-like was studied. (paper)

  13. Modelling in waters geochemistry. Concepts and applications in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windt, L. de; Lee, J.V.D.; Schmitt, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to give the main point of the physico-chemical concepts and of the mathematical laws on which are based the geochemical modelling of waters, while presenting concrete and typical applications examples to the problems of environment and of water resources management. In a table (Doc. AF 6530) are gathered the distribution sources of softwares and of thermodynamic data banks. (O.M.)

  14. Sensors advancements in modeling, design issues, fabrication and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhash Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Sensors are the most important component in any system and engineers in any field need to understand the fundamentals of how these components work, how to select them properly and how to integrate them into an overall system. This book has outlined the fundamentals, analytical concepts, modelling and design issues, technical details and practical applications of different types of sensors, electromagnetic, capacitive, ultrasonic, vision, Terahertz, displacement, fibre-optic and so on. The book: addresses the identification, modeling, selection, operation and integration of a wide variety of se

  15. Synthesis of industrial applications of local approach to fracture models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eripret, C.

    1993-03-01

    This report gathers different applications of local approach to fracture models to various industrial configurations, such as nuclear pressure vessel steel, cast duplex stainless steels, or primary circuit welds such as bimetallic welds. As soon as models are developed on the basis of microstructural observations, damage mechanisms analyses, and fracture process, the local approach to fracture proves to solve problems where classical fracture mechanics concepts fail. Therefore, local approach appears to be a powerful tool, which completes the standard fracture criteria used in nuclear industry by exhibiting where and why those classical concepts become unvalid. (author). 1 tab., 18 figs., 25 refs

  16. Application of object modeling technique to medical image retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Fumiaki; Abe, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of discussions on the object-oriented analysis methodology, which is one of the object-oriented paradigms. In particular, we considered application of the object modeling technique (OMT) to the analysis of a medical image retrieval system. The object-oriented methodology places emphasis on the construction of an abstract model from real-world entities. The effectiveness of and future improvements to OMT are discussed from the standpoint of the system's expandability. These discussions have elucidated that the methodology is sufficiently well-organized and practical to be applied to commercial products, provided that it is applied to the appropriate problem domain. (author)

  17. Models and applications of chaos theory in modern sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Zeraoulia, Elhadj

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a select group of papers that provide a comprehensive view of the models and applications of chaos theory in medicine, biology, ecology, economy, electronics, mechanical, and the human sciences. Covering both the experimental and theoretical aspects of the subject, it examines a range of current topics of interest. It considers the problems arising in the study of discrete and continuous time chaotic dynamical systems modeling the several phenomena in nature and society-highlighting powerful techniques being developed to meet these challenges that stem from the area of nonli

  18. Recent Advances in Material and Geometrical Modelling in Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. S. Al Qahtani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article touched, in brief, the recent advances in dental materials and geometric modelling in dental applications. Most common categories of dental materials as metallic alloys, composites, ceramics and nanomaterials were briefly demonstrated. Nanotechnology improved the quality of dental biomaterials. This new technology improves many existing materials properties, also, to introduce new materials with superior properties that covered a wide range of applications in dentistry. Geometric modelling was discussed as a concept and examples within this article. The geometric modelling with engineering Computer-Aided-Design (CAD system(s is highly satisfactory for further analysis or Computer-Aided-Manufacturing (CAM processes. The geometric modelling extracted from Computed-Tomography (CT images (or its similar techniques for the sake of CAM also reached a sufficient level of accuracy, while, obtaining efficient solid modelling without huge efforts on body surfaces, faces, and gaps healing is still doubtable. This article is merely a compilation of knowledge learned from lectures, workshops, books, and journal articles, articles from the internet, dental forum, and scientific groups' discussions.

  19. Model oriented application generation for industrial control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copy, B.; Barillere, R.; Blanco, E.; Fernandez Adiego, B.; Nogueira Fernandes, R.; Prieto Barreiro, I.

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Unified Industrial Control Systems framework (UNICOS) is a software generation methodology and a collection of development tools that standardizes the design of industrial control applications. A Software Factory, named the UNICOS Application Builder (UAB), was introduced to ease extensibility and maintenance of the framework, introducing a stable meta-model, a set of platform-independent models and platform-specific configurations against which code generation plug-ins and configuration generation plug-ins can be written. Such plug-ins currently target PLC programming environments (Schneider and SIEMENS PLCs) as well as SIEMENS WinCC Open Architecture SCADA (previously known as ETM PVSS) but are being expanded to cover more and more aspects of process control systems. We present what constitutes the UNICOS meta-model and the models in use, how these models can be used to capture knowledge about industrial control systems and how this knowledge can be used to generate both code and configuration for a variety of target usages. (authors)

  20. Advances in Applications of Hierarchical Bayesian Methods with Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.; Boyer, E. W.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanistic and empirical watershed models are increasingly used to inform water resource decisions. Growing access to historical stream measurements and data from in-situ sensor technologies has increased the need for improved techniques for coupling models with hydrological measurements. Techniques that account for the intrinsic uncertainties of both models and measurements are especially needed. Hierarchical Bayesian methods provide an efficient modeling tool for quantifying model and prediction uncertainties, including those associated with measurements. Hierarchical methods can also be used to explore spatial and temporal variations in model parameters and uncertainties that are informed by hydrological measurements. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to develop a hybrid (statistical-mechanistic) SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) model of long-term mean annual streamflow across diverse environmental and climatic drainages in 18 U.S. hydrological regions. Our application illustrates the use of a new generation of Bayesian methods that offer more advanced computational efficiencies than the prior generation. Evaluations of the effects of hierarchical (regional) variations in model coefficients and uncertainties on model accuracy indicates improved prediction accuracies (median of 10-50%) but primarily in humid eastern regions, where model uncertainties are one-third of those in arid western regions. Generally moderate regional variability is observed for most hierarchical coefficients. Accounting for measurement and structural uncertainties, using hierarchical state-space techniques, revealed the effects of spatially-heterogeneous, latent hydrological processes in the "localized" drainages between calibration sites; this improved model precision, with only minor changes in regional coefficients. Our study can inform advances in the use of hierarchical methods with hydrological models to improve their integration with stream

  1. Dosimetric applications of the new ICRP lung model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has adopted a new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract, to be issued as ICRP Publication 66. This chapter presents a summary of the main measures of the new model. The model is a general update of that in Publication 30, but is significantly broader in scope. It applies explicitly to workers and all members of the public: for inhalation of particles, gases and vapors; evaluation of dose per unit intake or exposure; and interpretation of bioassay data. The approach is fundamentally different from the Publication 30 model which calculates only the average dose to the lungs. The new model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they may receive, and calculates specific tissue doses. The model readily incorporates specific information related to the subject (age, physical activity, smoking or health status) or the exposure (aerosol size and chemical form). The application of the new model to calculate equivalent lung dose and effective dose per unit intake is illustrated for several α- and ∂-emitting radionuclides, and the new values obtained are compared with those given by the ICRP Publication 30 lung model

  2. Integrated climate modelling at the Kiel Institute for World Economics: The DART Model and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Deke, Oliver; Peterson, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview over the DART model and its applications. The main focus is on the implementation of climate impacts into DART in the course of coupling DART to the ocean-atmosphere model and on the associated empirical problems. The basic DART model and some applications are presented in the next section. Section 3 describes in detail how the economic impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector and the impact of sea level rise are implemented in DART. Se...

  3. Modeling and identification of induction micromachines in microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyshevski, S.E. [Purdue University at Indianapolis (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which integrate motion microstructures, radiating energy microdevices, controlling and signal processing integrated circuits (ICs), are widely used. Rotational and translational electromagnetic based micromachines are used in MEMS as actuators and sensors. Brushless high performance micromachines are the preferable choice in different MEMS applications, and therefore, synchronous and induction micromachines are the best candidates. Affordability, good performance characteristics (efficiency, controllability, robustness, reliability, power and torque densities etc.) and expanded operating envelopes result in a strong interest in the application of induction micromachines. In addition, induction micromachines can be easily fabricated using surface micromachining and high aspect ratio fabrication technologies. Thus, it is anticipated that induction micromachines, controlled using different control algorithms implemented using ICs, will be widely used in MEMS. Controllers can be implemented using specifically designed ICs to attain superior performance, maximize efficiency and controllability, minimize losses and electromagnetic interference, reduce noise and vibration, etc. In order to design controllers, the induction micromachine must be modeled, and its mathematical model parameters must be identified. Using microelectromechanics, nonlinear mathematical models are derived. This paper illustrates the application of nonlinear identification methods as applied to identify the unknown parameters of three phase induction micromachines. Two identification methods are studied. In particular, nonlinear error mapping technique and least squares identification are researched. Analytical and numerical results, as well as practical capabilities and effectiveness, are illustrated, identifying the unknown parameters of a three phase brushless induction micromotor. Experimental results fully support the identification methods. (author)

  4. Research on mixed network architecture collaborative application model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changfeng; Zhao, Xi'an; Liang, Song

    2009-10-01

    When facing complex requirements of city development, ever-growing spatial data, rapid development of geographical business and increasing business complexity, collaboration between multiple users and departments is needed urgently, however conventional GIS software (such as Client/Server model or Browser/Server model) are not support this well. Collaborative application is one of the good resolutions. Collaborative application has four main problems to resolve: consistency and co-edit conflict, real-time responsiveness, unconstrained operation, spatial data recoverability. In paper, application model called AMCM is put forward based on agent and multi-level cache. AMCM can be used in mixed network structure and supports distributed collaborative. Agent is an autonomous, interactive, initiative and reactive computing entity in a distributed environment. Agent has been used in many fields such as compute science and automation. Agent brings new methods for cooperation and the access for spatial data. Multi-level cache is a part of full data. It reduces the network load and improves the access and handle of spatial data, especially, in editing the spatial data. With agent technology, we make full use of its characteristics of intelligent for managing the cache and cooperative editing that brings a new method for distributed cooperation and improves the efficiency.

  5. 2D modelling and its applications in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinbalik, M. Tahir; İRSEL, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    A model, in computer aided engineering applications, may be created by either using a two- dimensional or a three-dimensional design depending on the purpose of design. What matters most in this regard is the selection of a right method to meet system solution requirements in the most economical way. Manufacturability of a design that is developed by utilising computer aided engineering is important, but usability of the data obtained in the course of design works in the production is also equally important. In the applications consisting of such production operations as CNC or plasma cutting, two-dimensional designs can be directly used in production. These machines are equipped with interfaces which converts two-dimensional drawings into codes. In this way, a design can be directly transferred to production, and any arrangements during production process can be synchronously evaluated. As a result of this, investment expenses will be lowered, and thus the costs can be reduced to some extent. In the presented study, we have studied two-dimensional design applications and requirements. We created a two-dimensional design for a part for which a three-dimensional model have previously been generated, and then, we transferred this design to plasma cutting machine, and thus, the operation has been realized experimentally. Key words: Plasma Cutting, 2D modelling, flexibility

  6. 2D modelling and its applications in engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinbalik, M. Tahir; İRSEL, Gürkan [Trakya University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Mechanical Engineering Department, Edİrne (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    A model, in computer aided engineering applications, may be created by either using a two- dimensional or a three-dimensional design depending on the purpose of design. What matters most in this regard is the selection of a right method to meet system solution requirements in the most economical way. Manufacturability of a design that is developed by utilising computer aided engineering is important, but usability of the data obtained in the course of design works in the production is also equally important. In the applications consisting of such production operations as CNC or plasma cutting, two-dimensional designs can be directly used in production. These machines are equipped with interfaces which converts two-dimensional drawings into codes. In this way, a design can be directly transferred to production, and any arrangements during production process can be synchronously evaluated. As a result of this, investment expenses will be lowered, and thus the costs can be reduced to some extent. In the presented study, we have studied two-dimensional design applications and requirements. We created a two-dimensional design for a part for which a three-dimensional model have previously been generated, and then, we transferred this design to plasma cutting machine, and thus, the operation has been realized experimentally. Key words: Plasma Cutting, 2D modelling, flexibility.

  7. Applications of the k – ω Model in Stellar Evolutionary Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan, E-mail: ly@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China)

    2017-05-20

    The k – ω model for turbulence was first proposed by Kolmogorov. A new k – ω model for stellar convection was developed by Li, which could reasonably describe turbulent convection not only in the convectively unstable zone, but also in the overshooting regions. We revised the k – ω model by improving several model assumptions (including the macro-length of turbulence, convective heat flux, and turbulent mixing diffusivity, etc.), making it applicable not only for convective envelopes, but also for convective cores. Eight parameters are introduced in the revised k – ω model. It should be noted that the Reynolds stress (turbulent pressure) is neglected in the equation of hydrostatic support. We applied it into solar models and 5 M {sub ⊙} stellar models to calibrate the eight model parameters, as well as to investigate the effects of the convective overshooting on the Sun and intermediate mass stellar models.

  8. Computer models for fading channels with applications to digital transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Chun; Secord, Norman

    1991-11-01

    The authors describe computer models for Rayleigh, Rician, log-normal, and land-mobile-satellite fading channels. All computer models for the fading channels are based on the manipulation of a white Gaussian random process. This process is approximated by a sum of sinusoids with random phase angle. These models compare very well with analytical models in terms of their probability distribution of envelope and phase of the fading signal. For the land mobile satellite fading channel, results of level crossing rate and average fade duration are given. These results show that the computer models can provide a good coarse estimate of the time statistic of the faded signal. Also, for the land-mobile-satellite fading channel, the results show that a 3-pole Butterworth shaping filter should be used with the model. An example of the application of the land-mobile-satellite fading-channel model to predict the performance of a differential phase-shift keying signal is described.

  9. New Trends in Model Coupling Theory, Numerics and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquel, F.; Godlewski, E.; Herard, J. M.; Segre, J.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue comprises selected papers from the workshop New Trends in Model Coupling, Theory, Numerics and Applications (NTMC'09) which took place in Paris, September 2 - 4, 2009. The research of optimal technological solutions in a large amount of industrial systems requires to perform numerical simulations of complex phenomena which are often characterized by the coupling of models related to various space and/or time scales. Thus, the so-called multi-scale modelling has been a thriving scientific activity which connects applied mathematics and other disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology or even social sciences. To illustrate the variety of fields concerned by the natural occurrence of model coupling we may quote: meteorology where it is required to take into account several turbulence scales or the interaction between oceans and atmosphere, but also regional models in a global description, solid mechanics where a thorough understanding of complex phenomena such as propagation of cracks needs to couple various models from the atomistic level to the macroscopic level; plasma physics for fusion energy for instance where dense plasmas and collisionless plasma coexist; multiphase fluid dynamics when several types of flow corresponding to several types of models are present simultaneously in complex circuits; social behaviour analysis with interaction between individual actions and collective behaviour. (authors)

  10. AGR core models and their application to HTRs and RBMKs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylis, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    EDF Energy operates 14 AGRs, commissioned between 1976 and 1989. The graphite moderators of these gas cooled reactors are subjected to a number of ageing processes under fast neutron irradiation in a high temperature CO2 environment. As the graphite ages, continued safe operation requires an advanced whole-core modeling capability to enable accurate assessments of the core’s ability to fulfil fundamental nuclear safety requirements. This is also essential in evaluating the reactor's remaining economic lifetime, and similar assessments are useful for HTRs in the design stage. A number of computational and physical models of AGR graphite cores have been developed or are in development, allowing simulation of the reactors in normal, fault and seismic conditions. Many of the techniques developed are applicable to other graphite moderated reactors. Modeling of the RBMK allows validation against a core in a more advanced state of ageing than the AGRs, while there is also an opportunity to adapt the models for high temperature reactors. As an example, a finite element model of the HTR-PM side reflector based on rigid bodies and nonlinear springs is developed, allowing rapid assessments of distortion in the structure to be made. A model of the RBMK moderator has also been produced using an established AGR code based on similar methods. In addition, this paper discusses the limitations of these techniques and the development of more complex core models that address these limitations, along with the lessons that can be applied to HTRs. (author)

  11. Functional dynamic factor models with application to yield curve forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Spencer

    2012-09-01

    Accurate forecasting of zero coupon bond yields for a continuum of maturities is paramount to bond portfolio management and derivative security pricing. Yet a universal model for yield curve forecasting has been elusive, and prior attempts often resulted in a trade-off between goodness of fit and consistency with economic theory. To address this, herein we propose a novel formulation which connects the dynamic factor model (DFM) framework with concepts from functional data analysis: a DFM with functional factor loading curves. This results in a model capable of forecasting functional time series. Further, in the yield curve context we show that the model retains economic interpretation. Model estimation is achieved through an expectation- maximization algorithm, where the time series parameters and factor loading curves are simultaneously estimated in a single step. Efficient computing is implemented and a data-driven smoothing parameter is nicely incorporated. We show that our model performs very well on forecasting actual yield data compared with existing approaches, especially in regard to profit-based assessment for an innovative trading exercise. We further illustrate the viability of our model to applications outside of yield forecasting.

  12. Optimizing a gap conductance model applicable to VVER-1000 thermal–hydraulic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahgoshay, M.; Hashemi-Tilehnoee, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two known conductance models for application in VVER-1000 thermal–hydraulic code are examined. ► An optimized gap conductance model is developed which can predict the gap conductance in good agreement with FSAR data. ► The licensed thermal–hydraulic code is coupled with the gap conductance model predictor externally. -- Abstract: The modeling of gap conductance for application in VVER-1000 thermal–hydraulic codes is addressed. Two known models, namely CALZA-BINI and RELAP5 gap conductance models, are examined. By externally linking of gap conductance models and COBRA-EN thermal hydraulic code, the acceptable range of each model is specified. The result of each gap conductance model versus linear heat rate has been compared with FSAR data. A linear heat rate of about 9 kW/m is the boundary for optimization process. Since each gap conductance model has its advantages and limitation, the optimized gap conductance model can predict the gap conductance better than each of the two other models individually.

  13. Application of model based control to robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1988-01-01

    A robot that can duplicate humam motion capabilities in such activities as balancing, reaching, lifting, and moving has been built and tested. These capabilities are achieved through the use of real time Model-Based Control (MBC) techniques which have recently been demonstrated. MBC accounts for all manipulator inertial forces and provides stable manipulator motion control even at high speeds. To effectively demonstrate the unique capabilities of MBC, an experimental robotic manipulator was constructed, which stands upright, balancing on a two wheel base. The mathematical modeling of dynamics inherent in MBC permit the control system to perform functions that are impossible with conventional non-model based methods. These capabilities include: (1) Stable control at all speeds of operation; (2) Operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing; (3) Detection and monitoring of applied forces without the use of load sensors; (4) Manipulator safing via detection of abnormal loads. The full potential of MBC has yet to be realized. The experiments performed for this research are only an indication of the potential applications. MBC has no inherent stability limitations and its range of applicability is limited only by the attainable sampling rate, modeling accuracy, and sensor resolution. Manipulators could be designed to operate at the highest speed mechanically attainable without being limited by control inadequacies. Manipulators capable of operating many times faster than current machines would certainly increase productivity for many tasks.

  14. Bayesian statistic methods and theri application in probabilistic simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian statistic methods are facing a rapidly growing level of interest and acceptance in the field of health economics. The reasons of this success are probably to be found on the theoretical fundaments of the discipline that make these techniques more appealing to decision analysis. To this point should be added the modern IT progress that has developed different flexible and powerful statistical software framework. Among them probably one of the most noticeably is the BUGS language project and its standalone application for MS Windows WinBUGS. Scope of this paper is to introduce the subject and to show some interesting applications of WinBUGS in developing complex economical models based on Markov chains. The advantages of this approach reside on the elegance of the code produced and in its capability to easily develop probabilistic simulations. Moreover an example of the integration of bayesian inference models in a Markov model is shown. This last feature let the analyst conduce statistical analyses on the available sources of evidence and exploit them directly as inputs in the economic model.

  15. Towards Industrial Application of Damage Models for Sheet Metal Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, M.; Roll, K.

    2011-05-01

    Due to global warming and financial situation the demand to reduce the CO2-emission and the production costs leads to the permanent development of new materials. In the automotive industry the occupant safety is an additional condition. Bringing these arguments together the preferable approach for lightweight design of car components, especially for body-in-white, is the use of modern steels. Such steel grades, also called advanced high strength steels (AHSS), exhibit a high strength as well as a high formability. Not only their material behavior but also the damage behavior of AHSS is different compared to the performances of standard steels. Conventional methods for the damage prediction in the industry like the forming limit curve (FLC) are not reliable for AHSS. Physically based damage models are often used in crash and bulk forming simulations. The still open question is the industrial application of these models for sheet metal forming. This paper evaluates the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and the model of Lemaitre within commercial codes with a goal of industrial application.

  16. Identifying optimal agricultural countermeasure strategies for a hypothetical contamination scenario using the strategy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Oughton, D.; Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Thorring, H.; Hunt, J.; Wright, S.; Barnett, C.L.; Gil, J.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A spatially implemented model designed to assist the identification of optimal countermeasure strategies for radioactively contaminated regions is described. Collective and individual ingestion doses for people within the affected area are estimated together with collective exported ingestion dose. A range of countermeasures are incorporated within the model, and environmental restrictions have been included as appropriate. The model evaluates the effectiveness of a given combination of countermeasures through a cost function which balances the benefit obtained through the reduction in dose with the cost of implementation. The optimal countermeasure strategy is the combination of individual countermeasures (and when and where they are implemented) which gives the lowest value of the cost function. The model outputs should not be considered as definitive solutions, rather as interactive inputs to the decision making process. As a demonstration the model has been applied to a hypothetical scenario in Cumbria (UK). This scenario considered a published nuclear power plant accident scenario with a total deposition of 1.7 x 10 14 , 1.2 x 10 13 , 2.8 x 10 10 and 5.3 x 10 9 Bq for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239/240 and Am-241, respectively. The model predicts that if no remediation measures were implemented the resulting collective dose would be approximately 36 000 person-Sv (predominantly from 137 Cs) over a 10-year period post-deposition. The optimal countermeasure strategy is predicted to avert approximately 33 000 person-Sv at a cost of approximately pound 160 million. The optimal strategy comprises a mixture of ploughing, AFCF (ammonium-ferric hexacyano-ferrate) administration, potassium fertiliser application, clean feeding of livestock and food restrictions. The model recommends specific areas within the contaminated area and time periods where these measures should be implemented

  17. Influence of rainfall observation network on model calibration and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bárdossy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of the rainfall input on the model calibration and application. The analysis is carried out by varying the distribution of the raingauge network. A meso-scale catchment located in southwest Germany has been selected for this study. First, the semi-distributed HBV model is calibrated with the precipitation interpolated from the available observed rainfall of the different raingauge networks. An automatic calibration method based on the combinatorial optimization algorithm simulated annealing is applied. The performance of the hydrological model is analyzed as a function of the raingauge density. Secondly, the calibrated model is validated using interpolated precipitation from the same raingauge density used for the calibration as well as interpolated precipitation based on networks of reduced and increased raingauge density. Lastly, the effect of missing rainfall data is investigated by using a multiple linear regression approach for filling in the missing measurements. The model, calibrated with the complete set of observed data, is then run in the validation period using the above described precipitation field. The simulated hydrographs obtained in the above described three sets of experiments are analyzed through the comparisons of the computed Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and several goodness-of-fit indexes. The results show that the model using different raingauge networks might need re-calibration of the model parameters, specifically model calibrated on relatively sparse precipitation information might perform well on dense precipitation information while model calibrated on dense precipitation information fails on sparse precipitation information. Also, the model calibrated with the complete set of observed precipitation and run with incomplete observed data associated with the data estimated using multiple linear regressions, at the locations treated as

  18. Time Series Analysis, Modeling and Applications A Computational Intelligence Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Temporal and spatiotemporal data form an inherent fabric of the society as we are faced with streams of data coming from numerous sensors, data feeds, recordings associated with numerous areas of application embracing physical and human-generated phenomena (environmental data, financial markets, Internet activities, etc.). A quest for a thorough analysis, interpretation, modeling and prediction of time series comes with an ongoing challenge for developing models that are both accurate and user-friendly (interpretable). The volume is aimed to exploit the conceptual and algorithmic framework of Computational Intelligence (CI) to form a cohesive and comprehensive environment for building models of time series. The contributions covered in the volume are fully reflective of the wealth of the CI technologies by bringing together ideas, algorithms, and numeric studies, which convincingly demonstrate their relevance, maturity and visible usefulness. It reflects upon the truly remarkable diversity of methodological a...

  19. Clinical application of the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Presnall, Jennifer Ruth

    2013-12-01

    The Five-Factor Model (FFM) has become the predominant dimensional model of general personality structure. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a clinical application. A substantial body of research indicates that the personality disorders included within the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) can be understood as extreme and/or maladaptive variants of the FFM (the acronym "DSM" refers to any particular edition of the APA DSM). In addition, the current proposal for the forthcoming fifth edition of the DSM (i.e., DSM-5) is shifting closely toward an FFM dimensional trait model of personality disorder. Advantages of this shifting conceptualization are discussed, including treatment planning. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Improved dual sided doped memristor: modelling and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Shrivastava

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Memristor as a novel and emerging electronic device having vast range of applications suffer from poor frequency response and saturation length. In this paper, the authors present a novel and an innovative device structure for the memristor with two active layers and its non-linear ionic drift model for an improved frequency response and saturation length. The authors investigated and compared the I–V characteristics for the proposed model with the conventional memristors and found better results in each case (different window functions for the proposed dual sided doped memristor. For circuit level simulation, they developed a SPICE model of the proposed memristor and designed some logic gates based on hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor memristive logic (memristor ratioed logic. The proposed memristor yields improved results in terms of noise margin, delay time and dynamic hazards than that of the conventional memristors (single active layer memristors.