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Sample records for sputtering oes study

  1. Magnetic study of a few antiferromagnets in very-strong pulsed fields (450 kOE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, J.

    1968-01-01

    In this thesis we describe a pulsed field device with which we obtain magnetization curves up to 450 kOE at all temperatures between 1. 6 and 300. We have studied the 'spin-flopping'(and therefore the anisotropy) in MnF 2 versus temperature, below the Neel point. We have also studied the antiferromagnets MnSO 4 . and MnSO 4 .H 2 O which have revealed saturation fields respectively of 250 kOE and 320 kOE. (author) [fr

  2. Magnetic study of a few antiferromagnets in very-strong pulsed fields (450 kOE); Etude magnetique de quelques antiferromagnetiques dans des champs pulses tres intenses (450 k OE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-01-01

    In this thesis we describe a pulsed field device with which we obtain magnetization curves up to 450 kOE at all temperatures between 1. 6 and 300. We have studied the 'spin-flopping'(and therefore the anisotropy) in MnF{sub 2} versus temperature, below the Neel point. We have also studied the antiferromagnets MnSO{sub 4}. and MnSO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O which have revealed saturation fields respectively of 250 kOE and 320 kOE. (author) [French] Ce memoire est consacre a la fabrication et a la mise au point d'un appareillage utilisant la decharge d'une batterie de condensateurs, afin de faire des mesures d'aimantation en champs pulses jusqu'a 450 kOE a toute temperature entre 1,6 K et 300 K. Nous avons etudie le deplacement de la transition de 'spin-flopping' dans MnF{sub 2} en fonction de la temperature et nous en avons deduit la variation de la constante d'anisotropie en fonction de T au-dessous du point de Neel. Nous avons egalement fait l'etude magnetique des antiferromagnetiques MnSO{sub 4} et MnSO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O et nous avons mis en evidence la saturation de ces deux substances pour des champs respectifs de 250 kOE et 320 kOE. (auteur)

  3. Experimental and analytical study of the sputtering phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.A.

    1976-03-01

    One form of the sputtering phenomena, the heat-transfer process that occurs when an initially hot vertical surface is cooled by a falling liquid film, was examined from a new experimental approach. The sputtering front is the lowest wetted position on the vertical surface and is characterized by a short region of intense nucleate boiling. The sputtering front progresses downward at nearly a constant rate, the surface below the sputtering front being dry and almost adiabatic. This heat-transfer process is of interest in the analysis of some of the performance aspects of emergency core-cooling systems of light-water reactors. An experimental apparatus was constructed to examine the heat-transfer characteristics of a sputtering front. In the present study, a heat source of sufficient intensity was located immediately below the sputtering front, which prevented its downward progress, thus permitting detailed measurements of steady-state surface temperatures throughout a sputtering front. Experimental evidence showed the sputtering front to correspond to a critical heat-flux (CHF) phenomenon. Data were obtained with water flow rates of 350-1600 lb/sub m//hr-ft and subcoolings of 40-140 0 F on a 3 / 8 -in. solid copper rod at 1 atm. A two-dimensional analytical model was developed to describe a stationary sputtering front where the wet-dry interface corresponds to a CHF phenomena and the dry zone is adiabatic. This model is nonlinear because of the temperature dependence of the heat-transfer coefficient in the wetted region and has yielded good agreement with data. A simplified one-dimensional approximation was developed which adequately describes these data. Finally, by means of a coordinate transformation and additional simplifying assumptions, this analysis was extended to analyze moving sputtering fronts, and reasonably good agreement with reported data was shown

  4. Surfactant assisted chemical vapour generation of silver for AAS and ICP-OES: a mechanistic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Sturgeon, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2003), s. 487-494 ISSN 0267-9477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : vapour generation * ICP-OES * silver Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.200, year: 2003

  5. Studies on ion scattering and sputtering processes relevant to ion beam sputter deposition of multicomponent thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Results from computer simulation and experiments on ion scattering and sputtering processes in ion beam sputter deposition of high Tc superconducting and ferroelectric thin films are presented. It is demonstrated that scattering of neutralized ions from the targets can result in undesirable erosion of, and inert gas incorporation in, the growing films, depending on the ion/target atom ass ratio and ion beam angle of incidence/target/substrate geometry. The studies indicate that sputtering Kr + or Xe + ions is preferable to the most commonly used Ar + ions, since the undesirable phenomena mentioned above are minimized for the first two ions. These results are used to determine optimum sputter deposition geometry and ion beam parameters for growing multicomponent oxide thin films by ion beam sputter-deposition. 10 refs., 5 figs

  6. Study of the chemical sputtering in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambe, A.

    2002-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on the interactions between energetic particles coming from thermonuclear plasma and the inner components of a fusion machine. This interaction induces two major problems: erosion of the wall, and tritium retention. This report treats the erosion of carbon based materials. The first part is devoted to chemical sputtering, that appears to be the principal erosion mechanism, compared to physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation that both can be limited. Chemical sputtering has been studied in situ in the tokamak Tore-Supra for ohmic and lower hybrid (LH) heated discharges, by means of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy. We have shown that it is necessary to take into account both methane and heavier hydrocarbons (C 2 D x and C 3 D y ) in the determination of the chemical sputtering yield. It is found that for the ohmic discharges, the sputtering yield of CD 4 (Y CD4 ) is highly flux (φ) dependent, showing a variation of the form: Y CD4 ∝ φ -0.23 . The experimental study also reveals that an increase of the surface temperature induces an augmentation of Y CD4 . The interpretation and the modelling of the experimental results have been performed with a Monte Carlo code (BBQ. In the second part of this work, we have developed and installed an infrared spectroscopy diagnostic in the 0.8-1.6, μm wavelength range dedicated to the measurement of surface temperature, and the identification of atomic and molecular lines emitted during plasma/wall interactions. In the third part, we present the feasibility study of an in situ tungsten deposition process at low temperature(<80 deg C) in order to suppress the chemical sputtering. This study shows that, with this method call Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD), we are able to coat the whole inner vessel of a tokamak with 1 μm of tungsten. (author)

  7. Sputtering of amorphous carbon layers studied by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasch, E.

    1992-07-01

    In order to minimize the radiation losses, it is desirable to keep the plasmas in nuclear fusion devices free of high-Z-impurities. Therefore, the walls of TEXTOR and other tokamaks are covered with thin layers of amorphous carbon layers (a-C:H) or amorphous carbon/boron layers (a-C/B:H). The sputtering behaviour of these layers has been studied under bombardment by Ar + ions with energies of 1.5 keV and current densities of a few mA/cm 2 . Investigations of these coatings were carried out with the object to measure the velocity distribution of the sputtered atoms and the sputtered yields by laser induced fluorescence in the vacuum ultraviolet. (orig.)

  8. Combined sputtering yield and surface topography development studies on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Lewis, G.W.; Whitton, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The sputtering yield-incidence angle function has been measured for 8 keV Ar + ions incident on Si by direct scanning electron microscope observation of the depths of sputtered craters on substrate boundaries. This function displays a maximum sputtering yield at an angle thetasub(p) approximately equal to 40 0 to the surface normal. The sequential ion fluence dependence of features developed beneath local surface contaminant was then studied, quasi dynamically, in the same on-line ion source-S.E.M. system. During erosion of the contaminant a steeply elevated pillar of Si forms, which then transforms to a cone, again of high elevation angle >>thetasub(p). This cone is gradually eroded into the surrounding surface with no special significance associated with orientations of angle thetasub(p). Pedal depressions surrounding the pillar-cone system are also noted. The reasons for these observations and their relevance to ion beam surface channel etching are discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Results of Monte-Carlo studies on backscattering and sputtering from 'pocket' and 'finned' structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo computer program which has been developed for studying backscattering and sputtering processes involving high energy particles in complex vacuum structures has been used to show that useful reductions in backscattering and sputtering can be achieved by pocketing or finning the wall surfaces of plasma containment vessels. (author)

  10. Study of structural relaxation in amorphous alloys prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, S.; Banaee, N.; Majidy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We have prepared amorphous alloy of Al x Cu 1-x (with X= 93, 90, 80, 70, 30) using sputtering system. The rate of growth was 0.7 nm/sec. X-ray diffractometer was used to conform the amorphous nature of the prepared specimens. High temperature annealing can change amorphous to crystalline structure, while low temperature annealing may transform amorphous state to a more stable amorphous state via structural relaxation of the specimen and enhancing the properties of the alloys, such as mechanical ductility etc. Here we have annealed the alloys at temperatures 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 C for 1 hour. We observed that microhardness of the specimen increases with annealing and gets maximum value at 300 C. Our XRD experiments and also earlier Moessbauer studies show that while the average interatomic distances reduces due to annealing, structure remains amorphous

  11. Study of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet with high performance of Hcj (kOe + (BHmax (MGOe > 75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ping Hu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet of extremely high performance. The intrinsic coercivity Hcj is as high as 35.2 kOe (2803kA/m together with the maximum energy product (BHmax of 40.4 MGOe (321.6kJ/m3. These values result in Hcj (kOe + (BHmax (MGOe > 75. Between 293 K (20ºC and 473 K (200ºC, the temperature coefficients of remanence and intrinsic coercivity are αBr = −0.122 %/°C and αHcj = −0.403%/°C, respectively. A maximum operating temperature of 503 K (230ºC is obtained when permeance coefficient Pc = −B/H = 2. Grain boundary diffusion (GBD technique on magnet surface has been developed to increase Hcj by 3.6 kOe without significantly decrease of Br and (BHmax. The intrinsic coercivity of the GBD treated magnet Hcj(C has a linear relationship with that of the untreated magnet Hcj(B between 200 K and 473 K (in unit of kOe: Hcj(C = 1.03Hcj(B + 2.38. The enhancement of Hcj by GBD treatment has contributions not only from the improvement of microstructure but also from the increase of Ha in the grain surface layer. It is also found that GBD treatment brings no deterioration in corrosion resistance of untreated magnet.

  12. Contribution to the study of sputtering and damage of uranium dioxide by fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlutig, S.

    2001-03-01

    Swift heavy ion-solid interaction leads in volume to track creation and on the surface to the ejection of particles into the vacuum. To learn more about initial mechanisms of track formation, we are focused on the sputtering of uranium dioxide by fast heavy ions. This present study is exclusively devoted to the influence of the electronic stopping power on the emission of neutral particles and especially on their angular distribution. These measurements are completed by those of the ions emitted from UO 2 targets bombarded with swift heavy ions. The whole experimental results give access to: i) the nature of the sputtered particles; ii) the charge state of the emitted particles; iii) the direction of ejection of the sputtered particles ; iv) the sputtering yields deduced from the angular distributions. These results are compared to the prediction of the sputtering models proposed in the literature and it seems that the supersonic gas flow model is well suited to describe our results. Finally, the sputtering yields are compared with a set of earlier experimental data on uranium dioxide damage obtained by T. Wiss and we observe that only a small fraction of UO 2 monolayers are sputtered. (author)

  13. Growth and magnetic study of sputtered Fe/Al multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, S.M.; Bouziane, K.; Roussigne, Y.; Al-Busaidy, M.

    2007-01-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were used to study the effect of interfacial intermixing and microstructure on the magnetic properties of DC magnetron sputtered Fe/Al multilayers (MLs) on Si(1 0 0) substrate. Three samples with nominal composition [Al (4 nm)/Fe (3.7 nm)] x18 and deposited under different negative DC bias voltages (V b = -50, -200 and -400 V) have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the FeAl MLs have a poor crystallinity with no evidence of the absence of B2 phase. The grazing X-ray reflectivity results suggest that the interfacial roughness and intermixing were gradually reduced from 0.7 to 0.5 nm (±0.05 nm) by increasing V b from -50 to -400 V. The magnetization measurements demonstrate the presence of in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and magnetically dead interfacial layers. The BLS results reveal spin-wave surface modes whose frequencies also depend on the applied V b . The same trend upon V b was observed for the perpendicular and in-plane anisotropies

  14. Growth and magnetic study of sputtered Fe/Al multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S.M. [LPMTM (CNRS-UPR 9001), Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouziane, K. [LPMTM (CNRS-UPR 9001), Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France) and Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)]. E-mail: bouzi@squ.edu.om; Roussigne, Y. [LPMTM (CNRS-UPR 9001), Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Al-Busaidy, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2007-03-15

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were used to study the effect of interfacial intermixing and microstructure on the magnetic properties of DC magnetron sputtered Fe/Al multilayers (MLs) on Si(1 0 0) substrate. Three samples with nominal composition [Al (4 nm)/Fe (3.7 nm)]{sub x18} and deposited under different negative DC bias voltages (V {sub b} = -50, -200 and -400 V) have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the FeAl MLs have a poor crystallinity with no evidence of the absence of B2 phase. The grazing X-ray reflectivity results suggest that the interfacial roughness and intermixing were gradually reduced from 0.7 to 0.5 nm ({+-}0.05 nm) by increasing V {sub b} from -50 to -400 V. The magnetization measurements demonstrate the presence of in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and magnetically dead interfacial layers. The BLS results reveal spin-wave surface modes whose frequencies also depend on the applied V{sub b}. The same trend upon V {sub b} was observed for the perpendicular and in-plane anisotropies.

  15. Online elemental analysis of process gases with ICP-OES: A case study on waste wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellinger, Marco; Wochele, Joerg; Biollaz, Serge M.A.; Ludwig, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous measurements of 23 elements in process gases of a waste wood combustor. ► Mobile ICP spectrometer allows measurements of high quality at industrial plants. ► Continuous online measurements with high temporal resolution. ► Linear correlations among element concentrations in the raw flue gas were detected. ► Novel sampling and calibration methods for ICP-OES analysis of process gases. - Abstract: A mobile sampling and measurement system for the analysis of gaseous and liquid samples in the field was developed. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), which is built into a van, was used as detector. The analytical system was calibrated with liquid and/or gaseous standards. It was shown that identical mass flows of either gaseous or liquid standards resulted in identical ICP-OES signal intensities. In a field measurement campaign trace and minor elements in the raw flue gas of a waste wood combustor were monitored. Sampling was performed with a highly transport efficient liquid quench system, which allowed to observe temporal variations in the elemental process gas composition. After a change in feedstock an immediate change of the element concentrations in the flue gas was detected. A comparison of the average element concentrations during the combustion of the two feedstocks showed a high reproducibility for matrix elements that are expected to be present in similar concentrations. On the other hand elements that showed strong differences in their concentration in the feedstock were also represented by a higher concentration in the flue gas. Following the temporal variations of different elements revealed strong correlations between a number of elements, such as chlorine with sodium, potassium and zinc, as well as arsenic with lead, and calcium with strontium.

  16. Study of the ion sputter-machining, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Iwao; Taniguchi, Norio

    1979-01-01

    A lattice disordering of the surface of single crystal silicon due to ion bombardment of Ar + was investigated by the high energy electron diffraction method, with the incident angle of 1.7 0 and 2.8 0 . By this measuring system, the degree of disorders of the sputter-machined surface layer of Si single crystal in the depth of 50 A and 30 A has been determined, under the working conditions of the ion energy ranging from 0.2 keV to 1.5 keV and the incident angle of ion ranging from 0 0 to 75 0 . Moreover, the recovery of lattice disorder of sputter-machined surface layer of Si single crystal by means of the isochronal thermal annealing has been also confirmed by the same method. From the above experiments, the following conclusions are obtained. (1) The layers of sputter-machined surface of Si single crystal workpiece are highly disordered like amorphous, under the working conditions of ion energy ranging from 0.2 keV to 1.5 keV for the vertical ion incident angle. (2) Under the working conditions of ion incident angle larger than 60 0 , using the ion beam with a lower energy under 300 eV, the surface of the workpiece is not disordered. Therefore, a sputter-machined surface of Si single crystal with highly ordered structure can be obtained under this working condition. (3) The recovery of disorder of sputter-machined surface is completed by the heat-treatment of workpiece under isochronal annealing for 1 hour at 800 0 C. However, it is not clear whether this recovery of lattice point or the dispersion of interstitially located argon atoms from the surface to the outside. (author)

  17. Sputtering of water ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.; Schou, J.; Shi, M.; Bahr, D.A.; Atteberrry, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from the decay of H(2p) atoms sputtered by heavy ion impact, but not bulk ice luminescence. Radiolyzed ice does not sputter under 3.7 eV laser irradiation

  18. Simultaneous study of sputtering and secondary ion emission of binary Fe-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riadel, M.M.; Nenadovic, T.; Perovic, B.

    1976-01-01

    The sputtering and secondary ion emission of binary Fe-based alloys of simple phase diagrams have been studied simultaneously. A series FeNi and FeCr alloys in the concentration range of 0-100% have been bombarded by 4 keV Kr + ions in a secondary ion mass spectrometer. The composition of the secondary ions has been analysed and also a fraction of the sputtered material has been collected and analysed by electron microprobe. The surface topography of the etched samples has been studied by scanning electron microscope. The relative sputtering coefficients of the metals have been determined, and the preferential sputtering of the alloying component of lower S have been proved. The etching pictures of samples are in correlation with the sputtering rates. Also the degree of secondary ionization has been calculated from the simultaneously measured ion emission and sputtering data. α + shows the change in the concentration range of the melting point minimum. This fact emphasizes the connection between the physico-chemical properties of alloys and their secondary emission process. From the dependence of the emitted homo- and hetero-cluster ions, conclusions could be shown concerning the production mechanism of small metallic aggregates

  19. Determination of heavy metal content of processed fruit products from Tehran's market using ICP- OES: A risk assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabad, Ayub Ebadi; Shariatifar, Nabi; Moazzen, Mojtaba; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Fakhri, Yadolah; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Azari, Ali; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the levels of Cd, Hg, Sn, Al, Pb and As of 72 samples (36 samples for fruits juices and 36 samples for fruits canned) of three different brands including of Peach, Orange, Cherry, and Pineapple (18 samples of each fruits) marketed in Tehran, Iran (2015) were evaluated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Also, Probabilistic risk assessment (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models include target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) model. However, all samples were contaminated with the heavy metals investigated, most of them not surpassed established standards. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb as average in fruit juices were reported as 340.62 (65.17-1039.2), 72.33 (49.76-119.4), 3.76 (1.137-18.36), 2.12 (0.89-3.44), 0.351 and 40.86 (27.87-66.1) μg/kg, respectively. The level of heavy metals measured in different kinds of fruit juices was ranked as Al > Sn > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, and for fruits canned this rank was Pb > Al > Sn > As > Cd > Hg. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in fruits canned were reported as 361.23 (43.15-1121.2), 101.42 (71.45-141.61), 3.92 (1.279-19.50), 2.78 (1.09-5.56), 0.35 and 690.54 (470.56-910.14) μg/kg, respectively. The lead (Pb) concentration in 97.22% (35 out of 36 samples) of fruit juices samples surpassed Codex limit (0.05 mg/kg) and in all samples of FC was lower than the legal limit of Codex limit (1 mg/kg). All of the samples had Tin (Sn) lower than the legal limit of Codex (fruit juices 100 mg/kg and FC 250 mg/kg). The MCS indicated that the rank order of heavy metals in both adults and children based on THQ was Al > Sn > As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The THQ of Al and Sn in the FJ and FC, for both adults, and children, was considerably higher than 1 value. Also, CR of As in both adults and children

  20. GD-OES and XPS coupling: A new way for the chemical profiling of photovoltaic absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, Dimitri, E-mail: dimitri.mercier@uvsq.fr [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Bouttemy, Muriel; Vigneron, Jackie [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chapon, Patrick [HORIBA Jobin Yvon SAS, F-91165 Longjumeau (France); Etcheberry, Arnaud [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • The coupling between GD-OES and XPS analysis is a promising way for fine characterization of thin layers. • Crater surface modifications obtained after GD-OES sputtering depend to the plasma gas. • Inversion of the gas flow improves the surface of the crater. • The modified layer is totally eliminated a few seconds after restarting GD-OES sputtering. - Abstract: In this paper, we examine the complementarity of Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GD-OES) and X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for the realization of fine chemical depth profiling of photovoltaic absorbers using Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) materials. The possibility to use sequentially these two techniques is discussed in this paper. We have evaluated the chemical modifications of the crater after GD-OES analyses which depend on the manner of finishing the plasma etching sequence; and we propose different ways to limit or eliminate this effect. For the moment, an intermediate step (wet chemical etching or weak sputtering) is required to obtain a CIGS phase in the crater. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility to restart the GD-OES analyses of the materials after XPS quantification or GD-OES breaking without modifying the profile shape.

  1. Electronic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  2. Study on low-energy sputtering near the threshold energy by molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Using molecular dynamics simulation, we have studied the low-energy sputtering at the energies near the sputtering threshold. Different projectile-target combinations of noble metal atoms (Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt are simulated in the range of incident energy from 0.1 to 200 eV. It is found that the threshold energies for sputtering are different for the cases of M1 < M2 and M1 ≥ M2, where M1 and M2 are atomic mass of projectile and target atoms, respectively. The sputtering yields are found to have a linear dependence on the reduced incident energy, but the dependence behaviors are different for the both cases. The two new formulas are suggested to describe the energy dependences of the both cases by fitting the simulation results with the determined threshold energies. With the study on the energy dependences of sticking probabilities and traces of the projectiles and recoils, we propose two different mechanisms to describe the sputtering behavior of low-energy atoms near the threshold energy for the cases of M1 < M2 and M1 ≥ M2, respectively.

  3. Solar system sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The sites and materials involved in solar system sputtering of planetary surfaces are reviewed, together with existing models for the processes of sputtering. Attention is given to the interaction of the solar wind with planetary atmospheres in terms of the role played by the solar wind in affecting the He-4 budget in the Venus atmosphere, and the erosion and differentiation of the Mars atmosphere by solar wind sputtering. The study is extended to the production of isotopic fractionation and anomalies in interplanetary grains by irradiation, and to erosion effects on planetary satellites with frozen volatile surfaces, such as with Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Further measurements are recommended of the molecular form of the ejected material, the yields and energy spectra of the sputtered products, the iosotopic fractionation sputtering causes, and the possibility of electronic sputtering enhancement with materials such as silicates.

  4. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  5. Studi Disorder Lapisan Tipis Amorf Silikon Karbon (A-Sic:H Hasil Deposisi Metode Dc Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosari Saleh

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorder Study of Amorphous Silicon Carbon (a-SiC:H Films Deposited by DC Sputtering Method. Disorder amorphous network of amorphous silicon carbon (a-SiC:H films has been investigated for films prepared by dc sputtering method. The films were deposited using silicon target in argon and methane gas mixtures. The optical absorption coefficients have been performed by UV-VIS (ultra violet-visible reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy. Disorder parameter has been obtained from the optical absorption coefficient α (E using Tauc plot. Increasing methane flow rate has an effect on increasing Tauc gap and decreasing disorder parameter. The amorphous network of the films tends to be more disorder with increasing methane flow rate. The relation of disorder amorphous network with structural and compositional properties will be discussed.

  6. Study of atomic excitations in sputtering with the use of composite targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierkegaard, K.; Ludvigsen, S.; Petterson, B.; Veje, E.

    1985-01-01

    Some Li- and Na-compounds have been bombarded with 80 keV Ar + ions, and excitation of sputtered particles has been studied with optical spectrometry. Very strong excitation of Li I and Na I was observed, but essentially no excitation of electronegative elements. For levels in Li I and also in Na I with n 8, the relative level populations fall noticeably above the extrapolation of such power law behaviors. This is discussed and tentatively interpreted in terms of two-step processes. (i) The projectile excites a target electron from the valence band to the conduction band. (ii) Such an excitation is transferred resonantly to the sputtered atom on its way out. (orig.)

  7. armax, oe and ssif model predictors for power transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vincent

    collected for thirteen different parameters that influences the evaluation and analysis in the case study area. ... regression model for short term load prediction while Haida and Muto ...... The OE is a special stochastic case which is achieved by.

  8. Study of Au- production in a plasma-sputter type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou.

    1991-10-01

    A negative ion source of plasma-sputter type has been constructed for the purpose of studying physical processes which take place in the ion source. Negative ions of gold are produced on the gold target which is immersed in an argon discharge plasma and biased negatively with respect to the plasma. The work function of the target surface was lowered by the deposition of Cs on the target. An in-situ method has been developed to determine the work function of the target surface in the ion source under discharge conditions. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an argon plasma was 1.3 eV, when the negative ion production rate took the maximum value. The production rate increased monotonically and saturated when the surface work function was reduced from 1.9 eV to 1.3 eV. The dependence of Au - production rate on the incident ion energy and on the number of the incident ion was studied. From the experimental results, it is shown that the sputtering process is an important physical process for the negative ion production in the plasma-sputter type negative ion source. The energy distribution function was also measured. When the bias voltage was smaller than 280 V, the high energy component in the distribution decreased as the target voltage was decreased. Therefore, the energy spread ΔE, of the observed negative ion energy distribution also decreased. This tendency is also seen in the energy spectrum of Cu atoms sputtered in normal direction by Ar + ions. (J.P.N.)

  9. Sputtered catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyerman, W.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for preparing a supported catalyst by a sputtering process. A material that is catalytic, or which is a component of a catalytic system, is sputtered on to the surface of refractory oxide particles that are compatible with the sputtered material and the sputtered particles are consolidated into aggregate form. The oxide particles before sputtering should have a diameter in the range 1000A to 50μ and a porosity less than 0.4 ml/g, and may comprise MgO, Al 2 O 3 or SiO 2 or mixtures of these oxides, including hydraulic cement. The particles may possess catalytic activity by themselves or in combination with the catalytic material deposited on them. Sputtering may be effected epitaxially and consolidation may be effected by compaction pelleting, extrusion or spray drying of a slurry. Examples of the use of such catalysts are given. (U.K.)

  10. Molecular dynamics and experimental studies on deposition mechanisms of ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.-H.; Chang, W.-J.; Lin, C.-M.; Lien, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and experimental methods are used to study the deposition mechanism of ionic beam sputtering (IBS), including the effects of incident energy, incident angle and deposition temperature on the growth process of nickel nanofilms. According to the simulation, the results showed that increasing the temperature of substrate decreases the surface roughness, average grain size and density. Increasing the incident angle increases the surface roughness and the average grain size of thin film, while decreasing its density. In addition, increasing the incident energy decreases the surface roughness and the average grain size of thin film, while increasing its density. For the cases of simulation, with the substrate temperature of 500 K, normal incident angle and 14.6 x 10 -17 J are appropriate, in order to obtain a smoother surface, a small grain size and a higher density of thin film. From the experimental results, the surface roughness of thin film deposited on the substrates of Si(1 0 0) and indium tin oxide (ITO) decreases with the increasing sputtering power, while the thickness of thin film shows an approximately linear increase with the increase of sputtering power

  11. Magnetostrictive thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabias, I.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Pina, E.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 80 B 20 thin films have been prepared by ion beam sputtering magnetron on room temperature. The films were fabricated on different substrates to compare the different magnetic and structural properties. In particular the growth of films on flexible substrates (PDMS, Kapton) has been studied to allow a simple integration of the system in miniaturized magnetostrictive devices. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that films are mainly amorphous although the presence of some Fe nanoparticles cannot be ruled out. The coercive field of thin films ranges between 15 and 35 Oe, depending on substrate. Magnetostriction measurements indicate the strong dependence of the saturation magnetostriction with the substrate. Samples on flexible substrates exhibit a better performance than samples deposited onto glass substrates

  12. Comparative studies on damages to organic layer during the deposition of ITO films by various sputtering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Wang, Meihan; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Sawada, Yutaka

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) was respectively bombarded and irradiated by Ar ions, oxygen ions, electron beam and ultraviolet light to confirm damages during the sputter-deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on organic layer. The degree of damage was evaluated by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of BAlq. The results confirmed the oxygen ions led to a larger damage and were thought to play the double roles of bombardment to organic layer and reaction with organic layer as well. The comparative studies on PL spectra of BAlq after the deposition of TCO films by various sputtering systems, such as conventional magnetron sputtering (MS), low voltage sputtering (LVS) and kinetic-energy-control-deposition (KECD) system, facing target sputtering (FTS) were performed. Relative to MS, LVS and KECD system, FTS can completely suppress the bombardment of the secondary electrons and oxygen negative ions, and keep a higher deposition rate simultaneously, thus it is a good solution to attain a low-damage sputter-deposition.

  13. Comparative studies on damages to organic layer during the deposition of ITO films by various sputtering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hao, E-mail: haolei@imr.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Division of Surface Engineering of Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Meihan [College of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044 (China); Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Sawada, Yutaka [Center for Hyper Media Research, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) was respectively bombarded and irradiated by Ar ions, oxygen ions, electron beam and ultraviolet light to confirm damages during the sputter-deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on organic layer. The degree of damage was evaluated by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of BAlq. The results confirmed the oxygen ions led to a larger damage and were thought to play the double roles of bombardment to organic layer and reaction with organic layer as well. The comparative studies on PL spectra of BAlq after the deposition of TCO films by various sputtering systems, such as conventional magnetron sputtering (MS), low voltage sputtering (LVS) and kinetic-energy-control-deposition (KECD) system, facing target sputtering (FTS) were performed. Relative to MS, LVS and KECD system, FTS can completely suppress the bombardment of the secondary electrons and oxygen negative ions, and keep a higher deposition rate simultaneously, thus it is a good solution to attain a low-damage sputter-deposition.

  14. The D OE software trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1992-10-01

    In the D OE experiment, the software filter operates in a processor farm with each node processing a single event. Processing is data-driven: the filter does local processing to verify the candidates from the hardware trigger. The filter code consists of independent pieces called ''tools''; processing for a given hardware bit is a ''script'' invoking one or more ''tools'' sequentially. An offline simulator drives the same code with the same configuration files, running on real or simulated data. Online tests use farm nodes parasiting on the data stream. We discuss the performance of the system and how we attempt to verify its correctness

  15. Depth of origin of sputtered atoms: Experimental and theoretical study of Cu/Ru(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.W.; Biersack, J.P.; Gruen, D.M.; Joergensen, B.; Krauss, A.R.; Pellin, M.J.; Schweitzer, E.L.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Young, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The depth of origin of sputtered atoms is a subject of considerable interest. The surface sensitivity of analytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Surface Analysis by Resonance Ionization of Sputtered Atoms (SARISA), and the sputtering properties of strongly segregating alloy systems, are critically dependent on the sputtering depth of origin. A significant discrepancy exists between the predictions of the Sigmund theory and computer sputtering models; in general, the computer models predict a much shallower depth of origin. The existing experimental evidence suggests that most of the sputtered atoms originate in the topmost atomic layer, but until recently, the results have not been definitive. We have experimentally determined the depth of origin of atoms sputtered from surfaces consisting of Cu films of less than two monolayers on a Ru(0001) substrate. The Cu/Ru target was statically sputtered using 3.6 keV Ar + . The sputtered neutrals were non-resonantly laser ionized and detected using SARISA. The Cu/Ru sputtering yield ratio and the suppression of the Ru sputtering yield were determined for various Cu coverages. The results indicate that the majority of the sputtered atoms originate in the topmost atomic layer. The Cu/Ru system is also modeled using a modified Transport of Ions in Matter (TRIM) code. It was found that TRIM C does not correctly treat the first atomic layer, resulting in a serious underestimate of the number of sputtered atoms which originate in this layer. The corrected version adequately describes the results, predicting that for the experimental conditions roughly two-thirds of the sputtered atoms originate in the first atomic layer. These results are significantly greater than the Sigmund theory estimate of >40%. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. XPS studies of water and oxygen on iron-sputtered natural ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, P. D.; Neil, T. E.; Shaffer, S. L.; Smith, R. W.; Mckay, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of D2O and O2 on polycrystalline FeTiO3 (natural ilmenite) has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxygen was found to absorb reactively with Fe(0) on Ar(+)-sputtered surfaces at and above 150 K while D2O was found to adsorb molecularly or in ice layers below 170 K on both Ar(+) and O2(+) ion-bombarded ilmenite. The D2O desorbs at 170 K with either the formation of an OD complex or a strongly bound molecular layer of water.

  17. Study of deposition rae coating of Ag thin films by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanati, M.; Zendehnam, A.

    2003-01-01

    Exact knowledge about deposition rate and its distribution and variation of them with respect to coating parameters (Gas pressure, Distance, discharge current,..) is very vital. In this experimental research coating of Ag thin films by magnetron sputtering have been carried out over Ar pressure range of 10 -2 -10 -1 mbar, and discharge current up to 1000 m.A, and distance between glass substrates to silver target (Cathode) was changed from 5 to 15 cm. The obtained results have been investigated by help of computer curve fitting, and these studies show a very good agreement for the conditions used in this work

  18. Comparative study of the characteristics of Ni films deposited on SiO2/Si(100) by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingpeng; Qiu Hong; Chen Xiaobai; Wu Ping; Tian Yue

    2008-01-01

    Ni films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) substrates at 300 K and 573 K by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering. The films deposited at 300 K mainly have a [110] crystalline orientation in the growing direction whereas those deposited at 573 K grow with a [111] crystalline orientation in the growing direction. The film prepared only at 300 K by oblique-angle sputtering grows with a weakly preferential orientation along the incidence direction of the sputtered Ni atoms. All the films grow with thin columnar grains perpendicular to the substrate surface. The grain size of the films sputter-deposited obliquely is larger than that of the films sputter-deposited conventionally. The grain size of the Ni film does not change markedly with the deposition temperature. The film deposited at 573 K by oblique-angle sputtering has the highest saturation magnetization. For the conventional sputtering, the coercivity of the Ni film deposited at 573 K is larger than that of the film deposited at 300 K. However, for the oblique-angle sputtering, the coercivity of the Ni film is independent of the deposition temperature. All the Ni films exhibit an isotropic magnetization characteristic in the film plane

  19. The statistics of sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The MARLOWE program was used to study the statistics of sputtering on the example of 1- to 100-keV Au atoms normally incident on static (001) and (111) Au crystals. The yield of sputtered atoms was examined as a function of the impact point of the incident particles (''ions'') on the target surfaces. There were variations on two scales. The effects of the axial and planar channeling of the ions could be traced, the details depending on the orientation of the target and the energies of the ions. Locally, the sputtering yield was very sensitive to the impact point, small changes in position often producing large changes yield. Results indicate strongly that the sputtering yield is a random (''chaotic'') function of the impact point

  20. Study on the electrical properties of ITO films deposited by facing target sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn J; Jin, Su B; Kim, Sung I; Choi, Yoon S; Choi, In S; Han, Jeon G

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the mechanism for the change in the electrical properties (carrier concentration (n) and mobility (μ)) of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering in a confined facing magnetic field. The relationship between the carrier concentration and the mobility was significantly different from the results reported for ITO films deposited by other magnetron sputtering processes. The lowest resistivity obtained for ITO films deposited in a confined facing magnetic field at low substrate temperatures (approximately 120 0 C) was 4.26 x 10 -4 Ω cm at a power density of 3 W cm -2 . Crystalline ITO films were obtained at a low power density range from 3 to 5 W cm -2 due to the increase in the substrate temperature from 120 to 162 0 C. This contributed to the increased carrier concentration and decreased electrical resistivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed an increase in the concentration of the Sn 4+ states. This was attributed to the formation of a crystalline ITO film, which effectively enhanced the carrier concentration and reduced the carrier mobility.

  1. Study on the preparation of boron-rich film by magnetron sputtering in oxygen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhangmin; Yang, Yiming; Huang, Jian; Ren, Bing; Yu, Hongze; Xu, Run; Ji, Huanhuan; Wang, Lin; Wang, Linjun, E-mail: ljwang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Boron ({sup 10}B) oxide films were successfully grown using RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the property of the films were studied. • Substrates were covered with B-rich film and film surface was covered with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The growth mechanism of films in oxygen atmosphere was analyzed using XPS. - Abstract: In this paper, the growth of boron ({sup 10}B) oxide films on (1 0 0) silicon substrate were achieved by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering under the different oxygen partial pressure with a target of boron and boron oxide. The structure and properties of deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The results showed that the substrate was covered with boron-rich films tightly and the surface of films was covered with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. And the growth mechanism of boron-rich film in oxygen atmosphere was also analyzed.

  2. Study on helium-charged titanium films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Liqun; Jin Qinhua; Liu Chaozhuo; Xu Shilin; Zhou Zhuying

    2005-01-01

    Helium trapping in the Ti films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering with a He/Ar mixture was studied. He atoms with a surprisingly high concentration (He/Ti atomic ratio is as high as 56%) incorporate evenly in deposited film. The trapped amount of He can be controlled by the helium partial amount. The introduction of the helium with no extra damage (or very low damage) can be realized by choosing suitable deposition conditions. It was also found that because of the formation of nanophase Ti film a relative high He flux for bubble formation is needed and the amount of the retaining He in sputtering Ti films is much higher than that in the coarse-grain Ti films. The nanophase Ti film can accommodate larger concentration of trapped sites to He, which results in a high density and small size of the He bubbles. With increasing He irradiation flux, the grain size of Ti film decreases and the lattice spacing and width of the X-ray diffraction peak increase due to the He introduction, and the film tends to amorphous phase. (authors)

  3. Methods of optimization of reactive sputtering conditions of Al target during AlN films deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by recent studies and considering the well-documented problems occurring during AlN synthesis, we have chosen two diagnostic methods which would enable us to fully control the process of synthesis and characterize the synthesized aluminum nitride films. In our experiment we have compared the results coming from OES measurements of plasma and circulating power characteristics of the power supply with basic features of the deposited layers. The dual magnetron system operating in AC mode was used in our studies. Processes of aluminum target sputtering were carried out in an atmosphere of a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The plasma emission spectra were measured with the use of a monochromator device. Analyses were made by comparing the positions and intensities of spectral lines of the plasma components. The results obtained allowed us to characterize the sputtering process under various conditions of gas mixture compositions as well as power distribution more precisely, which is reported in this work. The measured spectra were related to the deposition rate, the structure morphology of the films and chemical composition. Our work proved that the use of plasma OES and circulating power measurements make possible to control the process of sputtering and synthesis of deposited films in situ.

  4. Sputter deposition of indium tin oxide onto zinc pthalocyanine: Chemical and electronic properties of the interface studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Jürgen; Brötz, Joachim; Klein, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    The interface chemistry and the energy band alignment at the interface formed during sputter deposition of transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) onto the organic semiconductor zinc phtalocyanine (ZnPc), which is important for inverted, transparent, and stacked organic light emitting diodes, is studied by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). ITO was sputtered at room temperature and a low power density with a face to face arrangement of the target and substrate. With these deposition conditions, no chemical reaction and a low barrier height for charge injection at this interface are observed. The barrier height is comparable to those observed for the reverse deposition sequence, which also confirms the absence of sputter damage.

  5. Sputter crater formation in the case of microsecond pulsed glow discharge in a Grimm-type source. Comparison of direct current and radio frequency modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Varvara; Hoffmann, Volker; Eckert, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Depth profiling with pulsed glow discharge is a promising technique. The application of pulsed voltage for sputtering reduces the sputtering rate and thermal stress and hereby improves the analysis of thin layered and thermally fragile samples. However pulsed glow discharge is not well studied and this limits its practical use. The current work deals with the questions which usually arise when the pulsed mode is applied: Which duty cycle, frequency and pulse length must be chosen to get the optimal sputtering rate and crater shape? Are the well-known sputtering effects of the continuous mode valid also for the pulsed regime? Is there any difference between dc and rf pulsing in terms of sputtering? It is found that the pulse length is a crucial parameter for the crater shape and thermal effects. Sputtering with pulsed dc and rf modes is found to be similar. The observed sputtering effects at various pulsing parameters helped to interpret and optimize the depth resolution of GD OES depth profiles.

  6. Study of interdiffusion of Ni/Fe layers by Auger sputter profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, T J; Wandelt, K [International Business Machines Corp., San Jose, CA (USA). Research Lab.

    1979-05-01

    Bulk and grain boundary diffusion of Fe into Ni films has been studied under UHV in the temperature range of -150 to 500/sup 0/C using AES and sputter profiling methods. The concentration profiles at the interface are corrected for the various broadening and damage effects inherent in ion bombardment. Grain boundary diffusion coefficients are derived on the basis of the Whipple model. The measured activation energies are 46 kcal/mole for bulk diffusion and 34 kcal/mole for grain boundary diffusion. An additional migration phenomenon not previously resolved is observed for very thin films annealed at relatively low temperatures (150-250/sup 0/C). A possible mechanism involved in this initial 'interface healing' is discussed.

  7. Crystalline silicon films sputtered on molybdenum A study of the silicon-molybdenum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinig, P.; Fenske, F.; Fuhs, W.; Schoepke, A.; Selle, B

    2003-04-15

    Polycrystalline silicon films were grown on molybdenum (Mo)-coated substrates at high deposition rate using the pulsed magnetron sputtering technique. Our study investigates the silicon-molybdenum interface of these films to elucidate stimulating mechanisms for an ordered crystalline silicon thin film growth. Both Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering reveal that at a substrate temperature as low as T{sub S}=450 deg. C during the deposition process intermixing of Si and Mo at the Si-Mo interface takes place leading to a compositional ratio Mo:Si of about 1:2. By Raman spectroscopy hexagonal {beta}-MoSi{sub 2} could be identified as the dominant phase in this intermixed region. The dependence of the resulting thickness of the reacted interface layer on the deposition conditions is not fully understood yet.

  8. Crystalline silicon films sputtered on molybdenum A study of the silicon-molybdenum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinig, P.; Fenske, F.; Fuhs, W.; Schoepke, A.; Selle, B.

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon films were grown on molybdenum (Mo)-coated substrates at high deposition rate using the pulsed magnetron sputtering technique. Our study investigates the silicon-molybdenum interface of these films to elucidate stimulating mechanisms for an ordered crystalline silicon thin film growth. Both Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering reveal that at a substrate temperature as low as T S =450 deg. C during the deposition process intermixing of Si and Mo at the Si-Mo interface takes place leading to a compositional ratio Mo:Si of about 1:2. By Raman spectroscopy hexagonal β-MoSi 2 could be identified as the dominant phase in this intermixed region. The dependence of the resulting thickness of the reacted interface layer on the deposition conditions is not fully understood yet

  9. Study of the surface resistance of niobium sputter-coated copper cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Campisi, I E; Darriulat, Pierre; Peck, M A; Russo, R; Valente, A M

    1999-01-01

    A systematic study of the superconducting properties of niobium films deposited on the inner wall of copper radiofrequency cavities is presented. Films are grown by sputtering with different discharge gases (Xe, Kr, Ar and Ar/Ne mixtures) on substrates prepared under different conditions. The measured quantities include the surface resistance at 1.5 GHz, the critical temperature and the penetration depth. The surface resistance is analyzed in terms of its dependence on temperature, RF field and the density of trapped fluxons. Once allowance for electron scattering is made by means of a single mean free path parameter, good agreement with BCS theory is observed. The residual resistance is observed to be essentially noncorrelated with the superconducting properties, although influenced by specific coating conditions. On occasions, very low residual resistances, in the nano-ohm range, have been maintained over a broad range of RF field, indicating the absence of fundamental limitations specific to the film techn...

  10. Topography induced by sputtering in a magnetic sector instrument: an AFM and SEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, E.; Bersani, M.; Lui, A.; Giubertoni, D.; Barozzi, M.; Anderle, M.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity, the good depth resolution and the great interest in ultra shallow profile, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is one of the prime techniques used in the semiconductor industry. Low impact energy beams are required to profile shallow distributions. Since Cs + beam sputtering can cause morphological artifacts as well as O 2 + beam does, a detailed study is required to understand development and limiting analytical conditions. In this work we analyzed the effect of low energy Cs + primary beam incident at 68 deg. and 78 deg. on different silicon samples. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we underline their reliability and correlate the morphological effects to the SIMS analytical parameters and samples characteristics

  11. Study of atomic excitations in sputtering with targets partially covered with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, J.; Veje, E.

    1984-01-01

    We have bombarded pure, elemental targets of Be, B, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, and Au with 80 keV Ar + ions and studied excitation of sputtered atoms or ions under UHV conditions as well as with oxygen present at the target surface. The measurements on Mg, Al, Si, and Ti have been done at projectile incidence angles from 0 0 to 85 0 . Excitation probabilities for gold were found to be only very little influenced by oxygen, but for Be, B, Mg, Al, Si, and Ti, the excitation probabilities were in many, but not all, cases found to depend strongly on the oxygen pressure as well as on the beam current density. This indicates that the excitation mechanism is strongly dependent on the initial electronic conditions of the solid. (orig.)

  12. Study of carbon impurity generation by chemical sputtering in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashijima, S.; Kubo, H.; Sugie, T.; Shimizu, K.; Asakura, N.; Itami, K.; Hosogane, N.; Sakasai, A.; Konoshima, S.; Sakurai, S.; Takenaga, H.

    1997-01-01

    CD/CH-band intensities emitted from hydrocarbon molecules have been measured in the divertor region of JT-60U and the chemical sputtering yield of methane was estimated as a function of the surface temperature and the deuterium ion flux. The chemical sputtering yield increases with the surface temperature and decreases with increasing ion flux density in the L-mode plasmas. The B 4 C converted CFC tiles are installed in JT-60U and it is found that the chemical sputtering of B 4 C converted CFC tiles is suppressed in comparison to normal CFC tiles. (orig.)

  13. Setup for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth by magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellmer, K; Weiss, V; Rossner, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel method is described for the in situ-investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron light is used for the structural analysis during film growth. An in situ-magnetron sputtering chamber was constructed and installed at a synchrotron radiation beam line with a bending magnet. The white synchrotron light (1-70 keV) passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits one of the substrates on a four-fold sample holder. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle between 3 deg. and 10 deg., is energy analyzed by a high purity Ge-detector. The in situ-EDXRD setup is demonstrated for the growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic target.

  14. Study of uranium dioxyde sputtering induced by multicharged heavy ions at low and very low kinetic energy: projectile charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranger, F.

    2003-12-01

    Ion beam irradiation of a solid can lead to the emission of neutral or ionized atoms, molecules or clusters from the surface. This comes as a result of the atomic motion in the vicinity of the surface, induced by the transfer of the projectile energy. Then, the study of the sputtering process appears as a means to get a better understanding of the excited matter state around the projectile trajectory. In the case of slow multicharged ions, a strong electronic excitation can be achieved by the projectile neutralization above the solid surface and / or its deexcitation below the surface. Parallel to this, the slowing down of such ions is essentially related to elastic collision with the target atoms. The study of the effect of the initial charge state of slow multicharged ions, in the sputtering process, has been carried out by measuring the absolute angular distributions of emission of uranium atoms from a uranium dioxide surface. The experiments have been performed in two steps. First, the emitted particles are collected onto a substrate during irradiation. Secondly, the surface of the collectors is analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). This method allows the characterization of the emission of neutrals, which are the vast majority of the sputtered particles. The results obtained provide an access to the evolution of the sputtering process as a function of xenon projectile ions charge state. The measurements have been performed over a wide kinetic energy range, from 81 down to 1.5 keV. This allowed a clear separation of the contribution of the kinetic energy and initial projectile charge state to the sputtering phenomenon. (author)

  15. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, V.; Aleksandrova, M.; Stefanov, P.; Grechnikov, A.; Gadjanova, V.; Dilova, T.; Angelov, Ts

    2014-12-01

    A study of NO2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO2 concentration >= 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO2 concentration. When the NO2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO2 in the air at room temperature.

  16. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  17. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gułkowski Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  18. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gułkowski, Sławomir; Krawczak, Ewelina

    2017-10-01

    Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS) with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  19. Wave packet study of the secondary emission of negatively charged, monoatomic ions from sputtered metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindona, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy)]. E-mail: sindona@fis.unical.it; Riccardi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Maletta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Rudi, S.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Falcone, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    Secondary emission of Ag{sup -} and Au{sup -} particles, following the sputtering of clean Ag(1 0 0) and Au(1 0 0) targets, respectively, is studied with a Crank-Nicholson wave-packet propagation method. A one-electron pseudo-potential is used to describe the plane metal surface, with a projected band gap, the ejected ion, whose charge state is investigated, and its nearest-neighbor substrate ion, put in motion by the collision cascade generated by the primary ion beam. Time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved backwards in time to determine the evolution of the affinity orbital of the negative particles from an instant when they are unperturbed, at distances of the order of {approx}10{sup 2} a.u. from the surface, to the instant of ejection. The probability that a band electron will be eventually detected in affinity state of the ejected particle is, thus, calculated and compared with the result of another method based on the spectral decomposition of the one-electron Hamiltonian.

  20. Comparative study of niobium nitride coatings deposited by unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya, J.J.; Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) coatings have many interesting properties such as chemical inertness, excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, high melting point, and a superconducting transition temperature between 16 and 17 K. For this reason, these compounds have many potential thin film applications. In this work we compare the properties of NbN x films deposited using well-characterized balanced and unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems. Samples of NbN were deposited in the two systems under almost identical deposition conditions, that is, the same substrate temperature, plasma power, gas pressure, substrate to target distance and Ar/N 2 ratio. Prior to the film preparation both the magnetic field geometry and the characteristics of the plasma were determined. The microstructure and composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance and the micro-abrasion wear resistance were measured by anodic polarization potentiodynamic studies and by ball cratering, respectively. The NbN films grown using the highly unbalanced magnetron configuration had a preferential (111) crystal orientation and a composite hardness of up to 2400 HV 0.025 . While the films deposited using the balanced magnetron had a mixed crystalline orientation and a hardness of 2000 HV 0.025 . The results demonstrate the strong effect of magnetic field configuration on the ion bombardment, and the resultant coating characteristics

  1. Comparative study of niobium nitride coatings deposited by unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota Colombia (Colombia); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: muhl@servidor.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) coatings have many interesting properties such as chemical inertness, excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, high melting point, and a superconducting transition temperature between 16 and 17 K. For this reason, these compounds have many potential thin film applications. In this work we compare the properties of NbN{sub x} films deposited using well-characterized balanced and unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems. Samples of NbN were deposited in the two systems under almost identical deposition conditions, that is, the same substrate temperature, plasma power, gas pressure, substrate to target distance and Ar/N{sub 2} ratio. Prior to the film preparation both the magnetic field geometry and the characteristics of the plasma were determined. The microstructure and composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance and the micro-abrasion wear resistance were measured by anodic polarization potentiodynamic studies and by ball cratering, respectively. The NbN films grown using the highly unbalanced magnetron configuration had a preferential (111) crystal orientation and a composite hardness of up to 2400 HV{sub 0.025}. While the films deposited using the balanced magnetron had a mixed crystalline orientation and a hardness of 2000 HV{sub 0.025}. The results demonstrate the strong effect of magnetic field configuration on the ion bombardment, and the resultant coating characteristics.

  2. Study of sputtered ZnO thin films on SiO2 and GaP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brath, T.; Buc, D.; Kovac, J.; Hrnciar, V.; Caplovic, L.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated n-ZnO polycrystalline thin films prepared on SiO 2 and p-GaP substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. The structural and electrical properties of these structures were studied. The measured parameters give promising results with a possibility to utilize n-ZnO/p-GaP heterostructure for application in the solar cells development especially in the field of nanostructures. The prepared structures will be a subject of further research. (authors)

  3. Experimental study of the discharge in the low pressure plasma jet sputtering system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, J.; Kudrna, P.; Kolpaková, A.; Picková, I.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Tichý, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2013), s. 10-15 ISSN 0863-1042 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hollow cathode * plasma jet sputtering system * Langmuir probe Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2013

  4. A Mossbauer study of Kr incorporations in sputtered a-Si films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosu, M.F; Niesen, L; van Veen, A.; Sloof, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    Krypton atoms incorporated in sputtered a-silicon films are investigated by means of Kr-83 Mosssbauer spectroscopy. The hyperfine parameters of the (RbI)-Rb-83 source were determined by taking a spectrum against solid krypton. Mossbauer spectra were taken for films containing krypton concentrations

  5. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Amreen A. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Pal, Arup R., E-mail: arpal@iasst.gov.in [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Kar, Rajib [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Patil, Dinkar S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping in PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector.

  6. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Amreen A.; Pal, Arup R.; Kar, Rajib; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti; Patil, Dinkar S.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H 2 SO 4 doping in PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector

  7. Ferromagnetic resonance study of sputtered NiFe/V/NiFe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alayo, W., E-mail: willian.rodriguez@ufpel.edu.br [Departamento de Física – IFM, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74001-970 (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    The Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/V/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} heterostructures has been produced by magnetron sputtering and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two systems were investigated: the non symmetrical NiFe(50 Å)/V(t)/NiFe(30 Å) trilayers and the symmetrical NiFe(80 Å)/V(t)/NiFe(80 Å) trilayers, with variable ultrathin V thickness t. Ferromagnetic exchange coupling was evidenced for t below 10 Å by the excitation of the optic mode, in the case of the non symmetrical samples, and by the observation of a single resonance mode for the symmetrical trilayers. For larger V thickness, all samples exhibited two modes, which were attributed to the resonance of the individual NiFe layers with different effective magnetizations. The analysis with the equilibrium and resonance conditions provided the exchange coupling constants and effective magnetizations. - Highlights: • We present a study of symmetrical and non symmetrical NiFe/V/NiFe trilayers deposited on Si single crystals by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature. • For the non symmetrical trilayers, the FMR spectra show the optic and acoustic modes for samples with very thin V layer thicknesses, evidencing ferromagnetic exchange coupling, whereas, for larger V thickness, the spectra exhibited two well resolved modes associated to each independent NiFe layer. For the symmetrical trilayers, strong ferromagnetic exchange coupling is evidenced by the observation of a single resonance mode. • The analysis with the equilibrium condition and dispersion relation provides the exchange coupling constants and effective magnetizations.

  8. Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J

    2014-05-21

    The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al+DFP (Group III) and Al+DFO+DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al+DFP to Al+DFO+DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO+DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isotope puzzle in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms affecting multicomponent material sputtering are complex. Isotope sputtering is the simplest in the multicomponent materials sputtering. Although only mass effect plays a dominant role in the isotope sputtering, there is still an isotope puzzle in sputtering by ion bombardment. The major arguments are as follows: (1) At the zero fluence, is the isotope enrichment ejection-angle-independent or ejection-angle-dependent? (2) Is the isotope angular effect the primary or the secondary sputter effect? (3) How to understand the action of momentum asymmetry in collision cascade on the isotope sputtering?

  10. Study on the Deposition Rate Depending on Substrate Position by Using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ion beams have been used for over thirty years to modify materials in manufacturing of integrated circuits, and improving the corrosion properties of surfaces. Recently, the requirements for ion beam processes are becoming especially challenging in the following areas : ultra shallow junction formation for LSI fabrication, low damage high rate ion beam sputtering and smoothing, high quality functional surface treatment for electrical and optical properties. Ion beam sputtering is an attractive technology for the deposition of thin film coatings onto a broad variety of polymer, Si-wafer, lightweight substrates. Demand for the decoration metal is increasing. In addition, lightweight of parts is important, because of energy issues in the industries. Although a lot of researches have been done with conventional PVD methods for the deposition of metal or ceramic films on the surface of the polymer, there are still adhesion problems.

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of radiofrequency-sputtered refractory compound steel interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Brainard, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    Radiofrequency sputtering was used to deposit Mo2C, Mo2B5, and MoSi2 coatings on 440C steel substrates. Both sputter etched and preoxidized substrates were used, and the films were deposited with and without a substrate bias of -300 V. The composition of the coatings was measured as a function of depth by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with argon ion etching. In the interfacial region there was evidence that bias produced a graded interface in Mo2B5 but not in Mo2C. Oxides of iron and of all film constituents except carbon were presented in all cases but the iron oxide concentration was higher and the layer thicker on the preoxidized substrates. The film and iron oxides were mixed in the MoSi2 and Mo2C films but layered in the Mo2B5 film. The presence of mixed oxides correlates with enhanced film adhesion.

  12. Multijet production at D OE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womersley, J.

    1996-07-01

    We describe studies of jet production in bar pp collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV. We have investigated topological distributions in inclusive three and four-jet events and find them to be well- described by tree-level QCD matrix elements and also by the HERWIG Monte Carlo. We have measured the ratio of inclusive three-jet to two- jet cross sections as a function of summed jet transverse energy. This is found to be in good qualitative agreement with QCD; the data show some preference for a softer renormalization scale for emission of the third jet

  13. Study of atomic excitations in sputtering with the use of N, O, F, Ne, Na, Cl, and Ar projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.K.; Veje, E.

    1985-01-01

    Solid magnesium has been bombarded with 80 keV ions of N, O, F, Ne, Na, Cl, and Ar, and excitation of sputtered magnesium atoms and ions has been studied. Relative level excitation probabilities depend strongly on the projectile, the dependences for Mg I levels being different from those for Mg II levels. With all projectiles, the resonance level in Mg II is excited stronger than the resonance level in Mg I. Very little radiation is observed from the projectiles except for sodium. The results are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Thermal evolution of nanocrystalline co-sputtered Ni–Zr alloy films: Structural, magnetic and MD simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Debarati; Rao, T.V. Chandrasekhar; Bhushan, K.G.; Ali, Kawsar; Debnath, A.; Singh, S.; Arya, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Basu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Monophasic and homogeneous Ni 10 Zr 7 nanocrystalline alloy films were successfully grown at room temperature by co-sputtering in an indigenously developed three-gun DC/RF magnetron sputtering unit. The films could be produced with long-range crystallographic and chemical order in the alloy, thus overcoming the widely acknowledged inherent proclivity of the glass forming Ni–Zr couple towards amorphization. Crystallinity of these alloys is a desirable feature with regard to improved efficacy in applications such as hydrogen storage, catalytic activity and nuclear reactor engineering, to name a few. Thermal stability of this crystalline phase, being vital for transition to viable applications, was investigated through systematic annealing of the alloy films at 473 K, 673 K and 923 K for various durations. While the films were stable at 473 K, the effect of annealing at 673 K was to create segregation into nanocrystalline Ni (superparamagnetic) and amorphous Ni + Zr (non-magnetic) phases. Detailed analyses of the physical and magnetic structures before and after annealing were performed through several techniques effectual in analyzing stratified configurations and the findings were all consistent with each other. Polarized neutron and X-ray reflectometry, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to gauge phase separation at nanometer length scales. SQUID based magnetometry was used to investigate macroscopic magnetic properties. Simulated annealing performed on this system using molecular dynamic calculations corroborated well with the experimental results. This study provides a thorough understanding of the creation and thermal evolution of a crystalline Ni–Zr alloy. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Ni 10 Zr 7 alloy thin films deposited successfully by co-sputtering. • Creation of a crystalline alloy in a binary system with a tendency to amorphize. • Quantitative

  15. Study of some structural properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films prepared by radiofrequency cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellassi, K.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Barhdadi, A.

    2001-08-01

    In this work, we have used the grazing X-rays reflectometry technique to characterise hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited by radio-frequency cathodic sputtering. Relfectometry measurements are taken immediately after films deposition as well as after having naturally oxidised their surfaces during a more or less prolonged stay in the ambient. For the films examined just after deposition, the role of hydrogen appears in the increase of their density. For those analysed after a short stay in the ambient, hydrogen plays a protective role against the oxidation of their surfaces. This role disappears when the stay in the ambient is so long. (author)

  16. Effect of sputtering power on structure and properties of Bi film deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Guo; He Zhibing; Xu Hua; Li Jun; Chen Taihua; Chen Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    Bi film was fabricated at different sputtering powers by DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rate of Bi film as the function of sputtering power was studied. The surface topography of Bi film was observed by SEM, and the growth mode of Bi film was investigated. The crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. The grain size and stress of Bi film were calculated. The SEM images show that all the films are columnar growth. The average grain size firstly increases as the sputtering power increases, then decreases at 60 W. The film becomes loose with the increase of sputtering power, while, the film gets compact when the sputtering power becomes from 45 to 60 W. The XRD results show that films are polycrystalline of hexagonal. And the stress transforms from the tensile stress to compressive stress as the sputtering power increases. (authors)

  17. Ion-induced sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasumichi; Shimizu, Ryuichi; Shimizu, Hazime; Ito, Noriaki.

    1983-01-01

    The research on ion-induced sputtering has been continued for a long time, since a hundred or more years ago. However, it was only in 1969 by Sigmund that the sputtering phenomena were theoretically arranged into the present form. The reason why the importance of sputtering phenomena have been given a new look recently is the application over wide range. This paper is a review centering around the mechanism of causing sputtering and its characteristics. Sputtering is such a phenomenon that the atoms in the vicinity of a solid surface are emitted into vacuum by receiving a part of ion energy, or in other words, it is a kind of irradiation damage in the vicinity of a solid surface. In this meaning, it can be considered that the sputtering based on the ions located on the clean surface of a single element metal is simple, and has already been basically understood. On the contrary, the phenomena can not be considered to be fully understood in the case of alloys and compounds, because these surface conditions under irradiation are not always clear due to segregation and others. In the paper, the physical of sputtering, single element sputtering, the sputtering in alloys and compounds, and the behaviour of emitted particles are explained. Finally, some recent topics of the sputtering measurement by laser resonant excitation, the sputtering by electron excitation, chemical sputtering, and the sputtering in nuclear fusion reactors are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. TiOx deposited by magnetron sputtering: a joint modelling and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, R.; Moskovkin, P.; Pflug, A.; Lucas, S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a 3D multiscale simulation approach to model magnetron reactive sputter deposition of TiOx⩽2 at various O2 inlets and its validation against experimental results. The simulation first involves the transport of sputtered material in a vacuum chamber by means of a three-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. Second, the film growth at different positions on a 3D substrate is simulated using a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method. When simulating the transport of species in the chamber, wall chemistry reactions are taken into account in order to get the proper content of the reactive species in the volume. Angular and energy distributions of particles are extracted from DSMC and used for film growth modelling by kMC. Along with the simulation, experimental deposition of TiOx coatings on silicon samples placed at different positions on a curved sample holder was performed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulated ones. For a given coater, the plasma phase hysteresis behaviour, film composition and film morphology are predicted. The used methodology can be applied to any coater and any films. This paves the way to the elaboration of a virtual coater allowing a user to predict composition and morphology of films deposited in silico.

  19. RF magnetron sputtering of a hydroxyapatite target: A comparison study on polytetrafluorethylene and titanium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmenev, Roman A.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Grubova, Irina Yu.; Chernozem, Roman V.; Krause, Bärbel; Baumbach, Tilo; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    A pure hydroxyapatite (HA) target was used to prepare the biocompatible coating of HA on the surface of a polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) substrate, which was placed on the same substrate holder with technically pure titanium (Ti) in the single deposition runs by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The XPS, XRD and FTIR analyses of the obtained surfaces showed that for all substrates, instead of the HA coating deposition, the coating of a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium fluoride was grown. According to SEM investigations, the surface of PTFE was etched, and the surface topography of uncoated Ti was preserved after the depositions. The FTIR results reveal no phosphate bonds; only calcium tracks were observed in the EDX-spectra on the surface of the coated PTFE substrates. Phosphate oxide (V), which originated from the target, could be removed using a vacuum pump system, or no phosphate-containing bonds could be formed on the substrate surface because of the severe substrate bombardment process, which prevented the HA coating deposition. The observed results may be connected with the surface re-sputtering effect of the growing film by high-energy negatively charged ions (most probably oxygen or fluorine), which are accelerated in the cathode dark sheath.

  20. A comparative wear study of sputtered ZrN coatings on Si and titanium modified stainless steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Akash; Kuppusami, P.; Thirumurugesan, R.; Mohandas, E.; Geetha, M.; Kamaraj, V.; Kumar, Niranjan

    2010-01-01

    In the present work wear behaviour of ZrN films grown by a pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering method is reported. The films were grown on silicon (100) and titanium modified stainless steel (alloy-D9) substrates by reactive sputtering in a mixture of argon and nitrogen gases. The structural parameters, preferred orientation and crystallite size as a function of substrate temperatures in the range 300-873 K were studied using X-Ray Diffraction. Deposition parameters have been found to influence the growth rate, crystalline structure and surface roughness, which affect the tribological behaviour of the films. A comparative wear study was performed on these substrates with steel and ceramic balls to evaluate the frictional properties of films. The best tribological performance was found for the sample grown with low flow rates of nitrogen (≤ 2 SCCM) at 873K. The coefficient of friction was found to be lower for the films deposited at higher temperature using steel and ceramic balls. This behaviour was correlated with microstructure and deformation behaviour of coatings. (author)

  1. Study of Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer films prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Township, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Jui-Chao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-11-03

    In the present work, bi-layer thin films of Sb/SnO{sub 2} were produced on unheated glass substrates using ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique without post annealing treatment. The thickness of Sb layers was varied from 2 to 10 nm and the Sb layers were deposited on SnO{sub 2} layers having thicknesses of 40 nm to 115 nm. The effect of thickness was studied on the morphological, electrical and optical properties. The Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer resulted in lowering the electrical resistivity as well as reducing the optical transmittance. However, the optical and electrical properties of the bi-layer films were mainly influenced by the thickness of Sb layers due to progressive transfer in structures from aggregate to continuous films. The bi-layer films show the electrical resistivity of 1.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and an optical transmittance of 26% for Sb film having 10 nm thickness. - Highlights: • Bi-layer Sb/SnO{sub 2} structures were synthesized by ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique. • The 6 nm-thick Sb film is a transition region in this study. • The conductivity of the bi-layer films is increased as Sb thickness increases. • The transmittance of the bi-layer films is decreased as Sb thickness increases.

  2. Magnetic and other properties and sputtering behavior of Co-base amorphous alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Ochiai, Y.; Matsuda, H.; Ishikawa, W.; Iwasaki, Y.; Aso, K.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic and other properties of Co-base amorphous alloy films prepared by sputtering are investigated. A detailed magnetic phase diagram with saturation magnetic flux density, crystallization temperature, and zero-magnetostrictive line on Co-Ta-Zr amorphous alloys were obtained, and the technical knowhow to make a film with well-reproducible characteristics by widely changing the sputtering conditions was related with these physical properties. Especially on alloy sputtering, a phenomenological model for elucidating a composition difference between film and target is presented. After these studies, the film characteristics of B/sub s/ = 12 kG, T/sub x/ = 450 0 C, chemical bondλ/sub s/chemical bond -8 , H/sub c/<10 mOe, and permeabilities of μ(1 MHz) = 7000, μ(100 MHz) = 2000 for the single film of 2 μm in thickness and of μ(1 MHz) = 4000, μ(100 MHz) = 800 for the insulator-sandwiched multilayered film of 10 μm are obtained, and these well-balanced values enable us to apply the materials for high-frequency recording head

  3. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy of sputtered uranium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.B.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy was used to study the sputtering of 99.8% 238 U metal foil when bombarded by normally incident 500 to 3000 eV Ne + , Ar + , Kr + , and O 2 + . A three-level atom model of the LIF processes is developed to interpret the observed fluorescent emission from the sputtered species. The model shows that close attention must be paid to the conditions under which the experiment is carried out as well as to the details of the collision cascade theory of sputtering. Rigorous analysis shows that when properly applied, LIF can be used to investigate the predictions of sputtering theory as regards energy distributions of sputtered particles and for the determination of sputtering yields. The possibility that thermal emission may occur during sputtering can also be tested using the proposed model. It is shown that the velocity distribution (either the number density or flux density distribution, depending upon the experimental conditions) of the sputtered particles can be determined using the LIF technique and that this information can be used to obtain a description of the basic sputtering mechanisms. These matters are discussed using the U-atom fluorescence measurements as a basis. The relative sputtering yields for various incident ions on uranium were also measured for the first time using the LIF technique. A surprisingly high fraction of the sputtered uranium atoms were found to occupy the low lying metastable energy levels of U(I). The population of the sputtered metastable atoms were found approximately to obey a Boltzman distribution with an effective temperature of 920 +- 100 0 K. 41 references

  4. Comparison between INAA and ICP-OES: analysis of Sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhaldin, Elsadig Abdelmoniem

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide elemental concentrations in medicinal plants and mainly to compare the two different determination methods (INAA and ICP-OES after wet digestion) elemental analysis of 14 Sudanese medicinal plants was carried out using INAA and ICP-OES techniques. The selection of reported elements was done according to intersection of elements determined by both techniques. This intersecting element list contained Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Mg, Sr, Zn, Cu, Co, and Cr. INAA correlated well with ICP-OES measurements of the same plants as long as concentrations were sufficiently above LoQ. Correlation coefficients (R 2 ) in this case is close to 1. Generally, INAA results tended to be higher compared to ICP-OES. The performance and possible source of errors of both techniques was discussed also with respect to measurements of certified reference materials. INAA provided the advantage of having both, faster and non destructive sample preparation than ICP-OES. Therefore, INAA may be technique of choice for Ca, K, Zn, and Mg elements specifically when samples are needed for further investigations. Regarding the low concentrations e.g for Cr, Ni or Cu, ICP-OES is the superior technique over INAA due to the sufficiently low limits of determination and thus gaining more detectable results at low concentrations. (author)

  5. Combinatorial study of WInZnO films deposited by rf magnetron co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Park, Jae-Cheol; Lee, Young-Jun; Cha, Sang-Jun; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Kwang-Young; Kim, Tae-Won; Heo, Gi-Seok

    2011-01-01

    The compositional dependence of co-sputtered tungsten indium zinc oxide (WInZnO) film properties was first investigated by means of a combinatorial technique. Indium zinc oxide (IZO) and WO 3 targets were used with different target power. W composition ratio [W/(In+Zn+W)] was varied between 3 and 30 at% and film thickness was reduced as the sample position moved toward WO 3 target. Furthermore, the optical bandgap energy increased gradually, which might be affected by the reduction in film thickness. All the WInZnO films showed an amorphous phase regardless of the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio. As the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio in WInZnO films increased, the carrier concentration was restricted, causing the increase in electrical resistivity. W cations worked as oxygen binders in determining the electronic properties, resulting in suppressing the formation of oxygen vacancies. Consequentially, W metal cations were effectively incorporated into the WInZnO films as a suppressor against the oxygen vacancies and the carrier generation by employing the combinatorial technique. - Graphical abstract: The film thickness and the sheet resistance (R s ) with respect to the sample position of WInZnO films, which is compositionally graded by rf power for each target, are exhibited. Highlights: → The compositional dependence of co-sputtered WInZnO film properties is first investigated. → W cations work as oxygen binders in determining the electronic properties. → All the WInZnO films show an amorphous phase regardless of the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio. → W metal cations are effectively incorporated into the WInZnO films by the combinatorial technique.

  6. Spectral artefacts post sputter-etching and how to cope with them - A case study of XPS on nitride-based coatings using monoatomic and cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Erik; Counsell, Jonathan; Patscheider, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    The issue of artefacts due to sputter-etching has been investigated for a group of AlN-based thin film materials with varying thermodynamical stability. Stability of the materials was controlled by alloying AlN with the group 14 elements Si, Ge or Sn in two different concentrations. The coatings were sputter-etched with monoatomic Ar+ with energies between 0.2 and 4.0 keV to study the sensitivity of the materials for sputter damage. The use of Arn+ clusters to remove an oxidised surface layer was also evaluated for a selected sample. The spectra were compared to pristine spectra obtained after in-vacuo sample transfer from the synthesis chamber to the analysis instrument. It was found that the all samples were affected by high energy (4 keV) Ar+ ions to varying degrees. The determining factors for the amount of observed damage were found to be the materials' enthalpy of formation, where a threshold value seems to exist at approximately -1.25 eV/atom (∼-120 kJ/mol atoms). For each sample, the observed amount of damage was found to have a linear dependence to the energy deposited by the ion beam per volume removed material. Despite the occurrence of sputter-damage in all samples, etching settings that result in almost artefact-free spectral data were found; using either very low energy (i.e. 200 eV) monoatomic ions, or an appropriate combination of ion cluster size and energy. The present study underlines that analysis post sputter-etching must be carried out with an awareness of possible sputter-induced artefacts.

  7. OeFAD8, OeLIP and OeOSM expression and activity in cold-acclimation of Olea europaea, a perennial dicot without winter-dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Simone; Matteucci, Maya; Fattorini, Laura; Gismondi, Angelo; Ludovici, Matteo; Canini, Antonella; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2016-05-01

    Cold-acclimation genes in woody dicots without winter-dormancy, e.g., olive-tree, need investigation. Positive relationships between OeFAD8, OeOSM , and OeLIP19 and olive-tree cold-acclimation exist, and couple with increased lipid unsaturation and cutinisation. Olive-tree is a woody species with no winter-dormancy and low frost-tolerance. However, cold-tolerant genotypes were empirically selected, highlighting that cold-acclimation might be acquired. Proteins needed for olive-tree cold-acclimation are unknown, even if roles for osmotin (OeOSM) as leaf cryoprotectant, and seed lipid-transfer protein for endosperm cutinisation under cold, were demonstrated. In other species, FAD8, coding a desaturase producing α-linolenic acid, is activated by temperature-lowering, concomitantly with bZIP-LIP19 genes. The research was focussed on finding OeLIP19 gene(s) in olive-tree genome, and analyze it/their expression, and that of OeFAD8 and OeOSM, in drupes and leaves under different cold-conditions/developmental stages/genotypes, in comparison with changes in unsaturated lipids and cell wall cutinisation. Cold-induced cytosolic calcium transients always occurred in leaves/drupes of some genotypes, e.g., Moraiolo, but ceased in others, e.g., Canino, at specific drupe stages/cold-treatments, suggesting cold-acclimation acquisition only in the latter genotypes. Canino and Moraiolo were selected for further analyses. Cold-acclimation in Canino was confirmed by an electrolyte leakage from leaf/drupe membranes highly reduced in comparison with Moraiolo. Strong increases in fruit-epicarp/leaf-epidermis cutinisation characterized cold-acclimated Canino, and positively coupled with OeOSM expression, and immunolocalization of the coded protein. OeFAD8 expression increased with cold-acclimation, as the production of α-linolenic acid, and related compounds. An OeLIP19 gene was isolated. Its levels changed with a trend similar to OeFAD8. All together, results sustain a positive

  8. Ultra-low-pressure sputtering to improve exchange bias and tune linear ranges in spin valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, XiaoLi, E-mail: tangtang1227@163.com; Yu, You; Liu, Ru; Su, Hua; Zhang, HuaiWu; Zhong, ZhiYong; Jing, YuLan

    2017-05-01

    A series of CoFe/IrMn exchange bilayers was grown by DC-sputtering at different ultra-low argon pressures ranging from 0.008 to 0.1 Pa. This pressure range was one to two orders lower than the normal sputtering pressure. Results revealed that the exchange bias increased from 140 to 250 Oe in CoFe(10 nm)/IrMn (15 nm) bilayers of fixed thickness because of the improved crystalline structure and morphological uniformity of films. Since ferromagnetic /antiferromagnetic (FM/AF) bilayers are always used in linear magnetic sensors as detection layers, the varying exchange bias can successfully achieve tunable linear range in a crossed pinning spin valve. The linear range could be adjustable from −80 Oe – +80 Oe to −150 Oe – +150 Oe on the basis of giant magnetoresistance responses. Therefore, this method provides a simple method to tune the operating range of magnetic field sensors. - Highlights: • Increasing exchange bias was achieved in bilayer at ultra-low-pressure sputtering. • The low void density and smooth surface were achieved in low pressure. • Varying exchange bias achieved tunable linear range in spin valve.

  9. Raman studies of reactive DC-magnetron sputtered thin films of YBaCuO on MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, K.C.; Lee, S.J.; Shen, Y.H.; Wang, X.K.; Rippert, E.D.; Van Duyne, R.P.; Ketterson, J.B.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was employed to study Y-Ba-Cu-O films prepared by multilayer, reactive sputtering from separate Y, Cu, and Ba 0.5 Cu 0.5 targets. A set of films having the composition Y x Ba 2 Cu y O z with 0.7 c (R=0), ranging from 25 to 90 K was studied with the Raman technique. The correlation between Raman data and critical temperature, T c , was investigated. This technique provides important information concerning the film crystallinity, homogeneity, and impurity content (including other phases) which is useful in judging the quality of high T c superconducting films. We also found that the rapid thermal annealing process is a very efficient way to reduce chemical reactions between the film and the substrate

  10. Thermal evolution of nanocrystalline co-sputtered Ni–Zr alloy films: Structural, magnetic and MD simulation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Debarati, E-mail: debarati@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rao, T.V. Chandrasekhar; Bhushan, K.G. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ali, Kawsar [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Debnath, A. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Arya, A. [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Monophasic and homogeneous Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} nanocrystalline alloy films were successfully grown at room temperature by co-sputtering in an indigenously developed three-gun DC/RF magnetron sputtering unit. The films could be produced with long-range crystallographic and chemical order in the alloy, thus overcoming the widely acknowledged inherent proclivity of the glass forming Ni–Zr couple towards amorphization. Crystallinity of these alloys is a desirable feature with regard to improved efficacy in applications such as hydrogen storage, catalytic activity and nuclear reactor engineering, to name a few. Thermal stability of this crystalline phase, being vital for transition to viable applications, was investigated through systematic annealing of the alloy films at 473 K, 673 K and 923 K for various durations. While the films were stable at 473 K, the effect of annealing at 673 K was to create segregation into nanocrystalline Ni (superparamagnetic) and amorphous Ni + Zr (non-magnetic) phases. Detailed analyses of the physical and magnetic structures before and after annealing were performed through several techniques effectual in analyzing stratified configurations and the findings were all consistent with each other. Polarized neutron and X-ray reflectometry, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to gauge phase separation at nanometer length scales. SQUID based magnetometry was used to investigate macroscopic magnetic properties. Simulated annealing performed on this system using molecular dynamic calculations corroborated well with the experimental results. This study provides a thorough understanding of the creation and thermal evolution of a crystalline Ni–Zr alloy. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} alloy thin films deposited successfully by co-sputtering. • Creation of a crystalline alloy in a binary system with a tendency to amorphize.

  11. Modeling and analysis of surface roughness effects on sputtering, reflection, and sputtered particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ruzic, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructure of the redeposited surface in tokamaks may affect sputtering and reflection properties and subsequent particle transport. This subject has been studied numerically using coupled models/codes for near-surface plasma particle kinetic transport (WBC code) and rough surface sputtering (fractal-TRIM). The coupled codes provide an overall Monte Carlo calculation of the sputtering cascade resulting from an initial flux of hydrogen ions. Beryllium, carbon, and tungsten surfaces are analyzed for typical high recycling, oblique magnetic field, divertor conditions. Significant variations in computed sputtering rates are found with surface roughness. Beryllium exhibits high D-T and self-sputtering coefficients for the plasma regime studied (T e = 30-75 eV). Carbon and tungsten sputtering is significantly lower. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Structural study and fabrication of nano-pattern on ultra thin film of Ag grown by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Kundu, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the structural study of ultra thin Ag films using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity and the modification of these films with the tip of an atomic force microscope. Ag thin films are deposited using dc magnetron sputtering on a Si(001) substrate. Initially, the growth of the film is carpet like and above a certain thickness (∼42 A) the film structure changes to form mounds. This ultra thin film of Ag having carpet-like growth can be modified by the tip of an atomic force microscope, which occurs due to the porous nature of the film. A periodic pattern of nanometer dimensions has been fabricated on this film using the atomic force microscope tip. (author)

  13. Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O films: Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and structural and optical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryashov, D. A., E-mail: kudryashovda@apbau.ru; Gudovskikh, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Babichev, A. V.; Filimonov, A. V. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Mozharov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Agekyan, V. F.; Borisov, E. V.; Serov, A. Yu.; Filosofov, N. G. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Nanoscale copper (I) oxide layers are formed by magnetron-assisted sputtering onto glassy and silicon substrates in an oxygen-free environment at room temperature, and the structural and optical properties of the layers are studied. It is shown that copper oxide formed on a silicon substrate exhibits a lower degree of disorder than that formed on a glassy substrate, which is supported by the observation of a higher intensity and a smaller half-width of reflections in the diffraction pattern. The highest intensity of reflections in the diffraction pattern is observed for Cu{sub 2}O films grown on silicon at a magnetron power of 150 W. The absorption and transmittance spectra of these Cu{sub 2}O films are in agreement with the well-known spectra of bulk crystals. In the Raman spectra of the films, phonons inherent in the crystal lattice of cubic Cu{sub 2}O crystals are identified.

  14. Studies of thin films of Ti- Zr -V as non-evaporable getter films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jagannath,; Sharma, R. K.; Gadkari, S. C.; Muthe, K. P.; Mukundhan, R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) films of the Ti-Zr-V prepared on stainless steel substrates by Radio Frequency sputtering. To observe its getter behavior at the lowest activation temperature, the sample is heated continuously at different temperatures (100°C, 150°C, 200°C and 250°C) for 2 hours. The changes of the surface chemical composition at different temperaturesare analyzed by using XPS and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) techniques. The volume elemental composition of the film has been measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The in-situ XPS measurements of the activated getter films show the disappearance of the superficial oxide layer through the variation in the oxygen stoichiometry during thermal activation. Results of these studies show that the deposited films of Ti-Zr-V could be used as NEG to produce extreme high vacuum.

  15. Strain relaxation studies of the Fe3O4/MgO (100) heteroepitaxial system grown by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, K; Arora, S K; Shvets, I V

    2004-01-01

    Detailed strain relaxation studies of epitaxial magnetite, Fe 3 O 4 , films on MgO(100) substrates grown by magnetron sputtering reveal the accommodation of strain up to 600 nm thickness, a thickness far above the critical thickness (t c ) predicted by theoretical models. The results are in agreement with the suggestion that the excess strain in Fe 3 O 4 /MgO (100) heteroepitaxy is accommodated by the presence of antiphase boundaries. The compressive strain generated by the antiphase boundaries compensates for the tensile strain within the growth islands, allowing the film to remain fully coherent with the substrate. Contrary to earlier findings, magnetization decreases with an increase in the film thickness. This vindicates the view that the structure of the antiphase boundaries depends on the growth conditions

  16. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.

    1989-12-01

    The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs

  17. Studying the Properties of RF-Sputtered Nanocrystalline Tin-Doped Indium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic target of Indium tinoxide (ITO (90% In2O3-10%SnO2 has been used to prepare transparent semiconductive thin films on glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The properties of the thin films are affected by controlling the deposition parameters, namely, RF power values and deposition times. The structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the thin films are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and four-point probe measurement. Nanoparticles of 10–20 nm are measured and confirmed using both FESEM and AFM. The main preferred orientations of the prepared thin films are (222 and (400 of the cubic ITO structure. The transparent semiconductive films have high transmittance within the visible range of values 80–90% and resistivity of about 1.62×10−4 Ω⋅cm.

  18. On niobium sputter coated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnolds-Mayer, G.; Kaufmann, U.; Downar, H.

    1988-01-01

    To coat copper cavities with a thin film of niobium, facilities for electropolishing and sputter deposition have been installed at Dornier. Experiments have been performed on samples to optimize electropolishing and deposition parameters. In this paper, characteristics concerning surface properties, adhesion of the niobium film to the copper substrate, and film properties were studied on planar samples. A 1.5 GHz single cell cavity made from oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper was sputter coated twice. First rf measurements were performed in the temperature range from 300 K to 2 K

  19. A study on crystallization, optical and electrical properties of the advanced ZITO thin films using co-sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.J.; Hung, F.Y.; Chang, S.J.; Chang, S.P.; Mai, Y.C.; Hu, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: Conductor and semiconductor ZITO transparent oxide thin films have been obtained by co-sputtering system. Therefore, we could fabricate a fully transparent ZITO optoelectronic device (thin film transistors or photodetector) in the future. The conducting ZITO was used as the electrode. The active layer of TFTs and photodetector employed the semiconducting ZITO. In addition, the investigation of luminescence characteristics on Zn-In-Sn-O (ZITO) film has never been reported. So, the multi-compound ZITO (ZnO combined ITO) films would be measured by photoluminescence (PL) to analyze the effects of ITO doping and oxygen gas content on emission characteristics of film. - Abstract: Multi-functions (conductor, semiconductor and insulator) ZnInSnO (ZITO) transparent oxide thin films have been obtained by a co-sputtering system using ITO target and ZnO target with oxygen gas contents (0-8%). The ZITO film containing a small ITO content had the lowest resistivity (good electron mobility) and higher optical transmittance. In addition, the influences of thermal treatments (post-annealing and substrate temperature) on electrical properties and optical transmittance of ZITO films were studied. Photoluminescence (PL) of the ZITO film confirmed the contribution of ITO content and oxygen gas content on the photo-emission. The ZITO film with zinc atomic concentration of 58 at.% was a good candidate for TCO material (3.08 x 10 -4 Ω cm). Under the substrate temperature of 100 deg. C or post-annealing temperature of 200 o C, the properties of ZITO film could be improved.

  20. Chemical sputtering of graphite by H+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busharov, N.P.; Gorbatov, E.A.; Gusev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Martynenko, Y.V.

    1976-01-01

    In a study of the sputtering coefficient S for the sputtering of graphite by 10-keV H + ions as a function of the graphite temperature during the bombardment, it is found that at T> or =750degreeC the coefficient S is independent of the target temperature and has an anomalously high value, S=0.085 atom/ion. The high rate of sputtering of graphite by atomic hydrogen ions is shown to be due to chemical sputtering of the graphite, resulting primarily in the formation of CH 4 molecules. At T=1100degreeC, S falls off by a factor of about 3. A model for the chemical sputtering of graphite is proposed

  1. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  2. A study of the plasma electronegativity in an argon-oxygen pulsed-dc sputter magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, S D; Dodd, R; Edwards, A; Bradley, J W

    2010-01-01

    Using Langmuir probe-assisted laser photodetachment, the temporal evolution of the O - density was determined in the bulk plasma of a unipolar pulsed-dc magnetron. The source was operated in reactive mode, at a fixed nominal on-time power of 100 W, sputtering Ti in argon-oxygen atmospheres at 1.3 Pa pressure, but over a variation of duty cycles from 5% to 50% and oxygen partial pressures of 10% and 50% of the total pressure. In the plasma on-time, for all duty cycles the negative ion density (n - ) rises marginally reaching values typically less than 2 x 10 15 m -3 with negative ion-to-electron density ratios, α - falls by about 20-30% as fast O - species created at the cathode exit the system. This is followed by a rapid rise in n - to values at least 2 or 3 times that in the on-time. The rate of rise of n - and its maximum value both increase with decreasing duty cycle. In the off-time, the electron density falls rapidly (initial decay rates of several tens of μs), and therefore the afterglow plasma becomes highly electronegative, with α reaching 4.6 and 14.4 for 10% and 50% oxygen partial pressure, respectively. The rapid rise in n - in the afterglow (in which the electron temperature falls from about 5 to 0.5 eV) is attributed to the dissociative attachment of highly excited oxygen metastables, which themselves are created in the pulse on-time. At the lowest duty of 5%, the long-term O - decay times are several hundred μs. Langmuir probe characteristics show the clear signature that negative ions dominate over the electrons in the off-time. From the ion and electron saturation current ratios, α has been estimated in some chosen cases and found to agree within a factor between 2 and 10 with those obtained more directly from the photodetachment method.

  3. Argonne inverted sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yntema, J.L.; Billquist, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The emittance of the inverted sputter source with immersion lenses was measured to be about 5π mm mrad MeV/sup 1/2/ at the 75% level over a wide range of beam intensities. The use of the source in experiments with radioactive sputter targets and hydrogen loaded targets is described. Self contamination of the source is discussed

  4. Study of the chemical sputtering in Tore-Supra; Etude de l'erosion chimique dans le tokamak Tore-Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambe, A

    2002-06-28

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on the interactions between energetic particles coming from thermonuclear plasma and the inner components of a fusion machine. This interaction induces two major problems: erosion of the wall, and tritium retention. This report treats the erosion of carbon based materials. The first part is devoted to chemical sputtering, that appears to be the principal erosion mechanism, compared to physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation that both can be limited. Chemical sputtering has been studied in situ in the tokamak Tore-Supra for ohmic and lower hybrid (LH) heated discharges, by means of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy. We have shown that it is necessary to take into account both methane and heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}D{sub x} and C{sub 3}D{sub y}) in the determination of the chemical sputtering yield. It is found that for the ohmic discharges, the sputtering yield of CD{sub 4} (Y{sub CD4}) is highly flux ({phi}) dependent, showing a variation of the form: Y{sub CD4} {proportional_to} {phi}{sup -0.23}. The experimental study also reveals that an increase of the surface temperature induces an augmentation of Y{sub CD4}. The interpretation and the modelling of the experimental results have been performed with a Monte Carlo code (BBQ. In the second part of this work, we have developed and installed an infrared spectroscopy diagnostic in the 0.8-1.6, {mu}m wavelength range dedicated to the measurement of surface temperature, and the identification of atomic and molecular lines emitted during plasma/wall interactions. In the third part, we present the feasibility study of an in situ tungsten deposition process at low temperature(<80 deg C) in order to suppress the chemical sputtering. This study shows that, with this method call Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD), we are able to coat the whole inner vessel of a tokamak with 1 {mu}m of tungsten. (author)

  5. Effects of ion sputtering on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering has been combined with Auger spectroscopy to study the effects of ion beams on semiconductor surfaces. Observations on the mass dependence of ion selective sputtering of two component systems are presented. The effects of ion implantation are explained in terms of atomic dilution. Experimental data are presented that illustrate the super-position of selective sputtering and implantation effects on the surface composition. Sample reduction from electron and ion beam interaction is illustrated. Apparent sample changes which one might observe from the effects of residual gas contamination and electric fields are also discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björkas, C., E-mail: carolina.bjorkas@helsinki.fi; Nordlund, K.

    2013-08-15

    Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor’s life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

  7. Study of preferential sputtering and segregation effects on the surface composition of Al-Pd-Mn quasi-crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samavat, F.; Gladys, M.; Jenks, C.; Lograsso, T.; King, M.; O' Connor, D.

    2008-02-25

    Using 2 keV He+ and Ne+ low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), it was found that the Al/Pd concentration ratio at the surface of a nominally Al69.9Pd20.5Mn9.6 quasi-crystal decreases to a steady-state value under bombardment as a result of preferential sputtering. Sputtering of an annealed surface results in a significant increase in Mn concentration on the surface which remained at annealing temperatures below 575 K. Variations of the Mn/Pd and Al/Pd ratios have been measured by LEIS as a function of temperature in the range 295-975 K for clean-annealed and sputtered surfaces. The results show that Al/Pd ratio does not significantly change from 295 to 575 K for both He+ and Ne+ but increases with sample temperatures up to 875 K.

  8. Electrical and optical study of transparent V-based oxide semiconductors prepared by magnetron sputtering under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prociow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on structural, optical and electrical behaviors of vanadium-based oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering under different conditions. Thin films have been deposited on glass substrates from metallic vanadium target at low sputtering pressure. Different working gases: argon/oxygen mixture, and especially pure oxygen gas, have been applied. Results of X-ray diffraction together with optical transmission and temperature- dependent electrical resistivity measurements have been presented. Transmission coefficient, cut-off wavelength and the width of the optical band gap have been calculated from optical measurements. The d.c. resistivity values at room temperature and thermal activation energy have been obtained from electrical investigations. The influence of sputtering process conditions on optical and electrical properties has been discussed.

  9. Sputtering Yields of Si and Ni from the Ni1-xSix System Studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Chol; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yoshihide; Iwami, Motohiro; Hiraki, Akio; Satou, Mamoru; Fujimoto, Fuminori

    1982-01-01

    Sputtering yields of Si and Ni from thin layer films of Ni-Si compounds (Ni1-xSix), including the pure materials (Ni and Si), caused by 5 keV Ar+ ion bombardment were investigated using backscattering spectrometry. The sputtering yield for Si from Ni1-xSix increased with increasing Si concentration. However, there is an abrupt decrease in the yield for Si concentrations above NiSi2 to pure Si. This is in clear contrast to the sputtering yield of Ni from Ni1-xSix which increased with increasing Ni concentration monotonously. These results are discussed on the basis of both the difference in the atomic density and the electronic state of the alloy.

  10. Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Katsarakis, N.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pure and aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO and ZAO) thin films have been grown using direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering from pure metallic Zn and ceramic ZnO targets, as well as from Al-doped metallic ZnAl2at.% and ceramic ZnAl2at.%O targets at room temperature (RT). The effects of target composition on the film's surface topology, crystallinity, and optical transmission have been investigated for various oxygen partial pressures in the sputtering atmosphere. It has been shown that Al-doped ZnO films sputtered from either metallic or ceramic targets exhibit different surface morphology than the undoped ZnO films, while their preferential crystalline growth orientation revealed by X-ray diffraction remains always the (002). More significantly, Al-doping leads to a larger increase of the optical transmission and energy gap (E g ) of the metallic than of the ceramic target prepared films

  11. Induced anisotropy in amorphous Sm-Co sputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Hegde, H.; Cadieu, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of the in-the-film-plane anisotropy constant, K u , with composition and the magnitude of the field, H s , applied in plane during the sputter deposition of amorphous Sm x Co 1-x , 0.08≤x≤0.40, thin films has been studied. We demonstrate here that with a large H s , 5.0 kOe, a well defined and large in-the-film-plane anisotropy can be obtained. An exceptionally high value of K u =3.3x10 6 erg/cm 3 has been obtained. For the loop measured along the in-plane hard direction, the opening of the loop was undetectable, and the loop along the easy axis was a perfect rectangle. For certain conditions, the anisotropy field measured perpendicular to the film plane when corrected for demagnetization (N d =4π) was the same as that for the in-plane measurements. It is concluded that surface induced short range ordering was the origin of the anisotropy observed in amorphous films deposited in a magnetic field. The formation mechanism is different from that of the short range ordering induced by field annealing

  12. Alkali metal adsorbate sputtering by molecular impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.P.; Wachman, H.Y.; Trilling, L.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory study of the sputtering by a krypton molecular beam of rubidium adsorbed at low coverage on a tungsten substrate has been described in a previous paper. An extension of this work is reported now

  13. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement related to the application of novel cavity fabrication techniques and Nb/Cu sputter coating technology in the field of superconducting RF for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement related to the application of novel cavity fabrication techniques and Nb/Cu sputter coating technology in the field of superconducting RF for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

  14. Study of sterilization-treatment in pure and N- doped carbon thin films synthesized by inductively coupled plasma assisted pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javid, Amjed [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Textile Processing, National Textile University, Faisalabad 37610 (Pakistan); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon Geon, E-mail: hanjg@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Pure and N-doped nanocrystallie carbon films are synthesized by ICP assisted pulsed DC plasma process. • ICP power induces the increase in average graphitic crystallite size from 4.86 nm to 6.42 nm. • Beneficial role of ICP source assistance to achieve high sputtering throughput (deposition rate ∼55 nm/min). • Post-sterilization electron-transport study shows N-doped carbon films having promising stability. - Abstract: Electrically-conductive nanocrystalline carbon films, having non-toxic and non-immunogenic characteristics, are promising candidates for reusable medical devices. Here, the pure and N- doped nanocrystalline carbon films are deposited by the assistance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in an unbalanced facing target pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering process. Through the optical emission spectroscopy study, the role of ICP assistance and N-doping on the reactive components/radicals during the synthesis is presented. The N-doping enhances the three fold bonding configurations by increasing the ionization and energies of the plasma species. Whereas, the ICP addition increases the plasma density to control the deposition rate and film structure. As a result, sputtering-throughput (deposition rate: 31–55 nm/min), electrical resistivity (4–72 Ωcm) and water contact angle (45.12°–54°) are significantly tailored. Electric transport study across the surface microchannel confirms the superiority of N-doped carbon films for sterilization stability over the undoped carbon films.

  15. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2013-01-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10 −4 Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm 2 /V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10 20 cm −3 , and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  16. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm{sup 2}/V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  17. Defects, stoichiometry, and electronic transport in SrTiO{sub 3-δ} epilayers: A high pressure oxygen sputter deposition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambwani, P.; Xu, P.; Jeong, J. S.; Deng, R.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Jalan, B.; Leighton, C., E-mail: leighton@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Haugstad, G. [Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    SrTiO{sub 3} is not only of enduring interest due to its unique dielectric, structural, and lattice dynamical properties, but is also the archetypal perovskite oxide semiconductor and a foundational material in oxide heterostructures and electronics. This has naturally focused attention on growth, stoichiometry, and defects in SrTiO{sub 3}, one exciting recent development being such precisely stoichiometric defect-managed thin films that electron mobilities have finally exceeded bulk crystals. This has been achieved only by molecular beam epitaxy, however (and to a somewhat lesser extent pulsed laser deposition (PLD)), and numerous open questions remain. Here, we present a study of the stoichiometry, defects, and structure in SrTiO{sub 3} synthesized by a different method, high pressure oxygen sputtering, relating the results to electronic transport. We find that this form of sputter deposition is also capable of homoepitaxy of precisely stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}, but only provided that substrate and target preparation, temperature, pressure, and deposition rate are carefully controlled. Even under these conditions, oxygen-vacancy-doped heteroepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films are found to have carrier density, mobility, and conductivity significantly lower than bulk. While surface depletion plays a role, it is argued from particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements of trace impurities in commercial sputtering targets that this is also due to deep acceptors such as Fe at 100's of parts-per-million levels. Comparisons of PIXE from SrTiO{sub 3} crystals and polycrystalline targets are shown to be of general interest, with clear implications for sputter and PLD deposition of this important material.

  18. Study on re-sputtering during CN{sub x} film deposition through spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Cai, Hua [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jiada, E-mail: jdwu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A nitrogen-carbon plasma was generated during the deposition of carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) thin films by pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in a discharge nitrogen plasma, and the optical emission of the generated nitrogen-carbon plasma was measured for the diagnostics of the plasma and the characterization of the process of CN{sub x} film deposition. The nitrogen-carbon plasma was recognized to contain various species including nitrogen molecules and molecular ions excited in the ambient N{sub 2} gas, carbon atoms and atomic ions ablated from the graphite target and CN radicals. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the CN emission and their dependence on the substrate bias voltage show two groups of CN radicals flying in opposite directions. One represents the CN radicals formed as the products of the reactions occurring in the nitrogen-carbon plasma, revealing the reactive deposition of CN{sub x} film due to the reactive expansion of the ablation carbon plasma in the discharge nitrogen plasma and the effective formation of gaseous CN radicals as precursors for CN{sub x} film growth. The other one represents the CN radicals re-sputtered from the growing CN{sub x} film by energetic plasma species, evidencing the re-sputtering of the growing film accompanying film growth. And, the re-sputtering presents ion-induced sputtering features.

  19. A cellular automata simulation study of surface roughening resulting from multi-atom etch pit generation during sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Y S; Nobes, M J; Carter, G [Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom)

    1992-04-01

    A two-dimensional square matrix of pseudo-atomic positions is erected and atom removal from the ''surface'' is effected randomly. Either single atoms or groups of atoms (to simulate multi-atom pit generation) are removed. The characteristics of the evolving roughened, terraced ''surface'' are evaluated as a function of the total number of atoms, or equivalent numbers of atomic layers, removed. These characteristics include the ''mean'' position of the sputtered surface, the standard deviation of terrace length about the mean and the form of the terrace length distributions. The results of the single-atom removal mode compare exactly with theoretical predictions in that, for large numbers of atoms removed the depth position of the mean of the terrace length distribution is identical to the mean sputtered depth and the standard deviation increases as the square root of this depth. For multi-atom removal modes (which cannot be predicted theoretically) the standard deviation also increases as the square root of the mean sputtered depth but with a larger proportionality constant. The implications of these observations for the evolution of surface morphology during high yield sputtering is discussed. (orig.).

  20. Sensitivity of ion-induced sputtering to the radial distribution of energy transfers: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, S.; Khan, S. A.; Roy, A.; Beuve, M.; Toulemonde, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using different models for the deposition of energy on the lattice and a classical molecular dynamics approach to the subsequent transport, we evaluate how the details of the energy deposition model influence sputtering yield from a Lennard-Jones target irradiated with a MeV/u ion beam. Two energy deposition models are considered: a uniform, instantaneous deposition into a cylinder of fixed radius around the projectile ion track, used in earlier molecular dynamics and fluid dynamics simulations of sputtering yields; and an energy deposition distributed in time and space based on the formalism developed in the thermal spike model. The dependence of the sputtering yield on the total energy deposited on the target atoms is very sensitive to the energy deposition model. To clarify the origin of this strong dependence, we explore the role of the radial expansion of the electronic system prior to the transfer of its energy to the lattice. The results imply that observables such as the sputtering yield may be used as signatures of the fast electron-lattice energy transfer in the electronic energy-loss regime, and indicate the need for more experimental and theoretical investigations of these processes

  1. The OE-A OPV demonstrator anno domini 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Fyenbo, Jan; Tanenbaum, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Roll-to-roll manufacture of OPV and integration into credit card sized flashlights for the OE-A demonstrate that large numbers (10 000 units) can be prepared in high technical yield.......Roll-to-roll manufacture of OPV and integration into credit card sized flashlights for the OE-A demonstrate that large numbers (10 000 units) can be prepared in high technical yield....

  2. Sputtering and inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, I.A.; Tsepelevic, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data and models of a new type of material sputtering with ions of relatively high energies due to inelastic (electron) processes are reviewed. This area of investigations began to develop intensively during the latest years. New experimental data of the authors on differential characteristics of ultradisperse gold and americium dioxide layers with fission fragments are given as well. Practical applications of the new sputtering type are considered as well as setup of possibl experiments at heavy multiply charged ion accelerators

  3. Sputtering and reflection of self-bombardment of tungsten material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Guo-jian [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Li, Xiao-chun; Xu, Qian; Yang, Zhong-shi [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Luo, Guang-nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of CAS, Hefei (China)

    2015-04-15

    In present research, the sputtering and reflection yield of self-bombardment of tungsten are investigated with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The source of sputtered and reflected atoms is detected by traced the original locations of sputtered and reflected atoms. Results show that for the reflected atoms no specific region exists which means cluster atoms are randomly reflected. But almost all of sputtered atoms are from a conical region under the landing point of cluster. So we can determine the sputtering yield by study the dimension of the sputtering region. Molecular dynamics shows the depth and radius of the conical are power functions of impacting energy. The effects of cluster size and temperature of target on sputtering and reflection rate are also preformed in present study. Both sputtering and reflection yield are proportion to cluster size in present cluster size, i.e. 66–2647 atoms. Higher target temperature can increase sputtering yield and deduce sputtering threshold energy, but little effect on reflection rate.

  4. Sputtering and reflection of self-bombardment of tungsten material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Guo-jian; Li, Xiao-chun; Xu, Qian; Yang, Zhong-shi; Luo, Guang-nan

    2015-01-01

    In present research, the sputtering and reflection yield of self-bombardment of tungsten are investigated with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The source of sputtered and reflected atoms is detected by traced the original locations of sputtered and reflected atoms. Results show that for the reflected atoms no specific region exists which means cluster atoms are randomly reflected. But almost all of sputtered atoms are from a conical region under the landing point of cluster. So we can determine the sputtering yield by study the dimension of the sputtering region. Molecular dynamics shows the depth and radius of the conical are power functions of impacting energy. The effects of cluster size and temperature of target on sputtering and reflection rate are also preformed in present study. Both sputtering and reflection yield are proportion to cluster size in present cluster size, i.e. 66–2647 atoms. Higher target temperature can increase sputtering yield and deduce sputtering threshold energy, but little effect on reflection rate

  5. High-coercivity FePt sputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, N.H.; Hiep, V.V.; Hong, D.M.; Chau, N.; Linh, N.D.; Kurisu, M.; Anh, D.T.K.; Nakamoto, G.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 56 Pt 44 thin films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Si substrates. The substrate temperature was kept at 350 deg C. The X-ray diffraction patterns of as-deposited FePt films exhibited a disordered structure. Annealing of the films at 650-685 deg C for 1 h yielded an ordered L1 0 phase with FCT structure. The high value for coercivity H C of 17 kOe was obtained at room temperature for the 68 nm thick film annealed at 685 deg C. The hard magnetic properties as well as grain structure of the films strongly depend on the annealing conditions

  6. Structural and dielectric studies of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural, dielectric and leakage current properties of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films deposited on platinized silicon (Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The role of oxygen mixing percentage (OMP on the growth, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties of the thin films has been investigated. A preferred orientation of grains along (110 direction has been observed with increasing the OMP. Such evolution of the textured growth is explained on the basis of the orientation factor analysis followed the Lotgering model. (Mg1-xCoxTiO3 (x = 0.05 thin films exhibits a maximum relative dielectric permittivity of ɛr = 12.20 and low loss (tan δ ∼ 1.2 × 10−3 over a wide range of frequencies for 75% OMP. The role of electric field frequency (f and OMP on the ac-conductivity of (Mg0.95Co0.05TiO3 have been studied. A progressive increase in the activation energy (Ea and relative permittivity ɛr values have been noticed up to 75% of OMP, beyond which the properties starts deteriorate. The I-V characteristics reveals that the leakage current density decreases from 9.93 × 10−9 to 1.14 × 10−9 A/cm2 for OMP 0% to 75%, respectively for an electric field strength of 250 kV/cm. Our experimental results reveal up to that OMP ≥ 50% the leakage current mechanism is driven by the ohmic conduction, below which it is dominated by the schottky emission.

  7. Opinions and statements of the experts who studied the framework conditions of abandonment of nuclear power - presented by the commission set in by the OeTV Executive Board (Public Services and Transport Workers' Union)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The publication consists of two volumes and explains the position and opinions of the OeTV Executive Board concerning abandonment of nuclear power. The first volume presents the Executive Board's statement given in September 1987: Nuclear power should be abandoned, and it can be done; energy policy has to take a new line, concentrating on energy conservation, enhanced use of coal for electricity generation, enhanced use of renewable energy sources; stepwise shutdown of nuclear power stations. The first volume also presents the documents and experience forming the basis of the Union's position, namely the expert opinions on this issue, and an information visit to Sweden together with a report of Sweden's Minister of Industry on effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The development of the Union's point of view of energy policy since the year 1976. (HSCH) [de

  8. Studies on the reactive pulsed-magnetron sputtering of ITO from metallic targets; Untersuchungen zum reaktiven Pulsmagnetronsputtern von ITO von metallischen Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnehr, W.M.

    2006-06-15

    The thesis deals with a reactive sputter process for the deposition of ITO- films. In contrast to the usual technique, the sputter targets consists of indium-tin-alloy instead of ceramic ITO. All experiments were conducted on an inline coater with 600 mm target-width. The process is stabilized by a control loop based on optical emission detection. The experiments prove, that this control loop guarantees a long term stability of the outcomes of the coating process.Process parameters, that are crucial for the optical and electrical properties of the deposited thin films are identified and studied. Among them are the flow of oxygen and the substrate temperature but also less obvious parameters such as the distance between target and substrate.Througout the work the focus is on the film deposition with pulsed plasmas. Novel bipolar DC pulse- and pulse package generators are employed for the deposition.In order to shed some light onto the influence of certain pulse parameters on the outcome of a particular coating process, a Monte-Carlo-Simulation of the particle flow in pulsed plasmas is developed. This simulation yields the distribution of particles and their respective energies on deliberately placed planes in the process chamber. Particles under investigation are both sputtered species and neutral sputter gas atoms reflected at the target. The results of this simulation provide an explanation for the influence of certain pulse parameters on the outcome of the coating process. The further investigations deal with the influence of the construction of the process chamber on the coating process. For this purpose, locally resolved optical spectra are recorded. In order to analyse these spectra, a novel connected fit algorithm is developed.This algorithm yields the distribution of certain fitparameters on the substrate. Provided the most complex of the discussed parametrizations of the dielectric function are used, these can be crucial properties such as the carrier

  9. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES-NL) in dental patients with and without self-reported tooth wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetselaar, P.; Koutris, M.; Visscher, C.M.; Larsson, P.; John, M.T.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) in dental patients with and without self-reported tooth wear. The English version of the OES was translated into Dutch, following established guidelines for cross-cultural

  10. MD simulation of cluster formation during sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramoto, T.; Okai, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Yorizane, K.; Yamamura, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The cluster ejection due to cluster impact on a solid surface is studied through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations are performed for Cu cluster impacts on the Cu(1 1 1) surface for cluster energy 100 eV/atom, and for clusters of 6, 13, 28 and 55 atoms. Interatomic interactions are described by the AMLJ-EAM potential. The vibration energy spectrum is independent of the incident cluster size and energy. This comes from the fact that sputtered clusters become stable through the successive fragmentation of nascent large sputtered clusters. The vibration energy spectra for large sputtered clusters have a peak, whose energy corresponds to the melting temperature of Cu. The exponent of the power-law fit of the abundance distribution and the total sputtering yield for the cluster impacts are higher than that for the monatomic ion impacts with the same total energy, where the exponent δ is given by Y n ∝n δ and Y n is the yield of sputtered n-atom cluster. The exponent δ follows a unified function of the total sputtering yield, which is a monotonic increase function, and it is nearly equal to δ ∼ -3 for larger yield

  11. Fundamental aspects of cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, R.

    1979-01-01

    The main fundamental aspects and problems of cathodic sputtering used mainly for thin film deposition and sputter etching are discussed. Among many types of known sputtering techniques the radiofrequency /RF/ diode sputtering is the most universal one and is used for deposition of metals, alloys, metallic compounds, semiconductors and insulators. It seems that nowadays the largest number of working sputtering systems is of diode type. Sometimes also the dc or rf triode sputtering systems are used. The problems in these processes are practically equivalent and comparable with the problems in the diode method and therefore our discussion will be, in most cases applicable for both, the diode and triode methods

  12. Optical emission studies of atomic and ionic species in the ionized sputter-deposition process of magnesium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Koyama, Y.; Iwaya, M.; Shinohara, M.; Fujiyama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Planar magnetron (PM) power and ICP-RF power dependences of the optical emission intensities of excited atomic and ionic species in the reactive ionized sputter-deposition of magnesium oxide (MgO) thin films were investigated. With the increase in PM power at constant ICP-RF power, Mg I emission intensity increased and Ar I emission intensity gradually decreased. With the increase in ICP-RF power at constant PM power, the Mg I emission intensity increased at lower ICP-RF power and then gradually decreased at higher ICP-RF power; on the contrary, Ar I emission intensity monotonically increased. Emission intensity of atomic oxygen was negligibly small compared with those of Mg I and Ar I under the metallic sputtering mode condition

  13. Study of ion beam sputtered Fe/Si interfaces as a function of Si layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Brajpuriya, Ranjeet; Singh, Priti

    2018-01-01

    The exchange interaction in metal/semiconductor interfaces is far from being completely understood. Therefore, in this paper, we have investigated the nature of silicon on the Fe interface in the ion beam deposited Fe/Si/Fe trilayers keeping the thickness of the Fe layers fixed at 3 nm and varying the thickness of the silicon sandwich layer from 1.5 nm to 4 nm. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques were used, respectively, to study the structural and morphological changes in the deposited films as a function of layer thickness. The structural studies show silicide formation at the interfaces during deposition and better crystalline structure of Fe layers at a lower spacer layer thickness. The magnetization behavior was investigated using magneto-optical Kerr effect, which clearly shows that coupling between the ferromagnetic layers is highly influenced by the semiconductor spacer layer thickness. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for a value of tSi = 2.5 nm but above this value an unexpected behavior of hysteresis loop (step like) with two coercivity values is recorded. For spacer layer thickness greater than 2.5 nm, an elemental amorphous Si layer starts to appear in the spacer layer in addition to the silicide layer at the interfaces. It is observed that in the trilayer structure, Fe layers consist of various stacks, viz., Si doped Fe layers, ferromagnetic silicide layer, and nonmagnetic silicide layer at the interfaces. The two phase hysteresis loop is explained on the basis of magnetization reversal of two ferromagnetic layers, independent of each other, with different coercivities. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy technique was also used to study interfaces characteristics as a function of tSi.

  14. Sputter deposited bioceramic coatings: surface characterisation and initial protein adsorption studies using surface-MALDI-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, A. R.; Burke, G. A.; Duffy, H.

    2011-01-01

    Protein adsorption onto calcium phosphate (Ca–P) bioceramics utilised in hard tissue implant applications has been highlighted as one of the key events that influences the subsequent biological response, in vivo. This work reports on the use of surface-matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation...... to a combination of growth factors and lipoproteins present in serum. From the data obtained here it is evident that surface-MALDI-MS has significant utility as a tool for studying the dynamic nature of protein adsorption onto the surfaces of bioceramic coatings, which most likely plays a significant role...

  15. Mössbauer spectroscopy study of surfactant sputtering induced Fe silicide formation on a Si surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, C.; Zhang, K. [2nd Institute of Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Hofsäss, H., E-mail: hans.hofsaess@phys.uni-goettingen.de [2nd Institute of Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Brüsewitz, C.; Vetter, U. [2nd Institute of Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bharuth-Ram, K. [Physics Department, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4001 (South Africa)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We study the formation of self-organized nanoscale dot and ripple patterns on Si. • Patterns are created by keV noble gas ion irradiation and simultaneous {sup 57}Fe co-deposition. • Ion-induced phase separation and the formation of a-FeSi{sub 2} is identified as relevant process. - Abstract: The formation of Fe silicides in surface ripple patterns, generated by erosion of a Si surface with keV Ar and Xe ions and simultaneous co-deposition of Fe, was investigated with conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. For the dot and ripple patterns studied, we find an average Fe concentration in the irradiated layer between 6 and 25 at.%. The Mössbauer spectra clearly show evidence of the formation of Fe disilicides with Fe content close to 33 at.%, but very little evidence of the formation of metallic Fe particles. The results support the process of ion-induced phase separation toward an amorphous Fe disilicide phase as pattern generation mechanism. The observed amorphous phase is in agreement with thermodynamic calculations of amorphous Fe silicides.

  16. Determination of trace elements in plant samples using XRF, PIXE and ICP-OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hassan Elzain Hassan

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine trace element concentration (Ca, Cu, Cr, K,Fe, Mn,Sr, and Za) in some sudanese wild plants namely, Ziziphus Abyssinica and Grewia Tenax. X-ray fluorescence ( X RF), particle-induced x-ray emission ( PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques were used for element determination. A series of plants standard references materials were used to check the reliability of the different employed techniques as well as to estimate possible factors for correcting the concentration of some elements that deviated significantly from their actual concentration. The results showed that, X RF, PIXE and ICP-OES are equally competitive methods for measuring Ca,K, Fe, Sr and Zn elements. Unlikely to ICP-OES seems to be superior techniques tend to be appropriate methods for Cu determination in plant samples however, for Mn element PIXE and ICP-OES are advisable techniques for measuring this element rather than X RF method. On the other hand, ICP-OES seems to be the superior techniques over PIXE and X RF methods for Cr and Ni determination in plant samples. The effect of geographical location on trace elements concentration in plants has been examined through determination of element in different species of Grewia Tenax than collected from different location. Most of measured elements showed similarity indicating there is no significant impact of locations on the difference of element contents. In addition, two plants with different genetic families namely, Ziziphus Spina Christi and Ziziphus Abyssinica were collected from the same location and screened for their trace element content. It was found that there were no difference between the two plants for Ca, K, Cu, Fe, and Sr element. However, significant variations were observed for Mn and Zn concentrations implying the possibility of using of those two elements for plant taxonomy purposes.(Author)

  17. Ellipsometry study of process deposition of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talagrand, C.; Boddaert, X.; Selmeczi, D.G.; Defranoux, C.; Collot, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an InGaZnO optical study by spectrometric ellipsometry. First of all, the fitting results of different models and different structures are analysed to choose the most appropriate model. The Tauc–Lorentz model is suitable for thickness measurements but a more complex model allows the refractive index and extinction coefficient to be extracted more accurately. Secondly, different InGaZnO process depositions are carried out in order to investigate stability, influence of deposition time and uniformity. Films present satisfactory optical stability over time. InGaZnO optical property evolution as a function of deposition time is related to an increase in temperature. To understand the behaviour of uniformity, mapping measurements are correlated to thin film resistivity. Results show that temperature and resputtering are the two phenomena that affect IGZO uniformity. - Highlights: • Model and structure are investigated to fit IGZO ellipsometric angles. • Maximum refractive index rises with substrate temperature and thus deposition time. • Resputtering leads to inhomogeneity in IGZO electrical and optical properties

  18. A study of the picostructure of sputtered ZrN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.J.; Schaffer, J.P.; Brunner, J.; Sproul, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Stoichiometric zirconium nitride films deposited onto cemented carbide and stainless steel substrates as a function of the applied substrate bias were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD Bragg-Brentano goniometer) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Microhardness and color measurements were also carried out. The results at low bias levels show that the crystal lattice has no deviant behavior in the strain distribution or lattice parameters; such differences which are observed in the latter are due to the X-ray elastic constants. Shear stresses are found on the (h00) family of planes and probably on the (hhh) family at bias levels more negative than -70 V. The microhardness and residual stress are then constant. The PAS data indicate that the vacancy defect fraction is below the limit of detection at bias levels less negative than approximately -80 V; a low concentration of vacancies exists at more negative bias values. The color of the films is not affected by the bias applied during deposition, and is only slightly affected by annealing when deposited at low bias values. In view of the change in lattice parameters on annealing, it is concluded that the results do not correspond with those expected from the simple ionic model. (orig.)

  19. Ellipsometry study of process deposition of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talagrand, C., E-mail: talagrand@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne CMP-GC, Dept PS2, Gardanne, 880 route de Mimet (France); Boddaert, X. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne CMP-GC, Dept PS2, Gardanne, 880 route de Mimet (France); Selmeczi, D.G.; Defranoux, C. [Semilab Semiconductor Physics Laboratory Co. Ltd., Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Collot, P. [Ecole Nationale Supérieure d' Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Aix-en-Provence, 2 cours des Arts et Métiers (France)

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on an InGaZnO optical study by spectrometric ellipsometry. First of all, the fitting results of different models and different structures are analysed to choose the most appropriate model. The Tauc–Lorentz model is suitable for thickness measurements but a more complex model allows the refractive index and extinction coefficient to be extracted more accurately. Secondly, different InGaZnO process depositions are carried out in order to investigate stability, influence of deposition time and uniformity. Films present satisfactory optical stability over time. InGaZnO optical property evolution as a function of deposition time is related to an increase in temperature. To understand the behaviour of uniformity, mapping measurements are correlated to thin film resistivity. Results show that temperature and resputtering are the two phenomena that affect IGZO uniformity. - Highlights: • Model and structure are investigated to fit IGZO ellipsometric angles. • Maximum refractive index rises with substrate temperature and thus deposition time. • Resputtering leads to inhomogeneity in IGZO electrical and optical properties.

  20. Ion beam modification of sputtered metal nitride thin films: A study of the induced microstructural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosavljevic, M.; Perusko, D.; Popovic, M.; Novakovic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Single CrN and TiN and multilayered AlN/TiN and Al/Ti thin film structures (t = 240-280 nm) deposited on Si were irradiated with 120-200 keV Ar + ions to the fluences ranging from 1 x 10 11 5 to 4 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . The metallic Al/Ti multilayered structure was also irradiated with high fluence (1- 2 x 10 17 /cm 2 ) nitrogen ions at 200 keV, in order to study interface mixing and formation of nitrides. Single component CrN and TiN thin films were found to grow in the form of a very fine polycrystalline columnar structures. Individual crystal grains were of the order of a few tens of nm in diameter, stretching from the substrate to the surface. After ion irradiation, the layers retain their polycrystalline structure, although the columns become disconnected, the resulting structures consisting of larger grains and nano-particles of the same phase. The implanted samples displayed higher electrical resistivity, presumably due to a higher concentration of point defects and the presence of nano-particles. In Al/Ti and AlN/TiN multilayers irradiated with Ar ions, the as-deposited structures exhibit well-defined, isolated polycrystalline Al and Ti, or AlN and TiN layers, with sharp interfaces. In the metallic system ion irradiation induced interface mixing which progressed with increasing the ion fluence. Mixing was most pronounced at the interfaces that are located around the projected ion range. The multilayered structure was essentially preserved, but the implanted samples exhibit much larger crystal grains. Also, the formation of lamellar columns stretching over a number of individual layers was observed. The AlN/TiN multilayered structures exhibited no measurable interface mixing on Ar irradiation, attributable to the nature of interatomic bonding and to mutual immiscibility of AlN and TiN. High fluence nitrogen ion irradiation of Al/Ti multilayers results in both the introduction of nitrogen into the structures as well as a high level of their intermixing. A

  1. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment of surfaces are described. These are: collision, thermal, electronic and photon-induced sputtering. 135 refs.; 36 figs.; 9 tabs

  2. Exchange bias in sputtered FeNi/FeMn systems: Effect of short low-temperature heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, Peter, E-mail: peter.savin@urfu.ru [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Guzmán, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lepalovskij, Vladimir [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Svalov, Andrey; Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Asenjo, Agustina [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vas’kovskiy, Vladimir [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Vazquez, Manuel [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Short (5 min) post-deposition thermal treatments under magnetic field at low temperature (up to 200 °C) performed in exchange-coupled FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm) bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are shown to be effective to significantly modify their exchange field (from around 40 Oe down to 27 Oe) between FeNi and FeMn layers. A similar exchange field decrease was observed for the first deposited FeNi layer of the FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm)/FeNi(40 nm) trilayer films after the same thermal treatments. The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicates that such a heat treatment has no effect on the grain size and crystalline texture of the films, while atomic force microscope studies reveal an increase of the surface roughness after the treatment which is more noticeable in the case of the trilayer film. Analysis of the experimental results leads us to conclude that the variations of the exchange field after heat treatment are likely caused by a modification of interfacial roughness and/or interfacial magnetic structure, but unlikely by the changes in the microstructure and/or changes of composition of the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer. - Highlights: • FeNi/FeMn bilayers and FeNi/FeMn/FeNi trilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Post-deposition heat treatments at the temperatures below 200 °C during 5 min were made. • Annealing reduces the exchange field for the first FeNi layer in trilayers. • The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. • Exchange field changes are most likely caused by a modification of interface roughness.

  3. Computer simulation of the self-sputtering of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The sputtering of polycrystalline α-uranium by uranium ions of energies below 10 keV has been studied in the binary collision approximation using the computer simulation program marlowe. Satisfactory agreement of the computed sputtering yields with the small amount of available experimental data was achieved using the Moliere interatomic potential, a semilocal inelastic loss function, and a planar surface binding barrier, all with conventional parameters. The model is used to discuss low energy sputtering processes and the energy and angular distributions of the reflected primaries and the sputtered target particles

  4. Physics of ion sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1984-04-01

    The ejection of atoms by the ion bombardment of solids is discussed in terms of linear collision cascade theory. A simple argument describes the energies of the ejecta, but elaborate models are required to obtain accurate sputtering yields and related quantities. These include transport theoretical models based on linearized Boltzmann equations, computer simulation models based on the binary collision approximation, and classical many-body dynamical models. The role of each kind of model is discussed. Several aspects of sputtering are illustrated by results from the simulation code MARLOWE. 20 references, 6 figures

  5. Sputtering induced surface composition changes in copper-palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, L.; Krishnan, R.

    1981-01-01

    It has been observed that, in general, surface composition is different from bulk composition in multicomponent materials as a result of ion beam sputtering. This compositional difference arises from factors like preferential sputtering, radiation induced concentration gradients and the knock-in effect. In the present work, changes in the surface composition of copper-palladium alloys, brought about by argon ion sputtering, have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy. Argon ion energy has been varied from 500 eV to 5 keV. Enrichment of palladium has been observed in the sputter-altered layer. The palladium enrichment at the surface has been found to be higher for 500 eV argon ion sputtering compared with argon ion sputtering at higher energies. Above 500 eV, the surface composition has been observed to remain the same irrespective of the sputter ion energy for each alloy composition. The bulk composition ratio of palladium to copper has been found to be linearly related to the sputter altered surface composition ratio of palladium to copper. These results are discussed on the basis of recent theories of alloy sputtering. (orig.)

  6. FY1995 study to create the high density magnetic recording devices by using an ultra clean sputtering process; 1995 nendo choseijo sputter process ni yoru chokomitsudo jiki kiroku device no sosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is important to control microstructure of thin film magnetic devices such as recording heads and media, in order to induce excellent magnetic properties. Since the impurities in the sputtering atmosphere is easily thought to affect strongly on the initial film growth, we will develop the highly purified sputtering atmosphere to establish a fabrication technology of ultra thin metallic films with desirable microstructure. A specialized multi-sputtering system which has extremely clean atmosphere (impurity level: 1/10000 compared to conventional systems) were realized by (a) decreasing out-gassing rate from vacuum chamber, pumping system, cathode, robot, etc. and (b) using ultra-clean processing gas. The base pressure was 8 x 10{sup -12} Torr (XHV) and the build-up rate was less than 1 x 10{sup -8} Torrl/sec. From the correlation between the microstructure and magnetic properties of a part of spin-valve GMR films, the guiding principle for the microstructural design were clarified to induce the exchange coupling effectively at the ferro/antiferromagnetic interface and to enhance the GMR effect at the magnetic/non-magnetic interface. The mechanism of' Cr segregation on the grain boundaries was clarified, in thin film media deposited under ultra clean sputtering process. The material specification of the magnetic ultra thin film media for high density recording with low media noise were designed from view of the thermal agitation. (NEDO)

  7. Contributions of solar-wind induced potential sputtering to the lunar surface erosion rate and it's exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnussirat, S. T.; Barghouty, A. F.; Edmunson, J. E.; Sabra, M. S.; Rickman, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    Sputtering of lunar regolith by solar-wind protons and heavy ions with kinetic energies of about 1 keV/amu is an important erosive process that affects the lunar surface and exosphere. It plays an important role in changing the chemical composition and thickness of the surface layer, and in introducing material into the exosphere. Kinetic sputtering is well modeled and understood, but understanding of mechanisms of potential sputtering has lagged behind. In this study we differentiate the contributions of potential sputtering from the standard (kinetic) sputtering in changing the chemical composition and erosion rate of the lunar surface. Also we study the contribution of potential sputtering in developing the lunar exosphere. Our results show that potential sputtering enhances the total characteristic sputtering erosion rate by about 44%, and reduces sputtering time scales by the same amount. Potential sputtering also introduces more material into the lunar exosphere.

  8. The influence of landing points on the sputtering of mono-crystal solids due to cluster impacting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Guo-jian; Li, Xiao-chun; Xu, Qian; Yang, Zhong-shi, E-mail: zsyang@ipp.ac.cn; Luo, Guang-nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn

    2017-01-15

    The mechanism of sputtering due to cluster impacting which has been widely studied is an important but unsolved problem. In present research, we discuss the effect of the landing point on the sputtering with the method of molecular dynamics. The results show that the landing points play significant roles on sputter yield when the temperature of target is low. Specific landing points can cause particular sputtering patterns which lead to different sputtering yield and moving directions of sputtered atoms. The mechanism of this phenomenon is that specific landing keeps symmetries and anisotropies of target lattice, which influence the sputtering yield.

  9. Highly c-axis oriented ZnO:Ni thin film nanostructure by RF magnetron sputtering: Structural, morphological and magnetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddheswaran, R.; Savková, Jarmila; Medlín, Rostislav; Očenášek, Jan; Životský, Ondřej; Novák, Petr; Šutta, Pavol

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly preferred oriented columnar ZnO:Ni thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • XRD and azimuthal studies explain the characteristics of orientation in [0 0 1] direction. • Surface morphology and grains distribution were explained by FE-SEM. • XTEM specimen prepared by ion slicing used for TEM microstructure analyses. • Tendency of ferromagnetism by influence of Ni content was studied by VSM. - Abstract: Nickel doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ni) thin films with different Ni concentrations were deposited on silicon substrates at 400 °C by reactive magnetron sputtering using a mixture of Ar and O 2 gases. The X-ray diffraction and azimuthal patterns of the ZnO:Ni were carried out, and the quality of the strong preferred orientation of crystalline columns in the direction [0 0 1] perpendicular to the substrate surface were analysed. The grain size, distribution, and homogeneity of the thin film surfaces were studied by FE-SEM. The EDX and mapping confirmed that the Ni is incorporated into ZnO uniformly. The microstructure of the textured columns was analysed by TEM and HRTEM analyses. The average thickness and length of the columns were found to be about 50 nm and 600 nm, respectively. The rise of ferromagnetism by the influence of Ni content was studied by VSM magnetic studies at room temperature

  10. Proton sputtering. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finfgeld, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    This research provides sputtering yields as a function of energy for H + and D + on several representative pure metallic elements, in the absence of surface contaminants. The experimental technique and apparatus are described. Data are given for Au, Co, Ta, W, and Mo

  11. Laser sputtering. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.; Cuomo, J.J.; Leary, P.A.; Rothenburg, J.E.; Braren, B.E.; Aliotta, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation, i.e. bombardment, with 193 nm laser pulses having an energy fluence of 2.5 J/cm 2 and a duration of proportional12 ns leads to rapid sputtering with Au, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, MgO.Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , glass, and LaB 6 , relatively slow sputtering with MgF 2 and diamond, and mainly thermal-stress cracking with W. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggests that the mechanism for the sputtering of Au in either vacuum or air is one based on the hydrodynamics of molten Au, while an SEM-derived surface temperature estimate confirms that thermal sputtering (which might have been expected) is not possible. SEM with W shows that the near total lack of material removal is due to the thermal-stress cracking not leading to completed exfoliation, together with the surface temperature being too low for either hydrodynamical or thermal processes. Corresponding SEM with Al 2 O 3 shows, in the case of specimens bombarded in vacuum, topography of such a type that all mechanisms except electronic ones can be ruled out. The topography of Al 2 O 3 or other oxides bombarded in air through a mask is somewhat different, showing craters as for vacuum bombardments but ones which have a cone-like pattern on the bottom. (orig.)

  12. Mixed hyperfine interaction in amorphous Fe-Zr sputtered films in external magnetic field - a 57Fe Moessbauer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, S.M.; Crummenauer, J.; Wagner, H.-G.; Gonser, U.; Chien, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy provides only information about the magnitude of the splitting QS in the case of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction, but not on the sign of the main component of the electric field gradient (EFG) or the asymmetry parameter which are sensitive to the local environment of the 57 Fe nuclei. This kind of information is obtained by measurements in external magnetic fields. In the case of amorphous Fe-Zr sputtered films mixed hyperfine interaction leads to a clear change in the behaviour of the Zr-rich and the Fe-rich alloys, indicating the existence of magnetic clusters in the Fe-rich samples. (Auth.)

  13. Comparison study of ITO thin films deposited by sputtering at room temperature onto polymer and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been grown simultaneously onto glass and polymer substrates at room temperature by sputtering from ceramic target. The structure, morphology and electro-optical characteristics of the ITO/glass and ITO/polymer samples have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, four-point electrical measurements and spectrophotometry. In the selected experimental conditions, the polycrystalline ITO coating shows higher average grain size and higher conductivity, with similar visible transmittance, onto the polymer than onto the glass substrate

  14. Geometric considerations in magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The recent development of high performance magnetron type discharge sources has greatly enhaced the range of coating applications where sputtering is a viable deposition process. Magnetron sources can provide high current densities and sputtering rates, even at low pressures. They have much reduced substrate heating rates and can be scaled to large sizes. Magnetron sputter coating apparatuses can have a variety of geometric and plasma configurations. The target geometry affects the emission directions of both the sputtered atoms and the energetic ions which are neutralized and reflected at the cathode. This fact, coupled with the long mean free particle paths which are prevalent at low pressures, can make the coating properties very dependent on the apparatus geometry. This paper reviews the physics of magnetron operation and discusses the influences of apparatus geometry on the use of magnetrons for rf sputtering and reactive sputtering, as well as on the microstructure and internal stresses in sputtered metallic coatings. (author) [pt

  15. The OE-A OPV demonstrator anno domini 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, F.C.; Fyenbo, J.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Remoortere, B. van; Galagan, Y.O.; Jørgensen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer solar cells were prepared in large numbers using roll-to-roll methods and were subsequently integrated into the Organic Electronics Association (OE-A) demonstrator in the year 2011 and presented as a small credit card sized lamp with a flat outline. The lamp comprised the polymer solar cell

  16. ARMAX, OE and SSIF model predictors for power transmission and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three mathematical model structures, namely: ARMAX, OE and a SSIF are first formulated followed by the formulation of their respective model predictors for the model identification and prediction of power transmission and distribution within Akure and its environs. A total of 51,350 data samples from the Power Holding ...

  17. Computer simulation of sputtering: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.; Hou, M.

    1992-08-01

    In 1986, H. H. Andersen reviewed attempts to understand sputtering by computer simulation and identified several areas where further research was needed: potential energy functions for molecular dynamics (MD) modelling; the role of inelastic effects on sputtering, especially near the target surface; the modelling of surface binding in models based on the binary collision approximation (BCA); aspects of cluster emission in MD models; and angular distributions of sputtered particles. To these may be added kinetic energy distributions of sputtered particles and the relationships between MD and BCA models, as well as the development of intermediate models. Many of these topics are discussed. Recent advances in BCA modelling include the explicit evaluation of the time in strict BCA codes and the development of intermediate codes able to simulate certain many-particle problems realistically. Developments in MD modelling include the wide-spread use of many-body potentials in sputtering calculations, inclusion of realistic electron excitation and electron-phonon interactions, and several studies of cluster ion impacts on solid surfaces

  18. Development, validation and psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale: OES-Ar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Amran, Abdullah Ghalib; Halboub, Esam; Al-Basmi, Abdulghani Ali; Al-Ghabri, Fawaz Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at developing the Arabic version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES-Ar) and to investigate its psychometric properties among Arabic-speaking population with and without esthetic impairments. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation was done according to the standard guidelines. Internal consistency was assessed on 230 participants. For test-retest reliability, 50 subjects with natural teeth were recalled within a period of 2 weeks. Validity of the OES-Ar was tested by construct, convergent, and discriminant validity tests. Responsiveness to esthetic changes was assessed in 60 patients. The results showed excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha value of 0.92 and inter-item correlation average value of 0.60. The ICC values ranged from 0.87 to 0.96 which indicated excellent agreement. Construct validity of the OES-Ar was confirmed to be one-factor structure (one-dimensional). For convergent validity, a significant correlation was found between OES summary score and overall impression of the orofacial esthetic as well as between OES summary score and the summary score of the three questions of the OHIP-49Ar related to esthetic. The discriminant validity test revealed significant differences between different study groups (Pesthetics in Arabic-speaking patients. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapidity gaps between jets at D OE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.

    1996-07-01

    We present studies of jet production via color-singlet events with low particle multiplicity between the jets. A preliminary study of the multiplicity in other regions of the color singlet events and the dependence of color-singlet exchange on jet transverse energy is also presented

  20. Sputtering of Ge(001): transition between dynamic scaling regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgies, D.-M.; Eng, P.J.; Landemark, E.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior of the Ge(001) surface during sputtering in situ and in real time using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We find two dynamic regimes as a function of surface temperature and sputter current which are separated by a sharp transition. The boundary between these two...

  1. RF sputtering: A viable tool for MEMS fabrication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    being prepared by RF sputtering and their application in MEMS being explored. ... crystallographic properties were evaluated using XRD analysis (CuKα radiation ..... Bhatt V, Pal P, Chandra S 2005 Feasibility study of RF sputtered ZnO film for ...

  2. Combinatorial study of low-refractive Mg-F-Si-O nano-composites deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from compound targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertin, Stefan; Länzlinger, Tony; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Muralt, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Deposition of nano-composite Mg-F-Si-O films on optical grade silica glass was studied employing RF magnetron co-sputtering from magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and fused silica (SiO2) targets. The aim was to obtain a stable and reliable sputtering process for optical coatings exhibiting a refractive index lower than the one of quartz glass (1.46 at 550 nm) without adding gaseous fluorine to the deposition process. The two magnetrons were installed in a confocal way at 45° off-axis with respect to a static substrate, thus creating a lateral gradient in the thin-film composition. The deposited Mg-F-Si-O coatings were structurally analysed by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained films consist of MgF2 nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2-rich amorphous matrix. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry measurements showed that they are highly transparent exhibiting a very-low extinction coefficient k and a refractive index n in the desired range between the one of MgF2 (1.38) and SiO2 (1.46). Films with n = 1.424 and 1.435 at 550 nm were accomplished with absorption below the detection threshold.

  3. Sputtering and mixing of supported nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Sáez, J.C.; Pérez-Martín, A.M.C.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering and mixing of Co nanoparticles supported in Cu(0 0 1) under 1-keV argon bombardment are studied using molecular-dynamics simulations. Particles of different initial size have been considered. The cluster height decreases exponentially with increasing fluence. In nanoparticles, sputtering yield is significantly enhanced compared to bulk. In fact, the value of this magnitude depends on the cluster height. A theoretical model for sputtering is introduced with acceptable results compared to those obtained by simulation. Discrepancies happen mainly for very small particles. Mixing rate at the interface is quantified; and besides, the influence of border effects for clusters of different initial size is assessed. Mixing rate and border length–surface area ratio for the initial interface show a proportionality relation. The phenomenon of ion-induced burrowing of metallic nanoparticles is analysed

  4. Modelling of low energy ion sputtering from oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubart, T; Nyberg, T; Berg, S

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to present a way to estimate the values of surface binding energy for oxides. This is done by fitting results from the binary collisions approximation code Tridyn with data from the reactive sputtering processing curves, as well as the elemental composition obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxide targets of Al, Ti, V, Nb and Ta are studied. The obtained surface binding energies are then used to predict the partial sputtering yields. Anomalously high sputtering yield is observed for the TiO 2 target. This is attributed to the high sputtering yield of Ti lower oxides. Such an effect is not observed for the other studied metals. XPS measurement of the oxide targets confirms the formation of suboxides during ion bombardment as well as an oxygen deficient surface in the steady state. These effects are confirmed from the processing curves from the oxide targets showing an elevated sputtering rate in pure argon.

  5. D OE top quark mass analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strovink, M.

    1995-07-01

    Based on (44-48 pb -1 ) of lepton + jets data, we review D0's initial analysis of the top quark mass. The result, M top = 199 ± 19/21 (stat.) ± 22 (syst.) GeV/c 2 , is insensitive to background normalization. The errors are based on ISAJET top Monte Carlo, with its more severe gluon radiation, and allow for ISAJET/HERWIG differences. Good progress is being made in reducing the systematic error. We present a new study based on two-dimensional distributions of reconstructed top quark vs. dijet mass. With 98.7% confidence we observe a peak in the top mass - dijet mass plane. The peak and its projections are similar both in shape and magnitude to expectations based on the decay sequence 1 → bW, W → jj

  6. Exchange bias and perpendicular anisotropy study of ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn multilayers sputtered on float glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, M.; Lüders, U.; Bobo, J. F.

    2007-09-01

    We have prepared ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn polycrystalline multilayers on float-glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We have determined the optimal set of thickness for both Pt layers, the Co layer and the IrMn biasing layer so that these samples exhibit at the same time out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and exchange bias. Kerr microscopy domain structure imaging evidences an increase of nucleation rate accompanied with inhomogeneous magnetic behavior in the case of exchange-biased films compared to Pt-Co-Pt trilayers. Polar hysteresis loops are measured in obliquely applied magnetic field conditions, allowing us to determine both perpendicular anisotropy effective constant Keff and exchange-bias coupling JE, which are significantly different from the ones determined by standard switching field measurements.

  7. Exchange bias and perpendicular anisotropy study of ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn multilayers sputtered on float glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, M.; Lueders, U.; Bobo, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    We have prepared ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn polycrystalline multilayers on float-glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We have determined the optimal set of thickness for both Pt layers, the Co layer and the IrMn biasing layer so that these samples exhibit at the same time out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and exchange bias. Kerr microscopy domain structure imaging evidences an increase of nucleation rate accompanied with inhomogeneous magnetic behavior in the case of exchange-biased films compared to Pt-Co-Pt trilayers. Polar hysteresis loops are measured in obliquely applied magnetic field conditions, allowing us to determine both perpendicular anisotropy effective constant K eff and exchange-bias coupling J E , which are significantly different from the ones determined by standard switching field measurements

  8. Structure adhesion and corrosion resistance study of tungsten bisulfide doped with titanium deposited by DC magnetron co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Roche, J. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 vía al aeropuerto, Campus La Nubia, Manizales (Colombia); González, J.M. [Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros y Aplicaciones Industriales – RDAI, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 N° 100-00 Ciudadela Meléndez, Cali (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepop@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 vía al aeropuerto, Campus La Nubia, Manizales (Colombia); Sequeda, F. [Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros y Aplicaciones Industriales – RDAI, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 N° 100-00 Ciudadela Meléndez, Cali (Colombia); Alleh, V.; Scharf, T.W. [The University of North Texas, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Ti-doped WS{sub 2} films were grown via the magnetron co-sputtering technique. • At a high Ti percentage, the crystalline structure of WS{sub 2} coatings tends to be amorphous. • As the Ti percentage increases in WS{sub 2} coatings, nanocomposites tend to form. • Ti-doped WS{sub 2} films have elastic behavior compared with the plastic response of pure WS{sub 2} films. • A high Ti percentage increases the corrosion resistance of WS{sub 2} films. - Abstract: Titanium-doped tungsten bisulfide thin films (WS{sub 2}-Ti) were grown using a DC magnetron co-sputtering technique on AISI 304 stainless steel and silicon substrates. The films were produced by varying the Ti cathode power from 0 to 25 W. Using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the concentration of Ti in the WS{sub 2} was determined, and a maximum of 10% was obtained for the sample grown at 25 W. Moreover, the S/W ratio was calculated and determined to increase as a function of the Ti cathode power. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results, at high titanium concentrations (greater than 6%), nanocomposite formation was observed, with nanocrystals of Ti embedded in an amorphous matrix of WS{sub 2}. Using the scratch test, the coatings’ adhesion was analyzed, and it was observed that as the Ti percentage was increased, the critical load (Lc) also increased. Furthermore, the failure type changed from plastic to elastic. Finally, the corrosion resistance was evaluated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique, and it was observed that at high Ti concentrations, the corrosion resistance was improved, as Ti facilitates coating densification and generates a protective layer.

  9. Formation of large clusters during sputtering of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudt, C.; Heinrich, R.; Wucher, A.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the formation of polyatomic clusters during sputtering of metal surfaces by keV ion bombardment. Both positively charged (secondary cluster ions) and neutral clusters have been detected in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer under otherwise identical experimental conditions, the sputtered neutrals being post-ionized by single photon absorption using a pulsed 157 nm VUV laser beam. Due to the high achievable laser intensity, the photoionization of all clusters could be saturated, thus enabling a quantitative determination of the respective partial sputtering yields. We find that the relative yield distributions of sputtered clusters are strongly correlated with the total sputtering yield in a way that higher yields lead to higher abundances of large clusters. By using heavy projectile ions (Xe + ) in connection with bombarding energies up to 15 keV, we have been able to detect sputtered neutral silver clusters containing up to about 60 atoms. For cluster sizes above 40 atoms, doubly charged species are shown to be produced in the photoionization process with non-negligible efficiency. From a direct comparison of secondary neutral and ion yields, the ionization probability of sputtered clusters is determined as a function of the cluster size. It is demonstrated that even the largest silver clusters are still predominantly sputtered as neutrals

  10. Impact of deposition rate on the structural and magnetic properties of sputtered Ni/Cu multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpuz, Ali [Karamanoglu Mehmetbey Univ., Karaman (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Colmekci, Salih; Kockar, Hakan; Kuru, Hilal; Uckun, Mehmet [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2018-04-01

    The structural and corresponding magnetic properties of Ni/Cu films sputtered at low and high deposition rates were investigated as there is a limited number of related studies in this field. 5[Ni(10 nm)/Cu(30 nm)] multilayer thin films were deposited using two DC sputtering sources at low (0.02 nm/s) and high (0.10 nm/s) deposition rates of Ni layers. A face centered cubic phase was detected for both films. The surface of the film sputtered at the low deposition rate has a lot of micro-grains distributed uniformly and with sizes from 0.1 to 0.4 μm. Also, it has a vertical acicular morphology. At high deposition rate, the number of micro-grains considerably decreased, and some of their sizes increased up to 1 μm. The surface of the Ni/Cu multilayer deposited at the low rate has a relatively more grainy and rugged structure, whereas the surface of the film deposited at the high rate has a relatively larger lateral size of surface grains with a relatively fine morphology. Saturation magnetisation, M{sub s}, values were 90 and 138 emu/cm{sup 3} for deposition rates of 0.02 and 0.10 nm/s, respectively. Remanence, M{sub r}, values were also found to be 48 and 71 emu/cm{sup 3} for the low and high deposition rates, respectively. The coercivity, H{sub c}, values were 46 and 65 Oe for the low and high Ni deposition rates, respectively. The changes in the film surfaces provoked the changes in the H{sub c} values. The M{sub s}, M{sub r}, and H{sub c} values of the 5[Ni(10 nm)/Cu(30 nm)] films can be adjusted considering the surface morphologies and film contents caused by the different Ni deposition rates.

  11. Sputtering effect of low-energy ions on biological target: The analysis of sputtering product of urea and capsaicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lili; Xu, Xue; Wu, Yuejin

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering is a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles. Recent years, ion implantation was successfully applied to biological research based on the fragments sputtering and form open paths in cell structure caused by ion sputtering. In this study, we focused on urea and chilli pepper pericarp samples implanted with N + and Ar + ions. To investigate the sputtering effect, we designed a collecting unit containing a disk sample and a glass pipe. The urea content and capsaicin content recovered from glass pipes were adopted to represent the sputtering product. The result of urea showed that the sputtering effect is positively correlated with the ion energy and dose, also affected by the ion type. The result of capsaicin was different from that of urea at 20 keV and possibly due to biological complex composition and structure. Therefore the sputtering yield depended on both the parameters of incident ions and the state of target materials. The sputtering yield of urea was also simulated by computational method achieved through the TRIM program. The trajectories of primary and recoiled atoms were calculated on the basis of the binary collision approximation using Monte Carlo method. The experimental results were much higher than the calculated results. The possible explanation is that in the physical model the target were assumed as a disordered lattice and independent atoms, which is much less complicated than that of the biological models

  12. Advanced capabilities and applications of a sputter-RBS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brijs, B.; Deleu, J.; Beyer, G.; Vandervorst, W.

    1999-01-01

    In previous experiments, sputter-RBS 1 has proven to be an ideal tool to study the interaction of low energy ions. This contribution employs the same methodology to identify surface contamination induced during sputtering and to the determine absolute sputter yields. In the first experiment ERDA analysis was used to study the evolution of Hydrogen contamination during sputter-RBS experiments. Since the determination of Hydrogen concentration in very thin near surface layers is frequently limited by the presence of a strong surface peak of Hydrogen originating from adsorbed contamination of the residual vacuum, removal of this contamination would increase the sensitivity for Hydrogen detection in the near sub surface drastically. Therefore low energy (12 keV) Argon sputtering was used to remove the Hydrogen surface peak. However enhanced Hydrogen adsorption was observed related to the Ar dose. This experiment shows that severe vacuum conditions and the use of high current densities/sputter yields are a prerequisite for an efficient detection of Hydrogen in the near surface layers. In the second experiment, an attempt was made to determine the sputter yield of Cu during low energy (12 keV) Oxygen bombardment. In order to determine the accumulated dose of the low energy ion beam, a separate Faraday cup in combination with a remote controlled current have been added to the existing sputter-RBS set-up. Alternating sputtering and RBS analysis seem to be an adequate tool for the determination of the absolute sputter yield of Cu and this as well in the as under steady state conditions

  13. Nanostructures produced by co-sputtering to study the optical properties of artistic middle-age nano-cermets: The lustres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reillon, Vincent [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France) and CNRS, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: vincent.reillon@insp.jussieu.fr; Berthier, Serge [Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France); Chenot, Stephane [Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France)

    2007-05-15

    Nano-structures are not an invention of the 20th century. In Middle Age already, craftsmen were able to produce multi-layer structures of nano-particles at the surface of potteries creating lustres, this means potteries with shining effects. In order to study the optical properties of these objects and because, as a part of our patrimony, they cannot be destroyed, we decided to reproduce the structures observed by co-sputtering. Developing a model, we were able to predict the reflection spectrum of the created samples with a good accuracy, validating it. However, this work is a first experimental step and improvements are needed from both theoretical and experimental sides in order to understand fully the optical properties of the lustres.

  14. Study on the preheating duration of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} thin films using RF magnetron sputtering technique for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuchen; He, Jun; Li, Xinran; Chen, Ye; Sun, Lin, E-mail: lsun@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2016-04-25

    Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} (CTS) thin films are prepared by sulfurization the stacked metallic precursors deposited by raido-frequency magnetron sputtering method on molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates. The details of sulfurization process and the effect of preheating duration on the properties of CTS thin films have been investigated. It is found that the content of element tin strongly depend on the preheating duration. X-ray diffraction patterns identify that the CTS thin films exhibit the monoclinic structure. Raman scattering spectra make a further confirmation for the crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR) is first used to study the properties of CTS thin films. The assigned active modes in Raman scattering spectra is consistent with the analysis in FTIR. Morphology analysis reveals long preheating duration would make the quality of films deteriorate. The thin film solar cell (TFSC) fabricated using the CTS absorber layer synthesized at preheating duration of 15 min shows that a power conversion efficiency up to 0.76% for a 0.19 cm{sup 2} area. The electrical characterization of CTS TFSC is first studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which implies the existence of MoS{sub x} and defects in the CTS/CdS interface. - Highlights: • CTS thin films and solar cells prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. • Preheating duration is a critical way to remain the Sn content in CTS thin film. • XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS confirmed the single phase of CTS thin film. • The device characterization of CTS solar cell has been systematically investigated.

  15. Theory of thermal sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1977-01-01

    An energetic ion which is incident on a solid target causes a momentary temperature increase in the impact region, i.e., a so-called thermal spike occurs. Such spikes are capable of causing (or supplementing) disordering, precipitation, crystallization, electronic excitation, stoichiometry change, desorption, and sputtering, it being the contribution to sputtering that is considered here. The approach used is compatible with modern damage-distribution theory. Thus the temperature profile left by the incident ion is taken as a three-dimensional Gaussian with parameters appropriate to power-law scattering, and is used as the initial condition for solving the heat-conduction equation. Let us write this solution as T = T(t, y), where t is time and y is a dimension parallel to the target surface. The vaporization flux from a solid surface is taken as pnsup(1/2)(2π 2 >kT)sup(-1/2), where p, the equilibrium pressure of a vapor species containing n atoms, can be written as p 0 exp(-L/T), p 0 and L are constants largely independent of temperature, and 2 > is the mean mass per atom of target. An equation for the thermal sputtering coefficient is given: after integration the final result takes the form: Ssub(thermal)=pnsup(1/2)[2π 2 >k(Tsub(infinity)+cΔT 0 )]sup(-1/2)πlambda 2 tsub(eff.)atoms/ion, where Tsub(infinity) is the macroscopic target temperature, cΔT 0 is the maximum temperature increase at x = y = 0, p is to be evaluated at T = Tsub(infinity) + cΔT 0 , lambda is the mean atomic spacing of the target, and tsub(eff.) is a quantity with units of time. (author)

  16. A comparative study on NbOx films reactively sputtered from sintered and cold gas sprayed targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Roland; O'Sullivan, Michael; Fian, Alexander; Sprenger, Dietmar; Lang, Bernhard; Mitterer, Christian

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate novel cold gas sprayed Nb targets in a reactive sputter deposition process of thin films with respect to the widely used sintered Nb targets. With the exception of a higher target discharge voltage of ∼100 V for the cold gas sprayed targets and the thus higher film growth rate compared to sintered targets, NbOx films with comparable microstructure and properties were obtained for both target variants. The amorphous films with thicknesses between 2.9 and 4.9 μm present an optical shift from dark and non-transparent towards transparent properties, as the oxygen partial pressure increases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the occurrence of the Nb5+ oxidation state for the highest oxygen partial pressure, while Nb4+ is additionally present at lower oxygen partial pressure settings. With a maximal transparency of ∼80% and a refractive index of ∼2.5, the transparent films show characteristics similar to Nb2O5.

  17. Effect of thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of DC sputtered Fe65Co35 soft magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna Kumari, T.; Manivel Raja, M.; Kumar, Atul; Srinath, S.; Kamat, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of Fe 65 Co 35 thin films deposited on Si(001) and MgO(001) substrates was investigated by varying film thickness from 30 to 600 nm. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the FeCo films are polycrystalline in the as-deposited condition irrespective of deposition on Si or MgO substrate. The microstructure of films consisted of spherical grains for 30 nm film thickness and columnar grains for all other film thicknesses. The grain size for the films was found to increase from 15 to 50 nm with increasing film thickness. The sputtered films also exhibited tensile residual stresses with the magnitude of stress decreasing with increasing film thickness. The Fe 65 Co 35 films deposited on both substrates also exhibited very good in-plane soft magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization 4πM s of ∼23.6–23.8 kG and coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe without any under-layer only for films with thickness of 30 nm. For all other thicknesses, these films exhibited a significantly higher coercivity. The observed variations in soft magnetic properties with film thickness were explained in terms of residual stress and microstructure of the films. - Highlights: • Spherical grain morphology transformed to columnar above 30 nm film thickness. • Sputtered films exhibited tensile residual stresses decreasing with film thickness. • An in-plane coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe was achieved without any under-layer

  18. Fluence-dependent sputtering yield of micro-architectured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Christopher S.R.; Ghoniem, Nasr M., E-mail: ghoniem@ucla.edu; Li, Gary Z.; Matlock, Taylor S.; Goebel, Dan M.; Dodson, Chris A.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sputtering yield is shown to be transient and heavily dependent on surface architecture. • Fabricated nano- and Microstructures cause geometric re-trapping of sputtered material, which leads to a self-healing mechanism. • Initially, the sputtering yield of micro-architectured Mo is approximately 1/2 the value as that of a planar surface. • The study demonstrates that the sputtering yield is a dynamic property, dependent on the surface structure of a material. • A developed phenomenological model mathematically describes the transient behavior of the sputtering yield as a function of plasma fluence. - Abstract: We present an experimental examination of the relationship between the surface morphology of Mo and its instantaneous sputtering rate as function of low-energy plasma ion fluence. We quantify the dynamic evolution of nano/micro features of surfaces with built-in architecture, and the corresponding variation in the sputtering yield. Ballistic deposition of sputtered atoms as a result of geometric re-trapping is observed, and re-growth of surface layers is confirmed. This provides a self-healing mechanism of micro-architectured surfaces during plasma exposure. A variety of material characterization techniques are used to show that the sputtering yield is not a fundamental property, but that it is quantitatively related to the initial surface architecture and to its subsequent evolution. The sputtering yield of textured molybdenum samples exposed to 300 eV Ar plasma is roughly 1/2 of the corresponding value for flat samples, and increases with ion fluence. Mo samples exhibited a sputtering yield initially as low as 0.22 ± 5%, converging to 0.4 ± 5% at high fluence. The sputtering yield exhibits a transient behavior as function of the integrated ion fluence, reaching a steady-state value that is independent of initial surface conditions. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain the observed transient sputtering phenomenon, and to

  19. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering of transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittinger, V.; Ruske, F.; Werner, W.; Jacobs, C.; Szyszka, B.; Christie, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) has been used in order to study the deposition of transparent conducting oxides. We summarize the studies carried out on different materials (indium tin oxide-ITO and aluminium-doped zinc oxide-AZO) using rather different technological approaches, namely sputtering of ceramic targets and reactive sputtering. For the deposition of AZO reactive HPPMS for metallic targets has been used. A feedback control loop has been implemented in order to stabilize the discharge at any given setpoint on the hysteresis curve. The hysteresis was also found to have a rather untypical form. Reactive HPPMS was found to be a promising tool for obtaining high quality films of low total thickness. In the case of ITO deposition a ceramic target has been used. The process has been characterized in terms of its plasma emission and increasing indium ionization was found for higher peak power densities. The properties of the deposited films were compared to DC sputtered films. While for DC sputtering the choice of oxygen addition and shieldings is crucial for determining surface morphology and resistivity, in HPPMS sputtering peak power density has been found to be a good parameter for influencing the crystal structure. The morphologies obtained differ strongly from those seen in DC sputtering. At high power densities films with low surface roughness and excellent resistivity could be deposited without the use of shieldings

  20. Electrochromism in surface modified crystalline WO3 thin films grown by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, A.

    2013-10-01

    In the present work, tungsten oxide thin films were deposited at various oxygen chamber pressures (1.0-5.0 × 10-3 mbar) by maintaining the sputtering power density and argon pressure constant at 3.0 W/cm2 and 1.2 × 10-2 mbar, respectively. The role of surface morphology and porosity on the electrochromic properties of crystalline tungsten oxide thin films has been investigated. XRD and Raman studies reveal that all the samples post annealed at 450 ̊C in air for 3.0 h settle in monoclinic crystal system of tungsten oxide (W18O49). Though the phase of material is indifferent to oxygen pressure variations (PO2), morphology and film density shows a striking dependence on PO2. A systematic study on plasma (OES), morphology, optical and electrochromic properties of crystalline tungsten oxide reveal that the films deposited at PO2 of 2.0 × 10-3 mbar exhibit better coloration efficiency (58 cm2/C), electron/ion capacity (Qc: -25 mC/cm2), and reversibility (92%). This is attributed to the enhanced surface properties like high density of pores and fine particulates (100 nm) and to lesser bulk density of the film (ρ/ρo = 0.84) which facilitates the process of intercalation/de-intercalation of protons and electrons. These results show good promise toward stable and efficient crystalline tungsten oxide based electrochromic device applications.

  1. Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwoto, Putut; Made, D. P. Ngurah; Sugianto [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Wibowo, Edy; Astuti, Santi Yuli; Aryani, Nila Prasetya [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Othaman, Zulkafli [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2013-09-03

    Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 °C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 °C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV.

  2. Search for new gauge bosons at D OE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The authors have searched for evidence of W' → eν and Z' → ee in data collected with the D OE detector at the Tevatron during the 1992--1993 p anti p collider run at √s = 1.8 TeV. They exclude the existence of a W' of mass less than 600 GeV/c 2 and a Z' of mass less than 480 GeV/c 2 at the 95% confidence level, assuming standard model couplings to quarks and leptons

  3. Sputtering of a silicon surface: Preferential sputtering of surface impurities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nietiadi, M.L.; Rosandi, Y.; Lorinčík, Jan; Urbassek, H.M.

    -, č. 303 (2013), s. 205-208 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Sputtering * Molecular dynamics * SIMS Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2013

  4. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  5. A long-term validation of the modernised DC-ARC-OES solid-sample method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórián, K; Hassler, J; Förster, O

    2001-12-01

    The validation procedure based on ISO 17025 standard has been used to study and illustrate both the longterm stability of the calibration process of the DC-ARC solid sample spectrometric method and the main validation criteria of the method. In the calculation of the validation characteristics depending on the linearity(calibration), also the fulfilment of predetermining criteria such as normality and homoscedasticity was checked. In order to decide whether there are any trends in the time-variation of the analytical signal or not, also the Neumann test of trend was applied and evaluated. Finally, a comparison with similar validation data of the ETV-ICP-OES method was carried out.

  6. Electronic sputtering of biomolecules and its application in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.U.R.

    1989-01-01

    In 1974 Macfarlane discovered that fast heavy ions from a 252-Cf source can desorb and ionize molecules from a solid surface. The mass of the molecules was determined by time-of-flight technique. It has been shown that the desorption mechanism is associated with the electron part of the stopping power of the primary ion and the name 'electron sputtering' has been adopted for the phenomenon to distinguish it from the well-known sputtering process with ions of KeV energy. A review of electronic sputtering of biomolecules will be given as well as recent measurements on Langmuir-Blodgett films. One important application of electronic sputtering is in the field of mass spectrometry. With this technique large and nonvolatile molecules can be studied. Particularly adsorption of biomolecules to a nitrocellulose backing has proven to be very useful. Examples will be given of mass spectra from peptides with a molecular weight above 20,000 u. (author)

  7. Sputtering mechanisms of polycrystalline platinum by low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernysh, V.S.; Eckstein, W.; Haidarov, A.A.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study and a computer simulation with the TRIM.SP code of the angular distributions of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline platinum under 1.5-9 keV He + bombardment at the normal ion incidence are presented. It has been found that angular distributions of sputtered atoms are overcosine and that their shape is practically independent of the bombarding ion species and ion energy. Good agreement between experimental results and computer simulation data was found. Computer simulations of the partial angular distributions of Pt atoms ejected due to various sputtering mechanisms for He and Ar bombardments were performed. The role of different mechanisms in the formation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms has been analyzed

  8. Plasma polymer films rf sputtered from PTFE under various argon pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Biederman, H.; Slavinská, D.; Zemek, Josef; Trchová, Miroslava

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2005), s. 131-137 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.10; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.90 Grant - others:EUREKAΣ2080(XE) OE57 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : RF sputtering * PTFE * fluorcarbon plasma polymers * thin film * teflon * deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2005

  9. Study the target effect on the structural, surface and optical properties of TiO2 thin film fabricated by RF sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sumit; Tiwary, Rohit; Shubham, Kumar; Chakrabarti, P.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of target (Ti metal target and TiO2 target) on Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films grown on ITO coated glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering has been investigated. A comparative study of both the films was done in respect of crystalline structure, surface morphology and optical properties by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies and ellipsometric measurements. The XRD results confirmed the crystalline structure and indicated that the deposited films have the intensities of anatase phase. The surface morphology and roughness values indicated that the film using Ti metal target has a smoother surface and densely packed with grains as compared to films obtained using TiO2 target. A high transmission in the visible region, and direct band gap of 3.67 eV and 3.75 eV for films derived by using Ti metal and TiO2 target respectively and indirect bandgap of 3.39 eV for the films derived from both the targets (Ti metal and TiO2 target) were observed by the ellipsometric measurements.

  10. The Study of Deposition Parameters, Properties for PVD TixN and CrxN Coatings Using a Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Sun; Susan Field; Jian Chen; Dennis. G. Teer

    2004-01-01

    Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) systems have been used increasingly for PVD coating in recent years. TiN and CrN coatings, commonly used as the basic coating for a number of different hard coatings, have been chosen to study the coating process parameters for the CFUBMSIP system. In this paper, the process parameters, such as substrate temperature, substrate bias and OEM control, have been carefully examined to achieve hard and wear-resistance coatings with good adhesion. The coating structure and orientation were found to change according to the coating parameters. The Rockwell test and Scratch test were carried out to examine the coating adhesion; pin-on-disc testing was used to estimate the wear-resistant; micro-hardness was also used to determine coating hardness. HSS drill testing has been carried out to study the general properties of the coating for cutting tool application. A combination of process parameters can be selected to achieve good performance for the TiN and CrN coatings.

  11. Contribution to the study of sputtering and damage of uranium dioxide by fast heavy ions; Contribution a l'etude de la pulverisation et de l'endommagement du dioxyde d'uranium par les ions lourds rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlutig, S

    2001-03-01

    Swift heavy ion-solid interaction leads in volume to track creation and on the surface to the ejection of particles into the vacuum. To learn more about initial mechanisms of track formation, we are focused on the sputtering of uranium dioxide by fast heavy ions. This present study is exclusively devoted to the influence of the electronic stopping power on the emission of neutral particles and especially on their angular distribution. These measurements are completed by those of the ions emitted from UO{sub 2} targets bombarded with swift heavy ions. The whole experimental results give access to: i) the nature of the sputtered particles; ii) the charge state of the emitted particles; iii) the direction of ejection of the sputtered particles ; iv) the sputtering yields deduced from the angular distributions. These results are compared to the prediction of the sputtering models proposed in the literature and it seems that the supersonic gas flow model is well suited to describe our results. Finally, the sputtering yields are compared with a set of earlier experimental data on uranium dioxide damage obtained by T. Wiss and we observe that only a small fraction of UO{sub 2} monolayers are sputtered. (author)

  12. Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    In October 2004, the Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE) was launched, co-financed by the European Commission, under the Renewable Energy Technologies priority within the 6th Framework programme, contract number 502701, chaired by Kim Nielsen, Rambøll, Denmark. The project involves 41...... partners. In general the public is not aware of the development of ocean energy and its exploitation. There is a need to make a united effort from the developers and research community to present the various principles and results in a coordinated manner with public appeal. The main objectives of the Co......-ordination Action on Ocean Energy are: To develop a common knowledge base necessary for coherent research and development policiesTo bring a co-ordinated approach within key areas of ocean energy research and development.To provide a forum for the longer term marketing of promising research developments...

  13. Sputtering yields of Si and Ni from the Ni sub(1-x)Si sub(x) system studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S C; Yamaguchi, S; Kataoka, Y; Iwami, M; Hiraki, A [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Satou, M; Fujimoto, F

    1982-01-01

    Sputtering yields of Si and Ni from thin layer films of Ni-Si compounds (Ni sub(1-x)Si sub(x)), including the pure materials (Ni and Si), caused by 5keV Ar/sup +/ ion bombardment were investigated using backscattering spectrometry. The sputtering yield for Si from Ni sub(1-x)Si sub(x) increased with increasing Si concentration. However, there is an abrupt decrease in the yield for Si concentrations above NiSi/sub 2/ to pure Si. This is in clear contrast to the sputtering yield of Ni from Ni sub(1-x)Si sub(x) which increased with increasing Ni concentration monotonously. These results are discussed on the basis of both the difference in the atomic density and the electronic state of the alloy.

  14. Sputtering yields of Si and Ni from the I sub(1-x)Si sub(x) system studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su-Chol; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yoshihide; Iwami, Motohiro; Hiraki, Akio; Satou, Mamoru; Fujimoto, Fuminori.

    1982-01-01

    Sputtering yields of Si and Ni from thin layer films of Ni-Si compounds (Ni sub(1-x)Si sub(x)), including the pure materials (Ni and Si), caused by 5keV Ar + ion bombardment were investigated using backscattering spectrometry. The sputtering yield for Si from Ni sub(1-x)Si sub(x) increased with increasing Si concentration. However, there is an abrupt decrease in the yield for Si concentrations above NiSi 2 to pure Si. This is in clear contrast to the sputtering yield of Ni from Ni sub(1-x)Si sub(x) which increased with increasing Ni concentration monotonously. These results are discussed on the basis of both the difference in the atomic density and the electronic state of the alloy. (author)

  15. Evaluation of residual stress in sputtered tantalum thin-film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-masha’al, Asa’ad, E-mail: asaad.al@ed.ac.uk; Bunting, Andrew; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Tantalum thin-films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering system. • Thin-film stress is observed to be strongly influenced by sputtering pressure. • Transition towards the compressive stress is ascribed to the annealing at 300 °C. • Expose thin-film to air ambient or ion bombardment lead to a noticeable change in the residual stress. - Abstract: The influence of deposition conditions on the residual stress of sputtered tantalum thin-film has been evaluated in the present study. Films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and curvature measurement method has been employed to calculate the residual stress of the films. Transitions of tantalum film stress from compressive to tensile state have been observed as the sputtering pressure increases. Also, the effect of annealing process at temperature range of 90–300 °C in oxygen ambient on the residual stress of the films has been studied. The results demonstrate that the residual stress of the films that have been deposited at lower sputtering pressure has become more compressive when annealed at 300 °C. Furthermore, the impact of exposure to atmospheric ambient on the tantalum film stress has been investigated by monitoring the variation of the residual stress of both annealed and unannealed films over time. The as-deposited films have been exposed to pure Argon energy bombardment and as result, a high compressive stress has been developed in the films.

  16. Effect of the degree of high power impulse magnetron sputtering utilisation on the structure and properties of TiN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh.; Sugumaran, Arunprabhu A., E-mail: Arunprabhu.ArunachalamSugumaran@student.shu.ac.uk; Purandare, Yashodhan; Loch, Daniel A.L.; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.

    2014-07-01

    TiN films were deposited using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) enabled four cathode industrial size coating system equipped with HIPIMS power supplies. The standard version of this system allows control over the ion bombardment during coating growth by varying the strength of the electromagnetic field of the unbalancing coils and bias voltage applied to the substrate. The coatings were produced in different coating growth conditions achieved in combined HIPIMS — direct current (dc) unbalanced magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS/UBM) processes where HIPIMS was used as an additional tool to manipulate the ionisation degree in the plasma. Four cathode combinations were explored with increasing contribution of HIPIMS namely 4UBM (pure UBM), 1HIPIMS + 3UBM, 2HIPIMS + 2UBM and 2HIPIMS (pure HIPIMS) to deposit TiN coatings. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements were carried out to examine the plasma generated by the various combinations of HIPIMS and UBM cathodes. The micro-structural study was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to calculate the residual stress and texture parameter. It has been revealed that the residual stress can be controlled in a wide range from − 0.22 GPa to − 11.67 GPa by intelligent selection of the degree of HIPIMS utilisation, strength of the electromagnetic field of the unbalancing coils and the bias voltage applied to the substrate while maintaining the stoichiometry of the coatings. The effect of the degree of HIPIMS utilisation on the microstructure, texture and residual stress is discussed. Combining HIPIMS with dc-UBM sputtering is also seen as an effective tool for improving the productivity of the deposition process. - Highlights: • High {Ti"1"+} in the plasma with increasing number of HIPIMS sources • Residual stress can be manipulated in a wide range. • Texture can be altered. • The 2HIPIMS + 2UBM combination appears to be the most advantageous.

  17. Fabrication, ultra-structure characterization and in vitro studies of RF magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeneva, Maria A.; Surmenev, Roman A.; Nikonova, Yulia A.; Selezneva, Irina I.; Ivanova, Anna A.; Putlyaev, Valery I.; Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    A series of nanostructured low-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings averaging 170, 250, and 440 nm in thickness were deposited onto previously etched titanium substrates through radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The HA coatings were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Cross sections of the thin specimens were prepared by FIB to study the microstructure of the coatings by TEM. The deposition process formed nano-scale grains, generating an amorphous layer at the substrate/coating interface and inducing the growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. A microstructural analysis of the film confirmed that the grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. The nanostructured HA coatings were not cytotoxic, as proven by in vitro assays using primary dental pulp stem cells and mouse fibroblast NCTC clone L929 cells. Low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules on the surface better than uncoated titanium substrates.

  18. Fabrication, ultra-structure characterization and in vitro studies of RF magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmeneva, Maria A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Surmenev, Roman A., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nikonova, Yulia A.; Selezneva, Irina I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142292 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, Anna A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Putlyaev, Valery I. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Vorobievi Gory, 1, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface was observed. • Interplanar spacing distances measured using HRTEM were 0.82 and 0.28 nm, corresponding to the (0 0 1) and (2 1 1) lattice planes of hexagonal HA. • Grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. • Nanometer-thick low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules. - Abstract: A series of nanostructured low-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings averaging 170, 250, and 440 nm in thickness were deposited onto previously etched titanium substrates through radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The HA coatings were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Cross sections of the thin specimens were prepared by FIB to study the microstructure of the coatings by TEM. The deposition process formed nano-scale grains, generating an amorphous layer at the substrate/coating interface and inducing the growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. A microstructural analysis of the film confirmed that the grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. The nanostructured HA coatings were not cytotoxic, as proven by in vitro assays using primary dental pulp stem cells and mouse fibroblast NCTC clone L929 cells. Low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules on the surface better than uncoated titanium substrates.

  19. Synthesis of Ag-Cu-Pd alloy thin films by DC-magnetron sputtering: Case study on microstructures and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Sahar; Ghobadi, Nader

    2018-06-01

    The present study aims to investigate optical properties of Ag-Cu-Pd alloy thin films synthesized by DC-magnetron sputtering method. The thin films are deposited on the glass and silicon substrates using Argon gas and Ag-Cu-Pd target. XRD analysis confirms the successful growth of Ag, Cu, and Pd NPs with FCC crystalline structure. Moreover, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy is applied to determine optical properties of the prepared samples which are affected by changes in surface morphology. The existence of single surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak near 350 nm proves the formation of silver nanoparticles with a slight red shift through increasing deposition time. Ineffective thickness method (ITM) and Derivation of ineffective thickness method (DITM) are applied to extract optical band gap and transition type via absorption spectrum. SEM and AFM analyses show the distribution of near-spherical nanoparticles covering the surface of thin films. Furthermore, thickness variation affects the grain size. In addition, TEM image reveals the uniform size distribution of nanoparticles with an average particle size of about 15 nm. The findings show that increasing grain size and crystallite order along with the decrease of structural defect and disorders decrease optical band gap from 3.86 eV to 2.58 eV.

  20. Experimental and computational study on the effect of yttrium on the phase stability of sputtered Cr-Al-Y-N hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovere, F.; Music, D.; Schneider, J.M.; Mayrhofer, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Y incorporation into cubic Cr-Al-N (B1) was studied using ab initio calculations, X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of sputtered quaternary nitride films. The data obtained indicate that the Y incorporation shifts the critical Al content, where the hexagonal (B4) structure is stable, to lower values. The calculated critical Al contents of x ∼ 0.75 for Cr 1-x Al x N and x ∼ 0.625 for Cr 1-x-y Al x Y y N with y = 0.125 are consistent with experimentally obtained values of x = 0.69 for Cr 1-x Al x N and x = 0.68 and 0.61 for Cr 1-x-y Al x Y y N with y = 0.02 and 0.06, respectively. This may be understood based on the electronic structure. Both Cr and Al can randomly be substituted by Y. The substitution of Cr by Y increases the phase stability due to depletion of non-bonding (anti-bonding) states, while the substitution of Al by Y decreases the phase stability mainly due to lattice strain.

  1. A risk-adjusted O-E CUSUM with monitoring bands for monitoring medical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rena Jie; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2013-03-01

    In order to monitor a medical center's survival outcomes using simple plots, we introduce a risk-adjusted Observed-Expected (O-E) Cumulative SUM (CUSUM) along with monitoring bands as decision criterion.The proposed monitoring bands can be used in place of a more traditional but complicated V-shaped mask or the simultaneous use of two one-sided CUSUMs. The resulting plot is designed to simultaneously monitor for failure time outcomes that are "worse than expected" or "better than expected." The slopes of the O-E CUSUM provide direct estimates of the relative risk (as compared to a standard or expected failure rate) for the data being monitored. Appropriate rejection regions are obtained by controlling the false alarm rate (type I error) over a period of given length. Simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. A case study is carried out for 58 liver transplant centers. The use of CUSUM methods for quality improvement is stressed. Copyright © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  2. Spectro-ellipsometric studies of sputtered amorphous Titanium dioxide thin films: simultaneous determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient, and void distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S I; Oh, S G

    1999-01-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide thin films were deposited onto silicon substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering, and the index of refraction, the extinction coefficient, and the void distribution of these films were simultaneously determined from the analyses of there ellipsometric spectra. In particular, our novel strategy, which combines the merits of multi-sample fitting, the dual dispersion function, and grid search, was proven successful in determining optical constants over a wide energy range, including the energy region where the extinction coefficient was large. Moreover, we found that the void distribution was dependent on the deposition conditions, such as the sputtering power, the substrate temperature, and the substrate surface.

  3. Tailoring the soft magnetic properties of sputtered multilayers by microstructure engineering for high frequency applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu V. Falub

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic Ni78.5Fe21.5, Co91.5Ta4.5Zr4 and Fe52Co28B20 thin films laminated with SiO2, Al2O3, AlN, and Ta2O5 dielectric interlayers were deposited on 8” Si wafers using DC, pulsed DC and RF cathodes in the industrial, high-throughput Evatec LLS-EVO-II magnetron sputtering system. A typical multilayer consists of a bilayer stack up to 50 periods, with alternating (50-100 nm thick magnetic layers and (2-20 nm thick dielectric interlayers. We introduced the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in these films during sputtering by a combination of a linear magnetic field, seed layer texturing by means of linear collimators, and the oblique incidence inherent to the geometry of the sputter system. Depending on the magnetic material, the anisotropy field for these films was tuned in the range of ∼(7-120 Oe by choosing the appropriate interlayer thickness, the aspect ratios of the linear collimators in front of the targets, and the sputter process parameters (e.g. pressure, power, DC pulse frequency, while the coercivity was kept low, ∼(0.05-0.9 Oe. The alignment of the easy axis (EA on the 8” wafers was typically between ±1.5° and ±4°. We discuss the interdependence of structure and magnetic properties in these films, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray reflectivity (XRR with reciprocal space mapping (RSM and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE measurements.

  4. Application of high rate magnetron sputtering to the fabrication of A-15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampwirth, R.T.; Hafstrom, J.W.; Wu, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    High quality Nb 3 Sn films have been fabricated using a recently developed magnetron sputtering process capable of deposition rates approaching 1 μm/min. at sputtering voltages less than 500 V and power levels of about 5 KW. Low sputtering voltages allow more complete thermalization at lower pressures of the material condensing on the substrate which can improve long range order. Transition temperatures of up to 18.3 0 K, J/sub c/(O)'s of 15 x 10 6 A/cm 2 and Hc 2 as high as 240 kOe have been achieved in 1-3 μm films deposited from a Nb 3 Sn reacted powder target with substrate temperatures between 600 and 800 0 C. The films exhibit smooth surfaces and, generally, a [200] preferred orientation. The growth of the film is columnar in nature. The sputtering parameters, substrate material and temperature will be related to film structure T/sub c/ and J/sub c/(H,T) and the Nb/Sn ratio as determined by Rutherford backscattering

  5. Imaging with Mass Spectrometry: A SIMS and VUV-Photoionization Study of Ion-Sputtered Atoms and Clusters from GaAs and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Lynelle; Zhou, Jia; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-12-05

    A new mass spectrometry surface imaging method is presented in which ion-sputtered neutrals are postionized by wavelength-tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron source. Mass spectra and signal counts of the photoionized neutrals from GaAs (100) and Au are compared to those of the secondary ions. While clusters larger than dimers are more efficiently detected as secondary ions, certain species, such as As2, Au and Au2, are more efficiently detected through the neutral channel. Continuously tuning the photon wavelength allows photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves to be obtained for sputtered Asm (m=1,2) and Aun (n=1-4). From the observed ionization thresholds, sputtered neutral As and Au show no clear evidence of electronic excitation, while neutral clusters have photoionization onsets shifted to lower energies by ~;;0.3 eV. These shifts are attributed to unresolved vibrational and rotational excitations. High-spatial resolution chemical imaging with synchrotron VUV postionization is demonstrated at two different photon energies using a copper TEM grid embedded in indium. The resulting images are used to illustrate the use of tunable VUV light for verifying mass peak assignments by exploiting the unique wavelength-dependent PIE of each sputtered neutral species. This capability is valuable for identifying compounds when imaging chemically complex systems with mass spectrometry-based techniques.

  6. AFM characterization of nonwoven material functionalized by ZnO sputter coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bingyao; Yan Xiong; Wei Qufu; Gao Weidong

    2007-01-01

    Sputter coatings provide new approaches to the surface functionalization of textile materials. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven material was used as a substrate for creating functional nanostructures on the fiber surfaces. A magnetron sputter coating was used to deposit functional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures onto the nonwoven substrate. The evolution of the surface morphology of the fibers in the nonwoven web was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM observations revealed a significant difference in the morphology of the fibers before and after the sputter coating. The AFM images also indicated the effect of the sputtering conditions on the surface morphology of the fibers. The increase in the sputtering time led to the growth of the ZnO grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher pressure in the sputtering chamber could cause the formation of larger grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher power used also generated larger grains on the fiber surfaces

  7. Co-sputtered optical films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiano, C; Simonetti, E [Selenia S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    1977-06-01

    The co-sputtering of two dielectric materials with indices of refraction as widely different as possible has been investigated with the aim of obtaining both homogeneous films with an intermediate index of refraction and inhomogeneous films with predetermined profiles. An rf sputtering module is described which has been especially designed, with two separate cathodes and two independent tunable rf generators. The substrates are placed on a circular anode rotating underneath the two cathodes. So far mainly CeO/sub 2/, TiO2 and SiO/sub 2/ targets have been used. The deposition rate from each cathode and the total film thickness are determined by means of two quartz thickness monitors, sputtering compatible. Values obtained for the refractive index and optical thickness are reported, as well as repeatability, mechanical and chemical characteristics, reliability and high power optical radiation resistance. Finally, results obtained on optical components of practical interest are discussed.

  8. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B V; Clarke, M; Hu, H; Betz, [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V.; Clarke, M.; Hu, H.; Betz [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Ions extraction and collection using the RF resonance method and taking into consideration the sputtering loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guofeng; Wang Dewu; Ying Chuntong

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional ions extraction and collection using the RF resonance method is studied by PIC-MCC simulation. The energy and angle distribution of extracted ions is recorded and the sputtering loss is calculated. The results show that compared with parallel electrode method, RF resonance method has advantages such as shorter extraction time, lower collision loss and sputtering loss and higher collection ratio; the extraction time and collision loss are decreased with increasing extraction voltage, but the sputtering loss increases and collection ratio decreases; collision loss is decreased with increasing magnetic field, but the sputtering loss increases and collection ratio decreases. (authors)

  11. Faraday screen sputtering on TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    The TPX design stipulates that the ion-cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) antenna must have a Faraday screen (FS). The author considers here possible low Z coatings for the screen, as well as sputtering behavior of the Ni and Ti substrates. The theory of rf-induced sputtering has been developed, and he follows those theoretical approaches. The author's emphasis will be on both impurity generation as a possible source of increased Z eff , and also on actual erosion-lifetime of the materials under worst case conditions

  12. Indigenous development of a glove box for ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Anwar, M.K.; Bangash, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical analysis involving nuclear materials are bound to be carried out in safety enclosures like glove box, fume hood etc. whereas chemical analysis which produce mist or vapors of these materials like Atomic absorption Spectrometry, Flame photometry and ICP-AE spectrometry etc. must be performed in a glove box with HEPA filters on exhaust. These instruments with glove box adaptation are rare and impossible to import for our country. An ICP-OES, model Integra-XL of GBC-Australia was purchased in 2008 for chemical analysis of similar materials. As usual it was manufactured to operate in open atmosphere. The required analytical work could not be done in open atmosphere due to active nature of the samples. Therefore modification and glove box (GB) adaptation was required. Although large in size yet difficult to adapt for GB, the instrument had to be modified to a large extent as only sample handling part of the instrument had to placed inside GB, leaving rest of the instrument available for later repair/maintenance work. Different options were considered for modification keeping in mind the isolation and negative pressure inside the GB and maintaining the integrity of the instrument. One of such option was finalized which involved shifting the optic tank etc. A no of isolation gadgets were designed and fabricated locally. This indigenization has saved some handsome amount of foreign exchange. (Author)

  13. Fabrication and Physical Properties of Titanium Nitride/Hydroxyapatite Composites on Polyether Ether Ketone by RF Magnetron Sputtering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupangtha, W.; Boonyawan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings have been used very successfully in a variety of applications because of their excellent properties, such as the high hardness meaning good wear resistance and also used for covering medical implants. Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that contributes to the restoration of bone tissue, which together with titanium nitride may contribute to obtaining a superior composite in terms of mechanical and bone tissue interaction matters. This paper aims to explain how to optimize deposition conditions for films synthesis on PEEK by varying sputtering parameters such as nitrogen flow rate and direction, deposition time, d-s (target-to-substrate distance) and 13.56 MHz RF power. The plasma conditions used to deposit films were monitored by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Titanium nitride/Hydroxyapatite composite films were performed by gas mixture with nitrogen and argon ratio of 1:3 and target-to-substrate distance at 8 cm. The gold colour, as-deposited film was found on PEEK with high hardness and higher surface energy than uncoated PEEK. X-ray diffraction characterization study was carried to study the crystal structural properties of these composites.

  14. Evaluation of metal ions in rice samples: extraction and direct determination by ICP OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Andrea; Cadore, Solange; Baccan, Nivaldo

    2012-01-01

    A method for extraction of metal ions present in rice samples using ammoniacal EDTA solution, pH = 10, as extractor agent is proposed under the following optimized conditions: 0.20 g of rice sample and 5.00 mL of ammoniacal EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) solution, with 5 min of ultrasound exposure time. Using robust ICP OES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) conditions, direct analysis of the extraction solution was allowed, and the recovery values obtained were above 90% for most of the studied elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu and Mo) with RSD -1 (Mn) - 48.68 mg kg -1 (K), showing adequate detectability for the determination of the analytes. The analysis of different samples indicated that Brazilian 'integral' rice contains higher contents of the constituents studied, followed by 'parboiled' rice, and the 'agulhinha' rice a long and thin grain type. (author)

  15. The microwave induced plasma with optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES) in 23 elements determination in geological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, P; Kozak, L; Wachelka, M; Jakubowski, K; Wybieralska, J

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the optimisation, validation and application of the microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES) dedicated for a routine determination of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, Zn, in the geological samples. The three procedures of sample preparation has been proposed: sample digestion with the use of hydrofluoric acid for determination of total concentration of elements, extraction by aqua regia for determination of the quasi-total element concentration and extraction by hydrochloric acid solution to determine contents of the elements in acid leachable fraction. The detection limits were on the level 0.001-0.121 mg L(-1) (from 0.010-0.10 to 1.2-12 mg kg(-1) depend on the samples preparation procedure); the precision: 0.20-1.37%; accuracy 85-115% (for recovery for certified standards materials analysis and parallel analysis by independent analytical techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS)). The conformity of the results obtained by MIP-OES analytical procedures with the results obtained by XRF and FAAS analysis allows to propose the procedures for studies of elemental composition of the fraction of the geological samples. Additionally, the MIP-OES technique is much less expensive than ICP techniques and much less time-consuming than AAS techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of ferroelectric layer on artificial multiferroic LSMO/BTO bilayers deposited by Dc and RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, J. E.; Gomez, M. E.; Lopera, W. [Universidad del Valle, Department of Physics, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia)

    2016-11-01

    La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO)/BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) bilayers were deposited on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates via Dc and RF sputtering at pure oxygen atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 830 degrees Celsius. We studied the structural, electrical and magnetic properties on LSMO/BTO bilayers, when LSMO thickness is fixed at nm and BTO thickness is varied from 20 to 100 nm. Reciprocal Space Maps in LSMO show a strained growth for all samples, while BTO layers are always relaxed. Magnetization and electrical measurements indicate the influence of the ferroelectric layer, due to saturation magnetization increases from 500 to 590 emu/cm{sup 3} and coercive field decreases from 178 to 82 Oe with BTO thickness. Mean Field mechanism is identified on all samples with critical exponent β between 0.42 and 0.54. Resistivity measurements show electron-electron and magnon-magnon scattering conduction mechanisms. The influence on magnetic and electrical properties of bilayers with BTO thickness is attributed to crystallographic strains at the interface and the corresponding relaxation with increasing BTO layer thickness. The thickness of the individual layers were obtained by X-ray reflectivity measurements in the bilayers, not shown. X-ray diffraction and Reciprocal Space Maps measurements show highly textured layers with preferential growth in the c-axis direction. (Author)

  17. Nanomesh of Cu fabricated by combining nanosphere lithography and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and a preliminary study about its function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wanchuan; Chen, Jiang; Jiang, Lang; Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangping8@263.net; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2013-10-15

    The Cu nanomesh was obtained by a combination of nanosphere lithography (NSL) and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPPMS). A deposition mask was formed on TiO{sub 2} substrates by the self-assembly of polystyrene latex spheres with a diameter of 1 μm, then Cu nanomesh structure was produced on the substrate using sputtering. The structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show the increase of temperature of the polystyrene mask caused by the thermal radiation from the target and the bombardment of sputtering particles would affect the quality of the final nanopattern. The tests of photocatalytic degradation, platelet adhesion and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) culture show Cu deposition could promote the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO{sub 2}, affect platelet adhesion and inhibit smooth muscle cell adhesion and proliferation. It is highlighted that these findings may serve as a guide for the research of multifunctional surface structure.

  18. Comparative microstructure and electrical property studies of lead scandium tantalate thin films as prepared by LDCVD, sol-gel and sputtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z; Donohue, P P; Zhang, Q; Williams, D J; Anthony, C J; Whatmore, R W; Todd, M A

    2003-01-01

    Lead scandium tantalate (PST) thin films for uncooled infrared (IR) detector applications have been deposited by liquid delivery chemical vapour deposition (LDCVD), sputtering and sol-gel techniques. The sol-gel and sputtered films were deposited at low temperature into a non-ferroelectric phase with the required perovskite structure being formed using a high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA). In contrast to this, the LDCVD films were deposited at high temperature directly into the perovskite phase but were found to still require a high temperature RTA step to optimize their merit for IR detection. Detailed structural and electrical characterization of the PST films deposited by these different methods have revealed that there is no simple relationship between microstructure and electrical properties. The sol-gel and LDCVD techniques produce thin films with excellent microstructures, as determined by x-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy, but inferior electrical properties and relatively low merit figures. By contrast, the sputtered and then rapid thermal annealed films have inferior microstructures, characterized by extensive voiding, but excellent electrical properties and high merit figures

  19. Photomodulated reflectance study on optical property of InN thin films grown by reactive gas-timing rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntheeraphat, S.; Nukeaw, J.

    2008-01-01

    The photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the band-gap energy (E g ) of indium nitride (InN) thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering. A novel reactive gas-timing technique applied for the sputtering process has been successfully employed to grow InN thin films without neither substrate heating nor post annealing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibit strong peaks in the orientation along (0 0 2) and (1 0 1) planes, corresponding to the polycrystalline hexagonal-InN structure. The band-gap transition energy of InN was determined by fitting the PR spectra to a theoretical line shape. The PR results show the band-gap energy at 1.18 eV for hexagonal-InN thin films deposited at the rf powers of 100 and 200 W. The high rf sputtering powers in combination with the gas-timing technique should lead to a high concentration of highly excited nitrogen ions in the plasma, which enables the formation of InN without substrate heating. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements further reveal traces of oxygen in these InN films. This should explain the elevated band-gap energy, in reference to the band-gap value of 0.7 eV for pristine InN films

  20. Formation and stability of sputtered clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Current theory for the formation of sputtered clusters states that either atoms are sputtered individually and aggregate after having left the surface or they are sputtered as complete clusters. There is no totally sharp boundary between the two interpretations, but experimental evidence is mainly thought to favour the latter model. Both theories demand a criterion for the stability of the clusters. In computer simulations of sputtering, the idea has been to use the same interaction potential as in the lattice computations to judge the stability. More qualitatively, simple geometrical shapes have also been looked for. It is found here, that evidence for 'magic numbers' and electron parity effects in clusters have existed in the sputtering literature for a long time, making more sophisticated stability criteria necessary. The breakdown of originally sputtered metastable clusters into stable clusters gives strong support to the 'sputtered as clusters' hypothesis. (author)

  1. Study of the oxidation resistance of ZrxNand ZrxSi1-xN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering; Estudo da resistencia a oxidacao de filmes finos de ZrxN e ZrxSi1-xN depositados por magnetron sputtering reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, D.R.; Freitas, F.G.R.; Felix, L.C.; Carvalho, R.G.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Tentardini, E.K., E-mail: daniel.angel0275@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Silva Junior, H. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the oxidation resistance on pure zirconium nitride thin films and with silicon addition (ZrN and ZrSiN respectively). The thin films deposition were performed using reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings were characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), grazing angle X ray diffraction (GAXRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM-FEG) and oxidation tests starting from 500°C to 700°C. This study evaluated thin films with silicon content up to 14,9 at.%. GAXRD results showed only ZrN characteristics peaks, which allow the inference that Si3N4 has an amorphous structure. Oxidation tests demonstrate that the film with highest silicon content shows an increase of 200°C in oxidation temperature when compared with ZrN pure thin film. (author)

  2. Optimum Pt and Ru atomic composition of carbon-supported Pt-Ru alloy electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation studied by the polygonal barrel-sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromi, Chikako; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Akira; Abe, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sputtered Pt and Ru form the Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles on the carbon support. → The deposited Pt-Ru alloy particles have uniform Pt:Ru atomic ratios. → The optimum Pt:Ru ratio of the Pt-Ru/C for methanol oxidation is 58:42 at.% at 25 deg. C. → The optimum Pt:Ru ratio of 58:42 shifts to 50:50 at.% at 40 and 60 deg. C. → The polygonal barrel-sputtering method is useful to prepare the DMFC anode catalyst. - Abstract: The optimum Pt and Ru atomic composition of a carbon-supported Pt-Ru alloy (Pt-Ru/C) used in a practical direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode was investigated. The samples were prepared by the polygonal barrel-sputtering method. Based on the physical properties of the prepared Pt-Ru/C samples, the Pt-Ru alloy was found to be deposited on a carbon support. The microscopic characterization showed that the deposited alloy forms nanoparticles, of which the atomic ratios of Pt and Ru (Pt:Ru ratios) are uniform and are in accordance with the overall Pt:Ru ratios of the samples. The formation of the Pt-Ru alloy is also supported by the electrochemical characterization. Based on these results, methanol oxidation on the Pt-Ru/C samples was measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results indicated that the methanol oxidation activities of the prepared samples depended on the Pt:Ru ratios, of which the optimum Pt:Ru ratio is 58:42 at.% at 25 deg. C and 50:50 at.% at 40 and 60 deg. C. This temperature dependence of the optimum Pt:Ru ratio is well explained by the relationship between the methanol oxidation reaction process and the temperature, which is reflected in the rate-determining steps considered from the activation energies. It should be noted that at 25-60 deg. C, the Pt-Ru/C with Pt:Ru = 50:50 at.% prepared by our sputtering method has the higher methanol oxidation activity than that of a commercially available sample with the identical overall Pt:Ru ratio. Consequently, the polygonal barrel-sputtering method

  3. The corrosion and passivity of sputtered Mg–Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Guang-Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, Harry; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A supersaturated single phase Mg–Ti alloy can be obtained by magnetron sputtering. • The anodic dissolution of Mg–Ti alloy is inhibited by Ti addition. • The alloy becomes passive when Ti content is high and the alloy has become Ti based. • The formation of a continuous thin passive film is responsible for the passivation of the alloy. - Abstract: This study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. The surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  4. Utilization of ICP/OES for the determination of trace metal binding to different humic fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, G; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2003-02-28

    In this study, the use of inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) to determine multi-metal binding to three biomasses, Sphagnum peat moss, humin and humic acids is reported. All the investigations were performed under part per billion (ppb) concentrations. Batch pH profile experiments were performed using multi-metal solutions of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The results showed that at pH 2 and 3, the metal affinity of the three biomasses exposed to the multi-metal solution that included Cr(III) presented the following order: Cu(II), Pb(II)>Ni(II)>Cr(III)>Cd(II). On the other hand, when Cr(VI) was in the heavy metal mixture, Sphagnum peat moss and humin showed the following affinity: Cu(II), Pb(II)>Ni(II)>Cr(VI)>Cd(II); however, the affinity of the humic acids was: Cu(II)>Pb(II), Cr(VI)>Ni(II)>Cd(II). The results demonstrated that pH values of 4 and 5 were the most favorable for the heavy metal binding process. At pH 5, all the metals, except for Cr(VI), were bound between 90 and 100% to the three biomasses. However, the binding capacity of humic acids decreased at pH 6 in the presence of Cr(VI). The results showed that the ICP/OES permits the determination of heavy metal binding to organic matter at ppb concentration. These results will be very useful in understanding the role of humic substances in the fate and transport of heavy metals, and thus could provide information to develop new methodologies for the removal of low concentrations of toxic heavy metals from contaminated waters.

  5. A flexible platform for simulations of sputtering hollow cathode discharges for laser applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailova, D.B.; Grozeva, M.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Dijk, van J.; Brok, W.J.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Plasimo modelling platform, extended with a cathode wall sputtering module is used to study the discharge processes and to optimise the design parameters of a sputtering hollow cathode discharge (HCD). We present Plasimo simulations of a HCD used for laser applications. A time dependent

  6. Mechanical and structural properties of sputtered Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kumar, M.; Boeni, P.; Tixier, S.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ni/Ti bilayers have been prepared by dc-magnetron sputtering in order to study their mechanical and structural properties. A remarkable reduction of stress is observed when the Ni layers are sputtered reactively in argon with a high partial pressure of air. The high angle x-ray diffraction studies show a tendency towards amorphisation of the Ni layers with increasing air flow. The low angle measurements indicate a substantial reduction of interdiffusion resulting in smoother interfaces with increasing air content. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  7. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Jeremy; Thomson, W.; Howard, B.; Schell, N.; Näslund, Lars-Åke; Rogström, Lina; Johansson-Jöesaar, Mats P.; Ghafoor, Naureen; Odén, Magnus; Nothnagel, E.; Shepard, A.; Greer, J.; Birch, Jens

    2015-01-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (greater than50 keV), high photon flux (greater than10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (less than1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation...

  8. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  9. Semi-empirical formulas for sputtering yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasumichi

    1994-01-01

    When charged particles, electrons, light and so on are irradiated on solid surfaces, the materials are lost from the surfaces, and this phenomenon is called sputtering. In order to understand sputtering phenomenon, the bond energy of atoms on surfaces, the energy given to the vicinity of surfaces and the process of converting the given energy to the energy for releasing atoms must be known. The theories of sputtering and the semi-empirical formulas for evaluating the dependence of sputtering yield on incident energy are explained. The mechanisms of sputtering are that due to collision cascade in the case of heavy ion incidence and that due to surface atom recoil in the case of light ion incidence. The formulas for the sputtering yield of low energy heavy ion sputtering, high energy light ion sputtering and the general case between these extreme cases, and the Matsunami formula are shown. At the stage of the publication of Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables in 1984, the data up to 1983 were collected, and about 30 papers published thereafter were added. The experimental data for low Z materials, for example Be, B and C and light ion sputtering data were reported. The combination of ions and target atoms in the collected sputtering data is shown. The new semi-empirical formula by slightly adjusting the Matsunami formula was decided. (K.I.)

  10. Deposition and characterization of sputtered hexaboride coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhauser, W.

    1996-06-01

    Hexaborides of the rare-earth elements ReB 6 are potential materials for cathode applications since they combine properties such as low work function, good electrical conductivity, high melting point as well as low volatility at high temperatures. Due to their high hardness and colorations ranging from blue to purple these compounds are also considered for applications to coatings for decoration of consumer products. At present, either rods of sintered LaB 6 or single LaB 6 crystals are indirectly heated to induce emission. In this workboride coatings were deposited onto various substrates employing non-reactive magnetron sputtering from LaB 6 , CeB 6 , SmB 6 and YB 6 targets. Coatings deposited were examined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis. Vickers microhardness, colorimeter and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Electron emission characteristics of the coatings were studied by the thermionic emission and the contact potential method. After optimization of the sputtering parameters fine-columnar or partially amorphous films with atomic ratios of boron to metal in the order of 5 to 7.5 were obtained. The tendency to form the corresponding hexaboride phase decreases from LaB 6 , CeB 6 and SmB 6 to YB 6 . The work function was measured to be in the range of 2.6 to 3.3 eV. Vickers microhardness values lie between 1500 and 2000 HVO.01. LaB 6 coatings showed the most pronounced visual color impression corresponding to dark violet. The results obtained indicate that sputtered hexaboride films are well suited for decorative and thermionic applications. (author)

  11. Measurements of sputtering yields for low-energy plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, M.; Yamada, M.; Suckewer, S.; Rosengaus, E.

    1979-04-01

    Sputtering yields of various wall/limiter materials of fusion devices have been extensively measured in the relevant plasma environment for low-energy light ions (E 14 cm -3 and electron temperature up to 10eV. Target materials used were C (graphite), Ti, Mo, Ta, W, and Fe (stainless steel). In order to study the dependence of the sputtering yields on the incident energy of ions, the target samples were held at negative bias voltage up to 300V. The sputtering yields were determined by a weight-loss method and by spectral line intensity measurements. The data obtained in the present experiment agree well with those previously obtained at the higher energies (E greater than or equal to 200eV) by other authors using different schemes; the present data also extend to substantially lower energies (E approx. > 30eV) than hitherto

  12. Psychometric properties of the Albanian version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale: OES-ALB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbashi, Venera; Čelebić, Asja; Staka, Gloria; Hoxha, Flurije; Peršić, Sanja; Petričević, Nikola

    2015-08-26

    The aim was to adapt the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) and to test psychometric properties of the Albanian language version in the cultural environment of the Republic of Kosovo. The OES questionnaire was translated from the original English version according to the accepted techniques. The reliability (internal consistency), and validity (construct, convergent and discriminative) were tested in 169 subjects, test-retest in 61 dental students (DS), and responsiveness in 51 prosthodontic patients with treatment needs (PPTN). The corrected item correlation coefficients of OES-ALB ranged from 0.686 to 0.909. The inter-item correlation coefficient ranged between 0.572 and 0.919. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.961 and IIC 0.758. Test- retest was confirmed by good ICCs and by no significant differences of the OES scores through the period of 14 days without any orofacial changes (p > 0.05). Construct validity was proved by the presence of one-factor composition that assumed 79.079% of the variance. Convergent validity showed significant correlation between one general question about satisfaction with orofacial esthetics and the OES summary score, as well as between the sum of the 3 OHIP-ALB49 questions related to orofacial aesthetics and the OES summary score. Discriminative validity was confirmed with statistically significant differences between DS, prosthodontic patients without treatment need and PPTN (p < 0.01). Responsiveness was confirmed by a significant increase of OES scores after PPTN patients received new fixed partial or removable dentures (P < 0.001). The results proved excellent psychometric properties of the OES-ALB questionnaire in the Republic of Kosovo.

  13. Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickersham, C.E. Jr.; Poole, J.E.; Fan, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Arcing during sputter deposition and etching is a significant cause of particle defect generation during device fabrication. In this article we report on the effect of aluminum oxide inclusion size, shape, and orientation on the propensity for arcing during sputtering of aluminum targets. The size, shape, and orientation of a dielectric inclusion plays a major role in determining the propensity for arcing and macroparticle emission. In previous studies we found that there is a critical inclusion size required for arcing to occur. In this article we used high-speed videos, electric arc detection, and measurements of particle defect density on wafers to study the effect of Al 2 O 3 inclusion size, shape, and orientation on arc rate, intensity, and silicon wafer particle defect density. We found that the cross-sectional area of the inclusion exposed to the sputtering plasma is the critical parameter that determines the arc rate and rate of macroparticle emission. Analysis of the arc rate, particle defect density, and the intensity of the optical emission from the arcing plasma indicates that the critical aluminum oxide inclusion area for arcing is 0.22±0.1 mm2 when the sputtering plasma sheath dark-space λ d , is 0.51 mm. Inclusions with areas greater than this critical value readily induce arcing and macroparticle ejection during sputtering. Inclusions below this critical size do not cause arcing or macroparticle ejection. When the inclusion major axis is longer than 2λ d and lies perpendicular to the sputter erosion track tangent, the arcing activity increases significantly over the case where the inclusion major axis lies parallel to the erosion track tangent

  14. Nanoporous zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghimpu, L.; Lupan, O.; Popescu, L.; Tiginyanu, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate an inexpensive approach for the fabrication of nanoporous zinc oxide films by using magnetron sputtering. Study of the structural properties proves the crystallographic perfection of porous nanostructures and the possibility of its controlling by adjusting the technological parameters in the growth process. The XRD pattern of nanoporous ZnO films exhibits high intensity of the peaks relative to the background signal which is indicative of the ZnO hexagonal phase and a good crystallinity of the samples grown by magnetron sputtering.

  15. Heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si by DC magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Steglich

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Ge on Si(100 by DC Magnetron Sputtering at various temperatures is studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Smooth heteroepitaxial Ge films are prepared at relatively low temperatures of 380°C. Typical Stransky-Krastanov growth is observed at 410°C. At lower temperatures (320°C, films are essentially amorphous with isolated nanocrystallites at the Si-Ge interface. A minor oxygen contamination at the interface, developing after ex-situ oxide removal, is not seen to hinder epitaxy. Compensation of dislocation-induced acceptors in Ge by sputtering from n-doped targets is proposed.

  16. Development of surface relief on polycrystalline metals due to sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsenya, V.S. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Bardamid, A.F. [Taras Shevchenko National University, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Bondarenko, V.N. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Davis, J.W., E-mail: jwdavis@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, Canada M3H5T6 (Canada); Konovalov, V.G.; Ryzhkov, I.V.; Skoryk, O.O.; Solodovchenko, S.I. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhang-jian, Zhou [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100 083 (China)

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics of surface microrelief that appear in sputtering experiments with polycrystalline metals of various grain sizes have been studied. Specimens with grain sizes varying from 30–70 nm in the case of crystallized amorphous alloys, to 1–3 μm for technical tungsten grade and 10–100 μm for recrystallized tungsten were investigated. A model is proposed for the development of roughness on polycrystalline metals which is based on the dependence of sputtering rate on crystal orientation. The results of the modeling are in good agreement with experiments showing that the length scale of roughness is much larger than the grain size.

  17. Study of SiO2 surface sputtering by a 250-550 keV He+ ion beam during high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusanagi, Susumu; Kobayashi, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in oxygen signal intensities in spectra of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (HRBS) were observed during measurements on a 5-nm thick SiO 2 layer on a Si substrate when irradiated by 250-550 keV He + ions. Shifts in an implanted arsenic profile in a 5-nm thick SiO 2 /Si substrate were also observed as a result of He + ion irradiation. These results lead to the conclusion that the SiO 2 surface was sputtered by He + ions in this energy range

  18. Interdiffusion in epitaxial, single-crystalline Au/Ag thin films studied by Auger electron spectroscopy sputter-depth profiling and positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noah, Martin A.; Flötotto, David; Wang, Zumin; Reiner, Markus; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Interdiffusion in epitaxial, single-crystalline Au/Ag bilayered thin films on Si (001) substrates was investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) sputter-depth profiling and by in-situ positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS). By the combination of these techniques identification of the role of vacancy sources and sinks on interdiffusion in the Au/Ag films was possible. It was found that with precise knowledge of the concentration-dependent self-diffusion and impurity diffusion coefficients a distinction between the Darken-Manning treatment and Nernst-Planck treatment can be made, which is not possible on the basis of the determined concentration-depth profiles alone.

  19. Depth of origin of atoms sputtered from crystalline targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.H.; Trovato, E.; Tombrello, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, V.I. Shulga and W. Eckstein (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 492) investigated the depth of origin of atoms sputtered from random elemental targets using the Monte Carlo code TRIM.SP and the lattice code OKSANA. They found that the mean depth of origin is proportional to N -0.86 , where N is the atomic density; and that the most probable escape depth is ∼λ 0 /2, where λ 0 is the mean atomic distance. Since earlier molecular dynamics simulations with small crystalline elemental targets typically produced a most probable escape depth of zero (i.e., most sputtered atoms came from the topmost layer of the target), we have carried out new molecular dynamics simulations of sputtered atom escape depths with much larger crystalline targets. Our new results, which include the bcc targets Cs, Rb and W, as well as the fcc targets Cu and Au predict that the majority of sputtered atoms come from the first atomic layer for the bcc(1 0 0), bcc(1 1 1), fcc(1 0 0) and fcc(1 1 1) targets studied. For the high-atomic density targets Cu, Au and W, the mean depth of origin of sputtered atoms typically is less than 0.25λ 0 . For the low-atomic density targets Cs and Rb, the mean depth of origin of sputtered atoms is considerably larger, and depends strongly on the crystal orientation. We show that the discrepancy between the single-crystal and amorphous target depth of origin values can be resolved by applying a simple correction to the single-crystal results

  20. Studies on the electrical properties of reactive DC magnetron-sputtered indium-doped silver oxide thin films: The role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Barik, Ullash Kumar [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-03-15

    Indium ({approx}10 at.%)-doped silver oxide (AIO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target made of pure (99.99%) silver and indium (90:10 at.%) metals. The oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-3.44 sccm during sputtering. The X-ray diffraction data on these indium-doped silver oxide films show polycrystalline nature. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the carrier concentration, the Hall mobility and the electron mean free path decrease. These films show a very low positive temperature coefficient of resistivity {approx}3.40x10{sup -8} ohm-cm/K. The work function values for these films (measured by Kelvin probe technique) are in the range 4.81-5.07 eV. The high electrical resistivity indicate that the films are in the island state (size effects). Calculations of the partial ionic charge (by Sanderson's theory) show that indium doping in silver oxide thin films enhance the ionicity.

  1. Studies on the electrical properties of reactive DC magnetron-sputtered indium-doped silver oxide thin films: The role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, Ullash Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Indium (∼10 at.%)-doped silver oxide (AIO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target made of pure (99.99%) silver and indium (90:10 at.%) metals. The oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-3.44 sccm during sputtering. The X-ray diffraction data on these indium-doped silver oxide films show polycrystalline nature. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the carrier concentration, the Hall mobility and the electron mean free path decrease. These films show a very low positive temperature coefficient of resistivity ∼3.40x10 -8 ohm-cm/K. The work function values for these films (measured by Kelvin probe technique) are in the range 4.81-5.07 eV. The high electrical resistivity indicate that the films are in the island state (size effects). Calculations of the partial ionic charge (by Sanderson's theory) show that indium doping in silver oxide thin films enhance the ionicity

  2. Simulation experiments and solar wind sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.E.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Russell, W.A.; Tombrello, T.A.; Weller, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to isolate the role played by solar wind sputtering from other lunar surface phenomena a number of simulation experiments were performed, including isotope abundance measurements of Ca sputtered from terrestrial fluorite and plagioclase by 50-keV and 130-keV 14 N beams, measurement of the energy distribution of U atoms sputtered with 80-keV 40 Ar, and measurement of the fraction of sputtered U atoms which stick on the surfaces used to collect these atoms. 10 references

  3. Reduction of residual gas in a sputtering system by auxiliary sputter of rare-earth metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dejie

    2002-01-01

    In film deposition by sputtering, the oxidation and nitrification of the sputtered material lead to degradation of film quality, particularly with respect to metal sulfide films. We propose to use auxiliary sputtering as a method to produce a fresh film of rare-earth metal, usually dysprosium (Dy), that absorbs the active gases in a sputtering system, greatly reducing the background pressure and protecting the film from oxidation and nitrification effectively. The influence of the auxiliary sputtering power consumption, sputtering time, and medium gas pressure on the background pressure in the vacuum chamber is investigated in detail. If the auxiliary sputtering power exceeds 120 W and the sputtering time is more than 4 min, the background pressure is only one fourth of the ultimate pressure pumped by an oil diffusion pump. The absorption activity of the sputtered Dy film continues at least an hour after completion of the auxiliary sputter. Applied to film deposition of Ti and ZnS, this technique has been proven to be effective. For the Ti film, the total content of N and O is reduced from 45% to 20% when the auxiliary sputtering power of Dy is 120 W, and the sputtering time is 20 min. In the case of ZnS, the content of O is reduced from 8% to 2%

  4. Depth resolution and preferential sputtering in depth profiling of sharp interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Han, Y.S.; Wang, J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Interfacial depth resolution from MRI model depends on sputtering rate differences. • Depth resolution critically depends on the dominance of roughness or atomic mixing. • True (depth scale) and apparent (time scale) depth resolutions are different. • Average sputtering rate approximately yields true from apparent depth resolution. • Profiles by SIMS and XPS are different but similar to surface concentrations. - Abstract: The influence of preferential sputtering on depth resolution of sputter depth profiles is studied for different sputtering rates of the two components at an A/B interface. Surface concentration and intensity depth profiles on both the sputtering time scale (as measured) and the depth scale are obtained by calculations with an extended Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI)-model. The results show a clear difference for the two extreme cases (a) preponderant roughness and (b) preponderant atomic mixing. In case (a), the interface width on the time scale (Δt(16–84%)) increases with preferential sputtering if the faster sputtering component is on top of the slower sputtering component, but the true resolution on the depth scale (Δz(16–84%)) stays constant. In case (b), the interface width on the time scale stays constant but the true resolution on the depth scale varies with preferential sputtering. For similar order of magnitude of the atomic mixing and the roughness parameters, a transition state between the two extremes is obtained. While the normalized intensity profile of SIMS represents that of the surface concentration, an additional broadening effect is encountered in XPS or AES by the influence of the mean electron escape depth which may even cause an additional matrix effect at the interface.

  5. Depth resolution and preferential sputtering in depth profiling of sharp interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly MPI for Metals Research), Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Han, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063 Guangdong (China); Wang, J.Y., E-mail: wangjy@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063 Guangdong (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Interfacial depth resolution from MRI model depends on sputtering rate differences. • Depth resolution critically depends on the dominance of roughness or atomic mixing. • True (depth scale) and apparent (time scale) depth resolutions are different. • Average sputtering rate approximately yields true from apparent depth resolution. • Profiles by SIMS and XPS are different but similar to surface concentrations. - Abstract: The influence of preferential sputtering on depth resolution of sputter depth profiles is studied for different sputtering rates of the two components at an A/B interface. Surface concentration and intensity depth profiles on both the sputtering time scale (as measured) and the depth scale are obtained by calculations with an extended Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI)-model. The results show a clear difference for the two extreme cases (a) preponderant roughness and (b) preponderant atomic mixing. In case (a), the interface width on the time scale (Δt(16–84%)) increases with preferential sputtering if the faster sputtering component is on top of the slower sputtering component, but the true resolution on the depth scale (Δz(16–84%)) stays constant. In case (b), the interface width on the time scale stays constant but the true resolution on the depth scale varies with preferential sputtering. For similar order of magnitude of the atomic mixing and the roughness parameters, a transition state between the two extremes is obtained. While the normalized intensity profile of SIMS represents that of the surface concentration, an additional broadening effect is encountered in XPS or AES by the influence of the mean electron escape depth which may even cause an additional matrix effect at the interface.

  6. Pure and Nb2O5-doped TiO2 amorphous thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature: Surface and photo-induced hydrophilic conversion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Tudose, I.V.; Vernardou, D.; Lygeraki, M.I.; Anastasiadis, S.H.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Photo-induced hydrophilicity of titanium dioxide makes this material one of the most suitable for various coating applications in antifogging mirrors and self-cleaning glasses. The field of functional titanium dioxide coatings is expanding rapidly not only in applications for glass but also in applications for polymer, metal and ceramic materials. The high hydrophilic surface of TiO 2 is interesting for understanding also the basic photon-related surface science of titanium dioxide. In doing so, it is inevitably necessary to understand the relationship between the photoreaction and the surface properties. In this work, photo-induced hydrophilic conversion was evaluated on amorphous pure and niobium oxide-doped titanium dioxide thin films on Corning 1737F glass grown by dc magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. This study is focused on the influence of the Ar:O ratio during sputtering plasma deposition on thin film surface morphology and subsequent photo-induced hydrophilic conversion results. Structural characterization carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has shown that our films are amorphous and extremely smooth with a surface roughness bellow 1 nm. Contact angle measurements were performed on as-deposited and during/after 10 min UV exposure. We present evidence that the photo-induced hydrophilic conversion of film surface is directly correlated with surface morphology and can be controlled by growth conditions

  7. Transition from linear to nonlinear sputtering of solid xenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutkiewicz, L.; Pedrys, R.; Schou, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Self-sputtering of solid xenon has been studied with molecular dynamics simulations as a model system for the transition from dominantly linear to strongly nonlinear effects. The simulation covered the projectile energy range from 20 to 750 eV. Within a relatively narrow range from 30 to 250 e...

  8. Sputtering of solid deuterium by He-ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Stenum, B.; Pedrys, R.

    2001-01-01

    Sputtering of solid deuterium by bombardment of 3He+ and 4He+ ions was studied. Some features are similar to hydrogen ion bombardment of solid deuterium, but for the He-ions a significant contribution of elastic processes to the total yield can be identified. The thin-film enhancement is more pro...... pronounced than that for hydrogen projectiles in the same energy range....

  9. Preparation of boron-nitrogen films by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, S.; Winde, B.

    1980-01-01

    Hard boron-nitrogen films adherent to various substrates can be prepared by sputtering. IR investigations suggest the existence of cubic boron nitride in certain layers. Transmission electron microscope studies have shown a quasi-amorphous structure irregularly incorporating crystallites of zinc blende structure of some nm in diameter

  10. Inhomogeneous strain states in sputter deposited tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyan, I.C.; Shaw, T.M.; Goldsmith, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an x-ray diffraction study of dc-magnetron sputtered tungsten thin films are reported. It is shown that the phase transformation from the β to α W can cause multilayered single-phase films where the layers have very different stress states even if the films are in the 500 nm thickness range. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Photoluminescence study of trap-state defect on TiO2 thin films at different substrate temperature via RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Nafarizal, N.; Saim, H.; Bakri, A. S.; Cik Rohaida, C. H.; Adriyanto, F.; Sari, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This paper highlights the defect levels using photoluminescence spectroscopy of TiO2 thin films. The TiO2 were deposited by Magnetron Sputtering system with 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C substrate temperature on microscope glass substrate. The PL result shows profound effect of various substrate temperatures to defect levels of oxygen vacancies and Ti3+ at titanium interstitial site. Increasing temperature would minimize the oxygen vacancy defect, however Ti3+ shows otherwise. Green region of PL consist of trapped hole for oxygen vacancy, while red region of PL is trapped electron associated to structural defect Ti3+. Green PL is dominant peak at temperature 200 °C, indicating that oxygen vacancy is the main defect at this temperature. However, PL peak shows slightly same value for others samples indicating that the temperature did not give high influence to other level of defect after 200 °C.

  12. Comprehensive study of the p-type conductivity formation in radio frequency magnetron sputtered arsenic-doped ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Yang, B.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Wong, K. S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Xie, Z.; Ling, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic doped ZnO and ZnMgO films were deposited on SiO 2 using radio frequency magnetron sputtering and ZnO-Zn 3 As 2 and ZnO-Zn 3 As 2 -MgO targets, respectively. It was found that thermal activation is required to activate the formation of p-type conductivity. Hall measurements showed that p-type films with a hole concentration of ∼10 17 cm -3 and mobility of ∼8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were obtained at substrate temperatures of 400-500 deg. C The shallow acceptor formation mechanism was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, positron annihilation, low temperature photoluminescence, and nuclear reaction analysis. The authors suggest that the thermal annealing activates the formation of the As Zn -2V Zn shallow acceptor complex and removes the compensating hydrogen center.

  13. Accounting for the Complex Surface Structure in Ellipsometric Studies of the Effects of Magnetron Sputtering Modes on the Growth and Optical Properties of In2O3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhii, A. A.; Nikolaenko, Yu. M.; Gritskih, V. A.; Svyrydova, K. A.; Murga, V. V.; Zhikhareva, Yu. I.; Zhikharev, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of invoking additional information on optical transmission in solving the inverse problem of ellipsometry by a minimization method is demonstrated in practice for In2O3 fi doped and nondoped with Sn on Al2O3 (012) substrates. This approach allows the thickness and refractive index of thin films with rough surfaces to be uniquely determined. Solutions of the inverse problem in the framework of one-, two-, and multilayer models are compared. The last provides the best description of the experimental data and the correct parameters of the samples. The dependences of the investigated properties of films produced with different magnetron sputtering modes are found using the above methods and models and do not contradict general concepts about the film formation by this material.

  14. Studies of the composition, tribology and wetting behavior of silicon nitride films formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Wang, J.; Wen, F.; Leng, Y.X.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon nitride films were formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity Si targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effects of N 2 fraction on the chemical composition, and tribological and wetting behaviors were investigated. The films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The surface microstructure changed from continuous granular surrounded by tiny void regions to a homogeneous and dense microstructure, and densitied as the N 2 fraction is increased. The as-deposited films have a relatively low friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction and experienced only abrasive wear. The decreased surface roughness and increased nitrogen incorporation in the film give rise to increased contact angle with double-stilled water from 24 deg. to 49.6 deg. To some extent, the silicon nitride films deposited are hydrophilic in nature

  15. Study of the oxygen and substrate bias effects on the defect structure of reactive sputter-deposited SnOx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misheva, M.; Nancheva, N.; Docheva, P.; Hadjijska, P.; Djourelov, N.; Elenkov, D.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of oxygen and substrate bias on the defect structure of reactive sputter-deposited SnOx films were investigated. Samples were analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The oxygen played an important role in the film growth and surface morphology. TEM, TED and XRD showed that increasing of the oxygen partial pressure leads to the formation of films with different crystal phases. The void sizes also depended on oxygen partial pressure. The positron lifetimes and their relative intensities depended on the void concentration, the partial annealing of the vacancies and oxidation of SnO to SnOx. This investigation also showed that the mechanical strength of the films obtained at negative substrate bias is higher and the concentration of vacancy defects is smaller, than in the films, prepared without substrate bias. (author)

  16. Growth stress buildup in ion beam sputtered Mo thin films and comparative study of stress relaxation upon thermal annealing or ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelle, A.; Abadias, G.; Michel, A.; Jaouen, C.; Pelosin, V.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to address the understanding of the origin of growth stress in thin films deposited under very energetic conditions, the authors investigated the stress state and microstructure of Mo thin films grown by ion beam sputtering (IBS) as well as the stress relaxation processes taking place during subsequent thermal annealing or ion irradiation. Different sets of samples were grown by varying the IBS deposition parameters, namely, the energy E 0 and the flux j of the primary ion beam, the target-to-sputtering gas mass ratio M 1 /M 2 as well as film thickness. The strain-stress state was determined by x-ray diffraction using the sin 2 ψ method and data analyzed using an original stress model which enabled them to correlate information at macroscopic (in terms of stress) and microscopic (in terms of defect concentration) levels. Results indicate that these refractory metallic thin films are characterized by a high compressive growth stress (-2.6 to -3.8 GPa), resulting from the creation of a large concentration (up to ∼1.4%) of point or cluster defects, due to the atomic peening mechanism. The M 1 /M 2 mass ratio enables tuning efficiently the mean deposited energy of the condensing atoms; thus, it appears to be the more relevant deposition parameter that allows modifying both the microstructure and the stress level in a significant way. The growth stress comes out to be highly unstable. It can be easily relaxed either by postgrowth thermal annealing or ion irradiation in the hundred keV range at very low dose [<0.1 dpa (displacement per atom)]. It is shown that thermal annealing induces deleterious effects such as oxidation of the film surface, decrease of the film density, and in some cases adhesion loss at the film/substrate interface, while ion irradiation allows controlling the stress level without generating any macroscopic damage

  17. Effect of residual gas on structural, electrical and mechanical properties of niobium films deposited by magnetron sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanruo; Zhong, Yuan; Li, Jinjin; Cao, Wenhui; Zhong, Qing; Wang, Xueshen; Li, Xu

    2018-04-01

    Magnetron sputtering is an important method in the superconducting thin films deposition. The residual gas inside the vacuum chamber will directly affect the quality of the superconducting films. In this paper, niobium films are deposited by magnetron sputtering under different chamber residual gas conditions. The influence of baking and sputtering process on residual gas are studied as well. Surface morphology, electrical and mechanical properties of the films are analysed. The residual gas analysis result before the sputtering process could be regarded as a reference condition to achieve high quality superconducting thin films.

  18. Influence of ion beam and geometrical parameters on properties of Si thin films grown by Ar ion beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, Carsten; Feder, Rene; Neumann, Horst [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ion beam sputtering (IBS) offers, in contrast to other physical vapour deposition techniques, such as magnetron sputtering or electron beam evaporation, the opportunity to change the properties of the layer forming particles (sputtered and scattered particles) by varying ion beam parameters (ion species, ion energy) and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle, emission angle). Consequently, these effects can be utilized to tailor thin film properties [1]. The goal is to study systematically the correlations between the primary and secondary parameters and, at last, the effects on the properties of Si thin films, such as optical properties, stress, surface topography and composition. First experimental results are presented for Ar-ion sputtering of Si.

  19. Sputtering calculations with the discrete ordinated method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, T.J.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.; Robinson, M.T.; Holmes, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the discrete ordinates (S/sub N/) method to light ion sputtering problems. In particular, the neutral particle discrete ordinates computer code, ANISN, was used to calculate sputtering yields. No modifications to this code were necessary to treat charged particle transport. However, a cross section processing code was written for the generation of multigroup cross sections; these cross sections include a modification to the total macroscopic cross section to account for electronic interactions and small-scattering-angle elastic interactions. The discrete ordinates approach enables calculation of the sputtering yield as functions of incident energy and angle and of many related quantities such as ion reflection coefficients, angular and energy distributions of sputtering particles, the behavior of beams penetrating thin foils, etc. The results of several sputtering problems as calculated with ANISN are presented

  20. Novel magnetic controlled plasma sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelevich, A.; Rabinovich, E.; Golan, G.

    1996-01-01

    A novel method to improve thin film vacuum sputtering is presented. This method is capable of controlling the sputtering plasma via an external set of magnets, in a similar fashion to the tetrode sputtering method. The main advantage of the Magnetic Controlled Plasma Sputtering (MCPS) is its ability to independently control all deposition parameters without any interference or cross-talk. Deposition rate, using the MCPS, is found to be almost twice the rate of triode and tetrode sputtering techniques. Experimental results using the MCPS to deposit Ni layers are described. It was demonstrated that using the MCPS method the ion beam intensity at the target is a result of the interaction of a homogeneous external magnetic field and the controlling magnetic fields. The MCPS method was therefore found to be beneficial for the production of pure stoichiometric thin solid films with high reproducibility. This method could be used for the production of compound thin films as well. (authors)

  1. Low-Damage Sputter Deposition on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Casu, Emanuele; Gajek, Marcin; Raoux, Simone

    2013-03-01

    Despite its versatility and prevalence in the microelectronics industry, sputter deposition has seen very limited applications for graphene-based electronics. We have systematically investigated the sputtering induced graphene defects and identified the reflected high-energy neutrals of the sputtering gas as the primary cause of damage. In this talk, we introduce a novel sputtering technique that is shown to dramatically reduce bombardment of the fast neutrals and improve the structural integrity of the underlying graphene layer. We also demonstrate that sputter deposition and in-situ oxidation of 1 nm Al film at elevated temperatures yields homogeneous, fully covered oxide films with r.m.s. roughness much less than 1 monolayer, which shows the potential of using such technique for gate oxides, tunnel barriers, and multilayer fabrication in a wide range of graphene devices.

  2. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  3. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  4. Energy control centres and traction power management of the OeBB infrastructure; Energieleitstellen und Traktionsstrommanagement der OeBB-Infrastruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammer, Michael; Heinze, Florian [OeBB-Infrastruktur AG, Vienna (Austria). Geschaeftsbereich Energie

    2013-04-15

    According to the OeBB control centre concept, the currently four operations management sites for the 15 kV railway power network will be reduced to just two locations which will be reoriented to operate as energy control centres. For the support of the operators, tools have been developed under the title traction power management, which are based on combined simulations of overhead line network and train operations. (orig.)

  5. Uranium and thorium determination in Santa Quiteria liquor by ICP-OES analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro Junior, A.; Rezende, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Leonel M.; Ferreira, Elizabeth de Massena

    2009-01-01

    The mineral source of Itataia located in Santa Quiteria (Ceara/Brazil) is a phosphorus uraniferous one, where uranium occurs in collophanite (fluoroapatite) form. Phosphate minerals of the apatite family make possible the uses of uranium as a byproduct. The sulfuric leaching of the phosphate rock in order to obtain phosphoric acid also permits uranium recovery. Thus, the liquor coming from the leaching contains high levels of phosphoric acid as well as elements like Mg, Fe, U, Zr, Th and some rare earths in significant concentrations. The direct determination of U and Th content of this liquor is essential to a rapid response in the uranium separation and purification together process by solvent extraction, aiming its use for commercial purposes, as nuclear industry fuel. In this study U and Th were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in several samples of liquor, in high concentrations of H 3 PO 4 in environment. Several ratios of U/Th and H 3 PO 4 concentrations were studied, in order to find the optimal conditions for the direct determination of U and Th, without need to prior separation. (author)

  6. Optical emission spectroscopy during fabrication of indium-tin-oxynitride films by RF-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koufaki, M.; Sifakis, M.; Iliopoulos, E.; Pelekanos, N.; Modreanu, M.; Cimalla, V.; Ecke, G.; Aperathitis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and indium-tin-oxynitride (ITON) films have been deposited on glass by rf-sputtering from an ITO target, using Ar plasma and N 2 plasma, respectively, and different rf-power. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to identify the species present in the plasma and to correlate them with the properties of the ITO and ITON thin films. Emission lines of ionic In could only be detected in N 2 plasma, whereas in the Ar plasma additional lines corresponding to atomic In and InO, were detected. The deposition rate of thin films was correlated with the In species, rather than the nitrogen species, emission intensity in the plasma. The higher resistivity and lower carrier concentration of the ITON films, as compared to the respective properties of the ITO films, were attributed to the incorporation of nitrogen, instead of oxygen, in the ITON structure

  7. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A., E-mail: sharllenya@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Tecnologia, Qualidade e Avaliacao Ambiental; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  8. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  9. Design of a OE 94 cm mirror mount for the Petawatt Project on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    The authors have designed a large optical gimbal mount that will be used on the Petawatt Project currently under construction on the Nova laser. These mounts are designed to hold and tilt OE 94 cm mirrors and gratings that will redirect the OE 60 cm beam through the Petawatt vacuum compressor. Lacking the commercial availability to house this size optic, they have engineered a large mirror mount with a high natural frequency (42 Hz), low self-weight deflection of the mirror (< λ/46), and high positioning accuracy characteristics (< 1 microrad using flexures and stepping motors). Analysis details and methodology are presented

  10. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com; T, Manju, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Sankara College, Kalady P. O., Ernakulam Dist., Kerala (India); Kumar, Vineetha V. [Dept. of Physics, K. E. College, Mannanam, Kottayam Dist., Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  11. Small sample analysis using sputter atomization/resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.H.; Goeringer, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    We have used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to investigate the emission of ions via argon sputtering from U metal, UO 2 , and U 3 O 8 samples. We have also used laser resonance ionization techniques to study argon-sputtered neutral atoms and molecules emitted from these same samples. For the case of U metal, a significant enhancement in detection sensitivity for U is obtained via SA/RIMS. For U in the fully oxidized form (U 3 O 8 ), SA/RIMS offers no improvement in U detection sensitivity over conventional SIMS when sputtering with argon. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Prosthodontics and Restorative Science, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + 3 mM NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings.

  13. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO 3 ) 2 + 3 mM NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings

  14. Plasma diagnostic studies of the influence of process variables upon the atomic and molecular species ejected from (1-x)Li4SiO4:xLi3PO4 targets during rf-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachs, A.L.; Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The deposition of thin-film electrolytes is a critical step in the development of lithium microbatteries with the potential for circuit integration. We have performed a preliminary study of the rf-magnetron sputtering of (1-x)Li 4 SiO 4 :xLi 3 PO 4 targets used to deposit amorphous thin-film electrolytes formed of the three-component system Li 2 O--SiO 2 --P 2 O 5 . Mass and optical emission spectroscopies have been used to investigate the effects of target composition and the deposition conditions upon the atomic and molecular species ejected from the targets. The data provide important information for understanding the mechanism of film formation and for monitoring the Li atomic flux onto the substrates during film growth. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Contribution to crystallographical and mechanical analysis of molybdenum coatings prepared by magnetron cathode sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosland, P.

    1989-07-01

    Molybdenum coatings with different compression stresses are obtained by magnetron cathode sputtering by varying negative voltage applied to the substrate during deposition. Stress evolution, crystal texture and argon content are studied [fr

  16. Surface erosion of fusion reactor components due to radiation blistering and neutron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation blistering and neutron sputtering can lead to the surface erosion of fusion reactor components exposed to plasma radiations. Recent studies of methods to reduce the surface erosion caused by these processes are discussed

  17. High-power sputtering employed for film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V I

    2017-01-01

    The features of high-power magnetron sputtering employed for the films’ deposition are reviewed. The main physical phenomena accompanying high-power sputtering including ion-electron emission, gas rarefaction, ionization of sputtered atoms, self-sputtering, ion sound waves and the impact of the target heating are described. (paper)

  18. Ion beam sputter implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    By means of ion beam atomizing or sputtering an integrally composed coating, the composition of which continuously changes from 100% of the substrate to 100% of the coating, can be surfaced on a substrate (e.g. molten quartz on plastic lenses). In order to do this in the facility there is directed a primary beam of accelerated noble gas ions on a target from the group of the following materials: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Corning Glass 7070, Corning Glass 7740 or borosilicate glass. The particles leaving the target are directed on the substrate by means of an acceleration potential of up to 10 KV. There may, however, be coated also metal layers (Ni, Co) on a mylar film resulting in a semireflecting metal film. (RW) [de

  19. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying ion-beam modification of surfaces is the more basic subject of particle-surface interaction. The ideas can be grouped into forward and backward features, i.e. those affecting the interior of the target and those leading to particle expulsion. Forward effects include the stopping of the incident particles and the deposition of energy, both governed by integral equations which are easily set up but difficult to solve. Closely related is recoil implantation where emphasis is placed not on the stopping of the incident particles but on their interaction with target atoms with resulting implantation of these atoms. Backward effects, all of which are denoted as sputtering, are in general either of collisional, thermal, electronic, or exfoliational origin. (Auth.)

  20. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, T.J., E-mail: tjpetty@liv.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Khan, A. [Pariser Building-G11, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Heil, T. [NiCaL, Block C Waterhouse Building, 1-3 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL (United Kingdom); Bradley, J.W., E-mail: j.w.bradley@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10{sup 23}–3.0 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ{sup 1/2} relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  1. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, T.J.; Khan, A.; Heil, T.; Bradley, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10 23 –3.0 × 10 24  m −2 , the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10 24  m −2 , and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ 1/2 relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  2. Plasma analysis of inductively coupled impulse sputtering of Cu, Ti and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, D. A. L.; Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    Inductively coupled impulse sputtering (ICIS) is a new development in the field of highly ionised pulsed PVD processes. For ICIS the plasma is generated by an internal inductive coil, replacing the need for a magnetron. To understand the plasma properties, measurements of the current and voltage waveforms at the cathode were conducted. The ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were measured by energy resolved MS and plasma chemistry was analysed by OES and then compared to a model. The target was operated in pulsed DC mode and the coil was energised by pulsed RF power, with a duty cycle of 7.5%. At a constant pressure (14 Pa) the set peak RF power was varied from 1000-4000 W. The DC voltage to the target was kept constant at 1900 V. OES measurements have shown a monotonic increase in intensity with increasing power. Excitation and ionisation processes were single step for ICIS of Ti and Ni and multi-step for Cu. The latter exhibited an unexpectedly steep rise in ionisation efficiency with power. The IEDFs measured by MS show the material- and time-dependant plasma potential in the range of 10-30 eV, ideal for increased surface mobility without inducing lattice defects. A lower intensity peak, of high energetic ions, is visible at 170 eV during the pulse.

  3. Sensitivity and stability of sputtered sandwich photocells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, H.; Piel, A.

    1979-01-01

    The physical parameters of sputtered Metal-Semiconductor-Metal photocells are described in view of solar energy conversion. Specific properties of sputtered films lead to a particular stability of physical parameters such as dark conduction, capacitance and dielectric losses. Interband transitions occur when the photon energy is larger than the bandgap of the photoconductor. The transport of photo-excited carriers in the built-in electric field involves the existence of a photovoltaic effect. The influence of sputtering on the specific properties of solar energy conversion is discussed. (author)

  4. In Situ and Ex Situ Studies of Molybdenum Thin Films Deposited by rf and dc Magnetron Sputtering as a Back Contact for CIGS Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aryal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum thin films were deposited by rf and dc magnetron sputtering and their properties analyzed with regards to their potential application as a back contact for CIGS solar cells. It is shown that both types of films tend to transition from tensile to compressive strain when the deposition pressure increases, while the conductivity and the grain size decreas. The nucleation of the films characterized by in situ and real time spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that both films follow a Volmer-Weber growth, with a higher surface roughness and lower deposition rate for the rf deposited films. The electronic relaxation time was then extracted as a function of bulk layer thickness for rf and dc films by fitting each dielectric function to a Drude free-electron model combined with a broad Lorentz oscillator. The values were fitted to a conical growth mode and demonstrated that the rf-deposited films have already smaller grains than the dc films when the bulk layer thickness is 30 nm.

  5. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2017-08-24

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  6. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas; Major, Syed S

    2017-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  7. Comprehensive study of the p-type conductivity formation in radio frequency magnetron sputtered arsenic-doped ZnO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Yang, B.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Wong, K. S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Xie, Z.; Ling, C. C. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 510119, D-01314, Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 510119, D-01314, Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 510119, D-01314, Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2011-05-15

    Arsenic doped ZnO and ZnMgO films were deposited on SiO{sub 2} using radio frequency magnetron sputtering and ZnO-Zn{sub 3}As{sub 2} and ZnO-Zn{sub 3}As{sub 2}-MgO targets, respectively. It was found that thermal activation is required to activate the formation of p-type conductivity. Hall measurements showed that p-type films with a hole concentration of {approx}10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of {approx}8 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} were obtained at substrate temperatures of 400-500 deg. C The shallow acceptor formation mechanism was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, positron annihilation, low temperature photoluminescence, and nuclear reaction analysis. The authors suggest that the thermal annealing activates the formation of the As{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} shallow acceptor complex and removes the compensating hydrogen center.

  8. Nmr and esr studies on a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H films prepared by glow discharge and magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.; Kumeda, M.; Morimoto, A.; Tsujimura, Y.; Kobayashi, I.

    1986-01-01

    Properties of a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H films prepared by magnetron sputtering (MG) and glow discharge decomposition (GD) were compared by means of NMR, ESR, IR and hydrogen-evolution measurements. For MG films, the content of dispersed H is roughly independent of x while the content of clustered H decreases with x. For GD films, both the contents of dispersed and clustered H decrease with x. ESR results reveal that most defects in the films are Ge dangling bonds and that the number of dangling bonds per Ge atom is roughly independent of x for MG films whereas it increases largely with x for GD films. The ratio of the intensity of the IR peak at 2100 cm/sup -1/ to that at 2000 cm/sup -1/ decreases and increases with x, respectively, for MG and GD films, and the ratio of the intensity of the low temperature H evolution peak to that of the high temperature H evolution peak decreases and increases with x, respectively for MG and GD films

  9. In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y.; Mueller, A.H.; Irene, E.A.; Auciello, O.; Krauss, A.; Schultz, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    (Ba 0.5 ,Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were deposited on MgO, Si, SiO 2 and Ir surfaces by ion beam sputter deposition in oxygen at 700 degree C. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to investigate the evolution of the BST films on different surfaces during both deposition and postannealing processes. First, the optical constants of the BST films in the photon energy range of 1.5 - 4.5 eV were determined by SE analysis on crystallized BST films deposited on MgO single crystal substrates. The interfaces in BST/Si and BST/SiO 2 /Si structure were examined by SE and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles. Subcutaneous oxidation in the BST/Ir structure was observed by in situ SE during both ion beam sputter deposition and postdeposition annealing in oxygen at 700 degree C. A study of the thermal stability of the Ir/TiN/SiO 2 /Si structure in oxygen at 700 degree C was carried out using in situ SE. The oxidation of Ir was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. The surface composition and morphology evolution after oxidation were investigated by time of flight mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (TOF-MSRI) and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that Ti from the underlying TiN barrier layer diffused through the Ir layer onto the surface and thereupon became oxidized. It was also shown that the surface roughness increases with increasing oxidation time. The implications of the instability of Ir/TiN/SiO 2 /Si structure on the performance of capacitor devices based on this substrate are discussed. It has been shown that a combination of in situ SE and TOF-MSRI provides a powerful methodology for in situ monitoring of complex oxide film growth and postannealing processes. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  10. Uncertainties combined in algae and water in chemical analysis in determinations with ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Poliana Santos de

    2014-01-01

    One way to determine if some trace elements in algae and water is through uncertainty calculations. Spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) is widely used in this procedure, because it allows the analysis in waters and areas of solid samples. Thus, some elements (Fe, Ca and Mg) were used to calculate the uncertainty. (author)

  11. The Kansas State University revolving sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    It has been that the perfect ion source is one which runs in a very stable mode, runs continuously, and has the ability to change ion species without sacrificing the previous two requirements. This paper presents an approximation to the perfect ion source, the KSU Revolving Sputter Source. The source consists of an Aarhus-geometry sputter source with the addition of a rotating wheel which holds eight sputter cathodes. The wheel consists of a front plate with eight fixed Macor insulators and a back plate with eight Macor insulators held in place by the tension of eight springs. The cathode assembly consists of a copper cartridge with a threaded rod on one end and a sputter cathode with a threaded hole on the back. The cathode is screwed onto the cartridge and the whole assembly may be loaded into the wheel. A small spring on the side of the cartridge holds the assembly in the wheel

  12. Electrical resistivity of sputtered molybdenum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, J.

    1980-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of r.f. sputtered molybdenum films of thickness 5-150 nm deposited on oxidized silicon substrates was resolved into the three electron scattering components: isotropic background scattering, scattering at grain boundaries and scattering at surfaces. It was concluded that the isotropic background scattering is almost equal to that of bulk molybdenum and is not influenced by sputtering and annealing conditions. When the film thickness is sufficient that surface scattering can be ignored, the decrease in film resistivity after annealing is caused by the decrease in scattering at the grain boundaries for zero bias sputtered films, and is caused by an increase of the grain diameter for r.f. bias sputtered films. (Auth.)

  13. Large Area Sputter Coating on Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yoshihito

    Large glass has been used for commercial buildings, housings and vehicles for many years. Glass size for flat displays is getting larger and larger. The glass for the 8th generation is more than 5 m2 in area. Demand of the large glass is increasing not only in these markets but also in a solar cell market growing drastically. Therefore, large area coating is demanded to plus something else on glass more than ever. Sputtering and pyrolysis are the major coating methods on large glass today. Sputtering process is particularly popular because it can deposit a wide variety of materials in good coating uniformity on the glass. This paper describes typical industrial sputtering system and recent progress in sputtering technology. It also shows typical coated glass products in architectural, automotive and display fields and comments on their functions, film stacks and so on.

  14. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds with the RF- magnetron sputter deposited hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudinova, E; Surmeneva, M; Surmenev, R; Koptioug, A; Scoglund, P

    2016-01-01

    Present paper reports on the results of surface modification of the additively manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was used to modify the surface of the alloy via deposition of the biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of the HA-coated alloy were studied. It was revealed that RF magnetron sputtering allows preparing a homogeneous HA coating onto the entire surface of scaffolds. (paper)

  15. Spatial distributions of Cu polycrystal sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abgaryan, V.K.; Semenov, A.A.; Shkarban, I.I.

    2004-01-01

    The results of the experimental determination of the Cu atoms spatial distribution, sputtered from the polycrystalline copper target, irradiated by the Xe + ions with the energy of 300 eV, are presented. The spatial distributions of the sputtered particles, calculated through the quasistable-dynamic model of the cascade modeling (CAMO) are presented also for the case of the polycrystalline copper irradiation by the Ar + and Xe + ions with the energy of 300-1000 eV [ru

  16. Sputtering of sodium on the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown here that ion sputtering cannot account for the observed neutral sodium vapor column density on Mercury, but that it is an important loss mechanism for Na. Photons are likely to be the dominant stimulus, both directly through photodesorption and indirectly through thermal desorption of absorbed Na. It is concluded that the atmosphere produced is characterized by the planet's surface temperature, with the ion-sputtered Na contributing to a lesser, but more extended, component of the atmosphere.

  17. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  18. DGMK/OeGEW Spring meeting of the exploration and production department. Proceedings; DGMK/OeGEW-Fruehjahrstagung des Fachbereiches Aufsuchung und Gewinnung. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Within the spring meeting 2013 of the exploration and production department of the German Society and Coal Science and Technology (DGMK, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Austrian Society of Petroleum Sciences (OeGEW, Vienna, Austria) at 18th and 19th April, 2013, in Celle (Federal Republic of Germany), lectures on the following themes were held: (1) Petroleum geology; (2) Environmental protection and occupational safety; (3) Drilling technology; (4) Petroleum and natural gas conveying technology; (5) Geophysics; (6) Underground storage technology; (7) Reservoir engineering. Additionally, posters were presented according to these themes.

  19. Comparison study of V-doped ZnO thin films on polycarbonate and quartz substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tomoya, E-mail: tomoya@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Chiba, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tomoyuki; Washio, Katsuyoshi

    2016-04-30

    Vanadium (V) doped ZnO (VZO) thin films were deposited on flexible polymer and quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and influences of deposition parameters of V concentration, RF power and growth temperature on resistivity, transmittance and crystallinity were investigated. For the polymer substrates, both a high heat-resistant polycarbonate (PC) film and a functional-layer-coated PC film were adopted. The resistivity decreased gradually but the transmittance was worsened with increasing V concentration. Low RF power and high growth temperature improved both transparency and conductivity. By over-coating of the functional layers, c-axis orientation was deteriorated while low-resistivity and high-transmittance characteristics were achieved. Resistivity and average visible-transmittance (wavelength = 450–800 nm) of VZO films on untreated PC and over-coated PC substrates were 0.98 mΩ cm and 83.7%, and 1.2 mΩ cm and 80.3%, respectively, at V concentration of 2 at.%, RF power of 100 W and growth temperature of 175 °C. VZO films on the polymer substrates had slightly high resistivity but nearly the same optical transmittance, compared to those on quartz, under the identical deposition parameters. These results indicate that good electrical and optical properties can be achieved for the VZO films on PC substrate. - Highlights: • V-doped ZnO (VZO) was deposited on polymer substrate. • Effects of V concentration, RF power and growth temperature were investigated. • Resistivity decreased gradually with increasing V concentration. • Low RF power was suitable to obtain low resistivity and high transmittance. • High growth temperature improved both transparency and conductivity.

  20. A study of TaxC1-x coatings deposited on biomedical 316L stainless steel by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.H.; Wang, B.L.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Ta x C 1-x coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures (T s ) in order to improve its corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility. XRD results indicated that T s could significantly change the microstructure of Ta x C 1-x coatings. When T s was x C 1-x coatings were in amorphous condition, whereas when T s was ≥150 deg. C, TaC phase was formed, exhibiting in the form of particulates with the crystallite sizes of about 15-25 nm (T s = 300 deg. C). Atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed that with the increase of T s , the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the Ta x C 1-x coatings decreased. The nano-indentation experiments indicated that the Ta x C 1-x coating deposited at 300 deg. C had a higher hardness and modulus. The scratch test results demonstrated that Ta x C 1-x coatings deposited above 150 deg. C exhibited good adhesion performance. Tribology tests results demonstrated that Ta x C 1-x coatings exhibited excellent wear resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was improved significantly because of the deposited Ta x C 1-x coatings. The platelet adhesion test results indicated that the Ta x C 1-x coatings deposited at T s of 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C possessed better hemocompatibility than the coating deposited at T s of 25 deg. C. Additionally, the hemocompatibility of the Ta x C 1-x coating on the 316L SS was found to be influenced by its surface roughness, hydrophilicity and the surface energy.

  1. Effect of sputtering on self-damaged ITER-grade tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsenya, V.S., E-mail: voitseny@ipp.kharkov.ua [Institute of Plasma Physics, National Scientific Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bardamid, A.F. [Taras Shevchenko National University, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Belyaeva, A.I. [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnical Institute”, 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Bondarenko, V.N.; Skoryk, O.O.; Shtan’, A.F.; Solodovchenko, S.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, National Scientific Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Sterligov, V.A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine); Tyburska-Püschel, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Simulation of neutron irradiation and sputtering on ITER-grade tungsten was studied. The effects of neutron-induced displacement damage have been simulated by irradiation of tungsten target with W{sup 6+} ions of 20 MeV energy. Bombardment by Ar{sup +} ions with energy 600 eV was used as imitation of impact of charge exchange atoms in ITER. The sputtering process was interrupted to perform in between measurements of the optical properties of the eroded surface and the mass loss. After sputtering was finished, the surface was thoroughly investigated by different methods for characterizing the surface relief developed due to sputtering. The damaging to, at least, the level that would be achieved in ITER does not lead to a decisive additional contribution to the processes under impact of charge exchange atoms only.

  2. Angular distributions of particles sputtered from polycrystalline platinum by low-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernysh, V.S.; Eckstein, W.; Haidarov, A.A.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of an experimental study and a computer simulation with the TRIM.SP code of the angular distributions of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline platinum under 3-9 keV Ne + bombardment at normal ion incidence are presented. It was found that angular distributions of sputtered atoms are overcosine and that their shape is practically independent of an ion energy. Comparison with the previously obtained data for He + and Ar + ions have shown that the shape of the angular distribution does not depend on the bombarding ion species. Good agreement between experimental results and computer simulation data was found. Computer simulations of the partial angular distributions of Pt atoms ejected due to various sputtering mechanisms for Ne ion bombardment were performed and the comparison with corresponding data for He and Ar bombarding was made. The role of different mechanisms in the formation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms has been analyzed

  3. High quality TmIG films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy grown by sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. N.; Tseng, C. C.; Yeh, S. L.; Lin, K. Y.; Cheng, C. K.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    Ferrimagnetic thulium iron garnet (TmIG) films grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates recently showed stress-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), attractive for realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) of topological insulator (TI) films via the proximity effect. Moreover, current induced magnetization switching of Pt/TmIG has been demonstrated for the development of room temperature (RT) spintronic devices. In this work, high quality TmIG films (about 25nm) were grown by sputtering at RT followed by post-annealing. We showed that the film composition is tunable by varying the growth parameters. The XRD results showed excellent crystallinity of stoichiometric TmIG films with an out-of-plane lattice constant of 1.2322nm, a narrow film rocking curve of 0.017 degree, and a film roughness of 0.2 nm. The stoichiometric films exhibited PMA and the saturation magnetization at RT was 109 emu/cm3 (RT bulk value 110 emu/cm3) with a coercive field of 2.7 Oe. In contrast, TmIG films of Fe deficiency showed in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The high quality sputtered TmIG films will be applied to heterostructures with TIs or metals with strong spin-orbit coupling for novel spintronics.

  4. Sputtering on cobalt with noble gas ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johansen, A.; Johnson, E.

    1983-01-01

    Single crystals of cobalt have been bombarded with 80 keV Ar + ions and with 80 keV and 200 keV Xe + ions in the [0001] direction of the hcp phase and the [111] direction of the fcc phase. The sputtering yield has been measured as function of target temperature (20 0 C-500 0 C), showing a reduction in sputtering yield for 80 keV Ar + ions and 200 keV Xe + ions, when the crystal structure changes from hcp to fcc. In contrast to this, bombardment with 80 keV Xe + ions results in an increase in sputtering yield as the phase transition is passed. Sputtering yields for [111] nickel are in agreement with the sputtering yields for fcc cobalt indicating normal behaviour of the fcc cobalt phase. The higher sputtering yield of [0001] cobalt for certain combinations of ion mass and energy may then be ascribed to disorder induced partly by martensitic phase transformation, partly by radiation damage. (orig.)

  5. Education in New Zealand. Bulletin, 1964, No. 34. OE-14105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrien, Marcia T.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin presents a study of the development of education in New Zealand. Chapter I, Historical Development of Education, covers the growth of education since 1877. Chapter II, Educational Administration and Finance provides details on the Act of 1877; the organization, functions and responsibilities of the Department of Education; and the…

  6. Evaluation of antifungal metabolites activity from bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against Colletotrichum gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Hafiz Husnain; Nelly Rajaofera, M J; He, Qiguang; Anam, Usmani; Lin, Chunhua; Miao, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    Anthracnose disease in the cotton plant caused by fungal pathogen Colletotrichum gossypii. It is supposed to be most critical diseases in the cotton crop as it causes infection and leads to complete damaging of the cotton crop by infecting the leaves, stems, and bolls in the field. The disease control is challenging due to the absence of an effective fungicide without damaging the farmer health and environment. So the series of experiments were designed to assess the antagonistic activity of biosurfactant released by strain Bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against the anthracnose causing agent in cotton and this strain was screened out from forty eight strain of rhizobacteria. We also estimated the heat stability and pH range and toxicity of biosurfactant produced by strain 0E-04. The results showed that biosurfactant has maximum antifungal activity against C. gossypii. In vitro study concluded that the biosurfactant can reduce fungal activity by inhibiting the spore germination of C. gossypii. Moreover, the biosurfactant also has wide pH and temperature range. We observed Antifungal activity of biosurfactant at 5 to 10 pH range and temperature range was also wide from room temperature to 100 °C. We also observed the toxicity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis against zebra fish (Danio rerio). We were noticed that biosurfactant have least harmful effect with maximum concentration. The study confirmed that biosurfactant of Bacillus licheniformis have high pH and heat stability range with least harmful effects so it can be a good replacement of chemical pesticides for cotton anthracnose control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of uranium dioxyde sputtering induced by multicharged heavy ions at low and very low kinetic energy: projectile charge effect; Etude de la pulverisation du dioxyde d'uranium induite par des ions lourds multicharges de basse et tres basse energie cinetique; effet de la charge du projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranger, F

    2003-12-01

    Ion beam irradiation of a solid can lead to the emission of neutral or ionized atoms, molecules or clusters from the surface. This comes as a result of the atomic motion in the vicinity of the surface, induced by the transfer of the projectile energy. Then, the study of the sputtering process appears as a means to get a better understanding of the excited matter state around the projectile trajectory. In the case of slow multicharged ions, a strong electronic excitation can be achieved by the projectile neutralization above the solid surface and / or its deexcitation below the surface. Parallel to this, the slowing down of such ions is essentially related to elastic collision with the target atoms. The study of the effect of the initial charge state of slow multicharged ions, in the sputtering process, has been carried out by measuring the absolute angular distributions of emission of uranium atoms from a uranium dioxide surface. The experiments have been performed in two steps. First, the emitted particles are collected onto a substrate during irradiation. Secondly, the surface of the collectors is analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). This method allows the characterization of the emission of neutrals, which are the vast majority of the sputtered particles. The results obtained provide an access to the evolution of the sputtering process as a function of xenon projectile ions charge state. The measurements have been performed over a wide kinetic energy range, from 81 down to 1.5 keV. This allowed a clear separation of the contribution of the kinetic energy and initial projectile charge state to the sputtering phenomenon. (author)

  8. Sputtering of copper (110) by 3 keV argon - a computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygandt, A.; King, B.V.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the angular distribution of atoms sputtered from {110} surface of a copper monocrystal due to normal incidence 3 keV Argon impact as well as to examine the change of sputtering behaviour with temperature from 0 K to 670 K. We have used the Molecular Dynamics (MD) code SPUT93 to study sputtering. In MD codes Newton's equations of motion are solved simultanously for all atoms of a crystal. The forces acting on a particle are found from derivatives of a model potential function. For the present study an embedded atom method (EAM) potential was used. It was found that the total sputter yield for the warm crystal (670K) of 3.13 ± 0.03 is in agreement with experimental results and indicate that the temperature of the target has generally no direct influence on the sputtering yield. It was estimated that heating the crystal only causes more uniform emission. It was also found that ejection due to the collisions between atoms in the top layers along closed-packed directions become important. The mechanisms which determine the angular distributions of atoms sputtered from a copper crystal were identified

  9. Classical dynamics simulation of the fluence dependence of sputtering properties for the 2 keV Cu → Cu(1 0 0) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolewski, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Classical dynamics simulations of sputtering have been carried out for 2 keV Cu projectiles incident on a Cu(1 0 0) crystallite target, in order to study the effects of projectile fluence on sputtering properties. Five projectiles are delivered into a 400 Ang 2 region of a Cu crystallite target at 5 ps intervals, giving a maximum fluence of 1.25 x 10 14 cm -2 in the primary impact zone. The altitudinal angle (φ) of the projectiles was 30 deg. (measured with respect to the surface), and the azimuthal (phi) direction of incidence was parallel to the surface atomic rows. The sputter yield is found not to depend sensitively on fluence. Over the fluence range investigated, the predicted standard deviation of the sputter yield is only 5% of the mean value of 11.7. Resputtered projectiles contribute less than 2% of the total sputter yield. With increasing fluence, the angular distribution of sputtered atoms tends to become less anisotropic. For example, the intensity modulations in the azimuthal angular distribution are reduced. This effect is due to the increasing contribution from atoms that are sputtered from defective structural environments. However, sputtered atom energy distributions and emission statistics show little dependence on fluence. The information depth of sputtered atoms increases rapidly with fluence, from 0.11 monolayers (ML) initially, to 1.2 ML after sputtering 0.25 ML from the primary impact zone

  10. The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the structure and optical properties of MgNiO films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wuze; Jiao, Shujie, E-mail: shujiejiao@gmail.com; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Li, Hongtao

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • MgNiO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • The structure and optical properties of MgNiO films were studied. • The mechanism of phase separation was discussed in detail. • The effect of different sputtering pressure also was discussed. - Abstract: In this study, MgNiO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influence of different sputtering pressures on the crystalline and optical properties of MgNiO thin films has been studied. X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that the MgNiO films are cubic structure with (200) preferred orientation. UV–vis transmission spectra show that all the MgNiO thin films show more than 75% transmission at visible region, and the absorption edges of all thin films locate at solar-blind region (220 nm–280 nm). The lattice constant and Mg content of MgNiO samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction and transmission spectra data. The phase separation is observed both in the X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission spectra, and the phase separation is studied in detail based on the crystal growth theory and sputtering process.

  11. DGEMP-OE (2008) Energy Baseline Scenario. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    the CAS scenarios relies primarily on 2000 data, despite the existence of sufficiently complete statistics through to 2005. The DGEMP on the other hand used a study by the BIPE (Office for Economic Information and Forecasting) provided by the SESP, the Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning's economic statistics and forecasting department. On the basis of the study's macro-economic projections of the French economy to 2020, the DGEMP was able to re-evaluate the prospects for activity in the industrial and tertiary sectors. In several respects (e.g. supply security, CO 2 emissions, energy efficiency), the baseline scenario proposed here is clearly not a scenario conducive to satisfying French energy policy objectives. This is not a surprising conclusion in that it implies the need to implement new policies and measures in addition to those already in place or approved. In particular, this scenario would lead to importing 66 billion cubic meters of gas (59 Mtoe) in 2020 and 78 billion cubic meters (70 Mtoe) in 2030, compared with the present 44 billion cubic meters. In addition to the resulting CO 2 emissions, the near doubling of gas imports would pose a twofold problem as to the geographic origin of the gas imported (under appropriate supply contracts) and the infrastructure (LNG terminals, gas pipelines) required to transport it. Finally, the baseline scenario is of course a long way from achieving the Community targets, whether for CO 2 emissions, projected to rise continually until 2020 and then even faster until 2030 (due to transport and electric power generation), or for the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. In that regard, the share of renewable energy in 'enlarged' final energy consumption, as it is described in the 'energy and climate change package', would grow to 13.4% in 2020 (versus 23% in the Commission's burden sharing proposal) and to 13.7% in 2030, compared with the 10.3% share observed in 2006

  12. Deuterium sputtering of Li and Li-O films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew; Buzi, Luxherta; Kaita, Robert; Koel, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    Lithium wall coatings have been shown to enhance the operational plasma performance of many fusion devices, including NSTX and other tokamaks, by reducing the global wall recycling coefficient. However, pure lithium surfaces are extremely difficult to maintain in experimental fusion devices due to both inevitable oxidation and codeposition from sputtering of hot plasma facing components. Sputtering of thin lithium and lithium oxide films on a molybdenum target by energetic deuterium ion bombardment was studied in laboratory experiments conducted in a surface science apparatus. A Colutron ion source was used to produce a monoenergetic, mass-selected ion beam. Measurements were made under ultrahigh vacuum conditions as a function of surface temperature (90-520 K) using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Results are compared with computer simulations conducted on a temperature-dependent data-calibrated (TRIM) model.

  13. Sputter deposition of BSCCO films from a hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanagan, M.T.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Doyle, K.; Kowalski, S.; Miller, D.; Gray, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    High-T c superconducting thin films were deposited onto MgO single crystal substrates from a hollow cathode onto ceramic targets with the nominal composition of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x . Films similar in composition to those used for the targets were deposited on MgO substrates by rf sputtering. The effects of sputtering time, rf power, and post-annealing on film microstructure and properties were studied in detail. Substrate temperature was found to have a significant influence on the film characteristics. Initial results show that deposition rates from a hollow cathode are an order of magnitude higher than those of a planar magnetron source at equivalent power levels. Large deposition rates allow for the coating of long lengths of wire

  14. Reactively sputtered TeOx optical recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, M.; Manno, D.; Micocci, G.; Rella, R.; Rizzo, A.; Tepore, A.

    1987-01-01

    Telluriom suboxide (TeO x ) thin films have been obtained by R.F. reactive sputtering deposition by using a Te target and an Ar-O 2 gas mixture. This technique of preparation has been shown to be a valid method because it is possible to easily obtain films with desired characteristics by an appropriate selection of the deposition conditions. Different samples were prepared by changing both the R.F. power (80-300 Watt) and the oxygen concentration in the sputtering gas. The films were analyzed in order to study their optical characteristics and the morphology before and after heat treatment. In particular, transmissivity and reflectivity have been found to change markedly by thermal treatment and critical temperatures in the range 120-150 grades centigrade. This property makes these films suitable for optical recording with a low output power laser diode

  15. Corrosion of thin, magnetron sputtered Nb_2O_5 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser; Geribola, Guilherme Altomari; Scheidt, Guilherme; Gonçalves de Araújo, Edval; Lopes de Oliveira, Mara Cristina; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Niobium oxide based films were obtained by DC magnetron sputtering. • Different deposition times were tested. • The best corrosion resistance was obtained for the Nb_2O_5 film produced at 15′. • Film porosity determines the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Niobium oxide based thin films were deposited on AISI 316 stainless steel substrates using reactive DC magnetron sputtering. Structure, composition and corrosion resistance of the niobium oxide films were studied. The corrosion behavior of the specimens was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The concentration of niobium and oxygen in the films was obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The corrosion resistance of the substrate was improved by the Nb_2O_5 layers. The best protective performance was achieved for the deposition time of 15 min.

  16. Biopolymer nanostructures induced by plasma irradiation and metal sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Juřík, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Malinský, P.; Macková, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, Prague 25068 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyně University, Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasálková, N. Slepičková; Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-01

    Modification based on polymer surface exposure to plasma treatment exhibits an easy and cheap technique for polymer surface nanostructuring. The influence of argon plasma treatment on biopolymer poly(L-lactide acid (PLLA) will be presented in this paper. The combination of Ar{sup +} ion irradiation, consequent sputter metallization (platinum) and thermal annealing of polymer surface will be summarized. The surface morphology was studied using atomic force microscopy. The Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used as analytical methods. The combination of plasma treatment with consequent thermal annealing and/or metal sputtering led to the change of surface morphology and its elemental ratio. The surface roughness and composition has been strongly influenced by the modification parameters and metal layer thickness. By plasma treatment of polymer surface combined with consequent annealing or metal deposition can be prepared materials applicable both in tissue engineering as cell carriers, but also in integrated circuit manufacturing.

  17. The effect of the molecular mass on the sputtering by electrosprayed nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrajo-Pelaez, Rafael; Gamero-Castaño, Manuel, E-mail: mgameroc@uci.edu

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • We study the effect of the molecular mass on nanodroplet sputtering of silicon. • The impact phenomenology is a strong function of the projectile’s molecular mass. • Nanodroplet sputtering intrinsically is a molecular scale phenomenon. - Abstract: Energetic bombardment of covalently bonded materials by electrosprayed nanodroplets causes sputtering and topographic changes on the surface of the target. This work investigates the influence of the projectile's molecular mass on these phenomena by sputtering single-crystal silicon wafers with a variety of liquids (molecular masses between 45.0 and 773.3 amu), and acceleration voltages. The electrosprays are characterized via time of flight to determine the charge to mass ratio of the nanodroplets which, together with the acceleration voltage, yield the impact velocity, the stagnation pressure, and the molecular kinetic energy of the projectile. The estimated range of droplet diameters is 20–79 nm, while the impact velocity, the stagnation pressure and the molecular kinetic energy range between 2.9–10 km/s, 4.7–63 GPa, and 2.1–98 eV. We find that the damage on the surface of the targets strongly depends on the molecular mass of the projectile: liquids with low molecular mass sputter significantly less and produce nanometric indentations and low surface roughness, the latter increasing moderately with stagnation pressure; in contrast, the roughness and sputtering caused by the impacts of droplets with larger molecular mass reach significantly higher values, and exhibit non-monotonic behaviors. The maximum sputtering yields for formamide, EAN, EMI-BF{sub 4}, EMI-Im, TES, and TPP are 0.20, 0.75, 1.20, 2.80, 4.00 and 2.90 silicon atoms per molecule in the projectile. These trends indicate that despite their rather large diameters, the sputtering by electrosprayed nanodroplets is intrinsically a molecular scale phenomenon.

  18. Sequential sputtered Co-HfO{sub 2} granular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M.; Ng, V.

    2017-03-15

    A systematic study of magnetic, magneto-transport and micro-structural properties of Co-HfO{sub 2} granular films fabricated by sequential sputtering is presented. We demonstrate reduction in ferromagnetic-oxide formation by using HfO{sub 2} as the insulting matrix. Microstructure evaluation of the films showed that the film structure consisted of discrete hcp-Co grains embedded in HfO{sub 2} matrix. Films with varying compositions were prepared and their macroscopic properties were studied. We correlate the variation in these properties to the variation in film microstructure. Our study shows that Co-HfO{sub 2} films with reduced cobalt oxide and varying properties can be prepared using sequential sputtering technique. - Highlights: • Co-HfO{sub 2} granular films were prepared using sequential sputtering. • A reduction in ferromagnetic-oxide formation is observed. • Co-HfO{sub 2} films display superparamagnetism and tunnelling magneto-resistance. • Varying macroscopic properties were achieved by changing film composition. • Applications can be found in moderate MR sensors and high –frequency RF devices.

  19. Ion beam sputtering of Ti: Influence of process parameters on angular and energy distribution of sputtered and backscattered particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautenschläger, T. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Feder, R., E-mail: thomas.lautenschlaeger@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Neumann, H. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Rice, C.; Schubert, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Bundesmann, C. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of process parameters. • Angular and energy distribution of secondary particles. • Interaction between incorporated and impinging process gas. • Measured data compared with simulations. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of ion energy and geometrical parameters onto the angular and energy distribution of secondary particles for sputtering a Ti target with Ar ions is investigated. The angular distribution of the particle flux of the sputtered Ti atoms was determined by the collection method, i.e. by growing Ti films and measuring their thickness. The formal description of the particle flux can be realized by dividing it into an isotropic and an anisotropic part. The experimental data show that increasing the ion energy or decreasing the ion incidence angle lead to an increase of the isotropic part, which is in good agreement with basic sputtering theory. The energy distribution of the secondary ions was measured using an energy-selective mass spectrometer. The energy distribution of the sputtered target ions shows a maximum at an energy between 10 eV and 20 eV followed by a decay proportional to E{sup −n}, which is in principle in accordance with Thompson’s theory, followed by a high energetic tail. When the sum of incidence angle and emission angle is increased, the high-energetic tail expands to higher energies and an additional peak due to direct sputtering events may occur. In the case of backscattered primary Ar ions, a maximum at an energy between 5 eV and 10 eV appears and, depending on the scattering geometry, an additional broad peak at a higher energy due to direct scattering events is observed. The center energy of the additional structure shifts systematically to higher energies with decreasing scattering angle or increasing ion energy. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on simple elastic two-particle-interaction theory and to

  20. Computer simulation of sputtering of graphite target in magnetron sputtering device with two zones of erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov R.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation program for discharge in a magnetron sputtering device with two erosion zones was developed. Basic laws of the graphite target sputtering process and transport of sputtered material to the substrate were taken into account in the Monte Carlo code. The results of computer simulation for radial distributions of density and energy flux of carbon atoms on the substrate (at different values of discharge current and pressure of the working gas confirmed the possibility of obtaining qualitative homogeneous films using this magnetron sputtering device. Also the discharge modes were determined for this magnetron sputtering device, in which it was possible to obtain such energy and density of carbon atoms fluxes, which were suitable for deposition of carbon films containing carbon nanotubes and other nanoparticles.

  1. A matrix effect and accuracy evaluation for the determination of elements in milk powder LIBS and laser ablation/ICP-OES spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilon, N; El-Haddad, J; Stankova, A; Lei, W; Ma, Q; Motto-Ros, V; Yu, J

    2011-11-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-OES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were investigated for the determination of Ca, Mg, Zn and Na in milk samples. The accuracy of both methods was evaluated by comparison of the concentration found using LA-ICP-OES and LIBS with classical wet digestion associated with ICP-OES determination. The results were not fully acceptable, with biases from less than 1% to more than 60%. Matrix effects were also investigated. The sample matrix can influence the temperature, electron number density (n (e)) and other excitation characteristics in the ICP. These ICP characteristics were studied and evaluated during ablation of eight milk samples. Differences in n (e) (from 8.9 to 13.8 × 10(14) cm(-3)) and rotational temperature (ranging from 3,400 to 4,400 K) occurred with no correlation with trueness. LIBS results obtained after classical external calibration procedure gave degraded accuracy, indicating a strong matrix effect. The LIBS measurements clearly showed that the major problem in LA-ICP was related to the ablation process and that LIBS spectroscopy is an excellent diagnostic tool for LA-ICP techniques.

  2. A simple, rapid and eco friendly method for determination of uranium in geological samples of low silicate matrix by ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuman, V.V.; Chakrapani, G.; Singh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, cost effective and eco friendly decomposition and dissolution method is developed for the determination of uranium (U 3 O 8 ) by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) in low silicate geological samples. The salts of Sodium di-hydrogen phosphate monohydrate and Sodium pyrophosphate deca hydrate are used in the ratio of 1:1 (phosphate flux) for the decomposition of low silicate matrix geological samples. Samples are decomposed by fusion with the phosphate flux after ignition and the dissolution is carried out using distilled water. If the samples contain >10% silica, they have been treated with little amount of (HF+HNO 3 ) prior to fusion with phosphate flux. These samples, are analysed by ICP-OES directly without any separation from the matrix. The spectral interferences of major matrix elements (Al, Ti, Fe, Mn, etc present in the sample) on uranium are studied and it is observed that their interferences are negligible, as dilution is required to bring uranium concentration into calibration range of instrument. This is the first time, the phosphate flux is used for decomposition of low silicate geological samples for uranium determination by ICP-OES

  3. Effect of argon ion sputtering of surface on hydrogen permeation through vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, Michio; Namba, Takashi; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Kanno, Masayoshi; Shida, Koji.

    1983-01-01

    In order to measure the hydrogen permeation rate through V with atomically cleaned surface, an Ar ion sputtering apparatus has been installed in the hydrogen permeability measuring system. The permeation rate of the initial specimen was found to be increased by about one order of magnitude after Ar ion sputtering of its upstream side surface. Repeating of such a sputter-cleaning was not so much effective in increasing the steady state permeation rate as the initial sputtering was, but it accelerated the transient response rate by a factor of 2 or 3. The transient response rate was also accelerated by the increase of hydrogen pressure, but this effect tended to be diminished by the sputter-cleaning of specimen surface. The surface impurity layer on the downstream side of specimen was also inferred to act as a diffusion barrier affecting the steady state permeation rate. The present value of activation energy for hydrogen permeation through V at temperatures below 873K was the smallest one ever obtained, showing that the surface effect was minimized in the present study on account of the surface sputter-cleaning in addition to the ultra high vacuum system. (author)

  4. Discharge Characteristic of VHF-DC Superimposed Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hirotaka; Fukuoka, Yushi; Fukui, Takashi; Takada, Noriharu; Sasai, Kensuke

    2014-10-01

    Magnetron plasmas are one of the most important tools for sputter deposition of thin films. However, energetic particles from the sputtered target such as backscattered rare gas atoms or oxygen negative ions from oxide targets sometimes induce physical and chemical damages as well as surface roughening to the deposited film surface during the sputtering processes. To suppress kinetic energy of such particles, superposition of RF or VHF power to the DC power has been investigated. In this study, influence of the VHF power superposition on the DC target voltage, which is important factor to determine kinetic energy of high energy particles, is investigated. In the study, 40 MHz VHF power was superimposed to an ITO target and decrease in the target DC voltage was measured as well as deposited film deposition properties such as deposition rate or electrical conductivity. From systematic measurement of the target voltage, it was revealed that the target voltage can be determined by a very simple parameter, i.e., a ratio of VHF power to the total input power (DC and VHF powers) in spite of the DC discharge current. Part of this work was supported by ASTEP, JST.

  5. Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wickersham, C E J; Fan, J S

    2002-01-01

    Arcing during sputter deposition and etching is a significant cause of particle defect generation during device fabrication. In this article we report on the effect of aluminum oxide inclusion size, shape, and orientation on the propensity for arcing during sputtering of aluminum targets. The size, shape, and orientation of a dielectric inclusion plays a major role in determining the propensity for arcing and macroparticle emission. In previous studies we found that there is a critical inclusion size required for arcing to occur. In this article we used high-speed videos, electric arc detection, and measurements of particle defect density on wafers to study the effect of Al sub 2 O sub 3 inclusion size, shape, and orientation on arc rate, intensity, and silicon wafer particle defect density. We found that the cross-sectional area of the inclusion exposed to the sputtering plasma is the critical parameter that determines the arc rate and rate of macroparticle emission. Analysis of the arc rate, particle defect...

  6. Megaspore competition in F1 and F2 hybrids between Oenothera hookeri and Oe. suaveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Śnieżko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Megasporogenesis and development of the embryo sac were investigated in F1 and F2 hybrids from crosses of Oe. hookeri and Oe. suaveolens. All hybrids form heteropolar and homopolar magaspore tetrads; the embryo sac, however, usually develops from the micropylar megaspore. Its development may occur immediately after degeneration of three other megaspores or after a period of competition between both apical megaspores. They develop simultaneously for a relatively short time, after which the growth of the chalazal megaspore is inhibited, although the latter does not degenerate. The micropylar megaspore as a rule develops without disturbances into the embryo sac, but in some ovules it is formed from the chalazal megaspore or double ones arise from both apical megaspores of the tetrad. The frequency of the micropylar embryo sac formation seems to be dependent above all on the hybrid plant genome and not on the haploid genome of the megaspore.

  7. Determination of five kinds of impurity elements such as titanium in uranium titanium alloy by ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yan; Hu Haihong

    2010-01-01

    New description is given of an ICP-OES method in which 5 impurities, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Al in U-Ti alloy can be determined simultaneously. Studying the dissolution of the sample preparation, separation condition of impurity elements; determining analysis of instrument line, detection limit and detection lower limit; eliminating the matrix effect of Ti and TiO 2 on the measurement of precipitation; standard addition method verify the method accuracy and precision. The results show: taking Uranium titanium alloys containing 0.1000 g sample, 5 kinds of elements Ti detection lower limits is 0.2-0.7 μg·g -1 , recovery were in the range of 98.8%-102.1%, and RSD'S found were less than 8%. The method of measurement proved is accurate and reliable. (authors)

  8. Binding energy effects in cascade evolution and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    The MARLOWE model was extended to include a binding energy dependent on the local crystalline order, so that atoms are bound less strongly to their lattice sites near surfaces or associated damage. Sputtering and cascade evolution were studied on the examples of self-ion irradiations of Cu and Au monocrystals. In cascades, the mean binding energy is reduced ∼8% in Cu with little dependence on the initial recoil energy; in Au, it is reduced ∼9% at 1 keV and ∼15% at 100 keV. In sputtering, the mean binding energy is reduced ∼8% in Cu and ∼15% in Au with little energy dependence; the yields are increased about half as much. Most sites from which sputtered atoms originate are isolated in both metals. Small clusters of such sites occur in Cu, but there are some large clusters in Au, especially in [111] targets. There are always more large clusters with damage-dependent binding than with a constant binding energy, but only a few clusters are compact enough to be regarded as pits

  9. The crystallization and properties of sputter deposited lithium niobite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Brooks Tellekamp, M.; Alan Doolittle, W., E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu

    2016-06-30

    Sputter deposition of the thin film memristor material, lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}) is performed by co-deposition from a lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and a niobium target. Crystalline films that are textured about the (101) orientation are produced under room temperature conditions. This material displays memristive hysteresis and exhibits XPS spectra similar to MBE and bulk grown LiNbO{sub 2}. Various deposition parameters were investigated resulting in variations in the deposition rate, film crystallinity, oxygen to niobium ratio, and mean niobium oxidation state. The results of this study allow for the routine production of large area LiNbO{sub 2} films at low substrate temperature useful in hybrid-integration of memristor, optical, and energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Room temperature sputter deposition of crystalline lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}) • Contrast with previous high temperature corrosive growth methods • Analysis of sputter deposition parameters on the chemical and physical properties of the deposited material.

  10. The crystallization and properties of sputter deposited lithium niobite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Brooks Tellekamp, M.; Alan Doolittle, W.

    2016-01-01

    Sputter deposition of the thin film memristor material, lithium niobite (LiNbO_2) is performed by co-deposition from a lithium oxide (Li_2O) and a niobium target. Crystalline films that are textured about the (101) orientation are produced under room temperature conditions. This material displays memristive hysteresis and exhibits XPS spectra similar to MBE and bulk grown LiNbO_2. Various deposition parameters were investigated resulting in variations in the deposition rate, film crystallinity, oxygen to niobium ratio, and mean niobium oxidation state. The results of this study allow for the routine production of large area LiNbO_2 films at low substrate temperature useful in hybrid-integration of memristor, optical, and energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Room temperature sputter deposition of crystalline lithium niobite (LiNbO_2) • Contrast with previous high temperature corrosive growth methods • Analysis of sputter deposition parameters on the chemical and physical properties of the deposited material

  11. Preparation and characterization of thick metastable sputter deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Dahlgren, S.D.; Merz, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    High-rate dc supported-discharge sputtering techniques were developed and used to prepare 0.1 mm to 5.0 mm-thick deposits of a variety of metastable materials including amorphous alloys representing more than 15 different rare-earth-transition metal systems and a wide range of compositions and deposition conditions. The ability to prepare thick, homogeneous deposits has made it possible for the first time to investigate the structure, properties, and annealing behavior of these unique sputtered alloys using neutron diffraction, ultrasonic, and other experimental techniques that are difficult or impractical for thin films. More importantly, these characterization studies show that the structure and properties of the massive sputter deposits are independent of thickness and can be reproduced from deposit to deposit. Other advantages and applications of this metastable materials preparation technique include the possibility of varying structure and properties by control of the deposition parameters and the ability to deposit even reactive alloys with a very low impurity content

  12. Trace element determination using static high-sensitivity inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SHIP-OES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Carsten; Scheffer, Andy; Nowak, Sascha; Vielhaber, Torsten; Buscher, Wolfgang

    2007-02-05

    A low-flow air-cooled inductively coupled plasma (ICP) design for optical emission spectrometry (OES) with axial plasma viewing is described and an evaluation of its analytical capabilities in trace element determinations is presented. Main advantage is a total argon consumption of 0.6 L min(-1) in contrast to 15 L min(-1) using conventional ICP sources. The torch was evaluated in trace element determinations and studied in direct comparison with a conventional torch under the same conditions with the same OES system, ultrasonic nebulization (USN) and single-element optimization. A variety of parameters (x-y-position of the torch, rf power, external air cooling, gas flow rates and USN operation parameters) was optimized to achieve limits of detection (LOD) which are competitive to those of a conventional plasma source. Ionic to atomic line intensity ratios for magnesium were studied at different radio frequency (rf) power conditions and different sample carrier gas flows to characterize the robustness of the excitation source. A linear dynamic range of three to five orders of magnitude was determined under compromise conditions in multi-element mode. The accuracy of the system was investigated by the determination of Co, Cr, Mn, Zn in two certified reference materials (CRM): CRM 075c (Copper with added impurities), and CRM 281 (Trace elements in rye grass). With standard addition values of 2.44+/-0.04 and 3.19+/-0.21 microg g(-1) for Co and Mn in the CRM 075c and 2.32+/-0.09, 81.8+/-0.4, 32.2+/-3.9 for Cr, Mn and Zn, respectively, were determined in the samples and found to be in good agreement with the reported values; recovery rates in the 98-108% range were obtained. No influence on the analysis by the matrix load in the sample was observed.

  13. Multielemental determination of trace elements in radiopharmaceuticals produced at the radiopharmacy center using ICP-OES technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Angelica T.; Martins, Patricia de A.; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.

    2013-01-01

    The control of chemical impurities in radiopharmaceuticals is critical to their safety and efficacy. According to the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), the elemental impurities with potential toxicity must be quantified. A proposed revision of USP 35 introduces the technique of atomic emission spectrometry for the analysis of elements. The aim of this work was to study the concentration of chemicals elements in FDG-Fluor-18, IPEN-TEC Generator and MIBI-TEC using an ICP-OES technique. One analytical curve composed by 27 elements (Ag, A1, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Pd, Se, Sr, Te, T1, Zn) was constructed in two analytical ranges. The analyses were carried out simultaneously in an ICP-OES Vista MPX (Agilent). Some parameters for analysis and method validation were evaluated. The cleaning and maintenance of equipment influenced the emission intensity of the elements. 1.2 power and 10s sample uptake resulted in a consumption of 1.6 mL of sample and Mg II/Mg I ratio relation equal to 9.40. Linearity, LOD and LOQ were determined. The analysis were performed using 1:40 dilution with purified water. The main elements studied in this work were A1, Cu and Zn. The % recovery was determined with final concentrations of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 μg mL -1 . The analyses were performed in triplicate with three different batches. The % recovery was between 96.65 and 117.61% and the values for precision (CV) were less than 5% indicating good accuracy of the method. (author)

  14. DGEMP-OE (2008) Energy Baseline Scenario. Synthesis report; Scenario energetique de reference DGEMP-OE(2008). Rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    ;reference' at national level. - Finally, the MEDEE energy demand model applied in the CAS scenarios relies primarily on 2000 data, despite the existence of sufficiently complete statistics through to 2005. The DGEMP on the other hand used a study by the BIPE (Office for Economic Information and Forecasting) provided by the SESP, the Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning's economic statistics and forecasting department. On the basis of the study's macro-economic projections of the French economy to 2020, the DGEMP was able to re-evaluate the prospects for activity in the industrial and tertiary sectors. In several respects (e.g. supply security, CO{sub 2} emissions, energy efficiency), the baseline scenario proposed here is clearly not a scenario conducive to satisfying French energy policy objectives. This is not a surprising conclusion in that it implies the need to implement new policies and measures in addition to those already in place or approved. In particular, this scenario would lead to importing 66 billion cubic meters of gas (59 Mtoe) in 2020 and 78 billion cubic meters (70 Mtoe) in 2030, compared with the present 44 billion cubic meters. In addition to the resulting CO{sub 2} emissions, the near doubling of gas imports would pose a twofold problem as to the geographic origin of the gas imported (under appropriate supply contracts) and the infrastructure (LNG terminals, gas pipelines) required to transport it. Finally, the baseline scenario is of course a long way from achieving the Community targets, whether for CO{sub 2} emissions, projected to rise continually until 2020 and then even faster until 2030 (due to transport and electric power generation), or for the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. In that regard, the share of renewable energy in 'enlarged' final energy consumption, as it is described in the 'energy and climate change package', would grow to 13.4% in 2020 (versus 23% in the

  15. Comparative study about Al-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by Pulsed Electron Deposition and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattini, F., E-mail: pattini@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Annoni, F.; Bissoli, F.; Bronzoni, M. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Garcia, J.P. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft Product and Process Design Institute, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Gilioli, E.; Rampino, S. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a comparison between Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells grown by Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering (RFMS) was performed. PED yielded polycrystalline [002] mono-oriented thin films with low electrical resistivity and high optical transparency with heater temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 250 °C. The electrical resistivity of these films can be tuned by varying the heater temperature, reaching a minimum value of 3.5 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm at 150 °C and an average transmittance over 90% in the visible range. An AZO film grown at RT was deposited by PED on an actual Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cell, resulting to an efficiency value of 15.2% on the best device. This result clearly shows that PED is a suitable technique for growing ZnO-based thin films for devices/applications where low deposition temperature is required. On the other hand, an optimized AZO thin film front contact for thin film solar cells was studied and fabricated via RFMS. The parameters of this technique were tweaked to obtain highly conductive and transparent AZO thin films. The lowest resistivity value of 3.7 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm and an average transmittance of 86% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range was obtained with a heater temperature of 250 °C. A thick sputtered AZO film was deposited at RT onto an identical cell used for PED-grown AZO, reaching the highest conversion efficiency value of 14.7%. In both cases, neither antireflection coatings nor pure ZnO layer was used. - Highlights: • Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) lets high quality films grow at low temperature. • Al:ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by PED present high optical and electrical quality. • AZO electrical resistivity can be tuned from 10{sup −4} to 10{sup −2} Ωcm in proper condition. • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based simplified solar cells achieved efficiency of 15.2% for PED-grown AZO.

  16. Power Production Analysis of the OE Buoy WEC for the CORES Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report describes the analysis performed on the OE Buoy for the CORES project by the wave energy group at Aalborg University, Denmark. OE Buoy is a type of Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converter as part of the CORES project. This type of device is one of the most developed...... to extract energy from the ocean (1). Typically, a Wells turbine is used for the Power Take Off (PTO) for OWCs. The Wells turbine has the advantage that it is self-rectifying – with the ability to operate with either direction of airflow, which changes during each cycle of the wave. This type of turbine...... which a total of 39 hours of power production data was collected. A data acquisition system was used to sample the sensors on board and the generator shaft power time-series data was used in the analysis here. A wave-rider buoy, located at the site of OE Buoy and operated by the Marine Institute Ireland...

  17. Sputtering properties of tungsten 'fuzzy' surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, D.; Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Yu, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtering yields of He-induced W 'fuzzy' surfaces bombarded by Ar have been measured in the linear divertor plasma simulator PISCES-B. It is found that the sputtering yield of a fuzzy surface, Y fuzzy , decreases with increasing fuzzy layer thickness, L, and saturates at ∼10% of that of a smooth surface, Y smooth , at L > 1 μm. The reduction in the sputtering yield is suspected to be due mainly to the porous structure of fuzz, since the ratio, Y fuzzy /Y smooth follows (1 - p fuzz ), where p fuzz is the fuzz porosity. Further, Y fuzzy /Y smooth is observed to increase with incident ion energy, E i . This may be explained by an energy dependent change in the angular distribution of sputtered W atoms, since at lower E i , the angular distribution is observed to become more butterfly-shaped. That is, a larger fraction of sputtered W atoms can line-of-sight deposit/stick onto neighboring fuzz nanostructures for lower E i butterfly distributions, resulting in lower ratio of Y fuzzy /Y smooth .

  18. Comparison study of transparent RF-sputtered ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers for near UV-OLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Mahdiyar Nouri; Manavizadeh, Negin; Abadi, Ehsan Mohammadi Nasr; Nadimi, Ebrahim; Boroumand, Farhad Akbari

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes have attracted much attention in the field of luminescent electronics due to the desired incorporation of high optoelectronic features of inorganic materials with the processability and variety of organic polymers. To generate and emit a near ultraviolet (N-UV) ray, wide band gap semiconductors can be applied in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering above the ITO electrode and poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) conjugated polymer is utilized as a complementary p-type semiconductor in OLED structure. The impact of ZnO and AZO thickness on the structural, electrical, optical and morphological properties of ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers are scrutinized and compared. Results show that with the enlargement of both ZnO and AZO film thickness, the physical properties are gradually improved resulting in the better quality of transparent conducting thin film. The average electrical resistivity of 8.4 × 10-4 and 1.1 × 10-3 Ω-cm, average sheet resistance of 32.9 and 42.3 Ω/sq, average transmittance of 88.3 and 87.3% and average FOM of 1.0 × 104 and 7.4 × 103 (Ω-cm)-1 are obtained for ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers, respectively. Moreover, comparing the results indicates that the strain and the stress within the ITO/AZO bilayer are decreased nearly 19% with respect to ITO/ZnO bilayer which yield higher quality of crystal. Consequently, the physical properties of ITO/AZO bilayer is found to be superior regarding ITO/ZnO bilayer. For fabricated UV-OLEDs, the turn-on voltages, the characteristic energy (Et) and the total concentration of traps (Nt) for the devices with the structures of ITO/ZnO/MEH-PPV/Al and ITO/AZO/MEH-PPV/Al are obtained 12 and 14 V, 0.108 and 0.191 eV, 9.33 × 1016 and 5.22 × 1016 cm-3, respectively. Furthermore, according to the electroluminescence

  19. Biopsy proportion of tumour predicts pathological tumour response and benefit from chemotherapy in resectable oesophageal carcinoma: results from the UK MRC OE02 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew D; Nankivell, Matthew; Hutchins, Gordon G; Stenning, Sally P; Langley, Ruth E; Mueller, Wolfram; West, Nicholas P; Wright, Alexander I; Treanor, Darren; Hewitt, Lindsay C; Allum, William H; Cunningham, David; Hayden, Jeremy D; Grabsch, Heike I

    2016-11-22

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for UK patients with locally advanced resectable oesophageal carcinoma (OeC). However, not all patients benefit from multimodal treatment and there is a clinical need for biomarkers which can identify chemotherapy responders. This study investigated whether the proportion of tumour cells per tumour area (PoT) measured in the pre-treatment biopsy predicts chemotherapy benefit for OeC patients. PoT was quantified using digitized haematoxylin/eosin stained pre-treatment biopsy slides from 281 OeC patients from the UK MRC OE02 trial (141 treated by surgery alone (S); 140 treated by 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin followed by surgery (CS)). The relationship between PoT and clinicopathological data including tumour regression grade (TRG), overall survival and treatment interaction was investigated. PoT was associated with chemotherapy benefit in a non-linear fashion (test for interaction, P=0.006). Only patients with a biopsy PoT between 40% and 70% received a significant survival benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=129; HR (95%CI):1.94 (1.39-2.71), unlike those with lower or higher PoT (PoT70% (N=28, HR:0.65 (0.36-1.18)). High pre-treatment PoT was related to lack of primary tumour regression (TRG 4 or 5), P=0.0402. This is the first study to identify in a representative subgroup of OeC patients from a large randomized phase III trial that the proportion of tumour in the pre-chemotherapy biopsy predicts benefit from chemotherapy and may be a clinically useful biomarker for patient treatment stratification.Proportion of tumour is a novel biomarker which can be measured in the pre-treatment diagnostic biopsy and which may enable the identification of chemotherapy responders and non-responders among patients with oesophageal carcinoma. Proportion of tumour could easily become part of the routine reporting of oesophageal cancer biopsies and may aid in managing patients with borderline resectable cancer.

  20. Improvement of the homogeneity of high mobility In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:H films by sputtering through a mesh electrode studied by Monte Carlo simulation and thin film analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherg-Kurmes, Harald; Hafez, Ahmad; Szyszka, Bernd [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Einsteinufer 25, 10587, Berlin (Germany); Siemers, Michael; Pflug, Andreas [Fraunhofer IST, Bienroder Weg 54E, 38108, Braunschweig (Germany); Schlatmann, Rutger [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, PVcomB, Schwarzschildstr. 3, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Rech, Bernd [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekulestrasse 5, 12489, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (IOH) is a transparent conductive oxide offering great potential to optoelectronic applications because of its high mobility of over 100 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1}s{sup -1}. In films deposited statically by RF magnetron sputtering, a small area directly opposing the target center with a higher resistivity and lower crystallinity than the rest of the film has been found via hall- and XRD-measurements, which we attribute to plasma damage. In order to investigate the distribution of particle energies during the sputtering process we have simulated the RF-sputtering deposition process of IOH by particle-in-cell Monte Carlo (PICMC) simulation. At the surface of ceramic sputtering targets, negatively charged oxygen ions are created. These ions are accelerated toward the substrate in the plasma sheath with energies up to 150 eV. They damage the growing film and reduce its crystallinity. The influence of a negatively biased mesh inside the sputtering chamber on particle energies and distributions has been simulated and investigated. We found that the mesh decreased the high-energetic oxygen ion density at the substrate, thus enabling a more homogeneous IOH film growth. The theoretical results have been verified by XRD X-ray diffractometry (XRD), 4-point probe, and hall measurements of statically deposited IOH films on glass. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Comparative study of structural and electro-optical properties of ZnO:Ga films grown by steered cathodic arc plasma evaporation and sputtering on plastic and their application on polymer-based organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chih-Hao, E-mail: dataman888@hotmail.com [R& D Division, Walsin Technology Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Yu-Jen [National Nano Device Laboratories, National Applied Research Laboratories, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    ). • Comparative study of the performance of GZO films grown by steered CAPE and sputtering • Films grown by CAPE show greater crystallite size and lower stacking fault density. • Films grown by steered CAPE show low resistivity and high transparency. • The performance of organic solar cells was improved by using CAPE-grown GZO electrodes.

  2. Development of an inductively coupled impulse sputtering source for coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Daniel Alexander Llewellyn

    In recent years, highly ionised pulsed plasma processes have had a great impact on improving the coating performance of various applications, such as for cutting tools and ITO coatings, allowing for a longer service life and improved defect densities. These improvements stem from the higher ionisation degree of the sputtered material in these processes and with this the possibility of controlling the flux of sputtered material, allowing the regulation of the hardness and density of coatings and the ability to sputter onto complex contoured substrates. The development of Inductively Coupled Impulse Sputtering (ICIS) is aimed at the potential of utilising the advantages of highly ionised plasma for the sputtering of ferromagnetic material. In traditional magnetron based sputter processes ferromagnetic materials would shunt the magnetic field of the magnetron, thus reducing the sputter yield and ionisation efficiency. By generating the plasma within a high power pulsed radio frequency (RF) driven coil in front of the cathode, it is possible to remove the need for a magnetron by applying a high voltage pulsed direct current to the cathode attracting argon ions from the plasma to initiate sputtering. This is the first time that ICIS technology has been deployed in a sputter coating system. To study the characteristics of ICIS, current and voltage waveforms have been measured to examine the effect of increasing RF-power. Plasma analysis has been conducted by optical emission spectroscopy to investigate the excitation mechanisms and the emission intensity. These are correlated to the set RF-power by modelling assumptions based on electron collisions. Mass spectroscopy is used to measure the plasma potential and ion energy distribution function. Pure copper, titanium and nickel coatings have been deposited on silicon with high aspect ratio via to measure the deposition rate and characterise the microstructure. For titanium and nickel the emission modelling results are in

  3. Quantitative sputter profiling at surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, J.; Etzkorn, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The key problem in quantitative sputter profiling, that of a sliding depth scale has been solved by combined Auger/X-ray microanalysis. By means of this technique and for the model system Ge/Si (amorphous) the following questions are treated quantitatively: shape of the sputter profiles when sputtering through an interface and origin of their asymmetry; precise location of the interface plane on the depth profile; broadening effects due to limited depth of information and their correction; origin and amount of bombardment induced broadening for different primary ions and energies; depth dependence of the broadening, and basic limits to depth resolution. Comparisons are made to recent theoretical calculations based on recoil mixing in the collision cascade and very good agreement is found

  4. Sputtering as a means of depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most common technique for determination of depth profiles by sputtering is that of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Many problems occur in the important step of converting the time (of sputtering) scale to a depth scale and these problems arise before the secondary ions are ejected. An attempt is made to present a comprehensive list of the effects that should be taken into consideration in the use of sputtering as a means of depth profiling. The various parameters liable to affect the depth profile measurements are listed in four sections: beam conditions; target conditions; experimental environment; and beam-target interactions. The effects are discussed and where interplay occurs, cross-reference is made and examples are provided where possible. (B.R.H.)

  5. Sputtering yield calculation for binary target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)

  6. Photonometers for coating and sputtering machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václavík J.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of photonometers (alternative name of optical monitor of a vacuum deposition process for coating and sputtering machines is based on photonometers produced by companies like SATIS or HV Dresden. Photometers were developed in the TOPTEC centre and its predecessor VOD (Optical Development Workshop of Institut of Plasma Physics AS CR for more than 10 years. The article describes current status of the technology and ideas which will be incorporated in next development steps. Hardware and software used on coating machines B63D, VNA600 and sputtering machine UPM810 is presented.

  7. Photonometers for coating and sputtering machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oupický, P.; Jareš, D.; Václavík, J.; Vápenka, D.

    2013-04-01

    The concept of photonometers (alternative name of optical monitor of a vacuum deposition process) for coating and sputtering machines is based on photonometers produced by companies like SATIS or HV Dresden. Photometers were developed in the TOPTEC centre and its predecessor VOD (Optical Development Workshop of Institut of Plasma Physics AS CR) for more than 10 years. The article describes current status of the technology and ideas which will be incorporated in next development steps. Hardware and software used on coating machines B63D, VNA600 and sputtering machine UPM810 is presented.

  8. Dependence of sputtering coefficient on ion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colligon, J.S.; Patel, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The sputtering coefficient of polycrystalline gold bombarded by 10-40 keV Ar + ions had been measured as a function of total ion dose and shown to exhibit oscillations in magnitude between 30 and 100%. Possible experimental errors which would give rise to such an oscillation have been considered, but it is apparent that these factors are unable to explain the measurements. It is proposed that a change in the Sublimation Energy associated with either bulk damage or formation of surface topographical features arising during ion bombardment may be responsible for the observed variations in sputtering coefficient. (author)

  9. Carbonaceous Particles Production in a Sputtering Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominique, Claire; Sant, Marco; Arnas, Cecile

    2005-01-01

    Spherical dust particles have been produced in argon glow discharge by sputtering of a graphite cathode. Their size varies from 40 to 200 nm depending on the distance between the two electrodes and the largest ones have a cauliflower shape. Simulations giving the evolution of the energy distribution of sputtered carbon atoms suggest a mechanism of growth by carbon vapour condensation. The chemical composition and structure of particles have been investigated by infrared spectroscopy and appear to be a complex arrangement of the carbon atoms and hetero-atoms

  10. Low resistivity of Ni–Al co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at low sputtering power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, JongWoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.R., E-mail: yescho@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ho-Hwan [Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants (GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    Ni–Al co-doped ZnO (NiAl:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering in Ar using a single ceramic, spark-plasma-sintered target with 2 wt% Al and 5 wt% Ni. The effects of the sputtering power and gas pressure on the NiAl:ZnO films were studied. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Hall effect measurements and UV–vis transmission spectroscopy. As the sputtering power and gas pressure increased, the crystallinity, electrical properties and optical band gap of the films were improved. The NiAl:ZnO film deposited at 40 W at 6.0 mTorr had the strongest (0 0 2) XRD peak and the lowest resistivity of approximately 2.19 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm with an optical transmittance of 90%.

  11. Investigations into the Anti-Felting Properties of Sputtered Wool Using Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghei, S. M.; Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Abdolahi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the effects of mordant and plasma sputtering treatments on the crystallinity and morphological properties of wool fabrics were investigated. The felting behavior of the treated samples was also studied. We used madder as a natural dye and copper sulfate as a metal mordant. We also used copper as the electrode material in a DC magnetron plasma sputtering device. The anti-felting properties of the wool samples before and after dying was studied, and it was shown that the shrink resistance and anti-felting behavior of the wool had been significantly improved by the plasma sputtering treatment. In addition, the percentage of crystallinity and the size of the crystals were investigated using an X-ray diffractometer, and a scanning electron microscope was used for morphological analysis. The amount of copper particles on the surface of the mordanted and sputtered fabrics was studied using the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) method, and the hydrophobic properties of the samples were examined using the water drop test. The results show that with plasma sputtering treatment, the hydrophobic properties of the surface of wool become super hydrophobic.

  12. KRYPTON INCORPORATION IN SPUTTERED SILICON FILMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GREUTER, MJW; NIESEN, L; HAKVOORT, RA; DEROODE, J; VANVEEN, A; BERNTSEN, AJM; SLOOF, WG

    1993-01-01

    The incorporation of Kr in sputtered a-Si films has been investigated in a systematic way by varying the Kr to Si flux, yielding Kr concentrations up to 5 at %. Compositions were determined with X-ray microanalysis. A model has been applied to describe the composition of the growing film. The layers

  13. Lithium insertion in sputtered vanadium oxide film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, K.; Zachau-Christiansen, B.; Skaarup, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    were oxygen deficient compared to V2O5. Films prepared in pure argon were reduced to V(4) or lower. The vanadium oxide films were tested in solid-state lithium cells. Films sputtered in oxygen showed electrochemical properties similar to crystalline V2O5. The main differences are a decreased capacity...

  14. DGMK/OeGEW spring meeting of the exploration and production department. Proceedings; DGMK/OeGEW-Fruehjahrstagung des Fachbereichs Aufsuchung und Gewinnung. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the spring meeting 2009 of the exploration and production department of the German Society and Coal Science and Technology (DGMK, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Austrian Society of Petroleum Sciences (OeGEW, Vienna, Austria) at 27th and 28th April, 2009, in Celle (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Natural gas for Europe - Where does it come from, and how safe is it?; (2) Fluid dynamics in salt-encased carbonates; (3) Predicting petroleum fluid quality and quantity by using the PhaseKinetic approach for a basin modelling study in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, offshore Newfoundland, Canada; (4) Models of geomechanical reservoirs for the prognosis of tectonic stresses and crack grids - concept and case study from the Sirte Basin / Libya; (5) A depositional model and sequence stratigraphic correlation for Ordovician glacial deposits, Illizi Basin, Algeria; (6) Palynology of the upper Silurian to Middle Devonian of wells from the Reggane Basin, southern Algeria; (7) Evaluation of heterogeneities in petroleum deposits by mans of asphaltene; (8) Experiments to reactions of n-alkanes with hematite in clastic reservoir rocks; (9) Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen Formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan); (10) Mud Volcanoes of Azerbaijan - Organic chemistry of ejected sediments; (11) Seismoelectric signatures for the determination of depositional parameters; (12) A workflow for the processing and imaging of Reflexion seismic data with CRS attributes; (13) Detection of altitude variations during production of natural gas or petroleum in the area of the San Jorge Basin by means of satellite radar interferometry; (14) (S)PWD - Development of a high resolution system for seismic exploratory work in the deep drilling; (15) Development of a discontinuum mechanics based computer algorithm in the FDM program FLAC3D for Frac dispersion in tigt gas reservoirs; (16) A fresh

  15. Pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetron sputtering has become one of the commonly used techniques for industrial deposition of thin films and coatings due to its simplicity and reliability. At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure of ∼0.5 Pa) inert gas particles (necessary to sustain discharge) are often entrapped in the deposited films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated during the self-sustained magnetron sputtering (SSS) process, where the presence of the inert gas is not a necessary requirement. Moreover the SSS process that is possible due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered material also gives a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. So far it has been shown that the self-sustained mode of magnetron operation can be obtained using dc powering (dc-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of the dc-SSS process is its instability related to random arc formation. In such case the discharge has to be temporarily extinguished to prevent damaging both the magnetron source and power supply. The authors postulate that pulsed powering could protect the SSS process against arcs, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron deposition processes of insulating thin films. To put this concept into practice, (i) the high enough plasma density has to be achieved and (ii) the type of pulsed powering has to be chosen taking plasma dynamics into account. In this article results of pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed dc-SSS) are presented. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was used during the experiments. The maximum target power was about 11 kW, which corresponded to the target power density of ∼560 W/cm 2 . The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulse frequency (20-100 kHz) and pulse duty factor (50%-90%). The discharge (argon) extinction pressure level was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410 nm range) and deposition

  16. ICP OES Determination of Contaminant Elements Leached from Food Packaging Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder José dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determination of potential contaminants elements in food packing films arising from contact with acidic aqueous foods was undertaken by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES in accordance with DIN EN 1186-1. Test sections from plastic films were totally immersed in 3% w/v CH3COOH used as the food simulant. Testing was conducted under three conditions: (1 10 days at 40 ºC; (2 30 min at 70 ºC and 10 days at 40 ºC; and (3 30 min at 100 ºC and 10 days at 40 ºC. These time and temperature conditions were considered to be the most severe situations likely to be encountered in practice. Several different containers were investigated, including a borosilicate glass beaker, a glass bottle used for food canning, as well as one of polystyrene. The glass bottle was selected for testing treatments according to procedure (3 and a polystyrene one was chosen for use with procedures (1 and (2. Limits of quantitation were adequate for the determination of Ag, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn by solution nebulization ICP OES and As by chemical vapor generation (CVG-ICP OES. Results for the analysis of AccuStandard certified reference materials as well as spike recoveries show good agreement with expected concentrations, demonstrating the accuracy and precision of the determinations. Eleven samples of food packing material were analyzed. The lead was present in the range 4.8 - 85.3 µg L-1 in 10 of 11 evaluated packing material, showing the importance of quality control measures.

  17. Multi-element determinations of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) coal slurries using ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mujuru; R.I. McCrindle; B.M. Botha; P.P. Ndibewu [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Department of Chemistry

    2009-04-15

    A slurry nebulisation technique was applied for elemental analysis of bituminous coals SARM 18, SARM 19 and four coals from three different seams in Witbank, South Africa, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, S, Si and Ti) and trace elements (Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and Zr) in coal were determined. Various slurry preparations were evaluated using two dispersants (glycerol and Triton X-100) and by varying the concentration of dispersants, between 0.1% and 1.0% (v/v). The effect of initially solubilising the ground coal in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was investigated by varying the volume of DMF added. The effect of wet grinding with DMF was investigated. Wet grinding with DMF was shown to drastically reduce particle sizes (50.0% < 0.28 m and 90.0% < 6.17 {mu}m) as compared to dry grinding (50.0% < 5.25 {mu}m and 90.0% < 11.1 {mu}m). The reduced particle sizes and increased transport efficiency of the coal slurries led to improved analytical recoveries of elements in the reference coal, SARM 18. The best analytical recoveries for all elements were achieved using 0.1% Triton X-100 with 10.0% DMF. Results obtained by ICP-OES after wet grinding of the coal with DMF, using 0.1% Triton X-100, also gave excellent recoveries (Al, 100%; Ca, 103%; Cr, 106%; Fe, 102%; Mg, 100%; Mn, 104%; Ni, 109%; Si, 102%; Ti, 95.0%; and V, 108%). The results obtained with 10.0% DMF and 0.1% Triton X-100 were in agreement with certified values for all selected elements according to paired t-test at the 95.0% confidence level. Selected elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and V) were also analysed with X-ray fluorescence for comparison with results obtained from ICP-OES. Analysis by ICP-OES of microwave digested coal was also carried out. It is suggested that the DMF slurry technique could be used for routine analysis of bituminous coals. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Studies on ceramic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaklader, A.C.D.; Roemer, G.; Hardy, W.N.; Brewer, J.H.; Carolan, J.F.; Parsons, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The superconducting properties of both bulk specimens and sputtered thin films of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x compound have been studied. The bulk specimens were fabricated by cold pressing and sintering, and also by hot-pressing (subsequent reheating). The dc resistivity measurements showed a sharp drop in the temperature range 92-87K in this material. Muon spin relaxation (μSR) measurements of sintered discs in 3.4 kOe revealed the formation of a mixed state with an effective magnetic penetration depth λ ∼ 1365 angstrom at 6K, implying an effective charge carrier density of 6 x 10 21 cm -3 . The temperature dependence λ(T) is that of an ordinary s-wave superconductor. The resistivity of the thin film prepared from the compound by dc planar magnetron sputtering, showed a sharp drop to a very low value near 80K. The compound YBa 2 Cu 3 O x loses its superconducting properties, when either hot-pressed (in air) or oxidized at 500 degree C in high O 2 pressure, but this property can be restored when reheated in one atmosphere of O 2 above 900 degree C

  19. Observing Planets and Small Bodies in Sputtered High Energy Atom (SHEA) Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Baragiola, R.; Fama, M.; Johnson, R.; Mura, A.; Plainaki, Ch.; Sarantos, M.; Cassidy, T. A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper speculates on the possibility of performing remote sensing of exposed bodies using SHEA The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper

  20. Magnetic properties of permalloy films with different thicknesses deposited onto obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Sun, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of obliquely sputtered Cu underlayer of 10 nm on the magnetic properties of normally sputtered Permalloy thin films with different thicknesses from 10 nm to 150 nm has been investigated. It has been found that the samples with the Permalloy layer thickness ranging from 10 nm to 70 nm exhibit a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the increase of the film thickness leads to a decrease of the anisotropy field and the natural resonance frequency. The critical Permalloy layer thickness for stripe domain initiation of these films is about 80 nm, which is thinner than that of obliquely sputtered Permalloy thin films without an underlayer. The characteristic shapes of hysteresis loops which can be called ''transcritical'' are observed above the critical thickness. The condition and mechanism of appearing stripe domain structure were discussed and it has been found that the frequency response of permeability of the anisotropic films shows the characteristics of multi-peak resonance. - Highlights: • Py films were fabricated on obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers by RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of Py layer thickness on anisotropy, ferromagnetic resonance frequency have been studied. • Samples with Py layer (<70 nm) show a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. • Samples with Py layer (>80 nm) show stripe domains and multi-peaks in permeability spectra

  1. Angular distribution of sputtered atoms from Al-Sn alloy and surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenxia; Pan Jisheng; Zhang Jiping; Tao Zhenlan

    1992-01-01

    If an alloy is sputtered the angular distribution of the sputtered atoms can be different for each component. At high ion energies in the range of linear cascade theory, different energy distributions for components of different mass in the solid are predicted. Upon leaving the surface, i.e. overcoming the surface binding energy, these differences should show up in different angular distributions. Differences in the angular distribution are of much practical interest, for example, in thin-film deposition by sputtering and surface analysis by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Recently our experimental work has shown that for Fe-W alloy the surface microtopography becomes dominant and determines the shape of the angular distribution of the component. However, with the few experimental results available so far it is too early to draw any general conclusions for the angular distribution of the sputtered constituents. Thus, the aim of this work was to study further the influence of the surface topography on the shape of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms from an Al-Sn alloy. (Author)

  2. Dependence of energy per molecule on sputtering yields with reactive gas cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Gas cluster ions show dense energy deposition on a target surface, which result in the enhancement of chemical reactions. In reactive sputtering with gas cluster ions, the energy per atom or molecule plays an important role. In this study, the average cluster size (N, the number of atoms or molecules in a cluster ion) was controlled; thereby the dependences of the energy per molecule on the sputtering yields of carbon by CO 2 cluster ions and that of Si by SF 6 /Ar mixed gas cluster ions were investigated. Large CO 2 cluster ions with energy per molecule of 1 eV showed high reactive sputtering yield of an amorphous carbon film. However, these ions did not cause the formation of large craters on a graphite surface. It is possible to achieve very low damage etching by controlling the energy per molecule of reactive cluster ions. Further, in the case of SF 6 /Ar mixed cluster ions, it was found that reactive sputtering was enhanced when a small amount of SF 6 gas (∼10%) was mixed with Ar. The reactive sputtering yield of Si by one SF 6 molecule linearly increased with the energy per molecule.

  3. Krypton-85 storage in sputter-deposited amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; McClanahan, E.D.; Lytle, J.M.; Gordon, N.R.; Knoll, R.W.

    1982-06-01

    After comparing options for storing radioactive krypton gas, the United States Department of Energy selected ion implantation of the gas into a sputter-deposited metal matrix as the reference process. This technique is being developed with pilot-scale testing and further characterization of the deposited product. The process involves implanting krypton atoms into a growing deposit during the sputtering process. An amorphous metal deposit of nominal composition Ni 0 81 La 0 09 Kr 0 10 has been selected for further studies because of the high krypton loading, high sputtering yield, relatively low cost of the metallic components, resistance to corrosion, and stability of the product. The krypton release from this amorphous metal is described as an activated diffusion process which increases linearly with the square root of time. Studies of krypton release rate as a function of temperature were completed and an activation energy for the diffusion of 70 kcal/mole obtained. From these data, we estimated that the krypton release during the first ten years would be 0.5% for a maximum temperature of 350 0 C. The actual release of the krypton during storage was projected to be lower by a factor of 10 7 with the maximum temperature only 220 0 C. Thermal analysis studies show two energy releases occurring with krypton-containing alloys: one associated with recrystallization of the amorphous alloy and a second associated with krypton release. The total energy release between 100 and 800 0 C was less than 50 cal/g. Estimates are given for the cost of operation of the ion implantation process for solidification of the krypton-85 from a 2000-tonne heavy metal/year reprocessing plant. The present value costs, in 1981 dollars including capital and operating costs and assuming a 30-year life, are about $26M for the lifetime of the plant. Annual energy consumption of the process was estimated to be 3.9 M kWh/year

  4. Pattern evolution during ion beam sputtering; reductionistic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.-H.; Kim, J.-S., E-mail: jskim@sm.ac.kr

    2016-09-15

    The development of the ripple pattern during the ion beam sputtering (IBS) is expounded via the evolution of its constituent ripples. For that purpose, we perform numerical simulation of the ripple evolution that is based on Bradley–Harper model and its non-linear extension. The ripples are found to evolve via various well-defined processes such as ripening, averaging, bifurcation and their combinations, depending on their neighboring ripples. Those information on the growth kinetics of each ripple allow the detailed description of the pattern development in real space that the instability argument and the diffraction study both made in k-space cannot provide.

  5. Surface roughness of sputtered ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd. Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsu, K C [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y M [Institute of Electronics Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, 1 Nan-Tai Street, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-01

    ZnO films are grown on Si and glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the roughness characteristics of the films are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). All films exhibit strong (002) preferential orientation. The influence of the RF power and target-to-substrate distance (D{sub ts}) on the properties of ZnO is studied. Under the optimized conditions of the RF power and D{sub ts}, root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughnesses of <0.8 nm are achieved.

  6. Surface roughness of sputtered ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y S; Hsu, K C; Huang, Y M

    2006-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on Si and glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the roughness characteristics of the films are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). All films exhibit strong (002) preferential orientation. The influence of the RF power and target-to-substrate distance (D ts ) on the properties of ZnO is studied. Under the optimized conditions of the RF power and D ts , root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughnesses of <0.8 nm are achieved

  7. Analysis of the elements sputtered during the lanthanum implantation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ager, F.J.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Silva, M.F. da; Redondo, L.M.; Soares, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence of the modification of the surface structure of the AISI-304 stainless steel during the implantation of lanthanum makes the analysis of the sputtered elements very interesting. Those sputtered elements are deposited on a carbon sheet placed in front of the steel being implanted, and studied by means of RBS and PIXE, together with the implanted specimens. Besides, the protective effect of the implanted ions during the high temperature oxidation is also studied by those techniques together with XRD and thermogravimetric methods. (orig.)

  8. Comparision of ICP-OES and MP-AES in determing soil nutrients by Mechlich3 method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Penu, Priit; Krebstein, Kadri; Rodima, Ako; Kolli, Raimo; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    flammable (C2H2) gases, cylinder handling and the running costs of equipment are low. Detection limits of elements for MP-AES lays between the AAS and ICP ones. The objective of this study was to compare the results of soil analysis using two multielemental analytical methods - ICP-OES and MP-AES. In the experiment, different soil types with various texture, content of organic matter and pH were used. For the study soil samples of Albeluvisols, Leptosols, Cambisols, Regosols and Histosols were used . The plant available nutrients were estimated by Mehlich 3 extraction. The ICP-OES analysis were provided in the Estonian Agricultural Research Centre and MP-AES analysis in department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry at Estonian University of Life Sciences. The detection limits and limits of quantification of Ca, K, Mg and P in extracts are calculated and reported.

  9. Quantitative characterization of silicon- and aluminium oxynitride films produced by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreer, S.

    2000-05-01

    The deposition of aluminum and silicon oxynitride films by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering was systematically planned by design of experiments, carried out and evaluated with the application of specialized statistics software. The influence of the deposition parameters on the resulting films was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. With the obtained data a model of the deposition process for the quantitative prediction of the deposition parameters necessary to obtain films with desired composition was built. This is also of technological importance, since the physical properties of the films strongly depend on their composition. Furthermore, the long term repeatability of the deposition process was implemented into the model. A precise and economic way for quantitative bulk analysis of silicon/aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen based on EPMA was presented and the use of data gained by the latter method is discussed for the calculation of relative sensitivity factors for SIMS and hf-SNMS. Advantages and disadvantages of SIMS, hf-SNMS, hf-GD-OES, and sputter AES were compared. The combination FT-IR/EPMA/SIMS at present offers the best possibility for a quantitative bulk and in depth distribution analysis of such films in the range of 20 to 1000 nm thickness. The films were also characterized by XRD and PAA. The refractive index and the growth rate of the films were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. With indentation by a nano hardness tester the hardness and the Young's modulus of the films were obtained. The results of these measurements were evaluated by statistical software. The dependencies of the physical properties on the deposition parameters and on the film thickness were evaluated and quantified. Furthermore, the dependencies of the physical properties on the film composition represented by the oxygen content were evaluated. (author)

  10. Determination of electron density and temperature in a capacitively coupled RF discharge in neon by OES complemented with a CR model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, Z; Dvorak, P; Trunec, D [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Brzobohaty, O, E-mail: zdenek@physics.muni.c [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-12-22

    A method of determination of electron temperature and electron density in plasmas based on optical emission spectroscopy complemented with collisional-radiative modelling (OES/CRM) was studied in this work. A radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) capacitively coupled discharge in neon at 10 Pa was investigated by intensity calibrated optical emission spectroscopy. The absolute intensities of neon transitions between 3p and 3s states were fitted with a collisional-radiative (CR) model in order to determine the electron temperature and electron density. Measuring techniques such as imaging with an ICCD camera were adopted for supplementary diagnostics. The obtained results were compared with the results of compensated Langmuir probe measurement and one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) simulation. The results of OES/CRM and PIC/MC method were in close agreement in the case of electron temperature in the vicinity of a driven electrode. The determined value of electron temperature was about 8 eV. In bulk plasma, the measured spectra were not satisfactorily fitted. In the case of electron density only relative agreement was obtained between OES/CRM and Langmuir probe measurement; the absolute values differed by a factor of 5. The axial dependence of electron density calculated by PIC/MC was distinct from them, reaching the maximum values between the results of the other two methods. The investigation of power dependence of plasma parameters close to the driven electrode showed a decrease in electron temperature and an increase in electron density together with increasing incoming RF power. The calculated spectra fitted very well the measured spectra in this discharge region.

  11. Evolution of sputtered tungsten coatings at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan; Senkevich, Jay J. [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tucker, Charles; Ives, Thomas; Shrader, Ronney [Materion Corporation, Buellton, California 93427 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Sputtered tungsten (W) coatings were investigated as potential high temperature nanophotonic material to replace bulk refractory metal substrates. Of particular interest are materials and coatings for thermophotovoltaic high-temperature energy conversion applications. For such applications, high reflectance of the substrate in the infrared wavelength range is critical in order to reduce losses due to waste heat. Therefore, the reflectance of the sputtered W coatings was characterized and compared at different temperatures. In addition, the microstructural evolution of sputtered W coatings (1 and 5 μm thick) was investigated as a function of anneal temperature from room temperature to 1000 °C. Using in situ x-ray diffraction analysis, the microstrain in the two samples was quantified, ranging from 0.33% to 0.18% for the 1 μm sample and 0.26% to 0.20% for the 5 μm sample, decreasing as the temperature increased. The grain growth could not be as clearly quantified due to the dominating presence of microstrain in both samples but was in the order of 20 to 80 nm for the 1 μm sample and 50 to 100 nm for the 5 μm sample, as deposited. Finally, the 5 μm thick layer was found to be rougher than the 1 μm thick layer, with a lower reflectance at all wavelengths. However, after annealing the 5 μm sample at 900 °C for 1 h, its reflectance exceeded that of the 1 μm sample and approached that of bulk W found in literature. Overall, the results of this study suggest that thick coatings are a promising alternative to bulk substrates as a low cost, easily integrated platform for nanostructured devices for high-temperature applications, if the problem of delamination at high temperature can be overcome.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of FC Films Coated on PET Substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mei-lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorocarbon (FC films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET plates and PET fabrics respectively by a radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE as a target. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the morphology, structure and composition of the obtained FC films. The hydrophobicity and uvioresistant properties of the FC film coated fabric were studied. The results show that the FC films were successfully deposited on the PET substrates by a RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films are made up of four components -CF3, -CF2-, CF- and -C-. The proportions of the four components and surface morphologies of the deposited films vary with the sputtering conditions. Compared with the original fabric samples, the hydrophobicity of the FC film coated fabrics is quite good and improved significantly.

  13. Heat treatable indium tin oxide films deposited with high power pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, F.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by high power pulse magnetron sputtering [D. J. Christie, F. Tomasel, W. D. Sproul, D. C. Carter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (2004) 1415. ] without substrate heating. The ITO films were deposited from a ceramic target at a deposition rate of approx. 5.5 nm*m/min kW. Afterwards, the ITO films were covered with a siliconoxynitride film sputtered from a silicon alloy target in order to prevent oxidation of the ITO film during annealing at 650 deg. C for 10 min in air. The optical and electrical properties as well as the texture and morphology of these films were investigated before and after annealing. Mechanical durability of the annealed films was evaluated at different test conditions. The results were compared with state-of-the art ITO films which were obtained at optimized direct current magnetron sputtering conditions

  14. Sputtering of solid nitrogen and oxygen by keV hydrogen ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, O.; Schou, Jørgen; Stenum, B.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic sputtering of solid nitrogen and oxygen by keV hydrogen ions has been studied at two low-temperature setups. The yield of the sputtered particles has been determined in the energy regime 4-10 keV for H+, H-2+ and H-3+ ions. The yield for oxygen is more than a factor of two larger than...... that for nitrogen. The energy distributions of the sputtered N2 and O2 molecules were measured for hydrogen ions in this energy regime as well. The yields from both solids turn out to depend on the sum of the stopping power of all atoms in the ion. The yield increases as a quadratic function of the stopping power...

  15. Tuning the optoelectronic properties of amorphous MoOx films by reactive sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Fabrim, Zacarias Eduardo; Ahmadpour, Mehrad

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we report on the effect of oxygen partial pressure and sputtering power on amorphous DC-sputtered MoOx films. We observe abrupt changes in the optoelectronic properties of the reported films by increasing the oxygen partial pressure from 1.00 ? 10?3 mbar to 1.37 ? 10?3 mbar during...... significantly the microstructure of the studied films. The presence of states within the band gap due to the lack of oxygen is the most probable mechanism for generat- ing a change in electrical conductivity as well as optical absorption in DC-sputtered MoOx. The large tuning range of the optoelectronic...... properties in these films holds strong promise for their implementation in optoelectronic devices....

  16. Measured signatures of low energy, physical sputtering in the line shape of neutral carbon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)]. E-mail: brooks@fusion.gat.com; Isler, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Whyte, D.G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Heidbrink, W.W. [University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Jackson, G.L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); West, W.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The most important mechanisms for introducing carbon into the DIII-D divertors [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 (2002) 614] are physical and chemical sputtering. Previous investigations have indicated that operating conditions where one or the other of these is dominant can be distinguished by using CD and C{sub 2} emissions to infer C I influxes from dissociation of hydrocarbons and comparing to measured C I influxes. The present work extends these results through detailed analysis of the C I spectral line shapes. In general, it is found that the profiles are actually asymmetric and have shifted peaks. These features are interpreted as originating from a combination of an anisotropic velocity distribution from physical sputtering (the Thompson model) and an isotropic distribution from molecular dissociation. The present study utilizes pure helium plasmas to benchmark C I spectral profiles arising from physical sputtering alone.

  17. Sputtering of carbon using hydrogen ion beams with energies of 60–800 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, Dmitry S., E-mail: dmitrisidoroff@rambler.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarina Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod Region 603950 (Russian Federation); Chkhalo, Nikolay I., E-mail: chkhalo@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, Academicheskaya Str. 7, Afonino, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Kstovsky District, Kstovo Region 603087 (Russian Federation); Mikhailenko, Mikhail S.; Pestov, Alexey E.; Polkovnikov, Vladimir N. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, Academicheskaya Str. 7, Afonino, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Kstovsky District, Kstovo Region 603087 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    This article presents the result of a study on the sputtering of carbon films by low-energy hydrogen ions. In particular, the etching rate and surface roughness were measured. The range of energies where the sputtering switches from pure chemical to a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms was determined. It is shown that Sigmund’s theory for ion etching does not work well for fields of energy less than 150 eV and that it accurately describes the dependence of a sputtering coefficient on ion energy for energies greater than 300 eV. A strong smoothing effect for the surface of carbon film was also found. This result is interesting in itself and for its significance for the manufacture of super-smooth surfaces for X-ray applications.

  18. Effect of post-annealing on the magnetic properties of sputtered Mn56Al44 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nanhe Kumar; Husain, Sajid; Barwal, Vineet; Behera, Nilamani; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2018-05-01

    Mn56Al44 (MnAl) thin films of constant thickness (˜30nm) were grown on naturally oxidized Si substrates using DC-magnetron sputtering. Effect of deposition parameters such as sputtering power, substrate temperature (Ts), and post-annealing temperature have been systematically invstigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the presence of mixed phases, namely the τ- and β-MnAl. The highest saturation magnetization (MS) was found to be 65emu/cc using PPMS-VSM in film grown at Ts=500°C. The magnetic ordering was found to get significantly improved by performing post-annealing of these as-grwon at 400°C for 1 hr in the presence of out-of-plane magnetic field of ˜1500Oe in vacuum. In particular, at room temperature (RT), the MS got enhanced after magnetic annealing from 65emu/cc to 500 emu/cc in MnAl films grown at Ts=500°C. This sample exhibited a magneto-resistance of ˜1.5% at RT. The tuning of the structural and magnetic properties of MnAl binary alloy thin films as established here by varying the growth parameters is critical with regards to the prospective applications of MnAl, a metastable ferromagnetic system which possesses the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at RT till date.

  19. Transport theory of sputtering I: Depth of origin of sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.L.

    1999-01-01

    Sputter theory employing a sum of two power cross sections has been implemented. Compared with the well known Lindhard power cross section (V∝r -1/m ), a sum of two such cross sections can give a much better approximation to the Born-Mayer scattering in the low energy region (m ∼ 0.1). By using both one and two power cross sections, we have solved the linear transport equations describing the sputtering problem asymptotically. As usual, electronic stopping is ignored in the analysis. It has further been proved that Falcone's theory of the atom ejection process contradicts transport theory. The Andersen-Sigmund relation for partial sputtering yield ratios between two elements in an arbitrary multicomponent target has been derived by both methods. The energy deposited in the target surface layers has been computed for a few typical ion-target combinations. The numerical curves show that both theories generate almost the same results (error <10%) for m=3D0.2. It is also shown that, if the sputtering yield equals the corresponding one in Sigmund's theory, the depth of origin of sputtered atoms must be shorter than in Sigmund's theory for 0.25 m ≥ 3D 0. The former even may be only about one half of the latter as long as m=3D0. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  1. Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanadham, C; Jayaprakash, D; Mishra, R L

    2003-01-01

    Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave copper R.F resonators, have been taken up in our laboratory, An ultra high vacuum system was made for this purpose. Niobium exhibits superconducting properties at liquid Helium temperature. A uniform coating of about 1.5 mu m of niobium on the internal surfaces of the copper resonant cavities is desired. Power dissipation in the resonators can be greatly reduced by making the internal surfaces of the R.F cavity super conducting. (author)

  2. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  3. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  4. Particle-balance models for pulsed sputtering magnetrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Chunqing; Lundin, D.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Raadu, M. A.; Bradley, J. W.; Brenning, N.

    2017-09-01

    The time-dependent plasma discharge ionization region model (IRM) has been under continuous development during the past decade and used in several studies of the ionization region of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. In the present work, a complete description of the most recent version of the IRM is given, which includes improvements, such as allowing for returning of the working gas atoms from the target, a separate treatment of hot secondary electrons, addition of doubly charged metal ions, etc. To show the general applicability of the IRM, two different HiPIMS discharges are investigated. The first set concerns 400 μs long discharge pulses applied to an Al target in an Ar atmosphere at 1.8 Pa. The second set focuses on 100 μs long discharge pulses applied to a Ti target in an Ar atmosphere at 0.54 Pa, and explores the effects of varying the magnetic field strength. The model results show that Al2+ -ions contribute negligibly to the production of secondary electrons, while Ti2+ -ions effectively contribute to the production of secondary electrons. Similarly, the model results show that for an argon discharge with Al target the contribution of Al+-ions to the discharge current at the target surface is over 90% at 800 V. However, at 400 V the Al+-ions and Ar+-ions contribute roughly equally to the discharge current in the initial peak, while in the plateau region Ar+-ions contribute to roughly \\frac{2}{3} of the current. For high currents the discharge with Al target develops almost pure self-sputter recycling, while the discharge with Ti target exhibits close to a 50/50 combination of self-sputter recycling and working gas-recycling. For a Ti target, a self-sputter yield significantly below unity makes working gas-recycling necessary at high currents. For the discharge with Ti target, a decrease in the B-field strength, resulted in a corresponding stepwise increase in the discharge resistivity.

  5. Portuguese Version of the EORTC QLQ-OES18 and QLQ-OG25 for Health-Related Quality of Life Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas-Silva, Miguel; Silva, Rui Almeida; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2017-01-31

    Health-related quality of life assessment is increasingly important as it can help both clinical research and care for patients, particularly among oncological patients. Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module) are the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer modules for the evaluation of quality of life in patients with esophageal and esophagogastric cancers, respectively. The aim of our study was to translate, to culturally adapt and to perform a pilot testing to create the Portuguese version of both questionnaires. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines were followed for translation, cultural adaptation and pilot testing of Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module). The Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module) went through a process of forward (English → Portuguese) and backward (Portuguese → English) translation, by independent native speaker translators. After review, a preliminary version was created to be pilot tested among Portuguese patients. As a Brazilian version was already available for Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module), the questionnaire was simply culturally adapted and pilot tested. Both cancer and non-cancer patients were included. Overall, 30 patients completed the Portuguese version of each questionnaire. Afterwards, a structured interview was conducted to find and report any problematic items. Troublesome items and wording were changed according to the pilot testing results. The final versions were sent to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group and approved. The Portuguese versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and OG25

  6. Some magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of RF-sputtered thin NiFe-Si films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatskicheva, M.; Vatskichev, Ly.; Dimitrov, I.; Kunev, B.

    The galvanomagnetic properties and some structural peculiarities of rf-sputtered alloy films (NI80Fe20)100-xSix at 0 < x < 30 at. % were studied and compared with the corresponding properties of evaporated films of the same thickness and composition. The content of silicon increased with the increasing of the velocity of deposition and led to the amorphousation of the films. Coercivity decreased with the velocity of growth but it did not depend on the thickness and on the velocity of film deposition. The magnetoresistance ratio Dr/r of the sputtered films was about three times higher then that of the evaporated films.

  7. DC Magnetron sputtering of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Gunnar.

    1990-01-01

    I have been studying dc magnetron sputtering of thin film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , one of the recently discovered high- temperatures superconductors. In the introduction a brief review of the subjects sputtering and superconductivity is given. Since partial pressure measurements, especially for oxygen, have been important in the work I include a short description of the operating principles of mass spectroscopy. Experimental results in addition to what is given in the papers concerning plasma are presented in an appendix at the end of the introduction. (au)

  8. Sputtering of thin and intermediately thick films of solid deuterium by keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Schou, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Sputtering of films of solid deuterium by keV electrons was studied in a cryogenic set-up. The sputtering yield shows a minimum yield of about 4 D2/electron for 1.5 and 2 keV electrons at a thickness slightly larger than the average projected range of the electrons. We suggest that the yield around...... the minimum represents the value closest to a bulk-yield induced by electron bombardment. It may also include contributions from the mechanisms that enhance the yield for thin and very thick films....

  9. Particle beam experiments for the analysis of reactive sputtering processes in metals and polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Carles; Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Kreiter, Oliver; Arcos, Teresa de los; Benedikt, Jan; Keudell, Achim von [RD Plasmas with Complex Interactions, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    A beam experiment is presented to study heterogeneous reactions relevant to plasma-surface interactions in reactive sputtering applications. Atom and ion sources are focused onto the sample to expose it to quantified beams of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, noble gas ions, and metal vapor. The heterogeneous surface processes are monitored in situ by means of a quartz crystal microbalance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two examples illustrate the capabilities of the particle beam setup: oxidation and nitriding of aluminum as a model of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering, and plasma pre-treatment of polymers (PET, PP)

  10. Strong charge state dependence of H+ and H2+ sputtering induced by slow highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakutani, N.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Komaki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion emission has been studied for very slow ( similar 0.01ν B ) highly charged Ar and N ions bombarding C 60 containing hydrogen as an impurity. It is found that the fragmentations of C 60 are very rare even for Ar 16+ bombardments. On the other hand, the sputtering of H + and H 2 + has been observed to increase drastically as a function of incident charge q like q γ (e.g., γ similar 4.6 for H + sputtering by 500 eV Ar q+ ). (orig.)

  11. Sputtering ultra-small Pt on nanographitic flakes deposited by electrophoresis for ethanol electro oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryakenari, Ahmad Ahmadi; Daryakenari, Mohammad Ahmadi; Omidvar, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    To acquire highly efficient and cost-effective fuel cells, numerous research works have been carried out to the development low cost and excellent performance of electrocatalysts. In this paper, a solution-based electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique for fabrication of Pt-based catalyst layers is studied. Nanographitic flake coatings used as catalyst support for sputtered platinium (Pt) were fabricated via the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of dispersed nanographitic flakes in isopropyl alcohol. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (MNH) was used as an additive binder in the EPD process. Subsequently, the platinium particles were deposited by a direct sputtering on the fabricated nanographitic flake coatings.

  12. Epitaxial growth of rhenium with sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seongshik [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States) and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: soh@boulder.nist.gov; Hite, Dustin A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Cicak, K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Osborn, Kevin D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Simmonds, Raymond W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); McDermott, Robert [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Cooper, Ken B. [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Steffen, Matthias [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Martinis, John M. [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Pappas, David P. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2006-02-21

    We have grown epitaxial Rhenium (Re) (0001) films on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrates using sputter deposition in an ultra high vacuum system. We find that better epitaxy is achieved with DC rather than with RF sputtering. With DC sputtering, epitaxy is obtained with the substrate temperatures above 700 deg. C and deposition rates below 0.1 nm/s. The epitaxial Re films are typically composed of terraced hexagonal islands with screw dislocations, and island size gets larger with high temperature post-deposition annealing. The growth starts in a three dimensional mode but transforms into two dimensional mode as the film gets thicker. With a thin ({approx}2 nm) seed layer deposited at room temperature and annealed at a high temperature, the initial three dimensional growth can be suppressed. This results in larger islands when a thick film is grown at 850 deg. C on the seed layer. We also find that when a room temperature deposited Re film is annealed to higher temperatures, epitaxial features start to show up above {approx}600 deg. C, but the film tends to be disordered.

  13. Quantification of Selected Trace and Mineral Elements in Royal Jelly from Bulgaria by Icp-Oes and Etaas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkanska Ralitsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate selected trace and mineral elements in Royal Jelly (RJ from Bulgaria. A total of 30 RJ samples were included in the study. The analytical procedure consisted of the microwave digestion of the RJ samples with nitric acid followed by instrumental measurement. Concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES, while As, Cd, Co, Ni and Pb were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS. Our results showed that elements K, Mg, Ca represented 96% from the total mineral content of the RJ samples from Bulgaria, while the most abundant trace element was Na, followed by Zn. The elements Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Sr were found in trace concentration levels and elements As, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni in microconcentration levels. Selected mineral and trace elements were found in relatively constant concentration levels in all of the analyzed RJ samples. It was concluded that chemical element content did not depend on geographical origin and was under homeostatic adjustment in RJs.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations with electronic stopping can reproduce experimental sputtering yields of metals impacted by large cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiting; Zhou, Wei; Feng, Qijie; Zheng, Jian

    2018-03-01

    An unsolved problem in research of sputtering from metals induced by energetic large cluster ions is that molecular dynamics (MD) simulations often produce sputtering yields much higher than experimental results. Different from the previous simulations considering only elastic atomic interactions (nuclear stopping), here we incorporate inelastic electrons-atoms interactions (electronic stopping, ES) into MD simulations using a friction model. In this way we have simulated continuous 45° impacts of 10-20 keV C60 on a Ag(111) surface, and found that the calculated sputtering yields can be very close to the experimental results when the model parameter is appropriately assigned. Conversely, when we ignore the effect of ES, the yields are much higher, just like the previous studies. We further expand our research to the sputtering of Au induced by continuous keV C60 or Ar100 bombardments, and obtain quite similar results. Our study indicates that the gap between the experimental and the simulated sputtering yields is probably induced by the ignorance of ES in the simulations, and that a careful treatment of this issue is important for simulations of cluster-ion-induced sputtering, especially for those aiming to compare with experiments.

  15. Influence of surface topography on the sputtering yields of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jisheng; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Zhang Jiping

    1992-01-01

    The sputtering yields of silver have been measured as a function of the fluence of incident Ar + ions (27 keV) using the collector technique and RBS analysis. The irradiated surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the sputtering yields of surfaces with topography are enhanced relative to smooth surfaces of silver, but the extent of the enhancement depends on the irradiation dose. The experimental results can be explained assuming that the surface topography and sputtering yield are a function of incident angle. It is obvious that the surface topography is an important factor to influence the sputtering yield. The term ''apparent sputtering yield'' has specifically been used when referring to the experimental sputtering yield of a surface with topography, to emphasize the difference with a smooth surface. (orig.)

  16. Tests of a new axial sputtering technique in an ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2012-01-01

    Axial and radial sputtering techniques have been used over the years to create beams from an ECRIS at multiple accelerator facilities. Operational experience has shown greater beam production when using the radial sputtering method versus axial sputtering. At Argonne National Laboratory, previous work with radial sputtering has demonstrated that the position of the sputter sample relative to the plasma chamber wall influences sample drain current, beam production and charge state distribution. The possibility of the chamber wall acting as a ground plane which influences the sputtering of material has been considered, and an attempt has been made to mimic this possible ground plane effect with a coaxial sample introduced from the injection end. Results of these tests will be shown as well as comparisons of outputs using the two methods. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  17. Dwell time dependent morphological transition and sputtering yield of ion sputtered Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, H X; Zeng, X R; Zhou, W

    2010-01-01

    Self-organized nano-scale patterns may appear on a wide variety of materials irradiated with an ion beam. Good manipulation of these structures is important for application in nanostructure fabrication. In this paper, dwell time has been demonstrated to be able to control the ripple formation and sputtering yield on Sn surface. Ripples with a wavelength of 1.7 μm were observed for a dwell time in the range 3-20 μs, whereas much finer ripples with a wavelength of 540 nm and a different orientation were observed for a shorter dwell time in the range 0.1-2 μs. The sputtering yield increases with dwell time significantly. The results provide a new basis for further steps in the theoretical description of morphology evolution during ion beam sputtering.

  18. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy study on the effect of magnetron sputtering atmosphere on GaN/SiC interface and gallium nitride thin film crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Huaxiang, E-mail: shenhuaxiang@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhu, Guo-Zhen; Botton, Gianluigi A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kitai, Adrian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2015-03-21

    The growth mechanisms of high quality GaN thin films on 6H-SiC by sputtering were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The XRD θ-2θ scans show that high quality (0002) oriented GaN was deposited on 6H-SiC by reactive magnetron sputtering. Pole figures obtained by 2D-XRD clarify that GaN thin films are dominated by (0002) oriented wurtzite GaN and (111) oriented zinc-blende GaN. A thin amorphous silicon oxide layer on SiC surfaces observed by STEM plays a critical role in terms of the orientation information transfer from the substrate to the GaN epilayer. The addition of H{sub 2} into Ar and/or N{sub 2} during sputtering can reduce the thickness of the amorphous layer. Moreover, adding 5% H{sub 2} into Ar can facilitate a phase transformation from amorphous to crystalline in the silicon oxide layer and eliminate the unwanted (33{sup ¯}02) orientation in the GaN thin film. Fiber texture GaN thin films can be grown by adding 10% H{sub 2} into N{sub 2} due to the complex reaction between H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}.

  19. Characterization of Niobium Oxide Films Deposited by High Target Utilization Sputter Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R; Ellis, A D; Loomis, G E; Rana, S I

    2007-01-01

    High quality, refractory metal, oxide coatings are required in a variety of applications such as laser optics, micro-electronic insulating layers, nano-device structures, electro-optic multilayers, sensors and corrosion barriers. A common oxide deposition technique is reactive sputtering because the kinetic mechanism vaporizes almost any solid material in vacuum. Also, the sputtered molecules have higher energies than those generated from thermal evaporation, and so the condensates are smoother and denser than those from thermally-evaporated films. In the typical sputtering system, target erosion is a factor that drives machine availability. In some situations such as nano-layered capacitors, where the device's performance characteristics depends on thick layers, target life becomes a limiting factor on the maximizing device functionality. The keen interest to increase target utilization in sputtering has been addressed in a variety of ways such as target geometry, rotating magnets, and/or shaped magnet arrays. Also, a recent sputtering system has been developed that generates a high density plasma, directs the plasma beam towards the target in a uniform fashion, and erodes the target in a uniform fashion. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and compare niobia films deposited by two types of high target utilization sputtering sources, a rotating magnetron and a high density plasma source. The oxide of interest in this study is niobia because of its high refractive index. The quality of the niobia films were characterized spectroscopically in optical transmission, ellipsometrically, and chemical stoichiometry with X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The refractive index, extinction coefficients, Cauchy constants were derived from the ellipsometric modeling. The mechanical properties of coating density and stress are also determined

  20. Stress analysis, structure and magnetic properties of sputter deposited Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annadurai, A. [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Manivel Raja, M., E-mail: mraja@dmrl.drdo.in [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabahar, K.; Kumar, Atul [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Kannan, M.D.; Jayakumar, S. [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India)

    2011-11-15

    The residual stress instituted in Ni-Mn-Ga thin films during deposition is a key parameter influencing their shape memory applications by affecting its structural and magnetic properties. A series of Ni-Mn-Ga thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on Si(1 0 0) and glass substrates at four different sputtering powers of 25, 45, 75 and 100 W for systematic investigation of the residual stress and its effect on structure and magnetic properties. The residual stresses in thin films were characterized by a laser scanning technique. The as-deposited films were annealed at 600 deg. C for 1 h in vacuum for structural and magnetic ordering. The compressive stresses observed in as-deposited films transformed into tensile stresses upon annealing. The annealed films were found to be crystalline and possess mixed phases of both austenite and martensite, exhibiting good soft magnetic properties. It was found that the increase of sputtering power induced coarsening in thin films. Typical saturation magnetization and coercivity values were found to be 330 emu/cm{sup 3} and 215 Oe, respectively. The films deposited at 75 and 100 W display both structural and magnetic transitions above room temperature. - Highlights: > Compressive stresses observed in as-deposited films transformed into tensile stresses upon annealing. > Annealed films were found to be crystalline and possess mixed phases of both austenite and martensite, exhibiting good soft magnetic properties. > The highest Curie transition in the films was observed at 365 K. > The films deposited at 75 and 100 W display both structural and magnetic transitions above room temperature.

  1. Magnetic and electronic studies in the granular (Ni{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.16}){sub 54}(alumina){sub 46} sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omari, N., E-mail: nabila_omari@yahoo.fr [PTA, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Maroc (Morocco); Institut Neel CNRS, Departement MCMF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Maroc (Morocco); Fnidiki, A. [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Faculte des Sciences de Rouen, Site Universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l' Universite, B.P. 12, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Abid, M. [PTA, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Maroc (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Neel CNRS, Departement MCMF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2012-06-15

    We have studied the magnetization in the granular (Ni{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.16}){sub 54}(alumina){sub 46} alloy. The thermomagnetization curve is found to obey the Bloch law. Spin wave stiffness constant D and the exchange constant A were calculated from the experimental results. The magnetic experimental measurements have been interpreted in the framework of random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) model. The results have shown that it is possible to extend the application of RMA to the granular alloy. From an analysis of the approach to saturation magnetization some fundamental parameters have been extracted. In addition, self-consistent ab initio calculations, based on Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (KKR), are performed to investigate magnetic and electronic properties of the granular alloy. Spin polarization within the framework of the coherent potential approximation (CPA) is considered.

  2. Magnetic and electronic studies in the granular (Ni0.84Fe0.16)54(alumina)46 sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, N.; Lassri, H.; Fnidiki, A.; Abid, M.; Hlil, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the magnetization in the granular (Ni 0.84 Fe 0.16 ) 54 (alumina) 46 alloy. The thermomagnetization curve is found to obey the Bloch law. Spin wave stiffness constant D and the exchange constant A were calculated from the experimental results. The magnetic experimental measurements have been interpreted in the framework of random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) model. The results have shown that it is possible to extend the application of RMA to the granular alloy. From an analysis of the approach to saturation magnetization some fundamental parameters have been extracted. In addition, self-consistent ab initio calculations, based on Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (KKR), are performed to investigate magnetic and electronic properties of the granular alloy. Spin polarization within the framework of the coherent potential approximation (CPA) is considered.

  3. Method validation in plasma source optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) - From samples to results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, Fabien; Vielle, Karine; Birolleau, Jean-Claude; Vigneau, Olivier; Labet, Alexandre; Arnal, Nadege; Adam, Christelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Amiel, Jeanine; Granier, Guy; Faure, Joel; Arnaud, Regine; Beres, Andre; Blanchard, Jean-Marc; Boyer-Deslys, Valerie; Broudic, Veronique; Marques, Caroline; Augeray, Celine; Bellefleur, Alexandre; Bienvenu, Philippe; Delteil, Nicole; Boulet, Beatrice; Bourgarit, David; Brennetot, Rene; Fichet, Pascal; Celier, Magali; Chevillotte, Rene; Klelifa, Aline; Fuchs, Gilbert; Le Coq, Gilles; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Even though ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy) is now a routine analysis technique, requirements for measuring processes impose a complete control and mastering of the operating process and of the associated quality management system. The aim of this (collective) book is to guide the analyst during all the measurement validation procedure and to help him to guarantee the mastering of its different steps: administrative and physical management of samples in the laboratory, preparation and treatment of the samples before measuring, qualification and monitoring of the apparatus, instrument setting and calibration strategy, exploitation of results in terms of accuracy, reliability, data covariance (with the practical determination of the accuracy profile). The most recent terminology is used in the book, and numerous examples and illustrations are given in order to a better understanding and to help the elaboration of method validation documents

  4. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H− ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briefi, S.; Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Fantz, U.

    2016-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T e ≈ 1.2 eV, n e ≈ 1 × 10 19 m −3 , and n H /n H 2 ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients

  5. Matted-fiber divertor tagets for sputter resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.J.; Todreas, N.E.; Mikic, B.; Yang, T.F.

    1981-06-01

    Reductions in net sputtering yields can be obtained by altering the surface topography to maximize redeposition of sputtered atoms. A simple analysis is used to indicate a potential reduction by a factor of 2 to 5 for matted fiber divertor targets, relatively independent of incident, reflected and sputtered atom distributions. The fiber temperature is also shown to be acceptable, even up to 10 MW/m 2 , for reasonably combinations of materials, fiber diameter and fiber spacing

  6. The synergistic effect in coal/biomass blend briquettes combustion on elements behavior in bottom ash using ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaroiu, G.; Frentiu, T.; Maescu, L.; Mihaltan, A.; Ponta, M.; Frentiu, M.; Cordos, E. [Universitatea Politehnica din Bucuresti, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on the study of the synergistic effect in coal/biomass blend briquettes combustion on behavior of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co. Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, V, W, Zn, Zr and characterization of raw materials and bottom ashes. The manufacturing of coal/biomass briquettes although not commonly used is an attractive approach, as briquettes combustion is more technologically advantageous than the fluidized bed combustion. In the same time this technology is a way to render valuable materials of low calorific power and results in diminishing polluting emission. Raw materials and briquettes from different blends of pitcoal/sawdust were subjected to combustion in a 55 kW-boiler. The total content of elements after digestion in the HNO{sub 3} - HF mixture and the content in water leachate at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:2 were determined both in raw materials and bottom ash by ICP-OES. The total content of elements was higher in pitcoal than in sawdust. The synergistic effect depends both on coal/biomass ratio in blend and element nature. The water leachable fraction of elements from ash decreased along with the increase of sawdust weight excepting macronutrients (K, P) and Si.

  7. Electrical properties of sputtered-indium tin oxide film contacts on n-type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. L.

    2006-01-01

    A transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) Ohmic contact on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) (dopant concentration of 2x10 17 cm -3 ) having a specific contact resistance of 4.2x10 -6 Ω cm 2 was obtained. In this study, ITO film deposition method was implemented by sputtering. We found that the barrier height, 0.68 eV, between ITO and n-type GaN is the same for both evaporated- and sputtered-ITO films. However, the 0.68 eV in barrier height renders the evaporated-ITO/n-GaN Schottky contact. This behavior is different from that of our sputtered-ITO/n-GaN, i.e., Ohmic contact. During sputtering, oxygen atoms on the GaN surface were significantly removed, thereby resulting in an improvement in contact resistance. Moreover, a large number of nitrogen (N) vacancies, caused by sputtering, were produced near the GaN surface. These N vacancies acted as donors for electrons, thus affecting a heavily doped n-type formed at the subsurface below the sputtered ITO/n-GaN. Both oxygen removal and heavy doping near the GaN surface, caused by N vacancies, in turn led to a reduction in contact resistivity as a result of electrons tunneling across the depletion layer from the ITO to the n-type GaN. All explanations are given by Auger analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  8. Process parameter impact on properties of sputtered large-area Mo bilayers for CIGS thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgujar, Amol C.; Dhage, Sanjay R., E-mail: dhage@arci.res.in; Joshi, Shrikant V.

    2015-08-31

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) has emerged as a promising candidate for thin film solar cells, with efficiencies approaching those of silicon-based solar cells. To achieve optimum performance in CIGS solar cells, uniform, conductive, stress-free, well-adherent, reflective, crystalline molybdenum (Mo) thin films with preferred orientation (110) are desirable as a back contact on large area glass substrates. The present study focuses on cylindrical rotating DC magnetron sputtered bilayer Mo thin films on 300 mm × 300 mm soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. Key sputtering variables, namely power and Ar gas flow rates, were optimized to achieve best structural, electrical and optical properties. The Mo films were comprehensively characterized and found to possess high degree of thickness uniformity over large area. Best crystallinity, reflectance and sheet resistance was obtained at high sputtering powers and low argon gas flow rates, while mechanical properties like adhesion and residual stress were found to be best at low sputtering power and high argon gas flow rate, thereby indicating a need to arrive at a suitable trade-off during processing. - Highlights: • Sputtering of bilayer molybdenum thin films on soda lime glass • Large area deposition using rotating cylindrical direct current magnetron • Trade of sputter process parameters power and pressure • High uniformity of thickness and best electrical properties obtained • Suitable mechanical and optical properties of molybdenum are achieved for CIGS application.

  9. Polarity inversion of AlN film grown on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrate with pulsed DC reactive sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsetio Noorprajuda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxygen partial pressure (PO2 on polarity and crystalline quality of AlN films grown on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed direct current (DC reactive sputtering was investigated as a fundamental study. The polarity inversion of AlN from nitrogen (−c-polarity to aluminum (+c-polarity occurred during growth at a high PO2 of 9.4×103 Pa owing to Al-O octahedral formation at the interface of nitrided layer and AlN sputtered film which reset the polarity of AlN. The top part of the 1300 nm-thick AlN film sputtered at the high PO2 was polycrystallized. The crystalline quality was improved owing to the high kinetic energy of Al sputtered atom in the sputtering phenomena. Thinner AlN films were also fabricated at the high PO2 to eliminate the polycrystallization. For the 200 nm-thick AlN film sputtered at the high PO2, the full width at half-maximum values of the AlN (0002 and (10−12 X-ray diffraction rocking curves were 47 and 637 arcsec, respectively.

  10. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  11. Data compilation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Takiguchi, Takashi; Tawara, Hiro.

    1990-01-01

    Sputtering on a surface is generally caused by the collision cascade developed near the surface. The process is in principle the same as that causing radiation damage in the bulk of solids. Sputtering has long been regarded as an undesirable dirty effect which destroys the cathodes and grids in gas discharge tubes or ion sources and contaminates plasma and the surrounding walls. However, sputtering is used today for many applications such as sputter ion sources, mass spectrometers and the deposition of thin films. Plasma contamination and the surface erosion of first walls due to sputtering are still the major problems in fusion research. The angular distribution of the particles sputtered from solid surfaces can possibly provide the detailed information on the collision cascade in the interior of targets. This report presents a compilation of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms at normal incidence and oblique incidence in the various combinations of incident ions and target atoms. The angular distribution of sputtered atoms from monatomic solids at normal incidence and oblique incidence, and the compilation of the data on the angular distribution of sputtered atoms are reported. (K.I.)

  12. A Summary of the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, Docking, and Undocking (RPODU) Lessons Learned from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) Demonstration System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Carpenter, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) sponsored Dr. J. Russell Carpenter, a Navigation and Rendezvous Subject Matter Expert (SME) from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), to provide support to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) rendezvous and docking flight test that was conducted in 2007. When that DARPA OE mission was completed, Mr. Neil Dennehy, NASA Technical Fellow for GN&C, requested Dr. Carpenter document his findings (lessons learned) and recommendations for future rendezvous missions resulting from his OE support experience. This report captures lessons specifically from anomalies that occurred during one of OE's unmated operations.

  13. Exchange Bias Optimization by Controlled Oxidation of Cobalt Nanoparticle Films Prepared by Sputter Gas Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo López Antón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous films of cobalt nanoparticles have been obtained by sputter gas aggregation and controllably oxidized by air annealing at 100 °C for progressively longer times (up to more than 1400 h. The magnetic properties of the samples were monitored during the process, with a focus on the exchange bias field. Air annealing proves to be a convenient way to control the Co/CoO ratio in the samples, allowing the optimization of the exchange bias field to a value above 6 kOe at 5 K. The occurrence of the maximum in the exchange bias field is understood in terms of the density of CoO uncompensated spins and their degree of pinning, with the former reducing and the latter increasing upon the growth of a progressively thicker CoO shell. Vertical shifts exhibited in the magnetization loops are found to correlate qualitatively with the peak in the exchange bias field, while an increase in vertical shift observed for longer oxidation times may be explained by a growing fraction of almost completely oxidized particles. The presence of a hummingbird-like form in magnetization loops can be understood in terms of a combination of hard (biased and soft (unbiased components; however, the precise origin of the soft phase is as yet unresolved.

  14. Exchange interaction in MnPt/FeCo sputtered multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Nawate, M.; Norikane, T.

    2000-01-01

    MnPt single-layer films have been prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering for studying the composition dependencies of resistivity and crystalline structure. In the as-deposited state, the resistivity increases with Mn content and reaches the maximum at 69 at%. By annealing, the resistivity of the films having the Mn content around 51 at% increases, closely relating to the growth of the ordered CuAu FCT-type MnPt crystals. For the both film structures of the glass/Cu/FeCo/MnPt/Cu and the glass/MnPt/FeCo/Cu, which have been sputter-deposited on glass substrates, the exchange interaction between MnPt and FeCo layers, and the coercivity of the FeCo layer have been examined as functions of the Mn content, the layer thickness and the annealing temperature. In the as-deposited state, the exchange field (H ex ) is nearly zero up to 75 at% of Mn content, above which the value of H ex increases and shows the maximum at 85 at%, in which the blocking temperature is about 100 deg. C. By annealing, the value of H ex increases for the films of Mn content around 40-60 at%, exhibiting the higher blocking temperature than 360 deg. C. The temperature stability has also been examined using the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

  15. Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline palladium prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrup, Anna; Hahn, Horst [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany); Scherer, Torsten; Ivanisenko, Yulia; Choi, In-Suk; Kraft, Oliver [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nanocrystalline metals and alloys with grain sizes well below 100 nm often demonstrate unique deformation behaviour and therefore attract a great interest in material science. The understanding of deformation mechanisms operating in nanocrystalline materials is important to predict their mechanical properties. In the present study Pd films of 1{mu}m thickness were prepared using UHV rf magnetron sputtering on dog bone shaped Kapton substrates and on Si/SiO2 wafers. The films were sputtered using multilayer technology with an individual layer thickness of 10 nm. This resulted in grain sizes of about 20 nm. Initial microstructure and texture were characterized using conventional XRD measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in both cross section- and plane view. The mechanical properties were investigated using tensile testing and nanoindentation at several strain rates. An increased hardness and strength as compared to coarse grained Pd was observed, as well as high strain rate sensitivity. The microstructure in the gauge section after tensile testing was again analyzed using TEM in order to reveal signatures of deformation mechanisms like dislocation motion or twinning.

  16. Determining the sputter yields of molybdenum in low-index crystal planes via electron backscattered diffraction, focused ion beam and atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S., E-mail: 160184@mail.csc.com.tw [New Materials Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, 1 Chung Kang Road, Hsiao Kang, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiu, C.H.; Hong, I.T.; Tung, H.C. [New Materials Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, 1 Chung Kang Road, Hsiao Kang, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chien, F.S.-S. [Department of Physics, Tunghai University, 1727, Sec. 4, Xitun Dist., Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 407, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-15

    Previous literature has used several monocrystalline sputtering targets with various crystalline planes, respectively, to investigate the variations of the sputter yield of materials in different crystalline orientations. This study presents a method to measure the sputtered yields of Mo for the three low-index planes (100), (110), and (111), through using an easily made polycrystalline target. The procedure was firstly to use electron backscattered diffraction to identify the grain positions of the three crystalline planes, and then use a focused ion beam to perform the micro-milling of each identified grain, and finally the sputter yields were calculated from the removed volumes, which were measured by atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that the sputter yield of the primary orientations for Mo varied as Y{sub (110)} > Y{sub (100)} > Y{sub (111)}, coincidental with the ranking of their planar atomic packing densities. The concept of transparency of ion in the crystalline substance was applied to elucidate these results. In addition, the result of (110) orientation exhibiting higher sputter yield is helpful for us to develop a Mo target with a higher deposition rate for use in industry. By changing the deformation process from straight rolling to cross rolling, the (110) texture intensity of the Mo target was significantly improved, and thus enhanced the deposition rate. - Highlights: • We used EBSD, FIB and AFM to measure the sputter yields of Mo in low-index planes. • The sputter yield of the primary orientations for Mo varied as Y{sub (110)} > Y{sub (100)} > Y{sub (111)}. • The transparency of ion was used to elucidate the differences in the sputter yield. • We improved the sputter rate of polycrystalline Mo target by adjusting its texture.

  17. On-line solid phase extraction using ion-pair microparticles combined with ICP-OES for the simultaneous preconcentration and determination of uranium and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Zolfonoun, Ehsan [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). NFCRS

    2016-07-01

    In this work, after on-line and in-situ solid phase extraction technique was used for the extraction and preconcentration of uranium and thorium from aqueous samples prior to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) determination. In this method, sodium hexafluorophosphate (as an ion-pairing agent) was added to the sample solution containing the cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) and the complexing agent (dibenzoylmethane). A cloudy solution was formed as a result of formation of an ion pair between surfactant and hexafluorophosphate. The solid microparticles were passed through a microcolumn filter and the adsorbed microparticles were subsequently eluted with acid, which was directly introduced into the ICP-OES nebulizer. The main variables affecting the pre-concentration and determination steps of uranium and thorium were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the enhancement factors of 97 and 95 and the detection limits of 0.52 and 0.21 μg L{sup -1} were obtained for uranium and thorium, respectively.

  18. High-Transparency Sputtered In2O3 and ITO Films Containing Zirconium (Presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessert, T. A.; Yoshida, Y.; Fesenmaier, C. C.; Coutts, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    Our recent investigations have identified a method to produce ITO-like films that are less sensitive to variations in the oxygen-containing deposition ambient. Specifically, we are studying the effect of adding small amounts of Zr to both In2O3 and ITO ceramic sputtering targets

  19. Bioactivity and Surface Reactivity of RF-sputtered Calcium Phosphate Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, Edwin van der

    2003-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaP) are known to be bioactive, i.e. able to bond to bone. This makes CaPs very suitable to be aplied as thin coatings on bone-implants. In this work we studied the physicochemical behaviour of CaP coatings applied with radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, a deposition

  20. High frequency pulse anodising of magnetron sputtered Al–Zr and Al–Ti Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Bordo, Kirill; Engberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    High frequency pulse anodising of Al–Zr and Al–Ti coatings is studied as a surface finishing technique and compared to conventional decorative DC anodising. The Al–Zr and Al–Ti coatings were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering and were heat treated after deposition to generate a multiphase mi...

  1. ZIF-8 Membranes with Improved Reproducibility Fabricated from Sputter-Coated ZnO/Alumina Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jian; Pan, Yichang; Wang, Chongqing; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    for reproducible fabrication of high-quality membranes. In this study, high-quality ZIF-8 membranes were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis under the partial self-conversion of sputter-coated ZnO layer on porous α-alumina supports. The reproducibility

  2. Growth and characterization of high quality ZnS thin films by RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, C.; Rajiv, K.; Gupta, P.; Sinha, A. K.; Abhinandan, L.

    2012-06-01

    High optical quality ZnS films are deposited on glass and Si wafer by RF sputtering from pure ZnS target. Optical transmittance, reflectance, ellipsometry, FTIR and AFM measurements are carried out. Effect of substrate temperature and chamber baking for long duration on film properties have been studied. Roughness of the films as measured by AFM are low (1-2Å).

  3. The effects of thermal annealing in structural and optical properties of RF sputtered amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Fatah Awang Mat

    1988-01-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of amorphous silicon are studied on samples prepared by radio-frequency sputtering. The fundamental absorption edge of these films are investigated at room temperature and their respective parameters estimated. Annealing effect on optical properties is interpreted in terms of the removal of voids and a decrease of disorder. (author)

  4. Magnetron reactively sputtered Ti-DLC coatings on HNBR rubber : The influence of substrate bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X.L.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings have been deposited on HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubber and also on Si wafer as reference via unbalanced magnetroli reactive sputtering from a Ti target in C2H2/Ar plasma. The deposition rates of coatings on rubber and Si

  5. Growth behavior of rat bone marrow cells on RF magnetron sputtered hydroxyapatite and dicalcium pyrophosphate coatings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Ruijter, A. De; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of magnetron sputtered dicalcium pyrophaosphate (DCPP) and hydroxylapatite (HA) coatings. Therefore, DCPP and HA coatings were deposited on grit-blasted titanium discs. The substrates were used as-prepared or received an additional heat

  6. Geometrical features in longitudinal sputtering hollow cathode discharges for laser applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailova, D.B.; Dijk, van J.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Karatodorov, S.; Zahariev, P.; Grozeva, M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal sputtering hollow cathode discharge (HCD) used as active medium for lasing is studied by means of numerical modelling. Due to the longitudinal non-uniformities of the discharge, the laser operation could be strongly affected. The non-uniformity of the discharge is mainly influenced by

  7. Multielement trace determination in SiC powders: assessment of interlaboratory comparisons aimed at the validation and standardization of analytical procedures with direct solid sampling based on ETV ICP OES and DC arc OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschat, Ralf; Hassler, Jürgen; Traub, Heike; Dette, Angelika

    2005-12-01

    The members of the committee NMP 264 "Chemical analysis of non-oxidic raw and basic materials" of the German Standards Institute (DIN) have organized two interlaboratory comparisons for multielement determination of trace elements in silicon carbide (SiC) powders via direct solid sampling methods. One of the interlaboratory comparisons was based on the application of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry with electrothermal vaporization (ETV ICP OES), and the other on the application of optical emission spectrometry with direct current arc (DC arc OES). The interlaboratory comparisons were organized and performed in the framework of the development of two standards related to "the determination of mass fractions of metallic impurities in powders and grain sizes of ceramic raw and basic materials" by both methods. SiC powders were used as typical examples of this category of material. The aim of the interlaboratory comparisons was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of both analytical methods to be standardized. This was an important contribution to the practical applicability of both draft standards. Eight laboratories participated in the interlaboratory comparison with ETV ICP OES and nine in the interlaboratory comparison with DC arc OES. Ten analytes were investigated by ETV ICP OES and eleven by DC arc OES. Six different SiC powders were used for the calibration. The mass fractions of their relevant trace elements were determined after wet chemical digestion. All participants followed the analytical requirements described in the draft standards. In the calculation process, three of the calibration materials were used successively as analytical samples. This was managed in the following manner: the material that had just been used as the analytical sample was excluded from the calibration, so the five other materials were used to establish the calibration plot. The results from the interlaboratory comparisons were summarized and

  8. Investigation of the drastic change in the sputter rate of polymers at low ion fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekonyte, J.; Zaporojtchenko, V.; Faupel, F.

    2005-01-01

    The polymer sputter rate dependence on ion fluence and ion chemistry (Ar, N 2 , O 2 ) at 1 keV energy was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which allowed to do real time etch rate measurements and to study kinetics of sputtering. The obtained sputter rates differed drastically from polymer to polymer showing, that the chemical structure of polymer is an important factor in the polymer etch yield. A decrease in the sputter rate was observed up to ion fluence of 5 x 10 14 -5 x 10 15 cm -2 (depending on the polymer type and ion chemistry) followed by the saturation in the rate at prolonged ion bombardment. Polymer removal was accompanied by the formation of degradation products, cross-linking or branching, modification of the surface chemical structure, which was studied in situ using XPS. The dependence of the surface glass transition temperature, T gs on the ion fluence was studied using the method based on the embedding of metallic nanoparticles. The correlation between chemical yield data and ablation rate is discussed

  9. Reactive sputter deposition of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; McKernan, M.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    The preparation of fully dense, boron targets for use in planar magnetron sources has lead to the synthesis of Boron Nitride (BN) films by reactive rf sputtering. The deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are characterized for composition using Auger electron spectroscopy, for chemical bonding using Raman spectroscopy and for crystalline structure using transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. In particular, the growth of an adherent cubic BN coating requires 400--500 C substrate heating and an applied -300 V dc bias

  10. Development of the sputter coater for hotcell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Yong Bum; Kwon, H. M.; Chun, Y. B.; Yang, Y. S.; Joo, J. S.; Jang, N. M

    2007-05-15

    In last december, the Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) was installed on the shielded SEM of PIEF, KAERI. Before the first major WDS analysis service at the end of 2007, one among the prior technologies, the hot-cell sputter coater was remodelled from a commercial product and set up inside the glove box. This report describes effects of a coating layer on quantitative analysis, the remodelling of a coater suited to hot-cell, and the performance test of the remodelled coater. Also, written in 1998 was revised and appended to the report.

  11. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids

  12. Ion source with radiofrequency mass filter for sputtering purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielanko, J.; Sowa, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Kaufman ion source with radiofrequency mass filter is described. The construction as well as operating characteristics of ion source are presented. The arrangement is suitable for range distribution measurements of implanted layers, where the sputtering rate has to be constant over the wide range of sputtering time. 4 figs., 17 refs. (author)

  13. Low-dose effects in the sputtering of evaporated films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, A.R.O.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.

    1983-01-01

    We report measurements of the dose dependence of the sputtering of evaporated films by 30 keV ions under UHV. An initial (sub-monolayer) enhanced sputtering is attributed to the removal of weakly bound atoms; this enhancement does not depend on the incidence angle of the projectile. (author)

  14. Low-dose effects in the sputtering of evaporated films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, A.R.O.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche)

    1983-05-01

    We report measurements of the dose dependence of the sputtering of evaporated films by 30 keV ions under UHV. An initial (sub-monolayer) enhanced sputtering is attributed to the removal of weakly bound atoms; this enhancement does not depend on the incidence angle of the projectile.

  15. Sputtering of Thick Deuterium Films by KeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Sputtering of thick films of solid deuterium up to several μm by keV electrons is reported for the first time. The sputtering yield increases within a narrow range of thicknesses around 1.6 μm by about 2 orders of magnitude for 1.5 keV electrons. A similar behavior has not been observed for ion...

  16. Sputtering of solid nitrogen by keV helium ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, O.; Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Solid nitrogen has become a standard material among the frozen molecular gases for electronic sputtering. We have combined measurements of sputtering yields and energy spectra from nitrogen bombarded by 4-10 keV helium ions. The data show that the erosion is electronic rather than knockon...

  17. Study of SiO{sub 2} surface sputtering by a 250-550 keV He{sup +} ion beam during high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusanagi, Susumu [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Advanced Design Technology Center, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan)]. E-mail: susumu.kusanagi@jp.sony.com; Kobayashi, Hajime [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Advanced Design Technology Center, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    Decreases in oxygen signal intensities in spectra of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (HRBS) were observed during measurements on a 5-nm thick SiO{sub 2} layer on a Si substrate when irradiated by 250-550 keV He{sup +} ions. Shifts in an implanted arsenic profile in a 5-nm thick SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate were also observed as a result of He{sup +} ion irradiation. These results lead to the conclusion that the SiO{sub 2} surface was sputtered by He{sup +} ions in this energy range.

  18. Simulation of carbon sputtering due to molecular hydrogen impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulated results are compared to experimental data on the sputtering yield of carbon due to atomic and to molecular hydrogen impact. The experimental sputtering yields of carbon (graphite) due to low energy hydrogen bombardment have been found to be higher than the simulated ones. Efforts are made to obtain high enough simulated yields by considering the formation of dimer, H 2 and D 2 molecules in the primary beam. The molecular beam model applies full neutralization and full dissociation at the surface. The simulation of sputtering yields of target materials up to Z 2 ≤ 30 is also included for the low primary energy regime for deuterium projectiles. It is found that, although the sputtering yields really tend to increase, the effect of molecule formation in the beam in itself cannot be made responsible for the deviation between measured and simulated sputtering yields. (orig.)

  19. Atomistic self-sputtering mechanisms of rf breakdown in high-gradient linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insepov, Z.; Norem, J.; Veitzer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) models of sputtering solid and liquid surfaces - including the surfaces charged by interaction with plasma, Coulomb explosion, and Taylor cone formation - were developed. MD simulations of self-sputtering of a crystalline (1 0 0) copper surface by Cu + ions in a wide range of ion energies (50 eV-50 keV) were performed. In order to accommodate energetic ion impacts on a target, a computational model was developed that utilizes MD to simulate rapid atomic collisions in the central impact zone, and a finite-difference method to absorb the energy and shock wave for the collisional processes occurring at a longer time scales. The sputtering yield increases if the surface temperature rises and the surface melts as a result of heat from plasma. Electrostatic charging of the surface under bombardment with plasma ions is another mechanism that can dramatically increase the sputtering yield because it reduces the surface binding energy and the surface tension. An MD model of Taylor cone formation at a sharp tip placed in a high electric field was developed, and the model was used to simulate Taylor cone formation for the first time. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated Taylor cone angle (104.3 deg.) and the experimental one (98.6 deg.). A Coulomb explosion (CE) was proposed as the main surface failure mechanism triggering breakdown, and the dynamics of CE was studied by MD.

  20. Thickness characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Hideo; Jinno, Makoto; Takashima, Osamu; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Akinori; Kojima, Kenzo; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Ohashi, Asao

    1994-01-01

    The practical use of oxide high temperature superconductors for electronics field has been advanced. The oxide high temperature superconductor thin films is very sensitive to the production conditions, and their making with good reproducibility is difficult. In this study, the method of producing the thin films having good quality with good reproducibility by RF magnetron sputtering, and the relation of the film thickness with the superconductivity characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films in the different methods of substrate washing were examined. The sputtering conditions are shown. For the purpose of preventing the worsening of the film quality due to the reverse sputtering of oxygen negative ions to the thin film surface, sputtering gas pressure was set up high at 30 Pa. The film thickness and the temperature-resistance characteristics were measured. The experimental method and the experimental results are reported. By keeping the temperature on substrate surfaces constant, the reproducibility in the production of the thin films was improved remarkably. The effect of substrate washing was large. (K.I.)

  1. A review of basic phenomena and techniques for sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auciello, O. (Microelectronics Center of North Carolina, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA) North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.; Lichtenwalner, D.J. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Krauss, A.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The processes involved in plasma and ion beam sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting thin films are critically reviewed. Recent advances in the development of these techniques are discussed in relation to basic physical phenomena, specific to each technique, which must be understood before high quality films can be produced. Control of film composition is a major issue in sputter-deposition of multicomponent materials. Low temperature processing of films is a common goal for each technique, particularly in relation to integrating high temperature superconducting films with the current microelectronics technology. It has been understood for some time that for Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} deposition, the most intensely studied high-{Tc} compound, incorporation of sufficient oxygen into the film during deposition is necessary to produce as-deposited superconducting films at relatively substrate temperatures. Recent results have shown that with the use of suitable buffer layers, high quality Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} sputtered films can be obtained on Si substrates without the need for post-deposition anneal processing. This review is mainly focussed on issues related to sputter-deposition of Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films, although representative results concerning the bismuth and thallium based compounds are included. 143 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Non-imaging ray-tracing for sputtering simulation with apodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chung-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Although apodization patterns have been adopted for the analysis of sputtering sources, the analytical solutions for the film thickness equations are yet limited to only simple conditions. Empirical formulations for thin film sputtering lacking the flexibility in dealing with multi-substrate conditions, a suitable cost-effective procedure is required to estimate the film thickness distribution. This study reports a cross-discipline simulation program, which is based on discrete particle Monte-Carlo methods and has been successfully applied to a non-imaging design to solve problems associated with sputtering uniformity. Robustness of the present method is first proved by comparing it with a typical analytical solution. Further, this report also investigates the overall all effects cause by the sizes of the deposited substrate, such that the determination of the distance between the target surface and the apodization index can be complete. This verifies the capability of the proposed method for solving the sputtering film thickness problems. The benefit is that an optical thin film engineer can, using the same optical software, design a specific optical component and consider the possible coating qualities with thickness tolerance, during the design stage.

  3. Structural and morphological evolution in magnetron co-sputtered (Zn, Cr)O films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y M; Chiou, J W; Han, T C; Chen, Y T; Hsu, C W; Chen, G J; Chou, W Y; Chang, J; Hsu, J Y; Yu, Y C

    2008-01-01

    In this study, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray absorption near-edge structure and particle-induced x-ray emission are used to characterize the microstructure of (Zn, Cr)O films prepared using a co-sputtering method. We found that the Cr ions did not substitute for the Zn sites but instead formed Cr nano-particles and secondary oxide phases (SOPs) of Cr 2 O 3 and/or ZnCr 2 O 4 in co-sputtered Zn 1-x Cr x O films with Cr content x ≥ 0.1. Evidence is presented for the evolution of SOPs formed in (Zn, Cr)O films with increasing Cr sputtering power. Based on the inspection of the Cr and Zn contents in (Zn, Cr)O films, we conclude that the formation of the Cr 2 O 3 phase is driven by a substantial increase in the atomic ratio of Cr/Zn, followed by the formation of a ZnCr 2 O 4 phase promoted by a higher content of Cr than of Zn in film with increasing Cr sputtering power. It seems that a strong preference of Cr for octahedral rather than tetrahedral coordination with oxygen would trigger the formation of SOPs rather than the substitution of Cr into Zn sites and could be an obstacle for achieving a real Cr-substituted ZnO dilute magnetic oxide.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of flaky core-shell particles by magnetron sputtering silver onto diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Diatomite has delicate porous structures and various shapes, making them ideal templates for microscopic core-shell particles fabrication. In this study, a new process of magnetron sputtering assisted with photoresist positioning was proposed to fabricate lightweight silver coated porous diatomite with superior coating quality and performance. The diatomite has been treated with different sputtering time to investigate the silver film growing process on the surface. The morphologies, constituents, phase structures and surface roughness of the silver coated diatomite were analyzed with SEM, EDS, XRD and AFM respectively. The results showed that the optimized magnetron sputtering time was 8-16 min, under which the diatomite templates were successfully coated with uniform silver film, which exhibits face centered cubic (fcc) structure, and the initial porous structures were kept. Moreover, this silver coating has lower surface roughness (RMS 4.513 ± 0.2 nm) than that obtained by electroless plating (RMS 15.692 ± 0.5 nm). And the infrared emissivity of coatings made with magnetron sputtering and electroless plating silver coated diatomite can reach to the lowest value of 0.528 and 0.716 respectively.

  5. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 ) n and Al(Al 2 O 3 /AIN) n . Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Ta 2 O 5 , Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented

  6. Evolution of film temperature during magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, L.R.; Han, J.G.; Shaginyan, V.R.; Musil, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of measurements of the temperature T F surf which developed on the surface of films deposited by magnetron sputtering of chromium and copper targets on cooling and non-cooling silicon substrates. The T F surf and substrate temperature (T s ) were simultaneously measured using high-resolution IR camera and thermocouple, respectively. We revealed that the T F surf steeply grows, keeps constant when it achieves saturation level, and rapidly drops to the value of the T s after stopping the deposition. At the same time, the T s either does not change for the case of cooling substrate or increases to a certain level for noncooling substrate. However, in both cases the T s remains several times lower than the T F surf . The T F surf is proportional to the flux of energy delivered to the growth surface by sputtered atoms and other fast particles, weakly depends on the depositing metal and can achieve several hundreds of deg. C. This phenomenon is explained by a model assuming formation of a hot thin surface layer (HTSL) on the top of the growing film, which exists only during film deposition and exhibits extremely low thermal conductivity. Due to this unique property the temperature T F surf of HTSL is several times higher than the T s . Variations in the T F surf fairly correlate with structure changes of Cr films along thickness investigated in detail previously

  7. Combined optical emission and resonant absorption diagnostics of an Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce-reactive magnetron sputtering discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mel, A.A. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière B.P. 32229, Nantes Cedex 3 44322 (France); Ershov, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Britun, N., E-mail: nikolay.britun@umons.ac.be [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Ricard, A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, Toulouse Cedex 9 F-31062 (France); Konstantinidis, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, Avenue Copernic 1, Mons B-7000 (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    We report the results on combined optical characterization of Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges by optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy. In this study, a DC magnetron sputtering system equipped with a movable planar magnetron source with a Ce target is used. The intensities of Ar, O, and Ce emission lines, as well as the absolute densities of Ar metastable and Ce ground state atoms are analyzed as a function of the distance from the magnetron target, applied DC power, O{sub 2} content, etc. The absolute number density of the Ar{sup m} is found to decrease exponentially as a function of the target-to-substrate distance. The rate of this decrease is dependent on the sputtering regime, which should be due to the different collisional quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents. Quantitatively, the absolute number density of Ar{sup m} is found to be equal to ≈ 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3} in the metallic, and ≈ 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup −3} in the oxidized regime of sputtering, whereas Ce ground state densities at the similar conditions are found to be few times lower. The absolute densities of species are consistent with the corresponding deposition rates, which decrease sharply during the transition from metallic to poisoned sputtering regime. - Highlights: • Optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy are employed to study Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges. • The density of argon metastables is found to decrease exponentially when increasing the target-to-substrate distance. • The collision-quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents is demonstrated. • The deposition rates of cerium and cerium oxide thin films decrease sharply during the transition from the metallic to the poisoned sputtering regime.

  8. On a relationship between the geometry of cones on sputtered surfaces and the angular dependence of sputtered yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    It is widely believed that the phenomenon responsible for the familiar peak in the angular dependence of sputtered yields also gives rise to characteristic semiangles α of conical protruberances on sputtered surfaces. It is shown that α corresponds to the process giving rise to the minimum rather than the maximum. No accurate measurements of the minimum have yet been made. (Auth.)

  9. Study of Ni2-Mn-Ga phase formation by magnetron sputtering film deposition at low temperature onto Si substrates and LaNiO3/Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiras, F.; Rauwel, E.; Amaral, V. S.; Vyshatko, N.; Kholkin, A. L.; Soyer, C.; Remiens, D.; Shvartsman, V. V.; Borisov, P.; Kleemann, W.

    2010-01-01

    Film deposition of Ni 2 MnGa phaselike alloy by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering was performed onto bare Si(100) substrates and LaNiO 3 /Pb(Ti,Zr)O 3 (LNO/PZT) ferroelectric buffer layer near room temperature. The prepared samples were characterized using conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD), superconducting quantum interference device, and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy from scanning electron microscope observations. The optimized films deposited under high rf power and low argon pressure present good surface quality and highly textured phase crystallization. The positioning distance between the substrate and the target-holder axis has some limited effect on the film's composition due to the specific diffusion behavior of each element in the sputtering plasma. Extended four pole high resolution XRD analysis allowed one to discriminate the intended Ni-Mn-Ga tetragonal martensitic phase induced by the (100) LNO/PZT oriented buffer. This low temperature process appears to be very promising, allowing separate control of the functional layer's properties, while trying to achieve high electromagnetoelastic coupling.

  10. LIBS coupled with ICP/OES for the spectral analysis of betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, I.; Rehan, K.; Sultana, S.; Khan, M. Z.; Muhammad, R.

    2018-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was optimized and was applied for the elemental analysis and exposure of the heavy metals in betel leaves in air. Pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) in conjunction with a suitable detector (LIBS 2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc) having the optical resolution of 0.06 nm was used to record the emission spectra from 200 to 720 nm. Elements like Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, P, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn were found to be present in the samples. The abundances of observed elements were calculated through normalized calibration curve method, integrated intensity ratio method, and calibration free-LIBS approach. Quantitative analyses were accomplished under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and optically thin plasma. LIBS findings were validated by comparing its results with the results obtained using a typical analytical technique of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Limit of detection (LOD) of the LIBS system was also estimated for heavy metals.

  11. Determination of Th and REE in columbite - tantalite samples by ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuman, V.V.; Khorge, C.R.; Radhamai, R.; Nair, Sajitha; Srivastava, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method of decomposition and separation of Th and REE in columbite- tantalite is developed for determination by ICP- OES. The sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid in presence of little sulphuric acid to avoid drying on water bath. Th and rare earths are separated as fluoride together with undecomposed sample. The residue is fused with a 1: 1 mixture of sodium di hydrogen orthophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate. The melt is dissolved in water for measurement. Nitric acid is found unsuitable due to loss in Ce in some of the samples. Matrix elements (more than 97.5) are removed in single step by both the treatments. The free cassiterite present in samples is not attacked during acid digestion. However, the same is easily decomposed in fusion. U (IV) is also precipitated along with Th and REE when hydrochloric acid is used. As expected uranium is lost when nitric acid is used. The results are compared with existing well-established procedure involving peroxide fusion for decomposition; hydroxide and fluoride precipitation separation. Both the methods yielded comparable result. The method is simple, comparatively rapid and suitable for routine application for determination of REE , Th and U(IV) content. The RSD of the method was found to be in the range of 1- 1.5% for various elements. (author)

  12. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briefi, S., E-mail: stefan.briefi@physik.uni-augsburg.de [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [Linac4 Ion Source Team, CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fantz, U. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T{sub e} ≈ 1.2 eV, n{sub e} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, and n{sub H}/n{sub H{sub 2}} ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients.

  13. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al2O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, S.; Mohan Rao, G.; Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Ganesan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 °C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: ► Al 2 O 3 thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. ► The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. ► An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. ► Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. ► The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  14. Determination of 18 kinds of trace impurities in the vanadium battery grade vanadyl sulfate by ICP-OES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Cheng

    2018-03-01

    The method that direct determination of 18 kinds of trace impurities in the vanadium battery grade vanadyl sulfate by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was established, and the detection range includes 0.001% ∼ 0.100% of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, As, Co, P, Ti, Zn and 0.005% ∼ 0.100% of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Al. That the influence of the matrix effects, spectral interferences and background continuum superposition in the high concentrations of vanadium ions and sulfate coexistence system had been studied, and then the following conclusions were obtained: the sulfate at this concentration had no effect on the determination, but the matrix effects or continuous background superposition which were generated by high concentration of vanadium ions had negative interference on the determination of potassium and sodium, and it produced a positive interference on the determination of the iron and other impurity elements, so that the impacts of high vanadium matrix were eliminated by the matrix matching and combining synchronous background correction measures. Through the spectral interference test, the paper classification summarized the spectral interferences of vanadium matrix and between the impurity elements, and the analytical lines, the background correction regions and working parameters of the spectrometer were all optimized. The technical performance index of the analysis method is that the background equivalent concentration -0.0003%(Na)~0.0004%(Cu), the detection limit of the element is 0.0001%∼ 0.0003%, RSD<10% when the element content is in the range from 0.001% to 0.007%, RSD< 20% even if the element content is in the range from 0.0001% to 0.001% that is beyond the scope of the method of detection, recoveries is 91.0% ∼ 110.0%.

  15. Tailoring the magnetic properties and thermal stability of FeSiAl-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films fabricated by hybrid oblique gradient-composition sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xiaoxi, E-mail: xiaoxi.zhong@gmail.com [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China); Phuoc, Nguyen N. [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 2, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Soh, Wee Tee [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Ong, C.K. [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 2, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Peng, Long; Li, Lezhong [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we systematically investigate the dynamic magnetic properties of FeSiAl-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films fabricated by hybrid oblique gradient-composition sputtering technique with respect to temperature ranging from 300 K to 420 K. The magnetic anisotropy field H{sub K} and ferromagnetic resonance frequency f{sub FMR} can be tuned from 14.06 to 110.18 Oe and 1.05–3.05 GHz respectively, by changing the oblique angle, which can be interpreted in terms of the contribution of stress-induced anisotropy and shape anisotropy. In addition, the thermal stability of FeSiAl-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films in terms of magnetic anisotropy H{sub K} and ferromagnetic resonance frequency f{sub FMR} are enhanced with the increase of oblique angle up to 35° while the thermal stability of effective Gilbert damping factor α{sub eff} and the maximum imaginary permeability μ’’{sub max} are improved with the increase of oblique angle up to 45°. - Highlights: • We prepared FeSiAl-based thin films using hybrid oblique gradient-composition deposition technique. • The microwave properties of FeSiAl-based thin films were systematically studied. • The thermal stability of microwave properties of FeSiAl-based films was studied. • The permeabilities were got using shorted micro-strip transmission-line perturbation. • The thermal stability of properties we studied is relatively good.

  16. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

  17. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.

    2014-01-01

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved

  18. Round Robin computer simulation of ejection probability in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.; Hautala, M.; Yamamura, Y.; Hosaka, S.; Ishitani, T.; Shulga, V.I.; Harrison, D.E. Jr.; Chakarov, I.R.; Karpuzov, D.S.; Kawatoh, E.; Shimizu, R.; Valkealahti, S.; Nieminen, R.M.; Betz, G.; Husinsky, W.; Shapiro, M.H.; Vicanek, M.; Urbassek, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the ejection of a copper atom through a planar copper surface as a function of recoil velocity and depth of origin. Results were obtained from six molecular dynamics codes, four binary collision lattice simulation codes, and eight Monte Carlo codes. Most results were found with a Born-Mayer interaction potential between the atoms with Gibson 2 parameters and a planar surface barrier, but variations on this standard were allowed for, as well as differences in the adopted cutoff radius for the interaction potential, electronic stopping, and target temperature. Large differences were found between the predictions of the various codes, but the cause of these differences could be determined in most cases. A fairly clear picture emerges from all three types of codes for the depth range and the angular range for ejection at energies relevant to sputter ejection, although a quantitative discussion would have to include an analysis of replacement collision events which has been left out here. (orig.)

  19. In vitro behaviour of nanocrystalline silver-sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedade, A P; Vieira, M T; Martins, A; Silva, F

    2007-01-01

    Silver thin films were deposited with different preferential orientations and special attention was paid to the bioreactivity of the surfaces. The study was essentially focused on the evaluation of the films by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and contact angle measurements. The deposited thin films were characterized before and after immersion in S-enriched simulated human plasma in order to estimate the influence of the preferential crystallographic orientation on the in vitro behaviour. Silver thin films with and without (111) preferential crystallographic orientation were deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering to yield nanocrystalline coatings, high compact structures, very hydrophobic surfaces and low roughness. These properties reduce the chemisorption of reactive species onto the film surface. The in vitro tests indicate that silver thin films can be used as coatings for biomaterials applications

  20. Characterisation of magnetron sputtered SmCo5 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Sood, D.K.; Kothari

    1999-01-01

    SmCo 5 thin films were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering on single crystal silicon substrate with chromium and SiO 2 top layers. Deposition was carried out at three different substrate temperatures: room temperature, 400 deg C and 600 deg C. Films were characterised by using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and SQUID magnetometer. RBS analysis indicated that the films have excellent stoichiometry with the Sm to Co ratio of 1:5. This analysis also showed that the films deposited or annealed at high temperatures (≥600 deg C) indicated significant inter-diffusion at the interface between the barrier layer and the film. Oxygen was found to be the major impurity in the films. XRD data indicated that the films formed 1:5 and 2:17 phases under different deposition conditions. The preliminary studies of these films using magnetic force microscopy revealed the presence of magnetic domains

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of gold cluster growth during sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J. W., E-mail: abraham@theo-physik.uni-kiel.de; Bonitz, M., E-mail: bonitz@theo-physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F. [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Lehrstuhl für Materialverbunde, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-05-14

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation scheme that we apply to study the time evolution of the self-organized growth process of metal cluster assemblies formed by sputter-deposited gold atoms on a planar surface. The simulation model incorporates the characteristics of the plasma-assisted deposition process and allows for an investigation over a wide range of deposition parameters. It is used to obtain data for the cluster properties which can directly be compared with recently published experimental data for gold on polystyrene [M. Schwartzkopf et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 13547 (2015)]. While good agreement is found between the two, the simulations additionally provide valuable time-dependent real-space data of the surface morphology, some of whose details are hidden in the reciprocal-space scattering images that were used for the experimental analysis.

  2. Optical characterisation of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellassi, K.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Chouiyakh, A.; Rjeb, A.; Barhdadi, A.

    2000-09-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of some optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films prepared by radio-frequency cathodic sputtering technique. It is essentially focused on investigating separately the effects of increasing partial hydrogen pressure during the deposition stage, and the effects of post deposition thermal annealing on the main optical parameters of the deposited layers (refraction index, optical gap Urbach energy, etc.). We show that low hydrogen pressures allow a saturation of the dangling bonds in the material, while high pressures lead to the creation of new defects. We also show that thermal annealing under moderate temperatures allows a good improvement of the structural quality of deposited films. (author)

  3. Nanostructured hydrophobic DC sputtered inorganic oxide coating for outdoor glass insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Gupta, H.O. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Chandra, R., E-mail: ramesfic@gmail.com [Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Deposition of contamination on outdoor glass insulators and its physical and economical consequences were discussed. • Synthesis of nanostructured hydrophobic HfO{sub 2} film on glass as a remedial measure by varying DC sputtering power. • Investigated and correlated structural, optical, electrical and hydrophobic properties of HfO{sub 2} films with respect to power. • Optimum results were obtained at a 50 W DC sputtering power. - Abstract: We report the structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured hydrophobic inorganic hafnium oxide coating for outdoor glass insulator using DC sputtering technique to combat contamination problem. The properties were studied as a function of DC power. The characterization of the films was done using X-ray diffraction, EDS, surface profilometer, AFM, impedance analyser and water contact angle measurement system. The DC power was varied from 30 to 60 W and found to have a great impact on the properties of hafnium oxide. All the deposited samples were polycrystalline with nanostructured hydrophobic surfaces. The intensity of crystallinity of the film was found to be dependent on sputtering power and hydrophobicity was correlated to the nanoscale roughness of the films. The optical property reveals 80% average transmission for all the samples. The refractive index was found in the range of 1.85–1.92, near to the bulk value. The band gap calculated from transmission data was >5.3 eV for all deposited samples ensuring dielectric nature of the films. Surface energy calculated by two methods was found minimum for the film deposited at 50 W sputtering power. The resistivity was also high enough (∼10{sup 4} Ω cm) to hinder the flow of leakage current through the film. The dielectric constant (ε) was found to be thickness dependent and also high enough (ε{sub max} = 23.12) to bear the large electric field of outdoor insulators.

  4. Understanding deposition rate loss in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: I. Ionization-driven electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N; Huo, C; Raadu, M A; Lundin, D; Helmersson, U; Vitelaru, C; Stancu, G D; Minea, T

    2012-01-01

    The lower deposition rate for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) compared with direct current magnetron sputtering for the same average power is often reported as a drawback. The often invoked reason is back-attraction of ionized sputtered material to the target due to a substantial negative potential profile, sometimes called an extended presheath, from the location of ionization toward the cathode. Recent studies in HiPIMS devices, using floating-emitting and swept-Langmuir probes, show that such extended potential profiles do exist, and that the electric fields E z directed toward the target can be strong enough to seriously reduce ion transport to the substrate. However, they also show that the potential drops involved can vary by up to an order of magnitude from case to case. There is a clear need to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify the key discharge variables that can be used for minimizing the back-attraction. We here present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem of electric fields E z in the ionization region part of HiPIMS discharges, and their effect on the transport of ionized sputtered material. In particular, we have investigated the possibility of a ‘sweet spot’ in parameter space in which the back-attraction of ionized sputtered material is low. It is concluded that a sweet spot might possibly exist for some carefully optimized discharges, but probably in a rather narrow window of parameters. As a measure of how far a discharge is from such a window, a Townsend product Π Townsend is proposed. A parametric analysis of Π Townsend shows that the search for a sweet spot is complicated by the fact that contradictory demands appear for several of the externally controllable parameters such as high/low working gas pressure, short/long pulse length, high/low pulse power and high/low magnetic field strength. (paper)

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA DUST DESTRUCTION. I. CLOUD-CRUSHING AND POST-PROCESSED GRAIN SPUTTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia, Devin W.; Smith, Britton D.; Michael Shull, J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate through hydrodynamic simulations the destruction of newly formed dust grains by sputtering in the reverse shocks of supernova (SN) remnants. Using an idealized setup of a planar shock impacting a dense, spherical clump, we implant a population of Lagrangian particles into the clump to represent a distribution of dust grains in size and composition. We then post-process the simulation output to calculate the grain sputtering for a variety of species and size distributions. We explore the parameter space appropriate for this problem by altering the overdensity of the ejecta clumps and the speed of the reverse shocks. Since radiative cooling could lower the temperature of the medium in which the dust is embedded and potentially protect the dust by slowing or halting grain sputtering, we study the effects of different cooling methods over the timescale of the simulations. In general, our results indicate that grains with radii less than 0.1 μm are sputtered to much smaller radii and often destroyed completely, while larger grains survive their interaction with the reverse shock. We also find that, for high ejecta densities, the percentage of dust that survives is strongly dependent on the relative velocity between the clump and the reverse shock, causing up to 50% more destruction for the highest velocity shocks. The fraction of dust destroyed varies widely across grain species, ranging from total destruction of Al 2 O 3 grains to minimal destruction of Fe grains (only 20% destruction in the most extreme cases). C and SiO 2 grains show moderate to strong sputtering as well, with 38% and 80% mass loss. The survival rate of grains formed by early SNe is crucial in determining whether or not they can act as the 'dust factories' needed to explain high-redshift dust.

  6. Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical stresses and microstructure of sputter-deposited molybdenum and reactively sputter-deposited molybdenum nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.G.

    2003-01-01

    A combined investigation of mechanical stress generation by in situ substrate curvature measurements during the growth of MoN x thin films, with 0≤x≤0.35, and of structural properties by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is reported. It was found that the Mo film stresses strongly depended on the Ar sputtering pressure and changed from highly compressive to highly tensile in a relatively narrow pressure range of 6-12 mTorr. For pressures exceeding ∼40 mTorr, the stress in the film was nearly zero. Cross-sectional TEM measurements indicated that the compressively stressed films contained a dense microstructure without any columns, while the films having tensile stress had a very columnar microstructure. High sputtering-gas pressure conditions yielded dendritic-like film growth, resulting in complete relaxation of the mechanical tensile stresses. It was also found that the properties of the deposited MoN x films depended not only on the nitrogen partial pressure in Ar-N 2 gas mixtures but also on the total sputtering-gas pressure. Cross-sectional TEM studies showed that an average column width for 160 nm-thick films near stoichiometry of Mo 2 N was about ∼15-20 nm. Using the electron scattering data collected from a range of crystalline samples for calculating the pair distribution function (PDF) by Fourier transformation in real space, Mo-N and Mo-Mo bonding in the films was also identified. Once the Mo 2 N phase was formed, the density, microstructure and bonding feature were similar and insensitive to the total sputtering pressure used in this study

  7. Reactive dual magnetron sputtering for large area application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Production lines for large area coating demand high productivity of reactive magnetron sputtering processes. Increased dynamic deposition rates for oxides and nitrides were already obtained by using of highly powered magnetrons in combination with advanced sputter techniques. However, besides high deposition rates the uniformity of such coatings has to be carefully considered. First the basics of reactive sputtering processes and dual magnetron sputtering are summarized. Different methods for process stabilization and control are commonly used for reactive sputtering. The Plasma Emission Monitor (PE M) offers the prerequisite for fast acting process control derived from the in-situ intensity measurements of a spectral line of the sputtered target material. Combined by multiple Plasma Emission Monitor control loops segmented gas manifolds are able to provide excellent thin film uniformity at high deposition rates. The Dual Magnetron allows a broad range of processing by different power supply modes. Medium frequency, DC and pulsed DC power supplies can be used for high quality layers. Whereas the large area coating of highly isolating layers like TiO 2 or SiO 2 is dominated by MF sputtering best results for coating with transparent conductive oxides are obtained by dual DC powering of the dual magnetron arrangement. (Author)

  8. As(III) Removal from Drinking Water by Carbon Nanotube Membranes with Magnetron-Sputtered Copper: Performance and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hongyan; Zhang, Quan; Cheng, Guo-An; Huang, Haiou

    2018-06-07

    Current approaches for functionalizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) often utilize harsh chemical conditions, and the resulting harmful wastes can cause various environmental and health concerns. In this study, magnetron sputtering technique is facilely employed to functionalize CNT membranes by depositing Cu onto premade CNT membranes without using any chemical treatment. A comparative evaluation of the substrate polymeric membrane (mixed cellulose ester (MCE)), MCE sputtered with copper (Cu/MCE), the pristine CNT membrane (CNT), and CNT membrane sputtered with Cu (Cu/CNT) shows that Cu/CNT possesses mechanically stable structures and similar membrane permeability as MCE. More importantly, Cu/CNT outperforms other membranes with high As(III) removal efficiency of above 90%, as compared to less than 10% by MCE and CNT, and 75% by Cu/MCE from water. The performance of Cu/CNT membranes for As(III) removal is also investigated as a function of ionic strength, sputtering time, co-existing ions, solution pH, and the reusability. Further characterizations of As speciation in the filtrate and on Cu/CNT reveal that arsenite removal by Cu/CNT possibly began with Cu-catalyzed oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, followed by adsorptive filtration of arsenate by the membrane. Overall, this study demonstrates that magnetron sputtering is a promising greener technology for the productions of metal-CNT composite membranes for environmental applications.

  9. Transport theory of sputtering I: Depth of origin of sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhu Lin

    1999-01-01

    Sputter theory employing a sum of two power cross sections has been implemented. Compared with the well known Lindhard power cross section (V∝r -1/m ), a sum of two such cross sections can give a much better approximation to the Born-Mayer scattering in the low energy region (m ∼ 0.1). By using both one and two power cross sections, we have solved the linear transport equations describing the sputtering problem asymptotically. As usual, electronic stopping is ignored in the analysis. It has further been proved that Falcone's theory of the atom ejection process contradicts transport theory. The Andersen-Sigmund relation for partial sputtering yield ratios between two elements in an arbitrary multicomponent target has been derived by both methods. The energy deposited in the target surface layers has been computed for a few typical ion-target combinations. The numerical curves show that both theories generate almost the same results (error m≥0. The former even may be only about one half of the latter as long as m=0

  10. High rate reactive sputtering in an opposed cathode closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, William D.; Rudnik, Paul J.; Graham, Michael E.; Rohde, Suzanne L.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to an opposed cathode sputtering system constructed with the ability to coat parts with a size up to 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Initial trials with this system revealed very low substrate bias currents. When the AlNiCo magnets in the two opposed cathodes were arranged in a mirrored configuration, the plasma density at the substrate was low, and the substrate bias current density was less than 1 mA/sq cm. If the magnets were arranged in a closed-field configuration where the field lines from one set of magnets were coupled with the other set, the substrate bias current density was as high as 5.7 mA/sq cm when NdFeB magnets were used. In the closed-field configuration, the substrate bias current density was related to the magnetic field strength between the two cathodes and to the sputtering pressure. Hard well-adhered TiN coatings were reactively sputtered in the opposed cathode system in the closed-field configuration, but the mirrored configuration produced films with poor adhesion because of etching problems and low plasma density at the substrate.

  11. An Organizational Effectiveness Officer Tackles a Management Job: A follow-Up OE Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    time, the COPPER "users manual " had not been updated to reflect the current methods and procedures of the PPSD. RAJ Johnson felt that documentation of...Users’ Manual , now known as PPSD Users’ Manual , to document every action and show document ilow with a flow chart. Also prior to implementing the change...comments is a document to work from. I’ll use it from my level, but let’s push it down in the organizacion ." When interviewed in December, RAJ Johnson was

  12. Magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic heterostructure of rf-sputtered Ni–Mn–Ga thin film on PMN–PT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teferi, M.Y.; Amaral, V.S.; Lounrenco, A.C.; Das, S.; Amaral, J.S.; Karpinsky, D.V.; Soares, N.; Sobolev, N.A.; Kholkin, A.L.; Tavares, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report a preparation of multiferroic heterostructure from thin film of Ni–Mn–Ga (NMG) alloy and lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN–PT) with effective magnetoelectric (ME) coupling between the film as ferromagnetic material and PMN–PT as piezoelectric material. The heterostructure was prepared by relatively low temperature (400 °C) deposition of the film on single crystal of piezoelectric PMN–PT substrate using rf magnetron co-sputtering of Ni 50 Mn 50 and Ni 50 Ga 50 targets. Magnetic measurements by Superconducting Quantum Interference Design (SQIUD) Magnetometer and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) on the film revealed that the film is in ferromagnetically ordered martensitic state at room temperature with saturation magnetization of ∼240 emu/cm 3 and Curie temperature of ∼337 K. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurement done at room temperature on the substrate showed the presence of expected hysteresis loop confirming the stability of the piezoelectric state of the substrate after deposition. Room temperature ME voltage coefficient (α ME ) of the heterostructure was measured as a function of applied bias dc magnetic field in Longitudinal–Transverse (L–T) ME coupling mode by lock-in technique. A maximum ME coefficient α ME of 3.02 mV/cm Oe was measured for multiferroic NMG/PMN–PT heterostructure which demonstrates that there is ME coupling between the film as ferromagnetic material and PMN–PT as piezoelectric material. - Highlights: ► Multiferroic NMG/PMN–PT heterostructure prepared by depositing NMG alloy thin film on PMN–PT substrate. ► The film is in ferromagnetically ordered martensite state at room temperature. ► The substrate maintains its piezoelectric state after deposition. ► The heterostructure exhibits ME effect with maximum of α ME of 3.02 mV/cm Oe.

  13. Sputtering of neutral and ionic indium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Von Nagy-Felsobuki, E.I.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary neutral and secondary ion cluster yields were measured during the sputtering of a polycrystalline indium surface by normally incident ∼4 keV Ar + ions. In the secondary neutral mass spectra, indium clusters as large as In 32 were observed. In the secondary ion mass spectra, indium clusters up to In 18 + were recorded. Cluster yields obtained from both the neutral and ion channel exhibited a power law dependence on the number of constituent atoms, n, in the cluster, with the exponents measured to be -5.6 and -4. 1, respectively. An abundance drop was observed at n=8, 15, and 16 in both the neutral and ion yield distributions suggesting that the stability of the ion (either secondary ion or photoion) plays a significant role in the observed distributions. In addition, our experiments suggest that unimolecular decomposition of the neutral cluster may also plays an important role in the measured yield distributions

  14. Laser micromachining of sputtered DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.Q.; Luo, J.K.; Flewitt, A.J.; Ong, S.E.; Zhang, S.; Milne, W.I.

    2006-01-01

    DLC films with different thicknesses (from 100 nm to 1.9 μm) were deposited using sputtering of graphite target in pure argon atmosphere without substrate heating. Film microstructures (sp 2 /sp 3 ratio) and mechanical properties (modulus, hardness, stress) were characterized as a function of film thickness. A thin layer of aluminum about 60 nm was deposited on the DLC film surface. Laser micromachining of Al/DLC layer was performed to form microcantilever structures, which were released using a reactive ion etching system with SF 6 plasma. Due to the intrinsic stress in DLC films and bimorph Al/DLC structure, the microcantilevers bent up with different curvatures. For DLC film of 100 nm thick, the cantilever even formed microtubes. The relationship between the bimorph beam bending and DLC film properties (such as stress, modulus, etc.) were discussed in details

  15. Extraction inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Determination of traces of phosphorus in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Wegscheider, W.; Mueller, K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the separation and preconcentration of traces of phosphorus from tungsten was developed. Solid phase extraction of the phosphovanadomolybdate complex performed on a micro-column was applied. Phosphorus was determined by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) excitation. A limit of detection of 0,4 μg/g P with respect to the solid phase is obtained. By directly coupling the extraction/elution step to the ICP instrument a detection limit of 0,06 μg/g P in W was achieved. Besides, the complexity of spectral evaluation in ICP-OES determinations of traces in spectralline-rich matrices is discussed. (Authors)

  16. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films.

  17. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films

  18. Effects of surface relief on the high-dose sputtering of amorphous silicon and graphite by Ar ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulga, V.I.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ion-induced surface relief on high-dose sputtering of amorphous silicon and graphite targets have been studied using binary-collision computer simulation. The relief was modeled as a wavelike surface along two mutually perpendicular surface axes (a 3D hillock-and-valley relief). Most simulations were carried out for normally-incident 30-keV Ar ions. It was shown that the surface relief can both increase and decrease the sputtering yield compared to that for a flat surface. The results of simulations suggest that stabilization of the surface relief is possible even in the absence of any smoothing processes such as surface diffusion of atoms. Effects of a surface relief on the experimentally measurable angular and energy distributions of sputtered atoms are also considered. The fitting parameters of these distributions are shown to be non-monotonic functions of the relief aspect ratio. The angular distribution of atoms sputtered from a relief surface is modulated to a great extent by the shape of the relief. For a rough surface, azimuthal isotropy of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms was found, but at high bombarding energies only

  19. Study of magnetic properties and relaxation in amorphous Fe73.9Nb3.1Cu0.9Si13.2B8.9 thin films produced by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celegato, F.; Coiesson, M.; Magni, A.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F.; Kane, S. N.; Modak, S. S.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, P.

    2007-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 73.9 Nb 3.1 Cu 0.9 Si 13.2 B 8.9 thin films have been produced by ion beam sputtering with two different beam energies (500 and 1000 eV). Magnetic measurements indicate that the samples display a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, especially for samples prepared with the lower beam energy. Magnetization relaxation has been measured on both films with an alternating gradient force magnetometer and magneto-optical Kerr effect. Magnetization relaxation occurs on time scales of tens of seconds and can be described with a single stretched exponential function. Relaxation intensity turns out to be higher when measured along the easy magnetization axis

  20. Characterization of arsenic-contaminated aquifer sediments from eastern Croatia by ion microbeam, PIXE and ICP-OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujević Bošnjak, M.; Fazinić, S.; Duić, Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •ICP-OES and PIXE used in the characterization of As-contaminated sediments. •Observed high correlations between the results obtained by those techniques. •Discrepancies observed for Mn, and for the highest As concentrations. •Microbeam analyses showed As association with sulphides and iron. -- Abstract: Groundwater arsenic contamination has been evidenced in eastern Croatia and hydrochemical results suggest that the occurrence of arsenic in the groundwater depends on the local geology, hydrogeology, and geochemical characteristics of the aquifer. In order to perform the sediment characterization and to investigate arsenic association with the other elements in the sediments, 10 samples from two boreholes (PVc-3 and Gundinci 1) in eastern Croatia were analyzed using two techniques: PIXE (without sample pre-treatment) and ICP-OES (after digestion), as well by ion microbeam analyses. The results of the PIXE and ICP-OES techniques showed quite good agreement; however, greater discrepancies were observed at the higher arsenic and manganese mass ratios. According to both techniques, higher As mass ratios were observed in the sediments from the PVc-3 core (up to 651 mg/kg and 491 mg/kg using PIXE and ICP-OES analyses respectively) than from the Gundinci 1 core (up to 60 mg/kg using both techniques). Although arsenic association with Fe is expected, no correlation was observed. The microbeam analyses demonstrated that arsenic is associated with sulphides and iron in the most As-contaminated sample from the PVc-3 core, while this relationship was not evident in the most As-contaminated sample from the Gundinci 1 borehole

  1. Characterization of arsenic-contaminated aquifer sediments from eastern Croatia by ion microbeam, PIXE and ICP-OES techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujević Bošnjak, M., E-mail: magdalena.ujevic@hzjz.hr [Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Rockefelerova 7, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fazinić, S. [Institute Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Duić, Ž. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, Pierottijeva 6, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: •ICP-OES and PIXE used in the characterization of As-contaminated sediments. •Observed high correlations between the results obtained by those techniques. •Discrepancies observed for Mn, and for the highest As concentrations. •Microbeam analyses showed As association with sulphides and iron. -- Abstract: Groundwater arsenic contamination has been evidenced in eastern Croatia and hydrochemical results suggest that the occurrence of arsenic in the groundwater depends on the local geology, hydrogeology, and geochemical characteristics of the aquifer. In order to perform the sediment characterization and to investigate arsenic association with the other elements in the sediments, 10 samples from two boreholes (PVc-3 and Gundinci 1) in eastern Croatia were analyzed using two techniques: PIXE (without sample pre-treatment) and ICP-OES (after digestion), as well by ion microbeam analyses. The results of the PIXE and ICP-OES techniques showed quite good agreement; however, greater discrepancies were observed at the higher arsenic and manganese mass ratios. According to both techniques, higher As mass ratios were observed in the sediments from the PVc-3 core (up to 651 mg/kg and 491 mg/kg using PIXE and ICP-OES analyses respectively) than from the Gundinci 1 core (up to 60 mg/kg using both techniques). Although arsenic association with Fe is expected, no correlation was observed. The microbeam analyses demonstrated that arsenic is associated with sulphides and iron in the most As-contaminated sample from the PVc-3 core, while this relationship was not evident in the most As-contaminated sample from the Gundinci 1 borehole.

  2. Simultaneous impact of neutron irradiation and sputtering on the surface structure of self–damaged ITER–grade tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, A. I., E-mail: aibelyaeva@mail.ru; Savchenko, A. A. [National Technical University “Kharkov Politechnical Institute”, Kharkov, 61002 (Ukraine); Galuza, A. A.; Kolenov, I. V. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kharkov, 61024 (Ukraine)

    2014-07-15

    Simultaneous effects of neutron irradiation and long–term sputtering on the surface relief of ITER–grade tungsten were studied. The effects of neutron–induced displacement damage have been simulated by irradiation of tungsten target with W{sup 6+} ions of 20 MeV energy. Ar{sup +} ions with energy 600 eV were used as imitation of charge exchange atoms in ITER. The surface relief was studied after each sputtering act. The singularity in the WJ–IG surface relief was ascertained experimentally at the first time, which determines the law of roughness extension under sputtering. As follows from the experimental data, the neutron irradiation has not to make a decisive additional contribution in the processes developing under impact of charge exchange atoms only.

  3. Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: The role of secondary electrons and multiply charged metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering is closely related to the appearance of multiply charged ions. This conclusion is based on the properties of potential emission of secondary electrons and energy balance considerations. The effect is especially strong for materials whose sputtering yield is marginally greater than unity. The absolute deposition rate increases ∼Q 1/2 , whereas the rate normalized to the average power decreases ∼Q -1/2 , with Q being the mean ion charge state number

  4. On the microstructure and interfacial properties of sputtered nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    On the microstructure and interfacial properties of sputtered nickel ... (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed columnar morphology with voided boundaries for ..... compound phase formation by performing the deposition.

  5. Sputter-Resistant Materials for Electric Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 2 project shall develop sputter-resistant materials for use in electric propulsion test facilities and for plume shields on spacecraft using electric...

  6. Preliminary results on adhesion improvement using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Sputtering is an established technique for depositing films with smooth surfaces and interfaces and good thick control. Ejection of articles from a condensed matter due to impingement of high energy particles, termed as sputtering was observed as early as in 1852, however, it is only recently that the complex process of sputtering system. Coating adhesion and environmental stability of the ion beam sputtering deposition coatings performed very well. High-energy high-current ion beam thin film synthesis of adhesion problems can be solved by using. Enhancement of adhesion in thin film synthesis, using high energy and high current ion beam, of mobile phones, car parts and other possible applications in the related industry Alternative technology of wet chrome plating, considering environment and unit cost, for car parts and esthetic improvement on surface of domestic appliances.

  7. Preliminary results on adhesion improvement using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering is an established technique for depositing films with smooth surfaces and interfaces and good thick control. Ejection of articles from a condensed matter due to impingement of high energy particles, termed as sputtering was observed as early as in 1852, however, it is only recently that the complex process of sputtering system. Coating adhesion and environmental stability of the ion beam sputtering deposition coatings performed very well. High-energy high-current ion beam thin film synthesis of adhesion problems can be solved by using. Enhancement of adhesion in thin film synthesis, using high energy and high current ion beam, of mobile phones, car parts and other possible applications in the related industry Alternative technology of wet chrome plating, considering environment and unit cost, for car parts and esthetic improvement on surface of domestic appliances

  8. Antibacterial properties of palladium nanostructures sputtered on polyethylene naphthalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívková, M.; Válová, M.; Siegel, J.; Rimpelová, S.; Hubáček, Tomáš; Lyutakov, O.; Švorčík, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 90 (2015), s. 73767-73774 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : polymer * palladium sputtering * annealing * nanostructure * antibacterial effect Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  9. Sputtering of nano-grains by energetic ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bringa, E M

    2002-01-01

    Sputtering from grains with a size of tens of nanometers is important in a number of astrophysical environments having a variety of plasma properties and can have applications in nano-technology. Since energy deposition by incident ions or electrons can create 'hot' regions in a small grain, thermal spike (TS) models have been applied to estimate the sputtering. The excitations produced by a fast ion are often assumed to form a 'hot' cylindrical track. In this paper we use molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to describe the energy transport and sputtering due to the creation of a 'hot' track in a grain with one quarter million atoms. We show the enhancement due to grain size and find that TS models work over a limited range of excitation densities. Discrepancies of several orders of magnitude are found when comparing our MD results for sputtering of small dust grains to those obtained by the astrophysical community using spike models.

  10. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S., E-mail: jskim@sm.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-28

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  11. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed. (orig.)

  12. Sputtering of Au induced by single Xe ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of Au thin films has been determined for Xe ions with energies between 50 and 600 keV. In-situ transmission electron microscopy was used to observe sputtered Au during deposition on a carbon foil near the specimen. Total reflection and transmission sputtering yields for a 62 nm thick Au thin film were determined by ex-situ measurement of the total amount of Au on the carbon foils. In situ observations show that individual Xe ions eject Au nanoparticles as large as 7 nm in diameter with an average diameter of approximately 3 nm. Particle emission correlates with crater formation due to single ion impacts. Nanoparticle emission contributes significantly to the total sputtering yield for Xe ions in this energy range in either reflection or transmission geometry

  13. CO2 gas sensitivity of sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Gas sensitivity; ZnO; sputtering; XRD patterns; structure; thin films. 1. Introduction. Because zinc ... voltage and absorption properties of those fabricated films have been ... tations are useful in many physical applications. The in- plane (Hegde ...

  14. Sputtering of two-phase AgxCuγ alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibic, N.; Milosavljevic, M.; Perusko, D.; Wilson, I.H.

    1992-01-01

    Elemental sputtering yields from two phase AgCu alloys were measured for 20, 40 and 50 at % Ag. Argon ion bombardment energies were in the range 35-55 keV and the ion dose was 1 x 10 19 ions cm -2 . The sputtering yield for silver was found to be considerably below what was expected by simple selective sputtering of a two component alloy. Analysis by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy of the eroded surface indicated that surface diffusion of copper from copper rich grains and geometrical constraints in the dense cone forest on Cu/Ag eutectic regions combine to reduce the sputtering yield for silver. (author)

  15. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  16. Electronic sputtering of large organic molecules and its application in bio molecular mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundqvist, B.U.R.

    1992-01-01

    This is a review of research which has its origin in the discovery of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry (PDMS). Two main fields of research have developed, namely fundamental studies of the ejection process at fast ion impact and studies of applications of the new mass spectrometric technique. In this review the emphasis will be on the process of electronic sputtering of organic solids but also applications of this process in bio molecular mass spectrometry will be discussed. (author)

  17. Magnetospheric ion sputtering and water ice grain size at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Paranicas, C. P.; Shirley, J. H.; Dalton, J. B., III; Teolis, B. D.; Johnson, R. E.; Kamp, L.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first calculation of Europa's sputtering (ion erosion) rate as a function of position on Europa's surface. We find a global sputtering rate of 2×1027 H2O s-1, some of which leaves the surface in the form of O2 and H2. The calculated O2 production rate is 1×1026 O2 s-1, H2 production is twice that value. The total sputtering rate (including all species) peaks at the trailing hemisphere apex and decreases to about 1/3rd of the peak value at the leading hemisphere apex. O2 and H2 sputtering, by contrast, is confined almost entirely to the trailing hemisphere. Most sputtering is done by energetic sulfur ions (100s of keV to MeV), but most of the O2 and H2 production is done by cold oxygen ions (temperature ∼ 100 eV, total energy ∼ 500 eV). As a part of the sputtering rate calculation we compared experimental sputtering yields with analytic estimates. We found that the experimental data are well approximated by the expressions of Famá et al. for ions with energies less than 100 keV (Famá, M., Shi, J., Baragiola, R.A., 2008. Sputtering of ice by low-energy ions. Surf. Sci. 602, 156-161), while the expressions from Johnson et al. fit the data best at higher energies (Johnson, R.E., Burger, M.H., Cassidy, T.A., Leblanc, F., Marconi, M., Smyth, W.H., 2009. Composition and Detection of Europa's Sputter-Induced Atmosphere, in: Pappalardo, R.T., McKinnon, W.B., Khurana, K.K. (Eds.), Europa. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.). We compare the calculated sputtering rate with estimates of water ice regolith grain size as estimated from Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data, and find that they are strongly correlated as previously suggested by Clark et al. (Clark, R.N., Fanale, F.P., Zent, A.P., 1983. Frost grain size metamorphism: Implications for remote sensing of planetary surfaces. Icarus 56, 233-245.). The mechanism responsible for the sputtering rate/grain size link is uncertain. We also report a surface composition estimate using

  18. Noble-gas ion sputtering yield of gold and copper: Dependence on the energy and angle of incidence of the projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Florio, A.; Baragiola, R.A.; Jakas, M.M.; Alonso, E.V.; Ferron, J.

    1987-02-15

    We have measured the sputtering yield of Au and Cu targets as a function of energy and the angle of incidence of noble-gas projectiles in the energy range 2--50 keV. The experimental results were compared with the analytical theory of sputtering and with computer simulations. Our study indicates that the linear-cascade model is applicable only asymptotically for low nuclear stopping powers.

  19. Secondary ion formation during electronic and nuclear sputtering of germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, L.; Ernst, P.; Herder, M.; Meinerzhagen, F.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Wucher, A.

    2018-06-01

    Using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer attached to the UNILAC beamline located at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, we investigate the formation of secondary ions sputtered from a germanium surface under irradiation by swift heavy ions (SHI) such as 5 MeV/u Au by simultaneously recording the mass spectra of the ejected secondary ions and their neutral counterparts. In these experiments, the sputtered neutral material is post-ionized via single photon absorption from a pulsed, intensive VUV laser. After post-ionization, the instrument cannot distinguish between secondary ions and post-ionized neutrals, so that both signals can be directly compared in order to investigate the ionization probability of different sputtered species. In order to facilitate an in-situ comparison with typical nuclear sputtering conditions, the system is also equipped with a conventional rare gas ion source delivering a 5 keV argon ion beam. For a dynamically sputter cleaned surface, it is found that the ionization probability of Ge atoms and Gen clusters ejected under electronic sputtering conditions is by more than an order of magnitude higher than that measured for keV sputtered particles. In addition, the mass spectra obtained under SHI irradiation show prominent signals of GenOm clusters, which are predominantly detected as positive or negative secondary ions. From the m-distribution for a given Ge nuclearity n, one can deduce that the sputtered material must originate from a germanium oxide matrix with approximate GeO stoichiometry, probably due to residual native oxide patches even at the dynamically cleaned surface. The results clearly demonstrate a fundamental difference between the ejection and ionization mechanisms in both cases, which is interpreted in terms of corresponding model calculations.

  20. Development of a hybrid sputtering/evaporation process for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, M.; Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A.; Lorenzi, B.; Caccamo, L.; Miglio, L. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Solar Energy Research Center MIB-SOLAR, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Moneta, R.; Marchionna, S.; Meschia, M. [Voltasolar s.r.l, Turate (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we report a new method for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} deposition for solar cell application. Differently from the common co-evaporation process, an alterative approach for thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} has been tested: the sputtering deposition of metal elements combined with the selenium evaporation. We have studied the relationships between the growth parameters of our hybrid sputtering/evaporation method and the chemical-physical properties of the CIGS films. The cells are completed with a CdS buffer layer deposited by chemical bath deposition and ZnO + ITO deposited by RF sputtering. Test solar cells of 0.5 cm{sup 2} have shown an efficiency of 10% and 2.5% on glass and stainless steel substrate respectively. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)