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Sample records for squamous metaplasia development

  1. Squamous metaplasia of lactiferous ducts (SMOLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, G.; Dessauvagie, B.; Sterrett, G.; Bourke, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to illustrate the mammographic and sonographic appearances of squamous metaplasia of the lactiferous ducts (SMOLD) and to discuss the disease processes of this uncommon breast disease, which shows a strong correlation with smoking. The most common mammographic appearance is of a retro-areolar asymmetrical density. Ultrasonography of the symptomatic breast typically shows a retro-areolar, predominately medial, ill-defined, hypoechoic lesion with either abscess or sinus/fistula formation. Duct dilatation and continuity with lactiferous ducts is commonly seen. Increased vascularity is occasionally seen on colour Doppler ultrasound. Pathology tissue confirmation is always required and this can be by histology of a core biopsy or excision specimen, or fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Occasionally smears of an associated abundant nipple or sinus discharge may be of value.

  2. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia

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    Bagga Permeet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium is a rare entity. Only 64 cases have been documented in the literature. We report a case of 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal distention and blood-stained vaginal discharge for 6-7 months. Clinically, chronic pyometra was considered. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia.

  3. APR-246/PRIMA-1Met Inhibits and Reverses Squamous Metaplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium.

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    Li, Jing; Li, Cheng; Wang, Guoliang; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Pei; Yang, Qichen; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. In this study, we investigated the effect of a small molecule, APR-246/PRIMA-1(Met), on squamous metaplasia in human conjunctival epithelium. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions. Epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation were assessed by Cytokeratin 10 (K10), K14, K19, Pax6, MUC5AC, and p63 immunostaining patterns. β-catenin and TCF-4 immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR characterized Wnt signaling pathway involvement. Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR-246 for 4 days. p63, K10, β-catenin, and TCF-4 expression in pterygial epithelium was determined by immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR. Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination. Such pathology was accompanied by increases in K10, K14, and p63 expression, whereas K19 and Pax6 levels declined when compared to those in freshly isolated tissue. On the other hand, APR-246 reversed all of these declines in K10, K14, and p63 expression. Furthermore, K19 and Pax6 increased along with rises in goblet cell density. These effects of APR-246 were accompanied by near restoration of normal conjunctival epithelial histology. APR-246 also reversed squamous metaplasia in pterygial epithelium that had developed after 4 days in ex vivo culture. Reductions in squamous metaplasia induced by APR-246 suggest it may provide a novel therapeutic approach in different squamous metaplasia-associated ocular surface diseases.

  4. Mechanisms of asbestos-induced squamous metaplasia in tracheobronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, G.; Woodworth, C.D.; Edmondson, S.; Mossman, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Within 1 to 4 weeks after exposure to asbestos, differentiated rodent and human tracheobronchial epithelial cells in organ culture undergo squamous metaplasia, a putative preneoplastic lesion characterized by conversion of mucociliary cell types to keratinizing cells. The exogenous addition of retinal acetate (RA) to culture medium of hamster tracheal organ cultures reverses preestablished, asbestos-induced squamous metaplasia, although data suggest that the effectiveness of RA decreases as the length of time between exposure to asbestos and initial application of RA increases. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), inhibits squamous metaplasia caused by asbestos or vitamin A deficiency, whereas addition of methylglyoxal bis(guanyl-hydrazone) (MGBG), a structural analog of spermidine and inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, causes an enhancement of metaplasia under both circumstances. Basal cell hyperplasia and increased incorporation of 3 H-thymidine by tracheal epithelial cells also are seen after addition of the polyamines, putrescine or spermidine, to tracheal organ cultures, an observation supporting the importance of polyamines in the development of this lesion. The use of retinoids and inhibitors of ODC could be promising as preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for individuals at high risk for development of asbestos-associated diseases

  5. Epithelial cyst of the spleen with squamous metaplasia: a rare entity.

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    Shanthi, Vissa; Reddy, Vengala Chidananda; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Grandhi, Bhavana; Kona, Suneetha

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial splenic cysts are uncommon lesions which occur the spleen. The aetiopathogenesis of these cysts is not clear. We are reporting a case of an epithelial cyst which occurred in the spleen in a 40-year-old female, which was multi loculated and which had flattened lining epithelium. Some foci showed squamous metaplasia.

  6. Squamous metaplasia as a manifestation of urogenital schistosomiasis and its complications

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    A. Yu. Kolmakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leukoplakia or squamous metaplasia (SM of the bladder detect with the endoscopic diagnostic with urothelial biopsy. The reason for the development of SM, besides irritation of a mucous membrane by chemical reagents or drugs, is prolonged exposure of schistosome eggs (Schistosoma haematobium, penetrating into the bladder during invasion. The most common cause of urothelial SM is urogenital schistosomiasis (US and one of the most known and dangerous its complications is schistosomiasis bladder cancer (sBC. Features of cellular mechanisms linking the schistosomes invasion with the development of sBC are not well studied. Urothelial SM use to indicate by the presence of cancerous transformation, or may be a marker of long-term inflammation. The flow of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder usually is accompanied by a keratinizing SM. Taking into account the socio-political conditions of the modern world and the development of tourism, the relevance of the diagnosis and treatment of patients with those diseases continues to grow. Materials and methods. The results of observation the group of 181 residents of the Republic of Angola with gross haematuria analyzed from 2009 till 2010. US verified in all cases. We conducted urine tests for detection of schistosomes, cytological examination of urine sediment (CEUS, ultrasound and endoscopic diagnostic methods, biopsy of the urothelium. The database of the hospitals used in the statistical analysis.Results. In 142 (78.5 % cases uncomplicated US confirmed, at 39 (21.5 % patients sBC revealed. Schistosomes invasion and trichomonas were combined in 21 (14.8 % cases. Changes and thickness of the bladder wall by ultrasound were accompanied with the SM in 26.8 % cases. The combination of SM and hydronephrosis caused by ureteral stenosis due to US were founded in 2 (1.4 % cases. The coincidence cases of PM with ultrasound picture, featuring for manifestations US did not exceed 14

  7. Squamous metaplasia induced by transfection of human papillomavirus DNA into cultured adenocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kinjo, T; Kamiyama, K; Chinen, K; Iwamasa, T; Kurihara, K; Hamada, T

    2003-01-01

    Background/Aim: It has been reported previously in cases of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung in Okinawa, a subtropical island 2000 km south of mainland Japan, that the squamous cell carcinoma components were positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH). The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma components were enlarged and also positive for HPV. This is thought to indicate that after adenocarcinoma cells are infected with HPV, ...

  8. Alimentary factors in the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia in functional dyspeptic patients

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    Aline Gamarra Taborda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach is a lesion in which metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells occurs for an intestinal phenotype. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a lesion associated with an increase in the risk of gastric carcinoma development. Epidemiologic studies indicate a relation between dietary habits and stomach cancer development, some habits increasing the risk for it, and others have a protective effect, suggesting that antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E, decrease the risk of this type of cancer. The relationship of these alimentary factors and intestinal metaplasia is unknown. METHODS: It is a case-control, observational study in which 320 patients with functional dyspepsia, divided in two groups, were assessed. The case I group (individuals with intestinal metaplasia had their dietary pattern compared to that of the control group, constituted of individuals similar to those in the case group but without intestinal metaplasia, through a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The analysis of the dietary pattern of functional dyspeptic patients with intestinal metaplasia, and its comparison with those without intestinal metaplasia, showed a higher frequency of canned and smoked foods consumption in the first group and, on the other hand, a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in patients without intestinal metaplasia. No effect of salt consumption was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest changes in the diet, with a decrease in the consumption of smoked and canned foods, and an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, can lead to a diminution of gastric intestinal metaplasia cases.

  9. Inability to induce tympanic squamous metaplasia using organochlorine compounds in vitamin A-deficient red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

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    Kroenlein, Karl R; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Holladay, Steven D; Joyner, Priscilla H; Brown, Justin D; Griffin, Mark; Saunders, Geoffrey; Smith, Stephen A

    2008-07-01

    Previously, we reported that wild eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses contained higher body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds than those without the lesion. This lesion in captive chelonians is associated with turtles that are fed diets deficient in vitamin A. To examine the pathophysiology of this lesion and evaluate the relationship between OC burdens and vitamin A metabolism, we maintained red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) under different conditions of OC exposure and dietary vitamin A concentrations from August 2005 to February 2006. Dietary vitamin A concentration (0 or 5 international units/g in the diet) and OC exposure (no OC compound or the mixture of 2 mg/kg chlordane, 0.25 mg/kg aroclor, and 1 mg/kg lindane) did not affect histologic score based on degree of squamous metaplasia of the tympanic epithelium or levels of plasma or liver vitamin A among the study groups. The results of this study suggest that 6 mo of exposure to the selected OC compounds, or similar duration of reduced dietary vitamin A concentrations do not influence the formation of squamous metaplasia and aural abscesses in red-eared sliders. Further studies are required to determine whether the duration of the experiment was insufficient, the OC compounds selected were inappropriate, the dosing was incorrect, and whether there are other unknown mechanisms causing the reported association between OC exposure and aural abscesses seen in eastern box turtles.

  10. Serine protease inhibitor A3K suppressed the formation of ocular surface squamous metaplasia in a mouse model of experimental dry eye.

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    Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Wang, Yuqian; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jie; Luo, Pingping; He, Hui; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo

    2014-08-07

    To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of serine protease inhibitor A3K (SERPINA3K) on the formation of ocular surface squamous metaplasia in a mouse dry eye model induced by topical benzalkonium chloride (BAC). The eye drops containing SERPINA3K were topically administered during the induction of BAC-induced dry eye. The clinical indications of dry eye were evaluated on day (D)16, including tear break-up time (BUT), tear volume, corneal fluorescein staining, and inflammatory index. Global specimens were collected on D16 and the following examinations were performed: histologic investigation, immunostaining of cytokeratin 10 (K10), p63 and Ki67 in the cornea, and Western blot analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Serine protease inhibitor A3K suppressed the formation of BAC-induced dry eye, presenting with longer BUTs, lower corneal fluorescein staining scores, and inflammatory index, while no significant changes in tear volume. It also reduced the severity of abnormal differentiation and proliferation on ocular surface with lower expressions of K10, p63, and Ki67, and retained the number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix. Serine protease inhibitor A3K significantly decreased the levels of TNF-α in the cornea. Topical application of SERPINA3K ameliorated the severity of ocular surface squamous metaplasia and suppressed the formation of BAC-induced dry eye. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Fat metaplasia and backfill are key intermediaries in the development of sacroiliac joint ankylosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Wichuk, Stephanie; Chiowchanwisawakit, Praveena

    2014-01-01

    step in this pathway. METHODS: We used the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) SI structural lesion score (SSS) method to assess fat metaplasia, erosions, backfill, and ankylosis on MRIs of the SI joints in 147 patients with AS monitored for 2 years. Univariate and multivariate...... regression analyses focused first on identifying significant MRI predictors of new backfill and fat metaplasia. We then assessed the role of backfill and fat metaplasia in the development of new ankylosis. All analyses were adjusted for demographic features, treatment, and baseline and 2-year change in SSS...

  12. Helicobacter pylori as a crucial factor in intestinal metaplasia development of gastric mucosa

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    Sergii Vernygorodskyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is detected on the surface of gastric epithelium and in goblet cells, predominantly in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and incomplete intestinal metaplasia (IM. H. pylori infection persistence leads to the formation of gastrointestinal phenotype of IM. H. pylori can be considered as an etiological factor of IM. It inhibits the expression of SOX2 in gastric epithelial cells, hence activating transcription factor CDX2 as a counterpart to MUC5AC gene inhibition and MUC2 gene induction. Thus, in metaplastic cells, programming differentiation after intestinal phenotype will develop. The role of H. pylori in the origin of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was defined in this study to elucidate the probable mechanism of cell reprogramming. The activation of CDX2, with simultaneous inactivation and decreased number of genes (e.g., SHH, SOX2, and RUNX3 responsible for gastric differentiation, was identified to cause the appearance of IM.

  13. A Review and Update on Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Uterine Cervix: A Distinct Subset of Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion, Proposing a Possible Cell of Origin.

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    Hong, Soon Auck; Yoo, Su Hyun; Choi, Jene; Robboy, Stanley J; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2018-04-13

    - Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) is a known papillary cervical lesion associated with low-risk human papilloma virus (LR-HPV). - To evaluate additional clinicopathologic features and the HPV genotypes of PIM and discuss the presumptive cell of origin. - A total of 26 PIM cases were evaluated by p16 INK4a , cytokeratin (CK) 7, and CK17 immunohistochemical stainings. Human papilloma virus genotyping was performed, by using HPV DNA Chip, HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR. - Histologically, PIM forms either a papillary mass (n = 21 of 26, 81%) or a slightly elevated/flat plaque (n = 5, 19%). All cases contain variable amounts of mucinous epithelia within the lesions. Koilocytosis was identified in 15 of the 26 cases (58%). Sixteen cases (61%) were associated with LR-HPV (types 6, 11, or 42), but 3 cases (12%) with high-risk (HR) HPV (16, 16/18, and 33), 2 cases (8%) with mixed LR- and HR-HPV (6/16 and 11/58), while 2 cases (8%) were negative, but p16 INK4a immunostaining showed nonblock positivity in all cases. Eight (31%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in the adjacent mucosa, 4 (50%) of which showed direct continuity. Identical HPV subtypes were confirmed in separately microdissected cases from PIM and adjacent HSIL. Most lesions (n = 24, 92%) expressed CK17 (reserve cell marker) in a bottom-heavy pattern and CK7 (squamocolumnar junction [SCJ] marker) in a top-heavy pattern, while most cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) were negative for both markers. - Our results suggest that PIM is a distinct subset of LSIL showing a productive HPV infection, but PIM involves the transformation zone and is proximal to SCJ, while LSIL is mostly from ectocervix or distal to the SCJ.

  14. Influence of gastric pH modifiers on development of intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Okamoto, Taro; Fudaba, Yasuhiro; Ogundigie, P.S.; Ito, Akihiro

    1993-01-01

    The influence of gastric pH on intestinal metaplasia was examined in male Crj:CD(SD) rats. At the age of 5 weeks, animals were irradiated with two 10 Gy doses of X-rays to the gastric region at a 3-day interval (total 20 Gy), and 6 months after irradiation, received either secretin or histamine in silicon tubes for 2 months or had their bilateral submandibular salivary glands removed. The incidences of intestinal metaplasia in the fundus of animals after administration of secretin or histamine, or removal of the salivary glands were reduced, along with the pH values, as compared with values for rats given X-rays alone. In both the pyloric and the fundic gland mucosae, the numbers of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive foci and type B metaplasias (intestinal crypts without Paneth cells) were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). In a second experiment, started six months after irradiation, rats were kept on 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) diet for 6 months. Subsequent removal of salivary glands along with histamine treatment brought about a marked drop in pH and in numbers of ALP-positive foci after three and five days. The present results thus indicated that development and maintenance of intestinal metaplasia can be influenced by a decrease of pH value. (author)

  15. Columnar metaplasia in a surgical mouse model of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not derived from bone marrow-derived cell.

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    Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased in the last 25 years. Columnar metaplasia in Barrett's mucosa is assumed to be a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the induction process of Barrett's mucosa is still unknown. To analyze the induction of esophageal columnar metaplasia, we established a mouse gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) model with associated development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. C57BL/6 mice received side-to-side anastomosis of the esophagogastric junction with the jejunum, and mice were killed 10, 20, and 40 weeks after operation. To analyze the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to columnar metaplasia in this surgical GERD model, some mice were transplanted with GFP-marked bone marrow after the operation. Seventy-three percent of the mice (16/22) showed thickened mucosa in esophagus and 41% of mice (9/22) developed columnar metaplasia 40 weeks after the operation with a mortality rate of 4%. Bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in columnar metaplastic epithelia. However, scattered epithelial cells in the thickened squamous epithelia in regions of esophagitis did show bone marrow derivation. The results demonstrate that reflux induced by esophago-jejunostomy in mice leads to the development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. However, bone marrow-derived cells do not contribute directly to columnar metaplasia in this mouse model. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. An immunophenotypic comparison of metanephric metaplasia of Bowman capsular epithelium with metanephric adenoma, Wilms tumor, and renal development: a case report and review of the literature.

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    Fischer, Edgar G; Carney, J Aidan; Anderson, Scott R; Klatt, Edward C; Lager, Donna J

    2004-06-01

    Metanephric metaplasia of the parietal epithelium of the Bowman capsule is a rare pathologic finding of unknown pathogenesis that has occurred in patients with widespread malignant neoplasms of various types. We report this finding in a 25-year-old woman with partial expression of the Carney triad who died of a disseminated gastrointestinal stromal tumor, specifically a gastric stromal sarcoma. The metaplasia involved both kidneys diffusely. It originated in the parietal epithelium of the Bowman capsule, extended into the proximal tubules, and focally surrounded the glomeruli in a semicircular manner Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the cells of metanephric metaplasia expressed the Wilms tumor gene product, bcl-2 protein, and CD57 and cytokeratin 7 and keratin AE1/AE3 focally, but not CD56. This immunophenotype parallels that of metanephric adenoma, Wilms tumor, and nephrogenic rests and overlaps with antigen expression in certain periods of renal development.

  17. Chondroid Metaplasia in a Fibroepithelial Polyp of Gingiva

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    Campos, Paola; Paramo, Juan Ignacio; Fuente, Javier De La; Pérez, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Gingival masses are commonly encountered in clinical practice and can be a result of many conditions one of them could be metaplasia. Metaplasia is defined as the replacement of the lining of an organ with the type of lining normally found at another site. We are reporting a case of a 17-year-old Mexican male who presented with a pedunculated nodule associated to maxillary anterior gingiva. The histopatological examination revealed a chondroid material covered by stratified squamous epithelium and was diagnosed as chondroid metaplasia. PMID:27790592

  18. Immunohistochemical study of epithelial-myofibroblast interaction in Barrett metaplasia

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    Ochicha O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sub-epithelial myofibroblasts are known to influence the biology (proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of overlying epithelia. In the intestine, myofibroblasts have been demonstrated to be essential for epithelial differentiation. It is therefore hypothesized that myofibroblasts may also be involved in intestinal metaplasia that is characteristic of Barrett esophagus. Objective: This study endeavors to immunohistologically evaluate epithelial-myofibroblast interaction in Barrett′s metaplasia. Materials and Methods: Nineteen archival esophageal endoscopic biopsies of Barrett′s metaplasia were immune-phenotyped for the following epithelial and myofibroblast antigens - cytokeratins (CK 8, 13, 18, CDX2 (Caudal type homeobox 2, a-smooth muscle actin (SMA. Results: α-SMA immunostaining revealed close association between myofibroblasts and metaplastic Barrett′s epithelium but not with normal esophageal squamous epithelium. Myofibroblasts were more prominent in dysplastic than in non-dysplastic Barrett metaplasia. CDX2 and CK 8/18, indicators of intestinal differentiation were expressed in Barrett metaplasia but not normal esophageal squamous epithelium, while the reverse was the case for CK 13, which only stained normal esophageal squamous epithelium. Conclusion: Although their precise role is yet to be clearly defined, sub-epithelial myofibroblasts are very likely involved in the pathogenesis of Barrett′s metaplasia.

  19. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

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    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  20. Expression of an Intestine-Specific Transcription Factor (CDX1) in Intestinal Metaplasia and in Subsequently Developed Intestinal Type of Cholangiocarcinoma in Rat Liver

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    Ren, Ping; Silberg, Debra G.; Sirica, Alphonse E.

    2000-01-01

    CDX1 is a caudal-type homeobox intestine-specific transcription factor that has been shown to be selectively expressed in epithelial cells in intestinal metaplasia of the human stomach and esophagus and variably expressed in human gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas (Silberg DG, Furth EE, Taylor JK, Schuck T, Chiou T, Traber PG: Gastroenterology 1997, 113: 478–486). Through the use of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we investigated whether CDX1 is also uniquely associated with the intestinal metaplasia associated with putative precancerous cholangiofibrosis induced in rat liver during furan cholangiocarcinogenesis, as well as expressed in neoplastic glands in a subsequently developed intestinal type of cholangiocarcinoma. In normal, control adult rat small intestine, specific nuclear immunoreactivity for CDX1 was most prominent in enterocytes lining the crypts. In comparison, epithelium from intestinal metaplastic glands within furan-induced hepatic cholangiofibrosis and neoplastic epithelium from later developed primary intestinal-type cholangiocarcinoma each demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for CDX1. CDX1-positive cells were detected in hepatic cholangiofibrotic tissue as early as 3 weeks after the start of chronic furan treatment. We further determined that the percentages of CDX1-positive neoplastic glands and glandular nuclei are significantly higher in primary tumors than in a derived, transplantable cholangiocarcinoma serially-propagated in vivo. Western blotting confirmed our immunohistochemical results, and no CDX1 immunoreactivity was detected in normal adult rat liver or in hyperplastic biliary epithelial cells. These findings indicate that CDX1 is specifically associated with early intestinal metaplasia and a later developed intestinal-type of cholangiocarcinoma induced in the liver of furan-treated rats. PMID:10666391

  1. Metaplasia in the Stomach-Precursor of Gastric Cancer?

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    Kinoshita, Hiroto; Hayakawa, Yoku; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-09-27

    Despite a significant decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer in Western countries over the past century, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most human gastric cancers develop after long-term Helicobacter pylori infection via the Correa pathway: the progression is from gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, to cancer. However, it remains unclear whether metaplasia is a direct precursor of gastric cancer or merely a marker of high cancer risk. Here, we review human studies on the relationship between metaplasia and cancer in the stomach, data from mouse models of metaplasia regarding the mechanism of metaplasia development, and the cellular responses induced by H. pylori infection.

  2. Metaplasia in the Stomach—Precursor of Gastric Cancer?

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    Hiroto Kinoshita

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite a significant decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer in Western countries over the past century, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most human gastric cancers develop after long-term Helicobacter pylori infection via the Correa pathway: the progression is from gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, to cancer. However, it remains unclear whether metaplasia is a direct precursor of gastric cancer or merely a marker of high cancer risk. Here, we review human studies on the relationship between metaplasia and cancer in the stomach, data from mouse models of metaplasia regarding the mechanism of metaplasia development, and the cellular responses induced by H. pylori infection.

  3. The Development of Spasmolytic Polypeptide/TFF2-Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM During Gastric Repair Is Absent in the Aged StomachSummary

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    Amy C. Engevik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: During aging, physiological changes in the stomach result in more tenuous gastric tissue that is less capable of repairing injury, leading to increased susceptibility to chronic ulceration. Spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil factor 2–expressing metaplasia (SPEM is known to emerge after parietal cell loss and during Helicobacter pylori infection, however, its role in gastric ulcer repair is unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate if SPEM plays a role in epithelial regeneration. Methods: Acetic acid ulcers were induced in young (2–3 mo and aged (18–24 mo C57BL/6 mice to determine the quality of ulcer repair with advancing age. Yellow chameleon 3.0 mice were used to generate yellow fluorescent protein–expressing organoids for transplantation. Yellow fluorescent protein–positive gastric organoids were transplanted into the submucosa and lumen of the stomach immediately after ulcer induction. Gastric tissue was collected and analyzed to determine the engraftment of organoid-derived cells within the regenerating epithelium. Results: Wound healing in young mice coincided with the emergence of SPEM within the ulcerated region, a response that was absent in the aged stomach. Although aged mice showed less metaplasia surrounding the ulcerated tissue, organoid-transplanted aged mice showed regenerated gastric glands containing organoid-derived cells. Organoid transplantation in the aged mice led to the emergence of SPEM and gastric regeneration. Conclusions: These data show the development of SPEM during gastric repair in response to injury that is absent in the aged stomach. In addition, gastric organoids in an injury/transplantation mouse model promoted gastric regeneration. Keywords: Epithelial Regeneration, Gastric Cancer, Human Gastric Organoids, CD44v

  4. Metaplasia in the Stomach Arises From Gastric Chief Cells

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    Jason C. Mills

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy and the induction of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. For example, mouse models have shown that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia can develop following oxyntic atrophy through transdifferentiation of zymogen-secreting chief cells. Evolution of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia from chief cells occurs via a coordinated dismantling of their secretory apparatus and reprogramming of their transcriptome. Increasing evidence suggests that the process of chief cell reprogramming requires the influence of inflammatory cytokines and requires both zymogen granule autophagy and alterations in gene transcription. It is likely that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia is a physiological repair mechanism that is similar to those that occur in other tissues (eg, pancreas for recruiting reparative progenitor cells in response to mucosal wounds. Chronic inflammation can induce a recurring pattern of persistent reprogramming/metaplasia that increases the risk for neoplasia.

  5. Gastric intestinal metaplasia: an intermediate precancerous lesion in the cascade of gastric carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.H.; Hong, X.; Sayahan, M.Y.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia, an intermediate lesion in the development of intestinal-type gastric cancer, is observed in the milieu of long standing non-atrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis. Most patients with intestinal metaplasia remain asymptomatic unless cobalamin deficiency occurs secondary to loss of glands (that produce intrinsic factor and acid). Genetic events that predispose to development of gastric intestinal metaplasia remains an enigma. Mechanisms leading to the progression of atrophy to metaplasia still needs to be comprehensively explored. Many studies in the literature describe a positive effect of typing intestinal metaplasia and concluded that intestinal metaplasia type III carries the highest risk for developing gastric cancer while others refute it. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Countries with a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer also have a high tendency of being prevalent for intestinal metaplasia. However, it remains elusive whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection tends to regress gastric intestinal metaplasia or reduce the subsequent risk of cancer development. Putting together, more prospective cohort studies should be designed to identify factors (antioxidants; anti-inflammatory drugs; food therapy) that may contribute in the regression of intestinal metaplasia, when used simultaneously with eradication therapy. Furthermore, molecular markers for evaluation of intestinal metaplasia, and the potential point-of-no-return should be further investigated. Consensus is also required to advocate a timeframe for surveillance of patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia. (author)

  6. Immunohistochemical assessment of Survivin and Bcl3 expression as potential biomarkers for NF-κB activation in the Barrett metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.

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    Puccio, Ignazio; Khan, Saif; Butt, Adil; Graham, David; Sehgal, Vinay; Patel, Dominic; Novelli, Marco; Lovat, Laurence B; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Hamoudi, Rifat A

    2018-02-01

    Non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus (NDBE) occurs as a consequence of an inflammatory response triggered through prolonged gastro-oesophageal reflux and it may precede the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. NF-κB activation as a result of the inflammatory response has been shown in NDBE, but the possible mechanism involved in the process is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess, using immunohistochemistry, Survivin and Bcl3 expression as potential biomarkers for NF-κB activation along the oesophageal metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Survivin is an NF-κB-inducible anti-apoptotic protein, and Bcl3 is a negative regulator of NF-κB. There was progressive upregulation of Survivin expression along the oesophageal metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Bcl3 expression was upregulated in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus, low-grade, high-grade dysplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma when compared to squamous group. The study shows the differential expression of Bcl3 between the squamous and Barrett's stage, suggesting that Bcl3 could be a surrogate marker for early event involving constitutive NF-κB activation. In addition, the study suggests that NF-κB activation may infer resistance to apoptosis through the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Survivin, which showed progressive increase in expression throughout the oesophageal metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. This ability to avoid apoptosis may underlie the persistence and malignant predisposition of Barrett's metaplasia. © 2018 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2018 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  7. [Clinical and endoscopic findings and magnitude of gastric and duodenal reflux in patients with cardial intestinal metaplasia, short Barrett esophagus, compared with controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csendes, A; Burdiles, P; Smok, G; Rojas, J; Flores, N; Domic, S; Quiroz, J; Henríquez, A

    1999-11-01

    The diagnosis of patients with short segments of intestinal metaplasia in the distal esophagus, has increased in recent years. To assess the clinical, pathological and functional features of patients with esophageal intestinal metaplasia. A prospective study was performed in 95 control subjects, 115 patients with cardial intestinal metaplasia and 89 patients with short Barret esophagus with intestinal metaplasia. All had clinical and endoscopic assessments, esophageal manometry and determination of 24 h esophageal exposure to acid and duodenal content. Control patients were younger and, in this group, the pathological findings in the mucosa distal to the squamous-columnar change, showed a preponderance of fundic over cardial mucosa. In patients with intestinal metaplasia and short Barret esophagus, there was only cardial mucosa, that is the place where intestinal metaplasia implants. Low grade dysplasia was only seen in the presence of intestinal metaplasia. Gastroesophageal sphincter pressure decreased and gastric and duodenal reflux increased along with increases in the extension of intestinal metaplasia. These findings confirm the need to obtain multiple biopsies from the squamous-columnar mucosal junction in all patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, for the detection of early pathological changes of Barret esophagus and eventual dysplasia.

  8. A pSMAD/CDX2 Complex Is Essential for the Intestinalization of Epithelial Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms leading to epithelial metaplasias are poorly understood. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant metaplastic change of the esophageal epithelium into columnar epithelium, occurring in patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mechanisms behind the development of the intestinal subtype, which is associated with the highest cancer risk, are unclear. In humans, it has been suggested that a nonspecialized columnar metaplasia precedes the development of intestinal metaplasia. Here, we propose that a complex made up of at least two factors needs to be activated simultaneously to drive the expression of intestinal type of genes. Using unique animal models and robust in vitro assays, we show that the nonspecialized columnar metaplasia is a precursor of intestinal metaplasia and that pSMAD/CDX2 interaction is essential for the switch toward an intestinal phenotype.

  9. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia.

  10. Independent occurence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Ito, Akihiro

    1986-01-01

    The selective occurence of gastric tumors and intestinal metaplasias in the stomach by X-irradiation were described both in mice and rats. The appearance of both lesions was greatly influenced by animal's strains in both species and also by the sex in rats. A few gastric tumors were observed in the animals given a high does with spilt into low doses of X-irradiation. The adequate dose for gastric tumorigenesis may be around 20 Gy in mice and 15 Gy in rats. A good relationship between X-ray dose and incidence of gastric tumor was observed in ICR mice. Frequency of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation was much higher in rats compared to that in mice. X-ray dose requested for moderate and induction of intestinal metaplasia was decreased with a dose which was induced erosion and gastric tumor. It has been empirically clarified that an elevation of pH value in the gastric juice is one of the principal factors responsible for the development of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa among the conditions thus for introduced. In this article, we have introduced the relevant examples about intestinal metaplasia without carcinogenic insult, and the relationship between gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia were described. The intestinal metaplasia was not always observed within or adjacent to neoplastic gastric glands. A combined treatment of X-ray and MNNG was not effective for gastric tumor and frequency of intestinal metaplasia was inversely related to the incidence of gastric tumors. In conclusion, occurrence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia may be independent, and intestinal metaplasia might not be a prerequite for the occurrence of gastric tumor. (author)

  11. [Histological changes of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia after Helicobacter pylori eradication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yonggu; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Koo, Tai Yeon; Cho, Hyun Seok; Byun, Tae Jun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Lee, Hang Lak; Eun, Chang Soo; Lee, Oh Young; Han, Dong Soo; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Byung Chul

    2007-11-01

    Long-term Helicobater pylori infection results in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, and increases the risk of gastric cancer. However, it is still controversial that eradication of H. pylori improves atrophy or metaplasia. Therefore, we investigated histological changes after the H. pylori eradication in patients with atrophy or metaplasia. One hundred seven patients who received successful eradication of H. pylori infection in Hanyang University, Guri Hospital from March 2001 to April 2006, were enrolled. Antral biopsy was taken before the eradication to confirm the H. pylori infection and grade of atrophy or metaplasia by updated Sydney System. After a certain period of time, antral biopsy was repeatedly taken to confirm the eradication and investigate histological changes of atrophy or metaplasia. Mean age of the patients was 55.3+/-11.3, and average follow-up period was 28.7+/-13.9 months. Endoscopic diagnosis included gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, non-ulcer antral gastritis. Atrophy was observed in 41 of 91 and their average score was 0.73+/-0.92. After the eradication of H. pylori, atrophy was improved (0.38+/-0.70, p=0.025). However, metaplasia which was observed in 49 of 107, did not significantly improve during the follow-up period. Newly developed atrophy (7 of 38) or metaplasia (18 of 49) was observed in patients who without atrophy or metaplasia initially. Their average scores were slightly lower than those of cases with pre-existing atrophy or metaplasia without statistical significance. After the eradication of H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis may be improved, but change of intestinal metaplasia is milder and may take longer duration for improvement.

  12. Development of Cerebral Metastasis after Medical and Surgical Treatment of Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Austin Gassman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus is a relatively uncommon GI malignancy. When it does occur, it metastasizes in only a small minority of patients. Spread of anal squamous cell carcinoma to the brain is exceedingly rare, and has been previously reported only three times in the medical literature. We report the case of a 67 year old male who was diagnosed on presentation with a poorly differentiated anal squamous cell carcinoma that already had a solitary metastasis to the liver. While the tumors were initially responsive to chemoradiotherapy, the patient’s primary and liver lesions recurred. The patient then underwent synchronous abdominoperineal resection for the primary lesion and a liver lobectomy for the metastasis. Soon thereafter, the patient developed focal neurologic symptoms and was found to have an intracranial lesion that on biopsy demonstrated metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This case highlights the fact that patients with a previous history of anal squamous cell carcinoma can occasionally develop cerebral metastasis. Furthermore, cerebral metastases from anal squamous cell carcinoma portend a dismal prognosis even in the face of aggressive medical and surgical therapy.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma developing in the scar of Fournier's gangrene – Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintamani; Shankar, Manu; Singhal, Vinay; Singh, JP; Bansal, Anju; Saxena, Sunita

    2004-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum is rare and its development in the scar of Fournier's gangrene is still rarer. A 65-year-old gentleman presented with a small non-healing ulcer developing on right hemi-scrotum two years after the treatment for Fournier's gangrene. On histological examination it was found to be squamous cell carcinoma. He was successfully managed by surgery in the form of wide local excision and ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma can develop in the scar of Fournier's gangrene after a long delay, which differentiates it from other scar carcinomas or Marjolin's ulcer

  14. Chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia: clinico-statistical, histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dîrnu, Rodica; Secureanu, F A; Neamţu, Carmen; Totolici, B D; Pop, O T; Mitruţ, P; Mălăescu, D Gh; Mogoantă, L

    2012-01-01

    Chronic gastritis has a high incidence in adults, causing progressive destruction of glandular structures, favoring the development of gastric atrophy. The association of chronic gastritis with intestinal type metaplasia of gastric mucosa has a poor outcome as intestinal metaplasia is regarded as a precancerous lesion. Metaplasia is common in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and also heavy smokers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The study was conducted on a total of 1218 patients, aged between 5 and 90 years, who presented for dyspeptic disorders in the period 2007-2010 and were examined clinically and endoscopically. During the gastroscopic examination, fragments of gastric mucosa were collected for the histopathological study and for highlighting the H. pylori infection. For the histopathological study, the Hematoxylin-Eosin and PAS-Alcian Blue stains were performed, while for the immunohistochemical study the anti-TAG72 and anti-PCNA antibodies were used. A diagnosis of gastritis was established in 615 patients, representing approximately 50.5% of all cases. Most cases with gastritis were found in people of middle age. Gastritis was present in almost all age groups, from teenagers to the elders. Of the 615 cases of gastritis, urease test was positive in 353 patients, representing approximately 57.40% of all patients with gastritis. Histopathological examination identified the presence of intestinal metaplasia in 61.60% of patients with chronic gastritis, mostly complete metaplasia. PCNA immunohistochemistry revealed that cell proliferation processes are intensified in intestinal metaplasia. This study highlights the importance of chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and H. pylori infection in the etiopathogeny of gastric cancer.

  15. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. A...

  16. Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus Infection and Development of Subsequent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hampras, Shalaka S.; Reed, Rhianna A.; Bezalel, Spencer; Cameron, Michael; Cherpelis, Basil; Fenske, Neil; Sondak, Vernon K.; Messina, Jane; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.

    2016-01-01

    The role of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of subsequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown. Pathologically confirmed cases of SCC (n = 150) enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study were included in a retrospective cohort study to examine the association of cutaneous HPV at the time of SCC diagnosis with the risk of subsequent SCC development. Data on HPV seropositivity, HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB) and SCC tumors were available...

  17. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  18. Isthmus Stem Cells Are the Origins of Metaplasia in the Gastric Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoku Hayakawa MD,, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of genetic/epigenetic mutations in long-lived gastrointestinal stem cells leads to the development of cancer, as well as precancerous lesions such as metaplasia and dysplasia. In the proximal stomach corpus, this model of progression from stem cells has been supported by studies in mice and human beings, showing abundant proliferation in the isthmus and clonal expansion of mutated cells from the stem cell region. An alternative theory proposes that gastric metaplasia arises from mature differentiated chief cells. Despite reports of low levels of proliferation in chief cells in acute injury models, there is little evidence for reprogramming of chief cells into long-lived stem cells that continuously supply progeny over time. Critical flaws in the chief cell transdifferentiation theory include the definition of acute SPEM, the chief cell-damaging effect of chemical reagents, and the specificity of chief cell lineage tracing. In contrast, there is now strong evidence regarding the stem cell origins of gastric metaplasia that refutes the transdifferentiation theory. Here, we briefly review the history and definition of gastric metaplasia, and outline in detail the evidence that supports the stem cell origin of metaplasia.

  19. Effects of sex hormones on induction of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Okamoto, Taro; Matsuda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tadateru; Ogundigie, P.S.; Ito, Akihiro

    1993-01-01

    The influence of sex hormones on induction of intestinal metaplasia was examined in 5 week old Crj:CD (SD) rats of both sexes. At the age of 4 weeks, the animals were gonadectomized and given testosterone or dimethyl estradiol (DES). One week after operation, they were irradiated with two 10 Gy doses of X-rays to the gastric region at a 3 day interval for a total of 20 Gy. At the termination of the experiment, 6 months after the X-irradiation, the incidence of intestinal metaplasia with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive foci in males was significantly higher than in females, in orchidectomized males or orchidectomized plus DES treated rats (P<0.01). On the other hand, the incidence of intestinal metaplasia with ALP-positive foci in normal females appeared lower than in ovariectomized females (P<0.01), and was increased in rats by treatment with testosterone or decreased by DES. Numbers of foci of intestinal metaplasias with Paneth cells and total numbers appeared to increase in males treated with DES. The results suggested a promising role for testosterone in the development of ALP positive lesions and indicated considerable heterogeneity between intestinal metaplasia subtypes. (author)

  20. Development of Hemolytic Anemia in a Nivolumab-Treated Patient with Refractory Metastatic Squamous Cell Skin Cancer and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Schwab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer, refractory to initial therapy with standard chemotherapy and radiation protocols, remains difficult with poor overall prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Recently, promising response rates with nivolumab, a programmed death receptor-1-blocking antibody, in squamous cancer of the head and neck have been demonstrated. Considering the similar histological patterns of squamous cell cancer of the skin and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, we assumed that nivolumab could also be effective in our patients with refractory metastatic squamous cell cancer of the skin. So far, there have been no clinical data on the therapeutic efficacy of nivolumab in squamous cell skin cancer. We here present a case of a patient with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer refractory to previous therapies, who showed a good response to nivolumab over a period of 5 months, but developed a serious hemolytic crisis under nivolumab treatment after eight applications.

  1. Hacking cell differentiation: transcriptional rerouting in reprogramming, lineage infidelity and metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalo, Gonçalo; Leutz, Achim

    2013-08-01

    Initiating neoplastic cell transformation events are of paramount importance for the comprehension of regeneration and vanguard oncogenic processes but are difficult to characterize and frequently clinically overlooked. In epithelia, pre-neoplastic transformation stages are often distinguished by the appearance of phenotypic features of another differentiated tissue, termed metaplasia. In haemato/lymphopoietic malignancies, cell lineage ambiguity is increasingly recorded. Both, metaplasia and biphenotypic leukaemia/lymphoma represent examples of dysregulated cell differentiation that reflect a history of trans-differentiation and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Here we compare the similarity between molecular events of experimental cell trans-differentiation as an emerging therapeutic concept, with lineage confusion, as in metaplasia and dysplasia forecasting tumour development. © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  2. Notch2 Is Required for Inflammatory Cytokine-Driven Goblet Cell Metaplasia in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Danahay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance and distribution of epithelial cell types is required to maintain tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of airway diseases is epithelial remodeling, leading to increased goblet cell numbers and an overproduction of mucus. In the conducting airway, basal cells act as progenitors for both secretory and ciliated cells. To identify mechanisms regulating basal cell fate, we developed a screenable 3D culture system of airway epithelial morphogenesis. We performed a high-throughput screen using a collection of secreted proteins and identified inflammatory cytokines that specifically biased basal cell differentiation toward a goblet cell fate, culminating in enhanced mucus production. We also demonstrate a specific requirement for Notch2 in cytokine-induced goblet cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that inhibition of Notch2 prevents goblet cell metaplasia induced by a broad range of stimuli and propose Notch2 neutralization as a therapeutic strategy for preventing goblet cell metaplasia in airway diseases.

  3. Intraocular osseous metaplasia. A clinico-pathological study

    OpenAIRE

    Vemuganti Geeta; Honavar Santosh; Jalali Subhadra

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinico-pathologic features of intraocular osseous metaplasia. Methods: Pathology specimens of enucleated eyes submitted to the ophthalmic pathology service at a tertiary eye-care referral center between January 1995 and June 1999 were studied for intraocular osseous metaplasia. Specific histopathologic features noted in specimens with osseous metaplasia were the presence of retinal detachment, gliosis, retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia, drusen, epiretinal membra...

  4. Intestinal metaplasia in patients with duodenogastric reflux and high total bile acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinol Jimenez, Felipe; Paniagua Estevez, Manuel; Perez Sanchez, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    The cytotoxic and cancerous action of bile acids on gastric mucosa is a very interesting subject within the gastroduodenal diseases due to they are able to alter the membrane, the cellular metabolism, to give rise to a inflammatory process, to increase the proliferation, the cell apoptosis and the DNA damage, that according to its intensity and persistence, favor the appearance of failures and mutations in cell replication. With the discovery and characterization of Helicobacter pylori it is considered that according to its intensity and the time of persistence in gastric mucosa provokes damages with failures and cellular mutations. In this sense, a prospective and descriptive study was conducted in the Institute of Gastroenterology in patients presenting with duodenogastric and high total bile acids to know the association between the intestinal metaplasia and the presence or not of Helicobacter pylori. Metaplasia was present in the 48.7 % of the 39 study patients, that there was a statistically significant association (p< 0.05) in Helicobacter pylori distribution in patients with and without intestinal metaplasia; that patients with duodenogastric reflux, despite of a histological lesion also had a greater frequency of negative results as regards the presence of Helicobacter pylori. In samples with histological diagnosis of severe and atrophic chronic gastritis, 75 %, respectively, had Helicobacter pylori and in consequence, there was a significant association between presence or not of microorganism and the chronic gastritis intensity. Intestinal metaplasia location was higher in antral region (84.3 %) and also with a higher ratio of microorganism positivity. In patients with duodenogastric reflux, presence of Helicobacter pylori don't seems to be associated with intense degrees of intestinal metaplasia, although the microorganism is present in all categories, but when there is not Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia to tend to develop in its less severe

  5. Case of squamous cell carcinoma developed in isotope-treated blue naevus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishii, Masami; Unita, Mieko; Shimizu, Masayuki (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-12-01

    A 29-year-old male patient underwent isotope radiation therapy for blue naevus of the right precordium and forearm every three months for two years form the age of 7 years. He developed a tumor on the irradiated site of the precordium at the age of 27 years. Histology showed chronic radiation dermatitis with squamous cell carcinoma. In spite of the removal of the tumor, he had a relapse ten months later, and underwent the extirpation of the tumor with resection of the sternum and claviculae, and with skin graft using a musculocutaneous flap.

  6. Novel allelic mutations in murine Serca2 induce differential development of squamous cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toki, Hideaki; Minowa, Osamu; Inoue, Maki; Motegi, Hiromi; Karashima, Yuko; Ikeda, Ami [Team for Advanced Development and Evaluation of Human Disease Models, Riken BioResource Center (BRC), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kaneda, Hideki [Technology and Development Team for Mouse Phenotype Analysis, Riken BRC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakuraba, Yoshiyuki [Mutagenesis and Genomics Team, Riken BRC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Saiki, Yuriko [Department of Molecular Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Wakana, Shigeharu [Technology and Development Team for Mouse Phenotype Analysis, Riken BRC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [Department of Biochemistry, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Gondo, Yoichi [Mutagenesis and Genomics Team, Riken BRC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shiroishi, Toshihiko [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka (Japan); Noda, Tetsuo, E-mail: tnoda@jfcr.or.jp [Team for Advanced Development and Evaluation of Human Disease Models, Riken BioResource Center (BRC), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Cell Biology, Cancer Institute, The Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    Dominant mutations in the Serca2 gene, which encodes sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase, predispose mice to gastrointestinal epithelial carcinoma [1–4] and humans to Darier disease (DD) [14–17]. In this study, we generated mice harboring N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced allelic mutations in Serca2: three missense mutations and one nonsense mutation. Mice harboring these Serca2 mutations developed tumors that were categorized as either early onset squamous cell tumors (SCT), with development similar to null-type knockout mice [2,4] (aggressive form; M682, M814), or late onset tumors (mild form; M1049, M1162). Molecular analysis showed no aberration in Serca2 mRNA or protein expression levels in normal esophageal cells of any of the four mutant heterozygotes. There was no loss of heterozygosity at the Serca2 locus in the squamous cell carcinomas in any of the four lines. The effect of each mutation on Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity was predicted using atomic-structure models and accumulated mutated protein studies, suggesting that putative complete loss of Serca2 enzymatic activity may lead to early tumor onset, whereas mutations in which Serca2 retains residual enzymatic activity result in late onset. We propose that impaired Serca2 gene product activity has a long-term effect on squamous cell carcinogenesis from onset to the final carcinoma stage through an as-yet unrecognized but common regulatory pathway. -- Highlights: •Novel mutations in murine Serca2 caused early onset or late onset of tumorigenesis. •They also caused higher or lower incidence of Darier Disease phenotype. •3D structure model suggested the former mutations led to severer defect on ATPase. •Driver gene mutations via long-range effect on Ca2+ distributions are suggested.

  7. Two Distinct Pathways to Development of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.; Enomoto, T.; Kimura, T.; Yoshino, K.; Fujita, M.; Kimura, T.

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for approximately 95% of the malignant tumors of the vaginal vulva and is mostly found in elderly women. The future numbers of patients with vulva r SCC is expected to rise, mainly because of the proportional increase in the average age of the general population. Two different pathways for vulva r SCC have been put forth. The first pathway is triggered by infection with a high-risk-type Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Integration of the HPV DNA into the host genome leads to the development of a typical vulva r intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), accompanied with overexpression ofP14"ARF and P16"INK4A . This lesion subsequently forms a warty- or basaloid-type SCC. The HPV vaccine is a promising new tool for prevention of this HPV related SCC of the vulva. The second pathway is HPV-independent. Keratinizing SCC develops within a background of lichen sclerosus (LS) through a differentiated VIN. It has a different set of genetic alterations than those in the first pathway, including p53 mutations, allelic imbalances (AI), and microsatellite instability (MSI). Further clinical and basic research is still required to understand and prevent vulvar SCC. Capsule. Two pathway for pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the value are reviewed.

  8. Two Distinct Pathways to Development of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Ueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC accounts for approximately 95% of the malignant tumors of the vaginal vulva and is mostly found in elderly women. The future numbers of patients with vulvar SCC is expected to rise, mainly because of the proportional increase in the average age of the general population. Two different pathways for vulvar SCC have been put forth. The first pathway is triggered by infection with a high-risk-type Human Papillomavirus (HPV. Integration of the HPV DNA into the host genome leads to the development of a typical vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, accompanied with overexpression of p14ARF and p16INK4A. This lesion subsequently forms a warty- or basaloid-type SCC. The HPV vaccine is a promising new tool for prevention of this HPV related SCC of the vulva. The second pathway is HPV-independent. Keratinizing SCC develops within a background of lichen sclerosus (LS through a differentiated VIN. It has a different set of genetic alterations than those in the first pathway, including p53 mutations, allelic imbalances (AI, and microsatellite instability (MSI. Further clinical and basic research is still required to understand and prevent vulvar SCC. Capsule. Two pathway for pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the value are reviewed.

  9. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia: Case Report with Literature Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a rare entity[1] and Nearly. 80 cases have been reported in the world literature including, nine from India[2] and it is the presence of mature or immature bone in the endometrium.[1] Osseous metaplasia of the endometrium has also been incorrectly named as endometrial ossification ...

  10. Polypoidal Intestinal Metaplasia and Dysplasia of the External Urethral Meatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral mucosa with intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia is a rare occurrence. To date only a single case has been reported in a male with long-standing urethral stricture. We present a 33-year-old female with polypoid intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the external urethral meatus in the absence of an inciting factor. Intestinal metaplasia of the urethral mucosa may undergo dysplasia, emphasizing the necessity of a high degree of clinical suspicion and vigilant pathological examination of these lesions.

  11. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44%) of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071). Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38%) cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62%) focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033), disease stage (P = 0.006), and pathological grade (P = 0.04). There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31) and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08). Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers. PMID:20196862

  12. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresno Manuel F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44% of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38% cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62% focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033, disease stage (P = 0.006, and pathological grade (P = 0.04. There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31 and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08. Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers.

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  14. Urethral dysontogenic metaplasia in cat with bilateral renal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Fonseca Sapin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper to describe a case of dysontogenic urethral metaplasia in a one month old mongrel feline who also had bilateral renal dysplasia. Dysontogenic metaplasia in cats are scarce and this change may be associated with renal dysplasia and/or lower urinary tract. The animal had history of abdominal enlargement since birth and dysuria, eliminating urine only dropwise. Due to the poor prognosis we opted for euthanasia. At necropsy was observed enlarged and distended bladder, reduced kidneys and dilated and tortuous ureters. The urethra was thickened, hard to cut, and histologically, was replacing the connective tissue, cartilage and endochondral ossification areas, which features dysontogenic metaplasia. Both kidneys presented primitive appearance featuring dysplasia. Dysontogenic metaplasia in urinary tract feline with renal dysplasia, has not been described.

  15. Benign osseous metaplasia of the breast: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alyami

    Full Text Available Introduction: Benign Osseous metaplasia of the breast is rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. Here we present a case of benign osseous metaplasia of the breast presenting as a breast lump. Case presentation: 38-year-old previously well woman presented with a one-year history of bilateral breast pain and a left-sided breast lump. Ultrasound and mammography suggested calcified fibroadenoma. An ultrasound-guided true cut biopsy revealed fibrous tissue containing foci of adenosis in the presence of a myoepithelial cell layer. Excision biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination showed bone matrix deposition occupying most of the nodule with peripheral hyalinized tissue but no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of benign osseous metaplasia of the breast was made, and the patient recovered well without recurrence after lump excision. Discussion: Only a few cases of osseous metaplasia are reported in the literature. Most reported cases are malignant, such as in fibrosarcoma, malignant mesenchymoma, osteoid sarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, and osteochondrosarcoma.Very few cases of osseous sarcoma are reported in benign lesions such as fibroadenoma, pleomorphic adenoma, benign mesenchymoma, phyllodes tumor, and amyloid tumor of the breast. Joshi et al. first reported a case of benign osseous metaplasia of the breast presenting as breast lump in an HIV-positive patient [18]. We, therefore, consider this case to be the second case report of benign osseous metaplasia of the breast presenting as a breast lump, but the patient had no chronic illness. Conclusion: A breast lump can be the first presentation of benign osseous metaplasia. Keywords: Benign osseous metaplasia, Breast lump, Case report

  16. Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus Infection and Development of Subsequent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaka S. Hampras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV infection in the development of subsequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is unknown. Pathologically confirmed cases of SCC (n=150 enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study were included in a retrospective cohort study to examine the association of cutaneous HPV at the time of SCC diagnosis with the risk of subsequent SCC development. Data on HPV seropositivity, HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB and SCC tumors were available from the parent study. Incidence of subsequent SCC was estimated using person-years of follow up. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were estimated to evaluate the associations of both, HPV seropositivity and HPV DNA positivity with subsequent SCC. The five year cumulative incidence of subsequent SCC was 72%. Seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was not associated with the risk of subsequent SCC (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.41–1.67. Any beta HPV infection in EB was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11–0.78 of subsequent SCC among cases who were positive for beta HPV DNA in tumor tissue. Infection with beta HPV type 2 (HR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.12–0.86 in EB was associated with reduced risk of subsequent SCC among HPV DNA positive SCCs. In conclusion, beta HPV infection was inversely associated with the risk of subsequent SCC.

  17. The role of smoking and alcohol intake in the development of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions among high-risk HPV-positive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Munk, Christian; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with human papillomavirus is considered a necessary factor in developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. However, most human papillomavirus positive women do not develop high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and other factors may be important...... for this transition. The objective of the present study was to examine if smoking and alcohol intake are associated with the risk of developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in women positive for high-risk human papillomavirus types. METHODS: We used baseline information on exposures on 548 high......-risk human papillomavirus positive women with normal cytology, comparing 94 women who developed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with 454 women who remained cytologically normal. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Compared with never smokers, the odds ratio for high...

  18. Intraocular osseous metaplasia. A clinico-pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuganti, Geeta K; Honavar, Santosh G; Jalali, Subhadra

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate the clinico-pathologic features of intraocular osseous metaplasia. Pathology specimens of enucleated eyes submitted to the ophthalmic pathology service at a tertiary eye-care referral center between January 1995 and June 1999 were studied for intraocular osseous metaplasia. Specific histopathologic features noted in specimens with osseous metaplasia were the presence of retinal detachment, gliosis, retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia, drusen, epiretinal membrane, fibrovascular proliferation and inflammation. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed to assess the glial component within the membranes and the proliferative vitreoretinal mass. Clinical records were reviewed and correlated with histopathologic findings. Osseous metaplasiaS was noted in 8 of 151 (5.2%) eyes examined. Clinical diagnosis in these was phthisis bulbi, staphyloma, absolute glaucoma and microphthalmos. Enucleation was performed for relief of symptoms (in painful blind eyes) or for cosmesis, and in an eye inciting sympathetic ophthalmia. Retinal detachment, gliosis and retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia were noted in all the cases. Drusen with calcification or ossification (5 of 8), fibrovascular proliferation in the vitreous (5 of 8) and active inflammation (4 of 8) were the other associated histologic features. Location of ossification was subretinal in 3 cases, preretinal (ora serrata) in 1 case and in both locations in 4 cases. The eyes with subretinal osseous metaplasia had associated calcified drusen, while preretinal ossification was seen within the fibrovascular membranes. Chronic retinal detachment, hyperplasia and transdifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium appear to be a few of the prerequisites for intraocular osseous metaplasia. Ossification can occur at isolated subretinal and preretinal locations or can involve both. Though a larger study is required to postulate the chronology of events, in

  19. Intraocular osseous metaplasia. A clinico-pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemuganti Geeta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the clinico-pathologic features of intraocular osseous metaplasia. Methods: Pathology specimens of enucleated eyes submitted to the ophthalmic pathology service at a tertiary eye-care referral center between January 1995 and June 1999 were studied for intraocular osseous metaplasia. Specific histopathologic features noted in specimens with osseous metaplasia were the presence of retinal detachment, gliosis, retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia, drusen, epiretinal membrane, fibrovascular proliferation and inflammation. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed to assess the glial component within the membranes and the proliferative vitreoretinal mass. Clinical records were reviewed and correlated with histopathologic findings. Results: Osseous metaplasiaS was noted in 8 of 151 (5.2% eyes examined. Clinical diagnosis in these was phthisis bulbi, staphyloma, absolute glaucoma and microphthalmos. Enucleation was performed for relief of symptoms (in painful blind eyes or for cosmesis, and in an eye inciting sympathetic ophthalmia. Retinal detachment, gliosis and retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia were noted in all the cases. Drusen with calcification or ossification (5 of 8, fibrovascular proliferation in the vitreous (5 of 8 and active inflammation (4 of 8 were the other associated histologic features. Location of ossification was subretinal in 3 cases, preretinal (ora serrata in 1 case and in both locations in 4 cases. The eyes with subretinal osseous metaplasia had associated calcified drusen, while preretinal ossification was seen within the fibrovascular membranes. Conclusion: Chronic retinal detachment, hyperplasia and transdifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium appear to be a few of the prerequisites for intraocular osseous metaplasia. Ossification can occur at isolated subretinal and preretinal locations or can involve both. Though a larger study is

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma developing in a cutaneous lichen planus lesion: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Kotne, Sivasankar; Ananda Rao, P B; Turlapati, S P V; Kumar Soren, Dillip

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a benign disorder characterized by an itchy, noninfectious skin rash. Though lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely and should be borne in mind while treating nonhealing longstanding lesions of lichen planus. Studies suggest an estimated 0.3-3% risk of malignancy in patients with oral lichen planus, however, cutaneous lichen planus does not carry an increased risk of malignant degeneration. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with a 10-year-long history of hypertrophic lichen planus who presented with a nonhealing ulcer in the left popliteal fossa. The patient underwent wide local excision with superficial skin grafting. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed verrucous squamous cell carcinoma complicating lichen planus. In view of underlying structure involvement, adjuvant radiation therapy was given. This case is being reported to emphasize the infrequent possibility of development of malignancy in cutaneous lichen planus, especially if it presents as a longstanding, nonhealing, itchy lesion with patchy areas of depigmentation in the lower limbs.

  1. Structural alterations of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lord, Reginald V N

    2012-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the extracellular matrix play important roles in intercellular communications and contribute to the development of a number of diseases, including diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The present study examined the structural characteristics and alterations of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. A total of 41 esophageal tissue specimens (15 esophageal adenocarcinoma, 10 Barrett's esophagus intestinal metaplasia, seven dysplasia and nine normal esophagus) were studied. The present study used transmission electron microscopy and computerized quantitative electron-microscopic analysis in order to investigate the characteristics of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa. The study revealed that marked structural alterations of the mucosa stroma, relating to changes in the distribution and appearance of collagen fibers as well as to changes in numbers of matrix microvesicles, occur in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. It was found that there were 3.1 times more microvesicles in the stroma in Barrett's esophagus than in the stroma of the normal esophagus (P<0.0001) and that there were 5.8 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in the normal esophagus (P<0.0001). There were 1.9 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in Barrett's esophagus (P=0.0043). The study demonstrates distinctive alterations of the mucosa stroma extracellular matrix in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The findings suggest that the redistribution of collagen fibers and increases in numbers of matrix microvesicles may play roles in the formation of specialized intestinal metaplasia and the development of adenocarcinoma. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  3. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jason D.; Borum, Marie L.; Koh, Joyce M.; Stephen, Sindu

    2018-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation. PMID:29606921

  4. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, David S; Adam, Jason D; Borum, Marie L; Koh, Joyce M; Stephen, Sindu; Doman, David B

    2018-02-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation.

  5. Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus: a tumor with biphasic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, F.P.; Keren, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant tumor. It is characterized by a large bulky mass in the middle third of the esophagus with a lobulated surface and local expansion of the esophagus. This lesion may be pedunculated and cause relatively little obstruction despite its bulk. The current view, based on ultrastructure and immunohistochemical evidence, has confirmed that the sarcomatous component of the squamous cell carcinoma originates from mesenchymal metaplasia of squamous cells. On the basis of this evidence and clinical behavior, it seems appropriate to consider carcinosarcoma and pseudosarcoma as equivalents and as variants of squamous cell carcinoma. Four patients with spindle-cell squamous carcinoma, an unusual subset of squamous carcinoma, are described, and the salient radiographic and pathologic features of this disorder's distinctive biphasic morphology are discussed

  6. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  7. Notch2 is required for inflammatory cytokine-driven goblet cell metaplasia in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahay, Henry; Pessotti, Angelica D; Coote, Julie; Montgomery, Brooke E; Xia, Donghui; Wilson, Aaron; Yang, Haidi; Wang, Zhao; Bevan, Luke; Thomas, Chris; Petit, Stephanie; London, Anne; LeMotte, Peter; Doelemeyer, Arno; Vélez-Reyes, Germán L; Bernasconi, Paula; Fryer, Christy J; Edwards, Matt; Capodieci, Paola; Chen, Amy; Hild, Marc; Jaffe, Aron B

    2015-01-13

    The balance and distribution of epithelial cell types is required to maintain tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of airway diseases is epithelial remodeling, leading to increased goblet cell numbers and an overproduction of mucus. In the conducting airway, basal cells act as progenitors for both secretory and ciliated cells. To identify mechanisms regulating basal cell fate, we developed a screenable 3D culture system of airway epithelial morphogenesis. We performed a high-throughput screen using a collection of secreted proteins and identified inflammatory cytokines that specifically biased basal cell differentiation toward a goblet cell fate, culminating in enhanced mucus production. We also demonstrate a specific requirement for Notch2 in cytokine-induced goblet cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that inhibition of Notch2 prevents goblet cell metaplasia induced by a broad range of stimuli and propose Notch2 neutralization as a therapeutic strategy for preventing goblet cell metaplasia in airway diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. C4.4A as a biomarker in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2014-01-01

    to invasive carcinomas of the lung, i.e., in bronchial hyperplasia/metaplasia and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. In the stages leading to pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, expression is sustained in dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas, and this pertains to the normal presence of C4.4A...... in squamous epithelium. In pulmonary adenocarcinomas, a fraction of cases is positive for C4.4A, which is surprising, given the origin of these carcinomas from mucin-producing and not squamous epithelium. Interestingly, this correlates with a highly compromised patient survival and a predominant solid tumor...

  9. Intestinal metaplasia induced by x-irradiation in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Terada, Yoritaka; Fujii, Isao; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Takizawa, Shoichi

    1978-01-01

    Total 400 rad of x-ray was given in 100 or 150 rad doses to the whole body of rats at intervals of one week, and one year and a half later, rats were killed. Disaccharidase was formed in most of animals, intestinal metaplasia only with goblet cells occurred in 65% of animals, and that with intestinal type of lacuna occurred in 36% of them. When 500 rad of x-ray was irradiated to each part of stomach day after day up to the total dose of 3,000 rad, biochemical intestinal metaplasia already occurred one week after the irradiation, and intestinal type lacuna occurred 2 months after the irradiation. Intestinal type lacuna was recognized in all animals killed 499 days after the irradiation, and intestinal metaplasia with Paneth's cells occurred in 6 out of 11 cases (56%). When a dose of 1,000 rad was irradiated to stomach three times at intervals of 2 days up to the total of 3,000 rad, much intestinal type lacuna was recognized 2 months after the irradiation, gastric adenoid cancerous changes appeared 4 months after, and gastric adenoid cancer occurred 6 months after. The above-mentioned results clarified that even if x-ray of a small dose was irradiated, intestinal metaplasia occurred, and that the period from the irradiation to occurrence of intestinal metaplasia was shortened by increasing a dose of x-ray. It was also clarified that not only intestinal metaplasia but also gastric adenoic cancer occurred due to a great amount of x-ray irradiation. (Ueda, J.)

  10. Intestinal metaplasia induced by x-irradiation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H; Terada, Y; Fujii, I; Yamamoto, Y; Takizawa, S [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1978-04-01

    Total 400 rad of x-ray was given in 100 or 150 rad doses to the whole body of rats at intervals of one week, and one year and a half later, rats were killed. Disaccharidase was formed in most of animals, intestinal metaplasia only with goblet cells occurred in 65% of animals, and that with intestinal type of lacuna occurred in 36% of them. When 500 rad of x-ray was irradiated to each part of stomach day after day up to the total dose of 3,000 rad, biochemical intestinal metaplasia already occurred one week after the irradiation, and intestinal type lacuna occurred 2 months after the irradiation. Intestinal type lacuna was recognized in all animals killed 499 days after the irradiation, and intestinal metaplasia with Paneth's cells occurred in 6 out of 11 cases (56%). When a dose of 1,000 rad was irradiated to stomach three times at intervals of 2 days up to the total of 3,000 rad, much intestinal type lacuna was recognized 2 months after the irradiation, gastric adenoid cancerous changes appeared 4 months after, and gastric adenoid cancer occurred 6 months after. The above-mentioned results clarified that even if x-ray of a small dose was irradiated, intestinal metaplasia occurred, and that the period from the irradiation to occurrence of intestinal metaplasia was shortened by increasing a dose of x-ray. It was also clarified that not only intestinal metaplasia but also gastric adenoic cancer occurred due to a great amount of x-ray irradiation.

  11. A unique case of a huge mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of non-endobronchial origin with a peripheral growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yabuki

    Full Text Available We report a case of a huge solitary non-endobronchial pulmonary tumor in a 76-year-old male smoker. The tumor measured 11 × 10 × 8 cm. It was ill-defined, and it was located periphery of the right lower lobe with the subpleural cystic spaces. He underwent right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection and is free from tumor 30 months after surgery. Microscopically, it was composed of a proliferation of squamous and ciliated columnar epithelial cells with a few mucous cells. These cells were arranged in a papillary growth fashion extending along the fibrously thickened alveolar septa together with metaplastic bronchiolar and squamous epithelia displaying an usual interstitial pneumonia-pattern. Although the histologic features of the tumor were that of a mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSCGP, it was peripherally located and showed a lepidic growth, and it was much larger than previously reported MSCGPs. It is possible that the tumor developed in association with bronchial metaplasia in the periphery of the lung, and then extended along the surface of the reconstructed air spaces, which resulted in its unique histologic appearance. Further investigations of respiratory papilloma are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of these lesions. Keywords: Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma, Non-endobronchial, Cytology, Interstitial pneumonia, Pulmonary tumor

  12. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Developing Within a Red-Ink Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Sara; Blakeway, Elizabeth; Fenn, Chris; German, Alyn; Laws, Philip

    Cutaneous reactions to tattoos are well reported and include allergic reactions, infections, and foreign body granuloma or may be a presenting sign of sarcoidosis. There have been very few reported cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in tattoo-treated skin. We report a case of SCC arising within a red-ink tattoo and discuss the potential the role of chronic low-grade inflammation in pathogenesis. This should serve to raise awareness of potential tattoo-related serious adverse effects.

  13. Endometrial osseous metaplasia: case report with literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a rare pathological condition with mature bone in the endometrium and can be a cause for menorrhagia and infertility as bone in the endometrium acts like intrauterine contraceptive device. We report one such case with brief review of literature in a 28‑year‑old woman presenting with ...

  14. Mucin production and mucous cell metaplasia in otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jizhen; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Tono, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) with mucoid effusion, characterized by mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia in the middle ear cleft and thick fluid accumulation in the middle ear cavity, is a subtype of OM which frequently leads to chronic OM in young children. Multiple factors are involved in the developmental...

  15. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  16. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  17. Development and Validation of the Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Quality of Life (BaSQoL) Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalboer-Spuij, Rick; Hollestein, Loes M; Timman, Reinier; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Nijsten, Tamar E

    2018-02-07

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important in the management of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Disease-specific questionnaires exist, but with important shortcomings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire suitable for use in all patients with BCC and those with SCC. In a 4-phase trajectory, a preliminary questionnaire was created and population-based testing (1,173 patients) carried out. The questionnaire was reduced using exploratory factor analysis and item response theory. Individual item performance was assessed using classical test theory. A total of 721 patients completed the questionnaire. The number of items was reduced to 16, covering 5 scales. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit. Cronbach�s ?s (range 0.67�0.82) were reasonable to high with good internal consistency. In conclusion, the Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Quality of Life questionnaire has good face, content and construct validity. It is useful in the wide range of BCC and SCC patients and captures HRQoL impact over different time-frames.

  18. Cigarette smoke suppresses Bik to cause epithelial cell hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebratu, Yohannes A; Schwalm, Kurt; Smith, Kevin R; Schuyler, Mark; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-06-01

    Aberrant regulation of airway epithelial cell numbers in airways leads to increased mucous secretions in chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. Because the Bcl-2 family of proteins is crucial for airway epithelial homeostasis, identifying the players that reduce cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mucous cell metaplasia can help to develop effective therapies. To identify the Bcl-2 family of proteins that play a role in reducing CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia. We screened for dysregulated expression of the Bcl-2 family members. We identified Bik to be significantly reduced in bronchial brushings of patients with chronic epithelial cell hyperplasia compared with nondiseased control subjects. Reduced Bik but increased MUC5AC mRNA levels were also detected when normal human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to CS or when autopsy tissues from former smokers with and without chronic bronchitis were compared. Similarly, exposure of C57Bl/6 mice to CS resulted in increased numbers of epithelial and mucous cells per millimeter of basal lamina, along with reduced Bik but increased Muc5ac expression, and this change was sustained even when mice were allowed to recover in filtered air for 8 weeks. Restoring Bik expression significantly suppressed CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia in differentiated primary HAEC cultures and in airways of mice in vivo. Bik blocked nuclear translocation of phospho-ERK1/2 to induce apoptosis of HAECs. The conserved Leu61 within Bik and ERK1/2 activation were essential to induce cell death in hyperplastic mucous cells. These studies show that CS suppresses Bik expression to block airway epithelia cell death and thereby increases epithelial cell hyperplasia in chronic bronchitis.

  19. [Biopsy and endoscopic prospective study of the prevalence of intestinal metaplasia in the gastroesophageal junction in controls and in patients with gastroesophageal reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csendes, A; Smok, G; Sagastume, H; Rojas, J

    1998-02-01

    The classic diagnosis of Barret esophagus is based on the finding of three of more cm of distal esophagus covered by specialized columnar epithelium. However, at the present time, it is based on the presence of intestinal metaplasia in the junction of squamous-columnar mucosae. To assess the prevalence of Barret esophagus using endoscopic and pathological criteria in healthy subjects and in individuals with gastroesophageal reflux. One hundred thirty nine controls and 372 patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were studied. Patients with Barret esophagus were classified as having a "mini Barret" when the pathological presence of intestinal metaplasia was the only finding. A "short Barret esophagus" was diagnosed when less than 3 cm were covered with fingerings of mucosal substitutions and "extensive Barret esophagus" when more than 3 cm of esophageal mucosa were substituted. Two percent of controls, 12.4% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux without esophagitis and 11.7% of such patients with esophagitis had intestinal metaplasia in the gastroesophageal junction. Patients with Barret esophagus were older than the rest of patients. "Short Barret esophagus" is six times more frequent than "extensive Barret esophagus". Esophageal erosions, peptic ulcers and stenosis were more frequent in patients with extensive Barret esophagus. The prevalence of dysplasia was similar in all types of Barret esophagus. Intestinal metaplasia was very infrequent in control patients. In subjects with gastroesophageal reflux, classic endoscopic diagnosis may miss up to 80% of patients with Barret esophagus. Thus, gastroesophageal junction biopsies must be obtained in all patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux.

  20. [Airway metaplasia related to smoking and environmental pollution through sputum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman-Cano, Floribel; Padilla-Santamaría, Fernando; Moreno-Venegas, Luis; Torner-Aguilar, Carlos Alejandro; Molina-Medina, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    Both environmental pollution and smoking affect the respiratory epithelium, causing cellular adaptation changes. Therefore, this work explores the presence of metaplasia in smokers compared with non-smokers from Mexico City. A prospective cohort study was performed. The sample was performed through a home interview covering the five Mexico City zones delimited to the study and monitoring of air quality. We searched metaplastic cells and inflammation in sputum cytology stained with Papanicolaou technique, and we assessed the air quality in Mexico City. We calculated relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) in relation to the presence of metaplasia and smoking. We performed 1897 home interviews obtaining a final sample of 30 participants. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers with the presence of metaplastic cells (p = 0.269), although the association of metaplastic cells and inflammation showed a significant difference in the non-smokers group (p = 0.010). The RR in association with the presence of metaplasia in sputum cytology and smoking was 1.6, and the RA was 0.2. The air quality in this city has led the population to undergo changes of cellular adaptation in the respiratory epithelium by the simple fact of being exposed to environmental pollution. Metaplastic changes in non-smokers suggest strongly that pollution causes the same effect as smoking.

  1. Development of a miniature autofluorescence device for the early diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Rao K., Swati; V. K., Unnikrishnan; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2017-07-01

    Autofluorescence spectroscopy offer noninvasive and promising tools for the detection of alternations biochemical compositions of tissues and cells, in presence of disease. They have the added advantage of being highly objective due to the fact that diagnostic evaluation is by statistical methods, eliminating errors from lack of experience, fatigue factor, and subjectivity of visual perceptions. The present research work involves in designing and assembling of a low cost, miniature oral cancer screening device with for routine clinical applications. A miniature system was designed and assembled with much smaller and cost-effective components like compact light source and miniature spectrometer, in a hand-held unit configuration. The performance of the system was evaluated using animal -mouse- SCC model. The current system can be used in handheld operation, which makes it very useful for many applications like, screening of squamous cell carcinoma susceptible population.

  2. Multiple squamous cells in thyroid fine needle aspiration: Friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Heather; Hubbard, Elizabeth; Nodit, Laurentia

    2016-08-01

    Abundant squamous cells are rarely encountered in thyroid FNA with only few case reports noted in the literature. Their presence and cytologic features may pose a diagnostic dilemma and challenges for proper classification and follow-up. We intend to gain more insight into the frequency of this finding and its clinical significance. Our electronic records were searched over 16 years to reveal 15 thyroid FNAs with abundant squamous cells. The available cytology and surgical resection slides were reviewed and radiologic records and clinical follow-up was documented. Only 15 out of 8811 thyroid FNAs from our department contained predominantly squamous cells (0.17%) of which two were interpreted as nondiagnostic, four as atypical, eight as benign, and one malignant. Surgical follow-up was available in eight cases only with benign lesions representing the majority of the cases (squamous metaplasia in Hashimoto thyroiditis, benign epidermoid/branchial cleft or thyroglossal duct cysts, and one case squamous cell carcinoma). The cases without surgical resection were stable on subsequent ultrasound studies. Thyroid aspirates with predominance of squamous cells cannot be classified in the current Bethesda categories. Even when interpreted as atypical or equivocal, the squamous cells present in our small case series were mostly benign. The only malignant case was easily identified cytologically because of its higher degree of differentiation. The most common pitfall for atypical squamous cells in these aspirates was squamous metaplasia in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis and degenerative changes. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:676-681. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metaplasia intestinal especializada de esôfago distal na doença do refluxo gastroesofágico: prevalência e aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos Specialized intestinal metaplasia of distal esophagus in the gastroesophageal reflux disease: prevalence and clinical-demographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiber C. Caum

    2003-12-01

    , esofagite mais intensa e sem associação com tabaco ou álcool.BACKGROUND: Specialized intestinal metaplasia can be categorized according endoscopic and histological findings in long segment Barrett, short segment Barrett and specialized intestinal metaplasia of cardia. Barrett's esophagus is an acquired disease that is found in about 10%-13% of patients undergoing endoscopy for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and it is well established as predisposing to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The columnar epithelium with goblet cells replaces the normal squamous epithelium. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clinical-demographic characteristics of specialized intestinal metaplasia of distal esophagus in the gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: From April to October 2002, 402 patients referred to upper endoscopy due gastroesophageal reflux disease were evaluated through of a symptom questionnaire about clinical and demographic features and submitted to upper endoscopy with four-quadrant biopsies 1 cm below escamocolumnar junction. RESULTS: Eighteen point four percent of patients had specialized intestinal metaplasia, 0.5% long segment Barrett esophagus, 3.2% short segment Barrett's esophagus and 14.7% specialized intestinal metaplasia of cardia. Patients with Barrett's esophagus showed a tendency to be male and specialized metaplasia of cardia to be female. All patients with Barrett's esophagus were white. There was not association between symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and specialized intestinal metaplasia, but patients with Barrett's esophagus showed a tendency to have symptoms over 5 years and had more hiatal hernia and esophagitis. The use of alcohol and tobacco was not related to the presence of specialized intestinal metaplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Barrett's esophagus was more related to the male gender, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms for 5 years or longer, more intense esophagitis and hiatal hernia, but was not related to the use of

  4. Stromal ETS2 Regulates Chemokine Production and Immune Cell Recruitment during Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarresi, Jason R.; Liu, Xin; Sharma, Sudarshana M.; Cuiti?o, Maria C.; Kladney, Raleigh D.; Mace, Thomas A.; Donohue, Sydney; Nayak, Sunayana G.; Qu, Chunjing; Lee, James; Woelke, Sarah A.; Trela, Stefan; LaPak, Kyle; Yu, Lianbo; McElroy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that the pancreatic tumor microenvironment both inhibits and promotes tumor development and growth. Here we establish the role of stromal fibroblasts during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initiating event in pancreatic cancer formation. The transcription factor V-Ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) was elevated in smooth muscle actin?positive fibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue...

  5. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-22

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Frequent occurrence of mitochondrial DNA mutations in Barrett's metaplasia without the presence of dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soong Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE is one of the most common premalignant lesions and can progress to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA. The numerous molecular events may play a role in the neoplastic transformation of Barrett's mucosa such as the change of DNA ploidy, p53 mutation and alteration of adhesion molecules. However, the molecular mechanism of the progression of BE to EA remains unclear and most studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in BE have performed on BE with the presence of dysplasia. METHODS/FINDINGS: Thus, the current study is to investigate new molecular events (Barrett's esophageal tissue-specific-mtDNA alterations/instabilities in mitochondrial genome and causative factors for their alterations using the corresponding adjacent normal mucosal tissue (NT and tissue (BT from 34 patients having Barrett's metaplasia without the presence of dysplasia. Eighteen patients (53% exhibited mtDNA mutations which were not found in adjacent NT. mtDNA copy number was about 3 times higher in BT than in adjacent NT. The activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme complexes in tissues from Barrett's metaplasia without the presence of dysplasia was impaired. Reactive oxygen species (ROS level in BT was significantly higher than those in corresponding samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High ROS level in BT may contribute to the development of mtDNA mutations, which may play a crucial role in disease progression and tumorigenesis in BE.

  7. Expression of C4.4A in precursor lesions of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Illemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in precursor lesions of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was investigated by stainings with a specific anti-C4.4A antibody. In the transformation from normal bronchial epithelium to squamous cell carcinoma, C4.4A was weakly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia but dramatically increased...... in squamous metaplasia. This was confined to the cell membrane and sustained in dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and the invasive carcinoma. The induction of C4.4A already at the stage of hyperplasia could indicate that it is a marker of very early squamous differentiation, which aligns well with our earlier...... finding that C4.4A expression levels do not provide prognostic information on the survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients. In the progression from normal alveolar epithelium to peripheral adenocarcinoma, we observed an unexpected, distinct cytoplasmic staining for C4.4A in a fraction of atypical...

  8. Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in

  9. Metaplasia mieloide do baço na Ancilostomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1934-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquizamos, no figado e baço de dez casos puros de ancilostomose, elementos hemocitopoieticos; verificamos o peso do baço em 23 casos de individuos com idades compreendidas entre 3 e 60 anos; não encontramos, em nenhum caso, celulas hemoformadoras no figado. Em sete casos, encontramos, no baço, elementos da série vermelha em adiantado estado de evolução (eritroblastos ortocromaticos de nucleo picnotico. Em alguns destes casos observamos megacariocitos e numerosos mielocitos eosinofilos. Os tres casos que não apresentavam metaplasia mieloide no baço, eram os de individuos acima de 50 anos de idade. Entretanto, em outro caso de um individuo com 59 anos esta metaplasia foi verificada. Em individuos acima de 20 anos, o peso médio do baço, em nove casos, mostrou-se igual ao peso normal. Em 14 casos, compreendidos entre 3 e 14 anos, o peso deste orgão foi sempre sensivelmente mais elevado que nos normais de idade correspondente. Estes resultados sugerem a possibilidade de ser a metaplasia mieloide responsavel pelos aumentos de pezo nos baços de individuos jovens, vitimados pela anemia ancilostomica. A notavel proliferação dos eritroblastos ortocromaticos mostra que o grão e a rapidez da regeneração sanguinea, após a administração de ferro, são devidos, essencialmente, á grande quantidade de hemoglobina já preformada no baço e na medula ossea dos organismos ancilostomados.

  10. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a salivary duct cyst of the parotid gland. Contribution to the development of tumours in salivary gland cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, G

    1996-12-01

    Concerning the hypothesis that distinct types of salivary gland cysts may be the starting point of a salivary gland tumour, a histological examination of 1,661 salivary gland cysts was performed in order to analyse the cell types and their proliferative activity. Epithelial alterations were found especially in salivary duct cysts of parotid gland and in mucous retention cysts of minor salivary glands. Characteristic cellular changes were epithelial metaplasias (goblet cells, clear cells, squamous cells) and focal epithelial proliferations with plump or papillary plaques projecting into the cyst lumen. Only in one case had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma developed in the wall of a parotid duct cyst. The epithelial metaplasia and focal proliferative activity in salivary duct cysts is comparable to similar alterations in odontogenic cysts as possible early manifestation of a tumour, especially of an ameloblastoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of salivary duct cysts must take primarily cystadenomas and cystic mucoepidermoid carcinomas of well-differentiated type into account.

  11. Relation between bile acid reflux into the stomach and the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: a multicenter study of 2283 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Tetsuo; Tokutomi, Tadashi; Sakurai, Kouichi; Okamura, Seisuke; Chono, Shinji; Kamada, Tomoari; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Matsuzawa, Kenji; Ito, Masanori; Yasuda, Mitsugu; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Haruma, Ken

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between bile acid reflux into the stomach and the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia is still not well understood. Towards obtaining a better understanding, concentrations of bile acids were measured. This study was carried out with the participation of 14 facilities in Japan, and 2283 samples were collected. The subjects with bile acid concentrations equal to or higher than the limit of detection were divided into four groups of equal size (group A: 0-25%, group B: 26-50%, group C: 51-75%, and group D: 76-100%). Thus, including the control group, there were five groups in total. The odds that the control group would develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia was set as 1,and the odds ratios (OR) in groups A, B, C and D were calculated based on the odds in the control group. Regarding the development of atrophic gastritis, no increased risk was observed in either the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive or -negative cases. The OR for the development of intestinal metaplasia were significantly higher, for both cases with and without H. pylori infection, in group D. High concentrations of bile acid seem to be associated with an elevated risk of intestinal metaplasia. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  12. Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Cabezón, T.

    2007-01-01

    ) with apocrine metaplasia. The latter is a benign proliferative lesion of the breast that exhibits an increase in the size of the TDLUs and characterized by retained two-cell lining, and myoepithelial (ME) and stromal hyperplasia. SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher...

  13. PKCepsilon overexpression, irrespective of genetic background, sensitizes skin to UVR-induced development of squamous-cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Jordan M; Aziz, Moammir H; Dreckschmidt, Nancy E; Havighurst, Thomas C; Kim, KyungMann; Oberley, Terry D; Verma, Ajit K

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exposure to UVR is the major etiologic factor in the development of human skin cancers including squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). We have previously shown that protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) transgenic mice on FVB/N background, which overexpress PKCepsilon protein approximately eightfold over endogenous levels in epidermis, exhibit about threefold more sensitivity than wild-type littermates to UVR-induced development of SCC. To determine whether it is PKCepsilon and not the mouse genetic background that determines susceptibility to UVR carcinogenesis, we cross-bred PKCepsilon FVB/N transgenic mice with SKH-1 hairless mice to generate PKCepsilon-overexpressing SKH-1 hairless mice. To evaluate the susceptibility of PKCepsilon SKH-1 hairless transgenic mice to UVR carcinogenesis, the mice were exposed to UVR (1-2 KJ m(-2)) three times weekly from a bank of six kodacel-filtered FS40 sunlamps. As compared with the wild-type hairless mice, PKCepsilon overexpression in SKH-1 hairless mice decreased the latency (12 weeks), whereas it increased the incidence (twofold) and multiplicity (fourfold) of SCC. The SKH hairless transgenic mice were observed to be as sensitive as FVB/N transgenic mice to UVR-induced development of SCC and expression of proliferative markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2). The results indicate that PKCepsilon level dictates susceptibility, irrespective of genetic background, to UVR carcinogenesis.

  14. Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallbohmer Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymidylate synthase (TS is known to have a unique 28 bp tandemly repeated sequence in the promoter region, and the majorities of subjects have a heterozygous double repeat/triple repeat genotype in their non-cancerous tissue. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH at the TS locus is known to occur in cancer patients, but there is no evidence that it is present in precancerous tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and timing of LOH at the TS locus in Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma (BA and its precursory lesions, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM and dysplasia. Methods One hundred twenty-three samples (including 37 with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, 29 with IM, 13 with dysplasia, and 44 with BA were obtained from 100 patients. Biopsies were obtained from the lower esophageal mucosa/IM/dysplasia/BA, when available. Normal squamous tissue from the upper esophagus was taken as a control. All tissues were analyzed for the TS genotype and TS mRNA expression using the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method after laser-capture microdissection. Results Among the patients with informative heterozygous genotype in their control samples, no sample with LOH at the TS locus was observed in the lower esophageal mucosa in GERD patients (0/22 samples. However, 6 out of 21 samples (28.6% had LOH in IM, 2 of 7 (28.6% in dysplasia, and 10 of 25 (40.0% in BA. No significant difference in TS mRNA expression levels was observed between TS genotypes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that LOH is a relatively frequent and early event in the IM-BA sequence.

  15. Profile of pembrolizumab in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: design development and place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulsal Haque,1,2 Mahender Yellu,1,2 Jaskirat Randhawa,1,2 Nooshin Hashemi-Sadraei1,2 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2University of Cincinnati Cancer Institute, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and despite advances in cytotoxic, surgical and radiation techniques, outcomes are still poor in those with both locally advanced and metastatic diseases. The need for development of better therapeutics along with a greater understanding of the relationship between the immune system and malignancies has led to a new therapeutic modality, immune modulators, particularly checkpoint inhibitors in HNSCC. It is now well recognized that HNSCC circumvents crucial pathways utilized by the immune system to escape surveillance. These hijacked pathways include impairing tumor antigen presentation machinery and co-opting checkpoint receptors. This understanding has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies targeting checkpoint receptors and has resulted in promising outcomes in HNSCC. This article describes the mechanisms that HNSCC utilizes to escape immune surveillance, clinical impact of checkpoint inhibitors (with a focus on pembrolizumab, ongoing studies, and future directions. Keywords: pembrolizumab, head and neck cancer, MK-3475, immunotherapy

  16. Interleukin 10 is an essential modulator of mucoid metaplasia in a mouse otitis media model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Katsuyuki; Komori, Masahiro; Zheng, Qing Yin; Ferrieri, Patricia; Lin, Jizhen

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are involved in the development of mucus cell metaplasia/hyperplasia (MCM) in otitis media (OM). However, which cytokines play an essential role in MCM OM is not clear at the moment. In this study, we hypothesized that interleukin-10 (IL-10) played an indispensable role in MCM of bacterial OM and used IL-10 knockout mice to test this hypothesis. In wild-type mice, both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae triggered the development of MCM in the middle ear mucosa. In IL-10 knockout mice, the number of goblet cells and mucin-producing cells in the middle ear was significantly reduced after bacterial middle ear infection compared with that in wild-type mice. We, therefore, concluded that IL-10 plays an essential role in MCM of bacterial OM. IL-10 is a potential target for the treatment of MCM in OM. PMID:18771082

  17. Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV+ MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegenbeek van Heukelom, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis we report on several aspects of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). It is estimated that 10% of HIV+ MSM with anal HSIL will develop anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) over 30 years time. Screening programs similar to

  18. Gastric intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia: a morphological and biologic evaluation in a large Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Chang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Weixun; Xiao, Yu; Nakatsuka, Laura N; Chen, Jie; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2013-04-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia can display cytoarchitectural atypia that falls short of qualifying for dysplasia but can be classified as indefinite for dysplasia. Yet few studies have evaluated the prevalence, the morphologic, and biologic characteristics of this variant. Out of a cohort of 554 biopsies with chronic atrophic gastritis and/or dysplasia, we categorized the cases as either (1) simple intestinal metaplasia; (2) intestinal metaplasia with hyperplasia; (3) intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia; and (4) gastric dysplasia. The relationship between the subtypes and various clinicopathologic features, mucin immunophenotypes, and biologic characteristics was evaluated. The final cohort consisted of 424 cases of simple intestinal metaplasia, 93 intestinal metaplasia with hyperplasia, 16 intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia, and 21 gastric dysplasia. Intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia had a prevalence of 2.8% and similar to gastric dysplasia, 3.7%. Both of these lesions were similar in body/fundus distribution (12.5%) and paucity of goblet cells (68.8%). Intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia and gastric dysplasia seem to share some biologic similarities but with a lower frequency of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression (25% versus 62%), p53 expression (6.3% versus 47.6%), and increased Ki-67 index on surface/pit and isthmus in intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia. Alternatively, simple intestinal metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia with hyperplasia did not differ statistically with regard to the various characteristics evaluated. We concluded that gastric intestinal metaplasia can be divided into 2 broad categories that are readily defined by cytoarchitectural and biologic characteristics. Based on the characteristics of intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia and in keeping with others, we confirm that this subtype could represent a preneoplastic lesion that needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2013

  19. Development and validation of Raman spectroscopic classification models to discriminate tongue squamous cell carcinoma from non-tumorous tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.J. Cals (Froukje); S. Koljenović (Senada); J.A.U. Hardillo (José); R.J. Baatenburg de Jong (Robert Jan); T.C. Bakker Schut (Tom); G.J. Puppels (Gerwin)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground Currently, up to 85% of the oral resection specimens have inadequate resection margins, of which the majority is located in the deeper soft tissue layers. The prognosis of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) of the tongue is negatively affected by

  20. The effect of sex differences on induction of intestinal metaplasia in x-ray irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Takizawa, Shoichi; Terada, Yoritake; Naito, Masashi; Naito, Yukiko

    1980-01-01

    The effects of sex differences and ovarian resection on induction of intestinal metaplasia in x-ray irradiated mice were discussed. 1,000 rad of x-ray was irradiated to the stomach of female and male mice twice at intervals of 3 days. The range of intestinal metaplasia in male mice was wider than that in female mice. A total of 400 rad was irradiated to the whole body of mice which underwent ovarian resection (group 1), mice which underwent autotransplantation of the ovary after ovarian resection (group 2), and mice which underwent sham-ovarian resection (group 3). The incidence of intestinal metaplasia in the group 1 was significantly higher than that in the group 3. The weight of the uterus decreased gradually in order of the group 3, group 2, and group 1. It was suggested from above-mentioned results that disappearance or lowering of femal sex hormones, that is, male or androphacy, induced intestinal metaplasia. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofstee Mans

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cells are normally not found inside the breast, so a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceptional phenomenon. There is a possible explanation for these findings. Case presentation A 72-year-old woman presented with a breast abnormality suspected for breast carcinoma. After the operation the pathological examination revealed a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. Conclusion The presentation of squamous cell carcinoma could be similar to that of an adenocarcinoma. However, a squamous cell carcinoma of the breast could also develop from a complicated breast cyst or abscess. Therefore, pathological examination of these apparent benign abnormalities is mandatory.

  2. Metaplasia of the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule. A histopathological survey of the human kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Haensly, William E.; Lee, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Human kidney sections taken at autopsy were examined to determine the incidence of metaplasia of the Bowman's parietal epithelium. Autopsy records were consulted to determine if there was any correlation between clinical disease, histopathological changes in organ systems and metaplasia of Bowman's capsule. The sections represented both sexes in 9 age groups from 2 to 87 years. The sections were fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 6 pm...

  3. Transitional basal cells at the squamous-columnar junction generate Barrett’s oesophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongchun; Yang, Ying; Lu, Rong; Liu, Kuancan; Lin, Sijie; Lan, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haikun; Wu, Han; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongren; Xu, Jianming; Lee, Dong-Kee; Zhang, Lanjing; Lee, Yuan-Cho; Yuan, Jingsong; Abrams, Julian A.; Wang, Timothy G.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Wu, Qi; Chen, Huaiyong; Sun, Xin; She, Junjun; Chen, Xiaoxin; Que, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    In several organ systems the transitional zone between different types of epithelia is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy1–3. However, the cell-of-origin for the metaplastic epithelium and subsequent malignancy, remains obscure1–3. In the case of Barrett’s oesophagus (BE), intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells4. Based on different experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of the metaplasia, but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive and no model completely mimics BE with the presence of intestinal goblet cells5–8. Here, we describe a novel transitional columnar epithelium with distinct basal progenitor cells (p63+ KRT5+ KRT7+) in the squamous-columnar junction (SCJ) in the upper gastrointestinal tract of the mouse. We use multiple models and lineage tracing strategies to show that this unique SCJ basal cell population serves as a source of progenitors for the transitional epithelium. Moreover, upon ectopic expression of CDX2 these transitional basal progenitors differentiate into intestinal-like epithelium including goblet cells, thus reproducing Barrett’s metaplasia. A similar transitional columnar epithelium is present at the transitional zones of other mouse tissues, including the anorectal junction, and, importantly, at the gastro-oesophageal junction in the human gut. Acid reflux-induced oesophagitis and the multilayered epithelium (MLE) believed to be a precursor of BE are both characterized by the expansion of the transitional basal progenitor cells. Taken together our findings reveal the presence of a previously unidentified transitional zone in the epithelium of the upper gastrointestinal tract and provide evidence that the p63+ KRT7+ basal cells in this zone are the cell-of-origin for MLE and BE. PMID:29019984

  4. Metaplasia óssea e esterilidade primária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reggiani Celeste P. Demeterco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A metaplasia óssea do endométrio é uma condição rara e pode ser explicada por uma neoformação no endométrio, com deposição de sais de cálcio. Entretanto, a situação mais comum é a história prévia de abortamento com permanência de ossículos na cavidade uterina. Foi relatado um caso de ossificação endometrial em uma mulher de 31 anos, sem gravidez prévia ou história de aborto, apresentando dismenorréia e infertilidade. A ultra-sonografia pélvica mostrou área hiperecóica no fundo da cavidade uterina. A histeroscopia foi realizada e uma imagem sugestiva de tecido ósseo foi encontrada. Este tecido foi retirado e a histopatologia confirmou a ossificação endometrial.

  5. Radiation therapy for symptomatic hepatomegaly in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tefferi, A.; Jimenez, T.; Gray, L.A.; Mesa, R.A. [Division of Hematology and Internal Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, M.G. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, MN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Objective: To describe the experience with liver irradiation in advanced cases of myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM). Methods: Over a 20-yr period, 14 patients with MMM were treated with a total of 25 courses of liver, abdominal, or abdominal and pelvic irradiation for symptomatic hepatomegaly with (5 patients) or without (9 patients) ascites. All 14 patients had advanced disease and 11 (79%) had previous splenectomy. The median radiation therapy (RT) dose per course was 150 cGy (range 50-1000) administered at a median of six fractions. Four patients received two to six courses. Results. Twelve of the 14 patients (86%) had a transient (median 3 months) subjective response from RT. However, in only 35% of these was there a transient (median 3 months) decrease in palpable liver size. Four of the five patients with ascites experienced a short-term response from RT. Eight of the 13 patients suitable for evaluation (62%) had treatment-associated cytopenia, often in the form of anemia and/or thrombocytopenia. At last follow-up, 10 patients (71%) had died after a median of 7 months (range 0.1-23) and 4 were alive at 3, 20, 33, and 57 months after RT. Conclusions: Low-dose abdominal RT for symptomatic hepatomegaly or ascites associated with advanced-stage MMM is myelosuppressive and provides only temporary and mainly subjective and short-lived relief. (au)

  6. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Carter E; Todd, Douglas H; Binder, Scott W; Cassarino, David S

    2009-05-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, rapidly growing 1-cm nodule on his scalp that had arisen over the previous 3 months. He had no history of skin cancer. An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion. There was marked cellular atypia, numerous atypical mitotic figures and focal necrosis. The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease). Large areas of mucin were identified throughout the lesion. The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation. The goblet cells and mucinous areas stained with mucicarmine and PASD. The patient was diagnosed with hidradenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation. Associated Paget's disease has only rarely been reported, and mucinous metaplasia is a previously unreported feature in hidradenocarcinoma.

  7. Squamous intraepithelial lesions of the anal squamocolumnar junction: Histopathological classification and HPV genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Clavero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer lesions are often found adjacent to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ. We have assessed the histopathology and associated HPV genotypes in anal SCJ lesions in surgically excised anal warts in HIV-negative and –positive patients. Methods: Histopathology identified 47 squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs adjacent to the SCJ amongst a total of 145 cases of clinically diagnosed anal condylomata. The anal SCJ lesions were further analyzed with p16, CK7 and p63 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping. Results: Sixteen (16/47 of the excised anal wart lesions contained HSIL; Three were HSIL and exclusively associated with oncogenic HPVs. A further thirteen (13/47 were mixed lesions. Of these eight were HSILs with LSIL and six were HSILs with papillary immature metaplasia (PIM; Ten of the mixed lesions were associated with one or more oncogenic HPVs, while three cases were exclusively associated with HPV6. Conclusions: Clinically diagnosed anal warts cannot be assumed to be limited to low-grade lesions as anal warts of the SCJ often show heterogeneous lesions, with coexistence of LSIL, PIM, and HSIL. Lesions showing PIM, however, may mimic HSIL, because they are hypercellular, but lack the nuclear atypia and conspicuous mitotic activity of HSIL; and are p16 negative. Keywords: Anal squamocolumnar junction, Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM, HPV, HIV

  8. The Durability of Endoscopic Therapy for Treatment of Barrett's Metaplasia, Dysplasia, and Mucosal Cancer After Nissen Fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Corey S; Louie, Brian E; Wille, Aaron; Dunst, Christy M; Worrell, Stephanie G; DeMeester, Steven R; Reynolds, Jessica; Dixon, Joe; Lipham, John C; Lada, Michal; Peters, Jeffrey H; Watson, Thomas J; Farivar, Alexander S; Aye, Ralph W

    2015-05-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) ± endoscopic resection (EMR) is an established treatment strategy for neoplastic Barrett's and intramucosal cancer. Most patients are managed with proton pump inhibitors. The incidence of recurrent Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, or cancer after complete eradication is up to 43 % using this strategy. We hypothesize the addition of fundoplication should result in a lower recurrence rates after complete eradication. Multi-institutional retrospective review of patients undergoing endotherapy followed by Nissen fundoplication A total of 49 patients underwent RFA ± EMR followed by Nissen fundoplication. Complete remission of intestinal metaplasia (CR-IM) was achieved in 26 (53 %) patients, complete remission of dysplasia (CR-D) in 16 (33 %) patients, and 7 (14 %) had persistent neoplastic Barrett's. After fundoplication, 18/26 (70 %) remained in CR-IM. An additional 10/16 CR-D achieved CR-IM and 4/7 with persistent dysplasia achieved CR-IM. One patient progressed to LGD while no patient developed HGD or cancer. Endoscopic therapy for Barrett's dysplasia and/or intramucosal cancer followed by fundoplication results in similar durability of CR-IM to patients being managed with PPIs alone after endoscopic therapy. However, fundoplication may be superior in preventing further progression of disease and the development of cancer. Fundoplication is an important strategy to achieve and maintain CR-IM, and facilitate eradication of persistent dysplasia.

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of metapIastic squamous breast carcinoma and the pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Hee; Hwang, Asiry; Choi, Hye Young; Sung, Sun Hee; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Lee, Sun Hwa

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the ultrasonographic (US) appearance of metapIastic squamous breast carcinoma with the pathologic correlation. During an 8-year period, the US appearances of 10 patients with metaplastic squamous breast carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed on the basis of the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) - US lexicon. These 10 patients included 9 patients having invasive adenocarcinomas of the breast with more than 30% squamous metaplasia, and one patient had pure primary squamous cell carcinoma. We correlated the US findings with the pathologic findings. On US, the majority of the tumors showed ovaI shapes (70%), indistinct margins (50%), parallel orientation (80%), echogenic halos (60%), complex echogenicity with solid and cystic components (60%), and posterior enhancement (70%). The findings of calcifications (20%) and metastatic axillary lymph nodes (10%) were rare. On pathologic examination, half of the tumors showed infiltrative microscopic margins. All six cases showing complex echogenicity with solid and cystic components on US were pathologically related to the cystic or necrotic portion, and three of these cases had hemorrhage. On US, metapIastic squamous breast carcinoma mainly manifested as oval, complex, echoic masses with indistinct margins and posterior enhancement that was pathologically related to the cystic or necrotic portions

  10. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β ablation limits pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Liou, Geou-Yarh; Schmitt, Daniel M; Storz, Peter; Zhang, Jin-San; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2017-09-01

    Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a reversible epithelial transdifferentiation process that occurs in the pancreas in response to acute inflammation. ADM can rapidly progress towards pre-malignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in the presence of mutant KRas and ultimately pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the present work, we elucidate the role and related mechanism of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) in ADM development using in vitro 3D cultures and genetically engineered mouse models. We show that GSK-3β promotes TGF-α-induced ADM in 3D cultured primary acinar cells, whereas deletion of GSK-3β attenuates caerulein-induced ADM formation and PanIN progression in Kras G12D transgenic mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GSK-3β ablation influences ADM formation and PanIN progression by suppressing oncogenic KRas-driven cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we show that GSK-3β regulates proliferation by increasing the activation of S6 kinase. Taken together, these results indicate that GSK-3β participates in early pancreatitis-induced ADM and thus could be a target for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis and the prevention of PDAC progression. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Extensive intestinal metaplasia of renal pelvis: Report of a case and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakriti Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of the urothelium to the intestinal type of epithelium is rare in the pelvis with very few cases reported in the literature. The present study reports extensive intestinal metaplasia of the pelvi-calyceal system without residual urothelium in a 35-years-old woman with a 2 years history of renal calculi. Right - sided Nephrectomy was undertaken. Immunohistochemistry of the metaplastic epithelium revealed positive expression of CK20, low Ki-67 index and negative expression of p53. In this patient long standing metaplastic changes did not progress to adenocarcinoma which indicates that extensive intestinal metaplasia is not always associated with malignancy.

  12. Developing a risk stratification tool for audit of outcome after surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, David F; Thomas, Alan J; Sassoon, Isabel; Kinsman, Robin; McGurk, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Patients treated surgically for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represent a heterogeneous group. Adjusting for patient case mix and complexity of surgery is essential if reporting outcomes represent surgical performance and quality of care. A case note audit totaling 1075 patients receiving 1218 operations done for HNSCC in 4 cancer networks was completed. Logistic regression, decision tree analysis, an artificial neural network, and Naïve Bayes Classifier were used to adjust for patient case-mix using pertinent preoperative variables. Thirty-day complication rates varied widely (34%-51%; P risk stratification. The artificial neural network demonstrated the best predictive performance (area under the curve [AUC] 0.85). Early postoperative complications are a measurable outcome that can be used to benchmark surgical performance and quality of care. Surgical outcome reporting in national clinical audits should be taking account of the patient case mix. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramochi, Hidekazu; Uchida, Kazumi; Peters, Jeffery H; Shimizu, Daisuke; Vallbohmer, Daniel; Schneider, Sylke; Danenberg, Kathleen D; Danenberg, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is known to have a unique 28 bp tandemly repeated sequence in the promoter region, and the majorities of subjects have a heterozygous double repeat/triple repeat genotype in their non-cancerous tissue. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the TS locus is known to occur in cancer patients, but there is no evidence that it is present in precancerous tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and timing of LOH at the TS locus in Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma (BA) and its precursory lesions, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia. One hundred twenty-three samples (including 37 with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), 29 with IM, 13 with dysplasia, and 44 with BA) were obtained from 100 patients. Biopsies were obtained from the lower esophageal mucosa/IM/dysplasia/BA, when available. Normal squamous tissue from the upper esophagus was taken as a control. All tissues were analyzed for the TS genotype and TS mRNA expression using the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method after laser-capture microdissection. Among the patients with informative heterozygous genotype in their control samples, no sample with LOH at the TS locus was observed in the lower esophageal mucosa in GERD patients (0/22 samples). However, 6 out of 21 samples (28.6%) had LOH in IM, 2 of 7 (28.6%) in dysplasia, and 10 of 25 (40.0%) in BA. No significant difference in TS mRNA expression levels was observed between TS genotypes. Our results demonstrate that LOH is a relatively frequent and early event in the IM-BA sequence

  14. Magnitude of gastric or duodenal reflux, clinical and endoscopic findings in patients with cardial intestinal metaplasia, short Barrett esofhagus and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Csendes J, Attila; Burdiles P, Patricio; Smok S, Gladys; Rojas C, Jorge; Flores M, Noé; Domic P, Sergio; Quiroz G, Juan; Henríquez G, Ana

    1999-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of patients with short segments of intestinal metaplasia in the distal esophagus, has increased in recent years. Aim: To assess the clinical, pathological and functional features of patients with esophageal intestinal metaplasia. Patients and methods: A prospective study was performed in 95 control subjects, 115 patients with cardial intestinal metaplasia and 89 patients with short Barret esophagus with intestinal metaplasia. All had clinical and endoscopic assessmen...

  15. Simple and complex hyperplastic papillary proliferations of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases of apparently localized papillary lesions with fibrovascular stromal cores and epithelial metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, M B; Hart, W R

    2001-11-01

    The clinicopathologic features of nine cases of papillary proliferation of the endometrium devoid of malignant nuclear features were studied. The patients ranged in age from 33 to 71 years (median 57 years). All were postmenopausal, except the youngest. The most common symptom was postmenopausal bleeding. Two patients were receiving hormonal replacement therapy and two were taking megestrol acetate. Two lesions were incidental findings in a hysterectomy specimen. Seven were diagnosed in endometrial biopsy or curettage specimens. In six cases (67%) the lesion involved an endometrial polyp. In all cases the papillae had fibrovascular stromal cores and variable degrees of branching. Two architectural patterns were found. A simple papillary pattern with involvement of only a few glands and little epithelial proliferation occurred in five cases, including three that were entirely intracystic. A complex papillary pattern with more extensive involvement of endometrial glands, a greater degree of branching of the papillae, and cellular tufting occurred in four cases. One or more metaplastic epithelial changes occurred in all cases, including endocervical-type mucinous metaplasia in nine cases (90%), eosinophilic cell change in eight (89%), ciliated cell change in seven (70%), focal squamous metaplasia in two cases (22%), and hobnail cell change in two (22%). Mitotic figures were found in three cases. In four lesions (44%), all with a complex papillary pattern, the proliferating cells had mild nuclear atypia. Three of these patients underwent hysterectomy within 5 months. Simple nonpapillary hyperplasia and two endometrial polyps were found in one patient, complex nonpapillary hyperplasia in one, and atrophic endometrium in the other. Two patients had additional endometrial samplings within 4 months that contained small residual simple papillary lesions. One of these had another biopsy at 16 months that showed only atrophy. One patient had no subsequent diagnostic or

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of penis in patient with incipient neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zaslavsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SSCC is one of the most common malignant skin tumors. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, with human beings as the only host. The combination of syphilis and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is not uncommon, particularly if the lesions are located on different parts of the body. However, simultaneous development of the chancre and squamous cell carcinoma of the glans penis seems exceptional. Considering rarity of the manifestation observed we feel the rare case of combined syphilis and squamous cell skin cancer is of interest.

  17. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  18. A patient with squamous cell carcinoma developing as a secondary cancer after radiation therapy and carbon dioxide snow-freezing therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Miki, Hirotoshi; Yokoyama, Toshiya; Katori, Nobutada

    2004-01-01

    We report on a 59-year-old male who developed skin cancer many years after receiving radiation therapy and carbon dioxide snow-freezing therapy. About 50 years ago, the patient underwent radiation therapy and carbon dioxide snow-freezing therapy for nevus of the Ota of the left buccal region, the orbital region, and the forehead (fractional dose and total dose unknown). About 6 months prior to evaluation at this hospital, the patient noted tumor growth on the skin in the areas previously treated, and protruding lesions were observed on the left buccal region, the orbital region, and the forehead. Histopathological examination showed squamous cell carcinoma. At surgery, protruding lesions and scar tissue were completely excised, and split-thickness skin graft was used in the areas of skin loss. After 2 years of follow-up, no local recurrence or metastasis has been observed. (author)

  19. Intra-articular lipoma with osteochondroid metaplasia in the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.I. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Orthopaedic Oncology Unit and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Keel, S.B. [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gebhardt, M.C. [Orthopaedic Oncology Unit and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Rosenthal, D.I. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2001-04-01

    We describe a case of lipoma with osteochondroid metaplasia in the knee joint. Although the location of the lesion and radiographic findings were unusual, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were useful in characterizing adipose, cartilaginous and osseous tissue components within the lesion. (orig.)

  20. Degree of neutrophil, atrophy, and metaplasia intestinal were associate with malondialdehyde level in gastritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Sari, D. K.; Sungkar, T.

    2018-03-01

    The main pathogenesis of gastritis is inflammation that closely related to free radicals. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a free radical biomarker and is found to increase in gastritis patients. However, these studies are generally performed on experimental animals as well as MDA examination in gastric mucosa. This study aim was to determine the association of degrees of gastritis (degree of lymphocyte infiltration, neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia) with plasma MDA level. A cross-sectional study of 80 consecutive gastritis patients who came to an endoscopic unit of Adam Malik General Hospital in Medan, Indonesia, from May–September 2017. Assessed for severity of chronic inflammatory, neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia refers to Updated Sydney System. Plasma MDA levels were examined using an HPLC MDA kit. Univariate analysis, bivariate (chi-square and Fisher exact test), and multivariate (binary logistic regression test) were programmed with SPSS version 22. There was no significant association between degree of lymphocyte infiltration with MDA level. There were significant associations between degree of neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia with MDA level (p=0.039, 0.003, 0.021; respectively). The moderate+severe degree of neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were associated with high level of MDA.

  1. Morphological featuresof metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelium in Barret’s esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Vitkovska S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the morphological features of metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelium in Barret’s esophagus. The role of biopsy in the diagnostic of Barret’s esophagus and results of morphological research in the choice of follow-up and treatment of patients is shown.

  2. Bilateral laryngeal paralysis in a dog secondary to laryngeal osseous metaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Skelding, Alicia Marie; Kisiel, Agatha; Essman, Stephanie; Rutland, Bronwyn E.

    2016-01-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female Lurcher was evaluated for a chronic history of increased upper respiratory noise. Advanced imaging including digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of an ill-defined soft tissue mineralized mass of the ventral larynx. Histopathology demonstrated pleocellular myositis and fasciitis with osseous metaplasia.

  3. Role of KEAP1/NRF2 and TP53 mutations in lung squamous cell carcinoma development and radiotherapy response prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngtae; Hoang, Ngoc T.; Lovejoy, Alexander; Stehr, Henning; Newman, Aaron M.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Kong, William; Truong, Diana; Martin, Shanique; Chaudhuri, Aadel; Heiser, Diane; Zhou, Li; Say, Carmen; Carter, Justin N.; Hiniker, Susan M.; Loo, Billy W.; West, Robert B.; Beachy, Philip; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Diehn, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood and biomarkers predicting treatment response remain lacking. Here we describe novel murine LSCC models driven by loss of Trp53 and Keap1, both of which are frequently mutated in human LSCCs. Homozygous inactivation of Keap1 or Trp53 promoted airway basal stem cell (ABSC) self-renewal, suggesting that mutations in these genes lead to expansion of mutant stem cell clones. Deletion of Trp53 and Keap1 in ABSCs, but not more differentiated tracheal cells, produced tumors recapitulating histological and molecular features of human LSCCs, indicating that they represent the likely cell of origin in this model. Deletion of Keap1 promoted tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and resistance to oxidative stress and radiotherapy (RT). KEAP1/NRF2 mutation status predicted risk of local recurrence after RT in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and could be non-invasively identified in circulating tumor DNA. Thus, KEAP1/NRF2 mutations could serve as predictive biomarkers for personalization of therapeutic strategies for NSCLCs. PMID:27663899

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  5. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  6. Esôfago de Barrett: aspectos fisiopatológicos e moleculares da seqüência metaplasia-displasia-adenocarcinoma - artigo de revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Silveira Volkweis

    Full Text Available The Barrett's esophagus (BE is defined as endoscopically visible columnar mucosa at the distal esophagus, of any extension, proved to harbor intestinal metaplasia on biopsy, highlighted by the presence of goblet cells. BE denotes long-standing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and is an important risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC. Therefore, these patients must be on follow-up, in order to diagnose cancer early. BE patients have frequent alterations in esophageal physiologyc studies. Alkaline duodenogastroesophageal reflux seems to have important role. The development BE occurs in steps, initially with formation of cardiac type mucosa subsequent intestinalization. Futher progression can follow a sequence, from low grade dysplasia, to high grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Current follow-up is based on the presence of dysplasia. It has limitations, grouping patients heterogeneously. Different steps of carcinogenesis have been studied looking for an ideal prognostic marker. Uncontrolled proliferative activity, apoptosis inhibition, angiogenesis, tissue invasion and metastases formation are all implicated in cancer origin. Some cycle cell molecules have been studied in BE, such as retinoblastoma protein, ciclins, kinase dependent ciclins and cell cycle inhibitors. The P53 protein is one of the most investigated in the metaplasia-adenocarcinoma progression. Growth Factors, apoptotic proteins, telomers and DNA ploidy have also been searched. Increased proliferative activity has been implicated in Barrett's carcinogenesis and the Ki-67 antigen, through imunohistochemical analysis, has become the the method of choice. Present in the nucleus, it is found in proliferative cells only. Some studies suport association between Ki-67 activity and the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.The results, however, are inconclusive and research should follow this way.

  7. The staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by using intestinal metaplasia as an accurate alternative for atrophic gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Dekken, Herman; Meijer, Jos; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    Background: The OLGA (operative link on gastritis assessment) staging system is based on severity of atrophic gastritis (AG). AG remains a difficult histopathologic diagnosis with low interobserver agreement, whereas intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with high interobserver agreement.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  9. Idiopathic Radiation Recall Dermatitis Developing Nine Months after Cessation of Cisplatin Therapy in Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Melnyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To report on a suspected case of idiopathic radiation recall dermatitis in an individual nine months after radiation and chemotherapy treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the right tonsil. Radiation recall dermatitis is the development of a reaction in a previously irradiated area of skin after the administration of an aggravating medication. A review of the literature revealed several cases of radiation recall dermatitis that occur following radiation therapy and the institution of chemotherapy. Other medications have also been implicated in radiation recall dermatitis; however, this patient has not started any new medications since completion of his combined therapy. The patient developed this skin reaction in a distribution pattern identical to the area that received the highest radiation dose suggesting a possible link between radiation recall dermatitis and radiation dose. Radiation recall dermatitis is a reaction that is typically seen shortly after the reinstitution of chemotherapy during radiation therapy. This case illustrates that other medical etiologies are possible and suggests a relationship between radiation recall dermatitis and the total radiation dose an area receives.

  10. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: correlation with gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and tumour histology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, A; Kang, J Y; Teh, M

    1992-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between Helicobacter pylori, histological gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia in gastric cancers of different histological types. A total of 169 gastrectomy specimens received in one pathology department were studied. Altogether 156 were adenocarcinomas (intestinal type 87, diffuse type 50, mixed type 19). Gastritis occurred in 137 of 163 body specimens (84%) and in 126 of 131 antral specimens (96%). Its presence was unrelated to tumour histology. ...

  11. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a recognised premalignant condition of the stomach. It has been described as occurring in up to one in five patients in western countries. Although there is a definite risk of progression from GIM to cancer, published guidelines and statements differ as to the utility and structure of surveillance programs for this condition.

  12. Relation between reflux of bile acids into the stomach and gastric mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia in biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Tsukui, Taku

    2012-05-01

    During endoscopic examinations we collected fluid in the stomach that included reflux fluid from the duodenum, and assessed the effect of quantitatively determined bile acids on glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia using biopsy specimens. A total of 294 outpatients were enrolled in this study. Total bile acid concentration was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia scores were graded according to the Updated Sydney System. An effect of refluxed bile acids on atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was shown in the high-concentration reflux group in comparison with the control group. However, when the odds ratios (ORs) were calculated according to whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was present, no significant associations were shown between reflux bile acids and atrophy in either the H. pylori-positive cases or -negative cases. The same was true for intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cases, whereas intestinal metaplasia was more pronounced in the high-concentration reflux group in the H. pylori-negative cases (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1-5.6). We could not clarify the effect of the reflux of bile acids into the stomach in the progression of atrophy. High-concentration bile acids had an effect on the progression of intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-negative cases.

  13. Intestinal metaplasia induced by x-irradiation in different strains of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Naito, Masashi; Kawashima, Kengo; Ito, Akihiro

    1985-01-01

    Attempts were made to examine strain differences in the susceptibility of rats to intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation. The gastric regions of 4 inbred male rats (SHR, F344, WKY, and LEW strains) in 5-week-old and 2 random bred male rats (SD, and WIS strains) were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy X-ray given in two equal fractions separated by three days. Upon sacrifice at 6 months after the last irradiation, the number of intestinal metaplastic crypts with positive reaction to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) appeared highest in the SHR and lowest in the WIS rats. Morphologically, the number of crypts with intestinal metaplasia in whole glandular stomachs of SHR, WIS, F344, and SD rats were higher than those in WKY and LEW rats. In the pyloric gland, it was highest in WIS rats, while in the fundic gland it was highest in SHR rats. The results show that the appearance and location of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation are greatly influenced by the strain of the rat. (author)

  14. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO, posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS, with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  15. Protein Kinase Cε, Which Is Linked to Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Development of Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Stimulates Rapid Turnover of Adult Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Singh, A.; Sand, J. M.; Bin Hafeez, B.; Verma, A. K.; Sand, J. M.; Heninger, E.

    2013-01-01

    To find clues about the mechanism by which kinase C epsilon (PKCε) may impart susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), we compared PKCε transgenic (TG) mice and their wild-type (WT) litter mates for (1) the effects of UVR exposures on percent of putative hair follicle stem cells (HSC s ) and (2) HSCs proliferation. The percent of double HSC s (CD34+ andα6-integrin or CD34+/CD49f+) in the isolated keratinocytes were determined by flow cytometric analysis. Both single and chronic UVR treatments (1.8 kJ/m 2 ) resulted in an increase in the frequency of double positive HSCs in PKCεTG mice as compared to their WT litter mates. To determine the rate of proliferation of bulge region stem cells, a 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling (BrdU) experiment was performed. In the WT mice, the percent of double positive HSC s retaining BrdU label was 28.4±0.6% compared to 4.0±0.06% for the TG mice, an approximately 7-fold decrease. A comparison of gene expression profiles of FACS sorted double positive HSCs showed increased expression of Pes1, Rad21, Tfdp1 and Cks1b genes in TG mice compared to WT mice. Also, PKCεover expression in mice increased the clonogenicity of isolated keratinocytes, a property commonly ascribed to stem cells.

  16. Clinical significance of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia in Epstein-Barr virus-associated and Epstein-Barr virus-negative gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Jian-Ning; Dong, Min; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yi-Wang; Wu, Jun-Yan; Du, Hong; Li, Hai-Gang; Huang, Yan; Shao, Chun-Kui

    2017-05-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have been recognized as neoplastic precursors in gastric carcinogenesis. We explored the relationship between SPEM and IM in Epstein-Barr virus-associated (EBVaGC) and Epstein-Barr virus-negative (EBVnGC) gastric cancer. Sixty-four EBVaGC and one hundred and fifty-four EBVnGC patients were included. EBV positivity was identified using Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-1 in situ hybridization. SPEM was subclassified into absent, early, and advanced SPEM. Acute and chronic inflammation was graded as absent, mild, moderate, and marked. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the correlation between SPEM, IM, and inflammation. Our study revealed that SPEM was detected in 87.5% EBVaGC and 85.1% EBVnGC patients. Distribution of patients according to the SPEM classification was significantly different between EBVaGC and EBVnGC groups (P=.038). IM was observed less frequently in EBVaGC when compared with EBVnGC patients (P<.001). No difference was observed between EBVaGC and EBVnGC in the levels of acute and chronic inflammation. A positive correlation between IM and SPEM status was observed in both EBVaGC and EBVnGC patients. Furthermore, advanced SPEM was an independent influential factor to IM in EBVnGC (P=.013). In conclusion, SPEM was associated with both EBVaGC and EBVnGC more frequently than IM. Moreover, advanced SPEM had a stronger association with IM than early SPEM in EBVnGC. These results suggest that identification of SPEM should be used as a high-risk indicator for detecting early gastric carcinoma, and should be brought to the attention of pathologists and clinicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of cancer specific ligands from one-bead one compound combinatorial libraries to develop theranostics agents against oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Frances Fan

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most prevalent disease worldwide. One-bead one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial technology is a powerful method to identify peptidomimetic ligands against a variety of receptors on cell surfaces. We therefore hypothesized that cancer specific ligands against OSCC might be identified and can be conjugated to optical dyes or nanocarriers to develop theranostic agents against OSCC. Material and methods: Different OSCC cell lines were incubated with OBOC libraries and beads with cell binding were sorted and then screened with normal human cells to identify peptide-beads binding to different OSCC cell lines but not binding to normal human cells. The molecular probes of OSCC were developed by biotinylating the carboxyl end of the ligands. OSCC theranostic agents were developed by decorating LLY13 with NPs and evaluated by using orthotopic bioluminescent oral cancer model. Results: Six OSCC specific ligands were discovered. Initial peptide-histochemistry study indicated that LLY12 and LLY13 were able to specifically detect OSCC cells grown on chamber slides at the concentration of 1 muM. In addition, LLY13 was found to penetrate into the OSCC cells and accumulate in the cytoplasm, and nucleus. After screened with a panel of integrin antibodies, only anti-alpha3 antibody was able to block most of OSCC cells binding to the LLY13 beads. OSCC theranostic agents developed using targeting LLY13 micelles (25+/- 4nm in diameter) were more efficient in binding to HSC-3 cancer cells compared to non-targeting micelles. Ex vivo images demonstrated that xenografts from the mice with targeting micelles appeared to have higher signals than the non-targeting groups. Conclusion: LLY13 has promising in vitro and in vivo targeting activity against OSCC. In addition, LLY13 is also able to penetrate into cancer cells via endocytosis. Initial study indicated that alpha3 integrin might partially be the corresponding receptor involved

  18. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and pre-neoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V.; Iczkowski, Kenneth A.; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age 8.3±4.8y) with chronic gastritis (36 H. pylori +, 46 H. pylori -) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers CDX2, ephrin type-B receptor 4, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7/82 (9%) and intestinal metaplasia in 5/82 (6%) by routine histology, while 6 (7%) additional children (3 H. pylori +) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without intestinal metaplasia. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (p<0.0001). Atrophy and follicular pathology were more frequent in H. pylori + biopsies (p<0.0001), while intestinal metaplasia and CDX2 expression showed no significant correlation with H. pylori status. Antral biopsies demonstrating atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and/or aberrant CDX2 expression were seen in 21.95 % (18/82) of the children, potentially identifying those who would benefit from closer surveillance and preventive dietary strategies. Biomarkers CDX2, EphB4, MMP3, and MIF may be useful in the work-up of pediatric gastritis. PMID:24656654

  19. Helicobacter pyloria ssociation with expression of cdx2 in intestinal metaplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.H.; Hong, X.

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether helicobacter pylori was associated with CDX2 expression in intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis, dysplasia and gastric cancer. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China, from August 2016 to January 2017. Methodology: CDX2 expression was evaluated in 62 gastric antral biopsies; including 32 cases of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 10 cases each of atrophic gastritis (AG), dysplasia and gastric cancer. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was used to detect H.pyloriand immunohistochemistry was performed to observe CDX2 in the samples. Results: Of the 62 patients inducted in the study, CDX2 expression was observed in 53 (85.5%). Mean age of these patients was 59 years (s.d.:11.3; range: 38-87) and included 32 males (60.38%) and 21 females (39.62%). However, age and gender were not found to be significantly associated with expression of CDX2 (p >0.05). CDX2 was very frequently expressed in individuals with IM (90.6%). Most of the patients with IM were males (17/29) as compared to females (12/29). However, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.568). Only 4 out of 29 IM CDX2 positive specimens tested positive for H.pylori(p=1.0). Conclusion: CDX2 is highly expressed along the atrophic gastritis-metaplasia-dysplasia-cancer sequential. Though CDX2 expression is quite dominant in IM, but its expression is not associated with H.pylori infection. (author)

  20. Radiotherapeutic factors affecting the incidence of developing hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Shebiney

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: The V30 may predict risk of developing HT after RT for HNSCC patients. V30 of 42.1%, defined as dose-volumetric threshold of radiation-induced HT, can be useful in treatment planning of HNSCC patients.

  1. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca ÖZGÜN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  2. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Uğraş, Nesrin; Kiliçturgay, Sadık

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  3. Immunologic assessment of patients with pulmonary metaplasia and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.L.; Saccomanno, G.; Smith, D.M.; Saunders, R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Immune profiles have been obtained on 206 individuals including 57 controls, 50 lung cancer patients, and 99 uranium miners with well-defined sputum cytologies ranging from normal to carcinoma in situ. Little effect of smoking, uranium mining or a combination of mining plus smoking on immune function was observed if sputum cytology was normal. In heavy smokers there was a suggestion that total T cells are increased while T cell function is slightly depressed. Immunologic abnormalities were noted in the moderate atypia group where 40% had one or more abnormal immunologic parameters. Immunologic abnormalities were detected in 68 to 70 patients with marked atypia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma. Further sequential study of the uranium miner population is necessary to define more precisely the predictive value of immunologic testing, and the role of early identification of high risk individuals in the early institution of definitive therapy, such as surgery or immunotherapy. Long-term prospective analysis of this population may also provide the answer to the question of whether alterations in immune function precede, or result from the appearance of cells committed to the development of neoplasia

  4. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Breast during Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Adi Ashindoitiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast (SCCB is a very rare malignancy of the breast and is generally aggressive. It is even rarer during the gestational period. Only few cases have been reported during pregnancy and lactation (Rokutanda et al., 2000. SCCB seen within the gestational period tends to be very aggressive and has a larger size than other breast carcinomas. Pure SCCB is derived from the epidermis of the breast, nipple, or metaplasia on chronic inflammatory background (Bige et al., 2007, such as complicated breast cyst, dermoid cyst, or abscess. We report a case of SCCB in a 30-year-old primigravida that had an aggressive propensity and fatal outcome.

  5. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  6. The Prevalence of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Distribution of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Atrophy, Dysplasia, and Cancer in Its Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, Sehmus; Aslan, Mehmet; Erten, Remzi; Sayar, Suleyman; Bayram, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is frequently encountered and is considered a precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. In the Van region of Turkey, gastric adenocarcinoma incidence is high but the prevalence of gastric IM is not known. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a main factor leading to atrophy, IM, and cancer development in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of IM and its subtypes and the prevalence of H. pylori infection, atrophy, dysplasia, and cancer in gastric IM subtypes. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 560 IM among the 4050 consecutive patients who were undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsy between June 2010 and October 2014. Clinical records and endoscopic and histopathologic reports of patients with IM were analyzed. Results. The prevalence of gastric IM was 13.8%. The prevalence of incomplete IM was statistically significantly higher than complete IM. Type III IM was the most frequent subtype. Conclusions. Gastric IM is a common finding in patients undergoing EGD with biopsy in this region. High prevalence of incomplete type IM, especially type III, can be associated with the high prevalence of gastric cancer in our region.

  7. The Prevalence of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Distribution of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Atrophy, Dysplasia, and Cancer in Its Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehmus Olmez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is frequently encountered and is considered a precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. In the Van region of Turkey, gastric adenocarcinoma incidence is high but the prevalence of gastric IM is not known. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is a main factor leading to atrophy, IM, and cancer development in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of IM and its subtypes and the prevalence of H. pylori infection, atrophy, dysplasia, and cancer in gastric IM subtypes. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 560 IM among the 4050 consecutive patients who were undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD with biopsy between June 2010 and October 2014. Clinical records and endoscopic and histopathologic reports of patients with IM were analyzed. Results. The prevalence of gastric IM was 13.8%. The prevalence of incomplete IM was statistically significantly higher than complete IM. Type III IM was the most frequent subtype. Conclusions. Gastric IM is a common finding in patients undergoing EGD with biopsy in this region. High prevalence of incomplete type IM, especially type III, can be associated with the high prevalence of gastric cancer in our region.

  8. Innate Lymphoid Cells Mediate Pulmonary Eosinophilic Inflammation, Airway Mucous Cell Metaplasia, and Type 2 Immunity in Mice Exposed to Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Buglak, Nicholas; Li, Ning; White, Kaylin; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient ozone in photochemical smog is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonatopic asthma in children. In the present study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced nonatopic asthma by using lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, ILC-sufficient Rag2 -/- mice (devoid of T and B cells), and ILC-deficient Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- mice (depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs). Mice were exposed to 0 or 0.8 parts per million ozone for 1 day or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 hr/day). A single exposure to ozone caused neutrophilic inflammation, airway epithelial injury, and reparative DNA synthesis in all strains of mice, irrespective of the presence or absence of ILCs. In contrast, 9-day exposures induced eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia only in the lungs of ILC-sufficient mice. Repeated ozone exposures also elicited increased messenger RNA expression of transcripts associated with type 2 immunity and airway mucus production in ILC-sufficient mice. ILC-deficient mice repeatedly exposed to ozone had no pulmonary pathology or increased gene expression related to type 2 immunity. These results suggest a new paradigm for the biologic mechanisms underlying the development of a phenotype of childhood nonatopic asthma that has been linked to ambient ozone exposures.

  9. Down-regulation of EMP1 is associated with epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia in nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue Min; Li, Chun Wei; Li, Ying Ying; Liu, Jing; Lin, Zhi Bin; Li, Tian Ying; Zhao, Li; Pan, Xin Liang; Shi, Li; Wang, De Yun

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess protein and mRNA expression of epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) in the nasal mucosa of patients with nasal polyps (NP), and to determine what changes occur in response to glucocorticosteroid (GC) treatment. NP tissue was obtained from 55 patients, 18 of whom were treated with nasal GCs (i.e. these 18 patients had NP biopsies taken before and after treatment). Biopsies of inferior turbinate mucosa from 30 healthy subjects were used as controls. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the expression levels of EMP1. EMP1 mRNA expression was significantly lower (2.77-fold) in tissues from NP patients before GC treatment when compared to controls, but was increased in these patients after GC treatment. EMP1 staining in nasal epithelium co-localized with both basal (p63(+)) and differentiated (CK18(+)) epithelial cells. Their immunoreactivity was significantly greater in controls than NP patients. EMP1 mRNA levels were lower in the epithelium with severe hyperplasia (1.79-fold) or with metaplasia (1.85-fold) as compared to those with mild to moderate hyperplasia or non-metaplastic epithelium, respectively. Positive correlations between EMP1 and other epithelial cell-related gene (e.g. JUN, PTGS2, AREG etc.) mRNAs were observed. EMP1 could be a biomarker for aberrant epithelial remodelling and metaplasia in chronic inflammatory upper airway mucosa (e.g. NP). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Benign colonic metaplasia at a previous stoma site in a patient without adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Megan; Patrawala, Samit; Vogt, Adam; Kelleher, Michael; Lee, Michael; Parker, Douglas C

    2016-03-01

    There are few reported cases of cutaneous intestinal metaplasia or primary adenocarcinoma arising at the ileostomy site following panproctocolectomy. These complications have been seen almost exclusively in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa at a reversed ileostomy site in a patient without familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD has not been documented. We report a case of a 51-year-old female with a history of colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with pruritic, erythematous, scaly plaques on the right lower abdomen, present since reversal of her ileostomy in 2007. Skin biopsy revealed benign foci of colonic epithelium with no evidence of adenomatous change. Benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa was diagnosed based on histopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge, this is the first case of intraepidermal benign colonic metaplasia forming in a patient following ostomy reversal. The case emphasizes the importance of patient education and physical examination of the stoma or stoma remnants for detection of unusual or changing lesions due to the risk for malignant transformation. It also demonstrates that benign colonic mucosa should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating lesions near ileostomy sites, regardless of whether the patient has a history of familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mucin phenotypic expression and p53 gene abnormality of gastric super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma: Re-evaluation with relationship between histogenesis of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and intestinal metaplasia in distal stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the gastric well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in the distal stomach has been thought to develop via a intestinal metaplasia-carcinoma sequence, there are some disproofs from new mucin examinations for minute-size lesions in same type carcinoma. The current study was performed and pointed out the new findings for the solution to the problem according to the point described above. Methods 12 super-minute lesions (less than 1 mm in maximum diameter of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in distal stomach (SMCa, which were detected from the pathological examinations of 210 surgically resected stomach specimens, and the mucosa adjacent to these carcinoma lesions, were examined by immunohistochemical mucin stainings (MUC2 and CD-10: intestinal phenotype, 45M1 and MUC6: gastric phenotype and p53-overexpression. And the analyses of the replication error of the microsatellites in chromosome 17 related p53 gene (TP53 and D17S786 (RER-p53MS were performed in SMCa lesions, adjacent mucosa to each lesion and other gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, because all SMCa lesions showed p53-overexpression immunohistochemically, decribed below. Results 1. The carcinoma cells in all SMCa lesions were positive for 45M1 and p53. On the other hand, no positive carcinoma cells for MUC6 were seen although the pyloric glands and the remnant pyloric gland in the SMCa lesions in the same slides were positive for MUC6. Ten lesions (83% had intestinal phenotypic mucin (10 lesions: MUC2 (+, 4 lesions: CD10 (+. Two lesions (17% were positive for only 45M1 (gastric phenotypic mucin. 2. All of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa showed intestinal metaplasia (complete type: 7 regions, incomplete type: 5 regions. 3. RER-p53MS was confirmed in 42% (5/12 regions of SMCa, in 42% (5/12 regions of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa and 14% (6/42 regions of the other intestinal metaplasia mucosa. Conclusion Most of the super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma

  12. Evaluating the number of stages in development of squamous cell and adenocarcinomas across cancer sites using human population-based cancer modeling.

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    Julia Kravchenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinomas (ACs and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs differ by clinical and molecular characteristics. We evaluated the characteristics of carcinogenesis by modeling the age patterns of incidence rates of ACs and SCCs of various organs to test whether these characteristics differed between cancer subtypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histotype-specific incidence rates of 14 ACs and 12 SCCs from the SEER Registry (1973-2003 were analyzed by fitting several biologically motivated models to observed age patterns. A frailty model with the Weibull baseline was applied to each age pattern to provide the best fit for the majority of cancers. For each cancer, model parameters describing the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis including the number of stages occurring during an individual's life and leading to cancer (m-stages were estimated. For sensitivity analysis, the age-period-cohort model was incorporated into the carcinogenesis model to test the stability of the estimates. For the majority of studied cancers, the numbers of m-stages were similar within each group (i.e., AC and SCC. When cancers of the same organs were compared (i.e., lung, esophagus, and cervix uteri, the number of m-stages were more strongly associated with the AC/SCC subtype than with the organ: 9.79±0.09, 9.93±0.19 and 8.80±0.10 for lung, esophagus, and cervical ACs, compared to 11.41±0.10, 12.86±0.34 and 12.01±0.51 for SCCs of the respective organs (p<0.05 between subtypes. Most SCCs had more than ten m-stages while ACs had fewer than ten m-stages. The sensitivity analyses of the model parameters demonstrated the stability of the obtained estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A model containing parameters capable of representing the number of stages of cancer development occurring during individual's life was applied to the large population data on incidence of ACs and SCCs. The model revealed that the number of m-stages differed by cancer subtype

  13. Evaluating the number of stages in development of squamous cell and adenocarcinomas across cancer sites using human population-based cancer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Lyerly, H Kim

    2012-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas (ACs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) differ by clinical and molecular characteristics. We evaluated the characteristics of carcinogenesis by modeling the age patterns of incidence rates of ACs and SCCs of various organs to test whether these characteristics differed between cancer subtypes. Histotype-specific incidence rates of 14 ACs and 12 SCCs from the SEER Registry (1973-2003) were analyzed by fitting several biologically motivated models to observed age patterns. A frailty model with the Weibull baseline was applied to each age pattern to provide the best fit for the majority of cancers. For each cancer, model parameters describing the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis including the number of stages occurring during an individual's life and leading to cancer (m-stages) were estimated. For sensitivity analysis, the age-period-cohort model was incorporated into the carcinogenesis model to test the stability of the estimates. For the majority of studied cancers, the numbers of m-stages were similar within each group (i.e., AC and SCC). When cancers of the same organs were compared (i.e., lung, esophagus, and cervix uteri), the number of m-stages were more strongly associated with the AC/SCC subtype than with the organ: 9.79±0.09, 9.93±0.19 and 8.80±0.10 for lung, esophagus, and cervical ACs, compared to 11.41±0.10, 12.86±0.34 and 12.01±0.51 for SCCs of the respective organs (p<0.05 between subtypes). Most SCCs had more than ten m-stages while ACs had fewer than ten m-stages. The sensitivity analyses of the model parameters demonstrated the stability of the obtained estimates. A model containing parameters capable of representing the number of stages of cancer development occurring during individual's life was applied to the large population data on incidence of ACs and SCCs. The model revealed that the number of m-stages differed by cancer subtype being more strongly associated with ACs/SCCs histotype than with organ/site.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  15. Verrucoid Variant of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Clinicopathological Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Priya; Krithika, C; Ananthalakshmi, R; Singaram, Mamta; Jagdish, Praveena; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva

    2016-11-04

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an exophytic, low-grade, well-differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is described as a lesion appearing in the sixth or seventh decade of life that has minimal aggressive potential and, in long-standing cases, has been shown to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder, and about one-third of the affected population develop oral squamous cell carcinoma. The histopathological diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma is challenging, and the interpretation of early squamous cell carcinoma requires immense experience. Here we present a rare case of a 24-year-old male with OSMF transforming to verrucous carcinoma with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Even though the case had a straightforward clinical diagnosis, the serial sectioning done for pathological diagnosis disclosed the squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Vishwas; Seykora, John T

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignant neoplasm of the skin characterized by an aberrant proliferation of keratinocytes. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common malignancy globally, and usually arises in the chronically sun-damaged skin of elderly white individuals. From a pathologist's perspective, it is important to differentiate cSCC from the benign and reactive squamoproliferative lesions and identify the high-risk features associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In this article, we provide an up-to-date overview of cSCC along with its precursor lesions and important histologic variants, with a particular emphasis on the histopathologic features and molecular pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  18. Surveillance strategy of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in a country with a high prevalence of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Ho June; Hong, Su Jin; Shim, Ki-Nam; Sung, In-Kyung; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2012-03-01

    It is not clear which screening examinations are best suited for gastric cancer prevention, especially in patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, we investigated the gastric cancer screening methods and intervals that are performed in clinical practice in an area with a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Eighty-seven physicians voted by keypad and discussed the consistency of endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia at the Annual Symposium of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research. Additionally, 100 core members of this academic society were asked via e-mail to complete the questionnaires related to screening strategies for gastric cancer. The most common recommendation for the subjects with intestinal metaplasia was an annual endoscopic follow-up (95.5% vs. 80.4% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively; P = 0.118). Annual endoscopic follow-up was also the most predominant recommendation for atrophic gastritis (95.5% vs. 76.5%; P = 0.092), regardless of the physicians' endoscopic experience, position, and degree of the hospital. However, the correct answer rate for the diagnosis of normal endoscopic findings was only 16.7 and 14.1% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively (P = 0.883). The most common practical screening strategy for patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in Korea was annual endoscopic examination. However, a new program estimating individualized gastric cancer risk might be needed because of the low inter-observer agreement in the endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia.

  19. RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS FOR GASTRIC METAPLASIA AND CANCER: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN ECUADOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Iván; Mercado, Andrés; Bravo, Gabriela Liliana; Baldeón, Manuel; Fornasini, Marco

    2015-09-01

    worldwide, stomach cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer, with 952 000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. Ecuador currently holds the 15th place of countries with the highest incidence of stomach cancer for both sexes. the objective of this study was to evaluate risk and protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia. a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Quito, Ecuador. Cases were defined as patients with histological confirmation of gastric cancer (N = 60) or incomplete gastric metaplasia (N = 53). Controls were defined as patients free of gastric cancer or premalignant lesions (N = 144). All participants were personally interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect data about dietary habits, lifestyle and medical history. risk factors significantly associated to the presence of gastric cancer/metaplasia were the consumption of reheated foods at least 3 times per week (AOR: 4.57; CI: 2.2 - 9.5) and adding salt to more than 50% of foods (AOR: 1.32; CI: 1.04 - 1.67). Protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia were the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (AOR: 0.39; CI 0.19 - 0.83), age less than 58 years old (AOR: 0.38; CI: 0.18 - 0.79) and have received treatment for H. Pylori infection (AOR: 0.33; CI: 0.16 - 0.71). this study reports for the first time, the risk and protective factors associated with gastric cancer and metaplasia in Ecuador. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia Induced by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Facilitates KRASG12D-driven Pancreatic TumorigenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Chuvin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ acts either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene, depending on the cellular context and time of activation. TGFβ activates the canonical SMAD pathway through its interaction with the serine/threonine kinase type I and II heterotetrameric receptors. Previous studies investigating TGFβ-mediated signaling in the pancreas relied either on loss-of-function approaches or on ligand overexpression, and its effects on acinar cells have so far remained elusive. Methods: We developed a transgenic mouse model allowing tamoxifen-inducible and Cre-mediated conditional activation of a constitutively active type I TGFβ receptor (TβRICA in the pancreatic acinar compartment. Results: We observed that TβRICA expression induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM reprogramming, eventually facilitating the onset of KRASG12D-induced pre-cancerous pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. This phenotype was characterized by the cellular activation of apoptosis and dedifferentiation, two hallmarks of ADM, whereas at the molecular level, we evidenced a modulation in the expression of transcription factors such as Hnf1β, Sox9, and Hes1. Conclusions: We demonstrate that TGFβ pathway activation plays a crucial role in pancreatic tumor initiation through its capacity to induce ADM, providing a favorable environment for KRASG12D-dependent carcinogenesis. Such findings are highly relevant for the development of early detection markers and of potentially novel treatments for pancreatic cancer patients. Keywords: Pancreas, Cancer, TGFβ, Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia, KRASG12D

  1. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G; Wei, J; Zheng, Z; Ye, J; Zeng, S

    2014-01-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM. (letters)

  2. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each o...... of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp....... of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type...

  3. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  4. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx. PMID:20633288

  5. Nephroid metaplasia of the urinary tract. A survey of the literature, with the contribution of 5 new immunohistochemically studied cases, including one case examined by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    1987-01-01

    Nephroid metaplasia is an unusual lesion confined to the lamina propria of the lower urinary tract. It is defined by a characteristic histologic picture of tubular structures, formed by a single layer of cuboidal cells, surrounded by a thick basement membrane. Two main theories concerning...... the histogenesis of the condition have been proposed: embryonic origin, or metaplasia. Five cases of nephroid metaplasia were studied light-microscopically and by immunohistochemistry for the content of Tamm Horsfall's uromucoprotein. In addition, one case was examined by electron microscopy. The results were...

  6. Expression of Cat Podoplanin in Feline Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor in cats; however, molecular-targeted therapies against this tumor, including antibody therapy, have not been developed. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against highly expressed membrane proteins are needed to develop antibody therapies. Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in many human malignant tumors, including brain tumor, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, and oral cancer. Podoplanin binds to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and activates platelet aggregation, which is involved in cancer metastasis. Until now, we have established several mAbs against podoplanin in humans, mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, cattle, and cats. We have reported podoplanin expression in canine melanoma and squamous cell carcinomas using an anti-dog podoplanin mAb PMab-38. In this study, we investigated podoplanin expression in 40 feline squamous cell carcinomas (14 cases of mouth floor, 13 of skin, 9 of ear, and 4 of tongue) by immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-cat podoplanin mAb PMab-52, which we recently developed by cell-based immunization and screening (CBIS) method. Of the total 40 cases, 38 (95%) showed positive staining for PMab-52. In particular, 12 cases (30%) showed a strong membrane-staining pattern of squamous cell carcinoma cells. PMab-52 can be useful for antibody therapy against feline podoplanin-expressing squamous cell carcinomas.

  7. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  8. Epithelioid sarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in a burn scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum D Jashnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a malignant tumor is a well known complication of a chronic burn scar. Most of these tumors are squamous cell carcinomas and only 28 cases of burn scar sarcomas have been reported in literature. We report the first occurrence of the combination of squamous cell carcinoma and epithelioid sarcoma arising in a burn scar.

  9. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  10. Oral toxicity study of tragacanth gum in B6C3F1 mice: development of squamous-cell hyperplasia in the forestomach and its reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, A; Tanaka, H; Tiwawech, D; Shirai, T; Ito, N

    1991-10-01

    Tragacanth gum was administered at dietary levels of 0 (control), 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0% to groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice for 13 wk. There were no treatment-associated effects regarding clinical signs, body or organ weights, and urinalysis or hematology data. Significant dose-related, but slight, elevations of plasma gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level were observed in all treated animals except the 0.625% females. Single or small numbers of tiny nodules were observed on the luminal surface of the forestomach in 4 males of the 5.0% group, 2 males of the 2.5% group, and 1 male each from the 1.25 and 0.625% groups. Histopathologically, they were diagnosed as squamous-cell hyperplasia. To investigate the nature of these gross lesions, tragacanth gum was fed to groups of 30 male mice at the dietary level of 5.0% for periods of up to 48 wk; 20 males served as controls. There were no treatment-related increases of plasma GGT levels at wk 24 and 48. Although squamous-cell hyperplasias were seen in 2 out of 10 mice at wk 24, none of these proliferative lesions were apparent at wk 48, after either chronic exposure or 24 wk on basal diet. Furthermore, the levels of DNA synthesis in forestomach epithelium as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry were comparable to control values at wk 24 and 48. Thus, the oral toxicity of tragacanth gum to B6C3F1 mice was concluded to be negligible.

  11. Metaplasia Intestinal en la unión esófago-gástrica, frecuencia y correlaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Barreda Bolaños, Fernando; Sánchez Lihon, Juvenal; Tello Huamaní, Waldo; Gómez Ponce, Regina; Díaz del Olmo, Mauricio

    2001-01-01

    La incidencia del adenocarcinoma alrededor de la unión esófago-gástrica está en incremento. La significación de la metaplasia intestinal encontrada en muestras obtenidas de la unión esófago-gástrica de aspecto normal no es clara. El propósito del presente reporte ha sido el definir la frecuencia de presentación de la metaplasia intestinal en la unión esófago-gástrica con apariencia endoscópica normal y precisar sus relaciones clínicas, endoscópicas e histológicas. METODOS: Se evaluaron 239 pa...

  12. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  13. Metaplasia of the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule in the human kidney. Incidence in alcoholic liver disease and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Haensly, William E.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the second of two surveys to determine the incidence of metaplasia of Bowman's parietal epithelium in the human kidney. Human kidney sections obtained at autopsy at the Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, were examined with the light microscope. The kidneys were fixed in neutral formalin, sectioned at 6 pm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Autopsy records were consulted after kidney section exa...

  14. Identification of distinct layers within the stratified squamous epithelium of the adult human true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Jayme R; Sadow, Peter M; Hartnick, Christopher; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-09-01

    A precise molecular schema for classifying the different cell types of the normal human vocal fold epithelium is lacking. We hypothesize that the true vocal fold epithelium has a cellular architecture and organization similar to that of other stratified squamous epithelia including the skin, cornea, oral mucosa, and esophagus. In analogy to disorders of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, a molecular definition of the normal cell types within the human vocal fold epithelium and a description of their geometric relationships should serve as a foundation for characterizing cellular changes associated with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Qualitative study with adult human larynges. Histologic sections of normal human laryngeal tissue were analyzed for morphology (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical protein expression profile, including cytokeratins (CK13 and CK14), cornified envelope proteins (involucrin), basal cells (NGFR/p75), and proliferation markers (Ki67). We demonstrated that three distinct cell strata with unique marker profiles are present within the stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. We used these definitions to establish that cell proliferation is restricted to certain cell types and layers within the epithelium. These distinct cell types are reproducible across five normal adult larynges. We have established that three layers of cells are present within the normal adult stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. Furthermore, replicating cell populations are largely restricted to the parabasal strata within the epithelium. This delineation of distinct cell populations will facilitate future studies of vocal fold regeneration and cancer. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Adenosquamous Carcinoma and Pure Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Report of two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC and pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the pancreas are very rare diseases. The author herein reports two cases of ASC and SCC of the pancreas. The first case is ASC. An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and weakness. Imaging modalities including CT, MRI and ERCP revealed a pancreatic body tumor. Distal partial resection of the pancreas and splenectomy were performed. Grossly, an infiltrative solid tumor measuring 3 × 4 × 4 cm was present in the pancreatic body. Histologically, it was an ASC consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma element (20% in area and SCC element (80%. There was a gradual transition between the two. Many perineural invasions and lymphovascular permeations were recognized. The patient died of systemic metastasis five months after operation. The second case is an SCC. A 69-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Imaging modalities including CT, MRI and ERCP revealed a tumor in the head of the pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Grossly, an infiltrative solid tumor measuring 5 × 5 × 6 cm was present. Histologically, the tumor was pure SCC. The SCC was moderately differentiated SCC. A large number of perineural invasions and lymphovascular permeations were present. The patient died of systemic metastasis three months after operation. The author speculates that ASC of the pancreas may be derived from squamous tansdifferentiation of adenocarcinoma element or from pluripotent stem cells, and that SCC of the pancreas may arise from malignant transformation of squamous metaplasia of pancreatic ducts or from pluripotent stem cells.

  16. Fanconi anemia and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Paula Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome instability, cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased predisposition to malignancies. We describe here a 28 year-old female with FA and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy alone. The patient developed arm phlebitis, pulmonary fungal infection, and severe rectal bleeding, followed by hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia, vaginal bacterial and fungal infection, with subsequent leg and arm phlebitis, perineal abscess, and sepsis. The patient died 12 weeks later.

  17. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V. D.; Becker-Santos, D. D.; Vucic, E. A.; Lam, S.; Lam, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epi genomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans.

  18. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  19. Gastric intestinal metaplasia as detected by a monoclonal antibody is highly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Z K; Das, K K; Slate, J; Mapitigama, R N; Amenta, P S; Griffel, L H; Ramsundar, L; Watari, J; Yokota, K; Tanabe, H; Sato, T; Kohgo, Y; Das, K M

    2003-06-01

    Some forms of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) may be precancerous but the cellular phenotype that predisposes to gastric carcinogenesis is not well characterised. Mucin staining, as a means of differentiating GIM, is difficult. A monoclonal antibody, mAb Das-1 (initially called 7E(12)H(12)), whose staining is phenotypically specific to colon epithelium, was used to investigate this issue. Using mAb Das-1, by a sensitive immunoperoxidase assay, we examined histologically confirmed GIM specimens from two countries, the USA and Japan. A total of 150 patients comprised three groups: group A, GIM (fields away from the cancer area) from patients with gastric carcinoma (n=60); group B, GIM with chronic gastritis (without gastric carcinoma) (n=72); and group C, chronic gastritis without GIM (n=18). Fifty six of 60 (93%) patients with GIM (both goblet and non-goblet metaplastic cells) from group A reacted intensely with mAb Das-1. Cancer areas from the same 56 patients also reacted. In contrast, 25/72 (35%) samples of GIM from patients in group B reacted with mAb Das-1 (group A v B, p<0.0001). None of the samples from group C reacted with the mAb. Reactivity of mAb Das-1 is clinically useful to simplify and differentiate the phenotypes of GIM. The colonic phenotype of GIM, as identified by mAb Das-1, is strongly associated with gastric carcinoma.

  20. Increased granulocytic, erythrocytic, and megakaryocytic progenitors in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkappa, G.; Carsten, A.L.; Chanana, A.D.; Chandra, P.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    Nucleated cells obtained from blood and/or bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) were cultured in diffusion chambers (DC) implanted into the peritoneal cavities of irradiated mice. A total of five blood studies and two bone marrow studies were performed using cells obtained from five patients. The DC were harvested at intervals from the host mice and the total and differential cellularity of DC contents were evaluated. The results obtained from MMM cultures were compared with those from similar cultures of blood cells and marrow cells of four and six normal individuals respectively. The proliferation and maturation of the granulocytic, erythrocytic, and megakaryocytic lines in MMM cultures occurred in an orderly fashion as they occur in vivo. The patterns of proliferation and maturation of the three cell lines in cultures after day 7 suggest that they primarily originate from progenitor cells. The numbers of granulocytes in the multiplicative pool, recognizable red cell precursors, and megakaryocytes recovered were significantly greater from the MMM cultures than those from the normal blood or marrow cultures. These results suggest that the blood and marrow cells of MMM patients have increased numbers of progenitors for granulocytes, erythrocytes and megakaryocytes

  1. Five cases of squamous cell carcinoma induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Kayo; Tani, Tasaburo; Nagata, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Mamoru; Ueki, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Five cases of squamous cell carcinoma (skin) induced by irradiation are reported. Three cases had been given radiotherapy for benign skin disorders, tinea pedis, lichen Vidal, and dermatitis papillaris capillitis. The other two cases were medical doctors who had developed carcinoma as the result of advanced radiodermatitis. (author)

  2. Xeroderma Pigmentosum with Mailgnant Melanoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Nagbhushana

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25 year old female with xeroderma pigmentosum since 3 ye4ws of age, developed a nodular growth on the left ala of the nose since 4 months. Histopathology revealed m ant melanoma of the nodular variety. A squamous cell carcinoma was also detected at the fimbus in the right eye. There were no metastases.

  3. Cytochromes P450 are Expressed in Proliferating Cells in Barrett's Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Hughes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal squamous mucosa was investigated. Esophagectomy specimens from 23 patients were examined for CYP expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9/10, and CYP2E1 by immunohistochemical analysis, and the expression of CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 in these tissues was further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis of esophageal squamous mucosa (n = 12 showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 proteins, but it was noted that cells within the basal proliferative zone did not express CYPs. Immunohistochemical analysis of Barrett's esophagus (n = 13 showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 that was prominent in the basal glandular regions, which are areas containing a high percentage of actively proliferating cells. Immunohistochemical staining for both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the CYPs further supported the colocalization of CYP expression to areas of active cell proliferation in Barrett's esophagus, whereas in the esophageal squamous epithelium, CYP expression is limited to cells that are not proliferating. RT-PCR with amplification product sequence analysis confirmed CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 mRNA expression in Barrett's esophagus. These data suggest that the potential ability of cells in Barrett's esophagus to both activate carcinogens and proliferate may be important risk factors affecting carcinogenesis in this metaplastic tissue.

  4. Splenic myeloid metaplasia in warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (wAIHA): a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano-Álvarez, Víctor Manuel; Hernández-Company, Alonso; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Montante-M, Daniel; Zúñiga-Tamayo, Diego A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Pomerantz, Alan; Tuna-Aguilar, Elena J

    2018-03-01

    Splenic myeloid metaplasia (SMM) is a kind of extramedullary hematopoiesis, whereas its clinical significance in wAIHA remains unclear. The aim of this study is evaluating the frequency and clinical characteristics of SMM, compared with splenic-congestion (SC). We included patients with wAIHA treated in a Mexican tertiary hospital between January 1992 and December 2015. All patients received steroids as first-line treatment and splenectomy as second-line treatment. Among the thirty-six splenectomized patients, 15 (41.6%) and 21 (58.4%) were diagnosed as SMM and SC, respectively. No differences were found in clinical characteristics between two groups. SMM patients showed lower platelet count (147×10 9 /L vs. 240×10 9 /L, P =0.02) and higher presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies (40% vs. 4.7%, P =0.01) than SC patients. Although the complete response (CR) rate with first-line treatment was lower in SMM patients (13.3% vs. 47.6%; P =0.04), post-splenectomy median disease-free-survival (DFS) was longer (16.2 mo vs. 5.1 mo; P =0.19). Univariate/multivariate analysis showed that achieving CR during first-line treatment (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.03-0.94, P =0.03) and higher platelet count (OR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99, P =0.03) were protective factors for SMM; and anti-dsDNA titer higher than 9.6 IU/dL was a risk factor for SMM (OR 2.76, 95% CI: 1.48-5.14, P SMM have different biological profiles with those without SMM. This study is the first trial evaluating the significance of histopathological spleen findings and their association with rheumatologic profile.

  5. Sirtuin-1 regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and supports cancer cell viability in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Elke; Sanchez-Arévalo Lobo, Victor J; Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Herranz, Daniel; Wu, Jianmin; Cowley, Mark J; Colvin, Emily K; Njicop, Erna Ngwayi; Sutherland, Rob L; Liu, Tao; Serrano, Manuel; Bouwens, Luc; Real, Francisco X; Biankin, Andrew V; Rooman, Ilse

    2013-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas can undergo acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), as in the case of pancreatitis where precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can arise. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) has been implicated in carcinogenesis with dual roles depending on its subcellular localization. In this study, we examined the expression and the role of Sirt1 in different stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, i.e. ADM models and established PDAC. In addition, we analyzed the expression of KIAA1967, a key mediator of Sirt1 function, along with potential Sirt1 downstream targets. Sirt1 was co-expressed with KIAA1967 in the nuclei of normal pancreatic acinar cells. In ADM, Sirt1 underwent a transient nuclear-to-cytoplasmic shuttling. Experiments where during ADM, we enforced repression of Sirt1 shuttling, inhibition of Sirt1 activity or modulation of its expression, all underscore that the temporary decrease of nuclear and increase of cytoplasmic Sirt1 stimulate ADM. Our results further underscore that important transcriptional regulators of acinar differentiation, that is, Pancreatic transcription factor-1a and β-catenin can be deacetylated by Sirt1. Inhibition of Sirt1 is effective in suppression of ADM and in reducing cell viability in established PDAC tumors. KIAA1967 expression is differentially downregulated in PDAC and impacts on the sensitivity of PDAC cells to the Sirt1/2 inhibitor Tenovin-6. In PDAC, acetylation of β-catenin is not affected, unlike p53, a well-characterized Sirt1-regulated protein in tumor cells. Our results reveal that Sirt1 is an important regulator and potential therapeutic target in pancreatic carcinogenesis. ©2012 AACR.

  6. Associations among Gastric Juice pH, Atrophic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2018-03-15

    Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori , AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori -positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori -negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH <3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH <3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH <3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body.

  7. Increased expression of Bcl-2 during mucous cell metaplasia induced by endotoxin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Ray, L.M.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is accompanied by characteristic morphological changes that distinguish apoptosis from other forms of cell death. These changes include DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, cell surface pseudopodia, and finally the cellular collapse into membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies which are rapidly engulfed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Although the morphological features of apoptotic cells are well studied, the biochemical events that control apoptosis are not understood. Programmed cell death is triggered by a variety of pathways that are initiated by different stimuli including noxious agents, DNA damage, the activation of TNF receptors, or the withdrawl of growth factors. The central process of programmed cell death involves a cascade of biochemical events that begins with the initiation of a family of cysteine proteases, including the interleukin-1-{Beta}-converting enzyme, CPP-32, and Apopain. The ratio of Bax, a death-inducer gene, to Bcl-2, an apoptosis suppressor gene, determines whether or not the main apoptotic pathyway is blocked. Apoptosis is suppressed if the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax is > 1, and cells undergo apoptosis if the ratio is < 1. The overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to block the apoptotic program triggered by a variety of agents. Therefore, Bcl-2 must be involved in blocking the central pathway of the cell death program. In conclusion, this study showed that high levels of Bcl-2 were detected in some mucous cells at specific time points during mucous cell metaplasia, and this expression was reduced at later time points or was absent after remodeling of this epithelium.

  8. Associations among Gastric Juice pH, Atrophic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihee; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori, AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. Results The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori-positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori-negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH <3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH <3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH <3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. Conclusions There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body. PMID:28918609

  9. Canine mammary minute oncocytomas with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with multifocal acinar cell oncocytic metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Rei; Kimura, Masayuki; Itahashi, Megu; Sugahara, Go; Kawashima, Masashi; Murayama, Hirotada; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident. Cellular atypia was minimal, and no mitotic figures were visible. One tumor had several oncocytic cellular foci revealing cellular transition, with perivascular pseudorosettes consisting of columnar epithelial cells surrounding the fine vasculature. Scattered foci of mammary acinar cell hyperplasia showing oncocytic metaplasia were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells of the 2 microtumors showed diffuse immunoreactivity to anti-cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3, and finely granular immunoreactivity for 60-kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase complex V beta subunit, and chromogranin A. One tumor also had oncocytic cellular foci forming perivascular pseudorosettes showing cellular membrane immunoreactivity for neural cell adhesion molecule. The tumors were negative for smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, desmin, S100, and synaptophysin. Ultrastructural observation confirmed the abundant mitochondria in the cytoplasm of both neoplastic and hyperplastic cells, the former cells also having neuroendocrine granule-like electron-dense bodies. From these results, our case was diagnosed with mammary oncocytomas accompanied by neuroendocrine differentiation. Scattered foci of mammary oncocytosis might be related to the multicentric occurrence of these oncocytomas. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Effect of Saraca asoca (Asoka) on estradiol-induced keratinizing metaplasia in rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Adangam Purath; Salini, Sasidharan; Sasidharan, Nanu; Padikkala, Jose; Raghavamenon, Achuthan Chathrattil; Babu, Thekkekara Devassy

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen-mediated uterus endometrium instability is considered as one of the etiological factors in dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) and uterine cancer. Saraca asoca (Family: Fabaceae) and its fermented preparation, Asokarishta, are extensively used as uterine tonic to treat gynecological disorders in Ayurveda. The present study evaluated the effect of S. asoca (Asoka) on estrogen-induced endometrial thickening of rat uterus. Endometrial thickening was induced by intraperitoneal injection of estradiol (20 μg/kg b.wt) to 8-day-old immature rats for alternate 5 days. Methanolic extract (200 mg/kg b. wt) from S. asoca bark was given orally along with estradiol. Uterus endometrial thickening was analyzed histopathologically and serum estrogen level by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression in rat uterus was also estimated by Western blot. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was analyzed by formalin- and carrageenan-elicited paw edema models in mouse. Uterus endometrium proliferation and keratinized metaplasia with seven to eight stratified epithelial layers on day 16 was observed in rats administered with estradiol. Treatment with S. asoca reduced the thickening to two to four layers and the serum estrogen level diminished significantly to 82.9±12.87 pg/mL compared to rats administered with estrogen alone (111.2±10.68 pg/mL). A reduction of formalin- and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mouse by S. asoca extract was observed. Lower level of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced COX-2 enzyme in rat uterus by the extract further confirms its anti-inflammatory activity. Present study reveals the antiproliferative and antikeratinizing effects of S. asoca in uterus endometrium possibly through its anti-estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. β-catenin is required for prostate development and cooperates with Pten loss to drive invasive carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Francis

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of male death in the Western world, but few frequent genetic alterations that drive prostate cancer initiation and progression have been identified. β-Catenin is essential for many developmental processes and has been implicated in tumorigenesis in many tissues, including prostate cancer. However, expression studies on human prostate cancer samples are unclear on the role this protein plays in this disease. We have used in vivo genetic studies in the embryo and adult to extend our understanding of the role of β-Catenin in the normal and neoplastic prostate. Our gene deletion analysis revealed that prostate epithelial β-Catenin is required for embryonic prostate growth and branching but is dispensable in the normal adult organ. During development, β-Catenin controls the number of progenitors in the epithelial buds and regulates a discrete network of genes, including c-Myc and Nkx3.1. Deletion of β-Catenin in a Pten deleted model of castration-resistant prostate cancer demonstrated it is dispensable for disease progression in this setting. Complementary overexpression experiments, through in vivo protein stabilization, showed that β-Catenin promotes the formation of squamous epithelia during prostate development, even in the absence of androgens. β-Catenin overexpression in combination with Pten loss was able to drive progression to invasive carcinoma together with squamous metaplasia. These studies demonstrate that β-Catenin is essential for prostate development and that an inherent property of high levels of this protein in prostate epithelia is to drive squamous fate differentiation. In addition, they show that β-Catenin overexpression can promote invasive prostate cancer in a clinically relevant model of this disease. These data provide novel information on cancer progression pathways that give rise to lethal prostate disease in humans.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck squamous cell carcinoma Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Consumer Version: Overview of Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers Orphanet: Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck University of Michigan ...

  13. Early Onset Squamous Cell Carcinoma In A Case Of Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Shri Nath

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus, which is a very common condition, is being presented. However, the uncommon feature in this cases is its early onset and equally early development of squamous cell carcinoma on a lesion on the right thigh.

  14. Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma following head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Metastasis or second primary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Tom W.; Nederlof, Petra M.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; van't Veer, Laura J.; de Jong, Daphne; Hart, August A. M.; van Zandwijk, Nico; Klomp, Houke; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To distinguish a metastasis from a second primary tumor in patients with a history of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. Experimental Design: For 44 patients with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck followed by a

  15. Changes of serum prolactin level in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jian; Li Hairu; Chen Yaming; Tang Guihong; Xu Yalan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the change of serum prolactin (PRL) level in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, serum PRL level in 79 normal person and 68 cases of patient s was measured by RIA. The result showed that serum PRL level was significantly higher in 26 patients (38.2%, 26/68) than that in the control (P 0.05) between the sex and region of lesion. The above results indicated that proportion of patient with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma was hyperprolactinaemia and the change of PRL was related to the development in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. (authors)

  16. Role of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Robbie SR; O’Regan, Esther M; Kennedy, Susan; Martin, Cara; O’Leary, John J; Timon, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. As a result, traditional paradigms in relation to the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have been changing. Research into HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is rapidly expanding, however many molecular pathological and clinical aspects of the role of HPV remain uncertain and are the subject of ongoing investigation. A detailed search of the literature pertaining to HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was performed and information on the topic was gathered. In this article, we present an extensive review of the current literature on the role of HPV in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in relation to epidemiology, risk factors, carcinogenesis, biomarkers and clinical implications. HPV has been established as a causative agent in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and biologically active HPV can act as a prognosticator with better overall survival than HPV-negative tumours. A distinct group of younger patients with limited tobacco and alcohol exposure have emerged as characteristic of this HPV-related subset of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not completely understood and further studies are needed to assist development of optimal prevention and treatment modalities. PMID:24945004

  17. RNA editing is induced by type I interferon in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyao; Chen, Zhaoli; Tang, Zefang; Huang, Jianbing; Hu, Xueda; He, Jie

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, abnormal RNA editing has been shown to play an important role in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as such abnormal editing is catalyzed by ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA). However, the regulatory mechanism of ADAR1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated ADAR1 expression and its association with RNA editing in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. RNA sequencing applied to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma clinical samples showed that ADAR1 expression was correlated with the expression of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9. In vitro experiments showed that the abundance of ADAR1 protein was associated with the induced activation of the JAK/STAT pathway by type I interferon. RNA sequencing results showed that treatment with type I interferon caused an increase in the number and degree of RNA editing in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway is a regulatory mechanism of ADAR1 expression and causes abnormal RNA editing profile in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This mechanism may serve as a new target for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy.

  18. MPLW515L is a novel somatic activating mutation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikman, Yana; Lee, Benjamin H; Mercher, Thomas; McDowell, Elizabeth; Ebert, Benjamin L; Gozo, Maricel; Cuker, Adam; Wernig, Gerlinde; Moore, Sandra; Galinsky, Ilene; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Clark, Jennifer J; Lee, Stephanie J; Golub, Todd R; Wadleigh, Martha; Gilliland, D Gary; Levine, Ross L

    2006-07-01

    The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF). Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhibition of JAK2V617F may be of therapeutic benefit in this context. However, a significant proportion of patients with ET or MF are JAK2V617F-negative. We hypothesized that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway might also occur as a consequence of activating mutations in certain hematopoietic-specific cytokine receptors, including the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), or the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR). DNA sequence analysis of the exons encoding the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of EPOR, MPL, and GCSFR, and comparison with germline DNA derived from buccal swabs, identified a somatic activating mutation in the transmembrane domain of MPL (W515L) in 9% (4/45) of JAKV617F-negative MF. Expression of MPLW515L in 32D, UT7, or Ba/F3 cells conferred cytokine-independent growth and thrombopoietin hypersensitivity, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, and ERK. Furthermore, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor inhibited MPLW515L-mediated proliferation and JAK-STAT signaling in vitro. In a murine bone marrow transplant assay, expression of MPLW515L, but not wild-type MPL, resulted in a fully penetrant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked thrombocytosis (Plt count 1.9-4.0 x 10(12)/L), marked splenomegaly due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, and increased reticulin fibrosis. Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF. The bone marrow transplant model of MPLW515L-mediated myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) exhibits certain features of human MF

  19. MPLW515L is a novel somatic activating mutation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Pikman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV, essential thrombocytosis (ET, and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF. Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhibition of JAK2V617F may be of therapeutic benefit in this context. However, a significant proportion of patients with ET or MF are JAK2V617F-negative. We hypothesized that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway might also occur as a consequence of activating mutations in certain hematopoietic-specific cytokine receptors, including the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR, the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL, or the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR.DNA sequence analysis of the exons encoding the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of EPOR, MPL, and GCSFR, and comparison with germline DNA derived from buccal swabs, identified a somatic activating mutation in the transmembrane domain of MPL (W515L in 9% (4/45 of JAKV617F-negative MF. Expression of MPLW515L in 32D, UT7, or Ba/F3 cells conferred cytokine-independent growth and thrombopoietin hypersensitivity, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, and ERK. Furthermore, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor inhibited MPLW515L-mediated proliferation and JAK-STAT signaling in vitro. In a murine bone marrow transplant assay, expression of MPLW515L, but not wild-type MPL, resulted in a fully penetrant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked thrombocytosis (Plt count 1.9-4.0 x 10(12/L, marked splenomegaly due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, and increased reticulin fibrosis.Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF. The bone marrow transplant model of MPLW515L-mediated myeloproliferative disorders (MPD exhibits certain features of

  20. A randomized, prospective cross-over trial comparing methylene blue-directed biopsy and conventional random biopsy for detecting intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragunath, K; Krasner, N; Raman, V S; Haqqani, M T; Cheung, W Y

    2003-12-01

    The value of methylene blue-directed biopsies (MBDB) in detecting specialized intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of MBDB with random biopsy in detecting intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial was undertaken to compare MBDB with random biopsy in patients with Barrett's esophagus segments 3 cm or more in length without macroscopic evidence of dysplasia or cancer. Dysplasia was graded as: indefinite for dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, or carcinoma, and was reported in a blinded fashion. Fifty-seven patients were recruited, 44 of whom were male. A total of 1,269 biopsies were taken (MBDB-651, random biopsie-618). Analysis of the results by per-biopsy protocol showed that the MBDB technique diagnosed significantly more specialized intestinal metaplasia (75 %) compared to the random biopsy technique (68 %; P = 0.032). The sensitivity and specificity rates of MBDB for diagnosing specialized intestinal metaplasia were 91 % (95 % CI, 88 - 93 %) and 43 % (95 % CI, 36 - 51 %), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity rates of MBDB for diagnosing dysplasia or carcinoma were 49 % (95 % CI, 38 - 61 %) and 85 % (95 % CI, 82 - 88 %), respectively. There were no significant differences in the diagnosis of dysplasia and carcinoma - MBDB 12 %, random biopsy 10 %. The methylene blue staining pattern appeared to have an influence on the detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia/carcinoma. Dark blue staining was associated with increased detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia (P biopsies. Although MBDB prolongs the endoscopy procedure slightly, it is a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Further clinical studies on the MBDB technique exclusively in endoscopically normal dysplastic Barrett's esophagus are needed.

  1. The initial establishment and epithelial morphogenesis of the esophagus: a new model of tracheal–esophageal separation and transition of simple columnar into stratified squamous epithelium in the developing esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    The esophagus and trachea are tubular organs that initially share a single common lumen in the anterior foregut. Several models have been proposed to explain how this single-lumen developmental intermediate generates two tubular organs. However, new evidence suggests that these models are not comprehensive. I will first briefly review these models and then propose a novel ‘splitting and extension’ model based on our in vitro modeling of the foregut separation process. Signaling molecules (e.g., SHHs, WNTs, BMPs) and transcription factors (e.g., NKX2.1 and SOX2) are critical for the separation of the foregut. Intriguingly, some of these molecules continue to play essential roles during the transition of simple columnar into stratified squamous epithelium in the developing esophagus, and they are also closely involved in epithelial maintenance in the adults. Alterations in the levels of these molecules have been associated with the initiation and progression of several esophageal diseases and cancer in adults. PMID:25727889

  2. Deoxycholic acid promotes development of gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus by modulating integrin-αv trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, David O; Byrne, Anne Marie; Murphy, James O; Reynolds, John V; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; Feighery, Ronan; Doyle, Brendan; Eldin, Osama Sharaf; Finn, Stephen P; Maguire, Aoife; Duff, Deirdre; Kelleher, Dermot P; Long, Aideen

    2017-12-01

    The fundamental mechanisms underlying erosive oesophagitis and subsequent development of Barrett's oesophagus (BO) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the contribution of specific components of the gastric refluxate on adhesion molecules involved in epithelial barrier maintenance. Cell line models of squamous epithelium (HET-1A) and BO (QH) were used to examine the effects of bile acids on cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins (Collagen, laminin, vitronectin, fibronectin) and expression of integrin ligands (α 3 , α 4, α 5 , α 6 and α ν ). Experimental findings were validated in human explant oesophageal biopsies, a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and in patient tissue microarrays. The bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) specifically reduced adhesion of HET-1A cells to vitronectin and reduced cell-surface expression of integrin-α ν via effects on endocytic recycling processes. Increased expression of integrin-α v was observed in ulcerated tissue in a rat model of GORD and in oesophagitis and Barrett's intestinal metaplasia patient tissue compared to normal squamous epithelium. Increased expression of integrin-α ν was observed in QH BO cells compared to HET-1A cells. QH cells were resistant to DCA-mediated loss of adhesion and reduction in cell-surface expression of integrin-α ν . We demonstrated that a specific component of the gastric refluxate, DCA, affects the epithelial barrier through modulation of integrin α ν expression, providing a novel mechanism for bile acid-mediated erosion of oesophageal squamous epithelium and promotion of BO. Strategies aimed at preventing bile acid-mediated erosion should be considered in the clinical management of patients with GORD. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Induction of intestinal metaplasia in the glandular stomach of rats by x-irradiation prior to oral administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Watanabe, H; Terada, Y; Naito, Y; Naito, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-12-01

    CD/CRJ rats were subjected to localized X-irradiation of the stomach and given N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the drinking water. Rats given MNNG alone and non-treated rats were used as controls. Upon sacrifice at 15 months after the initial MNNG administration, intestinal metaplasia was observed; the histology was of complete type and the incidence was 100% in rats treated with X-rays and MNNG, whereas in rats treated with MNNG alone the intestinal metaplasia was of incomplete type and its incidence was 80%. However, the incidence of gastric cancer in rats treated with MNNG alone was 25%.

  4. Interobserver Variability and Accuracy of High-Definition Endoscopic Diagnosis for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia among Experienced and Inexperienced Endoscopists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yil Sik; Bae, Joong Ho; Park, Hye Sun; Eun, Chang Soo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia is important; however, conventional endoscopy is known to be an unreliable modality for diagnosing gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM). The aims of the study were to evaluate the interobserver variation in diagnosing IM by high-definition (HD) endoscopy and the diagnostic accuracy of this modality for IM among experienced and inexperienced endoscopists. Selected 50 cases, taken with HD endoscopy, were sent for a diagnostic inquiry of gastric IM through visual inspection to five experienced and five inexperienced endoscopists. The interobserver agreement between endoscopists was evaluated to verify the diagnostic reliability of HD endoscopy in diagnosing IM, and the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated for validity of HD endoscopy in diagnosing IM. Interobserver agreement among the experienced endoscopists was "poor" (κ = 0.38) and it was also "poor" (κ = 0.33) among the inexperienced endoscopists. The diagnostic accuracy of the experienced endoscopists was superior to that of the inexperienced endoscopists (P = 0.003). Since diagnosis through visual inspection is unreliable in the diagnosis of IM, all suspicious areas for gastric IM should be considered to be biopsied. Furthermore, endoscopic experience and education are needed to raise the diagnostic accuracy of gastric IM. PMID:23678267

  5. Interobserver variability and accuracy of high-definition endoscopic diagnosis for gastric intestinal metaplasia among experienced and inexperienced endoscopists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yil Sik; Han, Dong Soo; Bae, Joong Ho; Park, Hye Sun; Eun, Chang Soo

    2013-05-01

    Accurate diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia is important; however, conventional endoscopy is known to be an unreliable modality for diagnosing gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM). The aims of the study were to evaluate the interobserver variation in diagnosing IM by high-definition (HD) endoscopy and the diagnostic accuracy of this modality for IM among experienced and inexperienced endoscopists. Selected 50 cases, taken with HD endoscopy, were sent for a diagnostic inquiry of gastric IM through visual inspection to five experienced and five inexperienced endoscopists. The interobserver agreement between endoscopists was evaluated to verify the diagnostic reliability of HD endoscopy in diagnosing IM, and the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated for validity of HD endoscopy in diagnosing IM. Interobserver agreement among the experienced endoscopists was "poor" (κ = 0.38) and it was also "poor" (κ = 0.33) among the inexperienced endoscopists. The diagnostic accuracy of the experienced endoscopists was superior to that of the inexperienced endoscopists (P = 0.003). Since diagnosis through visual inspection is unreliable in the diagnosis of IM, all suspicious areas for gastric IM should be considered to be biopsied. Furthermore, endoscopic experience and education are needed to raise the diagnostic accuracy of gastric IM.

  6. Sporadic ganglioneuromatosis of esophagogastric junction in a patient with gastro-esophageal reflux disorder and intestinal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderits, Richard; Hanna, Iman; Baig, Zahid; Godyn, Janusz-J

    2006-12-28

    A 58-year-old female with a recurrent history of upper abdominal pain and intermittent dysphagia underwent endoscopic evaluation that demonstrated an irregular and nodular esophago-gastric (EG) junction and grade I erosive esophagitis. Biopsies showed prominent intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's type without dysplasia, chronic inflammation and multiple aggregates of large cells within the mucosal lamina propria, some with spindle shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemistry stains for keratins AE-1/AE-3 were negative, while S-100 and NSE were positive. This, together with routine stains, was diagnostic for mucosal ganglioneuromatosis. The background of chronic inflammation with intestinal type metaplasia was consistent with long-term reflux esophagitis. No evidence of achalasia was seen. Biopsies of gastric antrum and fundus were unremarkable, without ganglioneural proliferation. Colonoscopy was unremarkable. No genetic syndromes were identified in the patient including familial adenomatous polyposis and multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb (MEN IIb). Iansoprazole (Prevacid) was started by oral administration each day with partial relief of symptoms. Subsequent esophagogastroscopy repeated at 4 mo showed normal appearing EG junction. Esophageal manometry revealed a mild non-specific lower esophageal motility disorder. Mild motor dysfunction is seen with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and we feel that the demonstration of localized ganglioneuromatosis was not likely related etiologically. In the absence of findings that might suggest neural hypertrophy, such as achalasia, the nodular mucosal irregularity seen with this instance of ganglioneuromatosis may, however, have exacerbated the patient's reflux.

  7. Combination therapies in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthi, S.; Shanta, V.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical trials are reported involving combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Bleomycin was the only drug that potentiated radiation response in buccal squamous cell carcinomas. The response of the primary tumors was consistent, predictable and reproducible. The following drugs or chemicals were used: synkavit, methotrexate, metronidazole, bleomycin, pepleomycin, and hyperbaric oxygen. The results and their comparison is given in tables

  8. Scalp squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Basim A; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving.

  9. CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A PANTHER CHAMELEON (FURCIFER PARDALIS) AND TREATMENT WITH CARBOPLATIN IMPLANTABLE BEADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Naples, Lisa M; Chu, Caroline; Kinsel, Michael J; Flower, Jennifer E; Van Bonn, William G

    2016-09-01

    A 3-yr-old male panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) presented with bilateral raised crusted skin lesions along the lateral body wall that were found to be carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar lesions later developed on the caudal body wall and tail. A subcutaneous implantable carboplatin bead was placed in the first squamous cell carcinoma lesion identified. Additional new lesions sampled were also found to be squamous cell carcinomas, and viral polymerase chain reaction was negative for papillomaviruses and herpesviruses. Significant skin loss would have resulted from excision of all the lesions, so treatment with only carboplatin beads was used. No adverse effects were observed. Lesions not excised that were treated with beads decreased in size. This is the first description of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treatment with carboplatin implantable beads in a panther chameleon.

  10. Cetuximab & Nivolumab in Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-10

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Cancer; Head and Neck Carcinoma

  11. Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1, and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5. The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.

  12. Breast implant capsule-associated squamous cell carcinoma: a report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Daniel L; Keeney, Gary L; Chen, Beiyun; Visscher, Daniel W; Carter, Jodi M

    2017-09-01

    The use of prosthetic implants for breast augmentation has become commonplace. Although implants do not increase the risk of conventional mammary carcinoma, they are rarely associated with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We report 2 cases of breast implant capsule-associated squamous cell carcinoma with poor clinical outcomes. Both patients (56-year-old woman and 81-year-old woman) had long-standing implants (>25 years) and presented with acute unilateral breast enlargement. In both cases, squamous cell carcinoma arose in (focally dysplastic) squamous epithelium-lined breast implant capsules and widely invaded surrounding breast parenchyma or chest wall. Neither patient had evidence of a primary mammary carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma at any other anatomic site. Within 1 year, one patient developed extensive, treatment-refractory, locoregional soft tissue metastasis, and the second patient developed hepatic and soft tissue metastases and died of disease. There are 2 prior reported cases of implant-associated squamous cell carcinoma in the plastic surgery literature; one provides no pathologic staging or outcome information, and the second case was a capsule-confined squamous cell carcinoma. Together, all 4 cases share notable commonalities: the patients had long-standing breast implants and presented with acute unilateral breast pain and enlargement secondary to tumors arising on the posterior aspect of squamous epithelialized implant capsules. Because of both its rarity and its unusual clinical presentation, implant capsule-associated squamous cell carcinoma may be underrecognized. The aggressive behavior of the tumors in this series underscores the importance of excluding malignancy in patients with long-standing breast implants who present with acute unilateral breast pain and enlargement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in a Japanese allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient on long-term voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, William; Takahashi, Akira; Muto, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Naoya

    2017-10-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas arise as secondary cancers in hematopoietic stem cell transplant survivors. They have been documented primarily in Western cohorts and relatively little is known about their occurrence in Asian hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, with no reports of squamous cell carcinomas with high-risk features in Asian patients. We describe a case of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with high-risk features on the scalp of a Japanese bone marrow transplant recipient approximately 6.5 years post-transplant, who was on long-term voriconazole. The history of a photodistributed erythema followed by the appearance of multiple actinic keratoses and solar lentigines, together with the rarity of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in Asian hematopoietic stem cell transplant cohorts revealed in our literature review, suggest that voriconazole use contributed to the development of high-risk squamous cell carcinoma in our patient. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Nobre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64. Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5% had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR = 2.46; p = 0.03. In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR = 2.81; p = 0.02. This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer.

  15. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  16. [Medicine-syndrome research and analysis of professor Li Dian-gui in treating chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fa; Li, Dian-Gui; Liu, Jian-Ping; Du, Yan-Ru; Bai, Hai-Yan

    2017-05-01

    In this article, medication characteristics of professor Li Dian-gui in treating chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia(CAGIM) were analyzed through traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(version 2.5). 276 cases and 625 prescriptions were collected to analyze five types of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndromes and the medicine-syndrome correlation. The results showed that medication characteristics of professor Li Dian-gui in treating CAGIM included drug combination of aromatic medicine bitter-cold herbs, preferring to activating to invigorate the spleen and good at using the qi-regulating drugs. It demonstrated that we can adopt the therapy of Huazhuo Jiedu and Xingpi Xingqi therapies in treating CAGIM in addition to the traditional approach of nourishing Yin and activating blood circulation, opening up a novel approach for TCM in healing the pathema. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Cetuximab And The Head And Neck Squamous Cell Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concu, Riccardo; Cordeiro, Maria Natalia Dias Soeiro

    2018-01-12

    The head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the most common type of head and neck cancer (more than 90%), and all over the world more than a half million people have been developing this cancer in the last years. This type of cancer is usually marked by a poor prognosis with a really significant morbidity and mortality. Cetuximab received early favor as an exciting and promising new therapy with relatively mild side effect, and due to this received authorization in the 2004 from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and in the 2006 from the Food and Drug Association (FDA) for the treatment of patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck in combination with radiation therapy for locally advanced disease. In this work we will review the application and the efficacy of the Cetuximab in the treatment of the HNSCC. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  19. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Swainsonine promotes apoptosis in human oesophageal squamous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and investigated relative molecular mechanisms. Swainsonine ..... sical death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway while ..... hormone-resistant prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Cancer ...

  1. MicroRNAs in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiiba, Masashi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs which regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, development, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Expression profiling of miRNAs has been performed and the data show that some miRNAs are upregulated or downregulated in cancer. Several studies suggest that the expression profiles of miRNAs are associated with clinical outcomes. However, the set of miRNAs with altered expressing differs depending on the type of cancer, suggesting that it is important to understand which miRNAs are related to which cancers. Therefore, this review aimed to discuss potentially crucial miRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)

  2. Eyelid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-hyun Song1§, Sae-kwang Ku2§, Hwan-soo Jang3, Eun-young Kye, Sung-ho Yun, Kwang-ho Jang and Young-sam Kwon*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old, female, Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a left lower eyelid mass. No other abnormality was detected on affected eye in a general eye examination. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The advancement flap used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  3. Results of radiotherapy for primary subglottic squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, Sonya; Warde, Padraig R.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Gullane, Patrick J.; Payne, David; Liu, F.-F.; Bayley, Andrew; Ringash, Jolie; Cummings, Bernard J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the outcome after radical radiotherapy (RT) and surgical salvage and assess the risk of late toxicity for patients with primary subglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated at our center. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 1996, 43 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the subglottis (35 men, 8 women) were treated with radical RT. All received megavoltage irradiation, most commonly to a dose of 50-52 Gy in 20 fractions during 4 weeks (39 patients). The median follow-up was 4.2 years. Results: Local control was achieved with RT alone in 24 (56%) of the 43 patients: 7 of 11 with T1, 8 of 12 with T2, 4 of 8 with T3, and 5 of 12 with T4. The 5-year actuarial local relapse-free rate was 52%. Subsequent local control was achieved in 11 of the 13 patients with failed RT and attempted surgical salvage, for an ultimate local control rate of 81.4% (35 of 43). The 5-year overall and cause-specific actuarial survival rate was 50.3% and 66.9%, respectively. No patients developed Grade 3 or 4 late radiation morbidity. Conclusion: These data support the use of primary RT in the treatment of patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the subglottis as an appropriate treatment approach providing an option for laryngeal conservation

  4. Repeated treatments with ingenol mebutate for prophylaxis of UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Andrés M; Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Bay, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The incidence of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) is increasing, and effective chemopreventative strategies are needed. We hypothesized that repeated treatments with ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) would postpone development of SCC in hairless mice, and that application...

  5. Presence or absence of intestinal metaplasia but not its burden is associated with prevalent high-grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, A; McGregor, D H; Anand, O; Singh, M; Rao, D; Cherian, R; Wani, S B; Rastogi, A; Singh, V; House, J; Jones, P G; Sharma, P

    2014-01-01

    Universal agreement on the inclusion of intestinal metaplasia to diagnose Barrett's esophagus (BE) is lacking. Our aim was to determine the association of intestinal metaplasia and its density with the prevalence of dysplasia/cancer in columnar lined esophagus (CLE). Patients with CLE but no intestinal metaplasia (CLE-no IM) were identified by querying the clinical pathology database using SNOMED codes for distal esophageal biopsies. CLE-IM patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database of BE patients. Subsequently, relative risks for prevalent dysplasia and cancer were calculated. Since patients with CLE-no IM are not usually enrolled in surveillance, only prevalent dysplasia/cancer on index endoscopy was analyzed. Goblet cell density and percent intestinal metaplasia were estimated. All biopsy slides were reviewed for dysplasia by two experienced gastrointestinal pathologists. Two hundred sixty-two CLE-IM and 260 CLE-no IM patients were included (age 64±12 vs. 60±11 years, P=0.001; whites 92% vs. 82%, P=0.001; males 99.7% vs. 99.3%, P=NS; CLE length 3.4±3.2 vears 1.4±0.4 cm, P=0.001 and hiatus hernia 64% vs. 56%, P=0.013). The odds of finding low-grade dysplasia and of high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/cancer were 12.5-fold (2.9-53.8, P=0.007) and 4.2-fold (95% CI 1.4-13, P=0.01) higher, respectively, in the CLE-IM group. Reanalysis after controlling for important variables of age, race, and length did not significantly alter the overall results. In CLE-IM group, when patients with high (>50/LPF) versus low goblet cell density (10% intestinal metaplasia were compared, the odds of HGD/cancer, OR 1.5 (0.5-4.9, P=0.5) and 1.97 (0.54-7.22), respectively, were not significantly higher. Demonstration of intestinal metaplasia continues to be an essential element in the definition of BE, but its quantification may not be useful for risk stratification of HGD/cancer in BE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of

  6. Basaloid squamous carcinoma of skin associated with xeroderma pigmentosum in an 8-year-old child: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashnin Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis associated with hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV light, due to defects in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA repair. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with XP are at increased risk of developing cutaneous malignancy and are commonly associated with squamous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of 8-year-old child with XP along with basaloidsquamous carcinoma of skin; and review of literature related to it.

  7. Hypothyroidism after primary radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Normal tissue complication probability modeling with latent time correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønjom, Marianne Feen; Brink, Carsten; Bentzen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    To develop a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation-induced biochemical hypothyroidism (HT) after primary radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with adjustment for latency and clinical risk factors.......To develop a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation-induced biochemical hypothyroidism (HT) after primary radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with adjustment for latency and clinical risk factors....

  8. [Expression of Ki-67 and P53 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Chen, Wei-min

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the clinical and pathological features and its relationship with the expression of Ki-67 and p53 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical SP staining method was used to quantify the protein expression levels of Ki-67 and p53 protein in 10 cases of normal oral mucosa, 16 cases of oral leukoplakia (OLK) tissue, and 48 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The relationship of the expression of Ki-67 and p53 protein to clinical and pathological data was analyzed, and SPSS17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The positive expression rate of Ki-67 protein in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma was 30%, 56.3% and 79.2%, respectively; The positive expression rate of p53 was 0%, 43.8%, and 70.8%, respectively; Ki-67 and p53 expression had significant difference among normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (Poral squamous cell carcinoma (Poral squamous cell carcinoma tissues may play an important role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei ZG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhen-ge Lei,1,* Xiao-hua Ren,2,* Sha-sha Wang,3 Xin-hua Liang,3,4 Ya-ling Tang3,5 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Stomatological Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 2Department of Stomatology, Sichuan Medical Science Academy and Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, 3State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 5Department of Oral Pathology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mouse models can closely mimic human oral squamous epithelial carcinogenesis, greatly expand the in vivo research possibilities, and play a critical role in the development of diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. With the development of the recent research on the contribution of immunity/inflammation to cancer initiation and progression, mouse models have been divided into two categories, namely, immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models. And thus, this paper will review these two kinds of models applied in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to provide a platform to understand the complicated histological, molecular, and genetic changes of oral squamous epithelial tumorigenesis. Keywords: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, HNSCC, mouse models, immunocompromised models, immunocompetent models, transgenic models

  10. Fat Metaplasia on Sacroiliac Joint Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Baseline Is Associated with Spinal Radiographic Progression in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwi Young Kang

    Full Text Available To study the relationship between inflammatory and structural lesions in the sacroiliac joints (SIJs on MRI and spinal progression observed on conventional radiographs in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA.One hundred and ten patients who fulfilled the ASAS axSpA criteria were enrolled. All underwent SIJ MRI at baseline and lumbar spine radiographs at baseline and after 2 years. Inflammatory and structural lesions on SIJ MRI were scored using the SPondyloArthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC method. Spinal radiographs were scored using the Stoke AS Spinal Score (SASSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of spinal progression.Among the 110 patients, 25 (23% showed significant radiographic progression (change of SASSS≥2 over 2 years. There was no change in the SASSS over 2 years according to the type of inflammatory lesion. Patients with fat metaplasia or ankyloses on baseline MRI showed a significantly higher SASSS at 2 years than those without (p<0.001. According to univariate logistic regression analysis, age at diagnosis, HLA-B27 positivity, the presence of fat metaplasia, erosion, and ankyloses on SIJ MRI, increased baseline CRP levels, and the presence of syndesmophytes at baseline were associated with spinal progression over 2 years. Multivariate analysis identified syndesmophytes and severe fat metaplasia on baseline SIJ MRI as predictive of spinal radiographic progression (OR, 14.74 and 5.66, respectively.Inflammatory lesions in the SIJs on baseline MRI were not associated with spinal radiographic progression. However, fat metaplasia at baseline was significantly associated with spinal progression after 2 years.

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae; Choi, Jeong Hee

    2003-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  12. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Rani Koduganti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated.

  13. Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Medhioub, Mouna; Chelbi, Emna

    2015-11-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach is very rare. Its pathogenesis is unclear and the treatment strategy is controversial. We report an agressive primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with liver and lung metastases in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple liver metastases. Endoscopic examination showed two tumour masses on the fundus of the stomach. Biopsy of the lesions revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Chest x-ray showed multiple large pulmonary nodules highly suggestive of pulmonary metastases. The patient died ten days after he was admitted because of progression of the tumour and before any therapeutic decision.

  14. Expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingping; Tao, Detao; Xu, Qing; Gao, Zhenlin; Tang, Daofang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the levels of E-cadherin, vimentin expression in tumor tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the relationship between the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in order to explore its values for predicting the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, short survival of patients in many types of cancer. E-cadherin and vimentin expression of 10 benign and 42 OSCC tumor tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. E-cadherin is positively expressed in normal oral mucosa epithelium, but vimentin expression is not found in normal oral mucosa epithelia; the E-cadherin and vimentin were expressed in 26 of 42 (61.9%) and 16 of 42 (38.1%), respectively. No statistically difference was found for E-cadherin and vimentin expression in patients with different age, gender and tumor location, E-cadherin and vimentin expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tissue location (P oral squamous cell carcinoma for E-cadherin and vimentin positive expression (P oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our study preliminarily confirmed that EMT phenomenon is existed during the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Co-evaluation of E-cadherin and vimentin might be a valuable tool for predicting OSCC patient outcome. PMID:26045832

  15. Incomplete gastric metaplasia in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. An ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli Leonardo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and celiac disease (CD has been widely reported in children but the relationship between the two conditions is incompletely understood. Moreover, specific studies on intestinal biopsies of patients with the association of the two diseases are still lacking. Methods We studied the ultrastructure of the duodenal mucosa in 12 patients with both IDDM and CD. Results All patients had either total or partial atrophy of duodenal mucosa. In seven subjects, an accumulation of electrondense granules in the apical cytoplasm of groups of enterocytes was found. In four of them, a double population of granules existed (mean diameter: 400-800 nm and 100-200 nm respectively showing a biphasic pattern. In the other three patients, only smaller granules (100- 200 nm were found in the enterocytes. Conclusions The present work suggests that patients with IDDM/CD may represent a subgroup in the context of the CD population. Intestinal biopsies of such individuals often show accumulation of electrondense granules in the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes that can be interpreted as incomplete gastric metaplasia.

  16. The utility of cytokeratins 7 and 20 (CK7/20 immunohistochemistry in the distinction of short-segment Barrett esophagus from gastric intestinal metaplasia: Is it reliable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakirci Nadi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present correlative immunohistochemical study was to assess the utility of cytokeratin (CK7 and CK20 expression in the diagnosis of short-segment Barrett esophagus, particularly its efficacy in differentiating Barrett mucosa from intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia and corpus. Methods Two groups of endoscopic biopsy specimens were examined, including 20 endoscopic biopsy specimens of short-segment Barrett esophagus (Group A and equal number exhibiting Helicobacter pylori associated intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia and corpus (Group B. All were investigated by immunohistochemistry using the standard ABC method for CK7 and CK20 expression. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis of Barrett CK7/20 and gastric CK7/20 patterns between the groups. Results The anticipated pattern of reactivity in Barrett mucosa (CK7: strong diffuse positivity in superficial and deep glands; CK20: positivity in surface epithelium and superficial glands was seen in 2 cases of Group A specimens. The expected gastric pattern (CK7: patchy immunostaining with variable involvement of deep glands; CK20: patchy immunostaining of superficial and deep glands in incomplete intestinal metaplasia / absence of CK7 immunoreactivity with strong CK20 staining in superficial and deep glands in complete intestinal metaplasia was seen in 8 cases of Group B specimens. The respective sensitivity and false-negativity values of CK7/20 staining for Barrett pattern in Group A were 10% and 90%, respectively. These values for gastric pattern in Group B were 40% and 60%, respectively. The specificity and false-positivity values of both patterns were same (100% and 0%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for Barrett pattern between the two groups (P = 0.487, while the observation of gastric pattern was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.02. Conclusions We concluded that these

  17. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and clinical parameters in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal atypical hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Cağdaş; Sayar, Hamide; Özdemir, Süleyman; Selçuk, Tahsin; Görgülü, Orhan; Akbaş, Yücel; Kemal Olgun, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined. Specimens obtained from patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodule (n = 35), atypical hyperplasia (n = 35), laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 35), and clinical parameters were evaluated retrospectively. Although no staining was observed in patients with vocal fold nodules, staining was noted in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. The percentage of COX-2 staining was the highest in the carcinoma group. It was determined that COX-2 staining was significantly associated with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It should be noted that overexpression of COX-2, a potentially important factor in the evolution of carcinogenesis in precancerous lesions, might be an indicator of the development of carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ectopic production of beta-HCG by a maxillary squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, P D; Jurco, S; Austin, J R

    1997-12-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes of the head and neck are rare. Hypercalcemia and leukocytosis have been described. The literature was reviewed, and a case of a squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla producing beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) is presented. A 47-year-old white man with a T4N1M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the left maxilla was treated with a maxillectomy and neck dissection for an N1 positive neck. After completing his planned radiotherapy, he developed distant metastases, which included an axillary node that stained positive for human beta-HCG. Retrospective review of the primary specimen showed beta-HCG positivity in an anaplastic component of the tumor along with vascular invasion. The first case in the literature of a paraneoplastic syndrome with beta-HCG production in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla is presented. This case history fits the aggressive nature of beta HCG producing tumors elsewhere in the body.

  19. Bony Calvarium as the Sole Site ofMetastases in Squamous Cell Carcinomaof the Uterine Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated skeletal metastasis to the bony calvarium is extremely rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We describe the clinical and imaging findings in a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastases tothe bony calvarium as the sole site of metastasis. The patient was a 65-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, FIGO stage IIIb, whose initial treatement was chemoradiation therapy. After 22 sessions of external-beam radiation,she developed headaches. On physical examination she had skull bone tenderness. On plain skull X-ray, there were osteolytic bony lesions. Brain MRI showed multiple enhancing skull bone metatstses. Eventually, a whole body bone scintigraphy revealed isolated diffuse increased activity in the bony calvarium. In the literature review, wefound only three similar cases of cervical cancer with scalp metastases and involvement of the bony calvarium.

  20. PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF RENAL PELVIS ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL CALCULUS AND RECURRENT PYONEPHROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti Lal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the kidney is a rare malignant neoplasm associated with nephrolithiasis, typically monobacterial pyonephrosis and rarely Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. It is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis mostly due to lack of presenting clinical features like a palpable mass, gross haematuria and pain. We report a case presenting with renal calculus and pyonephrosis managed initially with percutaneous nephrostomy followed by nephrectomy due to complete loss of renal function. Histopathological evaluation revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma which is managed by chemotherapy, although initially beneficial, patients later develop disseminated metastatic disease which holds a poor prognosis.

  1. Granuloma Inguinale Simulating Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Z Mani

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of extensive granuloma inguinale simulating squamous cell carcinoma is described. There was past history of urethritis leading to a urethral fistula. The ulcer healed almost completely within 19 days of receiving streptomycin injections. The patient had associated scabies and presumably also had latent syphillis (His VDRL was reactive in 1:8 dilution. The patient belonged to Madhya Pradesh.

  2. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 10 oesophageal and 10 laryngeal squamous carcinomas was examined by means of immuno cytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisation to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epithelium adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal ...

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral-Ribeiro, J; Silva, C; Sousa, L; Pérez García, D; Ribeiro dos Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    Bladder extrophy is a rare congenital malformation that nowadays is surgically corrected in neonatal period. We present a case report of a 71-year-old male with a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma arising in a classical uncorrected form of bladder extrophy.

  4. Gene expression study and pathway analysis of histological subtypes of intestinal metaplasia that progress to gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Companioni

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia (IM is a precursor lesion that precedes gastric cancer (GC. There are two IM histological subtypes, complete (CIM and incomplete (IIM, the latter having higher progression rates to GC. This study was aimed at analysing gene expression and molecular processes involved in the progression from normal mucosa to IM, and also from IM subtypes to GC.We used expression data to compare the transcriptome of healthy gastric mucosa to that of IM not progressing to GC, and the transcriptome of IM subtypes that had progressed to GC to those that did not progress. Some deregulated genes were validated and pathway analyses were performed.Comparison of IM subtypes that had progressed to GC with those that did not progress showed smaller differences in the expression profiles than the comparison of IM that did not progress with healthy mucosa. New transcripts identified in IM not progressing to GC included TRIM, TMEM, homeobox and transporter genes and SNORD116. Comparison to normal mucosa identified non tumoral Warburg effect and melatonin degradation as previously unreported processes involved in IM. Overexpressed antigen processing is common to both IM-subtypes progressing to GC, but IIM showed more over-expressed oncogenic genes and molecular processes than CIM.There are greater differences in gene expression and molecular processes involved in the progression from normal healthy mucosa to IM than from IM to gastric cancer. While antigen processing is common in both IM-subtypes progressing to GC, more oncogenic processes are observed in the progression of IIM.

  5. PECULIARITIES OF PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF CERVICAL SQUAMOUS CANCER IN HIV INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytvynenko, M; Shkolnikov, V; Bocharova, T; Sychova, L; Gargin, V

    2017-09-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a statistically significant increased risk of developing cervical cancer. The expression of the human Ki-67 protein is strictly associated with cell proliferation. The purpose of our work was detection of proliferative activity in cervical squamous cancer in women with HIV infection. We investigated 24 cases (12 patients with HIV and 12 patients without HIV infection) of cervical carcinoma, where biopsy had been performed before the treatment. According to histopathological diagnoses, well-differentiated, moderately and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (7, 13 and 4 cases respectively) was determined. Mean age of women in the group with HIV infection was 32.7 years, and 38.2 years in the group without HIV infection. Detection of protein Ki-67 expression was performed with nuclear staining in the intermediate and superficial cells. The results of this work show that proliferative activity of cervical squamous cancer in women with HIV infection is characterized by a higher level of Ki-67 with averaging level for all histological types of squamous cell carcinoma 62.5±5.6% that is one and half times higher than in group without HIV infection. Depending on a histological type, expression of Ki-67 has increased from 4.7±3.8% in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma up to 89.2±5.1% in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma for group with HIV, and from 21.3±2.4% to 79.4±3.7 in group without HIV.

  6. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Squamous Cell Carcinomas From Fanconi Anemia Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeburg, Hester J. T.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Wu, Thijs; Gluckman, Eliane; Soulier, Jean; Surralles, Jordi; Castella, Maria; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Wennerberg, Johan; Califano, Joseph; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Ebell, Wolfram; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Joenje, Hans; Leemans, C. Rene; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a recessively inherited disease that is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and a predisposition to develop cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the head and neck and anogenital regions. Previous studies of Fanconi anemia SCCs, mainly

  7. Clinical and molecular characteristics of squamous cell carcinomas from Fanconi anemia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeburg, H.T.J.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Wu, T.; Gluckman, E.; Soulier, J.; Surralles, J.; Castella, M.; van der Wal, J.E.; Wennerberg, J.; Califano, J.; Velleuer, E.; Dietrich, R.; Ebell, W.; Bloemena, E.; Joenje, H.; Leemans, C.R.; Brakenhoff, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a recessively inherited disease that is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and a predisposition to develop cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the head and neck and anogenital regions. Previous studies of Fanconi anemia SCCs, mainly

  8. The etiologic role of HPV in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma fine tuned.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Hullu, J.A. de; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a role in the development of a subset of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Uncertainty exists about the true impact of HPV in this tumor type because conflicting reports have been published with diverging prevalence rates. This study was done to

  9. Prognostic impact of array-based genomic profiles in esophageal squamous cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Isinger, Anna; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a genetically complex tumor type and a major cause of cancer related mortality. Although distinct genetic alterations have been linked to ESCC development and prognosis, the genetic alterations have not gained clinical applicability. We...

  10. Validation of tissue microarray technology in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Judith; van Hillegersberg, Richard; van Diest, Paul J.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue microarray (TMA) technology has been developed to facilitate high-throughput immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis of tissues by inserting small tissue biopsy cores into a single paraffin block. Several studies have revealed novel prognostic biomarkers in esophageal squamous

  11. Two siblings with lichen planus and squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Sigurdsson, Vigfus; Vreuls, Willem; Lubbert, Pieter H. W.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease which can also affect the oesophagus. Unlike in oral lichen planus an increased risk for the development of squamous cell carcinoma in the oesophagus has not been established. We describe two sisters with a history of long-standing cutaneous lichen planus who

  12. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Arising in Multifocal Pharyngolaryngeal Oncocytic Papillary Cystadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Koopmann, Mario; Rudack, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We report on a rare case of a laryngeal carcinoma arising in a multifocal pharyngolaryngeal oncocytic papillary cystadenoma (OPC). The disease of a 63-year-old man is well documented by computed and positron emission tomography, histology, and electron microscopy. We could show that an OPC can even develop in the pharynx. The coexistence of both tumors makes this a challenging diagnosis for pathologists. Treated by surgery and radiotherapy, both lesions dissolved. Based on the literature available, we discuss the theory that the laryngeal carcinoma might be the result of a true metaplasia facilitated by chronic irritation and recommend a regular follow-up for OPC too. As in benign oncocytic lesions, we could show that the detection of numerous mitochondria is a diagnostic indicator for malignant variants as well. PMID:25211046

  13. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HEAD AND NECK: NEW AVENUES OF TREATMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Braunschweig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck counts for 3 % of all cancers in men and half of this number less in women with a 5-year survival of 61 %. While the number of laryngeal carcinoma is decreasing, carcinoma of the oral cavity related to an infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV, high-risk subtypes is increasing, especially in younger patients. HPV related squamous cell carcinomas show better survival data, especially in regard to recurrence free rates or secondary carcinoma of adjacent locations. Squamous cell carcinomas related to the presence of HPV DNA material is almost exclusively found in carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal mucosa. Much less frequently HPV is present in hypopharyngeal carcinomas and even less number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma with proof for HPV in the nasopharynx and larynx. In case of evidence for HPV DNA; most cases are positively tested for subtype 16, followed by subtype 18. As a surrogate immunhistochemical marker, p16 INK4A is stained positive, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In a small study by ourselves, we found a positive correlation in 100 % of p16 INK4A positivity and positive HPV testing. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is more frequently related to HPV in patients below 50 years of age with a prevalence of ca. 20 %. Whilst HPV high-risk positive carcinomas show very few mutations in single signalling molecules of the downstream receptor tyrosin kinase pathways, HPV negative carcinomas show in many cases a chaotic DNA mutation type with typical mutations in tumor suppressor genes, as p53 and CDKN2A. This pattern is often seen in carcinoma types develop from a summation of accidental mutations often caused by toxins (e.g. inhaled cigarette smoke. However, it is discussed and under investigation whether a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomasdevelop from so called driver mutations, as are called mutations in critical members of signalling pathways and receptor tyrosin kinases

  14. A rare case of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma; case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina N. Cozma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Vulvar cancer is a rare gynecological malignancy, with an incidence of 1.5 per 100 000 women/year. The most common vulvar cancer is developed in squamous cells, the most encountered type of skin cells. Case report. We report a case of a 72-year-old female admitted in the Department of Plastic Surgery of Emergency Clinical Hospital “Prof. Dr. Agrippa Ionescu” with a 5/4.2 cm painful ulcerated tumoral mass located in the vulvar area. The lesion slowly increased in size over the past 12 months. The tumour was surgically removed with oncological safety margins and sent for histopathological evaluation. The histopathological examination revealed an ulcerated squamous carcinoma with lymphovascular and perineural invasion, but with negative margins. Postoperative results were favorable, and no local or general complications were observed. Conclusion. We highlight this case due to its unusual presentation in the clitoral area. Moreover, considering the potential for recurrence we point out the importance of the radical vulvectomy with regional lymphadenectomy and histopathological examination, in order to put a precise diagnosis and ensure the best possible treatment for the patient.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva: analysis of fifteen cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.S.A.; Dareshani, S.; Ali, M.A.; Khan, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    To document various clinical presentations and management options of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients attending ophthalmic out patients department (OPD) of a tertiary care centre. This case series was carried out in the Department of Ophthalmology Civil Hospital and, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi and were reviewed from June 2004 to December 2007. Socio-demographic data and clinical features of patients with biopsy proven conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma were recorded and analysed. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination by a fellow ophthalmologist and clinical findings were recorded on a prescribed Performa. Data was analysed in terms of frequency, means and median by SPSS for windows V.15. Seventy-two percent of the patients were male and 28% were female, more than 80% of patients were in the age group of seventy years and above. Eighteen percent of patients developed intraocular invasion and the eyes had to be enucleated. CSCC occurs in sun damaged ocular surface usually at limbus, elderly men are more commonly involve, recurrence is a feature of disease and high risk in older individual. In our treatment we used various therapies, excision with clear margin, topical mitomycin C adjunctive cryotherapy and amniotic graft. (author)

  16. Intracardiac metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Aparecida Coelho Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer shows variable incidence in different countries with a higher prevalence in developing countries. Squamous cell carcinoma represents the most common histologic type. The seventh decade of life corresponds to the mean age at diagnosis, but it is not an unusual diagnosis among young adults. Most cases present as “in situ” neoplasia or loco regional disease; however, systemic disseminated disease occurs via lymphatic and/or hematogeneous routes. The lymph nodes, liver, and lungs are the most frequently involved sites whereas the heart constitutes an exceptional and atypical site for penile cancer metastases. We report a case of a 79-year-old patient who presented a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the penis with intracardiac dissemination. The patient had a past history of cardiomyopathy, which required an artificial cardiac pacemaker implantation. He had been treated 1 year before with a partial penectomy but was admitted for emasculation due to the cancer relapse. During the postoperative period, he experienced sudden respiratory distress and died. The autopsy findings showed metastatic disease into the cardiac right chambers, pulmonary tumoral thrombi, and pulmonary hilar involvement. The authors call attention to the possibility of the presence of pacing leads, cardiomyopathy and the altered low blood flow in the right chambers, as predisposing factors for the tumoral seeding in this case.

  17. High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Veness

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers (squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas occur at an epidemic rate in many countries with the worldwide incidence increasing. The sun-exposed head and neck are the most frequent sites for these cancers to arise and in most patients diagnosed with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, local treatment is usually curative. However, a subset is diagnosed with a high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. High-risk factors include size (> 2 cm, thickness/depth of invasion (> 4 mm, recurrent lesions, the presence of perineural invasion, location near the parotid gland, and immunosuppression. These patients have a higher risk (> 10–20% of developing metastases to regional lymph nodes (often parotid nodes, and in some cases also of experiencing local morbidity (perineural invasion, based on unfavourable primary lesion and patient factors. Despite treatment, many patients developing metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma experience mortality and morbidity usually as a consequence of uncontrolled metastatic nodal disease. It is therefore important that clinicians treating nonmelanoma skin cancers have an understanding and awareness of these high-risk patients. The aim of this article is to discuss the factors that define a high-risk patient and to present some of the issues pertinent to their management.

  18. Rapid onset of squamous cell carcinoma in a thin skin graft donor site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herard, C; Arnaud, D; Goga, D; Rousseau, P; Potier, B

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas are malignant tumours of epithelial origin that can appear on sites subjected to chronic inflammation after a period of several years. The rapid development of squamous cell carcinoma at the donor site for a thin skin graft is a rare and poorly understood situation. We report the case of a patient undergoing thin skin grafting to cover the area of removal of a vertex squamous cell carcinoma and in whom squamous cell carcinoma appeared at the donor site within 9 weeks. In our case, we ruled out intraoperative contamination because two sets of surgical instruments were used. Given the number of cases reported in the literature, a chance event seems unlikely. The hypothesis of an acute inflammatory process caused by scarring of the thin skin graft site appears to us the most convincing. Development of cancer at the graft donor site may thus be added to the list of complications of thin skin grafting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus vs. lichenoid lesions. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The development of squamous cell carcinoma from oral lichen planus is controversial. We report a case of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma, which presents together with lesions of oral lichen planus. The aim of this report was to analyze the problem to distinguish between the incipient changes of squamous cell carcinoma from the features described in oral lichen planus, in order to establish an accurate diagnosis of both entities. A 57-year old man with a history of smoking and chronic alcohol intake, who had an ulcerated tumor mass located in the tongue, and bilateral white reticular patches on buccal mucosa and borders of the tongue. The histopathological report was moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus respectively. The premalignant nature of OLP is still indeterminate and controversial, this is primarily due to inconsistency in the clinical and histological diagnostic criteria used to differentiate cases of oral lichen planus from lichenoid reactions or other lesions causing intraepithelial dysplasia with high potentially malignant transformation. Oral lichenoid reactions are possibly most likely to develop malignant transformation as compared to the classic OLP lesions.

  20. Ectopic Overexpression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh Induces Stromal Expansion and Metaplasia in the Adult Murine Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Fendrich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ligand-dependent activation of the Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway has been implicated in both tumor initiation and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Prior studies in genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs have assessed the role of Hh signaling by cell autonomous expression of a constitutively active Gli2 within epithelial cells. On the contrary, aberrant pathway reactivation in the human exocrine pancreas occurs principally as a consequence of Sonic Hh ligand (Shh overexpression from epithelial cells. To recapitulate the cognate pathophysiology of Hh signaling observed in the human pancreas, we examined GEMM where Hh ligand is conditionally overexpressed within the mature exocrine pancreas using a tamoxifen-inducible Elastase-Cre promoter (Ela-CreERT2;LSL-mShh. We also facilitated potential cell autonomous epithelial responsiveness to secreted Hh ligand by generating compound transgenic mice with concomitant expression of the Hh receptor Smoothened (Ela-CreERT2;LSL-mShh;LSL-mSmo. Of interest, none of these mice developed intraductal precursor lesions or PDAC during the follow-up period of up to 12 months after tamoxifen induction. Instead, all animals demonstrated marked expansion of stromal cells, consistent with the previously described epithelial-to-stromal paracrine Hh signaling. Hh responsiveness was mirrored by the expression of primary cilia within the expanded mesenchymal compartment and the absence within mature acinar cells. In the absence of cooperating mutations, Hh ligand overexpression in the mature exocrine pancreas is insufficient to induce neoplasia, even when epithelial cells coexpress the Smo receptor. This autochthonous model serves as a platform for studying epithelial stromal interactions in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  1. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh R Nayak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare genetic disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous and neurological manifestations. It occurs due to deficiency of the enzymes responsible for repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage. Persistence of un-repaired DNA results in somatic mutations, leading to neoplasia of the skin and ocular surface. As this condition is rare, only isolated case reports of XP with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN are found in literature.

  2. Expression of C4.4A, a structural uPAR homolog, reflects squamous epithelial differentiation in the adult mouse and during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Hald, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    by a comprehensive immunohistochemical mapping. This task was accomplished by staining paraffin-embedded tissues with a specific rabbit polyclonal anti-C4.4A antibody. In the adult mouse, C4.4A was predominantly expressed in the suprabasal layers of the squamous epithelia of the oral cavity, esophagus, non...... expression first appears in the developing squamous epithelium at embryonic day 13.5. This anatomical location of C4.4A is thus concordant with a possible functional role in early differentiation of stratified squamous epithelia....

  3. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from perineural invasion of a lip squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, L.M.; Smee, R.

    2006-01-01

    Perineural invasion resulting in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a rare, but well-recognized phenomenon in head and neck carcinomas. We report the rare case of a patient with a squamous cell carcinoma of the lip resulting in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis and review the relevant published work. A 51-year-old man presented with progressive facial paraesthesia after treatment for a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip. Cavernous sinus involvement was confirmed on MRI and he received stereotactic radiotherapy. He subsequently developed progressive lower limb neurological signs. An MRI showed multiple enhancing leptomeningeal nodules in the cervical and lumbar spine consistent with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Whole spine radiotherapy and dexametha-sone resulted in short-term stabilization of symptoms only and he rapidly succumbed to progressive neurological disease. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of a squamous cell carcinoma of the lip resulting in leptomeningeal disease of the cauda equina. It illustrates the potential aggressive natural history of squamous cell carcinomas with perineural invasion Copyright (2006) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  4. Treatment recommendations in patients diagnosed with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veness, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-melanoma cutaneous cancers occur at an epidemic rate in Australia. With an ageing population, more Australians will develop these cancers and at an increasing rate. In the majority of cases local treatment is highly curative. However, a subset of the population will be diagnosed with a high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. These can be defined as patients at risk of having subclinical metastases to regional lymph nodes based on unfavourable primary lesion features (including inadequately excised and recurrent lesions), patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to regional lymph nodes, and squamous cell carcinoma in immunosuppressed patients. The mortality and morbidity associated with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is usually as a consequence of uncontrolled metastatic nodal disease and, to a lesser extent, distant metastases. Radiotherapy has an essential role in treating these patients and in many cases the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy may be life saving. It is therefore important that all clinicians treating skin cancers have an understanding and awareness of the optimal approach to these patients. The aim of this article is to present treatment recommendations based on an overview of the current published literature. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. The role of immunosuppression in squamous cell carcinomas arising in seborrheic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conic, Ruzica Z; Napekoski, Karl; Schuetz, Heidi; Piliang, Melissa; Bergfeld, Wilma; Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha

    2017-06-01

    Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are common skin neoplasms considered to be benign. Reports of associated squamous cell carcinoma arising within seborrheic keratosis (SCC-SK) have been described. To describe the histopathologic characteristics of SCC-SK and identify predisposing factors in formation of these rare lesions. There were 162 cases of SCC-SK in a span of a decade (2003-2014). All of the histopathologic specimens and medical records were reviewed. Data from these patients were compared to a control group with seborrheic keratosis who were matched by age, sex, and location of lesion from the same time period (n = 162). SCC-SK has the classic histopathologic features of SK, such as hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, papillomatosis, and pseudohorn cysts. The areas of squamous cell carcinoma were characterized by areas of squamous dysplasia (100%), hypogranulosis (79.6%), squamous eddies (79.6%), solar elastosis (80.9%), and brown pigmentation (59.9%). Patients with a history of immunosuppression had an increased risk for developing SCC-SK (19% vs 3%; P < .01), particularly when inhibition was transplant-associated (10% vs 0%; P < .01). This was a single center, retrospective study. SCC-SK occurs more often in elderly men with a history of immunosuppression associated with organ transplants. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Local and Regional Spread of Primary Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shilpa J; Pruzan, Noelle L; Geske, Michael J; Jeng, Bennie H; Bloomer, Michele M; Vagefi, M Reza

    2016-04-06

    Two cases of biopsy-proven conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that developed local and regional spread are described. The cases involved a 65-year-old woman and a 79-year-old man who were initially treated at outside institutions for SCC of the conjunctiva. The patients did not have a history of immune compromise. The female patient presented with direct extension into the lacrimal gland but deferred recommended exenteration. Despite eventual exenteration, she developed metastasis to a neck node 6 months later, which was treated with radiotherapy. The male patient presented with local recurrence and a parotid node metastasis treated with exenteration, parotidectomy, selective neck dissection, and postoperative radiotherapy. Review of the outside pathology of both cases revealed positive tumor margins at the time of original resection. Local control of conjunctival SCC is of critical importance to reduce the risk of orbital extension and regional spread.

  7. Metastasis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Bilateral Thigh Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarah Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Laryngeal cancer infrequently results in distant metastases, but metastasis to skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. Observations. A 55-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and hoarseness was found to have Stage IVA T4aN2cM0 laryngeal cancer and eventually underwent total laryngectomy. Before the patient could be started on adjuvant chemoradiation, the patient developed masses on both thighs. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma consistent with the primary laryngeal cancer. He was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, he developed new soft tissue masses to the left of his stoma and in the prevertebral area one week later. He also had new cervical and supraclavicular nodes and a pathological compression fracture of L3. Patient died within 4 months of diagnosis. Conclusions. Distant metastasis such as skeletal metastasis portends a poor prognosis. Further studies are required to determine the best course of treatment in these patients.

  8. Carcinoma de células escamosas oral - contribuição de vírus oncogênicos e alguns marcadores moleculares no desenvolvimento e prognóstico da lesão: uma revisão Oral squamous cell carcinoma - contribution of oncogenic virus and some molecular markers in the development and prognosis of the lesion: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz da Rocha Miranda Venturi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma de células escamosas oral é um evento de muitas etapas, cuja incidência cresce continuamente, particularmente em jovens, numa amplitude que não pode ser completamente explicada pelo aumento da exposição a fatores de risco, como o tabaco e o álcool. Recentes investigações moleculares sugerem que existem múltiplos eventos genéticos, e vírus oncogênicos que são capazes de alterar as funções normais de oncogenes e genes de supressão tumoral. O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar o conhecimento atual sobre o papel do papilomavírus humano (HPV, Epstein-Barr vírus (EBV, P53 e telomerase no desenvolvimento e prognóstico do carcinoma de células escamosas oral.Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a multistep event that continues to increase in incidence, particularly in the young, and to an extent that cannot be fully explained by increased exposure to known risk factors, as tobacco or alcohol. Recent molecular investigations suggest that there are multiple genetic events, and oncogenic virus that are able to alter the normal functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The aim of the present article was to review the current knowledge on the role of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, P53 and telomerase in the development and prognosis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Salvage surgery for local failure of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Ken; Harada, Hiroyuki; Shimamoto, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    Local failure rates following treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity have been reported to be in the range of 25%-48%. This study investigated the pattern of failure for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and evaluated salvage surgery for local recurrent disease. The tumor files of 549 patients undergoing treatment for SCC of the oral cavity between 1980 and 2000 at Chiba Cancer Center Hospital were reviewed. Of 549 patients, 289 were initially treated with radiation therapy for their primary tumor, and 260 with surgery, either with or without radiation therapy. One hundred and sixty-one patients developed failures, yielding a failure rate of 29.3%. The site of recurrent tumor was local in 72 (13.1%) patients, regional in 89 (16.2%) patients, and distant in 5 (0.9%) patients. Local failure developed in 49 (17.0%) patients with radiation therapy and in 23 (8.8%) patients with surgery. Out of these 72 patients with local failure, 41 (56.9%) patients had salvage surgery for their disease. Twenty-five (73.5%) of the 34 patients initially treated with radiation therapy were salvaged with surgery, and 4 (57.1%) of the 7 patients initially treated with surgery were cured with further surgery. For the treatment of patients with local failure, the disease should be diagnosed more carefully than untreated disease. The disease that has recurred after radiation therapy may be more likely to be salvaged by surgery, however, the disease that has developed after surgery may have a limited indication for re-surgery. (author)

  10. Identification of unique expression signatures and therapeutic targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB, normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND, and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets. Results As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions These data reveal insight into genes and

  11. Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyun; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Yitian; Ye, Dongxia; Lei, Hu; Xu, Hanzhang; Yang, Li; Wu, Yingli; Gu, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Ubiquitin-specific protease 14, a deubiquitinating enzyme, has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of several cancers, but its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the expression pattern and roles of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 in the occurrence and development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 was overexpressed in oral cancer tissues and cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. b-AP15, a specific inhibitor of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14, significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, knockdown of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 by shRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of cancer cells in vitro. Finally, using a xenograft mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma, knockdown of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 markedly inhibited tumor growth and triggered the cancer cell apoptosis in vivo, supporting previous results. In conclusion, for the first time we have demonstrated the expression pattern of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and verified a relationship with tumor growth and metastasis. These results may highlight new therapeutic strategies for tumor treatment, application of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 selective inhibitor, such as b-AP15, or knockdown by shRNA. Collectively, Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 could be a potential therapeutic target for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Stomach: A Rare Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schmidt C, Schmid A, Lüttges JE, Kremer B, Henne-Bruns D. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of a case and review of literature. Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:1033-6. 5. Muto M, Hasebe T, Muro K, Boku N, Ohtsu A, Fujii T, et al. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: A case report with ...

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, Elvira R.; Hofstee, Mans; Liem, Mike S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Squamous cells are normally not found inside the breast, so a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceptional phenomenon. There is a possible explanation for these findings. Case presentation: A 72-year-old woman presented with a breast abnormality suspected for breast

  14. Significance of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, Christenze; Jørgensen, Trine G.; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    -smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblast that often represent the majority of tumor stromal cells. Their production of growth factors chemokines and extracellular matrix facilitates tumor growth. Myofibroblast have been demonstrated in close to 50% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. In this review, we...... highlight the histological distribution of myofibroblast in oral squamous cell and the myofibroblast relation to tumor growth on prognosis....

  15. Ursolic Acid Florotriazole Treatment Causes Inhibition of Squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    observed malignant tumor of mucosa lining of the oral cavity. In Korea squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 90 % of the detected malignant tumors of the oral cavity [1]. Despite advancement in the fields of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, the prognosis of oral squamous cell cancer patients remains ...

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma at UITH over an 11 – year period. Nineteen patients (11males and 8 females) had histological confirmation of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma out of 21 conjunctival specimens, representing 22.9% of all orbito-ocular tumours reviewed ...

  17. PMab-38 Recognizes Canine Podoplanin of Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Honma, Ryusuke; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Nakamura, Takuro; Saidoh, Noriko; Takagi, Michiaki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-10-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane protein, is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although we previously developed an anticanine podoplanin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that it did not react with canine lymphatic endothelial cells. Here, we determined whether PMab-38 recognizes canine podoplanin of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and clarified its epitope. In IHC, PMab-38 reacted with 83% of SCCs (15/18 cases). Flow cytometry showed that the epitope of PMab-38 was different from that of the platelet aggregation-stimulating domain of the N-terminus, which was detected by almost all antipodoplanin mAbs such as D2-40 or NZ-1. PMab-38 is expected to be useful for investigating the function of podoplanin in canine tumors.

  18. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for tumor antigen of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Torigoe, T.

    1977-01-01

    A heterologous antiserum for human cervical squamous cell carcinoma was prepared and specificity determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence studies. With this antiserum, a tumor antigen was purified from human cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The specificities of the antigen and the antiserum were then re-examined by a radioimmunoassay method using 125 I-labeled purified antigen. Although normal cervical tissue extract showed a moderate cross-reactivity in the radioimmunoassay, the circulating antigen activity could not be detected in normal women or in several patients with other carcinomas, whereas 27 of 35 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable serum antigen activity. All patients with advanced stages of cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable antigen levels. These results indicate that there is a quantitative abnormality, at least, of this tumor antigen in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and that the radioimmunoassay for the antigen is a potentially useful tool in clinical care

  20. Benign Lesions in Mucosa Adjacent to Intestinal-Type Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Vivanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to wood dust is a strong risk factor for the development of intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC; however, knowledge on possible precursor lesions or biomarkers is limited. Fifty-one samples of tumor-adjacent mucosa and 19 control samples of mucosa from the unaffected fossa of ITAC patients were evaluated for histological changes and p53 protein expression. Mild dysplasia was observed in 14%, cuboidal metaplasia in 57%, intestinal metaplasia in 8%, squamous metaplasia in 24%, and cylindrocellular hyperplasia in 53% of cases. P53 immunopositivity was generally weak occurring most frequently in squamous metaplasia. Wood dust etiology did not appear of influence on the histological changes, but p53 showed a tendency for higher positivity. Dysplasia adjacent to tumor was indicative of subsequent development of recurrence. In conclusion, precursor lesions do occur in mucosa adjacent to ITAC. This is clinically important, because it may justify the screening of high-risk individuals such as woodworkers.

  1. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, C; Achiam, M P; Federspiel, B

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic...... examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented...

  2. PATIENTS WITH SQUAMOUS-CELL VERSUS ADENO(SQUAMOUS) CARCINOMA OF THE CERVIX, WHAT FACTORS DETERMINE THE PROGNOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TINGA, DJ; BOUMA, J; AALDERS, JG

    1992-01-01

    Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix FIGO stages IB to IV (n = 306) were compared to patients with adeno(squamous) carcinoma (n = 70). There was no difference between the mean ages of the groups. In the patients who underwent radical surgical treatment, whether or not in combination

  3. The correlation between histological gastritis staging- 'OLGA/OLGIM' and serum pepsinogen test in assessment of gastric atrophy/intestinal metaplasia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoteng; Lu, Bin; Meng, Lina; Fan, Yihong; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Meng

    2017-08-01

    Serum pepsinogen (PG) test, as an indicator of gastric mucosal atrophy, reflects the functional and morphologic status of gastric mucosal and it is suggested to serve as a useful predictive marker for patients with gastric cancer (GC). The available classifications of gastritis, known as the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastritis Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM), integrating the severity and topography of atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM), have been gradually accepted and used in screening for GC in recent years. To assess whether serum pepsinogen test, including PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII and gastrin-17 (G-17) could reflect the extent and topography of gastric mucosal atrophy/IM. Furthermore, to discuss the relationship between OLGA/OLGIM staging system and serum pepsinogen test in assessment of gastric atrophy/IM. The OLGA/OLGIM ranks the gastric staging according to both the topography and the severity of gastric atrophy/IM. A retrospective study was conducted with 331 patients who underwent endoscopy with consecutive biopsy sampling and reassessed according to OLGA/OLGIM staging system. Serum pepsinogen test, including PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII and G-17, as well as serological Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibody were also measured. Results were presented as gastritis stage, serum pepsinogen level and Hp status. Baseline characteristics were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for continuous data and Pearson's χ 2 test for categorical data. A logistic regression model was used for the correlation analysis between OLGA/OLGIM and serological pepsinogen test. A total of 177 non-atrophic gastritis and 154 atrophic gastritis were analyzed, among which 40 were antrum atrophy, 32 were corpus atrophy and 82 were pan-atrophy. All patients were assessed applying the OLGA/OLGIM criteria with a mean age of 54.7 ± 10.8 years. Patients among OLGA/OLGIM Stage III-IV were presented with a lower level of serum PGI and PGI/PGII (p  15

  4. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: An update and implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Glen R; Kong, Cherng H; Warrier, Satish K; Lynch, Andrew C; Heriot, Alexander G; Ngan, Samuel Y

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide an update on the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging and management of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE was performed with the reference list of selected articles reviewed to ensure all relevant publications were captured. The search strategy was limited to the English language, spanning from 1946 to 2015. A qualitative analysis was undertaken examining patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, treatment and outcome. The quantitaive analysis was limited to data extracted on treatment and outcomes including radiological, clinical and pathological complete response where available. The narrative and quantitative review were synthesised in concert. RESULTS: The search identified 487 articles in total with 79 included in the qualitative review. The quantitative analysis involved 63 articles, consisting of 43 case reports and 20 case series with a total of 142 individual cases. The underlying pathogenesis of rectal SCC while unclear, continues to be defined, with increasing evidence of a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and a possible role for human papilloma virus in this progression. The presentation is similar to rectal adenocarcinoma, with a diagnosis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. Many presumed rectal SCC’s are in fact an extension of an anal SCC, and cytokeratin markers are a useful adjunct in this distinction. Staging is most accurately reflected by the tumour-node-metastasis classification for rectal adenocarcinoma. It involves examining locoregional disease by way of magnetic resonance imaging and/or endorectal ultrasound, with systemic spread excluded by way of computed tomography. Positron emission tomography is integral in the workup to exclude an external site of primary SCC with metastasis to the rectum. While the

  5. Spectrum of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.N.; Hussain, M.; Shah, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the pattern of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), clinical presentations, the risk factors and treatment options. The study included 36 eyes of 35 patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface neoplasia. The details of patients regarding age, gender, laterality and risk factors were entered into a specially-designed proforma. Each patient was also assessed biomicroscopically for type and complications of ocular surface neoplasia. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37 among admitted hospital patients. Among 36 cases of OSSN, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was the most common type of OSSN seen in 63.9%, followed by carcinoma in situ of conjunctiva in 25% and carcinoma in situ of cornea in 11.1%. Male patients outnumbered female (65.7% vs 34.3%) with 71.42% of patients above 60 years of age. The risk factors identified were: old age, ultraviolet B exposure and xeroderma pigmentosa. Treatment consisted of local resection with or without adjuvant therapy in 61.1%, exenteration in 30.5%, enucleation in 5.5% and chemo/radiotherapy in 2.7%. Intraocular invasion was seen in 5.5% and orbital spread in 30.5%. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37% among admitted patients. Identification of exact etiological factors will enable to formulate strategies that are likely to decrease the incidence of this disease and the associated morbidity and mortality. (author)

  6. Treatment of early glottic squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikimaru, Fumihide; Matsuo, Mioko; Higaki, Yuichiro; Tomita, Kichinobu

    2011-01-01

    We treat early glottic squamous cell carcinoma with chemoradiation and evaluate the effects of the chemoradiation at the dose of 30-40 Gy as an intermediate evaluation. To investigate the need for this intermediate evaluation, we retrospectively analyzed 97 patients, 92 men and 5 women aged 36 to 86 years, with glottic squamous cell carcinoma at stage I and II treated at our institution from January 2000 to May 2007. The three-year survival rate was 98% in all cases, 100% in T1a, 93% in T1b and 94% in T2. The three-year preservation rate of the larynx was 92% in all cases, 98% in T1a, 93% in T1b and 83% in T2. In the intermediate evaluation, complete response was 78% in T1a, 85% in T1b and 53% in T2. In cases of larynx preservation, the recurrence rate of the primary site was significantly higher in cases without complete response in the intermediate evaluation than in cases with complete response (p<0.05). It seemed that the not complete response case in the intermediate evaluation paid attention to a primary tumor recurrence in particular and needed careful follow-up. (author)

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue 18 years after renal transplantation:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyoti Poddar; Ashutosh Das Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing malignancies, even decades after transplant, due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. A 35-year-old male underwent renal transplant for end stage renal disease 18 years previously and was on immunosuppressive drugs since that time and was on regular follow up. In 2016, he developed a squamous cell carcinoma of tongue, which was operated and adjuvant radiation therapy was given. The patient is currently on follow up and asymptomatic. Though squamous cell carcinoma of tongue is a relatively common malignancy in the general population, it is very rare in transplant recipients. Hence, such patients require longer follow-up, active surveillance, and screening for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of premalignant and malignant conditions.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma of skin after 20 years of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Poddar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of developing malignancies due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. Squamous cell carcinoma of skin can occur in these patients even after decades of organ transplant. A 45-year-old male underwent renal transplant for end-stage renal disease 23 years ago and was on immunosuppressive drugs since then. The patient was on regular follow-up. Three years back, he developed squamous cell carcinoma of both forearms and hands, which was treated with radiation therapy using 8 MeV electrons, by parallel opposed fields to a dose of 60 Gy/30 fractions. Complete response to treatment was achieved at 3 months posttreatment. The patient is currently on follow-up and asymptomatic for skin lesions. Hence, these patients require longer follow-up, active surveillance, and screening for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the premalignant and malignant conditions.

  9. NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMMUNE THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH DISSEMINATED RECURRENT SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HEAD AND NECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mudunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed with recurrent tumor or distant metastases usually have the worst prognosis. Chemotherapeutic options are very limited in these patients; there is a probability of drug resistance development. The researchers continue to search more effective and less toxic drugs. In the current article, we analyze the results of the latest randomized clinical trials devoted the assessment of novel antitumor immunotherapeutic drugs – PD-1 inhibitors – in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This studies reveal new possibilities for the treatment of these patients.

  10. The p53 molecule and its prognostic role in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, K.; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hall, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    and poor patient outcome was found when looking only at patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Also, in oral premalignant lesions, expression of p53-positive cells in the suprabasal layers of the epithelium has been seen as an indication of impending malignant development. Concerning......Despite intense research, the 5-year survival rate for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is still low. Several different factors have been studied in the search for one or more factors that give important prognostic information at the time of diagnosis. Many recent...

  11. Carcinomatous Myelitis and Meningitis after a Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip

    OpenAIRE

    Pougnet, Isabelle; Murati, Anne; Sarran, Anthony; Viens, Patrice; Sabatier, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nervous central system metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are rare. We report an exceptional case of isolated leptomeningeal and spinal cord involvement few years after the diagnosis of invasive SCC of the lip. Case Report: A 33-year-old man with a history of infracentimetric carcinoma of the lip developed back pain associated with progressive neurological disorders leading to paraplegia. This atypical presentation led to initial misdiagnosis, but radiolog...

  12. Development of a New Outcome Prediction Model in Early-stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Based on Histopathologic Parameters With Multivariate Analysis: The Aditi-Nuzhat Lymph-node Prediction Score (ANLPS) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Aditi; Husain, Nuzhat; Bansal, Ankur; Neyaz, Azfar; Jaiswal, Ritika; Jain, Kavitha; Chaturvedi, Arun; Anand, Nidhi; Malhotra, Kiranpreet; Shukla, Saumya

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic parameters that predict lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to design a new assessment score on the basis of these parameters that could ultimately allow for changes in treatment decisions or aid clinicians in deciding whether there is a need for close follow-up or to perform early lymph node dissection. Histopathologic parameters of 336 cases of OSCC with stage cT1/T2 N0M0 disease were analyzed. The location of the tumor and the type of surgery used for the management of the tumor were recorded for all patients. The parameters, including T stage, grading of tumor, tumor budding, tumor thickness, depth of invasion, shape of tumor nest, lymphoid response at tumor-host interface and pattern of invasion, eosinophilic reaction, foreign-body giant cell reaction, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion, were examined. Ninety-two patients had metastasis in lymph nodes. On univariate and multivariate analysis, independent variables for predicting lymph node metastasis in descending order were depth of invasion (P=0.003), pattern of invasion (P=0.007), perineural invasion (P=0.014), grade (P=0.028), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.038), lymphoid response (P=0.037), and tumor budding (P=0.039). We designed a scoring system on the basis of these statistical results and tested it. Cases with scores ranging from 7 to 11, 12 to 16, and ≥17 points showed LN metastasis in 6.4%, 22.8%, and 77.1% of cases, respectively. The difference between these 3 groups in relation to nodal metastasis was very significant (P<0.0001). A patient at low risk for lymph node metastasis (score, 7 to 11) had a 5-year survival of 93%, moderate-risk patients (score, 12 to 16) had a 5-year survival of 67%, and high-risk patients (score, 17 to 21) had a 5-year survival of 39%. The risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC is influenced by many histologic parameters that are not routinely analyzed in

  13. Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Campbell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV. SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recurrent chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs, DNA mutations, and/or aberrant methylation of genes and microRNAs, which are correlated with the expression of multi-gene programs linked to squamous cell stemness, epithelial-to-mesenchymal differentiation, growth, genomic integrity, oxidative damage, death, and inflammation. Low-CNA SCCs tended to be HPV(+ and display hypermethylation with repression of TET1 demethylase and FANCF, previously linked to predisposition to SCC, or harbor mutations affecting CASP8, RAS-MAPK pathways, chromatin modifiers, and immunoregulatory molecules. We uncovered hypomethylation of the alternative promoter that drives expression of the ΔNp63 oncogene and embedded miR944. Co-expression of immune checkpoint, T-regulatory, and Myeloid suppressor cells signatures may explain reduced efficacy of immune therapy. These findings support possibilities for molecular classification and therapeutic approaches. : Campbell et al. reveal that squamous cell cancers from different tissue sites may be distinguished from other cancers and subclassified molecularly by recurrent alterations in chromosomes, DNA methylation, messenger and microRNA expression, or by mutations. These affect squamous cell pathways and programs that provide candidates for therapy. Keywords: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, bladder carcinoma with squamous differentiation, human papillomavirus

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone: four case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Sim, Young; Shim, Sue Yoen; Yoon, Byoung Moon

    2000-01-01

    We report the CT findings of four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, paying special attention to the epicenter of the lesion and the pattern of bony destruction. All four patients had a past history of chronic otitis media. Squamous cell carcinoma affected mainly the hypotympanum and inferior wall of the external auditory canal. and in all cases revealed an irregular pattern of bony destruction. Irregular destruction of the tegmen tympani occurred in two cases. In cases of squamous cell carcinoma, CT findings suggesting involvement of the promontory are usually noted. (author)

  15. The association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walvik, Lena; Svensson, Amanda Björk; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    carcinoma using the Bradford Hill criteria. The strength of the association is supported by, detection of human papillomavirus infection and antibodies prior to oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This is furthermore reinforced by the absence of human papillomavirus DNA in healthy tonsils...... incidence in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with sexual behaviour. These associations have been repeatedly observed and are in accordance with our current knowledge. The time relation between cause and effect remains the main challenge, due to the lack...... of well-defined premalignant lesions. However, a causal relationship between human papillomavirus infection and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma seems evident....

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone: four case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Sim, Young; Shim, Sue Yoen; Yoon, Byoung Moon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    We report the CT findings of four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, paying special attention to the epicenter of the lesion and the pattern of bony destruction. All four patients had a past history of chronic otitis media. Squamous cell carcinoma affected mainly the hypotympanum and inferior wall of the external auditory canal. and in all cases revealed an irregular pattern of bony destruction. Irregular destruction of the tegmen tympani occurred in two cases. In cases of squamous cell carcinoma, CT findings suggesting involvement of the promontory are usually noted. (author)

  17. Rare Case of Duodenal Metastasis From Pulmonary Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Memon DO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common non–small cell malignancy of the lung. It commonly metastasizes to the adrenal glands, bone, liver, brain, and kidneys. Most occurrences of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma involving the gastrointestinal tract originate from primary lung tumors. Metastasis to the duodenum, however, is exceedingly rare, with very few cases of stomach or duodenal involvement described in the literature. We report the case of a patient with stage IV pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the duodenum with an uncommon presentation to add to the paucity of literature available regarding this rare finding.

  18. Predisposing factors and histopathological variants of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: Experience from a North Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeti Khullar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Squamous and basal cell carcinomas together constitute the majority of non-melanoma skin cancers. These malignancies are infrequent in Indians as compared to the white skinned population. Literature on squamous cell carcinoma in dark skin is limited. Aim: To analyze the risk factors and to characterize the histopathological subtypes of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Indian patients in an area, non-endemic for arsenicosis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from January 2003 to August 2013 was performed to evaluate the predisposing factors and histopathological types of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh. Demographic and disease characteristics such as age, gender and predisposing factors, particularly premalignant dermatoses were recorded and histopathology slides were reviewed. Results: Of the 13,426 skin biopsy specimens received during the 10-year period, there were 82 (0.6% cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 170 (1.7% of basal cell carcinoma. The mean age at diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was 53.7 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. The most common site of involvement was the lower limbs in 34 (41.5% patients. Marjolin's ulcer was present in 36 (43.9% cases. No predisposing factor was identified in 35 (42.7% patients. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified most commonly as squamous cell carcinoma not otherwise specified in 33 (40.2% cases. Limitations: This was a retrospective study and details of occupation and interval between the precursor lesions and development of tumor were not recorded. Immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus and p53 tumor suppressor protein were not performed as these tests were not available. Conclusion: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is uncommon in Indian patients and a high index of suspicion is necessary when a rapidly enlarging nodule, verrucous fungating plaque

  19. Loss of heterozygosity at 9q33 and hypermethylation of the DBCCR1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, S.; Worm, J.; Guldberg, P.

    2004-01-01

    The DBCCR1 gene at chromosome 9q33 has been identified as a candidate tumour suppressor, which is frequently targeted by promoter hypermethylation in bladder cancer. Here, we studied the possible involvement of DBCCR1 in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. DNA from 34 tumours...

  20. Chronic ulceration of the leg following extensive scarring due to a snake bite complicated by squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, L.F.B.; Barcelos, M.G.; Nogueira Neto, N.C.; Meohas, W.; Pinto, L.W.; Melo, P.A.; Smith, J.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic ulcers of the leg are common in Brazil, perhaps more common than in the developed world. We report a case of a chronic ulcer of the leg following extensive scarring due to a bite by a venomous snake, which eventually led to a squamous cell carcinoma. (orig.)

  1. Investigating a case of possible field cancerization in oral squamous cell carcinoma by the use of next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Larsen, Martin J.; Larsen, Stine R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Local recurrence and the development of second primary tumors (SPT) are important factors that can influence the survival rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. We investigate the concept of field cancerization which proposes that normal tissue adjacent to the primary...

  2. Recent Advances in Targetable Therapeutics in Metastatic Non-Squamous NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranshu eBansal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. With the discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangements and effective targeted therapies, therapeutic options are expanding for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we review novel therapies in non-squamous NSCLC, which are directed against oncogenic targets, including EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, MET, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, RET and NTRK. With the rapidly evolving molecular testing and development of new targeted agents, our ability to further personalize therapy in non-squamous NSCLC is rapidly expanding.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  4. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, Cory J., E-mail: coryjneill@gmail.com

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this case study is to describe a dosimetric delivery of radiation to a superficial disease process involving the skin and bone of the distal finger. A 76-year-old male patient presented with a subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the left distal index finger with bony involvement. The patient refused conventional surgical treatment but agreed to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). There is a gap in the current literature describing how to successfully immobilize fingers and which EBRT modality is dosimetrically advantageous in treating them. The construction of a simple immobilization method with the patient in a reproducible position is described. The use of photons and electrons were compared ultimately showing photons to be dosimetrically advantageous. Long-term efficacy of the treatment was not evaluated because of patient noncompliance.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Copenhagen Univ. Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.)

  6. Primary invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pride, G.L.; Schultz, A.E.; Chuprevich, T.W.; Buchler, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-three cases of primary vaginal squamous cell cancer were treated at the University of Wisconsin Hospital between 1956 and 1971. These cases comprised of 1.2% of patients admitted to the University Hospital with female genital tract cancer. Evidence is presented to support a modification of the currently accepted FIGO staging system for vaginal carcinoma (Stage II disease). Radiation therapy using both external beam and brachyradium equivalents or interstitial implantation of suitable isotopes was an effective method for the treatment of patients having early and locally advanced invasive vaginal cancer. The 5-year absolute survival rate for the entire series was 37.2%. Absolute survival rate by modified FIGO clinical staging was 66% for Stages I and IIA, 31% for Stage IIB, 25% for Stage III, and 0% for Stage IV

  7. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Bin; Weng, Hong-Rui; Wang, Geng; Yang, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Ping; Li, Hua; Liu, Di-Tian; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the esophagus is a rare carcinoma with distinct characteristics. No standard treatment has been established. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of esophageal BSCC. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed from 26 patients with pathologically confirmed esophageal BSCC who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy between January 1995 and June 2010 at the Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College. Clinicopathologic data between BSCC patients and different histologic grades of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients were statistically compared by means of the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods were used to estimate and compare survival rates. Microscopically, BSCC was characterized by a nesting, lobular, or trabecular arrangement of small crowded cells with scant cytoplasm. None of the histologic specimens taken at preoperative esophagoscopy were diagnosed as BSCC. The median survival time (MST) of the 26 patients was 29.0 months (95% confidence interval, 9.0-49.0), and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 73.1, 42.7, and 36.6%, respectively. The MST for BSCC patients was significantly lower than that of well-differentiated SCC patients (P = 0.024), but there were no significant differences between the MST for BSCC patients and that of moderately or poorly differentiated SCC patients (P > 0.05). BSCC of the esophagus is a rare but distinctive disease and is prone to be misdiagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The prognosis is poorer than well-differentiated SCC, but similar to moderately or poorly differentiated SCC.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  9. Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma of Ferguson-Smith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Bygum, Anette; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma of Ferguson-Smith (MSSE) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease, almost exclusively reported in patients of Scottish origin, with recurrent, histologically malignant tumours that undergo spontaneous regression. We report clinical observations...

  10. An Uncommon Case of Noninvasive Ocular Surface Squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eye, which gradually increased in size [Figure 1]. ... eye and no history of any ocular surgery in the past. ... carcinoma in situ (CIS), and invasive squamous cell ... author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

  11. Genomic instability in human actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Luciana Sanches; Neto, Cyro Festa; Sanches, José A; Ruiz, Itamar R G

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the repetitive DNA patterns of human actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas to determine the genetic alterations that are associated with malignant transformation. INTRODUCTION: Cancer cells are prone to genomic instability, which is often due to DNA polymerase slippage during the replication of repetitive DNA and to mutations in the DNA repair genes. The progression of benign actinic keratoses to malignant squamous cell carcinomas has been proposed by several authors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight actinic keratoses and 24 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), which were pair-matched to adjacent skin tissues and/or leucocytes, were studied. The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomes 6 and 9 were investigated using nine PCR primer pairs. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA patterns were also evaluated using eight primers. RESULTS: MSI was detected in two (D6S251, D9S50) of the eight actinic keratosis patients. Among the 8 patients who had squamous cell carcinoma-I and provided informative results, a single patient exhibited two LOH (D6S251, D9S287) and two instances of MSI (D9S180, D9S280). Two LOH and one example of MSI (D6S251) were detected in three out of the 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma-II. Among the four patients with squamous cell carcinoma-III, one patient displayed three MSIs (D6S251, D6S252, and D9S180) and another patient exhibited an MSI (D9S280). The altered random amplified polymorphic DNA ranged from 70% actinic keratoses, 76% squamous cell carcinoma-I, and 90% squamous cell carcinoma-II, to 100% squamous cell carcinoma-III. DISCUSSION: The increased levels of alterations in the microsatellites, particularly in D6S251, and the random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints were statistically significant in squamous cell carcinomas, compared with actinic keratoses. CONCLUSION: The overall alterations that were observed in the repetitive DNA of actinic keratoses and

  12. Synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seo

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma occurring as a second primary associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unusual. This report presents a synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the anterior palate region of a 41-year-old man. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic features are described. At 10-month follow-up after operation, no evidence of recurrence ana metastasis was present

  13. Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua D. Campbell; Christina Yau; Reanne Bowlby; Yuexin Liu; Kevin Brennan; Huihui Fan; Alison M. Taylor; Chen Wang; Vonn Walter; Rehan Akbani; Lauren Averett Byers; Chad J. Creighton; Cristian Coarfa; Juliann Shih; Andrew D. Cherniack

    2018-01-01

    Summary: This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV). SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recurrent chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs), DNA mutations, and/or aberrant methylation of genes and microRNAs, which are correlated with the expression of multi-gene programs linked to squamous cell stemness, epithelial-to-mes...

  14. Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0260 TITLE: Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Carla Kim... Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0260 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common type of lung cancer, and immunotherapy is a promising new

  15. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S

    2017-08-01

    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK.

  17. JNK-associated scattered growth of YD-10B oral squamous carcinoma cells while maintaining the epithelial phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gayoung; Kim, Hyun-Man

    2017-01-01

    Cell scattering of epithelial carcinoma cancer cells is one of the critical event in tumorigenesis. Cells losing epithelial cohesion detach from aggregated epithelial cell masses and may migrate to fatal organs through metastasis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism by which squamous cell carcinoma cells grow scattered at the early phase of transformation while maintaining the epithelial phenotype. We studied YD-10B cells, which are established from human oral squamous cell carcinoma, because the cells grow scattered without the development of E-cadherin junctions (ECJs) under routine culture conditions despite the high expression of functional E-cadherin. The functionality of their E-cadherin was demonstrated in that YD-10B cells developed ECJs, transiently or persistently, when they were cultured on substrates coated with a low amount of fibronectin or to confluence. The phosphorylation of JNK was up-regulated in YD-10B cells compared with that in human normal oral keratinocyte cells or human squamous cell carcinoma cells, which grew aggregated along with well-organized ECJs. The suppression of JNK activity induced the aggregated growth of YD-10B cells concomitant with the development of ECJs. These results indicate for the first time that inherently up-regulated JNK activity induces the scattered growth of the oral squamous cell carcinoma cells through down-regulating the development of ECJ despite the expression of functional E-cadherin, a hallmark of the epithelial phenotype. - Highlights: • JNK dissociates YD-10B oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. • JNK suppresses the development of E-cadherin junctions of oral carcinoma cells. • Suppression of JNK activity reverses the scattered growth of oral carcinoma cells.

  18. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  19. Fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tiffany L; Agnew, Dalen; Rissi, Daniel R

    2018-04-01

    A fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation in the distal femur of a 9-y-old spayed female Greyhound dog is described. Grossly, the tumor consisted of a pale-white, firm-to-hard mass that replaced the medullary and cortical areas of the distal end of the right femur. Histologically, the mass was composed predominantly of spindle cells admixed with areas of mineralized and non-mineralized osteoid matrix that were surrounded by stellate osteoblasts and scattered multinucleate giant cells, consistent with the diagnosis of a fibroblastic osteosarcoma. In addition, well-demarcated clusters of neoplastic epithelioid cells and foci of squamous differentiation with keratin pearls were present throughout the neoplasm. The spindle cells, epithelioid cells, and areas of squamous differentiation expressed cytoplasmic immunostaining for osteocalcin and osteonectin. The spindle cells and epithelioid cells were also immunopositive for vimentin. Epithelioid cells also expressed occasional cytoplasmic immunostaining for pancytokeratin (PCK) Lu-5, and areas of squamous differentiation were immunoreactive for PCK Lu-5 and high molecular weight CK; these areas were inconsistently immunoreactive for CK 5-6 and immunonegative for low molecular weight CK. Foci of squamous differentiation were not located within blood or lymphatic vessels, given that no immunoreactivity for factor VIII-related antigen was observed around these areas. A thorough autopsy and an evaluation of the medical history excluded a primary carcinoma or other neoplasm elsewhere in the dog. The findings were consistent with a diagnosis of fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation.

  20. Malignant transformation of lichen planus hypertrophicus into squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket Bhagwat Bhole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic transformation of lichen planus (LP is reported, but it's a rare event. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC complicating cutaneous LP has an incidence of 0.4%. Average age at the time of diagnosis of SCC in patients of LP is 58 years with a range of 29–78 years. We report an extremely rare case of 17-year-old female patient who developed SCC from lichen planus hypertrophicus (LPH, a variant of LP. Patient presented with LPH over the anterior aspect of both legs since the age of 7 years which is again a pediatric rarity. SCC developed over an anteromedial aspect of left ankle after 10 years when she came to us. Both the diagnoses were histopathologically confirmed. The patient was treated with complete excision of tumor and defect was closed with rotation flap. This report emphasizes that the long-standing hypertrophic form of LP seems to have a considerable propensity for malignant transformation, even in the juvenile age group. Hence, careful vigilance of a longstanding LPH is necessary to allow early detection of a developing SCC.

  1. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Squamous Cell Carcinomas From Fanconi Anemia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeburg, Hester J. T.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Wu, Thijs; Gluckman, Eliane; Soulier, Jean; Surralles, Jordi; Castella, Maria; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Wennerberg, Johan; Califano, Joseph; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Ebell, Wolfram; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Joenje, Hans; Leemans, C. René

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a recessively inherited disease that is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and a predisposition to develop cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the head and neck and anogenital regions. Previous studies of Fanconi anemia SCCs, mainly from US patients, revealed the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in 21 (84%) of 25 tumors analyzed. We examined a panel of 21 SCCs mainly from European Fanconi anemia patients (n = 19 FA patients; 16 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas [HNSCCs], 2 esophageal SCCs, and 3 anogenital SCCs) for their clinical and molecular characteristics, including patterns of allelic loss, TP53 mutations, and the presence of HPV DNA by GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reaction. HPV DNA was detected in only two (10%) of 21 tumors (both anogenital SCCs) but in none of the 16 HNSCCs. Of the 18 tumors analyzed, 10 contained a TP53 mutation. The patterns of allelic loss were comparable to those generally found in sporadic SCCs. Our data show that HPV does not play a major role in squamous cell carcinogenesis in this cohort of Fanconi anemia patients and that the Fanconi anemia SCCs are genetically similar to sporadic SCCs despite having a different etiology. PMID:19001603

  2. SOX2 and p63 colocalize at genetic loci in squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ma, Qiuping; Peng, Shouyong; Adelmant, Guillaume; Swain, Danielle; Song, Wenyu; Fox, Cameron; Francis, Joshua M; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; DeLuca, David S; Brooks, Angela N; Wang, Su; Que, Jianwen; Rustgi, Anil K; Wong, Kwok-kin; Ligon, Keith L; Liu, X Shirley; Marto, Jarrod A; Meyerson, Matthew; Bass, Adam J

    2014-04-01

    The transcription factor SOX2 is an essential regulator of pluripotent stem cells and promotes development and maintenance of squamous epithelia. We previously reported that SOX2 is an oncogene and subject to highly recurrent genomic amplification in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here, we have further characterized the function of SOX2 in SCC. Using ChIP-seq analysis, we compared SOX2-regulated gene profiles in multiple SCC cell lines to ES cell profiles and determined that SOX2 binds to distinct genomic loci in SCCs. In SCCs, SOX2 preferentially interacts with the transcription factor p63, as opposed to the transcription factor OCT4, which is the preferred SOX2 binding partner in ES cells. SOX2 and p63 exhibited overlapping genomic occupancy at a large number of loci in SCCs; however, coordinate binding of SOX2 and p63 was absent in ES cells. We further demonstrated that SOX2 and p63 jointly regulate gene expression, including the oncogene ETV4, which was essential for SOX2-amplified SCC cell survival. Together, these findings demonstrate that the action of SOX2 in SCC differs substantially from its role in pluripotency. The identification of the SCC-associated interaction between SOX2 and p63 will enable deeper characterization the downstream targets of this interaction in SCC and normal squamous epithelial physiology.

  3. The Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Sadat; Monabati, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbasali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Carcinomas of esophagus, mostly squamous cell carcinomas, occur throughout the world. There are a number of suspected genetic or environmental etiologies. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is said to be a major etiology in areas with high incidence of esophageal carcinoma, while it is hardly detectable in low incidence regions. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HPV in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases diagnosed in Pathology Department, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: DNA material for PCR amplification of HPV genome was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 92 cases of ESCC, diagnosed during 20 years from 1982 to 2002. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for amplification and detection of common HPV and type specific HPV-16 and HPV-18 genomic sequences in the presence of positive control (HPV-18 and HPV positive biopsies of uterine exocervix) and additional internal controls i.e. beta-globin and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4). Result: Good amplification of positive control and internal controls was observed. However, no amplification of HPV genome was observed. Conclusion: There is no association between HPV infection and the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the cases evaluated. PMID:23115442

  4. A case of desmoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shogo; Suehiro, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kishimoto, Ippei; Imai, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumor, also known as aggressive fibromatosis, has aggressive behavior with local infiltration and tendency for recurrence. Though head and neck is reported to be one of the most common sites, a desmoid tumor in the larynx is extremely rare. A 67-year-old male visited our hospital with prolonged hoarseness and received laryngo-microsurgery with the diagnosis of laryngeal polyp. After the operation, he eventually developed a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with papilloma, confirmed by second laryngo-microsurgery and received radiation therapy. After the third laryngo-microsurgery to remove residual papilloma, white irregular mass appeared on the right vocal cord and grew rapidly beneath the glottis, causing dyspnea. After 2 additional laryngo-microsurgeries, he was diagnosed having the dermoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent near-total laryngectomy and is currently alive without disease, speaking using a vocal shunt. Only five cases of the desmoid tumors arising in the adult larynx have been reported in the English literature. In this case, repeated surgery and radiation were suspected as the causes. Also, the present report is the first to describe desmoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Sadat Noori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carcinomas of esophagus, mostly squamous cell carcinomas, occur throughout the world. There are a number of suspected genetic or environmental etiologies. Human papilloma virus (HPV is said to be a major etiology in areas with high incidence of esophageal carcinoma, while it is hardly detectable in low incidence regions. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HPV in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cases diagnosed in Pathology Department, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.Methods: DNA material for PCR amplification of HPV genome was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 92 cases of ESCC, diagnosed during 20 years from 1982 to 2002. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for amplification and detection of common HPV and type specific HPV-16 and HPV-18 genomic sequences in the presence of positive control (HPV-18 and HPV positive biopsies of uterine exocervix and additional internal controls i.e. beta-globin and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4.Result: Good amplification of positive control and internal controls was observed. However, no amplification of HPV genome was observed.Conclusion: There is no association between HPV infection and the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the cases evaluated.

  6. Chemoprevention of Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma With a Single Course of Fluorouracil, 5%, Cream: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Martin A; Thwin, Soe Soe; Siegel, Julia A; Marcolivio, Kimberly; Means, Alexander D; Leader, Nicholas F; Shaw, Fiona M; Hogan, Daniel; Eilers, David; Swetter, Susan M; Chen, Suephy C; Jacob, Sharon E; Warshaw, Erin M; Stricklin, George P; Dellavalle, Robert P; Sidhu-Malik, Navjeet; Konnikov, Nellie; Werth, Victoria P; Keri, Jonette E; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Ringer, Robert J; Lew, Robert A; Ferguson, Ryan; DiGiovanna, John J; Huang, Grant D

    2018-02-01

    Keratinocyte carcinoma (ie, cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinoma) is the most common cancer in the United States. To determine whether topical fluorouracil could prevent surgically treated keratinocyte carcinoma. The Veterans Affairs Keratinocyte Carcinoma Chemoprevention Trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topical fluorouracil for chemoprevention of keratinocyte carcinoma. Participants were recruited from May 2009 to September 2011 from 12 Veterans Affairs medical centers and followed until June 30, 2013. Participants were veterans (n = 932) with a history of at least 2 keratinocyte carcinomas in the past 5 years; almost all were white males and the median age was 70 years. Application of fluorouracil, 5%, (n = 468) or vehicle control cream (n = 464) to the face and ears twice daily for 2 to 4 weeks upon randomization. Surgically treated keratinocyte, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma risk on the face and ears in the first year after enrollment; and time to first surgically treated keratinocyte, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma. The a priori hypothesis was that fluorouracil would be effective in preventing these cancers. Of 932 participants (916 men [98%]; 926 white [99%]; median age, 70 years), 299 developed a basal cell carcinoma end point (95 in year 1) and 108 developed a squamous cell carcinoma end point (25 in year 1) over 4 years (median follow-up, 2.8 years). Over the entire study, there was no difference between treatment groups in time to first keratinocyte, basal cell, or squamous cell carcinoma. During the first year, however, 5 participants (1%) in the fluorouracil group developed a squamous cell carcinoma vs 20 (4%) in the control group, a 75% (95% CI, 35%-91%) risk reduction (P = .002). The 11% reduction in basal cell carcinoma risk during year 1 (45 [10%] in the fluorouracil group vs 50 [11%] in the control group) was not statistically significant (95% CI, 39% reduction to 31

  7. Seven cases of radiation-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Osamu; Suenaga, Yoshinori

    2000-01-01

    We report 7 cases of radiation-induced skin cancer. The diagnosis was based on the history of radiotherapy for benign skin diseases (5 cases) and of occupational exposures to medical doctors (2 cases). All cases were squamous cell carcinomas which arose from chronic radiodermatitis. The estimated latent period of these tumors ranged from 6 to 64 years, with an average of 29.9 years. After surgical treatments of the lesions, no local recurrences were observed in all cases. Benign skin diseases had sometimes been treated with low-energy radiation before the 1960s. Considering the estimated latent period, the peak time point of developing risk of radiation-induced skin cancer by such treatment has been already passed, however, the danger of it should not be ignored in future. In association with multiplicity of radiation usage, occupational exposure of radiation may develop the risk of occurrence of skin cancer in future. Therefore, we should recognize that radiation-induced skin cancer is not in the past. In the cases of chronic skin diseases showing warty keratotic growth, erosion and ulcer, we should include chronic radio-dermatitis in the differential diagnosis. It is necessary to recall all patients about the history of radiotherapy or radiation exposure. Rapid histopathological examination is mandatory because of the suspicion of radiation-induced skin cancer. (author)

  8. Seven cases of radiation-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Osamu; Suenaga, Yoshinori [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    We report 7 cases of radiation-induced skin cancer. The diagnosis was based on the history of radiotherapy for benign skin diseases (5 cases) and of occupational exposures to medical doctors (2 cases). All cases were squamous cell carcinomas which arose from chronic radiodermatitis. The estimated latent period of these tumors ranged from 6 to 64 years, with an average of 29.9 years. After surgical treatments of the lesions, no local recurrences were observed in all cases. Benign skin diseases had sometimes been treated with low-energy radiation before the 1960s. Considering the estimated latent period, the peak time point of developing risk of radiation-induced skin cancer by such treatment has been already passed, however, the danger of it should not be ignored in future. In association with multiplicity of radiation usage, occupational exposure of radiation may develop the risk of occurrence of skin cancer in future. Therefore, we should recognize that radiation-induced skin cancer is not in the past. In the cases of chronic skin diseases showing warty keratotic growth, erosion and ulcer, we should include chronic radio-dermatitis in the differential diagnosis. It is necessary to recall all patients about the history of radiotherapy or radiation exposure. Rapid histopathological examination is mandatory because of the suspicion of radiation-induced skin cancer. (author)

  9. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kanupriya; Metgud, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined. PMID:24455418

  10. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanupriya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined.

  11. Mice deleted for cell division cycle 73 gene develop parathyroid and uterine tumours: model for the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, G V; Stevenson, M; Lines, K E; Newey, P J; Reed, A A C; Bowl, M R; Jeyabalan, J; Harding, B; Bradley, K J; Manek, S; Chen, J; Wang, P; Williams, B O; Teh, B T; Thakker, R V

    2017-07-13

    The hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, often atypical adenomas and carcinomas, ossifying jaw fibromas, renal tumours and uterine benign and malignant neoplasms. HPT-JT is caused by mutations of the cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) gene, located on chromosome 1q31.2 and encodes a 531 amino acid protein, parafibromin. To facilitate in vivo studies of Cdc73 in tumourigenesis we generated conventional (Cdc73 +/- ) and conditional parathyroid-specific (Cdc73 +/L /PTH-Cre and Cdc73 L/L /PTH-Cre) mouse models. Mice were aged to 18-21 months and studied for survival, tumour development and proliferation, and serum biochemistry, and compared to age-matched wild-type (Cdc73 +/+ and Cdc73 +/+ /PTH-Cre) littermates. Survival of Cdc73 +/- mice, when compared to Cdc73 +/+ mice was reduced (Cdc73 +/- =80%; Cdc73 +/+ =90% at 18 months of age, Pfourfold higher than that in parathyroid glands of wild-type littermates (P<0.0001). Cdc73 +/- , Cdc73 +/L /PTH-Cre and Cdc73 L/L /PTH-Cre mice had higher mean serum calcium concentrations than wild-type littermates, and Cdc73 +/- mice also had increased mean serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. Parathyroid tumour development, and elevations in serum calcium and PTH, were similar in males and females. Cdc73 +/- mice did not develop bone or renal tumours but female Cdc73 +/- mice, at 18 months of age, had uterine neoplasms comprising squamous metaplasia, adenofibroma and adenomyoma. Uterine neoplasms, myometria and jaw bones of Cdc73 +/- mice had increased proliferation rates that were 2-fold higher than in Cdc73 +/+ mice (P<0.05). Thus, our studies, which have established mouse models for parathyroid tumours and uterine neoplasms that develop in the HPT-JT syndrome, provide in vivo models for future studies of these tumours.

  12. Detection of human papilloma virus (HPV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A polymerized chain reaction (PCR study

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    Suresh Dirasantchu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV have been shown to be etiologically related to the development of uterine, cervical, and other genital cancers, but their role in the development of malignancies at other sites is less well established. Previous studies have shown HPV in tumors of the head and neck, but its prevalence has varied depending on the detection methods and the types of tumor and/or tissue examined. This study was undertaken for the detection of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients histologically diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 10 apparently normal persons as controls were selected for the present study. Two biopsy specimens were removed surgically by incision biopsy for histopathological examination and polymerized chain reaction (PCR study. Results: Out of 25 oral squamous cell carcinoma subjects, 8 were found to be HPV positive in PCR. Out of these eight subjects, four had HPV 16 and the other four had other genotypes, and one subject was HIV positive. Conclusion: The conclusion drawn from the present study was that well-defined risk factors like HPV may play a prominent role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinomas, in addition to other risk factors. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary to arrive at conclusions and to explore the relationship of HPV and HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Cortactin is a prognostic marker for oral squamous cell carcinoma and its overexpression is involved in oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lee, Miau-Rong; Yeh, Chung-Min; Tseng, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-03-01

    EMS1 (chromosome eleven, band q13, mammary tumor and squamous cell carcinoma-associated gene 1) gene amplification and the concomitant cortactin overexpression have been reported to associate with poor prognosis and tumor metastasis. In this study, we examined cortactin expression by immunohistochemistry in human oral tumors and murine tongue tumors which were induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). The immunostaining results show over- to moderate expression of cortactin in 85% (104/122) of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and in all 15 leukoplakia tissues examined. Further, statistical analysis indicates that cortactin overexpression appears to be a predictor for shorter survival and poorer prognosis in OSCC patients. In an animal model, cortactin is shown to upregulate in infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, and epithelia with squamous hyperplasia, indicating that cortactin induction is an early event during oral carcinogenesis. It is suggested that cortactin expression is mediated in the progression of pre-malignancy to papilloma, based on earlier cortactin induction in pre-malignancy preceding cyclin D1 in papilloma. In conclusion, cortactin overexpression is frequently observed in human OSCC and mouse tongue tumors. Thus, cortactin may have an important role in the development of oral tumors in human and mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 799-812, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tim-3-expressing macrophages are functionally suppressed and expanded in oral squamous cell carcinoma due to virus-induced Gal-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianfeng; Cheng, Lijun; Zhao, Minchao; Pan, Xiangfeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dawei

    2017-05-01

    Oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumor in the oral cavity. High-risk human papillomavirus 16 infection is a major cause of oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma development. Strong antitumor immune responses, especially CD8 + T cell responses, are thought to be essential to effective cancer treatment and are associated with better prognosis in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we examined the role of the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We found that Gal-9 expression by CD4 + T cells was increased in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, but not in human papillomavirus-negative oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Increased Gal-9 secretion by CD4 + T cells presented multiple immunosuppressive effects. Coculturing monocytes with high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells resulted in the expansion of Tim-3 + monocytes, which suppressed interferon gamma production by activated CD8 + T cells. Subsequently, total monocytes incubated with exogenous Gal-9, or high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells, suppressed the expression of interferon gamma by CD8 + T cells. Exogenous Gal-9 and high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells also suppressed the secretion of both interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 by monocytes. These effects are Tim-3/Gal-9-dependent because blocking Tim-3 and/or Gal-9 could enhance the support of CD8 + T cell interferon gamma production and the interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 secretion by monocytes. Together, these data suggest that the high Tim-3 expression in monocytes could be utilized by tumor-promoting Gal-9 expression on CD4 + T cells. Immunotherapy in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients therefore faces an additional challenge posed by Tim-3 and Gal-9 and likely requires the blockade of these

  15. Splenic irradiation in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of daily and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.

    1986-01-01

    Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic irradiation at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with 60 Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as daily treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic irradiation and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study

  16. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and preneoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2014-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (Pgastritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alteration in Methylation Pattern of Retinoblastoma 1 Gene Promotor Region in Intestinal Metaplasia with or without Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Seda Orenay; Kasap, Elmas; Yuceyar, Hakan; Korkmaz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and gene methylation play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the association among H. pylori infection, IM, gastric cancer (GC), and gene methylation is not fully understood. Cell cycle control involving retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) gene is one of the main regulatory pathways reported to be altered in gastric carcinogenesis. The purpose of this research is to assess the methylation status of RB1 gene in GC and IM with or without H. pylori infection, and to discuss the possible role of H. pylori-induced RB1 gene methylation in the mechanism of gastric carcinogenesis. The methylation profile of RB1 gene was analyzed by sodium bisulfite modification and methylation-specific PCR in GC (n = 24), IM patients with H. pylori positive (n = 20) and negative (n = 20), and control subjects (n = 20). According to methylation levels in RB1 gene; the high correlation values were detected between H. pylori positive-IM group and GC group, and between H. pylori positive-IM and H. pylori negative-IM groups (p gene. High methylation levels in RB1 gene in H. pylori positive individuals may suggest an elevated risk of gastric cancer occurrence.

  18. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of both. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed or recurrent metastatic squamous neck cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  19. [Epidemiology and risk factors of the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumiło, Justyna

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy in the world. In most countries, including Poland, the squamous cell carcinoma is a predominant histological type. It is characterized by extreme diversity in geographical distribution and incidence. High incidence is noted in regions located along with so-called "Asian esophageal cancer belt" beginning from eastern Turkey through Caspian littoral countries, northern Afghanistan to Central and Eastern Asia, as well as in Japan, South Africa and some South American countries. In Western Europe the highest incidence is observed in France, Portugal and northern Italy. Poland belongs to low-incidence countries with the age-standardized annual incidence exceeding 4.5 and 0.7/100,000, for men and women respectively. Etiology of the cancer is multi-factorial. In western countries the most important risk factors are tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, and to a lesser extent, an inappropriate diet. In other countries, a diet lacking of fresh vegetables and fruits with vitamin and mineral deficiency and high level of sodium chloride, carbohydrates and animal fats is a predominant factor. Furthermore, preserving and processing food which facilitates accumulation of carcinogens, special dietary habits and viral infections are also attributed to the development of cancer. More recently, the significance of genetically determined increased susceptibility of some individuals versus environmental factors has been stressed. Previous studies proved the relationship between cancer susceptibility and polymorphisms in genes encoding some important molecules engaged in carcinogens metabolism or DNA repair.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma in association with a red tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Inge; Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias; Ernert, Carsten; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Although tattoos have become exceedingly popular in recent years, only few cases of severe reactions leading to malignant transformation have been reported in the literature. This stands in contrast to the virtually innumerable number of tattoos worldwide. The composition of tattoo dyes is highly variable, and even the same colors may contain different compounds. The objective of our study was to investigate in what way tattoo dyes may potentially trigger skin cancer. We report the rare case of a 24-year-old woman who - seven months after getting a tattoo on the back of her foot - developed a squamous cell carcinoma in close proximity to the red dye used. Complications started in the form of nonspecific swelling. The lesion was histologically examined. The composition of the incorporated dye was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive element analysis. Thermogravimetry and powder diffraction were used for further characterization. While the tattoo dye primarily consisted of barium sulfate, traces of Al, S, Ti, P, Mg, and Cl were also detected. The analysis showed pigment granules of varying sizes. In rare cases, tattoo inks may have carcinogenic effects, which appear to be multifactorial. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Genetic alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

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    Nagai M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic alterations observed in head and neck cancer are mainly due to oncogene activation (gain of function mutations and tumor suppressor gene inactivation (loss of function mutations, leading to deregulation of cell proliferation and death. These genetic alterations include gene amplification and overexpression of oncogenes such as myc, erbB-2, EGFR and cyclinD1 and mutations, deletions and hypermethylation leading to p16 and TP53 tumor suppressor gene inactivation. In addition, loss of heterozygosity in several chromosomal regions is frequently observed, suggesting that other tumor suppressor genes not yet identified could be involved in the tumorigenic process of head and neck cancers. The exact temporal sequence of the genetic alterations during head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC development and progression has not yet been defined and their diagnostic or prognostic significance is controversial. Advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of head and neck cancer should help in the identification of new markers that could be used for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the disease.

  2. Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Pierre; Tao, Yungan; Veresezan, Ovidiu; Lusinchi, Antoine; Le Ridant, Anne-Marie; Janot, François; Daly-Schveitzer, Nicolas; Bourhis, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report the long-term results after definitive radiotherapy (RT) for pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Material and methods: The data concerning all patients treated for pyriform sinus SCC with RT with a curative intent between 1990 and 2006 were reviewed. Results: A total of 249 patients were included. The median follow-up is 6.5 years. Overall 123 patients had relapsed. For the entire population, the 5-year local control, regional control, freedom-from-distant metastasis, and overall survival rate were 68%, 69%, 78% and 38%, respectively. The 5-year local control rate for the 107 T1–T2 tumors was 85% (95% confidence interval (CI): 75–91). N stage was the main risk factor for the development of distant metastases, with a hazard ratio of 8.9 (95% CI: 2.1–39) and 15.6 (95% CI: 3.6–67.8) for N2 and N3 patients respectively. For patients with N2–N3 disease, pre-RT neck dissection improved regional control but not overall survival. Moderate to severe late complications occurred in 50 patients (28% of the patients without local relapse). Conclusion: A high local control rate can be achieved when treating T1–T2 hypopharynx cancers with definitive radiotherapy. The high rate of nodal and distant relapses among patients with N2–N3 disease warrants intensification of therapy.

  3. Suspected Pulmonary Metastasis of Actinic Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monet E. Meter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is rare for actinic or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in situ to metastasize. Case Presentation. A 67-year-old male had a significant medical history including severe psoriatic arthritis treated with UVB, methotrexate, and rapamycin. He had twenty-five different skin excisions of actinic keratosis four of which were invasive SCC. Our patient developed shortness of breath necessitating a visit to the emergency department. A CT scan of his chest revealed a mass in the right lower lung. A subsequent biopsy of the mass revealed well-differentiated SCC. He underwent thoracoscopic surgery with wedge resection of the lung lesion. Discussion. Actinic keratosis (AK is considered precancerous and associated with UV exposure. It exists as a continuum of progression with low potential for malignancy. The majority of invasive SCCs are associated with malignant progression of AK, but only 5–10% of AKs will progress to malignant potential. Conclusion. In this case, a new finding of lung SCC in the setting of multiple invasive actinic cutaneous SCC associated with a history of extensive UV light exposure and immunosuppression supports a metastatic explanation for lung cancer.

  4. Photodynamic therapy in early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea; Massetti, Renato; Meroni, Emmanuele

    1995-03-01

    From 1/1985 to 7/1993, 18 patients underwent endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) for early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma -- as two patients had two synchronous esophageal cancers, 20 lesions were treated. Tumors were staged as Tis in 7 cases and T1 in 13. The average light energy delivered was 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. To obtain a more uniform distribution of laser light in 12 cases the irradiation was performed through the wall of a transparent tube previously placed over the endoscope and advanced into the stomach. The overall results show a complete response in 14/20 (70%) tumors. Three patients developed a local recurrence, 6, 12, and 14 months after therapy. After a follow-up of 5 to 75 months, there was no evidence of disease in 10/18 patients (56%). The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 79%, and 26% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications were skin reaction in one patient and esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage, in 2 patients. Endoscopic PDT proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of superficial carcinoma of the esophagus.

  5. Human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, A; Cincik, H; Baloglu, H; Cekin, E; Dogru, S; Dursun, E

    2007-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and type of human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We analysed the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in archived paraffin block specimens taken from 99 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2005, using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Biopsy specimens from five proven verrucous skin lesions were used as positive controls, and peripheral blood samples from five healthy volunteers were used as negative controls. Four test samples were found to have inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity and were therefore excluded from the study. Human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in seven of 95 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (7.36 per cent). Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus infection in three cases and single human papilloma virus infection in the remaining four cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were 6, 11 and 16 (the latter detected in only one case). In our series, a very low human papilloma virus prevalence was found among laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were mostly 6 and/or 11, and 16 in only one case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, based on polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a Turkish population.

  6. A case of squamous cell carchinoma, basal cell epithelioma and Bowen's disease arising from chronic radiodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Hironori; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Shinkai, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of multiple cancers developing in chronic radiodermatitis. A 43-year-old Japanese male presented with chronic radiodermatitis on both dorsal surfaces of his fingers, following a long-term irradiation by Grenz rays for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. At the same site, he developed squamous cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease 7 years after the last irradiation. Three years later, he noticed a black papule on the dorsal surface of his right middle finger. After a histological examination, this papule diagnosed to be basal cell epithelioma. (author)

  7. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biological analyses confirming the presence of sexually transmitted infections, pathomorphological characteristics of tissue samples from leukoplakia foci typical for different types of infectious agents. In this study, 60 women with chronic cystitis, complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections were examined. Using PCR diagnostics, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia albicans were found to be the most frequently occurring agents, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. The results of culture analyses demonstrated that M. hominis and U. urealyticum were prevalent in patients with chronic urinary tract inflammatory processes, followed by Tr. vaginalis. Candida fungi show practically the same frequency of occurrence. The pathomorphological examination of the foci of leukoplakia in the urinary bladder (in 30 subjects demonstrated metaplasia of the transitional epithelium to the stratified pavement squamous epithelium with inflammatory cellular infiltration of the lamina propria in all types of infections. The intensity of the urothelial transformation and stromal inflammatory processes were determined by the type of predominant infection. Pathomorphological characteristics of the foci of leukoplakia correlate with the etiology of chronic inflammation and are relevant for etiological diagnosis and treatment.

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  19. Squamous cell dysplasia in the proximal rectum of three patients treated for ulcerative colitis on immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, James G; Goldstone, Stephen E

    2017-05-01

    Anal canal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is the precursor to anal cancer. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk and disease is usually within 3 cm from the anal verge. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with an 8-cm anoscope is used to identify and guide cautery treatment of HSIL. We report three patients with a long-term history of ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with systemic immunomodulators who developed proximally located rectal HSIL. Two patients were HIV-negative women, 63 and 48 years old, and the third was a 51-year-old HIV-positive man with underlying UC for 10, 16, and 3 years, respectively. They each presented with a HPV-positive HSIL visibly extending above the limits of the anoscope used for HRA. None developed cancer. All had episodes of active UC. It is unclear what causative role systemic immunomodulators play in predisposing UC patients to proximal HSIL. HSIL probably developed on a tongue of HPV-infected squamous epithelium growing proximally over the inflamed rectum. Islands developed when areas of squamous epithelium degenerated, creating skip areas. This study highlights the potential for HSIL to extend into the rectum either as a contiguous patch or isolated islands and the need for heightened surveillance in patients with extensive anal canal HSIL treated with immunodulator therapy. HSIL identified at the limit of the anoscope should be investigated further with colonoscopy, and argon plasma coagulation (APC) ablation can serve as an effective treatment option. Patients are at risk for stricture, but it is unclear what role the UC or the ablation played in stricture formation.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating an hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mseddi, M.; Turki, H.; Marrekchi, S.; Abdelmaksoud, W.; Masmoudi, A.; Bouassida, S.; Zahaf, A.

    2004-01-01

    The dystrophic form of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa is associated with an increased frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. We report a new case. An 18-year-old patient, carrying a Hallopeau Siemens hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa, presented a subcutaneous nodular lesion, for 1 year that ulcerated and budded with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The histological study ted to the conclusion of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated surgically. Tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were excised. A radiotherapy was decided but the postoperative course was fatal due to an infection and to a deterioration of her general condition. Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs on the cicatricial lesion of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa and usually affects males with recessive hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa. Metastases are frequent, precocious and multiple. The treatment may be surgical. The particularities of our observation are the young age of patient and the localization. (author)

  1. Squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramberg, Ingvild; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the epidemiology of squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Denmark. Methods Review of the histopathological case reports at the Eye Pathology Institute (EPI), University of Copenhagen, and the National Danish Pathology Bank from 1980 to 2011. Information......%) had epithelial dysplasia, 19 (13%) had carcinoma in situ, and 29 (20%) had squamous cell carcinoma. A significantly higher proportion of men were found. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years. The risk of recurrence was 10.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0–15.0] after 1 year and 17.2% (95% CI......: 10.8–23.7) after 5 years. The lesions were most often localized to the corneal limbus. In our records, one patient had a lymph node metastasis and the disease necessitated enucleation in two patients. No patients had died from squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Conclusion Overall, our data...

  2. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hilar Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippei Yamana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the hilar bile duct. A 66-year-old Japanese male patient was admitted to our hospital because of appetite loss and jaundice. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an enhanced mass measuring 10 × 30 mm in the hilar bile duct region. After undergoing biliary drainage, the patient underwent extended right hepatic lobectomy with regional lymph nodes dissection. The tumor had invaded the right portal vein. Therefore, we also performed resection and reconstruction of the portal vein. Histopathologically, the carcinoma cells exhibited a solid structure with differentiation to squamous cell carcinoma with keratinization and intercellular bridges. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells revealed positive cytokeratin staining and negative CAM 5.2 staining. Based on these findings, a definitive diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the hilar bile duct was made.

  4. [Glandular squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M V; Pushkar', D Iu; Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Rasner, P I

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives a clinical observation of a 52 year-old male with a rare histological urinary bladder tumor primary grandular-squamous-cell carcinoma (pT3N IM0). The tumor is represented by two components large acinic-cell adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma with keratinization, which smoothly pass one into another; the tumor has grown through all layers of the urinary bladder wall but it has failed to grow into the peritoneum. A microscopic study has indicated that the urachus is intact. Metastases were found in 3 of 8 lymph nodes: one showed high-grade adenocarcinoma and two others displayed average-grade squamous-cell carcinoma.

  5. SPECT/CT in gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, R.; Hadzhiyska, V.; Petrov, T.

    2015-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma have a relatively poor prognosis and large differential diagnosis (periodontitis, osteomyelitis, etc.), therefore, it is usually diagnosed at a late stage. Hematogenous dissemination occurs in only about 10% of cases, including lung (66%), bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, bone marrow and mediastinum. Bone metastases are very rare compared to other malignancies, most commonly affect the axial skeleton (spine, pelvis, ribs and lumbar spine). In our case, we presented a patient with gingival squamous cell carcinoma and bone metastasis in the forearm detected with Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy (WBS), combined with Single Photon Emission Tomography /Computed Tomography (SPECT /CT). The obtained data suggest that the single use of WBS was not informative enough for making the final diagnosis, but the result of combined functional-morphological approach was the most pathognomonic. Thus, with single study can be obtained a complex information, which leads to a fast therapeutic decision. Key words: SPECT/CT. GINGiVAL. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

  6. Radiation therapy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, R.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Sauer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The records of 52 patients with inoperable but localized squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus were reviewed to determine the influence of different treatment modalities on survival, dysphagia and sites of recurrence. 22 patients were treated by concurrent radio-chemotherapy with cis-platin/5-FU or carboplatin/5-FU; 19 patients by radiotherapy alone; six patients by chemotherapy followed by irradiation and five patients by concurrent radio-chemotherapy with various drugs. External beam radiotherapy consisted of treating the primary lesion (mean dose 53 Gy) and the lymphatic areas (mean dose 31±26 Gy) at the rate of 2 Gy/day for five days/week. Additional intraluminal high-dose-rate radiotherapy was performed in 13 patients with single fractions of 6 Gy as a boost. Minimum follow-up was twelve months, median follow-up 4.3 years. For the whole population a remission rate of 65% (34/52 patients) was achieved (complete remission 18/52 patients=35%; partial remission 16/52 patients=31%). Relief of dysphagia accompanied tumor regression. Median survival was eleven months; three-year survival rate 23%; five-year survival rate 7.6%. The analysis of recurrence revealed a high rate of local failures (26/52 patients=50%) and distant metastases (9/52 patients=18%). Comparing the different modalities the best results were achieved by concurrent radio-chemotherapy with cis-platin/5-FU or carboplatin/5-FU: Complete remission could be determined in 46% and median survival was 14.9 months. Additional intracavitary radiotherapy resulted in a slightly better local control rate (54% vs. 46%) and three-year-survival rate (30% vs. 20%) compared to external beam irradiation alone. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  8. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, Gary D.; Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC

  9. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  10. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarra Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o’clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area.

  11. Impact of UVR Exposure Pattern on Squamous Cell Carcinoma-A Dose-Delivery and Dose-Response Study in Pigmented Hairless Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Philipsen, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative lifetime ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important factor in the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This study examines the impact of UVR exposure pattern on tumor development. Hairless C3.Cg/TifBomTac immunocompetent pigmented mice (n = 351) were irradiated with 12 standard...

  12. Fanconi anemia manifesting as a squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Petrillo Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fanconi Anemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by various congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure at a very young age and of solid tumors development. The authors present a rare case of a squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate in a Fanconi Anaemia patient. The atypical clinical manifestation rendered the diagnosis more difficult. This case, for age of appearance, sex and localization, is unique in international literature. We recommend a quarterly follow up of the oral-rhino-pharynx complex in FA patients and to consider as carcinomas, all oral lesions that last more than two weeks.

  13. Cytochrome P450 levels are altered in patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the carcinogenesis of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) in human esophagus by determining expression patterns and protein levels of representative CYPs in esophageal tissue of patients with SCC and controls. METHODS: mRNA expression of CYP2E1...... tissue (e.g. CYP2C8, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2E1) between SCC patients and healthy subjects and may contribute to the development of SCC in the esophagus....

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum 21 years after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kevin K; Madan, Anand; Heitzman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is an extremely rare malignancy, accounting for 0.1-0.2% of rectal malignancies. It is associated with ulcerative colitis, prior radiation, schistosomiasis, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, human papilloma virus, colocutaneous fistulas and colonic duplication. Prior reported cases of SCC of the rectum have involved treatment with brachytherapy and external beam radiation. This case is particularly interesting because of the remote exposure of radiation (21 years previously) and the subsequent development of SCC of the rectum. Although extremely rare, SCC of the rectum can occur decades after radiation exposure. (author)

  15. Zenker’s diverticulum and squamous esophageal cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zenker’s diverticulum represents a rare esophageal lesion developed especially in the elderly population due to herniation of esophageal mucosa above the cricopharyngeus muscle. The condition leads to food retention, regurgitation, aspiration, and dysphagia in affected patients. Progressive dysphagia also characterizes malignant diseases of the esophagus like squamous esophageal carcinoma that typically appears in male patients in the seventh decade of life, with a history of cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse. We report a case of a male patient who presented with dysphagia for both solids and liquids along with significant weight loss, and who was diagnosed with medium esophageal cancer associated with Zenker’s diverticulum.

  16. Familial disseminated plaque type porokeratosis with multiple horns and squamous cell carcinoma involving anal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis is a disorder of keratinization showing a well-defined lesion with a hyperkeratotic ridge on the border that contains the coronoid lamella. We report familial (autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance disseminated plaque type (Mibelli′s type porokeratosis in a father and son. In the father, there were multiple horns and a large squamous cell carcinoma in a large lesion over the perianal region that reached up to the squamo-columnar junction of the anal mucosa and even invaded the anal sphincteric muscles. Disseminated lesions of the Mibelli′s type, development of horns, and malignancy in this unusual location have not been previously reported.

  17. Mutational analysis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and verrucal keratosis in patients taking BRAF inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anforth, Rachael; Tembe, Varsha; Blumetti, Tatiana; Fernandez-Peñas, Pablo

    2012-09-01

    B-RAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have been shown to improve rates of overall and progression-free survival in patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma positive for the BRAF V600E mutation. However, the main drawback is the development of verrucal keratosis (hyperkeratotic papules with verruca-like characteristics with benign histological findings) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cuSCC). We have found upstream mutations in RAS as well as PIK3CA in both verrucal keratosis and cuSCC. This suggests that verrucal keratosis is an early clinical presentation of cuSCC in patients on BRAFi. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. CD47 is a Potential Target for the Treatment of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    ChunPing Yang; ShuFeng Gao; HaiZhen Zhang; Lian Xu; JianGuo Liu; Meiqun Wang; ShaoRong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of CD47 on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody against CD47 and its ligand SIRPα in the treatment of LSCC. Methods: We firstly detected the expressions of CD47 mRNA and protein in LSCC and para-carcinoma tissues, introduced the most efficient CD47siRNA sequence into LSCC cells by lentiviral transfection and employed three monoclonal antibodies to evaluate the...

  19. Squamous-lined cyst of the pancreas: Radiological–pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, T.; Takeshita, T.; Shimono, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Miki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions are increasingly being detected incidentally because of the increased use of cross-sectional imaging. Squamous-lined cysts of the pancreas (lymphoepithelial cyst, epidermoid cyst, and dermoid cyst) are rare cystic lesions lined with squamous epithelium. Distinguishing squamous-lined cysts from other cystic lesions of the pancreas is important to avoid unnecessary surgery, because squamous-lined cysts of the pancreas have no malignant potential. The purpose of this review is to describe findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and the histopathological characteristics of squamous-lined cysts, and to summarize the key points of differential diagnosis for pancreatic cystic lesions

  20. A molecular prognostic model predicts esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hui Cao

    Full Text Available Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC has the highest mortality rates in China. The 5-year survival rate of ESCC remains dismal despite improvements in treatments such as surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation, and current clinical staging approaches are limited in their ability to effectively stratify patients for treatment options. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to develop an immunohistochemistry-based prognostic model to improve clinical risk assessment for patients with ESCC.We developed a molecular prognostic model based on the combined expression of axis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, phosphorylated Specificity protein 1 (p-Sp1, and Fascin proteins. The presence of this prognostic model and associated clinical outcomes were analyzed for 130 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded esophageal curative resection specimens (generation dataset and validated using an independent cohort of 185 specimens (validation dataset.The expression of these three genes at the protein level was used to build a molecular prognostic model that was highly predictive of ESCC survival in both generation and validation datasets (P = 0.001. Regression analysis showed that this molecular prognostic model was strongly and independently predictive of overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.358 [95% CI, 1.391-3.996], P = 0.001 in generation dataset; hazard ratio = 1.990 [95% CI, 1.256-3.154], P = 0.003 in validation dataset. Furthermore, the predictive ability of these 3 biomarkers in combination was more robust than that of each individual biomarker.This technically simple immunohistochemistry-based molecular model accurately predicts ESCC patient survival and thus could serve as a complement to current clinical risk stratification approaches.

  1. A prediction model for lymph node metastasis in T1 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Chen, Qi-Xun; Shen, Di-Jian; Zhao, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Endoscopic resection is widely used for the treatment of T1 esophageal cancer, but it cannot be used to treat lymph node metastasis (LNM). This study aimed to develop a prediction model for LNM in patients with T1 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A prospectively maintained database of all patients who underwent surgery for esophageal cancer between January 2002 and June 2010 was retrospectively reviewed, and patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Correlations between LNM and clinicopathological variables were evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. The penalized maximum likelihood method was used to estimate regression coefficients. A prediction model was developed and internally validated using a bootstrap resampling method. Model performance was evaluated in terms of calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. A total of 240 patients (197 male, 43 female) with a mean age of 57.9 years (standard deviation ± 8.3 years) were included in the analysis. The incidence of LNM was 16.3%. The prediction model consisted of four variables: grade, T1 stage, tumor location and tumor length. The model showed good calibration and good discrimination with a C-index of 0.787 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.711-0.863). After internal validation, the optimism-corrected C-index was 0.762 (95% CI, 0.686-0.838). Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the prediction model was clinically useful. Our prediction model can facilitate individualized prediction of LNM in patients with T1 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This model can aid surgical decision making in patients who have undergone endoscopic resection. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Compounds From Celastraceae Targeting Cancer Pathways and Their Potential Application in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Camila; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Severino, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. It initiates on the epithelial lining of the upper aerodigestive tract, at most instances as a consequence of tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options based on conventional therapies or targeted therapies under development have limited efficacy due to multiple genetic alterations typically found in this cancer type. Natural products derived from plants often possess biological activities that may be valuable in the development of new therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. Several genera from the family Celastraceae have been studied in this context. This review reports studies on chemical constituents isolated from species from the Celastraceae family targeting cancer mechanisms studied to date. These results are then correlated with molecular characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in an attempt to identify constituents with potential application in the treatment of this complex disease at the molecular level.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lacrimal caruncle : case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Haeseker, Barbara I.; De Wolff-Rouendaal, Did; De Keizer, Robert J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the lacrimal caruncle. Methods: Two patients, a 38-year-old man and a 72-year-old woman, presented with a painful mass in the medial angle of the eyelid aperture, with signs of inflammation. Biopsy was performed in both cases. Results:

  4. Staging of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Buron, Birgitte Marie Due; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical staging of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is crucial for the choice of treatment. Computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are typically recommended and used for staging of the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). Although ultrasonography (US...

  5. Array comparative genomic hybridization of keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Kai; Gao, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a benign keratinocytic neoplasm that spontaneously regresses after 3-6 months and shares features with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Furthermore, there are reports of KAs that have metastasized, invoking the question of whether KA is a variant of SCC (Hodak et al., 1993...

  6. Ten-year survival of patients with oesophageal squamous cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The standard predictive factors of actuarial survival such as T and N stage become less important as patients live for more than 10 years after treatment of cancer. Reports of actual 10-year survivors of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are rare, and demographic and clinicopathological factors ...

  7. A Rare Case of Zosteriform Cutaneous Metastases from Squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Rare Case of Zosteriform Cutaneous Metastases from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Hard Palate. ... examination, the patient had a superficial ulcer over the hard palate. A provisional diagnosis of zosteriform ... Majority of these cases can be misdiagnosed as herpes zoster and were treated with antiviral drugs. Distant ...

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vishwanath

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising in a mature cystic teratoma (MCT are being discussed for their rarity and pattern of infiltration of tumor cells in the stroma (alpha mode, beta mode and gamma mode, which is a key factor in deciding the prognosis and patient survival.

  9. Expression of Podoplanin in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The expression of podoplanin is up‑regulated in a number of different human cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and its relationship with tumor invasion raises the possibility that podoplanin expression could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. Aim: The aim of the ...

  10. Prevalence and severity of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of cervical cancer relies on the detection and treatment of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL), a premalignant disease stage. Worldwide there are overwhelming reports associating SIL and HIV infection, however in Tanzania such reports are limited. A cross-sectional hospital-based descriptive study was ...

  11. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a rare case of noninvasive OSSN involving the entire cornea in a human immunodeficiency virus‑negative patient. The patient was successfully treated with no recurrence, after intact surgical removal, mitomycin C treatment, and cryotherapy. Keywords: Noninvasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, ocular ...

  12. Humeral Metastasis in a case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis to distal acral skeleton – humerus within two months of diagnosis of the primary is being reported. The metastasis to the bones from carcinoma cervix is uncommon especially in the distal appendicular skeleton. A 47 years female came with spontaneous fracture of ...

  13. Risk Factors for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is common in some parts of Kenya. Both the regional factors associated with ESCC in Kenya and geographic distribution has not been completely described. Methods: We analyzed the association of ESCC with smoking, khat chewing, alcohol, diet, ...

  14. Oesophageal squamous cell cancer in a South African tertiary hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The site of tumour location was in the middle 96 (60.4%), distal 42(26.4%) and proximal 17(10.6%) oesophagus. The male to female ratio was 1:1 ... with HIV negative patients. Key words: Oesophageal cancer, squamous cell cancer, HIV, dental hygiene, socioeconomic status, South Africa, esophageal cancer, risk factors ...

  15. Local advanced transitional cell cancer and squamous cell cancer of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 51-year-old man presented with a locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the periurethral tissues as well as an underlying isolated transitional cell cancer of the urethra. Chemotherapy with Gemcitabin and Cisplatinum together with local radiation to the pelvis and the perineum was given. There was ...

  16. Aberrant DNA methylation associated with MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphism in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, M E

    2010-08-01

    Changes in genomic DNA methylation associated with cancer include global DNA hypomethylation and gene-specific hyper- or hypomethylation. We have previously identified a genetic variant in the MTHFR gene involved in the methylation pathway which confers risk for the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in renal transplant patients. This genetic variant has also been discovered to confer SCC risk in nontransplant patients with low folate status.

  17. Delineating Molecular Mechanisms of Squamous Tissue Homeostasis and Neoplasia: Focus on p63

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. King

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models have informed us that p63 is critical for normal epidermal development and homeostasis. The p53/p63/p73 family is expressed as multiple protein isoforms due to a combination of alternative promoter usage and C-terminal alternative splicing. These isoforms can mimic or interfere with one another, and their balance ultimately determines biological outcome in a context-dependent manner. While not frequently mutated, p63, and in particular the ΔNp63 subclass, is commonly overexpressed in human squamous cell cancers. In vitro keratinocytes and murine transgenic and transplantation models have been invaluable in elucidating the contribution of altered p63 levels to cancer development, and studies have identified the roles for ΔNp63 isoforms in keratinocyte survival and malignant progression, likely due in part to their transcriptional regulatory function. These findings can be extended to human cancers; for example, the novel recognition of NFκB/c-Rel as a downstream effector of p63 has identified a role for NFκB/c-Rel in human squamous cell cancers. These models will be critical in enhancing the understanding of the specific molecular mechanisms of cancer development and progression.

  18. Fascin overexpression promotes neoplastic progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Hunain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fascin is a globular actin cross-linking protein, which plays a major role in forming parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and is found to be associated with tumor cell invasion and metastasis in various type of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Previously, we have demonstrated that fascin regulates actin polymerization and thereby promotes cell motility in K8-depleted OSCC cells. In the present study we have investigated the role of fascin in tumor progression of OSCC. Methods To understand the role of fascin in OSCC development and/or progression, fascin was overexpressed along with vector control in OSCC derived cells AW13516. The phenotype was studied using wound healing, Boyden chamber, cell adhesion, Hanging drop, soft agar and tumorigenicity assays. Further, fascin expression was examined in human OSCC samples (N = 131 using immunohistochemistry and level of its expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients. Results Fascin overexpression in OSCC derived cells led to significant increase in cell migration, cell invasion and MMP-2 activity. In addition these cells demonstrated increased levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Our in vitro results were consistent with correlative studies of fascin expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the OSCC patients. Fascin expression in OSCC showed statistically significant correlation with increased tumor stage (P = 0.041, increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001, less differentiation (P = 0.005, increased recurrence (P = 0.038 and shorter survival (P = 0.004 of the patients. Conclusion In conclusion, our results indicate that fascin promotes tumor progression and activates AKT and MAPK pathways in OSCC-derived cells. Further, our correlative studies of fascin expression in OSCC with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients indicate that fascin may prove to be useful in prognostication and

  19. Frequency of HPV in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Priscila Marinho; Có, Anna Clara Gregório; Azevedo, Pedro Leite; do Valle, Isabella Bittencourt; de Oliveira, Karine Gadioli; Gouvea, Sônia Alves; Cordeiro-Silva, Melissa Freitas; Louro, Iúri Drummond; de Podestá, José Roberto Vasconcelos; Lenzi, Jeferson; Sena, Agenor; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; von Zeidler, Sandra Lúcia Ventorin

    2018-03-27

    The prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) varies widely. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of high-risk HPV DNA in a large Brazilian cohort of patients with oral cavity SCC. Biopsy and resected frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of oral cavity SCC were available from 101 patients who were recruited at two Brazilian centres. Stringent measures with respect to case selection and prevention of sample contamination were adopted to ensure reliability of the data. Nested PCR using MY09/MY11 and GP5 + /GP6 + as well as PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primers were performed to investigate the presence of HPV DNA in the tumours. HPV-positive cases were subjected to direct sequencing. Shapiro-Wilk and Student t test were used to evaluate data normality and to compare the means, respectively. Qualitative variables were analysed by logistic regression. Our results demonstrate that the frequency of high-risk HPV types in oral cavity SCC is very low and is less than 4%. All HPV-positive cases were HPV16. In addition, our results do not show a significant association between the tumour clinical features and the risk factors (tobacco, alcohol and HPV) for oral cavity SCC. In the current study, we observed an overlapping pattern of risk factors that are related to tumour development. This, along with a low frequency of high-risk HPV DNA, supports the findings that HPV is not involved in the genesis of oral cavity SCC in Brazilian population.

  20. Fascin overexpression promotes neoplastic progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Hunain; Kannanl, Sadhna; Gude, Rajiv; Kane, Shubhada; Dalal, Sorab N; Vaidya, Milind M; Bhate, Amruta V; Gangadaran, Prakash; Sawant, Sharda S; Salot, Shimul; Sehgal, Lalit; Dange, Prerana P; Chaukar, Devendra A; D'cruz, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Fascin is a globular actin cross-linking protein, which plays a major role in forming parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and is found to be associated with tumor cell invasion and metastasis in various type of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we have demonstrated that fascin regulates actin polymerization and thereby promotes cell motility in K8-depleted OSCC cells. In the present study we have investigated the role of fascin in tumor progression of OSCC. To understand the role of fascin in OSCC development and/or progression, fascin was overexpressed along with vector control in OSCC derived cells AW13516. The phenotype was studied using wound healing, Boyden chamber, cell adhesion, Hanging drop, soft agar and tumorigenicity assays. Further, fascin expression was examined in human OSCC samples (N = 131) using immunohistochemistry and level of its expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients. Fascin overexpression in OSCC derived cells led to significant increase in cell migration, cell invasion and MMP-2 activity. In addition these cells demonstrated increased levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Our in vitro results were consistent with correlative studies of fascin expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the OSCC patients. Fascin expression in OSCC showed statistically significant correlation with increased tumor stage (P = 0.041), increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), less differentiation (P = 0.005), increased recurrence (P = 0.038) and shorter survival (P = 0.004) of the patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that fascin promotes tumor progression and activates AKT and MAPK pathways in OSCC-derived cells. Further, our correlative studies of fascin expression in OSCC with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients indicate that fascin may prove to be useful in prognostication and treatment of OSCC

  1. Cross sectional study of serum selenium concentration and esophageal squamous dysplasia in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Natalie R; Burgert, Stephen L; Murphy, Gwen A; Brockman, John D; White, Russell E; Lando, Justus; Chepkwony, Robert; Topazian, Mark D; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Mwachiro, Michael M

    2017-12-08

    Low serum selenium status has been associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). East Africa is a region of high ESCC incidence and is known to have low soil selenium levels, but this association has not previously been evaluated. In this study we assessed the association of serum selenium concentration and the prevalence of esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of ESCC, in a cross-sectional study of subjects from Bomet, Kenya. 294 asymptomatic adult residents of Bomet, Kenya completed questionnaires and underwent endoscopy with Lugol's iodine staining and biopsy for detection of ESD. Serum selenium concentrations were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between serum selenium and ESD were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. The mean serum selenium concentration was 85.5 (±28.3) μg/L. Forty-two ESD cases were identified (14% of those screened), including 5 (12%) in selenium quartile 1 (Q1), 5 (12%) in Q2, 15 (36%) in Q3, and 17 (40%) in Q4. Higher serum selenium was associated with prevalence of ESD (Q4 vs Q1: OR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.05-8.74) and this association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (Q4 vs Q1: OR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.06-14.19). This is the first study to evaluate the association of serum selenium concentration and esophageal squamous dysplasia in an African population at high risk for ESCC. We found a positive association between higher serum selenium concentration and prevalence of ESD, an association contrary to our original hypothesis. Further work is needed to better understand the role of selenium in the etiology of ESCC in this region, and to develop effective ESCC prevention and control strategies.

  2. Non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgomo, Mpho; Mokoena, Taole R; Ker, James A

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus is a common cancer among South Africans. Due to the absence of effective screening and surveillance programme for early detection and late presentation, squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage or when metastasis has already occurred. The 5-year survival is often quoted at 5%-10%, which is poor. To determine the association between oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Study design: A cross-sectional case-control analytical study of patients referred to the Gastroenterology Division of Steve Biko Academic Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. All patients had combined multichannel impedance and pH studies done and interpreted after upper gastroscopy using the American College of Gastroenterology guidelines by two clinicians. Thirty-two patients with OSCC were recruited: non-acid reflux was found in 23 patients (73%), acid reflux in 2 patients (6%) and 7 patients (22%) had normal multichannel impedance and pH studies.Forty-nine patients matched by age, gender and race were recruited as a control group. Non-acid reflux was found in 11 patients (22%), acid reflux in 31 patients (63%) and 7 patients (14%) had normal multichannel impedance and pH monitoring study. The significance of the association between non-acid reflux and OSCC was tested using χ 2 , and simple logistic regression was used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders.The OR of developing OSCC in patients with non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux was 8.8 (95% CI 3.2 to 24.5, P<0.0001) in this South African group.Alcohol and smoking had no effect on these results.

  3. Pemetrexed in maintenance treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Seigo; Kijima, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Pemetrexed, a multitargeting antifolate cytotoxic drug, plays a leading role in front-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Following its approval as second-line monotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC, pemetrexed has established itself as the first-line regimen in combination with cisplatin, and its powerful antitumor effects and less cumulative toxicities were then taken advantage of in the JMEN and PARAMOUNT trials, respectively, to pioneer a new treatment strategy of switch and continuation maintenance monotherapy. These developments have brought about a marked paradigm shift, and made pemetrexed indispensable in the treatment for non-squamous NSCLC. So far, only three drugs have been approved for maintenance therapy; pemetrexed both by switch and continuation maintenance, erlotinib by switch maintenance, and bevacizumab by continuation maintenance. Compared with observation alone after defined cycles of the first-line chemotherapy, subsequent pemetrexed maintenance therapy has provided significantly longer survival and infrequent severe adverse events. The cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed maintenance therapy is controversial, as well as the other two maintenance drugs, bevacizumab and erlotinib. The latest attractive attention is a combination maintenance therapy. We may have to consider epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status for selection of a combination pattern. A combination maintenance therapy of pemetrexed plus bevacizumab is potential for patients with wild-type EGFR status, while a EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-containing combination is promising for patients with active EGFR mutation status. Pemetrexed will be a pivotal drug when a combination maintenance therapy is used in practice. For future maintenance therapy, we need to explore reliable predictive selection or exclusion markers that can predict who will really benefit from maintenance therapy.

  4. The role of oxidative stress and periodontal disease in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Boia1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND This multidisciplinary and retrospective study of the Periodontal, Ear nose and throat, Oral-Maxillofacial and Biochemical literature aims, highlights and recalls the important role of the oxidative stress (OS and periodontal disease in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study we analyzed a total number of 670 cases, collected from specialized scientific papers belonging to several authors of international level. These scientific papers are focused on highlighting the most common lipid peroxidation marker, Malondialdehyde (MDA, of both periodontal disease and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity from serum or saliva samples that are biochemically collected and analyzed. RESULTS In all analyzed studies, we found that oxidative stress alters the composition of saliva. Also the depletion of antioxidants was remarked in the groups of subjects diagnosed with OSCC and those affected by periodontal disease. Scientific studies that investigated smokers, revealed the fact that these patients also show increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is very likely that oxidative damage is intensified by smoking. CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this review was to emphasize the importance of oxidative stress in the development of periodontal disease as a first stage towards the development of squamous cell carcinomas and to represent the essential foundation of more extensive future investigations. REFERENCES 1. Rashmi M, Saumya B. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of Oral Science. 2014;56:135-142. 2. Tóthová L, Kamodyová N, Červenka T, Celec P. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 2015. 3. Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Shpitzer T, Popovtzer A, Nagler RM, Salivary analysis in oral cancer patients: DNA and protein

  5. Barrett esophagus and cancer: pathogenesis, carcinogenesis, and diagnostic dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polkowski, W.; van Lanschot, J. J.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    A metaplastic process, in which native squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus is replaced by columnar epithelium, is known as Barrett esophagus (BE). Over the past years, intestinal metaplasia was recognized as a marker for BE. The risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a

  6. ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA: IS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA DIFFERENT DISEASE COMPARED TO ADENOCARCINOMA? A transversal study in a quaternary high volume hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco TUSTUMI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among the neoplasms that affect the gastrointestinal tract. There are several factors that contribute for development of an epidemiological esophageal cancer profile in a population. Objective This study aims to describe both clinically and epidemiologically the population of patients with diagnosis of esophageal cancer treated in a quaternary attention institute for cancer from January, 2009 to December, 2011, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods The charts of all patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer from January, 2009, to December, 2011, in a Sao Paulo (Brazil quaternary oncology institute were retrospectively reviewed. Results Squamous cell cancer made up to 80% of the cases of esophageal cancer. Average age at diagnosis was 60.66 years old for esophageal adenocarcinoma and 62 for squamous cell cancer, average time from the beginning of symptoms to the diagnosis was 3.52 months for esophageal adenocarcinoma and 4.2 months for squamous cell cancer. Average time for initiating treatment when esophageal cancer is diagnosed was 4 months for esophageal adenocarcinoma and 4.42 months for squamous cell cancer. There was a clear association between squamous cell cancer and head and neck cancers, as well as certain habits, such as smoking and alcoholism, while adenocarcinoma cancer showed more association with gastric cancer and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Tumoral bleeding and pneumonia were the main causes of death. No difference in survival rate was noted between the two groups. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are different diseases, but both are diagnosed in advanced stages in Brazil, compromising the patients' possibilities of cure.

  7. ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA: IS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA DIFFERENT DISEASE COMPARED TO ADENOCARCINOMA? A transversal study in a quaternary high volume hospital in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustumi, Francisco; Takeda, Flavio Roberto; Kimura, Cintia Mayumi Sakurai; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Ribeiro, Ulysses; Cecconello, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among the neoplasms that affect the gastrointestinal tract. There are several factors that contribute for development of an epidemiological esophageal cancer profile in a population. This study aims to describe both clinically and epidemiologically the population of patients with diagnosis of esophageal cancer treated in a quaternary attention institute for cancer from January, 2009 to December, 2011, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The charts of all patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer from January, 2009, to December, 2011, in a Sao Paulo (Brazil) quaternary oncology institute were retrospectively reviewed. Squamous cell cancer made up to 80% of the cases of esophageal cancer. Average age at diagnosis was 60.66 years old for esophageal adenocarcinoma and 62 for squamous cell cancer, average time from the beginning of symptoms to the diagnosis was 3.52 months for esophageal adenocarcinoma and 4.2 months for squamous cell cancer. Average time for initiating treatment when esophageal cancer is diagnosed was 4 months for esophageal adenocarcinoma and 4.42 months for squamous cell cancer. There was a clear association between squamous cell cancer and head and neck cancers, as well as certain habits, such as smoking and alcoholism, while adenocarcinoma cancer showed more association with gastric cancer and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Tumoral bleeding and pneumonia were the main causes of death. No difference in survival rate was noted between the two groups. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are different diseases, but both are diagnosed in advanced stages in Brazil, compromising the patients' possibilities of cure.

  8. [Study of testicular cancer gene expression in samples of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodumova, L O; Muraev, A A; Zakharova, E S; Shepelev, M V; Korobko, I V; Zaderenko, I A; Ivanov, S Iu; Gnuchev, N V; Georgiev, G P; Larin, S S

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are normally expressed mostly in human germ cells, there is also an aberrant expression in some tumor cells. This expression profile makes them potential tumor growth biomarkers and a promising target for tumor immunotherapy. Specificity of CT genes expression in oral malignant and potentially malignant diseases, e.g. oral leukoplakia, is not yet studied. Data on CT genes expression profile in leukoplakia would allow developing new diagnostic methods with potential value for immunotherapy and prophylaxis of leukoplakia malignization. In our study we compared CT genes expression in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We are the first to describe CT genes expression in oral leukoplakia without dysplasia. This findings make impossible differential diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of CT genes expression. The prognostic value of CT genes expression is still unclear, therefore the longitudinal studies are necessary.

  9. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with human papillomavirus in people living with HIV: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Rullo, Emmanuele Venanzi; Facciolà, Alessio; Madeddu, Giordano; Cacopardo, Bruno; Taibi, Rosaria; D'Aleo, Francesco; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Picerno, Isa; di Rosa, Michele; Visalli, Giuseppa; Condorelli, Fabrizio; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pellicanò, Giovanni Francesco

    2018-03-30

    Over the last 20 years we assisted to an increase in the mean age of People Living with HIV and their comorbidities. Especially, there was an increase in Human Papillomavirus-related head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Despite their increasing incidence in HIV-positive people, mechanisms that lead to their development and progression are only partially understood. The aim of this review is to identify key data and factors about HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-seropositive patients. Systematic search and review of the relevant literature-peer-reviewed and grey-was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We included in our review only the 35 full-text articles we considered the most substantial. It is mandatory to improve our knowledge about the interactions existing between HPV and HIV, and about their actions on oral mucosa immune system.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx arising in multifocal pharyngolaryngeal oncocytic papillary cystadenoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Koopmann, Mario; Rudack, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    We report on a rare case of a laryngeal carcinoma arising in a multifocal pharyngolaryngeal oncocytic papillary cystadenoma (OPC). The disease of a 63-year-old man is well documented by computed and positron emission tomography, histology, and electron microscopy. We could show that an OPC can even develop in the pharynx. The coexistence of both tumors makes this a challenging diagnosis for pathologists. Treated by surgery and radiotherapy, both lesions dissolved. Based on the literature available, we discuss the theory that the laryngeal carcinoma might be the result of a true metaplasia facilitated by chronic irritation and recommend a regular follow-up for OPC too. As in benign oncocytic lesions, we could show that the detection of numerous mitochondria is a diagnostic indicator for malignant variants as well.

  11. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

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    Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Reid, Mary E.; Bogner, Paul N.; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C) (80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the % of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient +NTCU (DN), 22.7 % (p<0.05 compared to vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)); DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared to SN mice, DN mice exhibited a 3-fold increase (p <0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (p <0.05) increase in IL-6 levels, and a 4 -fold (p <0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  12. Pemetrexed in maintenance treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

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    Minami S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seigo Minami,1 Takashi Kijima2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka Police Hospital, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Pemetrexed, a multitargeting antifolate cytotoxic drug, plays a leading role in front-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Following its approval as second-line monotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC, pemetrexed has established itself as the first-line regimen in combination with cisplatin, and its powerful antitumor effects and less cumulative toxicities were then taken advantage of in the JMEN and PARAMOUNT trials, respectively, to pioneer a new treatment strategy of switch and continuation maintenance monotherapy. These developments have brought about a marked paradigm shift, and made pemetrexed indispensable in the treatment for non-squamous NSCLC. So far, only three drugs have been approved for maintenance therapy; pemetrexed both by switch and continuation maintenance, erlotinib by switch maintenance, and bevacizumab by continuation maintenance. Compared with observation alone after defined cycles of the first-line chemotherapy, subsequent pemetrexed maintenance therapy has provided significantly longer survival and infrequent severe adverse events. The cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed maintenance therapy is controversial, as well as the other two maintenance drugs, bevacizumab and erlotinib. The latest attractive attention is a combination maintenance therapy. We may have to consider epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status for selection of a combination pattern. A combination maintenance therapy of pemetrexed plus bevacizumab is potential for patients with wild-type EGFR status, while a EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-containing combination is promising for patients with active EGFR mutation status. Pemetrexed will be

  13. Management of Patients With Adenocarcinoma or Squamous Cancer of the Esophagus.

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    Ilson, David H; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is characterized by early and frequent metastasis. Surgery is the primary treatment for early-stage disease, whereas patients with patients with locally advanced disease receive perioperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Squamous cancers can be treated with primary chemoradiotherapy without surgery, depending on their response to therapy and patient tolerance for subsequent surgery. Chemotherapy with a fluorinated pyrimidine and a platinum agent, followed by later treatment with taxanes and irinotecan, provides some benefit. Agents that inhibit the erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2 or HER2), or vascular endothelial growth factor, including trastuzumab, ramucirumab, and apatinib, increase response and survival times. Esophageal adenocarcinomas have mutations in tumor protein p53 and mutations that activate receptor-associated tyrosine kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cell cycle pathways, whereas esophageal squamous tumors have a distinct set of mutations. Esophageal cancers develop systems to evade anti-tumor immune responses, but studies are needed to determine how immune checkpoint modification contributes to esophageal tumor development. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA and Coding RNA Expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Wei Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a complex dynamic biological process that includes multiple steps of genetic and epigenetic alterations, aberrant expression of noncoding RNA, and changes in the expression profiles of coding genes. We call the collection of those perturbations in genome space the “cancer initiatome.” Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are pervasively transcribed in the genome and they have key regulatory functions in chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Spatiotemporal variation in the expression of lncRNAs has been observed in development and disease states, including cancer. A few dysregulated lncRNAs have been studied in cancers, but the role of lncRNAs in the cancer initiatome remains largely unknown, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. We conducted a genome-wide screen of the expression of lncRNAs and coding RNAs from ESCC and matched adjacent nonneoplastic normal tissues. We identified differentially expressed lncRNAs and coding RNAs in ESCC relative to their matched normal tissue counterparts and validated the result using polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, we identified differentially expressed lncRNAs that are co-located and co-expressed with differentially expressed coding RNAs in ESCC and the results point to a potential interaction between lncRNAs and neighboring coding genes that affect ether lipid metabolism, and the interaction may contribute to the development of ESCC. These data provide compelling evidence for a potential novel genomic biomarker of esophageal squamous cell cancer.

  15. Anal squamous carcinoma: a new AIDS-defining cancer? Case report and literature review

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    Marcelo Corti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous anal cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy that represents the 1.5% to 2% of all the lower digestive tract cancers. However, an increased incidence of invasive anal carcinoma is observed in HIV-seropositive population since the widespread of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Human papillomavirus is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of anal cancer. Anal intercourse and a high number of sexual partners appear to be risk factors to develop anal cancer in both sexes. Anal pain, bleeding and a palpable lesion in the anal canal are the most common clinical features. Endo-anal ultrasound is the best diagnosis method to evaluate the tumor size, the tumor extension and the infiltration of the sphincter muscle complex. Chemoradiotherapy plus antiretroviral therapy are the recommended treatments for all stages of localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-seropositive patients because of its high rate of cure. Here we present an HIV patient who developed a carcinoma of the anal canal after a long time of HIV infection under highly active antiretroviral therapy with a good virological and immunological response.

  16. Nrf2 regulates cellular behaviors and Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Paiboonrungruan, Chorlada; Zhang, Xinyan; Prigge, Justin R; Schmidt, Edward E; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2017-11-04

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have demonstrated that activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has chemopreventive effects against oxidative stress-associated OSCC. However, Nrf2 have dual roles in cancer development; while it prevents carcinogenesis of normal cells, hyperactive Nrf2 also promotes the survival of cancer cells. This study is aimed to understand the function of Nrf2 in regulating cellular behaviors of OSCC cells, and the potential mechanisms through which Nrf2 facilitates OSCC. We established the Nrf2-overexpressing and Nrf2-knockdown OSCC cell lines, and examined the function of Nrf2 in regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and colony formation. Our data showed that Nrf2 overexpression promoted cancer phenotypes in OSCC cells, whereas Nrf2 silencing inhibited these phenotypes. In addition, Nrf2 positively regulated Notch signaling pathway in OSCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this observation, Nrf2 activation in Keap1 -/- mice resulted in not only hyperproliferation of squamous epithelial cells in mouse tongue as evidenced by increased expression of PCNA, but also activation of Notch signaling in these cells as evidenced by increased expression of NICD1 and Hes1. In conclusion, Nrf2 regulates cancer behaviors and Notch signaling in OSCC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of SRSF3 is Correlated with Carcinogenesis and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiqi, Liu; Zhaozhong, Guo; Yaotian, Yin; Jun, Jia; Jihua, Guo; Rong, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck with high mortality rates. The mechanisms of initiation and development of OSCC remain largely unknown. Dysregulated alternative splicing of pre-mRNA has been associated with OSCC. Splicing factor SRSF3 is a proto-oncogene and overexpressed in multiple cancers. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between SRSF3 and carcinogenesis and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of SRSF3 in oral normal, dysplasia, or carcinoma tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of EMT-related genes were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of SRSF3 in DMBA treated primary cultured oral epithelial cells were analyzed by western blot. SRSF3 is overexpressed in oral cancer and moderate or severe dysplasia tissues. Patients with high grade cancer or lymphatic metastasis showed up-regulated expression of SRSF3. Knockdown of SRSF3 repressed the expression of Snail and N-cadherin in vitro. Carcinogen DMBA treated primary cultured oral epithelial cells showed significantly increased SRSF3 level than in control cells. Our results suggested that SRSF3 is associated with the initiation and development of OSCC and may be a biomarker and therapeutic target of OSCC.

  18. Outcome of superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a clinicopathological study

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    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the clinicopathological features and outcome of patients with pathologically proven superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: A total of 234 consecutive cases of esophageal carcinoma in a 15-year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Superficial esophageal cancer was found in five patients (2.1%. They were four men and one woman and the mean age was 52.5 years. Smoking and alcohol were the main risk factors. Achalasia due to Chagas disease occurred in one patient and a second primary tumor developed in the larynx in another patient. Four patients underwent esophagectomy and one patient received chemoradiotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. Intramucosal tumor (Tis was identified in three cases and superficially invasive carcinoma in two cases. Four patients are free of disease with survival times of two, four, six and nine years. The patient who developed laryngeal cancer died six years after esophagectomy. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer is related to early diagnosis. Therefore, a less aggressive surgical approach, such as endoscopic resection, may be a good option for these patients, if depth of tumor invasion can be accurately predicted by the new imaging tools.

  19. Case report on xeroderma pigmentosum with squamous cell carcinoma in a ten year old child

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    Uday Kumar Sonnappa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XPis a rare inherited skin disorder characterized by a heightened sensitivity to the DNA damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV. The main source of UV is the sun. The symptoms of XP can be seen in any sun-exposed area of the body. The effects are greatest on the skin, the eyelids and the surface of the eyes but the tip of the tongue may also be damaged. In addition, approximately 25% of XP patients also develop abnormalities of the nervous system manifesting as progressive neuro-degeneration with hearing loss. People with XP have a 10,000-fold increased risk for developing skin cancer including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. They also have a 2000-fold increased risk for cancer of the eye and surrounding ocular tissues. These symptoms appear early in life, typically before age 10 years. This case is being presented to highlight the rarity of a case of xeroderma pigmentosum with squamous cell carcinoma in a ten year old child.

  20. Oculocutaneous Albinism and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin of the Head and Neck in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    P. T. Lekalakala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculocutaneous albinism which is characterised by impaired melanin biosynthesis is the most common inherited pigmentary disorder of the skin and it is common among Blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. All albinos are at great risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of sun-exposed skin, and Black albinos in sub-Saharan Africa are at about a 1000-fold higher risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the skin than the general population. In Black albinos, skin carcinoma tends to run an aggressive course and is likely to recur after treatment, very probably because the aetiology and predisposing factors have not changed. Prevention or reduction of occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Black albinos might be achieved through educating the population to increase awareness of the harmful effects of exposure to sunlight and at the same time making available effective screening programs for early detection of premalignant and malignant skin lesions in schools and communities and for early treatment.

  1. No evidence for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Torben; Khan, Gulfaraz; Coates, Philip J; Sgaramella, Nicola; Fåhraeus, Robin; Hassani, Asma; Philip, Pretty S; Norberg Spaak, Lena; Califano, Luigi; Colella, Giuseppe; Olofsson, Katarina; Loizou, Christos; Franco, Renato; Nylander, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively. EBV infects most adults worldwide through oral transmission and establishes a latent infection, with sporadic productive viral replication and release of virus in the oral cavity throughout life. In view of the prevalence of EBV in the oral cavity and recent data indicating that it infects tongue epithelial cells and establishes latency, we examined 98 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue and 15 cases of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma for the presence of EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs), EBV DNA and an EBV-encoded protein, EBNA-1. A commercially available in situ hybridisation kit targeting EBER transcripts (EBER-ISH) showed a positive signal in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of tumour cells in 43% of TSCCs. However, application of control probes and RNase A digestion using in-house developed EBER-ISH showed identical EBER staining patterns, indicating non-specific signals. PCR analysis of the BamH1 W repeat sequences did not identify EBV genomes in tumour samples. Immunohistochemistry for EBNA-1 was also negative. These data exclude EBV as a potential player in TSCC in both old and young patients and highlight the importance of appropriate controls for EBER-ISH in investigating EBV in human diseases.

  2. No evidence for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Wilms

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively. EBV infects most adults worldwide through oral transmission and establishes a latent infection, with sporadic productive viral replication and release of virus in the oral cavity throughout life. In view of the prevalence of EBV in the oral cavity and recent data indicating that it infects tongue epithelial cells and establishes latency, we examined 98 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue and 15 cases of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma for the presence of EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs, EBV DNA and an EBV-encoded protein, EBNA-1. A commercially available in situ hybridisation kit targeting EBER transcripts (EBER-ISH showed a positive signal in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of tumour cells in 43% of TSCCs. However, application of control probes and RNase A digestion using in-house developed EBER-ISH showed identical EBER staining patterns, indicating non-specific signals. PCR analysis of the BamH1 W repeat sequences did not identify EBV genomes in tumour samples. Immunohistochemistry for EBNA-1 was also negative. These data exclude EBV as a potential player in TSCC in both old and young patients and highlight the importance of appropriate controls for EBER-ISH in investigating EBV in human diseases.

  3. Prevalence status and association with human papilloma virus of anal squamous proliferative lesions in a patient sample in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Kuo, Guan-Tin; Kuo, Lu-Ting; Hsiao, Cheng-Hsiang

    2008-08-01

    Anal squamous proliferative lesions, including condyloma, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (AHSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The objectives of the study were to investigate the HPV prevalence of anal squamous proliferative lesion in Taiwan. From 1991 to 2005, 41 cases with condyloma, 12 cases with AHSIL, and 13 cases with SCC were collected. DNA was extracted from the tissue sections of these patients, and the HPV genotype was identified using polymerase chain reaction and gene chip. The integration status of HPV16 DNA was also evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Anal condyloma mainly occurred in young males, but AHSIL and anal SCC developed in older patients. In the patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, AHSIL developed much earlier than patients without HIV infection (36 vs. 61 years). HPV DNA was detected in all 56 patients whose specimens contained adequate DNA. High-risk HPVs (type 16, 58, etc.) were mainly detected in the AHSIL and SCC. Multiple HPV infection was found in AHSIL (4 of 12) and condyloma (11 of 34) but was rare in invasive cancer (1 of 12). Seven of 8 patients with HPV16 infection had coexistent episomal and integrated forms. HPV58 is a unique high-risk HPV prevalent in Taiwan. The integration status of HPV seems not correlated with the severity of the dysplasia. In our study, emerging HIV-positive AHSIL in recent years indicates that we should devote more efforts to promote sexual safety among the people who engaged in anal intercourse.

  4. No evidence for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Torben; Khan, Gulfaraz; Coates, Philip J.; Sgaramella, Nicola; Fåhraeus, Robin; Hassani, Asma; Philip, Pretty S.; Norberg Spaak, Lena; Califano, Luigi; Colella, Giuseppe; Olofsson, Katarina; Loizou, Christos; Franco, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively. EBV infects most adults worldwide through oral transmission and establishes a latent infection, with sporadic productive viral replication and release of virus in the oral cavity throughout life. In view of the prevalence of EBV in the oral cavity and recent data indicating that it infects tongue epithelial cells and establishes latency, we examined 98 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue and 15 cases of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma for the presence of EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs), EBV DNA and an EBV-encoded protein, EBNA-1. A commercially available in situ hybridisation kit targeting EBER transcripts (EBER-ISH) showed a positive signal in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of tumour cells in 43% of TSCCs. However, application of control probes and RNase A digestion using in-house developed EBER-ISH showed identical EBER staining patterns, indicating non-specific signals. PCR analysis of the BamH1 W repeat sequences did not identify EBV genomes in tumour samples. Immunohistochemistry for EBNA-1 was also negative. These data exclude EBV as a potential player in TSCC in both old and young patients and highlight the importance of appropriate controls for EBER-ISH in investigating EBV in human diseases. PMID:28926591

  5. Highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell cancer of the cervix: a rare, locally aggressive tumor not associated with human papillomavirus or squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C; Catania, F; Wakely, P; Nuovo, G J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report an unusual variant of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, not associated with either human papillomavirus infection or antecedent squamous intraepithelial lesions. Five women had a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer discovered at hysterectomy performed for prolapse (two cases), leiomyoma (one case), or a vaginal fistula (two cases). The women ranged in age from 47 to 78 years (mean 59 years). Four of the five had a history of normal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears; the other had a Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). All had large cervical tumors (two with parametrial involvement and one with vaginal involvement) that showed extensive keratin formation, an inverted pattern of growth, and, except for one case, minimal cytologic atypia. There was extensive hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis adjacent to each tumor; none had evidence of squamous intraepithelial lesion. Human papillomavirus testing by polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization and reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction in situ was negative in each case, compared with a detection rate of 107 of 108 (99%) for squamous intraepithelial lesion-associated cervical squamous cell and adenocarcinomas. Two of the women died of extensive local recurrence; two other women were recently diagnosed. We conclude that highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare entity not associated with human papillomavirus infection or squamous intraepithelial lesion and thus difficult to detect on routine cervical cancer screening.

  6. Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with cytologic evidence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: baseline data from a randomized trial. The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study (ALTS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections appear to be central to the development of cervical cancer. This study addresses the question of whether testing women who have low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) of the uterine cervix for HPV DNA is useful as a triage strategy. Four clinical centers in different areas of the United States participated in a randomized clinical trial of the use of HPV DNA testing in women with cytologic evidence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or LSIL. The study sample in this article consists only of women who had LSIL at enrollment. Within 6 months of an LSIL diagnosis (based on a Pap smear read by a community-based cytopathologist), women who were 18 years of age or older completed a standardized questionnaire and underwent a pelvic examination that included collection of cervical specimens for HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture II (HCII)(R) assay. Among the 642 women referred with LSIL who had analyzable test results, the mean chronologic age and age at first coitus were similar among the four clinical centers, despite the centers' ethnic and geographic diversity. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in cervical samples from 532 (82.9%) of the 642 women (95% confidence interval = 79.7%-85.7%). This high frequency of HPV positivity was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in a subset of 210 paired specimens tested by HCII and PCR (81.4% were positive by both methods). Because a very high percentage of women with an LSIL diagnosis from Pap smears are positive for HPV DNA by HCII testing, there is limited potential for this assay to direct decisions about the clinical management of women with LSIL. The role of HPV testing in the management of women with ASCUS is still under study.

  7. COPD and squamous cell lung cancer: aberrant inflammation and immunity is the common link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Anthony, Desiree; McQualter, Jonathan; Anderson, Gary; Irving, Louis; Steinfort, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Cigarette smoking has reached epidemic proportions within many regions of the world and remains the highest risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Squamous cell lung cancer is commonly detected in heavy smokers, where the risk of developing lung cancer is not solely defined by tobacco consumption. Although therapies that target common driver mutations in adenocarcinomas are showing some promise, they are proving ineffective in smoking-related squamous cell lung cancer. Since COPD is characterized by an excessive inflammatory and oxidative stress response, this review details how aberrant innate, adaptive and systemic inflammatory processes can contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in COPD. Activated leukocytes release increasing levels of proteases and free radicals as COPD progresses and tertiary lymphoid aggregates accumulate with increasing severity. Reactive oxygen species promote formation of reactive carbonyls that are not only tumourigenic through initiating DNA damage, but can directly alter the function of regulatory proteins involved in host immunity and tumour suppressor functions. Systemic inflammation is also markedly increased during infective exacerbations in COPD and the interplay between tumour-promoting serum amyloid A (SAA) and IL-17A is discussed. SAA is also an endogenous allosteric modifier of FPR2 expressed on immune and epithelial cells, and the therapeutic potential of targeting this receptor is proposed as a novel strategy for COPD-lung cancer overlap. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. The Fanconi anemia pathway: Repairing the link between DNA damage and squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E.; Lui, Vivian W.Y.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited recessive disease caused by mutations in one of fifteen genes known to encode FA pathway components. In response to DNA damage, nuclear FA proteins associate into high molecular weight complexes through a cascade of post-translational modifications and physical interactions, followed by the repair of damaged DNA. Hematopoietic cells are particularly sensitive to the loss of these interactions, and bone marrow failure occurs almost universally in FA patients. FA as a disease is further characterized by cancer susceptibility, which highlights the importance of the FA pathway in tumor suppression, and will be the focus of this review. Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common cancer type, often subsequent to bone marrow failure. However, FA patients are also at an extreme risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck and gynecological tract, with an even greater incidence in those individuals who have received a bone marrow transplant and recovered from hematopoietic disease. FA tumor suppression in hematopoietic versus epithelial compartments could be mechanistically similar or distinct. Definition of compartment specific FA activities is now critical to assess the effects of today's bone marrow failure treatments on tomorrow's solid tumor development. It is our hope that current therapies can then be optimized to decrease the risk of malignant transformation in both hematopoietic and epithelial cells. Here we review our current understanding of the mechanisms of action of the Fanconi anemia pathway as it contributes to stress responses, DNA repair and squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility

  9. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization effect of TRA-8 on radioresistant human larynx squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Hu, Y; Long, J; Zhou, Y J; Zhong, Y H; Liao, Z K; Liu, S Q; Zhou, F X; Zhou, Y F; Xie, C H

    2009-02-01

    TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of tumorigenic and transformed cell lines, but not in many normal cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that death receptor 5 (DR5), one of the two death receptors bound by TRAIL, showed expression in most malignantly transformed cells. This study evaluated effects of a monoclonal antibody (TRA-8) to human death receptor 5, combined with ionizing radiation, on radioresistant human larynx squamous carcinoma cell line (Hep-2R). Cells were treated with TRA-8 alone or in combination with radiation, cell viability inhibition was measured by MTT assay, and the induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexin V staining. Radionsensitivity of Hep-2R cells treated with TRA-8 were investigated with long-term clonogenic assays. Regulation of DR5 expression in cells after radiation was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence using murine TRA-8 in combination with flow cytometry. The results suggested that TRA-8 enhanced radionsensitivity of Hep-2R cells, and that TRA-8 regulated Hep-2R cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Irradiation up-regulated the expression of DR5, and when combined with TRA-8 yielded optimal survival benefit. Therefore, TRA-8 can be used in combination with irradiation in radioresistant human larynx squamous carcinoma cells. Monoclonal antibodies such as TRA-8 may play an important role in the development of an effective treatment strategy for patients with radioresistant cancers.

  10. An Unusual Metastasis of a Transglottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to the Forearm

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    Abdullah Dafir Albeyatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Each year around 2,200 people in the UK are diagnosed with laryngeal SCC (Office of National Statistics 2009. Compared to pharyngeal carcinoma, it is a highly curable disease with a survival rate of around 60% for all stages and all forms of treatment. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with a previously treated T4 N2c transglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, who developed an isolated swelling in the extensor compartment of his right forearm at 6 months after radical laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection. Fine needle aspiration of the forearm lesion revealed SCC consistent with a metastasis from the laryngeal primary. MRI revealed that the lesion was confined to the muscle. Initial staging CT showed no distant metastases or signs of advanced disease, including no evidence of axillary nodal involvement. Conclusion. This case is therefore unusual, as one of only 2 cases reported in the scientific literature of isolated distant muscular metastasis from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We conclude that any muscular swelling, in the setting of previous head and neck malignancy, should be treated with a high degree of suspicion for metastasis and investigated promptly.

  11. p53 protein expression in corneal squamous cell carcinomas of dogs

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    Lucas Bahdour Cossi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocular tumors play an increasing concern in veterinary ophthalmology. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma is unfrequent in dogs, and by this way it has little studies. Studies that investigated the carcinogenesis mechanisms wich could help to the development of ocular squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in dog are rare. The aim of this work was to identify by immunohistochemical techniques, the p53 protein expression in the spontaneous dog corneal SCC. For this work, were used five cases of corneal SCC and one case of actinic keratitis. The sections were obtained from paraffin-wax blocks and submitted to histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. All the six samples showed immunolabeling to cytokeratin and p53 protein. These results support the conclusions that the immunoreactivity of p53 protein by immunohistochemistry is present in canine corneal SCC suppporting its role in carcinogenesis of this tumor, but not provides prognostic indicators in cases of SCC corneal in dog; and can be a association of exposure to solar radiation with the possible mutation of the TP53 gene.

  12. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qingxia; Shou, Chengcao; Wang, Junsheng; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5%) cases, 16 (10.5%) cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2%) were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0%) were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011), T stage (P = 0.035), and clinic outcome (P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between the nuclear HIWI expression and clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development

  13. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

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    Shou Chengcao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. Methods With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. Results The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5% cases, 16 (10.5% cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2% were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0% were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011, T stage (P = 0.035, and clinic outcome (P Conclusion The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development.

  14. Relationship between the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Clinicopathologic Features in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Amir Hossein Jafarian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is one of the most important and common types of head and neck malignancy, with an estimated rate of 4% among all human malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the association between expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and the clinicopathological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.   Materials and Methods: One hundred existing samples of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens of OSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining for matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 antibodies. Samples were divided into four groups: negative, 50%. Patient records were assessed for demographic characteristics such as age and gender, smoking and family history of OSCC as well as tumor features including location, differentiation, stage and lymph node involvement.   Results: In this study, 58 patients (58% were male and 42 (42% female. The mean age of patients was 60.38±14.07 years. The average number of lymph nodes involved was 8.9±3.8. Tumoral grade, tumoral stage, lymphatic metastasis and history of smoking were significantly related to MMP2 and MMP9 expression.   Conclusion:  Our study demonstrated that MMP2 and MMP9 expression are important in the development of OSCC.

  15. Human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibieta, Blanca R; Lizano, Marcela; Fras-Mendivil, Mauricio; Barrera, José L; Carrillo, Adela; Ma Ruz-Godoy, Luz; Mohar, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    To determine the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in oral cancer and its association with smoking and drinking habits. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples were collected from 51 patients with histological diagnosis of squamous-cell carcinoma were collected at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Mexico City. HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and the clinical characteristics of this population were analyzed. Fifty samples out of 51 were positive for beta-globin; 21 (42%) cases were HPV-positive, and 14/21 were positive for HPV-16. We found more samples positive in men than in women (71% vs 29%). No differences were observed between HPV-positive and -negative patients in relation to smoking and drinking habits (81% vs 79%). HPV infection was present in 42% of patients with oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC); HPV-16 was the most frequent type, identified in 66.6%. Other cofactors participate in the development of OSCC, independent of HPV infection.

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Hypertrophic Lichen Planus: A Review and Analysis of 38 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knackstedt, Thomas J; Collins, Lindsey K; Li, Zhongze; Yan, Shaofeng; Samie, Faramarz H

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic lichen planus is a chronic variant of lichen planus with controversial malignant association. To describe and analyze the relationship of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and hypertrophic lichen planus. A retrospective chart review of patients with hypertrophic lichen planus and SCC was performed at the authors' institution. Thereafter, scientific databases were searched for articles reporting cases of SCC arising in hypertrophic lichen planus. Patient demographics, immune status, lichen planus features, and SCC data points were extracted for each patient and evaluated. Thirty-eight cases of SCC in hypertrophic lichen planus occurred in 16 women, average age: 61.4, and 22 men, average age: 51.3, after a lag time of 88 days to 40 years. Squamous cell carcinoma was uniformly located on the lower extremity. Men had larger SCC than women (p = .027) and a significantly longer lag time to SCC development (p = .002). Long lag time was associated with a smaller SCC size (p = .032). In the past, hypertrophic lichen planus and SCC have been considered isolated diseases. Based on an increasing number of cases, the association between hypertrophic lichen planus and keratinocyte malignancies warrants surveillance.

  17. Concurrent Presentation of Erythrodermic Lichen Planus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Coincidence or Malignant Transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Neema M; Bhat, Ramesh; Rao, Shwetha B

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge.

  18. Destructive, multifocal squamous-cell carcinoma nodules on the cheecks and neck of an elderly woman with a dementia syndrome

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    Norma Marigliano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Squamous-cell carcinoma is the second most common form of skin cancer. It can develop on normal skin, actinic keratoses, leukoplakia, and burn scars. The tumor is characterized by remarkable variability at the macroscopic and histopathologic levels. Case report: A 93-year-old woman was admitted to nursing home with a diagnosis of dementia syndrome and squamous cell nodular carcinoma on cheeks and neck region. The physical examination revealed firm, black excrescences with irregular surfaces over both cheekbones, which were roughly the size of hazelnuts. Similar nodules were present with ulcers on other areas of the face. The patient was admitted to the day hospital twice for wide excision of the tumors in the zygomatic region. Later, the neck tumors were removed, and the wound was repaired with a rotation flap after careful control of bleeding. For the latter surgery, the patient was hospitalized for a few days in a geriatric ward to ensure optimal medical care and psychological support. The histological examination revealed ulcerated, well-differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma that extended down to the subcutaneous layer. Shortly after surgery, she returned to the nursing home to resume rehabilitation and group therapy.

  19. Evaluation of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in actinic keratosis, in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravodimou, Aristea; Tzelepi, Vassiliki; Papadaki, Helen; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Georgiou, Sophia; Melachrinou, Maria; Kourea, Eleni P

    2018-05-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) represent important regulators of carcinogenesis. Cutaneous invasive squamous cell carcinoma (inSCC) develops through precursor lesions, namely in situ squamous cell carcinoma (isSCC) and actinic keratosis (AK), representing a natural model of carcinogenesis. The study evaluates TIL subpopulations in inSCC and its precursors by comparing 2 semiquantitative scoring systems, and assesses the presence of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in these lesions. Paraffin sections from 33 cases of AK, 19 isSCCs and 34 inSCCs with adjacent precursor lesions or normal skin (NS) were immunostained for CD3, CD4, CD8 and Foxp3. TIL subgroups were evaluated by the semiquantitative Klintrup-Mäkinen (K-M) score, and by a more detailed modification of this system. Treg counts were assessed by image analysis quantification. An increase of all TIL subpolulations from precursor lesions toward inSCC was shown by both scoring systems. Treg counts progressively increased from NS to AK and isSCC, but decreased in inSCC. Tregs were more numerous in pT2 and around indolent inSCCs compared to T1 and aggressive subtypes. T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells progressively increase in cutaneous squamous cell carcinogenesis, while Treg counts diminish in inSCC. The K-M score is an appropriate, easily applicable TIL scoring system in cutaneous inSCC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability.

  1. Unmet needs in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: potential role for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2014-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung accounts for 20-30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Despite the differences in disease characteristics between squamous and non-squamous NSCLC, both have historically been treated similarly in the clinic. Recently approved drugs have revealed differences in activity and safety profiles across histologic subtypes and have applicability in treating non-squamous, but not typically squamous, NSCLC. Exploration of immune checkpoints--co-inhibitory molecules used to regulate immune responses--has resulted in novel immunotherapies designed to interrupt signaling through the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 or programmed cell death protein-1 pathways on lymphocytes. Modulation of these pathways can lead to restored antitumor immune responses, and preliminary evidence shows that agents targeting these pathways have activity in lung cancer, including squamous NSCLC.

  2. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

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    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Swetha; Chitturi, Raviteja; Anumula, Vamsikrishna; Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology. PMID:28435394

  4. Human Papilloma Virus and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayedeh Haeri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV has been suggested as an etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in esophageal SCCs in our region with strict contamination control to prevent false positive results. Thirty cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were chosen by simple random selection in a period of two years. PCR for target sequence of HPV L1 gene was performed on nucleic acid extracted from samples by means of GP5+/GP6+ primers. All tissue samples in both case and control groups were negative for HPV-DNA. Although the number of cases in this study was limited, the contribution of HPV in substantial number of esophageal SCCs in our region is unlikely.

  5. Human papilloma virus and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayedeh Haeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV has also been suggested as an etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in esophageal SCCs in our region with strict contamination control to prevent false positive results. Thirty cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were chosen by simple random selection in a period of two years. PCR for target sequence of HPV L1 gene was performed on nucleic acid extracted from samples by means of GP5+/GP6+ primers. All tissue samples in both case and control groups were negative for HPV-DNA. Although the number of cases in this study was limited, the contribution of HPV in the substantial number of esophageal SCCs in our region is unlikely.

  6. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Gudiseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology.

  7. Cisplatin, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-18

    CDKN2A-p16 Negative; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7

  8. Clinicopathologic Features of Submucosal Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emi, Manabu; Hihara, Jun; Hamai, Yoichi; Furukawa, Takaoki; Ibuki, Yuta; Okada, Morihito

    2017-12-01

    The prognoses of submucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients vary. Patients with favorable prognoses may receive less invasive or nonsurgical interventions, whereas patients with poor prognoses or advanced esophageal cancer may require aggressive treatments. We sought to identify prognostic factors for patients with submucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, focusing on lymph node metastasis and recurrence. We included 137 submucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who had undergone transthoracic esophagectomy with systematic extended lymph node dissection. Submucosal tumors were classified as SM1, SM2, and SM3 according to the depth of invasion. Prognostic factors were determined by univariable and multivariable analyses. Lymph node metastasis was observed in 18.8%, 30.5%, and 50.0% of SM1, SM2, and SM3 cases, respectively. The overall 5-year recurrence rate was 21.9%; the rates for SM1, SM2, and SM3 tumors were 9.4%, 18.6%, and 34.8%, respectively. The SM1 tumors all recurred locoregionally; distant metastasis occurred in SM2 and SM3 cases. The 5-year overall survival rates were 83%, 77%, and 59% for SM1, SM2, and SM3 cases, respectively. On univariable analysis, lymph node metastasis, depth of submucosal invasion (SM3 versus SM1/2), and tumor location (upper thoracic versus mid/lower thoracic) were poor prognostic factors for overall survival. Multivariable Cox regression analyses identified depth of submucosal invasion (hazard ratio 2.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 4.61) and tumor location (hazard ratio 2.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.63) as preoperative prognostic factors. Tumor location (upper thoracic) and infiltration (SM3) are the worse prognostic factors of submucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but lymph node metastasis is not a predictor of poorer prognosis. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma presenting as an endodontic-periodontic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Paul A; Kim, David M; Harsfield, Scott L; Jacobson, Erica R

    2005-10-01

    Regardless of advances in diagnosis and treatment during the past 40 years, the overall 5-year survival rates for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cancers have only slightly improved and remain around 50%. Thus, the early diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma by health care providers are essential in achieving a good prognosis. We report a case of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that presented as a benign endodontic-periodontic lesion with a 7-mm periodontal pocket on tooth #15 in a 40-year-old, non-smoking woman. The subsequent management of the case is also discussed. The study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Our patient was seen for a comprehensive periodontal examination including a periodontal charting, occlusal analysis, study casts, electronic pulp test for tooth #15, and complete mouth periapical radiographs. As there was a periapical radiolucency, an endodontic consultation was obtained. A periodontal flap surgical procedure was performed on teeth #13 to #15, and as there was bone erosion into the maxillary sinus, a biopsy of the soft tissue was submitted to the local hospital for histological analysis. The biopsied lesion was diagnosed as invasive, moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with focal spindle and clear cell differentiation (grade II to III of IV). Bone invasion was also identified. The treatment of the carcinoma involved a hemimaxillectomy with the removal of the maxillary left posterior teeth. The patient remained free of tumor for 5 years after the initial presentation. Patient education and periodic oral cancer examinations by dental professionals are necessary to reduce diagnostic delay and improve prognosis. This case report emphasizes the important role of dental professionals, especially periodontists and endodontists, of being aware that squamous cell carcinoma may manifest itself clinically and/or radiographically as a common periodontal or endodontic lesion.

  10. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  11. Retinopathy secondary to radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groomer, A.E.; Gutwein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a case of radiotherapy-induced retinopathy following treatment of squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment of the carcinoma with external beam radiotherapy to the supraorbital region and base of the skull was followed by the onset of retinopathy. The sensory retina, as well as other central nervous system tissues, is highly resistant to radiation damage; however, the retinal vasculature is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, producing a retinopathy that is characteristic of other vascular occlusive diseases. Management is discussed

  12. Radiation-induced squamous carcinoma arising within a seborrhoeic keratosis

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    Suvarna, S.K.; Bagary, M.; Glazer, G. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-04-01

    Seborrhoeic keratoses (SK) are common skin tumours. They are benign, and present little difficulty in management. However, rare malignant transformation is recognized. The authors report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma arising from dysplastic changes within a long-standing SK on the chest wall of a 75-year-old retired radiologist, and consider the role of radiation in inducing malignant change within SKs. (author).

  13. Radiation-induced squamous carcinoma arising within a seborrhoeic keratosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvarna, S.K.; Bagary, M.; Glazer, G.

    1993-01-01

    Seborrhoeic keratoses (SK) are common skin tumours. They are benign, and present little difficulty in management. However, rare malignant transformation is recognized. The authors report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma arising from dysplastic changes within a long-standing SK on the chest wall of a 75-year-old retired radiologist, and consider the role of radiation in inducing malignant change within SKs. (author)

  14. Induction Chemotherapy for p16 Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Yuki; Ando, Mizuo; Omura, Go; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Takahashi, Wataru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis We aimed to determine the effectiveness of induction chemotherapy for treating p16?positive oropharyngeal cancer in our department. Study Design This was a retrospective case series to assess treatment effectiveness. Methods We administered induction chemotherapy to patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal p16?positive squamous cell carcinoma between 2008 and 2013. Induction chemotherapy was administered using combinations of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5?fluorouracil. ...

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating vitiligo in an Indian man

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    Amit Kumar Dhawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An elderly man, a known case of generalized vitiligo of long duration, presented to us with an ulcerated exophytic growth arising from the vitiliginous skin. The histopathological study confirmed the clinical suspicion of squamous cell carcinoma. Cutaneous neoplasia arising from the vitiliginous skin is a rare situation. Lack of melanin leaves the skin vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation damage, which may predispose to cutaneous neoplasia. Therefore, the importance of photoprotection has been stressed upon through this illustration.

  16. Reevaluation of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Yin; Liu, Xianben; Sun, Haibo; Wang, Zongfei; Zhang, Ruixiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) remains controversial. The optimal management strategy for resectable ESCCs varies regionally based on local randomized controlled trials. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to re-evaluate this controversial issue. A systematic review of the Medline, Embase, and PubMed databases was carried out on data collected between August 1994 and August 2...

  17. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARalpha, beta, gamma, and RXRalpha, beta, gamma) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most...... common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors...... were found for RARalpha, beta, and RXRbeta protein levels between normal esophageal tissue of patients and that of controls. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that alterations of retinoic acid receptors protein may contribute in the development of SCC in esophagus...

  18. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  19. Association of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Mahmuda; Ali, Liaquat; Hassan, Zahid; Khan, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. In Bangladesh, it comprises 20% of the whole body malignancies. Several studies found that 15% to 25% of oropharyngeal cancer cases are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV). This study is done to find the association of human papilloma virus subtypes, particularly HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, with the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladeshi patients. In total, 34 diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell car...

  20. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Deba P.; Dentlinger, Renee B.; Forystek, Amanda M.; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare. PMID:21274289

  1. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  2. A rare case of metastatic squamous urachal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, S; Andrei, A; Rusu Muntean, G; Ungureanu, M; Herlea, V; Becheanu, G; Popescu, I

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare type of urachal malignancy, only a few cases being reported in the medical literature. We present the case of a 49-year-old male patient diagnosed with infected squamous cell urachal carcinoma with multiple pulmonary metastases, after complaints of lower abdominal pain, abdominal mass and fever, without respiratory symptoms. The abdominal ultrasonography and the CT scan revealed a tumoral mass in the lower abdomen in contact with the abdominal wall and the urinary bladder dome, displacing the small bowel. Pulmonary nodular lesions were described in the left lobe pyramid. The intraoperative diagnosis was necrotic urachal tumor with urinary bladder dome invasion and suspected pulmonary metastases, and tumor ablation with bladder dome resection and suture of the bladder were performed. The histopathological result was poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (G3), with negative resection margins. The patient recovered well after surgery, but the prognosis is very poor due to the metastatic stage in which the tumor was diagnosed, no standard chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of metastatic urachal carcinoma being known as effective until now. Celsius.

  3. Treatment of squamous cell and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathbone B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Barrie Rathbone,1 Janusz Jankowski,2 Michael Rathbone31University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, 2Sir James Black Professor Queen Mary University of London, 3St George's University of London, London, United KingdomAbstract: Esophageal cancer is the sixth commonest cause of cancer death worldwide. It predominantly occurs in two histological types, ie, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, each with its own distinct geographical distribution and natural history. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising, as is that of its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, which consists of metaplastic change in the squamous mucosa of the esophagus in response to damage by gastroesophageal reflux disease. The principal risk factors for esophageal cancer are cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, reflux disease, and obesity. In tumors without local invasion or distant metastases, surgery remains the treatment option of choice, although there are considerable differences of opinion regarding the roles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A wide variety of endoscopic treatments are available for dysplastic lesions and palliation. Despite the availability of increasingly complex imaging modalities and expensive and possibly ineffective attempts at screening, the evidence base is conflicted and the prognosis remains poor. However, from a recent large systematic review, three clear recommendations can be made, ie, use of endoscopic resection for high grade dysplasia, use of radiofrequency ablation for residual premalignant lesions, and, finally, prevention of risk factors for cancer, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity.Keywords: cancer, Barrett's, esophagus, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma

  4. The emerging epidemic of melanoma and squamous cell skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.G.; Hoover, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell skin cancer, though common, remains largely unreported and unstudied, with little known about its incidence and time trends. The authors have used a unique resource--a continuous population-based registry of cases of squamous cell skin cancer within a single prepaid health plant--to describe basic epidemiologic features of this malignancy and compare it with the more widely studied melanoma. Both malignancies are considerably more common in this population than they expected based on previous reports from the general population. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the incidence of squamous cell skin cancer increased 2.6 times in men and 3.1 times in women, while incidence of melanoma rose 3.5-fold and 4.6-fold in men and women, respectively. Skin cancers of both types involving the head and neck or the extremities increased essentially in parallel over these 27 years. Melanomas of the trunk, however, appeared to increase at a faster rate in both sexes. These observations are consistent with the impression that the rising incidence of both malignancies may be attributable to increased voluntary exposure to the sun over an extended period

  5. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  6. Study of a new tumor marker, CYFRA 21-1, in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, and comparison with squamous cell carcinoma antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Ch.; KAo, CH.H.; Wang, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis value of a new tumor marker, CYFRA 21-1, was studied in the blood samples collected from 22 controls, and 87 pre-treatment patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Sensitivity and specificity of CYFRA 21-1 was was compared with those of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) measured in the sera of the same patients. Serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were higher in patients with squamous cell carcinoma than in controls (p < 0.05), and correlated with FIGO stage (Stage IIb-IV vs. Stage Ib-IIa, p = 0.0477). Using 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off value, elevated CYFRA 21-1 levels were found in 13.6% of controls, 34.8% of patients with Stage Ib-IIa squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, and 63.5% of patients with Stage IIb-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. However, there was less sensitivity and specificity of CYFRA 21-1 than those of SCC in detecting squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. CYFRA 21-1 may not be a better tumor marker than SCC for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  7. Anti-tumor effect of cisplatin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma was enhanced by andrographolide via upregulation of phospho-p53 in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjie; Hu, Hui; Miao, Shushu; Zheng, Jiayong; Xie, Zhijian; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common neoplasm in the world. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and treatment, the outcome is still poor now. Thus, the development of novel therapeuticapproaches is needed. The aim of this study is to assess the synergistic anti-tumor effect of andrographolide with cisplatin (DDP) in oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells in vitro and in vivo. We performed Cell Counting Kit-8 proliferation assay, apoptosis assay, and western blotting on CAL-27 cells treated with andrographolide, DDP or the combination in vitro. In vivo, we also treated CAL-27 xenografts with andrographolide or the combination, and performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay and immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67. The results showed the combination of andrographolide and DDP synergistically inhibited CAL-27 cell proliferation in vitro and caused tumor regression in vivo in the CAL-27 xenografts. In addition, the synergistic anti-tumor effect of andrographolide with synergistic was due to an enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, the combination therapy upregulated the expression level of p-p53 in vitro and decreased Ki-67 expression in vivo. Our data indicate that the combination treatment of andrographolide and DDP results in synergistic anti-tumor growth activity against oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that combination of andrographolide with DDP was likely to represent a potential therapeutic strategy for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. Secondary oesophageal or gastric cancer in patients treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund Andersen, Anja; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    SPM. CONCLUSION: In this study, we confirm that there is an elevated risk of developing oesophageal and gastric cancer in the Danish population of patients with a cancer in the supraglottic or hypopharyngeal region. Therefore, we recommend close follow-up of these patients and a low threshold......INTRODUCTION: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are at an elevated risk of developing second primary malignancies (SPM). Our objectives were to estimate the excess risk of oesophageal and gastric SPMs in patients with malignancies of the pharynx or larynx and, additionally.......004) and hypopharyngeal (OR = 3.9; p cancer compared with 3.4 years (95% CI: 3.1-4.3; range: 0.04-13.7) for patients without...

  9. Prognostic Stratification of Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paz, Dante; Kao, Huang-Kai; Huang, Yenlin; Chang, Kai-Ping

    2017-08-10

    Prognosis of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma remains a challenge for clinicians despite progress in its diagnosis and treatment over the past decades. In this review, we assessed clinicopathological factors and potential biomarkers along with their prognostic relevance in an attempt to develop optimal treatment strategies for these patients. In addition to several pathologic factors that have been proposed to improve prognostic stratification and treatment planning in the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee staging manual on cancer, we reviewed some other imaging and clinicopathological parameters demonstrated to be closely associated with patient prognosis, along with the biomarkers related to novel target or immune therapy. Evaluation of current literature regarding the prognostic stratification used in contemporary clinicopathological studies and progress in the development of targeted or immune therapy may help these patients benefit from tailored and personalized treatment and obtain better oncological results.

  10. CD47 is a Potential Target for the Treatment of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunPing Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of CD47 on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC and the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody against CD47 and its ligand SIRPα in the treatment of LSCC. Methods: We firstly detected the expressions of CD47 mRNA and protein in LSCC and para-carcinoma tissues, introduced the most efficient CD47siRNA sequence into LSCC cells by lentiviral transfection and employed three monoclonal antibodies to evaluate their anti-LSCC effects in vitro and in vivo. Results: We observed that the mRNA and protein expressions of CD47 in LSCC tissue had significant increase in LSCC tissues compared with those in para-carcinoma tissue (p Conclusion: The results suggested a critical role of CD47 in LSCC development and the promising treatment of antiCD47/SIRPα and/or CD47siRNA in LSCC.

  11. Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mohd Bakri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. Objective: This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation.

  12. Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bakri, Marina; Mohd Hussaini, Haizal; Rachel Holmes, Ann; David Cannon, Richard; Mary Rich, Alison

    2010-12-21

    Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation.

  13. Tumor and Stromal-Based Contributions to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwell, Steven M.; Weed, Scott A., E-mail: scweed@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Program in Cancer Cell Biology, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2015-02-27

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is typically diagnosed at advanced stages with evident loco-regional and/or distal metastases. The prevalence of metastatic lesions directly correlates with poor patient outcome, resulting in high patient mortality rates following metastatic development. The progression to metastatic disease requires changes not only in the carcinoma cells, but also in the surrounding stromal cells and tumor microenvironment. Within the microenvironment, acellular contributions from the surrounding extracellular matrix, along with contributions from various infiltrating immune cells, tumor associated fibroblasts, and endothelial cells facilitate the spread of tumor cells from the primary site to the rest of the body. Thus far, most attempts to limit metastatic spread through therapeutic intervention have failed to show patient benefit in clinic trails. The goal of this review is highlight the complexity of invasion-promoting interactions in the HNSCC tumor microenvironment, focusing on contributions from tumor and stromal cells in order to assist future therapeutic development and patient treatment.

  14. Krüppel-like Factor 5, Increased in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Promotes Proliferation, Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia, Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Tumor Growth in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Yang, Jong Won; Yang, Vincent W; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B

    2018-04-01

    Activating mutations in KRAS are detected in most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Expression of an activated form of KRAS (KrasG12D) in pancreata of mice is sufficient to induce formation of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs)-a precursor of PDAC. Pancreatitis increases formation of PanINs in mice that express KrasG12D by promoting acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). We investigated the role of the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) in ADM and KRAS-mediated formation of PanINs. We performed studies in adult mice with conditional disruption of Klf5 (Klf5 fl/fl ) and/or expression of Kras G12D (LSL-Kras G12D ) via Cre ERTM recombinase regulated by an acinar cell-specific promoter (Ptf1a). Activation of Kras G12D and loss of KLF5 was achieved by administration of tamoxifen. Pancreatitis was induced in mice by administration of cerulein; pancreatic tissues were collected, analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry, and transcriptomes were compared between mice that did or did not express KLF5. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of human tissue microarrays, comparing levels of KLF5 among 96 human samples of PDAC. UN-KC-6141 cells (pancreatic cancer cells derived from Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras G12D mice) were incubated with inhibitors of different kinases and analyzed in proliferation assays and by immunoblots. Expression of KLF5 was knocked down with small hairpin RNAs or CRISPR/Cas9 strategies; cells were analyzed in proliferation and gene expression assays, and compared with cells expressing control vectors. Cells were subcutaneously injected into flanks of syngeneic mice and tumor growth was assessed. Of the 96 PDAC samples analyzed, 73% were positive for KLF5 (defined as nuclear staining in more than 5% of tumor cells). Pancreata from Ptf1a-Cre ERTM ;LSL-Kras G12D mice contained ADM and PanIN lesions, which contained high levels of nuclear KLF5 within these structures. In contrast, Ptf1a-Cre ERTM ;LSL-Kras G12D ;Klf5 fl

  15. Cancer stem cell markers in patterning differentiation and in prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Simple; Siddappa, Gangotri; Valiyaveedan, Sindhu Govindan; Dodda Thimmasandra Ramanjanappa, Ravindra; Das, Debashish; Pandian, Ramanan; Khora, Samanta Sekhar; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Suresh, Amritha

    2017-06-01

    Differentiation is a major histological parameter determining tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of the patient; cancer stem cells with their slow dividing and undifferentiated nature might be one of the factors determining the same. This study aims to correlate cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD147) with tumor differentiation and evaluate their subsequent effect on prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis in treatment naïve oral cancer patients (n = 53) indicated that the expression of CD147 was associated with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma patients were CD44 high /CD147 high as compared to only 10% of patients with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. A three-way analysis indicated that differentiation correlated with recurrence and survival (p oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines originating from different grades of oral cancer. Flowcytometry-based analysis indicated an increase in CD44 + /CD147 + cells in cell lines of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (94.35 ± 1.14%, p squamous cell carcinoma origin (93.49 ± 0.47%, p squamous cell carcinoma origin (23.12% ± 0.49%). Expression profiling indicated higher expression of cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in SCC029B (poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma originated; p ≤ 0.001), which was further translated into increased spheroid formation, migration, and invasion (p squamous cell carcinoma origin. This study suggests that CD44 and CD147 together improve the prognostic efficacy of tumor differentiation; in vitro results further point out that these markers might be determinant of differentiation characteristics, imparting properties of increased self-renewal, migration, and invasion.

  16. A case of squamous cell carchinoma, basal cell epithelioma and Bowen`s disease arising from chronic radiodermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Hironori; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Shinkai, Hiroshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-10-01

    We report a case of multiple cancers developing in chronic radiodermatitis. A 43-year-old Japanese male presented with chronic radiodermatitis on both dorsal surfaces of his fingers, following a long-term irradiation by Grenz rays for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. At the same site, he developed squamous cell carcinoma and Bowen`s disease 7 years after the last irradiation. Three years later, he noticed a black papule on the dorsal surface of his right middle finger. After a histological examination, this papule diagnosed to be basal cell epithelioma. (author)

  17. [Dectection of G3BP and CD44v6 in the tissues of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dahu; Lou, Weihua

    2017-07-01

    squamous cell carcinoma tissues are very high, and they have a close relationship with the clinical prognosis. They may raise the VEGF-A expression so as to promote angiogenesis, and then accelerate the development of the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Investigation of a Putative Estrogen-Imprinting Gene, Phosphodiesterase Type IV Variant (PDE4D4), in Determining Prostate Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Wan-Yee

    2007-01-01

    .... Estrogen imprinting of the prostate gland is believed to associate with an increased incidence of prostatic lesions including inflammation epithelial hyperplasia squamous metaplasia dysplasia and adenocarcinoma...

  19. Investigation of a Putative Estrogen-Imprinting Gene, Phosphodiesterase Type IV Variant (Pde4d4), in Determining Prostate Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Wan-Yee

    2008-01-01

    .... Estrogen imprinting of the prostate gland is believed to associate with an increased incidence of prostatic lesions including inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma...

  20. Salvage surgery following radiation failure in squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed the clinical course of patients who developed local (primary) recurrence following high-dose irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and July 1991, 206 patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx underwent radiotherapy with curative intent. Local failure occurred in 46 (22%) patients. Successful surgical salvage was defined as no evidence of recurrent cancer for at least 2 years after salvage surgery and continuously thereafter. Results: Sixteen patients did not undergo salvage surgery because of refusal (7 patients), severe medical illness (2 patients), concurrent distant metastasis (5 patients), or unresectable neck disease (2 patients). Twenty-six patients underwent total laryngectomy, and 4 patients had a voice-sparing procedure. Successful salvage was achieved in 50% of patients who underwent surgery. The rate of successful salvage did not correlate with preirradiation T-stage or time to failure after irradiation. Most of the failures after surgery were because of failure to control the primary cancer. The overall rate of postsurgical complications was 37%. No operative or perioperative deaths occurred. The 5-year survival rate for all 46 patients, calculated from the date of irradiation failure, was 20%, while the 5-year survival rate after salvage surgery for the 30 patients who underwent the procedure was 29%. Conclusion: There are few data in the literature regarding the clinical outcome in patients whose tumors are not controlled by initial radiotherapy. In the current and previous series, one-half to two-thirds of patients who developed primary failure underwent salvage surgery, which was successful in approximately half of the operated patients, leading to a 25-30% rate of long-term disease-free survival among the entire group of patients who developed failure

  1. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin-like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy.

  2. Ultra-deep sequencing reveals the subclonal structure and genomic evolution of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Thomassen, Mads; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a subgroup of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is primarily caused by alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Recent DNA sequencing studies suggests that HNSCC are very heterogeneous between patients; however the intra-patient subclonal...

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma originating from a cutaneous scar in a llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K; Barrington, G M; Parish, S M

    1997-01-01

    A nonhealing wound associated with a laceration in a 12-year-old llama was evaluated. Initial attempts at closure were unsuccessful and biopsy revealed scar tissue. Subsequent biopsies, 18 mo later, revealed squamous cell carcinoma with regional metastasis. This report describes squamous cell carcinoma, secondary to a traumatic wound in a llama. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9332750

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma originating from a cutaneous scar in a llama.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, K; Barrington, G M; Parish, S M

    1997-01-01

    A nonhealing wound associated with a laceration in a 12-year-old llama was evaluated. Initial attempts at closure were unsuccessful and biopsy revealed scar tissue. Subsequent biopsies, 18 mo later, revealed squamous cell carcinoma with regional metastasis. This report describes squamous cell carcinoma, secondary to a traumatic wound in a llama.

  5. The clinical value of squamous cell carcinoma antigen in cancer of the uterine cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, HWA; Duk, JM; van der Zee, AGJ; Pras, E; Willemse, PHB; Hollema, H; Mourits, MJE; de Vries, EGE; Aalders, JG; Boonstra, J.

    1998-01-01

    A review is given of the clinical use and interpretation of serum tumor marker levels during the treatment of patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, Pretreatment serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen provides a new prognostic factor in early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine

  6. CT findings of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2008-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a rare tumor of the stomach with an incidence ranging from 0.04% to 0.4% of all diagnosed gastric cancers. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma in the stomach associated with hypertrophic gastropathy and observed as a huge mass and wall thickening on the greater curvature site by a multidetector CT

  7. A fatal case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with myositis ossificans traumatica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasveld, I N; Scheper, H; Stalenhoef, J; Baas, J M; van Dissel, J

    Myositis ossificans traumatica is a rare disease associated with chronic wounds and fistulae. Chronic ulcers, fistulae and wounds can transform into squamous cell carcinoma, the so-called Marjolin's ulcer. We describe a rapid, progressive and fulminant course of a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma

  8. Bladder squamous cell carcinomas express psoriasin and externalize it to the urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H

    1996-01-01

    were confined chiefly to the "squamous pearls." The presence of psoriasin in the urine of the 4 SCC patients was demonstrated by two-dimensional gel immunoblotting. Similar analysis of 43 urines from patients with bladder tumors other than SCC revealed 7 positives, some of which may reflect squamous...

  9. Immunotherapeutic strategies for cervical squamous carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, W. J.; Kenter, G. G.; Fleuren, G. J.; Melief, C. J.; Trimbos, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    Progress in developing preventive and therapeutic vaccines for HPV-associated diseases has been made in the last few years, but continued studies are needed to evaluate the clinical feasibility of different vaccination approaches and to determine a clinically effective and safe one. The perfect HPV

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Vestibule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E

    1999-01-01

    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...

  11. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Squamous_Cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  17. Clinical and genetic features of lung squamous cell cancer in never-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Hang; Cheng, Chao; Zheng, Difan; Zheng, Shanbo; Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Hu, Haichuan; Cai, Deng; Wang, Shengfei; Zhang, Yawei; Xiang, Jiaqing; Sun, Yihua; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of specific driver mutations to the development and outcome of lung squamous cell cancer (SQCC) in never-smokers, we assessed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of 597 patients who underwent complete resection of SQCCs. In total, 88 (14.7%) never-smokers and 509 (85.3%) ever-smokers were compared. The never-smokers included more females (42.05% vs. 1.57%, P never-smokers were more often poorly differentiated (70.45% vs. 53.24%, P = 0.010) and more often contained oncogenic mutations (21.05% vs 11.05%, P = 0.023), particularly EGFR mutations (13.16% vs 3.40%, P = 0.001). Never-smokers also tended to have poorer OS than smokers. Our results suggest lung SQCCs in never-smokers are a subtype distinct from SQCCs occurring in smokers. PMID:27092882

  18. Genomic and Epigenomic Aberrations in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Implications for Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, De-Chen; Wang, Ming-Rong; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2018-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a common malignancy without effective therapy. The exomes of more than 600 ESCCs have been sequenced in the past 4 years, and numerous key aberrations have been identified. Recently, researchers reported both inter- and intratumor heterogeneity. Although these are interesting observations, their clinical implications are unclear due to the limited number of samples profiled. Epigenomic alterations, such as changes in DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and RNA editing, also have been observed in ESCCs. However, it is not clear what proportion of ESCC cells carry these epigenomic aberrations or how they contribute to tumor development. We review the genomic and epigenomic characteristics of ESCCs, with a focus on emerging themes. We discuss their clinical implications and future research directions. PMID:28757263

  19. Fatal Metastatic Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Evolving from a Localized Verrucous Epidermal Nevus

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    Hassan Riad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A malignant transformation is known to occur in many nevi such as a sebaceous nevus or a basal cell nevus, but a verrucous epidermal nevus has only rarely been associated with neoplastic changes. Keratoacanthoma, multifocal papillary apocrine adenoma, multiple malignant eccrine poroma, basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC have all been reported to develop from a verrucous epidermal nevus. CSCC has also been reported to arise from other nevoid lesions like a nevus comedonicus, porokeratosis, a sebaceous nevus, an oral sponge nevus and an ichthyosiform nevus with CHILD syndrome. Here we report a case of progressive poorly differentiated CSCC arising from a localized verrucous epidermal nevus, which caused both spinal cord and brain metastasis.

  20. Carcinomatous myelitis and meningitis after a squamous cell carcinoma of the lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Isabelle; Murati, Anne; Sarran, Anthony; Viens, Patrice; Sabatier, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Nervous central system metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are rare. We report an exceptional case of isolated leptomeningeal and spinal cord involvement few years after the diagnosis of invasive SCC of the lip. A 33-year-old man with a history of infracentimetric carcinoma of the lip developed back pain associated with progressive neurological disorders leading to paraplegia. This atypical presentation led to initial misdiagnosis, but radiological and cytological explorations finally confirmed the diagnosis of leptomeningeal and intramedullar secondary spinal cord lesions from his previously treated head and neck SCC. Systemic targeted therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor and intrathecal chemotherapy led to prolonged disease stabilization. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated neurological metastases from a head and neck SCC. Combination of systemic targeted therapy and intrathecal chemotherapy may be effective in such cases.