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Sample records for springs area seward

  1. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  2. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  3. Sampling and analysis of 100 Area springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report is submitted in fulfillment of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-30-01, submit a report to EPA and Ecology evaluating the impact to the Columbia River from contaminated springs and seeps as described in the operable unit work plans listed in M-30-03. Springs, seeps, sediments, and the Columbia River were sampled for chemical and radiological analyses during the period September 16 through October 21, 1991. A total of 26 locations were sampled. Results of these analyses show that radiological and nonradiological contaminants continue to enter the Columbia River from the retired reactor areas of the 100 Area via the springs. The primary contaminants in the springs are strontium-90, tritium, and chromium. These contaminants were detected in concentrations above drinking water standards. Analysis of total organic carbon were run on all water samples collected; there is no conclusive evidence that organic constituents are entering the river through the springs. Total organic carbon analyses were generally higher for the surface water than for the springs. The results of this study will be used to develop a focused, yet flexible, long-term spring sampling program. Analysis of Columbia River water samples collected at the Hanford Townsite (i.e., downstream of the reactor areas) did not detect any Hanford-specific contaminants

  4. Uranium concentrations in stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Koyukuk, and Charley River areas, and across South-Central Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-04-01

    During the summer of 1975, a 6-week reconnaissance was conducted in widespread areas of Alaska as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program; Water, stream sediment, and bedrock samples were taken from the eastern Seward Peninsula, from north of Koyukuk River, from the Charley River area, and from across south central Alaska. This report contains the LASL uranium determinations resulting from fluorometric analysis of the water samples and delayed-neutron counting of the stream sediment samples. Results of total uranium for 611 water and 641 sediment samples, from 691 stream locations, are presented. Overlays showing the numbered sample locations and graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in water and stream sediment samples, at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) sheets and published geologic maps, are provided as plates. The main purposes of this work are to make the uranium data available to the public in the standard computer format used in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (i.e., with a DOE sample number giving the latitude and longitude of each sample location) and to provide uranium concentration overlays at the standard scale of 1:250,000 adopted by the DOE for the NURE program. It also allows a plausible explanation of differences between the uranium values for sediment as determined by acid dissolution/extraction/fluorometry and by delayed-neutron counting that were noted in the earlier report

  5. Geophysical investigations of the geologic and hydrothermal framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Jonathan; McPhee, Darcy K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Pilgrim Hot Springs, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, is characterized by hot springs, surrounding thawed regions, and elevated lake temperatures. The area is of interest because of its potential for providing renewable energy for Nome and nearby rural communities. We performed ground and airborne geophysical investigations of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area to identify areas indicative of high heat flow and saline geothermal fluids, and to map key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Studies included ground gravity and magnetic measurements, as well as an airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey. The structural and conceptual framework developed from this study provides critical information for future development of this resource and is relevant more generally to our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Potential field data reveal the Pilgrim area displays a complex geophysical fabric reflecting a network of intersecting fault and fracture sets ranging from inherited basement structures to Tertiary faults. Resistivity models derived from the airborne EM data reveal resistivity anomalies in the upper 100 m of the subsurface that suggest elevated temperatures and the presence of saline fluids. A northwest trending fabric across the northeastern portion of the survey area parallels structures to the east that may be related to accommodation between the two major mountain ranges south (Kigluaik) and east (Bendeleben) of Pilgrim Springs. The area from the springs southward to the range front, however, is characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with north-south extension that formed the basin. The area around the springs (~10 km2 ) is coincident with a circular magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. These features

  6. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Kougarok area, Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 302 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Kougarok River drainage as well as smaller adjacent drainages in the Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated

  7. An environmental survey of Serpentine Hot Springs: Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Hasselbach, Linda; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Skorupa, Dana; McCleskey, R. Blaine; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Serpentine Hot Springs is the most visited site in the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve. The hot springs have traditionally been used by the Native people of the Seward Peninsula for religious, medicinal and spiritual purposes and continue to be used in many of the same ways by Native people today. The hot springs are also popular with non-Native users from Nome and other communities, recreational users and pilots from out of the area, and hunters and hikers.

  8. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  9. Seward, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2.67-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  10. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  11. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  12. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  13. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the area of the Teller, Bendeleben, Candle, and Kateel River Quadrangles, Seward Peninsula and vicinity, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-05-01

    During July-August 1976, 2026 natural waters and 2085 bottom sediments were collected from 2209 sample locations (at a nominal density of one location each 23 km 2 ) on streams and small lakes throughout the Teller, Bendeleben, Candle, and western one-third of the Kateel River NTMS quadrangles, Alaska. Total uranium was measured in the waters by fluorometry and in the sediments and a few waters by delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of the waters ranged from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to a high of 14.50 ppB, averaging 0.44 ppB, and that of the sediments ranged from a low of 0.2 parts per million (ppM) to a high of 107.4 ppM, averaing 3.93 ppM. The uranium data for water and sediment are separately presented--as computer listings that include pertinent field measurements from each location, as graphically portrayed concentration overlays at 1:250,000 scale for each quadrangle, and as reduced figures showing contours drawn at various concentration levels for each quadrangle--and their areal distributions are compared and correlated with the known features and uranium showings. A test of increasingly detailed methods of data evaluation shows that the more extensive the evaluation, the more useful the reconnaissance uranium data are likely to be. The validity and potential usefulness of the HSSR uranium data are conclusively substantiated by the fact that evidence of all 23 of the reported uranium showings in the 50,000-km 2 study area can be discerned. Several new locations of interest for further field investigation are identified in each of the quadrangles, and most notably in the Bendeleben Mountains. However, the data presented would appear equally useful in guiding field investigation around the uranium occurrences already known, as noteworthy samples often come from close by but on tributary drainages adjacent, opposite, or above them

  14. Radiological Studies in the Hot Spring Region of Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun Thermal Spring Areas in Western Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity in and around the two hot springs, Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun, Western Sinai has been determined. The ground water, sediment and sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer for 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K isotopes. The enrichment of 226 Ra in Hammam Faraun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The concentration of 226 Ra in Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun hot springs are 68 and 2377 Bq/kg for sediments, 3.5 and 54.7 Bq/kg for wild plants, and 205 and 1945 mBq/l for the ground water, respectively. In addition, the concentration of sand samples are 14 times larger in the area of Hammam Faraun compared with that of Oyoun Mossa. On the other hand, the concentration of 232 Th in different samples are comparable in the two areas while 137 Cs concentrations are relatively higher in Oyoun Mossa. For the purpose of comparison, sand samples were collected from two locations 5-12 km away from each spring. The activity concentrations of the four locations are comparable and in agreement with those from the area of the two springs except in one case. The major difference was the activity concentration of 226 Ra in the area of Hammam Faraun, which is much higher. The concentrations of all detected isotopes in water samples from these two springs are much higher than that detected in 27 natural wells in north Sinai. The results of the present study indicate that water only in Hammam Faraun hot spring is contaminated with 238 U-isotopes and the surrounding area is affected by this contamination. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents in the surroundings of Hammam Faraun (81.8 μSv) is superior to the maximum contaminant levels recommended.

  15. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  16. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  17. Seward, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seward, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  18. In search of spring mires in Namibia: the Waterberg area revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Grootjans

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of peatlands and mires in Namibia is well known. Peatlands have been found in the north, which is the wettest part of the country. In the 1930s, spring mires were reported by German geologists in the Waterberg area, which also has relatively high annual precipitation. This short note reports some field observations and a literature search for old documents that mention the occurrence of springs and spring mires in the Waterberg region. The search was done by IMCG members who visited the Waterberg area in August 2014. We found springs, but no real mires. However, we found remnants of what might have been a large spring mire similar to that reported by the German geologist Paul Range, who found “local spring mires (Quellmoore with a peat thickness of several metres in northern South-West Africa”. Whether or not our peat remnants were situated at the same site as the Range discovery could not be assessed. We compared the landscape position of the peat remnants and spring in the Waterberg area of Namibia with information from an ongoing ecohydrological study in the Waterberg area of Limpopo Province, South Africa.

  19. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy.

  20. Natural and artificial radioactivity in Emendere thermal spring area in Western Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Karahan, G.; Guengoer, N.; Kirbasoglu, C.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K and 210 Po and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs in foodstuff, indicator organism sediment and soil samples in Emendere thermal spring area in western Anatolia were studied by alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. At the same time, the gross-α and β concentrations are also determined in the mentioned samples and the thermal spring and other water samples. The results obtained showed that Emendere thermal spring and Emendere stream waters are unsuitable for consumption as drinking purpose. On the other hand, the people who live around the thermal spring area face no risk with consumption of the foodstuffs. (author)

  1. Investigation on the possible interconnection between Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and springs of Argos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontiadis, I.; Dimitroulas, C.; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, A.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    /sup 51/Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of possible interconnection between the sinkhole Kanata, on the high Plateau of Tripolis, and springs of the areas of Argos, Achladokambos and Kinouria. By this experiment, the interconnection between the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios Achladokambos river, is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc., have been calculated.

  2. Delineating spring recharge areas in a fractured sandstone aquifer (Luxembourg) based on pesticide mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, J.; Drouet, L.; Gallé, T.; Pittois, D.; Bayerle, M.; Braun, C.; Maloszewski, P.; Vanderborght, J.; Elsner, M.; Kies, A.

    2013-06-01

    A simple method to delineate the recharge areas of a series of springs draining a fractured aquifer is presented. Instead of solving the flow and transport equations, the delineation is reformulated as a mass balance problem assigning arable land in proportion to the pesticide mass discharged annually in a spring at minimum total transport cost. The approach was applied to the Luxembourg Sandstone, a fractured-rock aquifer supplying half of the drinking water for Luxembourg, using the herbicide atrazine. Predictions of the recharge areas were most robust in situations of strong competition by neighbouring springs while the catchment boundaries for isolated springs were extremely sensitive to the parameter controlling flow direction. Validation using a different pesticide showed the best agreement with the simplest model used, whereas using historical crop-rotation data and spatially distributed soil-leaching data did not improve predictions. The whole approach presents the advantage of integrating objectively information on land use and pesticide concentration in spring water into the delineation of groundwater recharge zones in a fractured-rock aquifer.

  3. Framework for Springs Stewardship Program and proposed action development: Spring Mountains National Recreation Area, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Coles-Ritchie; Stephen J. Solem; Abraham E. Springer; Burton Pendleton

    2014-01-01

    In the desert Southwest, springs are an important ecological feature and serve as a focal point for both biological and human interactions on the landscape. As a result, attention has been placed on the stewardship and protection of these important resources. Management has traditionally focused on the more accessible and heavily used eastern canyons within the Spring...

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, Miroslaw; Astel, Aleksander; Wolanin, Anna; Malek, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocholowski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocholowski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. - Highlights: → We use SOM approach to explore physiochemical data for mountain waters. → Geologic structure and hydrological events impact water chemistry. → Limited leaching, typical of crystalline core, reflects in low water mineralization. → Sedimentary rocks are susceptible for leaching. → Eutrophication has not been shown to be a threat in the Chocholowska Valley. - Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in unique high-mountain area was evaluated by the self-organizing map technique.

  5. Simulated effects of increased groundwater withdrawals in the Cave Springs area, Hixson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.

    2014-01-01

    Concern for future water supplies in Tennessee has grown in recent years as a result of increased awareness of competing needs, the impact of droughts, and the need for more water to support growing populations. The U.S. Geological Survey conducts investigations to improve the knowledge about interactions of geology, climate, humans, and ecosystems with the water cycle, which is critical to understanding and optimizing water availability. The Hixson Utility District in Hamilton County, Tennessee, uses groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area as a water supply, withdrawing water from two well fields located at Cave Springs and Walkers Corner. Historically, Hixson Utility District has withdrawn about 5 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) at the Cave Springs well field and between 2 and 3 Mgal/d at the Walkers Corner well field. To assess the capacity of the groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area to meet future demands, four different scenarios of increased groundwater withdrawals were analyzed using computer model simulations.

  6. Wolfcampian brachiopods from the Bird Spring Group, Wamp Spring area, Las Vegas Range, Clark County, Nevada ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P.C.; Langenheim, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Wamp Spring section of the Bird Spring Group is subdivided into a basal platy limestone member, lower cliff-forming member, and upper cliff-forming member. Triticites, Schwagerina, and Schubertella kingi in the platy limestone member indicate an early Wolfcampian age. Schwagerina, Schubertella kingi, and a distinctive assemblage of brachiopods, similar to the West Texas fauna, indicate that the upper cliff-forming member is late Wolfcampian. The lower cliff-forming member is tentatively assigned to the middle Wolfcampian. The Wamp Spring sequence correlates temporally with the BSe 'formation' of the Bird Spring Group. The fossil-rich upper cliff-forming limestone member includes the new species Pontisia boodi, Crurithyris wampensis, and Calliprotonia(?) n. sp. A, as well as Hustedia culcitula, Crenispirifer(?) sp., Cenorhynchia(?) sp., Kutorginella(?) sp., marginiferids, lyssacine hexactinellid sponges, pleurotomarid and bellerophontid gastropods, cidaroid echinoids, rugose corals, cylindrical cryptostome bryozoans, and nuculids. -from Authors

  7. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  8. Proposed plan for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated material at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site and nearby properties in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry, both of which are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed in the 1950s and 1960s. Various liquid, sludge, and solid wastes were disposed of at the Chemical plant area and in the quarry during that time. The Weldon Spring site is listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The proposed plan is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the history and setting of the Weldon Spring site and briefly describes the contaminated material at the chemical plant area. Chapter 3 defines the scope of the remedial action and its role in the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. Chapter 4 summarizes the risks associated with possible exposures to site contaminants in the absence of remedial action and identifies proposed cleanup levels for soil. Chapter 5 briefly describes the final alternatives considered for the remedial action. Chapter 6 summarizes the evaluation of final alternatives for managing the contaminated material, identifies the currently preferred alternative, and discusses a possible contingency remedy to provide treatment flexibility. Chapter 7 presents the community's role in this action. Chapter 8 is a list of the references cited in this proposed plan

  9. Geological study of the landslide of the Fukenoyu thermal spring area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okami, K [Dept. of Mining and Civil Engg., Fac of Technology, Iwate Univ.; Murai, S; Karasaki, H

    1975-11-01

    The 1973 landslide at Fukenoyu thermal spring, Hachimantai National Park, Japan, was studied geologically. The subsurface structure of the area was determined to contain faulted basement rock with distinct glide planes and a predominantly clayey mineralogy, including montmorillonite. It was concluded that the landslide was caused by the influx of water from melting snow and unstable geology. Two maps, one cross section, six stratigraphic columns, two charts and one table are provided.

  10. Some geophysical and geological studies of the Tanzawa Mountains. [Nakagawa Hot Spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakami, T; Matsuda, T; Hiraga, S; Horai, K I; Sugita, M

    1964-11-01

    Joints and zeolite-veins in both metamorphic rocks and quartz diorite exposed along the Nakagawa River were studied. Fractures with zeolite-veins are most developed in three areas, the Nakagawa hot spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa. They follow two prevailing directions: N--S with minor right-lateral displacement and N60/sup 0/E with minor left-lateral displacement. The two fractures should represent a conjugate set that was produced by stress with maximum principal axis of N30/sup 0/E-S30/sup 0/W. Distribution and prevailing directions of fractures are illustrated. Geothermal gradients are measured in two newly opened boreholes, at the Nakagawa hot spring area and Higashizawa. The geothermal gradients are 12.60 +- 0.48/sup 0/C/100m at the Nakagawa hot spring and 5.55 +- 0.24/sup 0/C/100m at Higashizawa. Temperature-depth relationships in the two boreholes are given. Seismic observation was made at the Higashizawa. In five days 43 shocks were recorded, of which 20 are thought to have occurred 2 to 20km from the observation station, that is, in and very near the Tanzawa mountains. None have shallower hypocenters than 2 km in depth.

  11. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation

  12. Geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W T; Ballantyne, J M; Bryant, N L; Dedolph, R E

    1980-01-01

    Hot spring deposits in the Roosevelt thermal area consist of opaline sinter and sinter-cemented alluvium. Alluvium, plutonic rocks, and amphibolite-facies gneiss have been altered by acid-sulfate water to alunite and opal at the surface, and alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite to a depth of 70 m. Marcasite, pyrite, chlorite, and calcite occur below the water table at about 30 m. The thermal water is dilute (ionic strength 0.1 to 0.2) sodium-chloride brine. The spring water now contains 10 times as much Ca, 100 times as much Mg, and up to 2.5 times as much SO/sub 4/ as the deep water. Although the present day spring temperature is 25/sup 0/C, the temperature was 85/sup 0/C in 1950. A model for development of the observed alteration is supported by observation and irreversible mass transfer calculations. Hydrothermal fluid convectively rises along major fractures. Water cools by conduction and steam separation, and the pH rises due to carbon dioxide escape. At the surface, hydrogen and sulfate ions are produced by oxidation of H/sub 2/S. The low pH water percolates downward and reacts with feldspar in the rocks to produce alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite as hydrogen ion is consumed. 4 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Remedial investigation for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. Major goals include eliminating potential public and environmental hazards due to site contamination and releasing the property for alternate uses to the maximum extent practicable. The purpose of the remedial investigation described in this report was to determine the extent of contamination associated with the portion of the Weldon Spring site known as the chemical plant and raffinate pit area. The DOE has assumed responsibility for investigating and remediating all on-site soil contamination and off-site soil which is radiologically contaminated as a result of uranium and thorium processing operations. The DOE has also assumed the responsibility for radiologically contaminated groundwater on and off site. The Weldon Spring site remedial investigation also involved the evaluation of the sources, nature and extent, and environmental fate and transport of contaminants to provide a basis for defining the risks that the contaminants may pose to human health and the environment. Data are included in this report to support the screening of remedial technologies and to permit the development and detailed analysis of alternatives for remedial action at the site during the feasibility study process

  14. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  15. The Seward Park Family Literacy Program. Final Evaluation Report 1992-93. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Patricia

    The Seward Park Family Literacy Program was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its second year of operation at Seward Park High School in Manhattan (New York). In 1992-93 the program served Cantonese-, Mandarin-, and Spanish-speaking adults of limited English proficiency with instruction in English as a second…

  16. Development of groundwater pesticide exposure modeling scenarios for vulnerable spring and winter wheat-growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Lauren; Winchell, Michael; Peranginangin, Natalia; Grant, Shanique

    2017-11-01

    Wheat crops and the major wheat-growing regions of the United States are not included in the 6 crop- and region-specific scenarios developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for exposure modeling with the Pesticide Root Zone Model conceptualized for groundwater (PRZM-GW). The present work augments the current scenarios by defining appropriately vulnerable PRZM-GW scenarios for high-producing spring and winter wheat-growing regions that are appropriate for use in refined pesticide exposure assessments. Initial screening-level modeling was conducted for all wheat areas across the conterminous United States as defined by multiple years of the Cropland Data Layer land-use data set. Soil, weather, groundwater temperature, evaporation depth, and crop growth and management practices were characterized for each wheat area from publicly and nationally available data sets and converted to input parameters for PRZM. Approximately 150 000 unique combinations of weather, soil, and input parameters were simulated with PRZM for an herbicide applied for postemergence weed control in wheat. The resulting postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in a theoretical shallow aquifer were ranked to identify states with the largest regions of relatively vulnerable wheat areas. For these states, input parameters resulting in near 90 th percentile postbreakthrough average concentrations corresponding to significant wheat areas with shallow depth to groundwater formed the basis for 4 new spring wheat scenarios and 4 new winter wheat scenarios to be used in PRZM-GW simulations. Spring wheat scenarios were identified in North Dakota, Montana, Washington, and Texas. Winter wheat scenarios were identified in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado. Compared to the USEPA's original 6 scenarios, postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in the new scenarios were lower than all but Florida Potato and Georgia Coastal Peanuts of the original scenarios and better

  17. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  18. Feasibility study for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site is radioactively and chemically contaminated at levels that exceed certain standards and guidelines for protecting human health and the environment. The ongoing site characterization and environmental monitoring programs provide information on the nature and extent of contamination, including information for off-site areas to which contaminants have migrated or could migrate in the future. Although humans and biota are not adversely impacted by site contaminants at this time, the purpose of DOE's remedial action program is to preclude the potential for such impacts in the future by implementing long-term environmental restoration and waste management decisions. The DOE is addressing long-term management of the Weldon Spring site through an integrated environmental decision-making process. Supporting information for the feasibility study is provided in Appendixes A through J. This information addresses scoping (Appendix A), engineering technologies (Appendix B), potential health and environmental impacts (Appendixes C, D, E, F, H and I), regulatory requirements (Appendix G), and letters of consultation received from the various agencies contacted (Appendix J). Additional engineering information is presented in supporting technical reports

  19. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  20. Seward CFB boilers will curb water pollution and air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    When Reliant Energy Co's Seward station begins commercial operation in 2004, it will replace an 80-yr-old pulverized-coal plant with a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) facility that more than doubles the capacity while slashing total air emissions. The baseload facility, located in Indiana County, PA, will be fuelled by local low-grade waste coal. Added to the back end of the two 292-MW CFB boilers, selective noncatalytic reduction equipment will lower NOx emissions, and ALSTOM's flash dryer absorber (FDA) system will lower SO{sub 2} emissions whilst using less limestone. 3 photos.

  1. Investigation on the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of Argos areas (Peloponnese, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, Ioannis L.; Dimitroulas, Christos; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, Athanasios; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    51 Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of the Argos areas Achladokampos and Kinouria. By this experiment the interconnection of the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios river (Achladokampos) is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc. have been calculated. (author)

  2. Application of heat-flow techniques to geothermal energy exploration, Leach Hot Springs area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Ziagos, J.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Munroe, R.J.; di Somma, D.E.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 82 holes ranging in depth from 18 to 400 meters were drilled for thermal and hydrologic studies in a 200 km/sup 2/ area of Grass Valley, Nevada, near Leach Hot Springs. Outside the immediate area of Leach Hot Springs, heat flow ranges from 1 to 6.5 hfu with a mean of 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = 10/sup -6/ cal cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ = 41.8 mWm/sup -2/). Within 2 km of the springs, conductive heat flow ranges between 1.6 and more than 70 hfu averaging 13.6 hfu. Besides the conspicuous thermal anomaly associated with the hot springs, two additional anomalies were identified. One is associated with faults bounding the western margin of the Tobin Range near Panther Canyon, and the other is near the middle of Grass Valley about 5 km SSW of Leach Hot Springs. The mid-valley anomaly appears to be caused by hydrothermal circulation in a bedrock horst beneath about 375 meters of impermeable valley sediments. If the convective and conductive heat discharge within 2 km of the Leach Hot Springs is averaged over the entire hydrologic system (including areas of recharge), the combined heat flux from this part of Grass Valley is about 3 hfu, consistent with the average regional conductive heat flow in the Battle Mountain High. The hydrothermal system can be interpreted as being in a stationary stable phase sustained by high regional heat flow, and no localized crustal heat sources (other than hydrothermal convection to depths of a few kilometers) need be invoked to explain the existence of Leach Hot Springs.

  3. Hydrogeology and water chemistry of Infranz catchment springs, Bahir Dar Area, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    The major springs in the Infranz catchment are a significant source of water for Bahir city and nearby villages, while they help to sustain Infranz River and the downstream wetlands. The aim of the research was to understand the hydrogeological conditions of these high-discharge springs, and to explain the hydrochemical composition of spring waters. Water samples from rainwater and springs were collected and analyzed and compared for major cations and anions. The hydrochemical data analysis showed that all water samples of the springs have freshwater chemistry, Ca-HCO3 type, while deep groundwater shows more evolved types. This indicates limited water-rock interaction and short residence time for the spring waters. The rise of NO3- and PO43- may indicate future water quality degradation unless the anthropogenic activities upgradient and nearby are restricted. The uptake of 75% of spring water for water supply of Bahir Dar results in wetland degradation. Key words: Spring water, Infranz River, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, hydrochemistry

  4. Preliminary Surficial Geology of the Dove Spring Off-Highway Vehicle Open Area, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Amoroso, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Introduction As part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring plan to evaluate the environmental impact of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land in California, this report presents results of geologic studies in the Dove Spring OHV Open Area. This study produced baseline data, which when combined with historic and current patterns of land use, forms the basis for vegetation and wildlife monitoring designed to address the following questions: 1. Is the density and length of OHV routes increasing? 2. Are there cumulative effects of past and current OHV use associated with changes in the environmental integrity of soils, plants, and wildlife? 3. Is the spread of invasive species associated with levels of OHV use? 4. Is there a threshold of OHV impact that might be translated to management action by the BLM? The monitoring studies will be used to collect baseline environmental information to determine levels of environmental impact of OHV use. This approach will use a low-impact area as a proxy for pre-impact conditions (substituting space for time) to determine thresholds of OHV impacts beyond which environmental integrity is affected. Indicators of environmental integrity will emphasize factors that are fundamental to ecosystem structure and function and likely to be sensitive to OHV impacts. Surficial geology is studied because material properties such as texture and chemistry strongly control soil moisture and nutrient availability and therefore affect plant growth and distribution. An understanding of surficial geology can be used to predict and extrapolate soil properties and improve understanding of vegetation assemblages and their distribution. In the present study, vegetation associations may be examined as a function of surficial geology as well as other environmental variables such as slope, aspect, NRCS (National Resources Conservation Service) soil classification, elevation, and land-use history. Ground measurements of

  5. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Tirumalesh, K.; Noble, J.; Joseph, T.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Joshi, A.P.; Khati, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ 18 O and -3.8% for δ 2 H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  6. Modeling groundwater flow at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater flow in the shallow unconfined aquifer at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles County, Missouri, was modeled with the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) groundwater flow and contaminant transport computer code. The modeling was performed in support of a hydrogeological characterization effort that is part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement process being carried out by the US Department of Energy at the site. This report presents the results of model development and calibration. In the calibration procedure, the range of field-measured hydrogeological parameters was tested to obtain the best match between model-predicted and measured groundwater elevations. After calibration, the model was used to evaluate whether the presence of an on-site disposal cell would impact the ability to remediate contaminated groundwater beneath the cell. The results of the numerical modeling, which were based on an evaluation of steady-state groundwater flow velocity plots, indicated that groundwater would flow beneath the disposal cell along natural gradients. The presence of a disposal cell would not significantly affect remediation capability for groundwater contamination

  7. Mid-Wisconsin to Holocene permafrost and landscape dynamics based on a drained lake basin core from the northern Seward Peninsula, northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Josefine; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Anthony, Katey M. Walter; Bobrov, Anatoly; Wulf, Sabine; Wetterich, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost-related processes drive regional landscape dynamics in the Arctic terrestrial system. A better understanding of past periods indicative of permafrost degradation and aggradation is important for predicting the future response of Arctic landscapes to climate change. Here, we used a multi-proxy approach to analyse a ~ 4 m long sediment core from a drained thermokarst lake basin on the northern Seward Peninsula in western Arctic Alaska (USA). Sedimentological, biogeochemical, geochronological, micropalaeontological (ostracoda, testate amoebae) and tephra analyses were used to determine the long-term environmental Early-Wisconsin to Holocene history preserved in our core for central Beringia. Yedoma accumulation dominated throughout the Early to Late-Wisconsin but was interrupted by wetland formation from 44.5 to 41.5 ka BP. The latter was terminated by the deposition of 1 m of volcanic tephra, most likely originating from the South Killeak Maar eruption at about 42 ka BP. Yedoma deposition continued until 22.5 ka BP and was followed by a depositional hiatus in the sediment core between 22.5 and 0.23 ka BP. We interpret this hiatus as due to intense thermokarst activity in the areas surrounding the site, which served as a sediment source during the Late-Wisconsin to Holocene climate transition. The lake forming the modern basin on the upland initiated around 0.23 ka BP and drained catastrophically in spring 2005. The present study emphasises that Arctic lake systems and periglacial landscapes are highly dynamic and that permafrost formation as well as degradation in central Beringia was controlled by regional to global climate patterns as well as by local disturbances.

  8. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  9. Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Plummer, Niel; Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Schumacher, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration for lead deposits has occurred in a mature karst area of southeast Missouri that is highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities. The area contains the two largest springs in Missouri (Big Spring and Greer Spring), both of which flow into federally designated scenic rivers. Concerns about potential mining effects on the area ground water and aquatic biota prompted an investigation of Big Spring. Water-level measurements made during 2000 helped define the recharge area of Big Spring, Greer Spring, Mammoth Spring, and Boze Mill Spring. The data infer two distinct potentiometric surfaces. The shallow potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is less than about 250 feet, tends to mimic topographic features and is strongly controlled by streams. The deep potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is greater than about 250 feet represents ground-water hydraulic heads within the more mature karst areas. A highly permeable zone extends about 20 mile west of Big Spring toward the upper Hurricane Creek Basin. Deeper flowing water in the Big Spring recharge area is directed toward this permeable zone. The estimated sizes of the spring recharge areas are 426 square miles for Big Spring, 352 square miles for Greer Spring, 290 square miles for Mammoth Spring, and 54 square miles for Boze Mill Spring. A discharge accumulation curve using Big Spring daily mean discharge data shows no substantial change in the discharge pattern of Big Spring during the period of record (water years 1922 through 2004). The extended periods when the spring flow deviated from the trend line can be attributed to prolonged departures from normal precipitation. The maximum possible instantaneous flow from Big Spring has not been adequately defined because of backwater effects from the Current River during high-flow conditions. Physical constraints within the spring conduit system may restrict its maximum flow. The largest discharge measured at Big Spring

  10. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  11. Chemical soil data report to support interim response actions, construction staging area, and Administration Building: Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    Five activities are planned to improve environmental conditions or to improve facilities at the Weldon Spring Site. Each activity must be evaluated for potential environmental impacts. Chemical soil contamination was potentially present in each affected area. A sampling program was designed and implemented to evaluate chemical soil conditions. Samples were analyzed for nitroaromatic compounds, metals, inorganic anions, semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and PCBs. This investigation documented low concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds, pesticides, PCBs and nitroaromatics. Higher concentrations of nitrate, sulfate and some metals were also detected. The contaminants detected are consistent with past operations at the WSS. The concentrations of contaminants do not significantly impact the proposed activities. Data from this investigation has been incorporated into the planning and documentation activities for each activity

  12. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Tariq, J.A; Choudhry, M.A.; Hussain, Q.M.

    2008-10-01

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  13. Water chemistry and radon concentrations of thermal springs in Bastak area, south of Persia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirhosseini, S.M.; Moattar, F.; Karbassi, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical factors, major and some minor ions and 222 Rn concentration was measured in Todruyeh, Fotuyeh and Sanguyeh thermal balneutherapy springs in Bastak, south of Iran. Water type of these springs is Na-Cl and water-mixing phenomena seem possible in them. The average of U concentration in Fatuyeh's, Sanguyeh's and Todruyeh's water are 2.2, 1.1, 0.306 ppb, respectively, and the concentration of heavy metals such as Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn varies from 1 to 10 ppb. The concentration of 222 Rn in the water of Fotuyeh, Sanguyeh and Todruyeh Springs includes 125-253, 53-104, and 7.4-134.7 kBq/m 3 , respectively. Values of mean annual effective doses for inhalation from these waters are below the reference level recommended by WHO. (author)

  14. Carbonate rocks of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Their correlation and paleogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Alta; Repetski, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Paleozoic carbonate strata deposited in shallow platform to off-platform settings occur across the Seward Peninsula and range from unmetamorphosed Ordovician–Devonian(?) rocks of the York succession in the west to highly deformed and metamorphosed Cambrian–Devonian units of the Nome Complex in the east. Faunal and lithologic correlations indicate that early Paleozoic strata in the two areas formed as part of a single carbonate platform. The York succession makes up part of the York terrane and consists of Ordovician, lesser Silurian, and limited, possibly Devonian rocks. Shallow-water facies predominate, but subordinate graptolitic shale and calcareous turbidites accumulated in deeper water, intraplatform basin environments, chiefly during the Middle Ordovician. Lower Ordovician strata are mainly lime mudstone and peloid-intraclast grainstone deposited in a deepening upward regime; noncarbonate detritus is abundant in lower parts of the section. Upper Ordovician and Silurian rocks include carbonate mudstone, skeletal wackestone, and coral-stromatoporoid biostromes that are commonly dolomitic and accumulated in warm, shallow to very shallow settings with locally restricted circulation. The rest of the York terrane is mainly Ordovician and older, variously deformed and metamorphosed carbonate and siliciclastic rocks intruded by early Cambrian (and younger?) metagabbros. Older (Neoproterozoic–Cambrian) parts of these units are chiefly turbidites and may have been basement for the carbonate platform facies of the York succession; younger, shallow- and deep-water strata likely represent previously unrecognized parts of the York succession and its offshore equivalents. Intensely deformed and altered Mississippian carbonate strata crop out in a small area at the western edge of the terrane. Metacarbonate rocks form all or part of several units within the blueschist- and greenschist-facies Nome Complex. The Layered sequence includes mafic meta¬igneous rocks and

  15. Isotopic hydrology of Berrocal area (Toledo, Spain): I: Tritium in springs with thermonuclear resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This book the study on isotopic hydrology in El Berrocal, Toledo (Spain). The special topic was the study about the tritium of springs with thermonuclear source. The study are articulated in 3 chapter: 1.- Chemical analysis of wastes 2.- Tritium with thermonuclear source 3.- Human resources

  16. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  17. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1990-07-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  18. An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.

    1987-02-01

    Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  20. Final Program Report for 2010-2012: Monitoring and evaluation for conserving biological resources of the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen J. Solem; Burton K. Pendleton; Casey Giffen; Marc Coles-Ritchie; Jeri Ledbetter; Kevin S. McKelvey; Joy Berg; Jim Menlove; Carly K. Woodlief; Luke A. Boehnke

    2013-01-01

    The Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA) includes approximately 316,000 acres of National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada (see fig. 1-1). The Spring Mountains have long been recognized as an island of endemism, harboring flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. Conservation...

  1. Expansion rate and geometry of floating vegetation mats on the margins of thermokarst lakes, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsekian, A.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Jones, M.; Grosse, G.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Slater, L.

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on the northern Seward Peninsula in Alaska identified zones of recent (geometry is determined using geophysical and remote sensing measurements. The vegetation mats were observed to have an average thickness of 0.57m and petrophysical modeling indicated that gas content of 1.5-5% enabled floatation above the lake surface. Furthermore, geophysical investigation provides evidence that the mats form by thaw and subsidence of the underlying permafrost rather than terrestrialization. The temperature of the water below a vegetation mat was observed to remain above freezing late in the winter. Analysis of satellite and aerial imagery indicates that these features have expanded at maximum rates of 1-2myr-1 over a 56year period. Including the spatial coverage of floating 'thermokarst mats' increases estimates of lake area by as much as 4% in some lakes. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure

  3. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  4. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  5. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  6. Hydrogeology and sources of water to select springs in Black Canyon, south of Hoover Dam, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Wilson, Jon W.; Beard, L. Sue

    2015-11-03

    Springs in Black Canyon of the Colorado River, directly south of Hoover Dam in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, are important hydrologic features that support a unique riparian ecosystem including habitat for endangered species. Rapid population growth in areas near and surrounding Black Canyon has caused concern among resource managers that such growth could affect the discharge from these springs. The U.S. Geological Survey studied the springs in Black Canyon between January 2008, and May 2014. The purposes of this study were to provide a baseline of discharge and hydrochemical data from selected springs in Black Canyon and to better understand the sources of water to the springs.

  7. Preliminary assessment of arsenic concentration in a spring water area, iron quadrangle, Minas Gerais Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Magalhaes, Camila Lucia M.R., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Laboratorio de Ativacao Neutronica; Uemura, George, E-mail: george@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Meio Ambiente; Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Group for Radiochemistry and Radioecology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Deschamps, Maria Eleonora, E-mail: leonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.br [FEAM, Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente. Universidade FUMEC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Isaias, Rosy Mary; Salino, Alexandre, E-mail: rosy@icb.ufmg.br, E-mail: salino@icb.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Botanica, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, Fernando, E-mail: camila@bonsaimorrovelho.com.br [Instituto Superior de Ciencias da Saude, Curso Superior de Ciencias Biologicas, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The attention to environmental exposure to arsenic is increasing in the worldwide. In this scenario, a project is being developed in Santana do Morro, Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, region well known due to natural and anthropogenic occurrence of arsenic. This proposal has several objectives; one of them is to start a procedure of phyto remediation in laboratory aiming at future riparian forests restoration. The main concern is the preservation of water resource and consequently the health of the inhabitants. The study place is close to a water spring. One sampling was carried out, collecting plants, soil and sediment. The Neutron Activation Analysis, k{sub 0}-method, was applied to determine the elemental concentration, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 reactor, located at CDTN/CNEN. In this paper, the results are discussed. (author)

  8. Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized

  9. Preliminary assessment of arsenic concentration in a spring water area, iron quadrangle, Minas Gerais Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Magalhaes, Camila Lucia M.R.; Deschamps, Maria Eleonora; Isaias, Rosy Mary; Salino, Alexandre; Magalhaes, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The attention to environmental exposure to arsenic is increasing in the worldwide. In this scenario, a project is being developed in Santana do Morro, Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, region well known due to natural and anthropogenic occurrence of arsenic. This proposal has several objectives; one of them is to start a procedure of phyto remediation in laboratory aiming at future riparian forests restoration. The main concern is the preservation of water resource and consequently the health of the inhabitants. The study place is close to a water spring. One sampling was carried out, collecting plants, soil and sediment. The Neutron Activation Analysis, k 0 -method, was applied to determine the elemental concentration, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 reactor, located at CDTN/CNEN. In this paper, the results are discussed. (author)

  10. 100 Area and 300 Area Component of the River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment Spring 2006 Data Compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Queen; S. G. Weiss

    2006-11-20

    The purpose of this report is to describe the sampling approaches, modifications made to the 100 Area and 300 Area component of the RCBRA Sampling and Analysis Plan, summarize validation efforts, and provide sample identification numbers.

  11. 100 Area and 300 Area Component of the River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment Spring 2006 Data Compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, J.M.; Weiss, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the sampling approaches, modifications made to the 100 Area and 300 Area component of the RCBRA Sampling and Analysis Plan, summarize validation efforts, and provide sample identification numbers.

  12. Modern thermokarst lake dynamics in the continuous permafrost zone, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C.D.; Jones, M.C.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Romanovsky, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying changes in thermokarst lake extent is of importance for understanding the permafrost-related carbon budget, including the potential release of carbon via lake expansion or sequestration as peat in drained lake basins. We used high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery from 1950/51, 1978, and 2006/07 to quantify changes in thermokarst lakes for a 700 km2 area on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The number of water bodies larger than 0.1 ha increased over the entire observation period (666 to 737 or +10.7%); however, total surface area decreased (5,066 ha to 4,312 ha or -14.9%). This pattern can largely be explained by the formation of remnant ponds following partial drainage of larger water bodies. Thus, analysis of large lakes (>40 ha) shows a decrease of 24% and 26% in number and area, respectively, differing from lake changes reported from other continuous permafrost regions. Thermokarst lake expansion rates did not change substantially between 1950/51 and 1978 (0.35 m/yr) and 1978 and 2006/07 (0.39 m/yr). However, most lakes that drained did expand as a result of surface permafrost degradation before lateral drainage. Drainage rates over the observation period were stable (2.2 to 2.3 per year). Thus, analysis of decadal-scale, high spatial resolution imagery has shown that lake drainage in this region is triggered by lateral breaching and not subterranean infiltration. Future research should be directed toward better understanding thermokarst lake dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution as these systems have implications for landscape-scale hydrology and carbon budgets in thermokarst lake-rich regions in the circum-Arctic.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting 238 U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected 241 Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area

  14. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  15. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  16. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  17. Seward Park High School Project CABES 1984-1985. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Career Advancement through Bilingual Educational Skills (Project CABES) completed the second year of a 3-year funding cycle at Seward Park High School on Manhattan's Lower East Side. Project CABES serves 233 recently immigrated, predominantly low-income, ninth through twelfth grade, Hispanic students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Included…

  18. Seward Park High School Project CABES, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1985-86, the Career Advancement through Bilingual Education Skills (CABES) project was in the final year of a three-year funding cycle at Seward Park High School in Manhattan, New York. The project's major goal was to provide career advancement skills to a population group of 279 students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Included in the…

  19. Modelling spring flood in the area of the Upper Volga basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Helms

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river-basin management for the Volga river requires understanding and modelling of the flow process in its macro-scale tributary catchments. At the example of the Kostroma catchment (16 000 km2, a method combining existing hydrologic simulation tools was developed that allows operational modelling even when data are scarce. Emphasis was placed on simulation of three processes: snow cover development using a snow-compaction model, runoff generation using a conceptual approach with parameters for seasonal antecedent moisture conditions, and runoff concentration using a regionalised unit hydrograph approach. Based on this method, specific regional characteristics of the precipitation-runoff process were identified, in particular a distinct threshold behaviour of runoff generation in catchments with clay-rich soils. With a plausible overall parameterisation of involved tools, spring flood events could successfully be simulated. Present paper mainly focuses on the simulation of a 16-year sample of snowmelt events in a meso-scale catchment. An example of regionalised simulation in the scope of the modelling system "Flussgebietsmodell" shows the capabilities of developed method for application in macro-scale tributary catchments of the Upper Volga basin.

  20. Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989 the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the US Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. US Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 ± 0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contaminated less than 0.3 ± 0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes of Precipitation in a Rocky Mountainous Area of Beijing to Distinguish and Estimate Spring Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were used to estimate seasonal contributions of precipitation to natural spring recharge in Beijing’s mountainous area. Isotopic compositions were shown to be more positive in the dry season and more negative in the wet season, due to the seasonal patterns in the amount of precipitation. The local meteoric water line (LMWL was δ2H = 7.0 δ18O − 2.3 for the dry season and δ2H = 5.9 δ18O − 10.4 for the wet season. LMWL in the two seasons had a lower slope and intercept than the Global Meteoric Water Line (p < 0.01. The slope and intercept of the LMWL in the wet season were lower than that in the dry season because of the effect of precipitation amount during the wet season (p < 0.01. The mean precipitation effects of −15‰ and −2‰ per 100 mm change in the amount of precipitation for δ2H and δ18O, respectively, were obtained from the monthly total precipitation and its average isotopic value. The isotopic composition of precipitation decreased when precipitation duration increased. Little changes in the isotopic composition of the natural spring were found. By employing isotope conservation of mass, it could be derived that, on average, approximately 7.2% of the natural spring came from the dry season precipitation and the rest of 92.8% came from the wet season precipitation.

  2. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the

  3. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  4. Research in karst aquifers developed in high-mountain areas combining KARSYS models with springs discharge records. Picos de Europa, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Meléndez, Mónica; Malard, Arnauld; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Heredia, Nemesio; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    The study of karst aquifers developed in high-mountain areas is quite complex since the application of many techniques of hydrogeology in these areas is difficult, expensive, and requires many hours of field work. In addition, the access to the study area is usually conditioned by the orography and the meteorological conditions. A pragmatic approach to study these aquifers can be the combination of geometric models of the aquifer with the monitoring of the discharge rate of springs and the meteorological records. KARSYS approach (Jeannin et al. 2013) allows us to elaborate a geometric model of karst aquifers establishing the boundaries of the groundwater bodies, the main drainage axes and providing evidences of the catchment delineation of the springs. The aim of this work is to analyse the functioning of the karst aquifer from the western and central part of the Picos de Europa Mountains (Spain) combining the KARSYS approach, the discharge record from two springs and the meteorological records (rain, snow and temperature). The Picos de Europa (North Spain) is a high-mountains area up to 2.6 km altitude with 2,500 mm/year of precipitations. The highest part of these mountains is covered by snow four to seven months a year. The karst aquifer is developed in Carboniferous limestone which is strongly compartmentalized in, at least, 17 groundwater bodies. The method of work includes: 1) the elaboration of a hydrogeological 3D model of the geometry of the karst aquifers by KARSYS approach, 2) the definition of the springs catchment areas based on the hydrogeological 3D model, 3) the selection of two representative springs emerging from the aquifers to study it, 4) the continuous monitoring of water levels in two karst springs since October 2013, 5) the transformation of the water level values to flow values using height-stream relation curves constructed by measures of the spring discharge, and 5) the comparison of the spring discharge rate records and meteorological

  5. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  6. Baseline risk assessment for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 microg/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  7. Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia Sardinia Sicily area during spring 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammari, C.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Stefani, A.; Brahim, M.

    1999-10-01

    Within the framework of the Tunisian - EC SALTO/AVICENNE project, four hydrological sections were performed between Tunisia, Sardinia and Sicily with a 10-20 km sampling interval in April-June 1995. To our knowledge, it is the first time that sections were repeated there at such a high frequency. These data significantly increase the number of observations available on the Tunisian side of the Channels of Sardinia and Sicily, and allow reliable specification of the hydrological characteristics of the area. For the first time, and as confirmed by infrared satellite images, these data sets show (i) the large mesoscale variability of the surface flow entering the study area, as expected from the characteristics of the Algerian Current upstream, (ii) the rapid changes it undergoes around northeastern Tunisia, as it shifts roughly from southward to eastward within less than a few weeks. These data also show a large heterogeneity at intermediate levels, clearly associated with waters of very different origins that follow converging routes and mix in both the study area and the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. They finally document the fundamental importance of bathymetric features of relatively small scale such as the Skerki passage.

  8. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  9. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, at Seward, Alaska: Chapter E in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Richard W.

    1967-01-01

    Seward, in south-central Alaska, was one of the towns most devastated by the Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964. The greater part of Seward is built on an alluvial fan-delta near the head of Resurrection Bay on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula. It is one of the few ports in south-central Alaska that is ice free all year, and the town’s economy is almost entirely dependent upon its port facilities. The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, magnitude approximately 8.3–8.4, began at 6:36 p.m. Its epicenter was in the northern part of the Prince William Sound area; focal depth was 20–50 km. Strong ground motion at Seward lasted 3–4 minutes. During the shaking, a strip of land 50–400 feet wide along the Seward waterfront, together with docks and other harbor facilities, slid into Resurrection Bay as a result of large-scale submarine landsliding. Fractures ruptured the ground for'severa1 hundred feet back from the landslide scarps. Additional ground was fractured in the Forest Acres subdivision and on the alluvial floor of the Resurrection River valley; fountaining and sand boils accompanied the ground fracturing. Slide-generated wares, possibly seiche waves, and seismic sea waves crashed onto shore; ware runup was as much as 30 feet above mean lower low water and caused tremendous damage; fire from burning oil tanks added to the destruction. Damage from strong ground motion itself was comparatively minor. Tectonic subsidence of about 3.6 feet resulted in low areas being inundated at high tide. Thirteen people were killed and five were injured as a result of the earthquake. Eighty-six houses were totally destroyed and 260 were heavily damaged. The harbor facilities were almost completely destroyed, and the entire economic base of the town was wiped out. The total cost to replace the destroyed public and private facilities was estimated at $22 million. Seward lies on the axis of the Chugach Mountains geosyncline. The main structural trend in the mapped

  10. Investigation of the possible interconnection of the sinkhole of Taka Lake and various springs of the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, I.L.; Dimitroulas, Christos; Zouridakis, N.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1987-09-01

    51 Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer to investigate the possible interconnection of the sinkhole of Taka Lake (high plateau of Tripolis) and a number of springs in Arkadia and Lakonia (Peloponnese). For the same purpose analyses of the isotopic composition of the water of the same springs, as well as of that of Taka Lake have been performed. The results of this research reconfirm the contribution of the water entering the sinkhole of Taka Lake to the feeding of Astros Anavalos spring, this contribution being apparent only during the low flow period. The common origin of Loukou, Valtos, Moustos and Aghios Andreas spring water was also proved and determined. The origin of the water of Zorros spring (Lakonia) was determined as well. (author)

  11. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah: Petrographic characterization of the alteration to 2 kilometers depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.; Parry, W.T.

    1978-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration in drill cuttings from Thermal Power drillhole 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal area, has been studied petrographically. The hole is sited in alluvium approximately 1.6 km southeast of the old Resort and was rotary drilled to a depth of 1866.0 m. The exact hole location is 2310 FNL, 350 FWL, Sec. 2, Twp 27S, Rge 9W, elevation 1908.5 m. Core was extracted from 792.5 to 795.5 m. Thin sections were made from samples at 15.2 m intervals of drill cuttings collected at 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals during drilling. Thin sections were made of 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals from 274.3 to 304.8 m, 487.9 to 581.2 m, and 868.7 to 899.2 m. These intervals were chosen for close spaced sampling on the basis of increases in temperature, porosity, conductivity and acoustic velocity shown in geophysical logs. A total of 153 thin sections of cuttings were made, and an additional 9 sections were made from the core. Depths of thin section samples are listed in the appendix. A visual estimate of the percentage of each rock type was made for each thin section.

  12. Foraging range, habitat use and minimum flight distances of East Atlantic Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota in their spring staging areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Hounisen, Jens Peder

    2013-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite telemetry was used to determine the foraging range, habitat use and minimum flight distances for individual East Atlantic Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota at two spring staging areas in Denmark. Foraging ranges (mean ± s.d. = 53.0 ± 23.4 km...

  13. Analysis of the Erosion Law of Karst Groundwater Using Hydrogeochemical Theory in Liulin Spring Area, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical model of the Liulin karstic spring area in the eastern limb of the Ordos syncline was established by a combination of chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics and hydrogeology. The study area was divided into four zones based on the saturation indices of calcite, dolomite and gypsum, which were computed by the groundwater-chemical simulation software PHREEQC (a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations, with consideration of the geological and hydrogeological conditions and hydro-geochemical reactions. The weight and volume modulus of carbonate rocks and sulphate rocks in each zone were calculated by the method of correlation analysis to evaluate the dissolution law of karst groundwater. The results showed that in the zone I (saturation index of calcite βc ≤ 1 the dissolution of calcite was the major geochemical reaction, the weight modulus of calcite was higher than that of dolomite and gypsum, and the pore space generated by the dissolution of calcite was one order of magnitude larger than that of dolomite and gypsum. In zone II (saturation index of calcite βc > 1 to saturation index of dolomite βd ≤ 1 the corrosion moduli were all smaller than that in zone I, the solubility of dolomite and gypsum increased, and calcite reached saturation. The space occupied by the calcite sediment was less than that dissolved by dolomite and gypsum. In zone III (saturation index of dolomite βd > 1 to saturation index of gypsum βg ≤ 1, calcite and dolomite had reached saturation, accompanied by dedolomitization, and the amount of gypsum dissolution increased obviously. The conclusions indicate that the hydrogeochemical environment plays an important role in mineral dissolution.

  14. Disequilibria in the disintegration series of U and Th and chemical parameters in thermal spring waters from the Tatun volcanic area (Taiwan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chunchih; Chu Tiehchi; Huang Yufen

    2003-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 228 Th in thermal spring waters in the Tatun volcanic area were determined. Parameters including acidity, Cl - and SO 4 2- concentrations in spring waters at the sampling sites have been investigated to allow interpretation of the migration of the radionuclides, and to elucidate the influence of these parameters on the variations of radionuclide contents. Radioactive disequilibria were found in uranium and thorium series in thermal spring waters. The contents of uranium and thorium decreased with increasing pH. The ratios of 230 Th/ 234 U, 226 Ra/ 230 Th and 228 Th/ 232 Th show significant disequilibria. The 226 Ra/ 230 Th ratio (0.60-34.8) decreased with the Cl - or SO 4 2- concentration. All 228 Th/ 232 Th ratios (1.01-9.49) deviated from unity due to the co-precipitation of 228 Ra with barium and lead sulfate. (orig.)

  15. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  16. Reconnaissance study of the uranium and thorium contents of plutonic rocks of the southwestern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.P.; Bunker, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Large granitic Cretaceous plutons are exposed along and adjacent to an arcuate belt of igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks in the southeastern Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Reconnaissance studies of these plutons have shown that the Darby pluton has well above average amounts of uranium and thorium (11.2 ppm and 58.7 ppm, respectively), the Kachauik pluton contains average to above average uranium and thorium (5.7 ppm and 22.5 ppm, respectively), and the Bendeleben pluton contains average amounts of uranium and thorium (3.4 ppm and 16.7 ppm, respectively). The three plutons show compositional and textural differences indicative of different source materials that may have controlled the distribution of uranium and thorium. The high uranium and thorium contents of the Darby pluton, similar to those of the Conway Granite of New Hampshire which has been mentioned as a possible low-grade thorium resource, suggest that this pluton may be a favorable area for economic concentrations of uranium and thorium

  17. Expansion rate and geometry of floating vegetation mats on the margins of thermokarst lakes, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsekian, A.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Jones, M.; Grosse, G.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Slater, L.

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on the northern Seward Peninsula in Alaska identified zones of recent (<50years) permafrost collapse that led to the formation of floating vegetation mats along thermokarst lake margins. The occurrence of floating vegetation mat features indicates rapid degradation of near-surface permafrost and lake expansion. This paper reports on the recent expansion of these collapse features and their geometry is determined using geophysical and remote sensing measurements. The vegetation mats were observed to have an average thickness of 0.57m and petrophysical modeling indicated that gas content of 1.5-5% enabled floatation above the lake surface. Furthermore, geophysical investigation provides evidence that the mats form by thaw and subsidence of the underlying permafrost rather than terrestrialization. The temperature of the water below a vegetation mat was observed to remain above freezing late in the winter. Analysis of satellite and aerial imagery indicates that these features have expanded at maximum rates of 1-2myr-1 over a 56year period. Including the spatial coverage of floating 'thermokarst mats' increases estimates of lake area by as much as 4% in some lakes. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Hydrogeology, geochemistry, and quality of water of The Basin and Oak Spring areas of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Buszka, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Test drilling near two sewage lagoons in The Basin area of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas, has shown that the alluvium and colluvium on which the lagoons are located is not saturated in the immediate vicinity of the lagoons. A shallow aquifer, therefore, does not exist in this critical area at and near the lagoons. Should seepage outflow from the lagoons occur, the effluent from the lagoons might eventually be incorporated into shallow ground water moving westward in the direction of Oak Spring. Under these conditions such water could reach the spring. Test borings that bottomed in bedrock below the alluvial and colluvial fill material are dry, indicating that no substantial leakage from the lagoons was detected. Therefore, no contaminant plume was identified. Fill material in The Basin does not contain water everywhere in its extensive outcropping area and supplies only a small quantity of ground water to Window Pouroff, which is the only natural surface outlet of The Basin.

  19. Microbial diversity of acidic hot spring (kawah hujan B) in geothermal field of kamojang area, west java-indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

  20. Ground-Water Age and Quality in the High Plains Aquifer near Seward, Nebraska, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Landon, Matthew K.; Turco, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Seward, Nebraska, conducted a study of ground-water age and quality to improve understanding of: (1) traveltimes from recharge areas to public-supply wells, (2) the effects of geochemical reactions in the aquifer on water quality, and (3) how water quality has changed historically in response to land-use practices. Samples were collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field and from nine monitoring wells along two approximate ground-water flow paths leading to the well field. Concentrations of three different chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12, CFC-11, and CFC-113), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and ratios of tritium (3H) to helium-3 (3He) isotope derived from radioactive decay of 3H were used to determine the apparent recharge age of ground-water samples. Age interpretations were based primarily on 3H/3He and CFC-12 data. Estimates of apparent ground-water age from tracer data were complicated by mixing of water of different ages in 10 of the 13 ground-water samples collected. Apparent recharge dates of unmixed ground-water samples or mean recharge dates of young fractions of mixed water in samples collected from monitoring wells ranged from 1985 to 2002. For monitoring-well samples containing mixed water, the fraction of the sample composed of young water ranged from 26 to 77 percent of the sample. Apparent mean recharge dates of young fractions in samples collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field ranged from about 1980 to 1990. Estimated fractions of the samples composed of young water ranged from 39 to 54 percent. It is implicit in the mixing calculations that the remainder of the sample that is not young water is composed of water that is more than 60 years old and contains no detectable quantities of modern atmospheric tracers. Estimated fractions of the mixed samples composed of 'old' water ranged from 23 to 74 percent. Although alternative mixing models can be used to

  1. Supplemental feasibility study for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Site data evaluated indicate that after source removal, dilution and dispersion appear to be the primary processes that would further attenuate groundwater contaminant concentrations. On the basis of these attenuation processes, the calculations presented in Chapter 2 indicate that it would take several years to decades (approximately 60 to 150 and 14 years, respectively, for Zones 1 and 2) for TCE concentrations in Zones 1 and 2 to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 5 pg/L. The estimates for Zones 1 through 3, where the higher nitrate concentrations are clustered, indicate that it would likely take at least 80 years for nitrate concentrations to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 10 mg/L. Costs for implementing NINA for groundwater at the chemical plant area are primarily associated with those incurred for monitoring contaminant concentrations and the replacement costs for monitoring wells. Cost estimates are relatively high because a rather lengthy period of monitoring would be involved. Calculations performed to evaluate the feasibility of groundwater removal and subsequent treatment of the extracted water included determinations for the number of extraction wells needed, required number of pore volumes, and the number of years of implementation required to attain bench marks. The calculations were performed per zone of contamination, as discussed in Chapter 1. Several observations can be made about the results presented in Chapter 3 regarding Alternative 4. The first is that by looking at the results for Zones 1 and 2 evaluated under Alternative 4, one can also assess the feasibility of Alternative 7, because Alternative 7 addresses this particular subset of Alternative 4 (i.e., Zones 1 and 2). TCE contamination has been observed in Zones 1 and 2, but has not been reported in any of the remaining five zones. Nitrate, nitroaromatic compounds, and uranium have also been reported in Zones 1 and 2. The present-worth costs for implementing the pump and treat

  2. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  3. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  4. A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

  5. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  6. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  7. The impact of different soil tillage on weed infestation of spring barley in conditions of dryer climatic areas Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Winkler

    2008-01-01

    The impact of soil tillage on weeds in spring barley was observed on the field trial. The field trial was established in very warm and dry climatic region (experimental field station in Žabčice, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Czech Republic). In the experiment there was used 7-strip crop rotation and three variants of soil tillage: conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), when soil is shallow loosened and no tillage (NT) what means direct sowing without any soil t...

  8. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance of the Seward NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, D.L.; Hardy, L.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Seward NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  9. The impact of different soil tillage on weed infestation of spring barley in conditions of dryer climatic areas Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of soil tillage on weeds in spring barley was observed on the field trial. The field trial was established in very warm and dry climatic region (experimental field station in Žabčice, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Czech Republic. In the experiment there was used 7-strip crop rotation and three variants of soil tillage: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT, when soil is shallow loosened and no tillage (NT what means direct sowing without any soil tillage. The weed infestation was evaluated by counting method before herbicide application. Analysis of va­rian­ce (ANOVA and then LSD methods, DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis and CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis were used for evaluation of results. The obtained results showed, that different soil tillage did not statistically influenced weed infestation in spring barley. The number of weed species depended on the depth of soil tillage, the variant of minimum tillage had lower number of weed species. These species were more common on the variant of conventional tillage: Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora, Sinapis arvensis, Veronica polita. The variant of minimum tillage was more suitable for these species: Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Amaranthus sp., Galium aparine. On the variant of direct so­wing there appeared mainly these species: Sonchus oleraceus, Lactuca serriola, Tripleurospermum inodorum.

  10. High shrew diversity on Alaska's Seward Peninsula: Community assembly and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, 6 species of shrews (genus: Sorex) were collected at a single locality on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Such high sympatric diversity within a single mammalian genus is seldom realized. This phenomenon at high latitudes highlights complex Arctic community dynamics that reflect significant turnover through time as a consequence of environmental change. Each of these shrew species occupies a broad geographic distribution collectively spanning the entire Holarctic, although the study site lies within Eastern Beringia, near the periphery of all individual ranges. A review of published genetic evidence reflects a depauperate shrew community within ice-free Beringia through the last glaciation, and recent assembly of current diversity during the Holocene.

  11. [Distributions and air-sea fluxes of dissolved nitrous oxide in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area in spring and summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Gui-ling; Sun, Ming-shuang; Ren, Jing-ling

    2014-12-01

    Distributions and air-sea fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the seawaters of the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area were investigated during two cruises in March and July 2012. Dissolved N2O concentrations in surface waters ranged from 9.34 to 49.08 nmol x L(-1) with an average of (13.27 ± 6.40) nmol x L(-1) in spring and ranged from 7.27 to 27.81 nmol x L(-1) with an average of (10.62 ± 5.03) nmol x L(-1) in summer. There was no obvious difference between surface and bottom N2O concentrations. N2O concentrations in both surface and bottom waters decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea. High values of dissolved N2O were found in turbidity maximum zone, which suggests that maximal turbidity enhances nitrification. Temperature had dual effects on dissolved N2O concentrations. N2O saturations in surface waters ranged from 86.9% to 351.3% with an average of (111.5 ± 41.4)% in spring and ranged from 111.7% to 396.0% with an average of (155.9 ± 68.4)% in summer. N2O were over-saturated at most stations. The sea-to-air fluxes of N2O were estimated to be (3.2 ± 10.9), (5.5 ± 19.3) and (12.2 ±52.3) μmol x (m2 x d)(-1) in spring and (7.3 ± 12.4), (12.7 ± 20.4) and (20.4 ± 35.9) μmol x (m2 x d)(-1) in summer using the LM86, W92 and RC01 relationships, respectively. The annual emissions of N2O from the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area were estimated to be 0.6 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (LM86), 1.1 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (W92) and 2.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (RC01). Although the area of the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area only accounts for 0.02% of the total area of the world's oceans, their emission of N2O accounts for 0.06% of global oceanic N2O emission, indicating that the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area is an active area to produce and emit N2O.

  12. Ion exchange removal of strontium from simulated and actual N-Springs well water at the Hanford 100-N Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kafka, T.M.; White, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    Experimental ion exchange studies are being conducted by the Pacific Northwest national Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program to evaluate newly emerging materials and technologies for removing cesium, strontium, technetium, and transuranic elements from simulated and actual wastes at Hanford. Previous work focused on applications to treat high-level alkaline tank wastes, but many of the technologies can also be applied in process and ground-water remediation. Ultimately, each process must be evaluated in terms of life-cycle costs, removal efficiency, process chemical consumption and recycle, stability of materials exposed to chemicals and radiation, compatibility with other process streams, secondary waste generation, process and maintenance costs, and final material disposal. This report assesses the performance of the 3M-designed Process Absorber Development Unit (PADU) and the AlliedSignal-produced sodium nonatitanate (NaTi) material in trace quantities of strontium from simulated and actual Hanford N-Springs ground water. The experimental objective was to determine the strontium-loading breakthrough profile of a proprietary 3M-engineered material in either disk or cartridge forms

  13. Serratia sp. ZF03: an efficient radium biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Farideh; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza; Atarilar, Ali

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize (226)Ra biosorbing indigenous bacterial strains from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of (226)Ra by using biochemical and molecular approaches. Fifteen bacteria were isolated and their phylogenetic affiliations were determined based on their 16S rRNA gene and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 analysis. A pigmented Serratia sp. ZF03 strain isolated from the water with (226)Ra content of 50471 mBq l(-1), caused 70% removal of (226)Ra at a radioactivity level of 50 Bq ml(-1), after 5 min and 75-80% in equilibrium time of 1 h, depending on the particular biosorption system and experimental conditions studied. The biosorption equilibrium was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Effect of different physico-chemical parameters on (226)Ra sorption, FTIR, SEM and TEM analysis were also investigated. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  15. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  16. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plant for the Environmental Monitoring Plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Lockheed Martin Energy System, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  17. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plant for the Environmental Monitoring Plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Lockheed Martin Energy System, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources

  18. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources

  19. Serratia sp. ZF03: an efficient radium biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas of Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, F.; Sadeghizadeh, M.; Akbari Noghabi, K.; Farshidpour, M.R.; Kardan, M.R.; Atarilar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radionuclides, in particular those emitting alpha particles, make the largest contribution to the world population exposure. The most important example is 226 Ra, with a high potency for causing biological damages. Accordingly, it can be a potential concern in many areas, where these elements have been existed naturally, mined or processed. In addition to its own radiological properties, radium isotopes present additional environmental and health concerns due to the fact that they decay into radon ( 222 Rn); a Class-A carcinogen and the second leading cause of lung cancer estimated to cause 21,000 deaths in the US annually. Physico-chemical methods have been widely used to remove radionuclides and heavy metal ions from wastewaters. These conventional methods may be ineffective or expensive with a few major disadvantages such as high energy requirements, incomplete removal and generation of toxic sludge which needs proper disposal. Biological treatment is an innovative technology available for heavy metal and radionuclide polluted wastewaters. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize 226 Ra biosorbing indigenous bacterial strains from soils and hot-springs of Ramsar containing high concentration of 226 Ra by using biochemical and molecular approaches. Hence, the studied biomass proved very effective and could be used as a low cost and ecofriendly biosorbent for treatment of hot-spring waters containing high levels of 226 Ra in Ramsar

  20. Lepini Mountains Carbonatic Ridge: try of springs recharge areas verification and water exchange quantification with Pontina Plain by use of a numerical model (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Teoli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area of this work is represented by the Lepini Mountains carbonatic ridge and by the Pontina Plain foothills area, on which in the past, within quantitative hydrogeological characterizations, models were developed for calculating the groundwater flow, but only referred to the ridge. The most recent studies (Teoli, 2012 have done their best, instead, to represent the underground water exchanges between the ridge and the Pontina Plain foothill area. The new model (developed using computer code MODFLOW 2005 has been implemented to simulate steady-state underground flow using equivalent porous media approach even for the ridge; attention has been particularly directed to the proper tectonic ridge schematic, which the authors had previously defined, together with others (Alimonti et al., 2010, on detailed structural-geological survey basis, integrated by hydrogeological analysis. So, it’s been possible to determine partitioning effects on groundwater flowpaths and on springs recharge areas extent, whose total average discharge is about 10m3/s. Model calibration main goal has been the recharge areas permeability definition, posing the correspondence of calculated flows with measured springs’ flows; as a consequence, it’s been possible to improve the model reliability (uncertainty reduction quantifying the flow residuals’ standard deviation offset.

  1. Lateglacial and Holocene climate, disturbance and permafrost peatland dynamics on the Seward Peninsula, western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Yu, Zicheng; Jones, Miriam C.

    2013-01-01

    Northern peatlands have accumulated large carbon (C) stocks, acting as a long-term atmospheric C sink since the last deglaciation. How these C-rich ecosystems will respond to future climate change, however, is still poorly understood. Furthermore, many northern peatlands exist in regions underlain by permafrost, adding to the challenge of projecting C balance under changing climate and permafrost dynamics. In this study, we used a paleoecological approach to examine the effect of past climates and local disturbances on vegetation and C accumulation at a peatland complex on the southern Seward Peninsula, Alaska over the past ∼15 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP). We analyzed two cores about 30 m apart, NL10-1 (from a permafrost peat plateau) and NL10-2 (from an adjacent thermokarst collapse-scar bog), for peat organic matter (OM), C accumulation rates, macrofossil, pollen and grain size analysis.A wet rich fen occurred during the initial stages of peatland development at the thermokarst site (NL10-2). The presence of tree pollen from Picea spp. and Larix laricinia at 13.5–12.1 ka indicates a warm regional climate, corresponding with the well-documented Bølling–Allerød warm period. A cold and dry climate interval at 12.1–11.1 ka is indicated by the disappearance of tree pollen and increase in Poaceae pollen and an increase in woody material, likely representing a local expression of the Younger Dryas (YD) event. Following the YD, the warm Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) is characterized by the presence of Populus pollen, while the presence of Sphagnum spp. and increased C accumulation rates suggest high peatland productivity under a warm climate. Toward the end of the HTM and throughout the mid-Holocene a wet climate-induced several major flooding disturbance events at 10 ka, 8.1 ka, 6 ka, 5.4 ka and 4.7 ka, as evidenced by decreases in OM, and increases in coarse sand abundance and aquatic fossils (algae Chara and water fleas Daphnia). The initial

  2. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  3. Geological research for hot spring resources in the Kanno-kawa area, Tsukui-machi, Tanzawa mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-03-01

    The Kanno-kawa area is mainly composed of the following geological units: miocene submarine pyroclastic formation and its associated augite dolerite sheets, quartz diorite intrusive, and hornblende andesite dykes. The Miocene pyroclastic rocks mainly consist of tuff, tuff breccia, and agglomerate of basaltic, andestic, and dacitic composition intercalated with subordinate amounts of conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone beds. These rocks were divided into two lithological facies: basaltic and andestic tuff and tuff breccia facies and a facies of dacitic pumice tuff with characteristic white or gray spots of siliceous pumice (2 to 35 mm in diameter). These pyroclastic rocks suffered metamorphism mainly related to the intrusion of quartz diorite. The metamorphic rocks can be divided into the following four zones: amphibolite, actinolite hornfels, pumpellyite-prehnite, and zeolite. Probably during the late stage of the metamorphism, hornblende andesite intruded along sheared zones running from NE or NNE toward SW or SSW. Above noted Miocene pyroclastic rocks, quartz diorite, and hornblende andesite also suffered a hydrothermal alteration by which many zeolite bearing veins or networks were formed. Mineral waters of the Tanzawa mountains are believed to be related to the intrusion of quartz diorite, hornblende andesite, and formation of zeolite veins. In this respect, mineral water of highly alkaline nature can be expected by deep drilling of 600 to 1,000 m at some places such as Choja-goya and Hikage-zawa of the Kanno-kawa area.

  4. Exceptional colored in the Lebanese coastal water of the area Zouk - Nahr el Kelb in spring 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud Abi Saab, M.; Fakhri, M.; Kassab, M.-T.; Matar, N.

    2008-01-01

    A brownish coloring in the Lebanese coastal water of the area Zouk - Nahr el Kelb area was detected in May 2007. The qualitative and quantitative analyses, in comparison with preceding data, showed that this phenomenon was due mainly to the massive and exceptional bloom of both a centric diatom Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve reaching 1,6 x 107L-1 cells and of an ichtyotoxic raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada reaching approximately 9 x 106L-1cells. The maximum of this proliferation was located in surface water opposite Zouk power plant where the measured rates of chl-a reached 32 mg.m-3indicating a phenomenon of eutrophication. Attempts were made at explaining the mechanism of development of this algal bloom. The hydro-climatic conditions prevailing during a heat wave coupled with nutrient availability are probably the cause to the development of this phenomenon. The fact that the benthic cystsproduced by the cells of H. akashiwo may develop each year when the conditions of the environment become favorable thus causing a risk of the widening of this phenomenon. (author)

  5. Proposed IMS infrastructure improvement project, Seward, Alaska. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) examines a proposal for improvements at the existing University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Seward Marine Center. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council is proposing to improve the existing research infrastructure to enhance the EVOS Trustee Council`s capabilities to study and rehabilitate marine mammals, marine birds, and the ecosystem injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The analysis in this document focuses on the effects associated with construction and operation of the proposed project and its proposed alternatives. The EIS gives a detailed description of all major elements of the proposed project and its alternatives; identifies resources of major concern that were raised during the scoping process; describes the environmental background conditions of those resources; defines and analyzes the potential effects of the proposed project and its alternatives on these conditions; and identifies mitigating measures that are part of the project design as well as those proposed to minimize or reduce the adverse effects. Included in the EIS are written and oral comments received during the public comment period.

  6. Proposed IMS infrastructure improvement project, Seward, Alaska. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) examines a proposal for improvements at the existing University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Seward Marine Center. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council is proposing to improve the existing research infrastructure to enhance the EVOS Trustee Council's capabilities to study and rehabilitate marine mammals, marine birds, and the ecosystem injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The analysis in this document focuses on the effects associated with construction and operation of the proposed project and its proposed alternatives. The EIS gives a detailed description of all major elements of the proposed project and its alternatives; identifies resources of major concern that were raised during the scoping process; describes the environmental background conditions of those resources; defines and analyzes the potential effects of the proposed project and its alternatives on these conditions; and identifies mitigating measures that are part of the project design as well as those proposed to minimize or reduce the adverse effects. Included in the EIS are written and oral comments received during the public comment period

  7. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter–spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br−, and iodine. Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14–3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl−, Br−, and iodine in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS SO42−. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  8. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter-spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Keiichiro; Matoba, Sumito; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Yamasaki, Tetsuhide

    2017-07-01

    Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br-, and iodine). Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14-3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl-, Br-, and iodine) in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS) SO42-. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine) on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  9. Characteristis of Soil Water and Salt Spatial Variations in the Spring Season in Typical Yellow River Delta Areas of Kenli County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zhuo-ran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Yellow River Delta as an important area of reserved land resources, is faced with the problem of soil salinization. Grasping the status of soil water and salt as well as their spatial variation rules is an important foundation of prevention, control and use of soil salinization. This study selected Kenli County of the Yellow River Delta, obtained soil water and salt content data through field survey and lab experiments, and analyzed the status of soil water and salt as well as their spatial variation rules using statistics, GIS interpolation and buffer analysis methods. The results showed that the general salt content in the study area was mainly moderate. Salt content increased from soil surfacelayer to underlayer and salt content in each layer was significantly correlated. The areas with high saltness in surfacelayer, middlelayer and underlayer soil mainly distributed in the east near the Bohai Sea in Kenli County, while the areas with lower saltness mainly distributed in the southwest. Soil salt contents showed the trends of decrease, and soil water contents showed the trends of decrease first and then increase with the increase in distance to Bohai Sea. Stretching from the Yellow River, soil salt content showed increase tendency with the increase in distance to the Yellow River, and water content decreased first and then increased. The order from high saltness to low of different vegetation types was naked land>suaeda glauca>tamarix>vervain>reed>couch grass>paddy>cotton>winter wheat>maize, the order of different geomorphic types was depression>slightly sloping ground>slow hillock>beach heights. This study preliminary delineates soil water and salt status as well as their spatial variation rules in the spring season of the study area, and provides scientific basis for soil resource sustainable utilization in the Yellow River Delta.

  10. Geochemistry of hot springs in the Ie Seu’um hydrothermal areas at Aceh Besar district, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idroes, R.; Yusuf, M.; Alatas, M.; Subhan; Lala, A.; Saiful; Suhendra, R.; Idroes, G. M.; Marwan

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia geothermal resources are the largest in the world, about 40 percent of the total geothermal resources worldwide with a potential energy of 28,617 MW. Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy in the world that can be developed sustainably. This kind of energy is not only environmentally friendly but also highly prospective compared to fossil energy. One of the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Seulawah Agam geothermal field with some manifestation areas. The fluid type of Ie Seu’um manifestation was chloride (Cl-) obtained from the ternary diagram Cl--SO4 2--HCO3 -, using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, argentometry and acidimetry method. The reservoir range temperature was 188,7 ± 9,3°C calculated using geothermometer Na-K-Ca, Na-K Fournier and Na-K Giggenbach by applying Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. This data processing was carried out using liquid chemistry plotting spreadsheet version 3 powell geoscience Ltd.3 September 2012 by Powell & Cumming. The potential in the geothermal manifestation of Ie Seu’um was estimated about 50-100 MW (medium enthalpy).

  11. Spawning areas of Engraulis anchoita in the Southeastern Brazilian Bight during late-spring and early summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Favero, Jana M.; Katsuragawa, Mario; Zani-Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes; Turner, Jefferson T.

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of fish egg density and distribution is indispensable for the understanding of the adult stock variability, and is a powerful tool for fisheries management. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize the spatial-temporal spawning patterns of Engraulis anchoita in the Southeastern Brazilian Bight, in terms of geographic location and abiotic factors. We analyzed data of eggs sampled during ten years, from 1974 to 1993, to create maps of the mean and the standard deviation (sd) of the estimated probability of egg presence, through indicative kriging. Preferred, tolerated and avoided temperature, salinity, local depth and distance for spawning of E. anchoita were defined by the estimation of bootstrapped confidence intervals of the quotient values (Q). Despite not having identified any recurrent spawning sites, a few occasional and unfavorable spawning sites were identified, showing that the spawning habit of E. anchoita not only varied spatially, but also temporally. The largest occasional spawning site and with the highest probability of egg presence (0.6-0.7) was located around 27°S, close to Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state). On the other hand, a well-marked unfavorable spawning site was located off São Sebastião Island (São Paulo state), with the probability of egg presence between 0-0.1. Abiotic and biotic factors that could be related to the changes in the spawning areas of E. anchoita were discussed, with shelf width, mesoscale hydrodynamic features and biological interactions apparently playing important roles in defining spawning sites.

  12. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  13. Responsiveness summary for the engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Proposed Management of Contaminated Water Impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area in July 1990. The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) examines various alternatives for the proposed action to manage contaminated surface water impounded at the chemical plant area. The primary objective is to minimize potential migration of contaminants from surface impoundments to the local environment. The EE/CA addresses water currently impounded in four waste raffinate pits and two small ponds and water that will be impounded in the future as a result of upcoming response actions. Radioactive and chemical contaminants are migrating from the currently impounded water to underlying on-site groundwater via seepage and to off-site surface water via runoff. The treatment process and facilities that will be provided for management of currently impounded water can subsequently be used to manage other contaminated water in the future. Based on the evaluation of various alternatives in the EE/CA, DOE determined that the best approach for managing surface water impounded at the chemical plant area would be to remove contaminants from the water and release the treatment water to the Missouri River via a natural drainage channel. To establish requirements for releasing this treated water, DOE applied for a modification to its existing discharge permit from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR) under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. The EE/CA provided a major source of technical input to the application for modifying the permit. This responsiveness summary has been prepared to address the major issues identified in oral and written comments on the proposed action. 1 tab

  14. Tritium, stable istopes, and nitrogen in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho, 1990-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.J.; Low, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990-93, tritium concentrations in water from 19 springs along the north side of the Snake River near Twin Falls and Hagerman ranged from 9.2±0.6 to 78.4±5.1 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The springs were placed into three categories on the basis of their locations and tritium concentrations: Category I springs are the farthest upstream and contained from 52.8±3.2 to 78.4±5.1 pCi/L of tritium; Category II springs are downstream from those in Category I and contained from 9.2±0.6 to 18.5±1.2 pCi/L; and Category III springs are the farthest downstream and contained from 28.3±1.9 to 47.7±3.2 pCi/L. Differences in tritium concentrations in Category I, II, and III springs are a function of the ground-water flow regimes and land uses in and hydraulically upgradient from each category of springs. A comparatively large part of the water from the Category I springs is from excess applied-irrigation water which has been diverted from the Snake River. A large part of the recharge for Category II springs originates as many as 140 miles upgradient from the springs. Tritium concentrations in Category III springs indicate that the proportion of recharge from excess applied-irrigation water is intermediate to proportions for Category I and II springs. Tritium concentrations in precipitation and in the Snake River were relatively large in the 1950's and 1960's owing to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Conversely, tritium concentrations in ground water with a residence time of several tens to a few hundred years, as occurs in the Snake River Plain aquifer hydraulically upgradient from the Category II springs, are comparatively small because of the 12.4-year half-life of tritium. The conclusion that recharge from excess applied-irrigation water from the Snake River has affected tritium in the Snake River Plain aquifer is supported by differences in the deuterium ( 2 H) and oxygen-18 ( 18 O) ratios of water. These ratios indicate that water discharged by the springs

  15. Investigation of geothermal development and promotion for fiscal 1997. Fluid geochemical investigation (hot-spring gas) report (No. B-5 Musadake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatus sokushin chosa. Ryutai chikagaku chosa (onsen gas) hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This investigation elucidated the possible existence of geothermal reservoir layer in the subject area by studying and analyzing the hot-spring gasses of Musadake. The Musadake area is the one extending over Shibetu-cho and Nakashibetu-cho, Shibetu district, Hokkaido. The sampling of the hot-spring gasses was carried out at three natural gusher sites and one hot spring well site. The gasses in the Kawakita hot spring is most affected by volcanic gasses. The origin of the volcanic gasses is a magmatic gas of andesite nature the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio of which is 8X10{sup -6} or about. As a result of the analysis, the hot-spring water is Na-Cl type, high salt concentrated, and 200 degrees C in temperature; from the result of a gas geochemical thermometer, it is estimated to be not less than 250 degrees C. In the tectonic viewpoint, the depth hot water is derived from the meteorite water that flows in through a bent zone incident to the Musadake-Shitabanupuri mountain fault and from the fossil sea water that exists in the underground depth; the depth hot water is formed by conduction heat from a magma reservoir that formed Musadake and by volcanic ejecta. This depth hot water rises along Kawakita south, Urappu River fault, etc., mixing with the meteorite water and forming the shallow reservoir layer. (NEDO)

  16. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  17. Radioactivity of β / γ and the Content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the Spring of Ponorogo East Java Lime Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto

    2002-01-01

    Radioactivity of β / γ and the content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the source of Ponorogo East-Java lime area has been studied. This research was carried out to know radioactivity of β / γ and the content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the spring of different three places were Ngebel-lake source, Ngembak source and Gonggang source. Samples taken, preparation and analysis based on the procedures of environmental radioactivity analysis and water sampling guidelines. The instrument used for the analysis radioactivity were low level β counter modified P3TM-BATAN Yogyakarta with detector GM and spectrometer γ with detector Ge(Li). Radioactivity of β (gross) from the source of different three places (β ≤ 1 Bq/L) are lower than the value of PPRI No. 20/1990. Radioactivity of γ comes from the natural radionuclides of Tl-208 and K-40 are lower than 1 Bq/L for the different of three places, respectively. The metals concentration of Ngebel-lake source were Ca ≤ 14.34 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.04 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 6.75 ppm; Na ≤ 14.63 ppm, Ngembak source were Ca ≤ 11.6 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.04 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 11.13 ppm; Na ≤ 16.75 ppm and Gonggang source were Ca ≤ 13.78 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.26 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 6.13 ppm; Na ≤ 15.00 ppm. The water of Ngebel-lake source, Ngembak source and Gonggang source can be classified as B category water based on radioactivity and the content of the metals concentration in its. (author)

  18. Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudzadeh, Nasrin; Zakeri, Fardideh; Lotfabad, Tayebe bagheri; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Hoseein Shahbani; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isolation and characterization of a novel cadmium-biosorbent (Brevundimonas sp. ZF12) from high background radiation areas. ► Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 caused 50% removal of cadmium at the concentration level of 250 ppm. ► Solution pH values used for the reusability study have powerful desorptive features to recover Cd ions sorbed onto the biomass. ► This is the first study carried out so far for the cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel biosorbent Brevundimonas sp. ZF12. ► In our opinion, the isolate can be an attractive alternative to remove the cadmium-containing wastewaters. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to screen cadmium biosorbing bacterial strains isolated from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of radium ( 226 Ra) in Ramsar using a batch system. Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain isolated from the water with high 226 Ra content caused 50% removal of cadmium at a concentration level of 250 ppm. The biosorption equilibrium data are fitted well by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo second-order model. The effect of different physico-chemical parameters like biomass concentration, pH, cadmium concentration, temperature and contact time on cadmium sorption was also investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD analytical techniques. A high desorption efficiency (above 90%) was obtained using a pH range of 2.0–4.0. Reusability of the biomass was examined under consecutive biosorption–desorption cycles repeated thrice. In conclusion, Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 is proposed as an excellent cadmium biosorbent that may have important applications in Cd removal from wastewaters.

  19. Responses to comments on the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for Remedial Action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The Weldon Spring site is on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The RI/FS-EIS for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site was issued to the public on November 20, 1992. This public comment response document presents a summary of the major issues identified in both oral and written comments on the RI/FS-EIS and DOE's responses to those issues. This document also provides individual responses to the written comments

  20. NRDA-processed CTD data from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 3, collected from 2010-07-24 to 2010-08-02, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Seward Johnson, Cruise 1, Leg 3, to determine physical oceanographic parameters...

  1. NRDA-processed CTD data from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 4, collected from 2010-08-04 to 2010-08-08, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128344)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Seward Johnson, Cruise 1, Leg 4, to determine physical oceanographic parameters...

  2. NRDA-processed CTD data from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Seward Johnson, Cruise 1, Leg 1, to determine physical oceanographic parameters...

  3. Oceanographic Data collected during the Florida Shelf Edge Expedition (FLoSEE) (CIOERT2010) on RV Seward Johnson in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean between July 9, 2010 - August 9, 2010 (NODC Accession 0074541)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A science team on the research vessel Seward Johnson left from Fort Pierce, Fla. in early July to go to the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The researchers used a...

  4. NRDA-processed CTD data from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 2, collected from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-22, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128342)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Seward Johnson, Cruise 1, Leg 2, to determine physical oceanographic parameters...

  5. Influence of Intense secondary aerosol formation and long range transport on aerosol chemistry and properties in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during spring time: Results from KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was measured in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea, using an HR-ToF-AMS from April 14 to June 15, 2016, as a part of the KORUS-AQ campaign. The average concentration of PM1 was 22.1 µg m-3, which was composed of 44% organics, 20% SO4, 17% NO3, and 12 % NH4. Organics had an average O/C ratio of 0.49 and an average OM/OC ratio of 1.82. Four distinct sources of OA were identified via PMF analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: hydrocarbon like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA),semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Our results indicate that air quality in SMA during KORUS-AQ was influenced strongly by secondary aerosol formation with SO4, NO3, NH4, SV-OOA, and LV-OOA together accounting for 76% of the PM1 mass. Due to high temperature and elevated ozone concentrations, photochemical reactions during daytime promoted the formation of SV-OOA, LV-OOA and SO4. In addition, aqueous-phase or heterogeneous reactions likely promoted efficient formation of NO3 whereas gas-to-particle partitioning processes appeared to have enhanced nighttime SV-OOA and NO3 formation. From May 20 to May 23, LV-OOA was significantly enhanced and accounted for up to 41% of the PM1 mass. Since this intense LV-OOA formation event was associated with large enhancement of VOCs, high concentration of Ox , strong solar radiation, and stagnant conditions, it appeared to be related to local photochemical formation. We also have investigated the formation and evolution mechanisms of severe haze episodes. Unlike the cases observed in winter when haze episodes were mainly caused by intense local emissions coupled with stagnant meteorological conditions, the spring haze events observed in this study appeared to be attributed by both regional and local factors. For example, episodes of long range transport of plumes were followed by calm meteorology conditions, which promoted the formation and accumulation of local

  6. Development of a process-oriented vulnerability concept for water travel time in karst aquifers-case study of Tanour and Rasoun springs catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas; Wiegand, Bettina; Margane, Armin; Toll, Mathias

    2017-04-01

    Key words: Karst aquifer, water travel time, vulnerability assessment, Jordan. The understanding of the groundwater pathways and movement through karst aquifers, and the karst aquifer response to precipitation events especially in the arid to semi-arid areas is fundamental to evaluate pollution risks from point and non-point sources. In spite of the great importance of the karst aquifer for drinking purposes, karst aquifers are highly sensitive to contamination events due to the fast connections between the land-surface and the groundwater (through the karst features) which is makes groundwater quality issues within karst systems very complicated. Within this study, different methods and approaches were developed and applied in order to characterise the karst aquifer system of the Tanour and Rasoun springs (NW-Jordan) and the flow dynamics within the aquifer, and to develop a process-oriented method for vulnerability assessment based on the monitoring of different multi-spatially variable parameters of water travel time in karst aquifer. In general, this study aims to achieve two main objectives: 1. Characterization of the karst aquifer system and flow dynamics. 2. Development of a process-oriented method for vulnerability assessment based on spatially variable parameters of travel time. In order to achieve these aims, different approaches and methods were applied starting from the understanding of the geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst aquifer and its vulnerability against pollutants, to using different methods, procedures and monitored parameters in order to determine the water travel time within the aquifer and investigate its response to precipitation event and, finally, with the study of the aquifer response to pollution events. The integrated breakthrough signal obtained from the applied methods and procedures including the using of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, the monitoring of multi qualitative and quantitative parameters

  7. Hydrogeochemical exploration: a reconnaissance study on northeastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Chapter A in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, vol. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth E.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Buckley, Steve

    2015-01-01

    A reconnaissance hydrogeochemical study employing high-resolution/high-sensitivity inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of stream and seep water samples (n= 171) was conducted in an area of limited bedrock exposure on the northeastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Sampling was focused in drainages around four main areas—at the Anugi Pb-Zn-Ag occurrence and in streams upstream of historically and currently mined placer gold deposits in the Candle Creek, Utica, and Monument Mountain areas. The objective of the study was to determine whether distribution of elevated metal concentrations in water samples could “see” through sediment cover and provide evidence of bedrock sources for base metals and gold. Some observations include (1) elevated Ag, As, Pb, and Zn concentrations relative to the study area as a whole in stream and seep samples from over and downstream of part of the Anugi Pb-Zn-Ag prospect; (2) abrupt downstream increases in Tl and Sb ± Au concentrations coincident with the upstream termination of productive placer deposits in the Inmachuk and Old Glory Creek drainages near Utica; (3) high K, Mo, Sb, and F throughout much of the Inmachuk River drainage near Utica; and (4) elevated As ± base metals and Au at two sites along Patterson Creek near the town of Candle and three additional contiguous sites identified when an 85th percentile cut-off was employed. Molybdenum ± gold concentrations (>90th percentile) were also measured in samples from three sites on Glacier Creek near Monument Mountain. The hydrogeochemistry in some areas is consistent with limited stream-sediment data from the region, including high Pb-Zn-Ag-As concentrations associated with Anugi, as well as historical reports of arsenopyrite-bearing veins upstream of placer operations in Patterson Creek. Chemistry of samples in the Inmachuk River-Old Glory Creek area also suggest more laterally extensive stibnite- (and gold-?) bearing veining than is currently known in the Old

  8. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  9. Visit to valuable water springs. 22. ; Kanazawa spring and springs at the mountain flank of Iwate volcano. Meisui wo tazunete. 22. ; Kanazawa shimizu to Iwate sanroku yusuigun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itadera, K. (Kanagawa Hot Springs Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan)); Shimano, Y. (Utsunomiya Bunsei Junior College, Tochigi (Japan))

    1993-06-30

    This paper describes the following matters on the springs at the mountain flank of Iwate volcano in Iwate Prefecture, with the Kanazawa spring as the main subject: The new and old Iwate volcanos have rock-bed flow deposits which resulted from mountain disintegration, distributed over their south, east and north flanks, and most of the spring water wells up in these areas; the south, east and north flanks have about 80 springs, about 30 springs, and about 10 springs, respectively; the number of springs and the water well-up scale show a trend of inverse proportion; the Kanazawa spring is a generic name of the several springs located on the north flank in the Kanazawa area; its main spring forms a spring pond with an area of about 100 m[sup 2] with a spring water temperature of about 11.5[degree]C, electric conductivity of 200 [mu] S/cm or higher, and a flow-out rate of 500 l/s or more; the Kanazawa spring is characterized by having as large total dissolved component amount as 170 mg/l or more and abundant amount of SO4[sup 2-] and Cl[sup -]; and the spring presents properties different from those in other springs. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Comparison of the microbial communities of hot springs waters and the microbial biofilms in the acidic geothermal area of Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, María Sofía; González-Toril, Elena; Bazán, Ángeles Aguilera; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo

    2015-03-01

    Copahue is a natural geothermal field (Neuquén province, Argentina) dominated by the Copahue volcano. As a consequence of the sustained volcanic activity, Copahue presents many acidic pools, hot springs and solfataras with different temperature and pH conditions that influence their microbial diversity. The occurrence of microbial biofilms was observed on the surrounding rocks and the borders of the ponds, where water movements and thermal activity are less intense. Microbial biofilms are particular ecological niches within geothermal environments; they present different geochemical conditions from that found in the water of the ponds and hot springs which is reflected in different microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to compare microbial community diversity in the water of ponds and hot springs and in microbial biofilms in the Copahue geothermal field, with particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species that have not been detected before in Copahue. In this study, we report the presence of Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and chloroplasts of eukaryotes in the microbial biofilms not detected in the water of the ponds. On the other hand, acidophilic bacteria, the predominant species in the water of moderate temperature ponds, are almost absent in the microbial biofilms in spite of having in some cases similar temperature conditions. Species affiliated with Sulfolobales in the Archaea domain are the predominant microorganism in high temperature ponds and were also detected in the microbial biofilms.

  11. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulley, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  12. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  13. Hydrogeochemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Nasrettin Hoca Springs, Eskisehir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÇELİK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to investigate the water quality, the contamination and water-rock interaction of the Nasrettin Hoca springs, with an ultimate aim of establishing protection measures. Within the scope of this study, the springs in and around the catchment area, Bağbaşı springs, Hatip spring, Ali spring, Saracık Fountain and Babadat spring, were investigated. The springs are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type when basic hydrogeochemical features are considered, are under the influence of marble-limestone and meta ophiolitic units located in the recharge area and are of shallow circulation. The trace element contents of the springs show the influence of the carbonate rocks comprising the reservoir (Sr and the basement rocks (Ni, Al. The protection areas of Nasrettin Hoca springs against contamination are determined as three different zones by considering the hydrogeologic and topographical features of the region and the Turkish Standards

  14. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  15. LINEAMENTS MAP OF TURKEY FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY AND SELECTING TARGET AREAS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION, RELATIONSHIP OF REGIONAL LINEAMENTS TO EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS, MINERAL WATERS AND HOT SPRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail HENDEN

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat coverage countrywide have been interpreted and a map of lineaments has been prepared. Circular features which are the surface expressions of deep or near   intrusions have  been  carefully mapped in order to investigate their relationship (if any to known mineralizations. From the outset it was postulated that the miner- alizations  are    located at the intersections of lineaments, especially in the vicinity of circular features.  To  test this hypo- thesis known mineralizations were placed on this map. It is noted that the metallic mineral deposits can be grouped into ten regions,  and out  of these,  two regions need to  be explored more intensively. In  some regions selected, locations of possible mineralizations were determined. Earthquake epicenters, mineral water sources and hot spring locations were placed on the  lineaments map. It is seen  that the hot springs and earthquake epicentres are located on regional fault systems.

  16. Prediction of daily spring hydrographs for future climatic scenarios based on an integrated numerical modelling approach: Application on a snow-governed semi- arid karst catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Kassem, A.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of a three-year USAID/NSF- funded PEER Science project, flow in a karst system in Lebanon (Assal Spring; discharge 0.2-2.5 m3/s yearly volume of 22-30 Mm3) dominated by snow and semi arid conditions was simulated using an integrated numerical model (Mike She 2016). The calibrated model (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.77) is based on high resolution input data (2014-2017) and detailed catchment characterization. The approach is to assess the influence of various model parameters on recharge signals in the different hydrological karst compartments (Atmosphere, unsaturated zone, and saturated zone) based on an integrated numerical model. These parameters include precipitation intensity and magnitude, temperature, snow-melt parameters, in addition to karst specific spatially distributed features such as fast infiltration points, soil properties and thickness, topographical slopes, Epikarst and thickness of unsaturated zone, and hydraulic conductivity among others. Moreover, the model is currently simulated forward using various scenarios for future climate (Global Climate Models GCM; daily downscaled temperature and precipitation time series for Lebanon 2020-2045) in order to depict the flow rates expected in the future and the effect of climate change on hydrographs recession coefficients, discharge maxima and minima, and total spring discharge volume . Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of individual or coupled major parameters allows quantifying their impact on recharge or indirectly on the vulnerability of the system (soil thickness, soil and rock hydraulic conductivity appear to be amongst the highly sensitive parameters). This study particularly unravels the normalized single effect of rain magnitude and intensity, snow, and temperature change on the flow rate (e.g., a change of temperature of 3° on the catchment yields a Residual Mean Square Error RMSE of 0.15 m3/s in the spring discharge and a 16% error in the total annual volume with

  17. Water-budgets and recharge-area simulations for the Spring Creek and Nittany Creek Basins and parts of the Spruce Creek Basin, Centre and Huntingdon Counties, Pennsylvania, Water Years 2000–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Risser, Dennis W.; Regan, R. Steve; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Markstrom, Steven

    2015-08-17

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with ClearWater Conservancy and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection to develop a hydrologic model to simulate a water budget and identify areas of greater than average recharge for the Spring Creek Basin in central Pennsylvania. The model was developed to help policy makers, natural resource managers, and the public better understand and manage the water resources in the region. The Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model (GSFLOW), which is an integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW-NWT), was used to simulate surface water and groundwater in the Spring Creek Basin for water years 2000–06. Because the groundwater and surface-water divides for the Spring Creek Basin do not coincide, the study area includes the Nittany Creek Basin and headwaters of the Spruce Creek Basin. The hydrologic model was developed by the use of a stepwise process: (1) develop and calibrate a PRMS model and steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model; (2) re-calibrate the steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model using potential recharge estimates simulated from the PRMS model, and (3) integrate the PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models into GSFLOW. The individually calibrated PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models were used as a starting point for the calibration of the fully coupled GSFLOW model. The GSFLOW model calibration was done by comparing observations and corresponding simulated values of streamflow from 11 streamgages and groundwater levels from 16 wells. The cumulative water budget and individual water budgets for water years 2000–06 were simulated by using GSFLOW. The largest source and sink terms are represented by precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. For the period simulated, a net surplus in the water budget was computed where inflows exceeded outflows by about 1.7 billion cubic feet (0.47 inches per year over the basin area

  18. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  19. Remote sensing evidence of lava-ground ice interactions associated with the Lost Jim Lava Flow, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma C.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Herrick, Robert R.

    2017-12-01

    Thermokarst terrains develop when ice-bearing permafrost melts and causes the overlying surface to subside or collapse. This process occurs widely throughout Arctic regions due to environmental and climatological factors, but can also be induced by localized melting of ground ice by active lava flows. The Lost Jim Lava Flow (LJLF) on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska provides evidence of former lava-ground ice interactions. Associated geomorphic features, on the scale of meters to tens of meters, were identified using satellite orthoimages and stereo-derived digital terrain models. The flow exhibits positive- and mixed-relief features, including tumuli ( N = 26) and shatter rings ( N = 4), as well as negative-relief features, such as lava tube skylights ( N = 100) and irregularly shaped topographic depressions ( N = 1188) that are interpreted to include lava-rise pits and lava-induced thermokarst terrain. Along the margins of the flow, there are also clusters of small peripheral pits that may be the products of meltwater or steam escape. On Mars, we observed morphologically similar pits near lava flow margins in northeastern Elysium Planitia, which suggests a common formation mechanism. Investigating the LJLF may therefore help to elucidate processes of lava-ground ice interaction on both Earth and Mars.

  20. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included

  1. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  2. Persistent pre-seismic signature detected by means of Na-K-Mg geothermometry records in a saline spring of Vrancea area (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mitrofan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A six year-long hydrochemical monitoring operation was conducted in Vrancea seismic zone (Romania, addressing a saline spring that proved to be suitable for Na-K-Mg geothermometry diagnosis. During the considered time-interval (2003–2009, only one important earthquake (mb=5.8 occurred in Vrancea region, this circumstance providing an unambiguous reference-moment between pre-seismic and post-seismic periods. On occurrence of that earthquake, an anomalous fluctuation of the Na-K temperature was detected – a result largely similar to previous ones recorded worldwide (California, southwest Egypt, northeast India. Yet such fluctuations may not necessarily be induced by earthquake-associated processes: they can occur also "routinely", possibly reflecting some environmental, meteorologically-induced "noise". It was therefore important to examine whether the variations observed in the data values could be plausibly related to a seismogenesis process. By additionally investigating (in a "scattterplot" diagram the correlation between the Na-K temperatures and the values of a so-called "maturity index", a specific pattern emerged, with pre-seismic data-points plotting in a distinct domain of the diagram; moreover, those data-points appeared to describe a "drift away" pathway with respect to the remaining data-points "cluster", recorded during the subsequent 4 years of post-seismic monitoring. The "drift away" pattern persistently evolved for at least 18 months, ending just before the mb=5.8 earthquake and consequently suggesting the existence of some kind of long-term precursory phenomenon.

  3. Thermincola carboxydiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, carboxydotrophic, hydrogenogenic bacterium from a hot spring of the Lake Baikal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Tatyana G; Kostrikina, Nadezhda A; Chernyh, Nikolai A; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Tourova, Tatjana P; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2005-09-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, alkalitolerant bacterium, strain 2204(T), was isolated from a hot spring of the Baikal Lake region. The cells of strain 2204(T) were straight rods of variable length, Gram-positive with an S-layer, motile with one to two lateral flagella, and often formed aggregates of 3-15 cells. The isolate was shown to be an obligate anaerobe oxidizing CO and producing equimolar quantities of H(2) and CO(2) according to the equation CO+H(2)O-->CO(2)+H(2). No organic substrates were used as energy sources. For lithotrophic growth on CO, 0.2 g acetate or yeast extract l(-1) was required but did not support growth in the absence of CO. Growth was observed in the temperature range 37-68 degrees C, the optimum being 55 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 6.7-9.5, the optimum pH being 8.0. The generation time under optimal conditions was 1.3 h. The DNA G+C content was 45 mol%. Penicillin, erythromycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, vancomycin and tetracycline completely inhibited both growth and CO utilization by strain 2204(T). Thus, isolate 2204(T) was found to be the first known moderately thermophilic and alkalitolerant H(2)-producing anaerobic carboxydotroph. The novel bacterium fell within the cluster of the family Peptococcaceae within the low-G+C-content Gram-positive bacteria, where it formed a separate branch. On the basis of morphological, physiological and phylogenetic features, strain 2204(T) should be assigned to a novel genus and species, for which the name Thermincola carboxydiphila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 2204(T) (=DSM 17129(T)=VKM B-2283(T)=JCM 13258(T)).

  4. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in residential soil and drinking water obtained from springs and wells in Rosia Montana area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in n=84 residential soil samples, in Rosia Montana area, analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are...

  5. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  6. Mycosporine-like amino acids and xanthophyll-cycle pigments favour a massive spring bloom development of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in Grande Bay (Argentina), an ozone hole affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto, José I.; Carignan, Mario O.; Montoya, Nora G.; Cozzolino, Ezequiel; Akselman, Rut

    2018-02-01

    In Grande Bay (Southern Patagonian Shelf) in a eutrophic and recirculating area slightly stratified during spring, we observed an intense (up to 1 × 107 cells L- 1) and shallow, quasi mono-specific bloom of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Peridinin was the most abundant carotenoid, but the relative amounts of the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids (diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin = DT) to light-harvesting pigments were high (DT/Chl a ratio = 0.32 and DT/peridinin ratio = 0.40). Shinorine, usujirene, palythene, mycosporine-serine-glycine methyl ester and palythenic acid were the primary mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), followed by mycosporine-glycine, palythine, and porphyra-334. The ΣMAAs/Chl a ratios (up to 27.9 nmol/nmol) were in the upper range reported either in nutrient-replete dinoflagellate cultures or natural populations. We monitored, from space (using satellite ocean colour data), the spatial and temporal bloom variability (from September 22 to October 31, 2005) using an approach to discriminate dinoflagellate from diatom blooms. The results indicated that an intense diatom bloom started in early spring but was rapidly replaced by an intense bloom of the dinoflagellate P. minimum, although the nutrient concentrations were apparently not limiting. The most notorious change in this period was a sharp increase in the levels of solar UVB radiation (UVB index 9.0) as a consequence of the overpass of the polar vortex over this area. We postulated that the synthesis and accumulation of MAAs and xanthophyll pigments, were competitive advantages for the opportunistic red tide dinoflagellate P. minimum over the sensitive diatoms, favouring the development of their surface blooms in this seasonally solar UVB radiation (UVBR) affected area.

  7. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  8. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  9. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peat accumulation in drained thermokarst lake basins in continuous, ice-rich permafrost, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Anthony, Katey Walter

    2012-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and peat-accumulating drained lake basins cover a substantial portion of Arctic lowland landscapes, yet the role of thermokarst lake drainage and ensuing peat formation in landscape-scale carbon (C) budgets remains understudied. Here we use measurements of terrestrial peat thickness, bulk density, organic matter content, and basal radiocarbon age from permafrost cores, soil pits, and exposures in vegetated, drained lake basins to characterize regional lake drainage chronology, C accumulation rates, and the role of thermokarst-lake cycling in carbon dynamics throughout the Holocene on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Most detectable lake drainage events occurred within the last 4,000 years with the highest drainage frequency during the medieval climate anomaly. Peat accumulation rates were highest in young (50–500 years) drained lake basins (35.2 g C m−2 yr−1) and decreased exponentially with time since drainage to 9 g C m−2 yr−1 in the oldest basins. Spatial analyses of terrestrial peat depth, basal peat radiocarbon ages, basin geomorphology, and satellite-derived land surface properties (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF)) from Landsat satellite data revealed significant relationships between peat thickness and mean basin NDVI or MNF. By upscaling observed relationships, we infer that drained thermokarst lake basins, covering 391 km2 (76%) of the 515 km2 study region, store 6.4–6.6 Tg organic C in drained lake basin terrestrial peat. Peat accumulation in drained lake basins likely serves to offset greenhouse gas release from thermokarst-impacted landscapes and should be incorporated in landscape-scale C budgets.

  11. Spring habitat use by stocked one year old European sturgeon Acipenser sturio in the freshwater-oligohaline area of the Gironde estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acolas, M. L.; Le Pichon, C.; Rochard, E.

    2017-09-01

    Post release habitat selection was studied on forty eight 10-month-old hatchery reared European sturgeon (mean fork length 31.0 cm ± 3.0) in the tidal part of their native catchment using acoustic telemetry. Most of the fish reached the oligohaline estuary within 2-4 days (70 km downstream the release site). Seventy four percent of the fish migrated rapidly downstream of the estuary into mesohaline waters while 26% selected habitat in the freshwater/oligohaline part of the estuary based on their linearity and residency indices. We focused on individual habitat use of these fish. The home range size (HR) was calculated using two methods: the kernel utilization distribution (KUD) which is driven by the maximum detection location density, and the Brownian Bridge (BB) approach which allows the time component of the trajectory path to be taken into account. The average 50% HR KUD was 5.6 ± 2.7 km2 (range 1.1-10.3 km2) and it was estimated to be 6 times larger using the 50% HR BB method (average reaching 31.9 ± 20.7 km2, range 5.2-77.8 km2). Habitat characterization (available prey, substrate and depth) in the studied area was described and the Ivlev electivity index was calculated using the habitat within the 50% HR BB for each individual. Despite the spatial use of different core areas among the fish tagged, we observed a convergence in habitat preference. For substrates, sturgeons showed avoidance of gravel and large rocks as well as fine and medium gravel. There was a significant preference for sand, silts and clay. For depth, they exhibited a preference firstly for the 5-8 m depth range and secondly for the 2-5 m range, a strong avoidance of depth range 8-20 m and a slight avoidance of shallow (0-2 m) and intertidal areas. For prey, individual variability was high. The most homogenous results were found for annelid polychaeta, with a slight preference for areas with this group of preys which are abundant in the saline estuary. For some individuals, a preference

  12. A natural tracer investigation of the hydrological regime of Spring Creek Springs, the largest submarine spring system in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Natasha T.; Burnett, William C.; Speer, Kevin

    2011-04-01

    This work presents results from a nearly two-year monitoring of the hydrologic dynamics of the largest submarine spring system in Florida, Spring Creek Springs. During the summer of 2007 this spring system was observed to have significantly reduced flow due to persistent drought conditions. Our examination of the springs revealed that the salinity of the springs' waters had increased significantly, from 4 in 2004 to 33 in July 2007 with anomalous high radon ( 222Rn, t1/2=3.8 days) in surface water concentrations indicating substantial saltwater intrusion into the local aquifer. During our investigation from August 2007 to May 2009 we deployed on an almost monthly basis a continuous radon-in-water measurement system and monitored the salinity fluctuations in the discharge area. To evaluate the springs' freshwater flux we developed three different models: two of them are based on water velocity measurements and either salinity or 222Rn in the associated surface waters as groundwater tracers. The third approach used only salinity changes within the spring area. The three models showed good agreement and the results confirmed that the hydrologic regime of the system is strongly correlated to local precipitation and water table fluctuations with higher discharges after major rain events and very low, even reverse flow during prolong droughts. High flow spring conditions were observed twice during our study, in the early spring and mid-late summer of 2008. However the freshwater spring flux during our observation period never reached that reported from a 1970s value of 4.9×10 6 m 3/day. The maximum spring flow was estimated at about 3.0×10 6 m 3/day after heavy precipitation in February-March 2008. As a result of this storm (total of 173 mm) the salinity in the spring area dropped from about 27 to 2 in only two days. The radon-in-water concentrations dramatically increased in parallel, from about 330 Bq/m 3 to about 6600 Bq/m 3. Such a rapid response suggests a direct

  13. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level

  14. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  15. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  16. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception 90 Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  18. Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment

  19. Shallow groundwater investigations at Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (MDNR-DGLS) conducted investigations of the upper aquifer in the vicinity of the abandoned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant in southwest St. Charles County, Missouri. The objective of the investigation was to better define the relationships between precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater recharge and shallow groundwater discharge within the study area, thereby assisting the Department of Energy in designing an appropriate groundwater monitoring plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The results of the investigations indicate that the upper aquifer has been affected by karst development but that well developed karst does not exist on or around the site. Dye traces conducted during the study have shown that surface water which leaves the site enters the subsurface in losing streams around the site and travels rapidly to one or more local springs. Upper aquifer recharge areas, constructed from dye trace and potentiometric data, generally follow surface water drainage patterns on the south side of the site, but cross surface-water drainage divides north of the site. Nine springs may receive recharge from site runoff, depending upon the amount of runoff. In addition to these springs, one perennial spring and two intermittent springs to the southwest of the site may receive recharge from site infiltration. 25 refs., 13 figs

  20. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  1. Responses to comments on the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for remedial action at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site (November 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The integrated remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS) documents for the chemical plant area were issued to the public in November 1992 as the draft RI/FS-EIS. (The CERCLA RI/FS is considered final when issued to the public, whereas per the NEPA process, an EIS is initially issued as a draft and is finalized after substantive public comments have been addressed.) Four documents made up the draft RI/FS-EIS, which is hereafter referred to as the RI/FS-EIS: (1) the RI (DOE 1992d), which presents general information on the site environment and the nature and extent of contamination; (2) the baseline assessment (BA) (DOE 1992a), which evaluates human health and environmental effects that might occur if no cleanup actions were taken; (3) the FS (DOE 1992b), which develops and evaluates alternatives for site cleanup; and (4) the proposed plan (PP) (DOE 1992c), which summarizes key information from the RI, BA, and FS reports and identifies DOE's preferred alternative for remedial action. This comment response document combined with those four documents constitutes the final RI/FS-EIS for the chemical plant area

  2. Responses to comments on the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for remedial action at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site (November 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The integrated remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS) documents for the chemical plant area were issued to the public in November 1992 as the draft RI/FS-EIS. (The CERCLA RI/FS is considered final when issued to the public, whereas per the NEPA process, an EIS is initially issued as a draft and is finalized after substantive public comments have been addressed.) Four documents made up the draft RI/FS-EIS, which is hereafter referred to as the RI/FS-EIS: (1) the RI (DOE 1992d), which presents general information on the site environment and the nature and extent of contamination; (2) the baseline assessment (BA) (DOE 1992a), which evaluates human health and environmental effects that might occur if no cleanup actions were taken; (3) the FS (DOE 1992b), which develops and evaluates alternatives for site cleanup; and (4) the proposed plan (PP) (DOE 1992c), which summarizes key information from the RI, BA, and FS reports and identifies DOE`s preferred alternative for remedial action. This comment response document combined with those four documents constitutes the final RI/FS-EIS for the chemical plant area.

  3. Numerical simulations for the area of the German Bight in spring 1995; Numerische Simulationsrechnungen fuer das Gebiet der Deutschen Bucht am Beispiel des Fruehjahrs 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, C.J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reports results of the mesoscale transport, chemism and flow model METRAS for the period from 22 April to 11 May 1995. During this period, a measurement campaign was carried out in the area of the German Bight under the ``KUSTOS`` springtime scheme (``Coastal mass and energy transport processes - The transition from land to sea in the south-eastern North Sea``). In order to take instationary and inhomogeneous weather situations into account, the modellings used data provided by the German weather service, which form part of its Germany model (DM), both to initialize and drive the METRAS data. The modelling results of METRAS are compared with routine readings taken by the German weather service in some selected measuring sites. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse des mesoskaligen Transport-, Chemie- und Stroemungsmodells METRAS fuer den Zeitraum vom 22. April bis zum 11. Mai 1995 vorgestellt, in dem die Messkampagne des KUSTOS-Fruehjahrsexperimentes (Kuestennahe Stoff- und Energietransporte - der Uebergang Land - Meer in der suedoestlichen Nordsee) im Bereich der Deutschen Bucht stattfand. Zur Beruecksichtigung instationaerer und inhomogener Wetterlagen bei den Modellrechnungen wurden sowohl zur Initialisierung als auch zum Antrieb von METRAS Daten des Deutschland-Modells (DM) des Deutschen Wetterdienstes verwendet. Die Modellergebnisse von METRAS werden mit Routinemessungen des Deutschen Wetterdienstes an einigen ausgewaehlten Messstationen verglichen. (orig./KW)

  4. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  5. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.258, year: 2015

  6. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... for water - a process which perhaps also is evidenced by temple constructions at Barbar, Umm al-Sujur and Abu Zaydan....

  7. [Photosynthetic gas exchange and water utilization of flag leaf of spring wheat with bunch sowing and field plastic mulching below soil on semi-arid rain-fed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen Xiong; Liu, Na; Liu, Xiao Hua; Zhang, Xue Ting; Wang, Shi Hong; Yuan, Jun Xiu; Zhang, Xu Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Based on the field experiment which was conducted in Dingxi County of Gansu Province, and involved in the three treatments: (1) plastic mulching on entire land with soil coverage and bunching (PMS), (2) plastic mulching on entire land and bunching (PM), and (3) direct bunching without mulching (CK). The parameters of SPAD values, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, as well as leaf area index (LAI), yield, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency in flag leaves of spring wheat were recorded and analyzed from 2012 to 2013 continuously. The results showed that SPAD values of wheat flag leaves increased in PMS by 10.0%-21.5% and 3.2%-21.6% compared to PM and CK in post-flowering stage, respectively. The maximum photochemical efficiency (F v /F m ) , actual photochemical efficiency (Φ PS 2 ) of photosystem 2 (PS2), and photochemical quenching coefficient (q P ) of PMS were higher than those of PM and CK, the maximum increment values were 6.1%, 9.6% and 30.9% as compared with PM, and significant differences were observed in filling stage (P<0.05). The values of q N in PMS were lowest among the three treatments, and it decreased significantly by 23.8% and 15.4% in heading stage in 2012 and 2013 respectively, as compared with PM. The stoma conductance (g s ) of wheat flag leaves in PMS was higher than that of PM and CK, with significant difference being observed in filling stage, and it increased by 17.1% and 21.1% in 2012 and 2013 respectively, as compared with PM. The transpiration rate (T r ), net photosynthetic rate (P n ), and leaf instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE i ) except heading stage in 2013 of PMS increased by 5.4%-16.7%, 11.2%-23.7%, and 5.6%-7.2%, respectively, as compared with PM, and significant difference of WUE i was observed in flowering stage in 2012. The leaf area index (LAI) of PMS was higher than that of PM and CK, especially, it differed significantly in seasonal drought of 2013. Consequently

  8. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-04 to 2010-08-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-04 to...

  9. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to...

  10. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-24 to 2010-08-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-24 to 2010-08-02 in response to the...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-04-18 to 2003-05-22 (NODC Accession 0113596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113596 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-04-18 to...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2001-01-02 to 2001-02-18 (NODC Accession 0113987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113987 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2001-01-02 to...

  13. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-22 in response to the...

  14. Use of thermal springs for geochemical exploration in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study an attempt was made to examine precious metals in the localities of the hydrothermal areas in the central Rift valley with the objective of whether thermal springs can hit mineral deposits. Thus, Filwoha, Sodere, Ambo and Wondogenet thermal spring areas were selected and specimens were collected for gold, ...

  15. Characterization of the hydrogeology of the sacred Gihon Spring, Jerusalem: a deteriorating urban karst spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Ronit Benami; Grodek, Tamir; Frumkin, Amos

    2010-09-01

    The Gihon Spring, Jerusalem, is important for the major monotheistic religions. Its hydrogeology and hydrochemistry is studied here in order to understand urbanization effects on karst groundwater resources, and promote better water management. High-resolution monitoring of the spring discharge, temperature and electrical conductivity, was performed, together with chemical and bacterial analysis. All these demonstrate a rapid response of the spring to rainfall events and human impact. A complex karst system is inferred, including conduit flow, fissure flow and diffuse flow. Electrical conductivity, Na+ and K+ values (2.0 mS/cm, 130 and 50 mg/l respectively) are very high compared to other nearby springs located at the town margins (0.6 mS/cm, 15 and <1 mg/l respectively), indicating considerable urban pollution in the Gihon area. The previously cited pulsating nature of the spring was not detected during the present high-resolution monitoring. This phenomenon may have ceased due to additional water sources from urban leakage and irrigation feeding the spring. The urbanization of the recharge catchment thus affects the spring water dramatically, both chemically and hydrologically. Appropriate measures should therefore be undertaken to protect the Gihon Spring and other karst aquifers threatened by rapid urbanization.

  16. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples

  17. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  18. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Edwards, Daniel D.; Campbell, Linford J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, four domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, three dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concen- trations exceeded their respective laboratory reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Ethylbenzene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample.

  19. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1992-03-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, five domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, two dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Toluene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample. Two samples contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water

  20. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  1. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  2. Asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring in East Asia (Toward interdisciplinary education on the climate systems and the "seasonal feeling" such as around the Japan Islands area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko; Sato, Sari; Akagi, Rikako; Haga, Yuichi; Miyake, Shoji

    2014-05-01

    There are many steps of seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" around the Japan Islands. For example, the "wintertime pressure pattern" begins to prevail already from November due to the seasonal development of the Siberian Air mass and the Siberian High, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher than in midwinter. On the other hand, since the southward retreat of the warm moist air mass in the western Pacific area delays rather greatly to the advances of those northern systems. Thus it would be interesting to re-examine the whole seasonal cycle around the Japan Islands at the view point of how the phase differences among seasonal marches of the Asian monsoon subsystems affect the variety of the seasonal cycle there, together with their effects on the "seasonal feeling". As such, the present study will examine the asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring through midwinter around the Japan Islands as an interesting example, and will also report the joint activity with music, and so on, toward the development of an interdisciplinary study plan on such topics for the students in junior high school, high school and the faculty of education of the university. The wintertime weather pattern, i.e., precipitation in the Japan Sea side and clear day in the Pacific side of the Japan Islands, prevails from early November to early March, reflected by the seasonal cycle of the Siberian Air Mass and the Siberian High. However, the air temperature shows the minimum from late January to early February around the Japan Islands. In other words, although the dominant weather patterns around November and in early March are nearly the same as each other, air temperature is still lower in early March (early spring). In spite of that, the solar radiation is rather stronger in early

  3. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  4. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  5. Structural analysis of compression helical spring used in suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akshat; Misra, Sheelam; Jindal, Arun; Lakhian, Prateek

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this work has to develop a helical spring for shock absorber used in suspension system which is designed to reduce shock impulse and liberate kinetic energy. In a vehicle, it increases comfort by decreasing amplitude of disturbances and it improves ride quality by absorbing and dissipating energy. When a vehicle is in motion on a road and strikes a bump, spring comes into action quickly. After compression, spring will attempt to come to its equilibrium state which is on level road. Helical springs can be made lighter with more strength by reducing number of coils and increasing the area. In this research work, a helical spring is modeled and analyzed to substitute the existing steel spring which is used in suspension. By using different materials, stress and deflection of helical spring can be varied. Comparability between existing spring and newly replaced spring is used to verify the results. For finding detailed stress distribution, finite element analysis is used to find stresses and deflection in both the helical springs. Finite element analysis is a method which is used to find proximate solutions of a physical problem defined in a finite domain. In this research work, modeling of spring is accomplished using Solid Works and analysis on Ansys.

  6. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  7. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  8. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  9. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  10. Bioinspired spring origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jakob A.; Arrieta, Andres F.; Studart, André R.

    2018-03-01

    Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets. Inspired by this biological wing, we establish a spring origami model that broadens the folding design space of traditional origami and allows for the fabrication of precisely tunable, four-dimensional–printed objects with programmable bioinspired morphing functionalities.

  11. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  12. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  13. Report on the FY 1998 survey for preservation of Jozankei Hot Spring. Hot spring variation survey; 1998 nendo Jozankei onsen hozen chosa. Onsen hendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Of the FY 1998 survey for preservation of Jozankei Hot Spring, a survey was conducted with the aim of grasping the state of variation in ingredients of hot spring, etc. in the area and of elucidating the causes of hot spring variation. During the period from October 27, 1998 to August 28, 1999, the following were carried out: sampling of specimens of spring water at 6 spring sources, river water at 2 points and precipitation at 2 points; measurement of temperature, spring temperature, pH, electric conductivity, etc.; analyses of Na, Ca, CL, HCO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, etc. The results of the analysis are as follows. As to spring sources, A-2, A-7 and B-1, the precipitation or river water flow rate seem to largely affect the variation in hot spring measuring values. As to spring resources, A-6 and B-4, the relation with the precipitation or river water flow rate is not clear, but a big change is recognized in the snow-melting season. The tendency to the two variations seems to be caused by the difference between the spring with which the river water is greatly concerned by the crack system of the spring having reached the river and the spring which was closed on the earth surface. The temperature variation of springs was considered to be affected by the river water which flowed into the springs. (NEDO)

  14. Spring-recharging in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anil P.

    2009-01-01

    in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

  15. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Hill, G.S.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-09-01

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  16. Hydrogeological characterization of peculiar Apenninic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervi, F.; Marcaccio, M.; Petronici, F.; Borgatti, L.

    2014-09-01

    In the northern Apennines of Italy, springs are quite widespread over the slopes. Due to the outcropping of low-permeability geologic units, they are generally characterized by low-yield capacities and high discharge variability during the hydrologic year. In addition, low-flow periods (discharge lower than 1 Ls-1) reflect rainfall and snowmelt distribution and generally occur in summer seasons. These features strongly condition the management for water-supply purposes, making it particularly complex. The "Mulino delle Vene" springs (420 m a.s.l., Reggio Emilia Province, Italy) are one of the largest in the Apennines for mean annual discharge and dynamic storage and are considered as the main water resource in the area. They flow out from several joints and fractures at the bottom of an arenite rock mass outcrop in the vicinity of the Tresinaro River. To date, these springs have not yet been exploited, as the knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer and their hydrological behaviour is not fully achieved. This study aims to describe the recharge processes and to define the hydrogeological boundaries of the aquifer. It is based on river and spring discharge monitoring and groundwater balance assessment carried out during the period 2012-2013. Results confirm the effectiveness of the approach, as it allowed the total aliquot of discharge of the springs to be assessed. Moreover, by comparing the observed discharge volume with the one calculated with the groundwater balance, the aquifer has been identified with the arenite slab (mean altitude of 580 m a.s.l.), extended about 5.5 km2 and located 1 km west of the monitored springs.

  17. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  18. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  19. An assessment of the water quality of the Isinuka springs in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical properties of Isinuka springs, a "wonder" water resource in Port St Johns area of Eastern Cape Province, were investigated over three seasonal regimes. Water samples were collected from the five spring sources, along Isinuka river and from Ferry Point Cottage spring and analysed for their quality ...

  20. Morphological and genetic perspectives of peach fruit responses to spring frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring frost is one of the most unpredictable cropping factors in many peach production areas. A severe spring frost can wipe out an entire peach crop whereas a mild spring frost may naturally help thinning as is common practice in commercial peach production. The extent of frost damage depends on t...

  1. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  2. Influence of intense secondary aerosol formation and long-range transport on aerosol chemistry and properties in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during spring time: results from KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Qi; Heo, Jongbae

    2018-05-01

    Non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was measured in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) from 14 April to 15 June 2016, as a part of the Korea-US Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) campaign. This was the first highly time-resolved, real-time measurement study of springtime aerosol in SMA and the results reveal valuable insights into the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to PM pollution in this region. The average concentration of submicrometer aerosol (PM1 = NR-PM1 + black carbon (BC)) was 22.1 µg m-3, which was composed of 44 % organics, 20 % sulfate, 17 % nitrate, 12 % ammonium, and 7 % BC. Organics had an average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratio of 0.49 and an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC) ratio of 1.82. Four distinct sources of OA were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA; O / C = 0.15; 17 % of OA mass), food cooking activities represented by a cooking-influenced OA factor (COA; O / C = 0.19; 22 % of OA mass), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represented by a semi-volatile oxygenated OA factor (SV-OOA; O / C = 0.44; 27 % of OA mass) and a low-volatility oxygenated OA factor (LV-OOA; O / C = 0.91; 34 % of OA mass). Our results indicate that air quality in SMA during KORUS-AQ was influenced strongly by secondary aerosol formation, with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, SV-OOA, and LV-OOA together accounting for 76 % of the PM1 mass. In particular, the formation of LV-OOA and sulfate was mainly promoted by elevated ozone concentrations and photochemical reactions during daytime, whereas SV-OOA and nitrate formation was contributed by both nocturnal processing of VOC and nitrogen oxides, respectively, and daytime photochemical reactions. In addition, lower nighttime temperature promoted gas-to-particle partitioning of

  3. Diversity of Bamboos around springs in Malang East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Solikin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos have important roles to people in the villages area. They are planted and used by the people for making houses, food, buckets, fences, ropes, fuels, musical instruments and plaits. The root distribution of Bamboos is large and fibrous, also the growth of their new clumps is ascendant so the Bamboos has good potency for water and soil conservation on river banks, around the springs, hillsides and scarps. The survey to invent the bamboos growing around the springs was conducted in Singosari, Lawang, Karangploso, Dau and Lowokwaru Malang East Java in May 2009. The Bamboos invented at 0-100 m from the springs. The results Showed that there were four Bamboos founded around the springs namely Bambusa blumeana,Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter and Gigantochloa apus. Dendrocalamus asper was the most dominant species founded around the springs with relative frequency, relative density and important value index is 45.83 ; 58.49 and 104.32 respectively.

  4. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr

  5. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  6. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  7. Spring valve for well completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatov, P T

    1966-07-22

    A spring-loaded valve for well completion consists of a housing with a spring-loaded closing element. In order to protect the closing element from corrosion which might lower the pressure drop, the closing element is made in the form of a piston. It is tightly connected with sealing elements. The housing has orifices, overlapping the piston in the initial position.

  8. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  9. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  10. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  11. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  12. Geochemical studies of Ishiwa hot springs in Yamanashi Prefecture-yearly change of hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, T. (Yamanashi Prefecture Womens Junior College, Japan)

    1971-12-01

    The effect of drilling on the Ishiwa hot springs was studied. About 50 wells have been drilled since 1961 when the first well was drilled to a depth of 146 m where 47/sup 0/C water flowed at 1376 l/min. Changes have occurred in flow rate, temperature, and chemical composition of the spring water. In area A near the foot of northern Okura-Keijisan along the Byodo and Fuefuki rivers, the pH value was 8.0 to 8.2 when drilling began, but it is now 7.4 to 8.0. In area B in the central spring area along the Chikatsu water reservoir, the pH was about 8.5 when drilling began, but is presently 10. The shift of area A pH to acidic is thought to be due to the effect of river water. The shift in area B pH to alkaline was thought to be connected to the fountainhead with pH 10 which appeared in the Kami-Ogihara Resseki district in Shioyama City. The fountainhead was located along the Fuefuki River at the foot of Obosatsu, 20 km from the Ishiwa area.

  13. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

  15. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Laurel Springs & DoDEA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jhung, Seung

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the client organization, Laurel Springs School, we developed an in-depth market analysis of comparable educational programs offered within the Department of Defense Education Activities (DoDEA...

  17. Springs on the Nevada Test Site and their use by wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, K.R.

    1976-04-01

    During August 1972, natural springs located on the Nevada Test Site were surveyed to determine the use by wildlife and the effort required for improving flow. Each spring is described and its use by wildlife noted. Methods of improving spring flow are suggested. It is believed that minimal effort at most of the springs would result in a significant improvement of waterflow with resulting benefits to wildlife. The intention of the recommendations in this report is to encourage development of the Nevada Test Site springs and to maintain the wildlife now at the Site. There is no recommendation to bring in or support wildlife outside the Nevada Test Site area

  18. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  19. Thermal water of the Yugawara Hot Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Y; Ogino, K; Nagatsuka, Y; Hirota, S; Kokaji, F; Takahashi, S; Sugimoto, M

    1963-03-01

    The Yugawara Hot Spring is located in the bottom of the dissected creata of the Yugawara volcano. Natural hot spring water ran dry almost twenty five years ago, and thermal water is now pumped up by means of deep drill holes. The hydrorogy of the thermal water was studied from both geochemical and geophysical points of view. Two types of thermal water, sodium chloride and calcium sulfate, are recognized. Sodium chloride is predominant in the high temperature area and low in the surrounding low temperature area. Calcium sulfate predominates in the low temperature area. Sodium chloride is probably derived from deep magmatic emanations as indicated in the high Li content. Sulfate ion seems to originate from oxidation of pyrite whose impregnation took place in the ancient activity of the Yugawara volcano. The content of Ca is stoichiometrically comparable with SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. It is suggested that sulfuric acid derived from the oxidation of pyrite attacks calcite formed during the hydrothermal alteration of rocks. Some consideration of well logging in the geothermal area is also discussed. Temperature measurement in recharging of cold water is applicable to the logging of drill holes as well as the electric logging.

  20. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  1. Soda Creek springs - metamorphic waters in the eastern Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D.H.; Donaldson, D.E.; Lamarre, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    The Soda Creek springs are a group of small, cold mineral springs on the southern flank of the eastern Alaska Range. The spring waters contain anomalous concentrations of carbon dioxide, sodium, chlorine, sulfate, boron, and ammonia and are actively precipitating deposits of calcite and aragonite. Sparingly present in these deposits are mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite clays and zeolite minerals. Low-temperaturemetamorphic reactions in subjacent marine sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age may have produced the fluids and silicate minerals. With only a few exceptions, cool bicarbonate-rich springs in Alaska are concentrated south of the Denali fault system in south-central Alaska, southeastern Alaska, and along the Kaltag-Tintina fault system. These areas are characterized by active or recently activetectonism, major faults and folds, and an abundance of marine sedimentary rocks.

  2. Characterizing Post-Drainage Succession in Thermokarst Lake Basins on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska with TerraSAR-X Backscatter and Landsat-based NDVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajna Regmi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drained thermokarst lake basins accumulate significant amounts of soil organic carbon in the form of peat, which is of interest to understanding carbon cycling and climate change feedbacks associated with thermokarst in the Arctic. Remote sensing is a tool useful for understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of drained basins. In this study, we tested the application of high-resolution X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data of the German TerraSAR-X satellite from the 2009 growing season (July–September for characterizing drained thermokarst lake basins of various age in the ice-rich permafrost region of the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. To enhance interpretation of patterns identified in X-band SAR for these basins, we also analyzed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI calculated from a Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on July 2009 and compared both X-band SAR and NDVI data with observations of basin age. We found significant logarithmic relationships between (a TerraSAR-X backscatter and basin age from 0 to 10,000 years, (b Landat-5 TM NDVI and basin age from 0 to 10,000 years, and (c TerraSAR-X backscatter and basin age from 50 to 10,000 years. NDVI was a better indicator of basin age over a period of 0–10,000 years. However, TerraSAR-X data performed much better for discriminating radiocarbon-dated basins (50–10,000 years old. No clear relationships were found for either backscatter or NDVI and basin age from 0 to 50 years. We attribute the decreasing trend of backscatter and NDVI with increasing basin age to post-drainage changes in the basin surface. Such changes include succession in vegetation, soils, hydrology, and renewed permafrost aggradation, ground ice accumulation and localized frost heave. Results of this study show the potential application of X-band SAR data in combination with NDVI data to map long-term succession dynamics of drained thermokarst lake basins.

  3. Characterizing post-drainage succession in Thermokarst Lake Basins on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska with TerraSAR-X Backscatter and Landsat-based NDVI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Prajna; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Miriam C.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Walter Anthony, Katey

    2012-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins accumulate significant amounts of soil organic carbon in the form of peat, which is of interest to understanding carbon cycling and climate change feedbacks associated with thermokarst in the Arctic. Remote sensing is a tool useful for understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of drained basins. In this study, we tested the application of high-resolution X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data of the German TerraSAR-X satellite from the 2009 growing season (July–September) for characterizing drained thermokarst lake basins of various age in the ice-rich permafrost region of the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. To enhance interpretation of patterns identified in X-band SAR for these basins, we also analyzed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from a Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on July 2009 and compared both X-band SAR and NDVI data with observations of basin age. We found significant logarithmic relationships between (a) TerraSAR-X backscatter and basin age from 0 to 10,000 years, (b) Landat-5 TM NDVI and basin age from 0 to 10,000 years, and (c) TerraSAR-X backscatter and basin age from 50 to 10,000 years. NDVI was a better indicator of basin age over a period of 0–10,000 years. However, TerraSAR-X data performed much better for discriminating radiocarbon-dated basins (50–10,000 years old). No clear relationships were found for either backscatter or NDVI and basin age from 0 to 50 years. We attribute the decreasing trend of backscatter and NDVI with increasing basin age to post-drainage changes in the basin surface. Such changes include succession in vegetation, soils, hydrology, and renewed permafrost aggradation, ground ice accumulation and localized frost heave. Results of this study show the potential application of X-band SAR data in combination with NDVI data to map long-term succession dynamics of drained thermokarst lake basins.

  4. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  5. Phytoplankton biomass and microbial abundances during the spring upwelling season in the coastal area off Concepción, central-southern Chile: Variability around a time series station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carmen E.; Anabalón, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    In the coastal system off Concepción, time series observations at a fixed station (St. 18) have shown strong seasonal changes in the oceanographic environment of the upper layer (blooms, dominated by microplanktonic diatoms, have usually overshadowed the relevance of the smaller microbial components during upwelling. This study focuses on the variability of oceanographic conditions and their association with the structure of the planktonic community (size fractionated chlorophyll-a and microbial abundances) in the upper layer during the upwelling season, examining the extent to which St. 18 is representative of the coastal system off Concepción during springtime. For this purpose, data from three consecutive springs (2004, 2005, 2006) were compared, which included cruises for all years (8 stations around St. 18) as well as monthly sampling at St. 18. Most of the spatial (submesoscale) variability in chlorophyll-a and the microbial components was not significant, but data dispersion around mean values was high. Water column structure (temperature and salinity) in the upper layer explained a significant fraction (25-65%) of the spatial variability in most of the planktonic components; their responses to oceanographic variability were linear in some cases and non-linear in others. For the most part, St. 18 appears to adequately represent mean oceanographic conditions and the structure of planktonic communities in the coastal waters off Concepción during springtime, however spatial variability needs to be taken into account in the interpretations of temporal changes at this fixed station as well as in assessments of carbon flow within, and exportation processes from, this upwelling system.

  6. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  7. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  8. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  9. State-space prediction of spring discharge in a karst catchment in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian; Li, Xuezhang; Zhang, Rongfei; Wang, Kelin; Xu, Chaohao

    2017-06-01

    Southwest China represents one of the largest continuous karst regions in the world. It is estimated that around 1.7 million people are heavily dependent on water derived from karst springs in southwest China. However, there is a limited amount of water supply in this region. Moreover, there is not enough information on temporal patterns of spring discharge in the area. In this context, it is essential to accurately predict spring discharge, as well as understand karst hydrological processes in a thorough manner, so that water shortages in this area could be predicted and managed efficiently. The objectives of this study were to determine the primary factors that govern spring discharge patterns and to develop a state-space model to predict spring discharge. Spring discharge, precipitation (PT), relative humidity (RD), water temperature (WD), and electrical conductivity (EC) were the variables analyzed in the present work, and they were monitored at two different locations (referred to as karst springs A and B, respectively, in this paper) in a karst catchment area in southwest China from May to November 2015. Results showed that a state-space model using any combinations of variables outperformed a classical linear regression, a back-propagation artificial neural network model, and a least square support vector machine in modeling spring discharge time series for karst spring A. The best state-space model was obtained by using PT and RD, which accounted for 99.9% of the total variation in spring discharge. This model was then applied to an independent data set obtained from karst spring B, and it provided accurate spring discharge estimates. Therefore, state-space modeling was a useful tool for predicting spring discharge in karst regions in southwest China, and this modeling procedure may help researchers to obtain accurate results in other karst regions.

  10. The false spring of 2012, earliest in North American record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, T.R.; Henebry, G.M.; de Beurs, K. M.; Schwartz, M.D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Moore, David

    2013-01-01

    Phenology - the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate - is becoming an essential tool for documenting, communicating, and anticipating the consequences of climate variability and change. For example, March 2012 broke numerous records for warm temperatures and early flowering in the United States [Karl et al., 2012; Elwood et al., 2013]. Many regions experienced a “false spring,” a period of weather in late winter or early spring sufficiently mild and long to bring vegetation out of dormancy prematurely, rendering it vulnerable to late frost and drought.As global climate warms, increasingly warmer springs may combine with the random climatological occurrence of advective freezes, which result from cold air moving from one region to another, to dramatically increase the future risk of false springs, with profound ecological and economic consequences [e.g., Gu et al., 2008; Marino et al., 2011; Augspurger, 2013]. For example, in the false spring of 2012, an event embedded in long-term trends toward earlier spring [e.g., Schwartz et al., 2006], the frost damage to fruit trees totaled half a billion dollars in Michigan alone, prompting the federal government to declare the state a disaster area [Knudson, 2012].

  11. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    in the Virgin River Gorge containing known fault zones accounted for about 48 percent of this total seepage loss. An additional seepage loss of 6.7 ft3/s was calculated for the reach of the Virgin River between Bloomington, Utah, and the Utah/Arizona State line. This loss in flow is small compared to total flow in the river and is comparable to the rated error in streamflow measurements in this reach; consequently, it should be used with caution. Littlefield Springs were studied to determine the fraction of its discharge that originates as upstream seepage from the Virgin River and residence time of this water in the subsurface. Geochemical and environmental tracer data from groundwater and surface-water sites in the Virgin River Gorge area suggest that discharge from Littlefield Springs is a mixture of modern (post-1950s) seepage from the Virgin River upstream of the springs and older groundwater from a regional carbonate aquifer. Concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFC-12 and CFC-113, chloride/fluoride and chloride/bromide ratios, and the stable isotope deuterium indicate that water discharging from Littlefield Springs is about 60 percent seepage from the Virgin River and about 40 percent discharge from the regional carbonate aquifer. The river seepage component was determined to have an average subsurface traveltime of about 26 ±1.6 years before discharging at Littlefield Springs. Radiocarbon data for Littlefield Springs suggest groundwater ages from 1,000 to 9,000 years. Because these are mixed waters, the component of discharge from the carbonate aquifer is likely much older than the groundwater ages suggested by the Littlefield Springs samples. If the dissolved-solids load from Dixie Hot Springs to the Virgin River were reduced, the irrigation water subsequently applied to agricultural fields in the St. George and Washington areas, which originates as water from the Virgin River downstream of Dixie Hot Springs, would have a lower dissolved

  12. Bacterial and archaeal diversities in Yunnan and Tibetan hot springs, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Feng-Ping; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Dong, Hailiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of hot springs are located in the north-eastern part of the Yunnan-Tibet geothermal zone, which is one of the most active geothermal areas in the world. However, a comprehensive and detailed understanding of microbial diversity in these hot springs is still lacking. In this study, bacterial and archaeal diversities were investigated in 16 hot springs (pH 3.2-8.6; temperature 47-96°C) in Yunnan Province and Tibet, China by using a barcoded 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing approach. Aquificae, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus and Bacteroidetes comprised the large portion of the bacterial communities in acidic hot springs. Non-acidic hot springs harboured more and variable bacterial phyla than acidic springs. Desulfurococcales and unclassified Crenarchaeota were the dominated groups in archaeal populations from most of the non-acidic hot springs; whereas, the archaeal community structure in acidic hot springs was simpler and characterized by Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmata. The phylogenetic analyses showed that Aquificae and Crenarchaeota were predominant in the investigated springs and possessed many phylogenetic lineages that have never been detected in other hot springs in the world. Thus findings from this study significantly improve our understanding of microbial diversity in terrestrial hot springs. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program, is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Weldon Spring site, which is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), became contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildlife Area and is near a well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk waste contained therein. 105 refs., 33 figs., 42 tabs

  14. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  15. Development of alternative materials for BWR fuel springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Y.; Osato, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    2002-01-01

    Major sources of radioactivity introduced into reactor water of BWR were estimated fuel crud and in-core materials (especially, fuel springs). Fuel springs are used for fixation of fuel cladding tubes with spacer grid. Those are small parts (total length is only within 25 mm) and so many numbers are loaded simultaneously and then total surfaces area are calculated up to about 200 m 2 . Fuel springs are located under high radiation field and high oxidative environment. Conventional fuel spring is made of alloy-X750 which is one of nickel-based alloy and is reported to show relatively higher corrosion release rate. 58 Co and 60 Co will be released directly into reactor water from intensely radio-activated fuel springs surface and increase radioactivity concentrations in primary coolant. Corrosion release control from fuel springs is an important technical item and a development of alternative material instead of alloy-X750 for fuel spring is a key subject to achieve ultra low man-rem exposure BWR plant. In present work, alloy-X718 which started usage for PWR fuel springs and stainless steel type 316L which has many mechanical property data are picked up for alternative materials and compared their corrosion behaviors with conventional material. Corrosion experiment was conducted under vapor-water two phases flow which is simulated fuel cladding surface boiling condition. After exposure, corrosion film formed under corrosion test was analyzed in detail and corrosion film amount and corrosion release amount are estimated among three materials. (authors)

  16. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  17. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  18. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  19. Open-Coil Retraction Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. “Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS” is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.. A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement.

  20. 120-year records of spring flows in the Pentland Hills, geological controls and response to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Tom; Black, Andrew R.; MacDonald, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    An archive of hand written operations logs from the former Edinburgh Water Works allows a largely complete record of spring flows to be examined for the 120-year period beginning 1862. The two longest and most consistent records in the archive are for Black Springs, draining an area of talus formed on microgranite and Silurian sediments, and the Bavelaw Springs, which drain the Carboniferous Kinnesswood Formation comprised mostly of sandstones. Weekly flow records are available...

  1. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

    2011-12-01

    imagery on the iPad2 has drastically changed how we plan and conduct our sampling trips. Orthoimagery onto the iPad2 is viewed with GISRoam and we use that imagery to help guide us toward points that we wish to visit. GISRoam was used to plot spatially correlated data points while in the field, estimate latitude and longitude, and record aforementioned data. A key factor to our success is up to the minute collaboration between all participants. Google's suite of services provides phone number for landowners, web site hosting, and the most crucial implementation for sharing data in real time has been the beta google Fusion Table. This spreadsheet allows for the incorporation of images, sample data and GPS location to be displayed as a kml file to be viewed in Google maps. This ability to modify and recognize data points in real time has made us more effective in the field, and in documenting progress in the lab. This workflow has enabled us to sample over 30 springs in 2 months, find 10 new springs, and estimate Tmax for 14 sites.By the end of 3 months we anticipate having water chemistry, isotope samples, gas samples, and Tmax determinations for 30 springs in the two study areas.

  2. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  3. Researches regarding the influence of the weather on the flight of the white storks (Ciconia ciconia in the spring migration across the Doamnei River hydrographical basin (Argeş County, Romania (II. Other considerations about the migration over the area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MESTECANEANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this last part of the series of articles concerning the migration of the white storks (Ciconia ciconia in the Doamnei River hydrographical basin, the authors make some considerations regarding the overflown areas and habitats, the aerial activity dependingon the lapse of time and the intra- and inter-specific bonds. The most individuals were observed in the hilly area, flying principally over the settlements and forests. April was the most intense month regarding the migration, the maximum of the aerial activity being between 16:00 and 17:00 for the observations per hour and between 17:00 and 18:00 for the observed individuals per hour. The birds avoided to fly on bad weather conditions and they preferred to use the soaring and gliding flights. Usually, they did not emit any sound.Rarely, the storks were temporarily accompanied in flight by other birds (Pernis apivorus, Accipiter nisus and Falco tinnunculus.

  4. Recent trend of administration on hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Shigeru [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Agency exercises jurisdiction over Hot Spring Act, and plans to protect the source of the hot spring and to utilize it appropriately. From the aspect of utilization, hot springs are widely used as a means to remedy chronic diseases and tourist spots besides places for recuperation and repose. Statistics on Japanese hot springs showed that the number of hot spring spots and utilized-fountainhead increased in 1987, compared with the number in 1986. Considering the utilized-headspring, the number of naturally well-out springs has stabilized for 10 years while power-operated springs have increased. This is because the demand of hot springs has grown as the number of users has increased. Another reason is to keep the amount of hot water by setting up the power facility as the welled-out amount has decreased. Major point of recent administration on the hot spring is to permit excavation and utilization of hot springs. Designation of National hot spring health resorts started in 1954 in order to ensure the effective and original use of hot springs and to promote the public use of them, for the purpose of arranging the sound circumstances of hot springs. By 1988, 76 places were designated. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  6. Genetic sampling of Palmer's chipmunks in the Spring Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Jennifer E. Ramirez; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    Palmer's chipmunk (Neotamias palmeri) is a medium-sized chipmunk whose range is limited to the higher-elevation areas of the Spring Mountain Range, Nevada. A second chipmunk species, the Panamint chipmunk (Neotamias panamintinus), is more broadly distributed and lives in lower-elevation, primarily pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) habitat...

  7. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  8. The role of risk assessment in project planning at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used to prepare a baseline risk evaluation of the bulk wastes at the quarry. The DOE is proposing to remove these bulk wastes and transport them approximately 6.4 km (4 mi) to a temporary storage facility at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The DOE has responsibility for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). A baseline risk evaluation is an evaluation of the potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from a site in the absence of site remediation. This evaluation is a key component of the remedial investigation (RI) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List

  9. Analysis of Spring Flow Change in the Jinan City under Influences of Recent Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomeng; Hu, Litang; Sun, Kangning

    2018-06-01

    Jinan city, the capital of Shandong Province in China, is famous for its beautiful springs. With the rapid development of the economy in recent years, water demand in Jinan city has been increasing rapidly. The over-exploitation of groundwater has caused a decline in groundwater level and, notably, dried up springs under extreme climate conditions. To keep the springs gushing perennially and sustainably use groundwater resources, the local government has implemented many measures to restore the water table, such as the Sponge City Construction Project in Jinan. Focusing on changes in spring flow and its impact factors in Jinan, this paper analyzes the changes in observed spring flow in the most recent 50 years and then discusses the causes of decreases in the spring flow with the consideration of climate and human activities. Spring flow in the study area was changed from the natural state to a period of multiwater source management. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to demonstrate the relationship among spring flow, precipitation, and groundwater abstraction to predict the variations of spring flow under the conditions of climate change and human activities. The good agreement between the simulated and observed results indicates that both precipitation and exploitation are important influence factors. However the effective infiltration of precipitation into groundwater is the most influential factor. The results can provide guidance for groundwater resource protection in the Jinan spring catchment.

  10. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  11. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Hori, T.; Suzuki, S.; Yanagida, K.; Itoh, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Taniuchi, T.; Sakaki, H.; Kuba, A.; Fukushima, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaka, T.; Yokomizo, H.

    1996-01-01

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  12. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  13. Spring-block Model for Barkhausen Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.; Brechet, Y.; Neda, Z.

    2005-01-01

    A simple mechanical spring-block model is used for studying Barkhausen noise (BN). The model incorporates the generally accepted physics of domain wall movement and pinning. Computer simulations on this model reproduces the main features of the hysteresis loop and Barkhausen jumps. The statistics of the obtained Barkhausen jumps follows several scaling laws, in qualitative agreement with experimental results. The model consists of a one-dimensional frictional spring-block system. The blocks model the Bloch-walls that separate inversely oriented magnetic domains, and springs correspond to the magnetized regions. Three types of realistic forces are modelled with this system: 1. the force resulting from the magnetic energy of the neighboring domains in external magnetic field (modelled by forces having alternating orientations and acting directly on the blocks); 2. the force resulting from the magnetic self-energy of each domain (modelled by the elastic forces of the springs); 3. the pinning forces acting on the domain walls (modelled by position dependent static friction acting on blocks). The dynamics of the system is governed by searching for equilibrium: one particular domain wall can jump to the next pinning center if the resultant of forces 1. and 2. is greater then the pinning force. The external magnetic field is successively increased (or decreased) and the system is relaxed to mechanical equilibrium. During the simulations we are monitoring the variation of the magnetization focusing on the shape of the hysteresis loop, power spectrum, jump size (avalanche size) distribution, signal duration distribution, signal area distribution. The simulated shape of the hysteresis loops fulfills all the requirements for real magnetization phenomena. The power spectrum indicates different behavior in the low (1/f noise) and high (white noise) frequency region. All the relevant distribution functions show scaling behavior over several decades of magnitude with a naturally

  14. 78 FR 19192 - Foreign-Trade Zone 236-Palm Springs, California; Application for Reorganization and Expansion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... area'' in the context of the Board's standard 2,000-acre activation limit for a zone. The application... includes the following sites: Site 1 (902 acres)--Palm Springs International Airport, 3400 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way, 410 N. Farrell Drive, 820 Research Drive and adjacent Gene Autry Business Park, Palm Springs...

  15. Radon concentration in the springs of the alluvial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Rokugo alluvial fan is one of the typical stratified alluvial fans which have grown in the east edge of Yokote basin in Akita Prefecture. Many of Rokugo's springs are gushing out from 45 m to 50 m above the sea level where city town have been developed. Mechanism of gushing out of spring is closely bound up with the landform of this area. There is nearly no radon existing in the surface water, but in groundwater, radon concentrations are stable in every stratums and infiltration of groundwater to surface water. We would like to obtain some hydrological information by measuring radon concentration in water samples of Rokugo alluvial fan. (author)

  16. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  17. Hard-tip, soft-spring lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wooyoung; Braunschweig, Adam B; Liao, Xing; Chai, Jinan; Lim, Jong Kuk; Zheng, Gengfeng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-27

    Nanofabrication strategies are becoming increasingly expensive and equipment-intensive, and consequently less accessible to researchers. As an alternative, scanning probe lithography has become a popular means of preparing nanoscale structures, in part owing to its relatively low cost and high resolution, and a registration accuracy that exceeds most existing technologies. However, increasing the throughput of cantilever-based scanning probe systems while maintaining their resolution and registration advantages has from the outset been a significant challenge. Even with impressive recent advances in cantilever array design, such arrays tend to be highly specialized for a given application, expensive, and often difficult to implement. It is therefore difficult to imagine commercially viable production methods based on scanning probe systems that rely on conventional cantilevers. Here we describe a low-cost and scalable cantilever-free tip-based nanopatterning method that uses an array of hard silicon tips mounted onto an elastomeric backing. This method-which we term hard-tip, soft-spring lithography-overcomes the throughput problems of cantilever-based scanning probe systems and the resolution limits imposed by the use of elastomeric stamps and tips: it is capable of delivering materials or energy to a surface to create arbitrary patterns of features with sub-50-nm resolution over centimetre-scale areas. We argue that hard-tip, soft-spring lithography is a versatile nanolithography strategy that should be widely adopted by academic and industrial researchers for rapid prototyping applications.

  18. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  19. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Schwarz, J M; Das, Moumita

    2014-12-01

    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, p(x) and p(y), for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of p(x) and p(y). We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  20. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville... (collectively referred to as the Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs... proposed project would address voltage stability and reliability concerns of two of BPA's full requirements...

  1. Uranium in spring water and bryophytes at Basin Creek in central Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacklette, H.T.; Erdman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Arkosic sandstones and conglomerates of Tertiary age beneath the Challis Volcanics of Eocene age at Basin Creek, 10 km northeast of Stanley, Idaho, contain uranium-bearing vitrainized carbon fragments. The economic potential of these sandstones and conglomerates is currently being assessed. Water from 22 springs and associated bryophytes were sampled; two springs were found to contain apparently anomalous concentrations (normalized) of uranium. Water from a third spring contained slightly anomalous amounts of uranium, and two species of mosses at the spring contained anomalous uranium and high levels of both cadmium and lead. Water from a fourth spring was normal for uranium, but the moss from the water contained a moderate uranium level and highly anomalous concentrations of lead, germanium, and thallium. These results suggest that, in the Basin Creek area, moss sampling at springs may give a more reliable indication of uranium occurrence than would water sampling. (Auth.)

  2. Response of surface springs to longwall coal mining Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadnuck, L.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    High-extraction longwall coal mining creates zones in the overburden where strata bend, fracture, or cave into the mine void. These physical alterations to the overburden stratigraphy have associated effects on the hydrologic regime. The US Bureau of Mines (SBM) studied impacts to the local hydrologic system caused by longwall mining in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Surface springs in the vicinity of two coal mines were evaluated for alterations in flow characteristics as mining progressed. Fourteen springs located above the mines were included in the study. Eight of the springs were located over longwall panels, four were located over barrier pillars and mains, and two ere located outside the area disturbed by mining. Flow hydrographs for each spring were compared to climatic data and time of undermining to assess if mining in the vicinity had influenced flow. Heights of fracturing and caving in the overburden resulting from seam extraction were calculated using common subsidence formulas, and used in conjunction with elevations of springs to assess if fracturing influenced the water-bearing zones studied. One spring over a panel exhibited a departure from a normally-shaped hydrograph after being undermined. Springs located over other mine structures, or outside the mine area did not show discernible effects from mining. The limited response of the springs was attributed to site-specific conditions that buffered mining impacts including the elevation of the springs above the mine level, and presence of massive sandstones and swelling clays in the overburden materials

  3. Corrosion failure analysis of hearing aid battery-spring contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    the susceptibility of these systems to galvanic corrosion. In this study, traditional behind the ear (BTE) hearing aid systems, which failed during service were analysed. Failure analysis was performed on the dome type battery-spring contact systems. The morphology of the contact areas was observed using scanning......Reliability of low power electrical contacts such as those in hearing aid battery-spring systems is a very critical aspect for the overall performance of the device. These systems are exposed to certain harsh environments like high humidity and elevated temperatures, and often in combination...... electron microscopy, and the compositional analysis of the corrosion products and contaminants was performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Wear track morphology was observed on the contact points, and the top coating on the dome was worn out exposing the substrate spring material...

  4. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2016-03-07

    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  5. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  6. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  7. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  8. Geochemistry and hydrology of perched groundwater springs: assessing elevated uranium concentrations at Pigeon Spring relative to nearby Pigeon Mine, Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas; Tillman, Fred; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7–18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.

  9. Evaluation of Quality-Assurance/Quality-Control Data Collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Wells and Springs between the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1989 through 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.M.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Campbell, L.J.

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Geological (USGS) and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected and analyzed water samples to monitor the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho. Concurrently, replicate samples and blank samples were collected and analyzed as part of the quality-assurance/quality-control program. Samples were analyzed from inorganic constituents, gross radioactivity and radionuclides, organic constituents, and stable isotopes. To evaluate the precision of field and laboratory methods, analytical results of the water-quality and replicate samples were compared statistically for equivalence on the basis of the precision associated with each result. Statistical comparisons of the data indicated that 95 percent of the results of the replicate pairs were equivalent. Blank-sample analytical results indicated th at the inorganic blank water and volatile organic compound blank water from the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory and the distilled water from the Idaho Department of Water Resources were suitable for blanks; blank water from other sources was not. Equipment-blank analytical results were evaluated to determine if a bias had been introduced and possible sources of bias. Most equipment blanks were analyzed for trace elements and volatile organic compounds; chloroform was found in one equipment blank. Two of the equipment blanks were prepared after collection and analyses of the water-quality samples to determine whether contamination had been introduced during the sampling process. Results of one blank indicated that a hose used to divert water away from pumps and electrical equipment had contaminated the samples with some volatile organic compounds. Results of the other equipment blank, from the apparatus used to filter dissolved organic carbon samples, indicated that the filtering

  10. Differentiated spring behavior under changing hydrological conditions in an alpine karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Maria; Squarzoni, Gabriela; De Waele, Jo; Fiorucci, Adriano; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Grillo, Barbara; Riva, Alberto; Rossetti, Stefano; Zini, Luca; Casagrande, Giacomo; Stumpp, Christine; Gargini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Limestone massifs with a high density of dolines form important karst aquifers in most of the Alps, often with groundwater circulating through deep karst conduits and water coming out of closely spaced springs with flow rates of over some cubic meters per second. Although several hydrogeological studies and tracing experiments were carried out in many of these carbonate mountains in the past, the hydrogeology of most of these karst aquifers is still poorly known. Geological, hydrodynamic and hydrochemical investigations have been carried out in one of the most representative of these areas (Cansiglio-Monte Cavallo, NE Italy) since spring 2015, in order to enhance the knowledge on this important type of aquifer system. Additionally, a cave-to-spring multitracer test was carried out in late spring 2016 by using three different fluorescent tracers. This hydrogeological study allowed: 1) gathering new detailed information on the geological and tectonic structure of such alpine karst plateau; 2) defining discharge rates of the three main springs (Gorgazzo, Santissima, and Molinetto) by constructing rating curves; 3) understanding the discharging behavior of the system with respect to different recharge conditions; 4) better defining the recharge areas of the three springs. The three nearby springs (the spring front stretches over 5 km), that drain the investigated karst aquifer system, show different behaviors with respect to changing discharge conditions, demonstrating this aquifer to be divided in partially independent drainage systems under low-flow conditions, when their chemistry is clearly differentiated. Under high-flow conditions, waters discharging at all springs show more similar geochemical characteristics. The combination of geochemistry, hydrodynamic monitoring and dye tracing tests has shown that the three springs have different recharge areas. The study points out that even closely spaced karst springs, that apparently drain the same karst mountain, can

  11. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  12. Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical study of the coastal submarine springs in Lebanon and Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A. R.

    2007-08-01

    The groundwater of major karst system and the submarine springs in the Syrian coastal limestone aquifer have been studied using chemical and isotopic techniques. Stable isotopes show that the groundwater and submarine springs originates from the direct infiltration of atmospheric water. The elevation of recharge zones feeding the Banyas area (400-600 m a.s.l). The δ 18 O e xtracted for the major submarine spring at Bassieh suggests a mean recharge area elevation of 600-700 m a.s.l. Based on the measured velocity and percentage of fresh water at the submarine springs outlet (Bassieh and Tartous), the estimated discharge rate is 350 million m 3 /y. Adopting a model with exponential time distribution, the mean turnover time of groundwater in the Al-sen spring was evaluated to be 60 years. A value of about 3.7 billion m 3 was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size.(Author)

  13. Spring 1991 Meeting outstanding papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atmospheric Sciences Committee has presented Kaye Brubaker and Jichun Shi with Outstanding Student Paper awards for presentations given at the AGU 1991 Spring Meeting, held in Baltimore May 28-31.Brubaker's paper, “Precipitation Recycling Estimated from Atmospheric Data,” presented quantitative estimates of the contribution of locallyevaporated moisture to precipitation over several large continental regions. Recycled precipitation is defined as water that evaporates from the land surface of a specified region and falls again as precipitation within the region. Brubaker applied a control volume analysis based on a model proposed by Budyko.

  14. Geochemical characterization of groundwater discharging from springs north of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2009–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Tillman, Fred D.; Anderson, Jessica R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Bills, Donald J.

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study was conducted on 37 springs discharging from the Toroweap Formation, Coconino Sandstone, Hermit Formation, Supai Group, and Redwall Limestone north of the Grand Canyon near areas of breccia-pipe uranium mining. Baseline concentrations were established for the elements As, B, Li, Se, SiO2, Sr, Tl, U, and V. Three springs exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards: Fence Spring for arsenic, Pigeon Spring for selenium and uranium, and Willow (Hack) Spring for selenium. The majority of the spring sites had uranium values of less than 10 micrograms per liter (μg/L), but six springs discharging from all of the geologic units studied that are located stratigraphically above the Redwall Limestone had uranium values greater than 10 μg/L (Cottonwood [Tuckup], Grama, Pigeon, Rock, and Willow [Hack and Snake Gulch] Springs). The geochemical characteristics of these six springs with elevated uranium include Ca-Mg-SO4 water type, circumneutral pH, high specific conductance, correlation and multivariate associations between U, Mo, Sr, Se, Li, and Zn, low 87Sr/86Sr, low 234U/238U activity ratios (1.34–2.31), detectable tritium, and carbon isotopic interpretation indicating they may be a mixture of modern and pre-modern waters. Similar geochemical compositions of spring waters having elevated uranium concentrations are observed at sites located both near and away from sites of uranium-mining activities in the present study. Therefore, mining does not appear to explain the presence of elevated uranium concentrations in groundwater at the six springs noted above. The elevated uranium at the six previously mentioned springs may be influenced by iron mineralization associated with mineralized breccia pipe deposits. Six springs discharging from the Coconino Sandstone (Upper Jumpup, Little, Horse, and Slide Springs) and Redwall Limestone (Kanab and Side Canyon Springs) contained water with corrected radiocarbon ages as much as 9

  15. Overexploitation of karst spring as a measure against water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkić, Dejan; Dimkić, Milan; Soro, Andjelko; Pavlović, Dusan; Jevtić, Goran; Lukić, Vladimir; Svrkota, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Water scarcity, especially in the hydrologically critical part of the year, is a problem often present in many cities and regions, particularly in arid and sub-arid areas. Climate change and human water demand compound the problem. This paper discusses a climate change adaptation measure-the possibility of karst spring overexploitation, where there is a siphon-shaped cavity inside the mountain. The pilot area is near the city of Niš, where a decreasing precipitation trend has already been observed and is expected to continue in the future. The paper also presents some basic information related to the pilot area and undertaken investigations. The project, successfully implemented in 2004, has provided the city of Niš with an additional amount of 200 l/s of spring water during the most critical part of the year.

  16. The plumbing system of the Pagosa thermal Springs, Colorado: Application of geologically constrained geophysical inversion and data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Cuttler, S.; Karaoulis, M.; Zhou, J.; Raynolds, B.; Batzle, M.

    2015-06-01

    Fault and fracture networks usually provide the plumbing for movement of hydrothermal fluids in geothermal fields. The Big Springs of Pagosa Springs in Colorado is known as the deepest geothermal hot springs in the world. However, little is known about the plumbing system of this hot spring, especially regarding the position of the reservoir (if any) or the position of the major tectonic faults controlling the flow of the thermal water in this area. The Mancos shale, a Cretaceous shale, dominates many of the surface expressions around the springs and impede an easy recognition of the fault network. We use three geophysical methods (DC resistivity, self-potential, and seismic) to image the faults in this area, most of which are not recognized in the geologic fault map of the region. Results from these surveys indicate that the hot Springs (the Big Spring and a warm spring located 1.8 km further south) are located at the intersection of the Victoire Fault, a major normal crustal fault, and two north-northeast trending faults (Fault A and B). Self-potential and DC resistivity tomographies can be combined and a set of joint attributes defined to determine the localization of the flow of hot water associated with the Eight Miles Mesa Fault, a second major tectonic feature responsible for the occurrence of warm springs further West and South from the Big Springs of Pagosa Springs.

  17. Hydrological response and thermal effect of karst springs linked to aquifer geometry and recharge processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingming; Chen, Zhihua; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Liang; Han, Zhaofeng

    2018-03-01

    To be better understand the hydrological and thermal behavior of karst systems in South China, seasonal variations in flow, hydrochemistry and stable isotope ratios of five karst springs were used to delineate flow paths and recharge processes, and to interpret their thermal response. Isotopic data suggest that mean recharge elevations are 200-820 m above spring outlets. Springs that originate from high elevations have lower NO3 - concentrations than those originating from lower areas that have more agricultural activity. Measured Sr2+ concentrations reflect the strontium contents of the host carbonate aquifer and help delineate the spring catchment's saturated zone. Seasonal variations of NO3 - and Sr2+ concentrations are inversely correlated, because the former correlates with event water and the latter with baseflow. The mean annual water temperatures of springs were only slightly lower than the local mean annual surface temperature at the outlet elevations. These mean spring temperatures suggest a vertical gradient of 6 °C/vertical km, which resembles the adiabatic lapse rate of the Earth's stable atmosphere. Seasonal temperature variations in the springs are in phase with surface air temperatures, except for Heilongquan (HLQ) spring. Event-scale variations of thermal response are dramatically controlled by the circulation depth of karst systems, which determines the effectiveness of heat exchange. HLQ spring undergoes the deepest circulation depth of 820 m, and its thermal responses are determined by the thermally effective regulation processes at higher elevations and the mixing processes associated with thermally ineffective responses at lower elevations.

  18. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  19. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  20. 77 FR 54493 - Special Anchorage Area; Stockton Springs, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... and tourist attractions in Penobscot Bay. Vessels not more than 20 meters in length are not required... substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States... more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the...

  1. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  2. Baseline risk evaluation for exposure to bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and a quarry. This baseline risk evaluation has been prepared to support a proposed response action for management of contaminated bulk wastes in the quarry. The quarry became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of various wastes that were disposed of there between 1942 and 1969. This risk evaluation assesses potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from the quarry under current site conditions. Risk assessment is a key component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); this process addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List. The DOE is also responsible for complying with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, which requires federal agencies to consider the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of the decision-making process for that action. Although this document has not been prepared to fulfill specific NEPA requirements, the analyses contained herein --- along with the analyses provided in the remedial investigation, feasibility study, and other supporting documents --- are intended to meet the environmental assessment requirements of NEPA

  3. Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.

  4. Biodiversity of the microbial mat of the Garga hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexey Sergeevich; Bryanskaya, Alla Victorovna; Ivanisenko, Timofey Vladimirovich; Malup, Tatyana Konstantinovna; Peltek, Sergey Evgenievich

    2017-12-28

    Microbial mats are a good model system for ecological and evolutionary analysis of microbial communities. There are more than 20 alkaline hot springs on the banks of the Barguzin river inflows. Water temperature reaches 75 °C and pH is usually 8.0-9.0. The formation of microbial mats is observed in all hot springs. Microbial communities of hot springs of the Baikal rift zone are poorly studied. Garga is the biggest hot spring in this area. In this study, we investigated bacterial and archaeal diversity of the Garga hot spring (Baikal rift zone, Russia) using 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. We studied two types of microbial communities: (i) small white biofilms on rocks in the points with the highest temperature (75 °C) and (ii) continuous thick phototrophic microbial mats observed at temperatures below 70 °C. Archaea (mainly Crenarchaeota; 19.8% of the total sequences) were detected only in the small biofilms. The high abundance of Archaea in the sample from hot springs of the Baikal rift zone supplemented our knowledge of the distribution of Archaea. Most archaeal sequences had low similarity to known Archaea. In the microbial mats, primary products were formed by cyanobacteria of the genus Leptolyngbya. Heterotrophic microorganisms were mostly represented by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in all studied samples of the microbial mats. Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and Chlorobi were abundant in the middle layer of the microbial mats, while heterotrophic microorganisms represented mostly by Firmicutes (Clostridia, strict anaerobes) dominated in the bottom part. Besides prokaryotes, we detect some species of Algae with help of detection their chloroplasts 16 s rRNA. High abundance of Archaea in samples from hot springs of the Baikal rift zone supplemented our knowledge of the distribution of Archaea. Most archaeal sequences had low similarity to known Archaea. Metagenomic analysis of microbial communities of the microbial mat of Garga hot spring showed that

  5. Work Term Assignment Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sico, Mallory

    2017-01-01

    My tour in the Engineering Robotics directorate exceeded my expectations. I learned lessons about Creo, manufacturing and assembly, collaboration, and troubleshooting. During my first tour, last spring, I used Creo on a smaller project, but had limited experience with it before starting in the Dynamic Systems Test branch this spring. I gained valuable experience learning assembly design, sheet metal design and designing with intent for manufacturing and assembly. These skills came from working both on the hatch and the floor. I also learned to understand the intent of other designers on models I worked with. While redesigning the floor, I was modifying an existing part and worked to understand what the previous designer had done to make it fit with the new model. Through working with the machine shop and in the mock-up, I learned much more about manufacturing and assembly. I used a Dremel, rivet gun, belt sander, and countersink for the first time. Through taking multiple safety training for different machine shops, I learned new machine shop safety skills specific to each one. This semester also gave me new collaborative opportunities. I collaborated with engineers within my branch as well as with Human Factors and the building 10 machine shop. This experience helped me learn how to design for functionality and assembly, not only for what would be easiest in my designs. In addition to these experiences, I learned many lessons in troubleshooting. I was the first person in my office to use a Windows 10 computer. This caused unexpected issues with NASA services and programs, such as the Digital Data Management Server (DDMS). Because of this, I gained experience finding solutions to lockout and freeze issues as well as Creo specific settings. These will be useful skills to have in the future and will be implemented in future rotations. This co-op tour has motivated me more to finish my degree and pursue my academic goals. I intend to take a machining Career Gateway

  6. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels

  7. The study on stress-strain state of the spring at high temperature using ABAQUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical helical springs are widely used in the elements of thermal energy devices. It is necessary to guarantee the stability of the stress state of spring in high temperature. Relaxation phenomenon of stress is studied in this paper. Calculations are carried out in the environment of ABAQUS. The verification is taken out using analytical calculations.This paper describes the distribution and character of stress contour lines on the cross section of spring under the condition of instantaneous load, explicates the relaxation law with time. Research object is cylindrical helical spring, that working at high temperature. The purpose of this work is to get the stress relaxation law of spring, and to guarantee the long-term strength.This article presents the basic theory of helical spring. Establishes spring mathematical model of creep under the loads of compression and torsion. The stress formulas of each component in the cross section of spring are given. The calculation process of relaxation is analyzed in the program ABAQUS.In this paper compare the analytical formulas of spring stress with the simulation results, which are created by program ABAQUS.Finite element model for stress creep analysis in the cross section is created, material of spring – stainless steel 10X18N9T, springs are used at the temperature 650℃.At the beginning, stress-stain of spring is in the elastic state. Analyzes the change law of creep stress under the condition of constant load and a fixed compression.When analyzing under the condition of a fixed compression, the stresses are quickly decreased in most area in the cross section of spring, and the point of minimum shear stress gradually moves to the direction of outer diameter, because of this, stresses in a small area near the center increase slowly at first then decrease gradually with time. When analyzing under the condition of constant load, the stresses are quickly decreased in the around area and in creased

  8. Chemical composition of hot spring waters in the Oita river basins, Oita prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Tamio

    1988-01-30

    The source of the water from Oita River comes from the Kuju and Yubu-Tsurumi Volcanos, pouring into Beppu Bay. Its drainage area is 646 km/sup 2/ with a total length of 55 km. Hot springs are exist throughout most of the basin of the main and branches of Oita River. The chemical components of the hot springs in the Ota River basin -Yufuin, Yunotaira, Nagayu, Shonai/Hazama, and Oita City - have been analyzed. The equivalent of magnesium exceeds that of calcium in the carbonate springs of the above. Ca+Mg has positive correlations with HCO/sub 3/ in these carbonate springs. The water from these springs flows into the rivers and pours into Beppu Bay. The flow rate and chemical component concentration were measured at Fudai bridge. The concentration of chemical components having an average flow rate (30 ton/sec) were calculated. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 10 refs)

  9. Review of selected 100-N waste sites related to N-Springs remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This document has been prepared in support of the environmental restoration program at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Facility and Waste Site Research Office. It provides historical information that documents and characterizes selected waste sites that are related to the N-Springs remediation projects. The N-Springs are a series of small, inconspicuous groundwater seepage springs located along the Columbia River shoreline near the 100-N Reactor. The spring site is hydrologically down-gradient from several 100-N Area liquid waste sites that are believed to have been the source(s) of the effluents being discharged by the springs. This report documents and characterizes these waste sites, including the 116-N-1 Crib and Trench, 116-N-3 Crib and Trench, unplanned releases, septic tariks, and a backwash pond

  10. Mg2+-Based Method for the Pertuso Spring Discharge Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large karst aquifer, which is one of the most important water resources in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric supplies. The environmental monitoring activities provided data about one spring and two cross-sections of the Aniene River, from July 2014 to May 2016. A combined approach based on discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical analysis has been used to study flow paths and groundwater–surface water interaction in the study area. Tracer methods are particularly suitable in hydrogeological studies to assess transit times and flow properties in karst aquifers. The analysis of solute contents in the sampling points brought forth the identification of the Mg2+ ion as a conservative tracer in this specific system and, consequently, to the development of a conceptual model based on chemical mass balance for the Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation.

  11. HYDROGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ST. IVAN SPRING IN ISTRIA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vlahović

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to geological, hydrogeological investigations and groundwater tracing, detailed surveying of the groundwater quality is becoming particularly important for environmental impact monitoring on karst aquifers. Groundwater quality data contain two types of information i.e. the natural chemistry of water and its modifications caused by antropogenic impacts. The method of results presentation as well as the importance of water quality surveying particularly with respect to the indicators showing its natural chemistry, are shown here exemplified by the St. Ivan spring in Istria, Croatia. Natural chemistry of the groundwater is a consequence of hydrogeochemical facies, and it is used here for interpretation of spring generating conditions and the origin of groundwater. Results obtained so far confirm that the extent of recharge area of the spring change in dependence of the hydrological conditions. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the spring are presented graphically in the form of correlation diagrams showing major groundwater parameters, saturation conditions and trends of particular parameters as a function of time.

  12. Climatology and classification of spring Saharan cyclone tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannachi, A. [Reading University, Department of Meteorology, PO Box 243, Reading (United Kingdom); Awad, A. [King Abdulaziz University, Department of Meteorology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Ammar, K. [Meteorological Authority, Department of Research, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-08-15

    Spring Saharan cyclones constitute a dominant feature of the not-well-explored Saharan region. In this manuscript, a climatological analysis and classification of Saharan cyclone tracks are presented using 6-hourly NCEP/NCAR sea level pressure (SLP) reanalyses over the Sahara (10 W-50 E, 20 N-50 N) for the Spring (March-April-May) season over the period 1958-2006. A simple tracking procedure based on following SLP minima is used to construct around 640 Spring Saharan cyclone tracks. Saharan cyclones are found to be short-lived compared to their extratropical counterparts with an e-folding time of about 3 days. The lee side of the west Atlas mountain is found to be the main cyclogenetic region for Spring Saharan cyclones. Central Iraq is identified as the main cyclolytic area. A subjective procedure is used next to classify the cyclone tracks where six clusters are identified. Among these clusters the Western Atlas-Asia Minor is the largest and most stretched, whereas Algerian Sahara-Asia Minor is composed of the most long-lived tracks. Upper level flow associated with the tracks has also been examined and the role of large scale baroclinicity in the growth of Saharan cyclones is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Army Communicator. Volume 37, Number 1, Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Geospatial Information Best Practices in Joint Operations MAJ Christopher Blais CW2 Joshua Stratton MSG Moise Danjoint 32 PM In-transit Visibility...WAN - Wide Area Network =@&<! QuickScan 26 Spring - 2012 27 Ŗ! ) 1 and MSG Moise Danjoint The fact that...34 < 4 F1;;ZH)$" +4 0F1;;Z𔃻;W) $" 5. .F1;::H MSG Moise Danjoint

  14. A study on mechanical properties and flow-induced vibrations of coil-shaped holddown spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2010-01-01

    The fuel assemblies used in the OPR1000s in Korea employ four coil-shaped hold-down springs to exert compressive load at the top of fuel assembly so that the assemblies may not be damaged by preventing its hydraulic-induced lifting-off from its lower seating surface. However, the coolant flow generates the flow-induced vibration at the coil-shaped hold-down springs which may cause wear on the spring surfaces. A hold-own spring may be fractured if torsional stress acting on its worn area exceeds a stress limit, resulting in the loss of hold-down spring force of the fuel assembly. In this paper, flow-induced vibration tests were performed for standard and improved coil type hold-down springs to investigate the effects of these two hold-down spring designs on flow-induced vibration wear. In parallel, a wide spectrum of mechanical tests was performed to obtain vibration-related characteristics of these two hold-down springs, which can be used as input data for the fuel assembly static and dynamic analysis. It is found that the improved hold-down spring design is better against flow-induced vibration wear than the standard one. With the use of the three-dimensional Solidwork model, the stress-related design lifetime of the improved hold-down spring was estimated by extrapolating its wear data measured from the flow-induced vibration tests, which indicates that the improved HD spring design will maintain integrity during the fuel design lifetime in OPR1000s in Korea.

  15. Determination of groundwater travel time in a karst aquifer by stable water isotopes, Tanour and Rasoun spring (Jordan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Key words: karst aquifers, stable isotopes, water travel time, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs are located about 75 kilometers northwest of the city of Amman in Jordan. The aquifer is composed of Upper Cretaceous limestone that exhibits a moderate to high degree of karstification. The two springs represent the main drinking water resources for the surrounding villages. The yearly water production is about 1,135,000 m3/yr for Tanour spring and 125,350 m3/yr for Rasoun spring (MWI 2015). Due to contamination from microbiological pollution (leakage of wastewater from septic tanks) or infiltration of wastewater from local olive presses, drinking water supply from the two springs is frequently interrupted. From November 2014 through March 2015, spring water samples were collected from Tanour and Rasoun spring for the analysis of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to investigate spring response to precipitation and snowmelt events. Both Tanour and Rasoun spring show a fast response to precipitation and snowmelt events, implying short water travel times. Based on the variation of δ 18O and δ 2H in spring discharge, the average maximum water travel time is in the order of 8 days for Tanour spring and 6 days for Rasoun spring. Due to fast water travel times, Tanour and Rasoun spring can be considered as highly vulnerable to pollutants. δ 18O and δ 2H values of Tanour and Rasoun springs parallel other monitored parameter like water temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity and spring discharge. In addition, a high turbidity peak was monitored in Tanour spring during a pollution event from olive mills wastewater (Hamdan et al., 2016; Hamdan, in prep.). The fast response in both Tanour and Rasoun springs to precipitation events requires monitoring potential sources of pollution within the catchment area. References: MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation) (2015) Monthly Production values for Tanour and Rasoun Springs for the time period between 1996 and 2014

  16. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Precision Gravity Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.; Langford, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole domestic water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the fracture controlled aquifer system. We have conducted a series of precision gravity surveys (station spacing 200 to 300 m in a 4 x 4 km area), combined with other geophysical studies and geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our combined results suggest several pathways for water to enter the springs. A series of WNW-ESE striking features are apparent in our gravity data that appear to align with relict spring valleys we have mapped to the west of the springs. A self potential survey indicates that water is entering the springs at a shallow level from the northwest direction. However, gravity data also indicate a north-south trending fracture system could be providing a pathway for water to enter from the south. This is consistent with drawdown tests conducted in the 1950’s and 1960’s on irrigation wells located to the south of the springs. The north-south fracture system appears related to a basin bounding fault system observed in the regional gravity data.

  17. Rooster Springs Elementary Teams Up for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    For many schools, membership in PTA can become "expected," instead of being a positive, fun opportunity to involve parents and support students and teachers. With more than 800 students each year, Rooster Springs Elementary PTA (RSE PTA) in Dripping Springs, Texas, never worried about membership recruitment. The PTA often assumed that…

  18. New bathing therapy in Japanese hot springs using radiation from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimori, Kenji; Okajima, Maiko; Oowada, Mizuno; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese-style bathing is an important part of the traditional culture of Japan, and most Japanese people love hot springs. Many kinds of hot springs exist all over Japan and are often a major factor when considering where to go for travel, relaxation and rest. However, other countries, especially in Europe, also use hot springs for medical treatments such as balneo therapy, hydrokinetic therapy, fango therapy and inhalation therapy. Some hot springs in Japan are located on radioactive springs. Five typical radioactive spring areas can be found in Tamagawa (Akita Pref.), Murasugi (Niigata Pref.), Masutomi (Yamanashi Pref.), Misasa (Tottori Pref.), and Sekigane (Tottori Pref.). While hot springs in Japan are mainly used for bathing, these radioactive springs are also used for bedrock bathing and/or inhalation therapy. In Italy, Fango therapy is a medical treatment conducted under a medical doctor's super vision with peloids maturated with hot spring water called 'Fango'. Japanese style Fango, named Biofango R , has already been made by using natural hot springs that have been modified with Italian Fango. Medical evaluation of test subjects has shown good results after treatment with Fango therapy. An important point in Fango therapy is how to make satisfactory maturated peloids. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted at Masutomi hot spring to confirm the possibility of using radioactive spring water to make maturated peloids. The basement material for the peloids used for this experiment was made from bentonite mixed with original rock from the Masutomi hot spring area consisting of crushed basalt and granite that have a fine amount of radioactivity. These peloids were circulated through hot spring water for two weeks to a month and then used for treatment. The medical data showed that therapy using this method resulted in greater improvement in 'test subjects' body functions compared with the data from previous observations. This

  19. European supply chain for valve springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthold, G. [Scherdel GmbH, Marktredwitz (Germany); Thureborn, D.; Hallberg, M. [Haldex Garphyttan AB (Sweden); Janssen, P. [Mittal Steel Ruhrort GmbH / Mittal Steel Hochfeld GmbH (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Forced by the Kobe earthquake in 1995 and the lack of valve spring steel on the world market due to damages of the Kobe steel plant, the development of a European supply chain has been sped up. End of 1994 a super clean valve spring steel with a reasonable quality from a European source was available. A strong relationship between the steel producer (Mittal), the wire manufacturer (Haldex Garphyttan) and the spring maker (Scherdel) was established. A working group of the three companies holds meetings on a regular basis to discuss quality and development issues. Over the last years the supply chain has achieved significant improvements in terms of cleanliness and decarburisation of the wire rod. The continuous common advancement of the valve spring quality has enabled the valve spring failures in the field to be reduced to < 0.1 ppm. The development and market launch of new grades has been prepared. (orig.)

  20. Geologic context of large karst springs and caves in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    The ONSR is a karst park, containing many springs and caves. The “jewels” of the park are large springs, several of first magnitude, that contribute significantly to the flow and water quality of the Current River and its tributaries. Completion of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping of the park and surrounding river basin, along with synthesis of published hydrologic data, allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the springs and the geologic framework to develop a conceptual model for genesis of these springs. Based on their similarity to mapped spring conduits, many of the caves in the ONSR are fossil conduit segments. Therefore, geologic control on the evolution of the springs also applies to speleogenesis in this part of the southern Missouri Ozarks.Large springs occur in the ONSR area because: (1) the Ozark aquifer, from which they rise, is chiefly dolomite affected by solution via various processes over a long time period, (2) Paleozoic hypogenic fluid migration through these rocks exploited and enhanced flow-paths, (3) a consistent and low regional dip of the rocks off of the Salem Plateau (less than 2° to the southeast) allows integration of flow into large groundwater basins with a few discreet outlets, (4) the springs are located where the rivers have cut down into structural highs, allowing access to water from stratigraphic units deeper in the aquifer thus allowing development of springsheds that have volumetrically larger storage than smaller springs higher in the section, and (5) quartz sandstone and bedded chert in the carbonate stratigraphic succession that are locally to regionally continuous, serve as aquitards that locally confine groundwater up dip of the springs creating artesian conditions. This subhorizontal partitioning of the Ozark aquifer allows contributing areas for different springs to overlap, as evidenced by dye traces that cross adjacent groundwater basin boundaries, and possibly contributes to alternate flow routes

  1. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert; White, Donald E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can be traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite.Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin-alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water.In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath.

  2. SPring-8 beamline control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T

    1998-05-01

    The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation.

  3. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2015-01-01

    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  4. Effect of source integration on the geochemical fluxes from springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Phillips, Fred M.; White, Art F.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Liu, Fengjing

    2013-01-01

    % overall and no springs are consistently composed of 100% groundwater; providing support for the fractional springflow conceptual model. Groundwater contributions are not strongly correlated with elevation, spring contributing area, spring discharge, or seasonality. This variability has a profound effect on long-term geochemical fluxes. The geochemical fluxes for total springflow overestimate long-term solute release by 22–48% as compared to fractional springflow. These findings illustrate that springflow generation, like streamflow generation, integrates many different sources of water reflecting solute concentrations obtained along many different geochemical weathering pathways. These data suggest that springs are not always ideal proxies for groundwater. Springs may be integrating very distinct portions of the groundwater flow field and these groundwater contributions may become mixed at the spring emergence with much younger sources of water that have never resided in the groundwater system.

  5. Optimum Design of a Coil Spring for Improving the Performance of a Spring -Operated Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Woo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Yoo, Wan Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a release test bed is designed to evaluate the dynamic behaviors of a coil spring. From the release tests, the dynamic behaviors of a coil spring are analyzed. A lumped parameter spring model was established for numerical simulation of a spring. The design variables of a coil spring are optimized by using the design of experiments approach. Two-level factorial designs are used for the design optimization, and the primary effects of the design variables are analyzed. Based on the results of the interaction analysis and design sensitivity analysis, the level of the design variables is rearranged. Finally, the mixed-level factorial design is used for the optimum design process. According to the optimum design of the opening spring, the dynamic performance of the spring-operated mechanism increases by 2.90

  6. Neutron activation analysis of the rare earth elements in Nasu hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagao; Takahashi, Naruto.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven rare earth elements (lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, holmium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium) in hot spring waters and sinter deposits in the Nasu area were determined by the neutron activation method. The rare earth elements in hot spring water were preconcentrated in ferric hydroxide precipitate and neutron-irradiated. The rare earth elements were chemically separated into lighter and heavier groups and the activity of each group was measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Distribution of the rare earth elements between the hot spring water and the sinter deposit was also discussed. (auth.)

  7. Reconstruction of false spring occurrences over the southeastern United States, 1901-2007: an increasing risk of spring freeze damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Garrett P; Kaiser, Dale P; Gu, Lianhong; Ricciuto, Daniel M

    2011-01-01

    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over much of the south-central and southeastern US. This 'false spring' event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have had measurable effects on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs over most of the southeastern quarter of the conterminous US (32-39 deg. N; 75-98 deg. W) from 1901 to 2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index was derived that examined the timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf emergence, relative to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (minimum temperature ≤ - 2.2 deg. C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature 'degree day' calculations reflecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found; however, over much of a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas, the timing of the last hard freeze was found to occur significantly later, this change occurring along with increased frequency of false springs. Earlier last hard freeze dates and decreased frequency of false springs were found over much of the northwestern part of the study region, including Arkansas and southern Missouri.

  8. Phaedrus tandem mirror. Status report, Spring 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    During the spring of 1983, the Phaedrus group undertook a major up to air to improve diagnostic capabilities, modify RF antennas and clean up the inner vacuum surfaces of accumulated getter material. This time was also used to analyze more thoroughly our present data base and correlate it with relevant theoretical predictions. A neutral beam build up code has been developed to model RF central stream trapping and heating, neutral gas charge exchange losses with finite gyroradius effects, and beam aiming sensitivity. MHD stability of the central cell stand alone operation has been explained by a radial ponderomotive force which opposes the centrifugal force due to bad field line curvature. First drafts of research papers on RF trapping, electron cyclotron heating, the stand alone mode, and MHD instability studies were completed. All of these papers require more experiments to tie up loose ends but the loose ends were identified more clearly by this process. The remainder of this report will be organized by experimental area, describing in limited detail the status of current research, recent modifications to diagnostic and machine hardware and immediate future experimental objectives

  9. Isotopic and chemical features of hot springs in Akita Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu

    1997-01-01

    All over the Akita Prefecture, many hot springs are located. Most of them are of meteoric water, fossil sea water and volcanic gas origins. In the Ohdate-Kazuno area, moderate temperature hot springs of meteoric water origin are found, which may exist as rather shallow formation water in the Green Tuff formations. On the contrary, high temperature geothermal waters of meteoric origin, which are used for power generation, are obtained in two volcanic area of Hachimantai and Oyasu. Those geothermal waters are expected to come up through vertical fissures from depth deeper than 2 km. The difference of these two manners of meteoric water circulation should be necessarily explained to understand the relationship of shallow and deep geothermal systems. About some hot springs of fossil sea water origin, the relationships of δ D and Cl - don't agree to the mixing relation of sea water and meteoric water. This may be explained by two different processes, one of which is mixing of sea water with saline meteoric water (Cl - ca. 12 g/kg). The other is modification of δD by hydrogen isotopic exchange with hydrous minerals underground, or by exchange with atmospheric vapor during a relic lake before burying. (author)

  10. Microcoil Spring Interconnects for Ceramic Grid Array Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, S. M.; Hester, J. D.; Gowan, A. K.; Montgomery, R. K.; Geist, D. L.; Blanche, J. F.; McGuire, G. D.; Nash, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    As integrated circuit miniaturization trends continue, they drive the need for smaller higher input/output (I/O) packages. Hermetically sealed ceramic area array parts are the package of choice by the space community for high reliability space flight electronic hardware. Unfortunately, the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the ceramic area array package and the epoxy glass printed wiring board limits the life of the interconnecting solder joint. This work presents the results of an investigation by Marshall Space Flight Center into a method to increase the life of this second level interconnection by the use of compliant microcoil springs. The design of the spring and its attachment process are presented along with thermal cycling results of microcoil springs (MCS) compared with state-of-the-art ball and column interconnections. Vibration testing has been conducted on MCS and high lead column parts. Radio frequency simulation and measurements have been made and the MCS has been modeled and a stress analysis performed. Thermal cycling and vibration testing have shown MCS interconnects to be significantly more reliable than solder columns. Also, MCS interconnects are less prone to handling damage than solder columns. Future work that includes shock testing, incorporation into a digital signal processor board, and process evaluation of expansion from a 400 I/O device to a device with over 1,100 I/O is identified.

  11. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  12. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  13. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey report on Jozankei Hot Spring conservation (3rd phase); 1999 nendo Jozankei onsen hozen chosa hokokusho (dai sanji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    The impact of geothermal exploitation in the Yunosawa district on the Jozankei hot spring and others in the neighborhood was evaluated, and a survey was conducted of the formation and eruption mechanisms of the Jozankei hot spring for the purpose of hot spring conservation. Activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) geological structure analysis, (2) geochemical analysis of fluids, and (3) comprehensive analysis. Conducted in field (2) were analysis of hot spring utilization data and the contents, analysis of hot spring water and geothermal water, analysis of fluctuations in hot springs, and fluid movement models. Studied in field (3) were the outline of large area geothermal systems, geothermal structure models, relations between geothermal reservoirs and hot spring aquifers, and impact of geothermal exploitation on hot springs. Disclosed as the result were hot spring geological structure models, formation mechanism, eruption mechanism, origins of hot spring water, fluid movement models, interference between hot spring units, and changes in the hot springs as a whole. It was then concluded that the geothermal exploitation in the Yunosawa district would not exert any impact on the hot springs. (NEDO)

  15. Characterising hydrological behaviour of springs draining different alpine formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volze, N.; Smoorenburg, M.; Kienzler, P.; Naef, F.; Rabenstein, L.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2012-04-01

    The project SACflood (Susceptibility of alpine catchment flood runoff to changes in meteorological boundary conditions) concentrates on alpine areas and wants to identify catchments that show a damped reaction to runoff but may react unexpectedly strong to increased precipitation as observed in 2005 in the Schächen. The catchment showed a delayed and damped behaviour for smaller precipitation events but reacted with strongly increased discharge when a threshold amount of rainfall was reached, causing a flood with high damages. This is attributed to the complex interaction of storage and drainage mechanisms that are not yet well enough understood. Typical alpine geomorphic formations are identified that are likely to be associated with large storages which could considerably delay runoff reaction but still contribute to flow within a timescale relevant for flood formation. From these geomorphic formations deep drainage is measured as outflow from several springs. In addition natural tracers are measured in the springs. On a steep hill slope, associated to one of the observed springs, ground water levels are observed. Geoelectric profiles were recorded to depict the structure of the underground. Discharge measurements from the springs show remarkable differences between the sites. After long dry periods certain springs do not react to rainfall immediately but need considerable amounts of rain to increase discharge. Even steep slopes as well as large talus areas can substantially delay runoff. Observations of the groundwater levels reveal an unexpected picture of the underground. The water table is not as often assumed above the bedrock but at a depth of several meters within the highly fractured bedrock material. This can result in a much higher storage capacity of such slopes despite the steepness of the surface. On the basis of the results from field work conceptual ideas are developed. The influence of parameters such as the depth of the unsaturated zone and the

  16. The Hydrogeological investigation of Plajköy spring (Elazığ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem ÖZTEKİN OKAN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plajköy spring discharges at the close locations to the SE shore of Lake Hazar. Lake Hazar is a tectonic Lake in Elazığ city. Plajköy spring is a fault spring that is mainly recharging from the volcanites, dikes and blocky volcanosedimentary units of Middle Eocene Maden Complex. These units have gained secondary permeability and porosity related with the active tectonics that is effective in the studied area. The present catchment system of the spring could not collect the springs and leaks discharging from different points around the system. The discharge of the catchment is measured by specifi c volume method while the other springs’ and leaks’ is measured by using triangular weir. Before the discharge measurement of the leaks and the springs, they have been directed to a channel. The discharge of the present catchment system and the leaks have measured twice in a month during one year period beginning from October of 2012 to November of 2013. The discharge coeffi cient of the spring is calculated 1.33*10-3 day-1. Discharge coeffi cient of the spring depends on the geometry and intensity of the active fracture systems in the region. Calculated discharge coeffi cient indicates that the spring discharge is related with the narrow fi ssures, fractures and pores. The total volume of discharged groundwater in the real regime of the Plajköy spring is calculated as 52* 103 m3 during the period from 31st of March, 2013 to the 13rd of October, 2013 by Maillet formula. The spring water is Ca- Mg- HCO3 type water related with the chemical analyses. The chemical and microbiological analyses of the spring water are correlated with the drinking water standarts of Turkey TS 266 (TSE, 2005 and World Health Organization (2004, and it is seen that the spring water is suitable for drinking. The Plajköy spring will be used more effi ciently without exposed to pollution by the new catchment plan and protection zone map that are consequently proposed in

  17. A vegetation description and floristic analyses of the springs on the Kammanassie Mountain, Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cleaver; L.R. Brown; G.J. Bredenkamp

    2004-01-01

    The Kammanassie Mountain is a declared mountain catchment area and a Cape mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra population is preserved on the mountain. The high number of springs on the mountain not only provides water for the animal species but also contributes to overall ecosystem functioning. Long-term conservation of viable ecosystems requires a broader understanding of the ecological processes involved. It was therefore decided that a classification, description and mapping of the spring veg...

  18. Sampling and Analysis Plan for N-Springs ERA pump-and-treat waste media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovich, M.T.

    1996-07-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan details the administrative procedures to be used to conduct sampling activities for characterization of spent ion-exchange resin, clinoptilolite, generated from the N-Springs pump-and-treat expedited response action. N-Springs (riverbank seeps) is located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. Groundwater contained in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit is contaminated with various radionuclides derived from wastewater disposal practices and spills associated with 100-N Reactor Operations

  19. Vibro-spring particle size distribution analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Ketan Shantilal

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and development of an automated pre-production particle size distribution analyser for particles in the 20 - 2000 μm size range. This work is follow up to the vibro-spring particle sizer reported by Shaeri. In its most basic form, the instrument comprises a horizontally held closed coil helical spring that is partly filled with the test powder and sinusoidally vibrated in the transverse direction. Particle size distribution data are obtained by stretching the spring to known lengths and measuring the mass of the powder discharged from the spring's coils. The size of the particles on the other hand is determined from the spring 'intercoil' distance. The instrument developed by Shaeri had limited use due to its inability to measure sample mass directly. For the device reported here, modifications are made to the original configurations to establish means of direct sample mass measurement. The feasibility of techniques for measuring the mass of powder retained within the spring are investigated in detail. Initially, the measurement of mass is executed in-situ from the vibration characteristics based on the spring's first harmonic resonant frequency. This method is often erratic and unreliable due to the particle-particle-spring wall interactions and the spring bending. An much more successful alternative is found from a more complicated arrangement in which the spring forms part of a stiff cantilever system pivoted along its main axis. Here, the sample mass is determined in the 'static mode' by monitoring the cantilever beam's deflection following the wanton termination of vibration. The system performance has been optimised through the variations of the mechanical design of the key components and the operating procedure as well as taking into account the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the system's response. The thesis also describes the design and development of the ancillary mechanisms. These include the pneumatic

  20. Study of tourists exposure rate in Mahallat hot Spring Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, H. M.B.; Fallah, M.G.; Ghiasinejad, M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: High level radiation areas have been recognized on various parts of the earth. Some of these areas include: Brasilia, India, and Iran. Mahallat hot spring region in the central part of Iran is also one of these areas. Study of exposure in these areas could be helpful in investigating the effects of ionizing radiation. Materials and Methods: In addition to several seasonal springs, Mahallat hot spring region contains five permanent springs named: Soleimani, Shafa, Dombe, Romatism and Sauda. Internal exposure (due to inhalation of radon gas and drinking water) and external exposure (due to cosmic rays and radioactive elements in the ground) to the tourists was studied. Used materials and apparatus include: RSS -112 ionizing chamber for environmental gamma rays exposure measurement, highly pure germanium detector for measuring radioactive elements in the ground, liquid scintillation counter for measuring 222 Rn gas concentration in water samples, Bubbler chamber and Locus cells for Rn concentration measurements (Emanation method) and Alfa guard detector for 226 Ra concentration measurements. Conclusions and Discussion: A total of 270 visitors are included in this study. Considering residual durations of the studied group in open and closed environment of bathrooms, hotel and inn rooms, obtained annual external effective dose is 75.4±8.7μSv and 138.3±11.8μSv for natives and travelers respectively. EEC coefficients has been used for calculating annual internal effective dose due to radon gas inhalation. Annual internal effective dose, in this path, is 0.9 and 2.1 mSv in open and closed environment for native and visitors respectively. Annual internal effective dose due to drinking water, is 0.43 and 0.09μSv for natives people and travelers, respectively. Measurements show that more than 90% of the received dose in the studied groups is due to radon gas inhalation. External and internal dose summation is 0.98 mSv for natives and 2.2 mSv for for

  1. Study of tourists exposure rate in Mahallat hot Spring Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakoli, H. M.B. [Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, M.G. [Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiasinejad, M. [Iran Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction: High level radiation areas have been recognized on various parts of the earth. Some of these areas include: Brasilia, India, and Iran. Mahallat hot spring region in the central part of Iran is also one of these areas. Study of exposure in these areas could be helpful in investigating the effects of ionizing radiation. Materials and Methods: In addition to several seasonal springs, Mahallat hot spring region contains five permanent springs named: Soleimani, Shafa, Dombe, Romatism and Sauda. Internal exposure (due to inhalation of radon gas and drinking water) and external exposure (due to cosmic rays and radioactive elements in the ground) to the tourists was studied. Used materials and apparatus include: RSS -112 ionizing chamber for environmental gamma rays exposure measurement, highly pure germanium detector for measuring radioactive elements in the ground, liquid scintillation counter for measuring {sup 222}Rn gas concentration in water samples, Bubbler chamber and Locus cells for Rn concentration measurements (Emanation method) and Alfa guard detector for {sup 226}Ra concentration measurements. Conclusions and Discussion: A total of 270 visitors are included in this study. Considering residual durations of the studied group in open and closed environment of bathrooms, hotel and inn rooms, obtained annual external effective dose is 75.4{+-}8.7{mu}Sv and 138.3{+-}11.8{mu}Sv for natives and travelers respectively. EEC coefficients has been used for calculating annual internal effective dose due to radon gas inhalation. Annual internal effective dose, in this path, is 0.9 and 2.1 mSv in open and closed environment for native and visitors respectively. Annual internal effective dose due to drinking water, is 0.43 and 0.09{mu}Sv for natives people and travelers, respectively. Measurements show that more than 90% of the received dose in the studied groups is due to radon gas inhalation. External and internal dose summation is 0.98 mSv for natives and 2

  2. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site

  3. Comment on Origin of Groundwater Discharge at Fall River Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, T

    2006-10-20

    I'm writing at the request of the Pit River Tribe to offer my professional opinion as a geochemist regarding the origin of groundwater discharge at the Fall River Springs, Shasta Co., California. In 1997, I conducted a study of the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes in northern California, in collaboration with one of my colleagues. This work was published as a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report (Davisson and Rose, 1997). The Fall River Springs emerge from the distal end of the Giant Crater Lava Field, a laterally extensive basalt flow that stretches from the southern flank of Medicine Lake Volcano southward for a distance of 40 km. Both Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava Field have virtually no surface water drainages. Precipitation that falls in these areas is inferred to seep into fractures in the rock, where it is carried down gradient under the force of gravity. Mean annual precipitation rates on Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava field are adequate to account for the {approx}1200 ft{sup 3}/sec discharge of the Fall River Springs. To evaluate the origin of the springs using geochemical methods, water samples were collected from the Fall River Springs and the Medicine Lake highlands and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. The isotope ratios measured for a groundwater sample are diagnostic of the average composition of the precipitation from which the water was derived. The isotope ratios of rain and snow also vary systematically with elevation, such that groundwater derived from recharge at higher elevations can be distinguished from that which originated at lower elevations. The stable isotope data for the Fall River Springs are consistent with groundwater recharge on the Medicine Lake Volcano and adjacent lava field. Mass balance calculations suggest that approximately half of the Fall River Springs flow is derived from the volcanic edifice. Rose and Davisson (1996) showed

  4. Radon/helium survey of thermal springs of Parbati, Beas and Sutlej valleys in Himachal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.; Sharma, Anand K.; Naresh Kumar

    1998-01-01

    India has more than 300 thermal springs spread over the entire geographical area of the subcontinent. Some of these springs have linkage with Indian mythology and are famous pilgrimage centres since historical times. The temperature of water recorded in these springs varies from 40 degC to that of steam. Some of them are being exploited as a source for geothermal energy. The purpose of this study is to measure radon and helium activity in the thermal springs of Himachal Himalaya. Radon is estimated in the soil and thermal waters using alpha spectrometry and scintillometry, respectively. The radon activity is maximum ( 716.3 Bq/l ) in thermal spring at Kasol and minimum ( 15.9 Bq/l ) in a natural spring ( bauli ) at Takrer. Radon concentration is highly variable in the Parbati valley with minimum value of 2230±430 Bq/m 3 recorded at Chhinjra on the banks of river Parbati and a maximum value of 57700±2050 Bq/m 3 at Dharmaur, the site of uranium ore exploitation by the AMD (DAE). Helium is estimated in the thermal springs by using a Helium Leak Detector (sniffing technique). The radon and helium contents of Kasol thermal springs are correlatable with high radioactivity in the soil of the area as revealed by Alpha Guard survey in the environs of Parbati valley. The helium content recorded in thermal springs is found to vary between 15-90 ppm. Radon and helium are well established as geochemical precursors for earthquake prediction studies. Helium/radon ratio seems to be a better predictive tool for earthquakes in comparison to individual radon and helium precursors. (author)

  5. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera in springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana SILVERI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the CRENODAT project (Biodiversity assessment and integrity evaluation of springs of Trentino - Italian Alps - and longterm ecological research, 2004-2008 we studied a total of 90 springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy, 75 of which were used for statistical analysis. The springs were grouped into seven different types and represented all the available lithologies in the study area. Macrozoobenthos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera; EPT was collected from stones, bryophytes and sediments. We investigated which physical, chemical or environmental features were important in determining EPT assemblage metrics at sites, by calculating the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and applying a one-way ANOVA test, ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses. Statistical results highlighted the island character of the springs, each spring having its specific history and abiotic characteristics, which select for unique community patterns. For the faunistic analyses, we considered all springs where EPT taxa were recorded; a total of 88 taxa. Highest species richness was recorded among the Trichoptera, followed by the Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera, with 52, 30 and 6 taxa respectively. Fifteen Trichoptera and three Plecoptera species were recorded as new for the Autonomous Province of Trento. Our results confirm that, in the harsh environment of the Alps, the mild and stable ecological conditions that characterize spring-fed brooks contribute to maintaining and enhancing the regional biodiversity. Springs act as refuge areas for stream biota, providing more favourable conditions during spates or droughts (common in Alpine headwaters, or for particular stages of the insect life cycles. Springs also provide specific habitats for strictly crenobiontic species.

  6. Hydrogeochemsitry of montane springs and their influence on streams in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Soulsby

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Springs are important groundwater discharge points on the high altitude (>800m plateaux of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland and form important wetland habitats within what is often a dry, sub-arctic landscape. The hydrogeochemistry of a typical spring in the Allt a'Mharcaidh catchment was examined between 1995-98 in order to characterise its chemical composition, identify the dominant controls on its chemical evolution and estimate groundwater residence time using 18O isotopes. Spring water, sustained by groundwater flow in shallow drift deposits and fractured bedrock, was moderately acidic (mean pH 5.89, with a very low alkalinity (mean 18 μeq l-1 and the ionic composition was dominated by sea-salts derived from atmospheric sources. Geochemical modelling using NETPATH, predicted that the dissolution of plagioclase mainly controls the release of Si, non-marine Na, Ca, K and Al into spring water. Hydrological conditions influenced seasonal variations in spring chemistry, with snowmelt associated with more rapid groundwater flows and lower weathering rates than summer discharges. Downstream of the spring, the chemistry of surface water was fundamentally different as a result of drainage from larger catchment areas, with increased soil and drift cover, and higher evaporation rates. Thus, the hydrogeochemical influence of springs on surface waters appears to be localized. Mean δ18O values in spring water were lower and more damped than those in precipitation. Nevertheless, a sinusoidal seasonal pattern was observed and used to estimate mean residence times of groundwater of around 2 years. Thus, in the high altitude plateau of the Cairngorms, shallow, coarse drift deposits from significant aquifers. At lower altitudes, deeper drift deposits, combined with larger catchment areas, increase mean groundwater residence times to >5 years. At high altitudes, the shallow, permeable nature of the drifts dictates that groundwater is vulnerable to impacts

  7. From Fall to Spring, or Spring to Fall? Seasonal Cholera Transmission Cycles and Implications for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R.; Islam, S.; WE Reason

    2010-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat in many developing countries around the world. The striking seasonality and the annual recurrence of this infectious disease in endemic areas continues to be of considerable interest to scientists and public health workers. Despite major advances in the ecological, and microbiological understanding of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent, the role of underlying macro-scale hydroclimatic processes in propagating the disease in different seasons and years is not well understood. The incidence of cholera in the Bengal Delta region, the ‘native homeland’ of cholera, shows distinct biannual peaks in the southern floodplains, as opposed to single annual peaks in coastal areas and the northern parts of Bangladesh, as well as other cholera-endemic regions in the world. A coupled analysis of the regional hydroclimate and cholera incidence reveals a strong association of the spatio-temporal variability of incidence peaks with seasonal processes and extreme events. At a seasonal scale, the cycles indicate a spring-fall transmission pattern, contrary to the prevalent notion of a fall-spring transmission cycle. We show that the asymmetric seasonal hydroclimatology affects regional cholera dynamics by providing a coastal growth environment for bacteria in spring, while propagating transmission to fall by flooding. This seasonal interpretation of the progression of cholera has important implications, for formulating effective cholera intervention and mitigation efforts through improved water management and understanding the impacts of changing climate patterns on seasonal cholera transmission. (Water Environental Research Education Actionable Solutions Network)

  8. 2D resistivity imaging and magnetic survey for characterization of thermal springs: A case study of Gergedi thermal springs in the northwest of Wonji, Main Ethiopian Rift, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadir, Yahya Ali; Eritro, Tigistu Haile

    2017-09-01

    Electrical resistivity imaging and magnetic surveys were carried out at Gergedi thermal springs, located in the Main Ethiopian Rift, to characterize the geothermal condition of the area. The area is geologically characterized by alluvial and lacustrine deposits, basaltic lava, ignimbrites, and rhyolites. The prominent structural feature in this part of the Main Ethiopian Rift, the SW -NE trending structures of the Wonji Fault Belt System, crosse over the study area. Three lines of imaging data and numerous magnetic data, encompassing the active thermal springs, were collected. Analysis of the geophysical data shows that the area is covered by low resistivity response regions at shallow depths which resulted from saline moisturized soil subsurface horizon. Relatively medium and high resistivity responses resulting from the weathered basalt, rhyolites, and ignimbrites are also mapped. Qualitative interpretation of the magnetic data shows the presence of structures that could act as pathways for heat and fluids manifesting as springs and also characterize the degree of thermal alteration of the area. Results from the investigations suggest that the Gergedi thermal springs area is controlled by fault systems oriented parallel and sub-parallel to the main tectonic lines of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

  9. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors)

  10. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  11. Diagenetic Changes in Common Hot Spring Microfacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, N. W.; Kendall, T. A.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Cady, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    The friable nature of silica hot spring deposits makes them susceptible to mechanical weathering. Rapid diagenesis must take place for these rocks to persist in the geologic record. The properties of two microfacies at two deposits were compared.

  12. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the “optical spring.” The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing

  13. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum. Requiem canticles. Choral Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch". Lausanne Pro Arte Choir, Suisse Romande Chamber Choir and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN 9408 (75 minutes:DDD)

  14. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility.

  15. Beamlines on the SPring-8 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    SPring-8 project is going to construct a ultrahigh-brilliance X-ray synchrotron radiation facility and commissioning of the storage ring is expected in Spring 1977. The facility will be available to scientists and engineers of universities, national laboratories and industries not only from Japan but also from abroad. 20 proposals for public beamlines are submitted to the Beamline Committee and the ten public beamlines are scheduled for completion by the end of 1997. (author)

  16. Strontium isotopic composition of hot spring and mineral spring waters, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji; Wakita, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, hot springs and mineral springs are distributed in Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions as well as in granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions lacking in recent volcanic activity. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio was determined in hot spring and mineral spring waters obtained from 47 sites. The ratios of waters from Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions were in the range 0.703-0.708, which is lower than that from granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions (0.706-0.712). The geographical distribution of the ratios coincides with the bedrock geology, and particularly the ratios of the waters in Quaternary volcanic regions correlate with those of surrounding volcanic rocks. These features suggest that subsurface materials control the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of soluble components in the hot spring and mineral spring waters. (author)

  17. Comparative analysis of the flow activity of the Homoljska Potajnica intermittent spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igračev Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Homoljska Potajnica belongs to the type of a very rare, intermittent or rhythmic springs which appear exclusively in karst areas. It is one of the three known springs of this type in Serbia, while it is believed to be only about fifty of these in the rest of the world. As a rare karst and natural phenomenon, Homoljska Potajnica was a subject of interest for numerous researchers and geomorphologists in Serbia. Due to a very complex problem of occurence and the principle of functioning, to get the reliable data of how intemittent springs work, it is neccesarry to provide a continious observations, ussually in a long term period. This paper presents the results of the measurements of spring's flow activity and water discharge, taken in 2012. and 2013. These were carried out for comparison with the results of previous research, with an aim to determine possible changes in dynamics and mechanisms of spring's functioning in the past. One of the goals is to relate the annual precipitation regime with the intensity and frequency of spring activity, to try to determine the specific model of the spring's functioning. Another goal is to emphasize the need for continious observation in order to obtain the relevant data about the evolution of this rare natural phenomenon.

  18. Analysis of the Residual Stresses in Helical Cylindrical Springs at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creep is one of the basic properties of materials, its speed significantly depends on the temperature. Helical cylindrical springs are widely used in the elements of heating systems. This results in necessity of taking into account the effect of temperature on the stress-strain state of the spring. The object of research is a helical cylindrical spring used at high temperatures. Under this condition the spring state stability should be ensured.The paper studies relaxation of stress state and generation of residual stresses. Calculations are carried out in ABAQUS environment. The purpose of this work is to discuss the law of relaxation and residual stress in the spring.This paper describes the basic creep theories of helical cylindrical spring material. The calculation formulas of shear stress relaxation for a fixed compression ratio are obtained. Distribution and character of stress contour lines in the cross section of spring are presented. The stress relaxation – time relationships are discussed. The approximate formula for calculating relaxation shear stresses in the cross section of helical springs is obtained.The paper investigates creep ratio and law of residual stress variation in the cross-section of spring at 650℃. Computer simulation in ABAQUS environment was used. Research presents a finite element model of the spring creep in the cross-section.The paper conducts analysis of the stress changes for the creep under constant load. Under constant load stresses are quickly decreased in the around area of cross-section and are increased in the centre, i.e. the maximum and minimum stresses come close with time. Research work shows the possibility for using the approximate formula to calculate the relaxation shear stress in the cross section of spring and can provide a theoretical basis for predicting the service life of spring at high temperatures.In research relaxation processes of stress state are studied. Finite element model is cre

  19. Hydrology and geochemistry of carbonate springs in Mantua Valley, northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Allen, Constance J.

    1999-01-01

    Water chemistry, tritium data, precipitation-discharge relations, geology, topography, and dye tracing were used to determine recharge areas, ground-water residence times, factors influencing ground-water flow, and aquifer characteristic for five springs that discharge from Paleozoic limestones and dolostones along the margin of Manuta Valley, northern Utah.Temperature of Mantua Valley spring water ranged between 6.0 and 15.0 degrees Celsius. Spring-water temperature indicates that depth of circulation of ground water could be as shallow as 80 feet (25 meters) to as much as 1,150 feet (350 meters). Dissolved-solids concentration in the water from springs ranged from 176 to 268 milligrams per liter. Average total hardness of spring water ranged from 157 to 211 milligrams per liter. Water from all of the springs is a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate type that generally is undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. The molar calcium/magnesium ratio in spring water ranged from 1.21 to 1.88, and indicates that ground water flows through impure dolostone or a mixed limestone and dolostone terrace.Discharge from carbonate springs in Mantua Valley ranges from about to 10 to 4,300 gallons per minute (0.6 to 271 liters per second). Seasonal variations in chemical parameters and discharge indicate that the aquifers supplying water to most of these springs are predominantly diffuse-flow systems that have been locally enhanced by bedrock dissolution. Estimated recharge area for th springs ranges from 2.7 to 7 square miles (7 to 18 square kilometers).On the basis of tritium age dating, the mean residence time of ground water discharges from Olsens-West Hallins and Maple Springs was determined to be from 3 to 9, and from 4 to 15 years, respectively. Dye tracing from point sources 2.65 miles (4.26 kilometers) southeast of Maple Spring, however, indicates a substantially faster component of flow during snowmelt runoff, with a travel time of about 5 days, or an average ground

  20. Groundwater monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents groundwater monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in groundwater beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define groundwater contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Confronting this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  1. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  2. Ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is a former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in ground water beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define ground water contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Solving this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  3. Report on fiscal 1998 investigation of Jozankei hot spring conservation and hot spring structure; 1998 nendo Jozankei onsen hozen chosa. Onsen kozo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    With the purpose of evaluating recoverable hot water quantity and elucidating the change over a long term, investigations were carried out, with the results summarized, on the geology, alteration zone, gravitational analysis, fluid geochemistry and hydraulics in the area. The investigations covered the area of 7 km x 6 km in about 30 km southwest of Sapporo City and were performed for the period from September 10, 1998 to October 31, 1999. The results were as follows. In the Jozankei area, with the Usubetu layer in the Old Tertiary system as the basement, layers are superposed from the Palaeogene Oligocene to the Quaternary Pleistocene. Distributing in various places between Yunosawa vicinity and Jozankei Hot Spring area are acid to neutral geothermal alteration zones. The hot spring gushing-out zone in the Jozankei hot spring area is supposed to be regulated by side-by-side cracks in the NE-SW direction. It was inferred from tritium concentration and a minor component ratio that, as the mechanism of forming a hot spring, water of precipitation origin circulating and residing for a long time on the Usubetsu layer which is marine sediment is heated by a volcanic heat source latent in the depth. (NEDO)

  4. Radon measurements in well and spring water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Samer M.; Habib, Rima R.; Nuwayhid, Rida Y.; Chatila, Malek; Katul, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The variation of dissolved radon ( 222 Rn) levels in water supplies remains of interest because of the radiation-induced public health hazards. A large part of the Lebanese population relies on springs and wells for their drinking water. 222 Rn measurements in spring and well water sources were conducted using the E-PERM method at sites ranging from sea level to 1200m above sea level and across several geologic formations within Lebanon. The dissolved radon concentrations ranged from a low of 0.91BqL -1 in a coastal well source to a high of 49.6BqL -1 for a spring source in a mountainous region. Of the 20 sites sampled, only five had radon levels above 11BqL -1 and these mostly occurred in areas adjacent to well-known geological fault zones. A preliminary national average radon level was determined to be about 11.4BqL -1 . In general, as all determined concentrations were well below the 100 and 146BqL -1 revised reference levels proposed in the European Union and the United States, respectively, it is concluded that there is no reason to believe these water sources pose any radon-related hazard. On the other hand, at locations where water is collected directly from the springhead, it is advisable to have a settling/piping system installed allowing for further radon decay and radon loss into the air to alleviate any possible radon problem

  5. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9

  6. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  7. Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Eberhard; Dipretoro, Richard S.

    2006-12-01

    A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the salt was removed 1 year later, chloride concentrations in the springs exceeded 500 mg/L. Monitoring for the following 5 years showed salt contamination rising for the first year, but receding to normal background after 5 years. Chloride to sodium ratios of the spring waters indicated that some sodium was initially sequestered, probably by ion exchange on clay minerals, in the early part of the monitoring period, and released during the latter part; thereby extending the period of contamination.

  8. A search for correlation between seismicity and radon anomaly in hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, B.S.; Rama

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of radon contents of the exholved gas emanating from several hot water springs along the Western Coast of India are reported here. Concentration of radon in gas phase of individual sprinqs varied in general, directly with the surface temperature of the water emerging from the respective springs, and showed little variation with time. Radon measurements were carried out continuously for about two years at two hot springs located at Ganeshpuri and Sathivali in the coastal area of Northern Maharashtra. The distant tremors did not cause any variation in the radon content. There was no marked local seismic activity during the period of observations, and the levels of radon stayed essentially constant. The measurements were also carried out at a hot spring in Assam, for about 8 months. These also did not show any significant variation; this period too lacked any marked local seismicity. (author)

  9. DOD HPC Insights. Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    petascale and exascale HPC concepts has led to new research thrusts including power efficiency. Now, power efficiency is an important area of expertise... exascale supercomputers. MHPCC is also working on the gen- eration side of the energy equation. We have deployed a 100 KW research so- lar array... exascale su- percomputers. Within the HPCMP, en- ergy costs take an increasing amount of the limited budget that could be better used for service

  10. Longer wings for faster springs - wing length relates to spring phenology in a long-distance migrant across its range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Emmenegger, Tamara; Amrhein, Valentin; Csörgő, Tibor; Gursoy, Arzu; Ilieva, Mihaela; Kverek, Pavel; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Pirrello, Simone; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Salewski, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In migratory birds, morphological adaptations for efficient migratory flight often oppose morphological adaptations for efficient behavior during resident periods. This includes adaptations in wing shape for either flying long distances or foraging in the vegetation and in climate-driven variation of body size. In addition, the timing of migratory flights and particularly the timely arrival at local breeding sites is crucial because fitness prospects depend on site-specific phenology. Thus, adaptations for efficient long-distance flights might be also related to conditions at destination areas. For an obligatory long-distance migrant, the common nightingale, we verified that wing length as the aerodynamically important trait, but not structural body size increased from the western to the eastern parts of the species range. In contrast with expectation from aerodynamic theory, however, wing length did not increase with increasing migration distances. Instead, wing length was associated with the phenology at breeding destinations, namely the speed of local spring green-up. We argue that longer wings are beneficial for adjusting migration speed to local conditions for birds breeding in habitats with fast spring green-up and thus short optimal arrival periods. We suggest that the speed of spring green-up at breeding sites is a fundamental variable determining the timing of migration that fine tune phenotypes in migrants across their range.

  11. Origin of Boron and Brine Evolution in Saline Springs in the Nangqen Basin, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-long Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nangqen Basin is a typical shearing-extensional basin situated in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. It contains abundant saline spring resources and abnormal trace element enrichments. The hydrochemical molar ratios (Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl, H-O isotopes, and B isotopes of the saline spring were systematically measured to describe the evolution of brines and the origin of the boron. The sodium chloride coefficient of the water samples in this area is around 1.0 or slightly greater, which is characteristic of leached brines; the highest B/Cl value is 4.25 (greater than that of seawater. The Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl values of the springs are clear indicators of a crustal origin. The δ18O values of the spring waters range from −12.88‰ to −16.05‰, and the δD values range from −100.91‰ to −132.98‰. Meanwhile the B content and B isotopes in the saline springs are in the ranges of 1.00 to 575.56 ppm and +3.55‰ to +29.59‰, respectively. It has been proven that the saline springs in the Nangqen Basin are a type of leached brine, suggesting that the saline springs have a terrestrial origin. The δ11B-B characteristics of the springs are similar to those observed in the Tibetan geothermal area, indicating that these two places have the same B source. Moreover, they have a crustal origin (marine carbonate rocks and volcanic rocks instead of a deep mantle source.

  12. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Springs in Oke–Igbo, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    each spring and analyzed for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total ... Boiling of the spring water, is therefore, .... spring against sudden change in pH might also .... The altitude of the springs may have.

  13. Spring-loaded syringe for multiple rapid injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesotherapy refers to multiple injections of small quantity of the drug over a large area. The mesoguns available are expensive and the motor-driven models tends to waste the expensive material to be injected since the plunger stops after injecting without recoil. We searched for a less expensive device which would inject like the mesogun and still not waste the solution. On searching the web, we identified a spring-loaded syringe. We describe the assembly and use of this inexpensive syringe for delivering multiple injections with minimal wastage.

  14. Spring-loaded Syringe for Multiple Rapid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, CR; Somani, Anirudh; Shashidharan Nair, CK; Mylswamy, Thirumurthy

    2017-01-01

    Mesotherapy refers to multiple injections of small quantity of the drug over a large area. The mesoguns available are expensive and the motor-driven models tends to waste the expensive material to be injected since the plunger stops after injecting without recoil. We searched for a less expensive device which would inject like the mesogun and still not waste the solution. On searching the web, we identified a spring-loaded syringe. We describe the assembly and use of this inexpensive syringe for delivering multiple injections with minimal wastage. PMID:28529423

  15. High power linear electric machine - made possible by gas springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, E.; Brennvall, J.E.; Nilssen, R.; Norum, L.

    2004-07-01

    In some applications, such as compressors, free piston linear machines have several advantages compared to rotating machines. The power level of linear machines has been limited, mainly due to difficulties with the spring. A solution for this has now been found and will be described in this paper. It can open up new areas of applications, where the power level exceeds the present power limit of about 2 kW. This machine needs special regulators in order to work efficiently. Two regulator algorithms for piston phase and one for position amplitude are therefore implemented for this prototype. (author)

  16. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  17. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  18. Interbasin flow revisited: The contribution of local recharge to high-discharge springs, Death Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katherine; Nelson, Stephen; Mayo, Alan; Tingey, David

    2006-05-01

    Springs in the Furnace Creek area (Texas, Travertine, and Nevares Springs) of Death Valley National Park exhibit high discharge rates and depleted δ18O VSMOW (˜-13‰) and δD VSMOW (˜-102‰) values. Isotopic depletion of this magnitude and large spring fluxes (˜10,000 L/min) suggests that modern local recharge in the arid Furnace Creek drainage cannot be responsible for spring fluxes. An alternate explanation, interbasin flow, is difficult to envisage due to the stratigraphic and structural relationships of bedrock in intervening ranges, although it is the most common conceptual model for Furnace Creek spring flows. High-flux springs at Furnace Creek nonetheless respond modestly to modern climate in terms of discharge rate and isotopic composition. Hydrographs show a climate response and variations in time-series stable isotope data of widely spaced springs track one another. Small, but measurable quantities of tritium (water for these springs may be, there appears to be a subtle, but recent climatic influence. Estimates of flow at nearby mountain springs produce discharge rates per square kilometer of catchment that, by analogy, could support from 20 to 300% of the flow at large Death Valley springs under the current climate. Yet, 14C model ages suggest valley-bottom springs at Furnace Creek (5500-14,500 yr) contain a large component of older water, suggesting that much of the water was recharged during a pluvial period (Younger Dryas?) when net infiltration would have been much higher and isotopically depleted. 14C model ages are also of similar age, or younger, than many 'up gradient' waters, rather than being older as would be expected for interbasin flow. Chemical evolution models of solutes are consistent with both local recharge and interbasin transfer from Ash Meadows. However, when considered with isotopic constraints, interbasin flow becomes obviously untenable. Estimates of the thickness of alluvium and semi-consolidated Tertiary units in the

  19. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sung Ha; Choi, Bok Lok

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses

  20. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area

  1. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  2. Manufacture of conical springs with elastic medium technology improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurguzov, S. A.; Mikhailova, U. V.; Kalugina, O. B.

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the manufacturing technology improvement by using an elastic medium in the stamping tool forming space to improve the conical springs performance characteristics and reduce the costs of their production. Estimation technique of disk spring operational properties is developed by mathematical modeling of the compression process during the operation of a spring. A technique for optimizing the design parameters of a conical spring is developed, which ensures a minimum voltage value when operated in the edge of the spring opening.

  3. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    in inland areas, and upward flow toward the surface in coastal areas, such as at Warm Mineral Springs. Warm Mineral Springs is located in a discharge area. Changes in water use in the region have affected the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Historical increase in groundwater withdrawals resulted in a 10- to 20-foot regional decline in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by May 1975 relative to predevelopment levels and remained at approximately that level in May 2007 in the area of Warm Mineral Springs. Discharge measurements at Warm Mineral Springs (1942–2014) decreased from about 11–12 cubic feet per second in the 1940s to about 6–9 cubic feet per second in the 1970s and remained at about that level for the remainder of the period of record. Similarity of changes in regional water use and discharge at Warm Mineral Springs indicates that basin-scale changes to the groundwater system have affected discharge at Warm Mineral Springs. Water temperature had no significant trend in temperature over the period of record, 1943–2015, and outliers were identified in the data that might indicate inconsistencies in measurement methods or locations.Within the regional groundwater basin, Warm Mineral Springs is influenced by deep Upper Floridan aquifer flow paths that discharge toward the coast. Associated with these flow paths, the groundwater temperatures increase with depth and toward the coast. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that a source of warm groundwater to Warm Mineral Springs is likely the permeable zone of the Avon Park Formation within the Upper Floridan aquifer at a depth of about 1,400 to 1,600 feet, or deeper sources. The permeable zone contains saline groundwater with water temperatures of at least 95 degrees Fahrenheit.The water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, when compared with other springs in Florida had the highest temperature and the greatest mineralized content. Warm Mineral Springs water is

  4. Use of SPring-8 in drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Protein structure analysis consortium was established by 21 drug companies and has analyzed protein structures using the beam line BL32B2 of SPring-8 since September in 2002. Outline of the protein structure analysis consortium, contribution of SPring-8 to drug development, and the present status and future of use of SPring-8 are stated. For examples of structure analysis, the human nuclear enzyme (PARP-1) fragment complex crystal structure, human ISG20, human dipeptidine peptidase IV, human cMDH, chromatin binding human nuclear enzyme complex, change of structure of each step of tyrosine activation of bacteria tyrosine tRNA synthetase are described. Contribution of analysis of protein structure and functions to drug development, development process of new drug, drug screening using compounds database on the basis of the three dimensional structure of receptor active site, genome drug development, and the effects of a target drug on the market are explained. (S.Y.)

  5. Nonlinear Squeeze Film Dampers without Centralized Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Changsheng

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bifurcation behavior of a flexible rotor supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs is analyzed numerically by means of rotor trajectories, Poincar maps, bifurcation diagrams and power spectra, based on the short bearing and cavitated film assumptions. It is shown that there also exist two different operations (i.e., socalled bistable operations in some speed regions in the rotor system supported on the nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs. In the bistable operation speed regions, the rotor system exhibits synchronous, sub-synchronous, sub-super-synchronous and almost-periodic as well as nonperiodic motions. The periodic bifurcation behaviors of the rotor system supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs are very complex and require further investigations.

  6. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  7. Field assessment of partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. Chr.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1986-01-01

    Partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley was evaluated in three plot types: large isolation plots, in 1.4 m2 plots in chessboard design with guard plots of spring wheat and in single rows. Percentage leaf area covered by powdery mildew was scored four to six times during the season....... The relationship between single scores of amount of powdery mildew on the upper four leaves and the area under the disease progress curve was high in all plot designs during the first two to three weeks after heading, allowing selection for the trait by one or two scorings. Differential ranking of varieties...

  8. Spring and Its Global Echo: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotayev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the Arab Spring acted as a trigger for a global wave of socio-political destabilization, which signifi cantly exceeded the scale of the Arab Spring itself and affected absolutely all world-system zones. Only in 2011 the growth of the global number of largescale anti-government demonstrations, riots and political strikes was to a high degree (although not entirely due to their growth in the Arab world. In the ensuing years, the Arab countries rather made a negative contribution to a very noticeable further increase in the global number of large-scale anti-government demonstrations, riots and general strikes (the global intensity of all these three important types of socio-political destabilization continued to grow despite the decline in the Arab world. Thus, for all these three important indicators of sociopolitical destabilization, the scale of the global echo of the Arab Spring has overshadowed the scale of the Arab Spring itself. Only as regards the fourth considered indicator (major terrorist attacks / guerrilla warfare the scale of the global echo for the entire period considered did not overshadow the scale of the Arab Spring (and, incidentally, «Winter» - and in 2014-2015 Arab countries continued to make a disproportionate contribution to the historically record global values of this sad indicator – global number of major terrorist attacks/ guerilla warfare. To conclude, triggered by the Arab Spring, the global wave of socio-political destabilization led after 2010 to a very signifi cant growth of socio-political instability in absolutely all World System zones. However, this global destabilization wave manifested itself in different World System zones in different ways and not completely synchronously.

  9. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.

    2017-03-01

    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  10. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  11. Fuel column retainer using radially compressed spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel rod construction including a fuel rod having an inside cylindrical diameter, cylindrical fuel pellets placed within the rod. The cylindrical fuel pellets having a diameter less than the inside cylindrical diameter and being stacked end to end for a distance less than the length of the fuel rod inside the fuel rod; Zircaloy end plugs for sealing the rod at either end; a compression spring adjacent one end of the rods for biasing the pellets to and towards the other end of the rod. An improvement in the Zircaloy spring is described

  12. Variation of radon levels in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in Garhwal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Negi, M.S.; Ramola, R.C.; Choubey, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Radon is being measured continuously in spring water at Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal in Himalayan region by using radon emanometer since December 2002. An effort was made to correlate the variance of radon concentration in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in study area. The positive correlation (coefficient = 0.79, 0.53, 0.60 and 0.70) was observed between measured radon concentration and minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and water discharge rate from the spring, respectively. However, no correlation was recorded between radon concentration and rain fall in the study area. Sudden increase in radon concentration in spring water were observed before the earthquakes occurred on 24 January 2003 of magnitude 3.4 on Richter scale having epicenter near Uttarkashi in Garhwal Himalaya and on 31 January 2003 of magnitude 3.1 on Richter scale having epicenter almost in same area. Similar changes in radon concentration were recorded before the earthquakes occurred on 4 April 2003 with magnitude 4.0 having epicenter near Almora in Kumaon Himalaya and on 26 May 2003 having magnitude 3.5 in Chamoli region of Garhwal Himalaya. Regular radon anomaly was recorded with micro seismic events from 5th August to 4th September 2003, which is discussed in detail. The impact of non geophysical and geophysical events on radon concentration in spring water is discussed in details. This type of study will help us to develop earthquake alarm model from radon in near future. (author)

  13. Evaluating connection of aquifers to springs and streams, Great Basin National Park and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Jackson, Tracie R.; Dotson, K. Elaine; Plume, Russell W.; Hatch, Christine E.; Halford, Keith J.

    2015-12-22

    Federal agencies that oversee land management for much of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada, including the management of Great Basin National Park by the National Park Service, need to understand the potential extent of adverse effects to federally managed lands from nearby groundwater development. As a result, this study was developed (1) to attain a better understanding of aquifers controlling groundwater flow on the eastern side of the southern part of the Snake Range and their connection with aquifers in the valleys, (2) to evaluate the relation between surface water and groundwater along the piedmont slopes, (3) to evaluate sources for Big Springs and Rowland Spring, and (4) to assess groundwater flow from southern Spring Valley into northern Hamlin Valley. The study focused on two areas—the first, a northern area along the east side of Great Basin National Park that included Baker, Lehman, and Snake Creeks, and a second southern area that is the potential source area for Big Springs. Data collected specifically for this study included the following: (1) geologic field mapping; (2) drilling, testing, and water quality sampling from 7 test wells; (3) measuring discharge and water chemistry of selected creeks and springs; (4) measuring streambed hydraulic gradients and seepage rates from 18 shallow piezometers installed into the creeks; and (5) monitoring stream temperature along selected reaches to identify places of groundwater inflow.

  14. Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site Annual Report for Calendar Year 2015 June 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Ken [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management (LM); Deyo, Yvonne [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    1.1 Purpose and Scope. This report summarizes the activities, compliance status, annual inspection, and environmental monitoring results from calendar year 2015 for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepares this annual report as part of the site’s long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) activities, in accordance with the requirements of the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS&M Plan) (DOE 2008a) and the Federal Facility Agreement for the Weldon Spring Site (DOE 2006). The Weldon Spring site is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site. 1.2 Site Description. The Weldon Spring site is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 30 miles west of St. Louis, Missouri (Figure 1). The site comprises two geographically distinct, DOE-owned properties: the former Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and Raffinate Pit sites (Chemical Plant) and the former Weldon Spring Quarry (Quarry). The former Chemical Plant is located about 2 miles southwest of the junction of Missouri State Route 94 and Interstate 64. The Quarry is about 4 miles southwest of the former Chemical Plant. Both sites are accessible from Missouri State Route 94. During the early 1940s, the Department of the Army acquired 17,232 acres of private land in St. Charles County for the construction of the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works facility. The former Ordnance Works site has since been divided into several contiguous areas under different ownership, as depicted in Figure 2. Current land use of the former Ordnance Works site includes the former Chemical Plant and Quarry, the U.S. Army Reserve Weldon Spring Training Area, the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC), the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) Division of State Parks (MDNR-Parks), Francis Howell High School, a St. Charles County highway maintenance (formerly Missouri Department of Transportation [Mo

  15. Climatic anomalies in the Spring of 2017 in Oltenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIA BOGDAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The year 2015, according to the global average, was the warmest year since the beginning of the measurements and coincided with the maximum phase of the El Nino climatic process that extended until May 2016 (NOAA and WMO documents. A period of normality for the Southern Oscillation followed. In 2015, the global average air temperature exceeded the global average from the pre-industrial age for the first time by 1.0°C. Global warming continued, and 2016 was the warmest year in the history of the planet, exceeding the global average by 1.1°C. In Oltenia, the winter 2016-2017 was normal, with a general average of -1.4°C for the area with altitudes below 600 m, although December 2016 was also thermally normal. The winter was marked by a normal thermally and droughty December and a cold January, with the average for the entire region of -5.07°C, being the fifth coldest January of the last 57 years. In February, the weather continuously warmed up, from February 2nd, the period February 21-28 registering moderate heat wave. The coming of spring was very early, with an average coming of spring index for 2017 of 464.4°C, being the third index in descending order after 2016 (520.3°C and 2002 (499.4°C. Although solar activity has been kept to a minimum, warming has continued, and March has been warm, April and May with a normal thermal value at the regional level. The vegetation started its development early, and the cold weather and late spring hoarfrost occurred in March (27-28.III and April (21-24.IV, which caused significant damage to agricultural crops, vegetables and solariums. In some parts of the country, snow has fallen into certain periods. Early coming of spring, and intense and late spring colds are climatic anomalies with destructive potential as in the present case.

  16. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed

  17. Conceptual model for the origin of high radon levels in spring waters - The example of the St. Placidus spring, Grisons, Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainon, F.; Goldscheider, N.; Surbeck, H.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of geological, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques were applied to explain the origin of exceptionally high radon levels in the St. Placidus spring near the city of Disentis in the Swiss Alps, where an average of 650 Bq/L 222 Rn was measured. 222 Rn is a radioactive noble gas with a half-life of 4 days, which results from the disintegration of radium ( 226 Ra). The high radon levels can neither be explained by generally increased radium content in the fractured aquifer rock (orthogneiss), nor by the radium concentration in the spring water. It was possible to show that there must be a productive radium reservoir inside the aquifer but very near to the spring. This reservoir mainly consists of iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides, which precipitate in a zone where reduced, iron-rich groundwaters mix occasionally with oxygen-rich, freshly infiltrated rainwater or meltwater. The iron, as well as the reduced and slightly acid conditions, can be attributed to pyrite oxidation in the recharge area of the spring. Radium cations strongly adsorb and accumulate on such deposits, and generate radon, which is then quickly transported to the spring with the flowing groundwater. (author)

  18. Fiscal 1999 survey on conservation of Jozankei hot spring. Survey report of hot spring alteration; 1999 nendo jozankei onsen hozen chosa. Onsen hendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    As a part of fiscal 1999 survey on conservation of Jozankei hot spring, a survey was made on the change of water composition in hot springs and rivers for the purpose of elucidating the cause of hot spring alteration. In the survey, sampling and water quality analysis were conducted once a month at four sources and one river point on the upstream side of Tsukimibashi bridge on the Toyohira river and at two sources and one river point between Tsukimibashi bridge and Takayamabashi bridge. Also carried out were sampling and constituent analysis at five points for river water of a wide area. The survey results were as follows. The pattern of change in spring water temperature was recognized such that it tended to rise in summer when river temperature was high and to fall in winter. Spring water temperature rose greatly at the time of higher water level like the thaw in some sources but conversely fell in other sources. The fluctuation trend in PH values was such that they mostly went up in April of snow melting time and in early August of much rain and went down in winter of little rain and less snowmelt. As for electric conductivity and dissolved constituents, it was recognized that the conductivity lowered and that the constituents decreased in concentration, all concurrently at the time of snowmelt and much rain. (NEDO)

  19. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  20. SPRINGS WITH CALCAREOUS TUFA IN THE VALLEY OF THE JAMNE CREEK IN GORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Krause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study gives a detail characteristic of a hard water springs habitat with the communities of Cratoneurion commutati (habitat code of Nature 2000: 7220, localized within Nature 2000 protected area Ostoja Gorczańska PLH120018, in an upper part of the valley of Jamne creek. The plants are described along with the main habitat parameters, namely: altitude, exposition, slope gradient, insolation, type of bedrock, water flow regime and the spring outflow efficiency. The temperature, pH, electrical conductivity were measured in the field, the concentrations of Ca and Mg in spring water were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The investigated headwater areas are small (0.7–80 m2 and highly differentiated by the intensity of calcareous tufa precipitation and the degree of plant cover development.

  1. Drivers of larval fish assemblage shift during the spring-summer transition in the coastal Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Itziar; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Jordi, Antoni; Palmer, Miquel; Sabatés, Ana; Basterretxea, Gotzon

    2012-01-01

    The influence of coastal environmental conditions from winter-spring to summer on fish larvae assemblages in a temperate area has suggested a seasonal shift in ecosystem-level variation through which trophic pathways shift from the pelagic to the benthic system. This variation may be related to marked effects in the reproductive strategies in the fishes inhabiting the area and indirectly affect ichthyoplankton assemblages. Larval fish assemblages were sampled fortnightly at three stations located in coastal waters off southern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean) from March to August 2007, covering the main spawning period for the resident coastal fish in this region. The larval fish assemblage showed clear seasonality with higher specific abundance but lower diversity in the spring. Two main assemblages were identified: a spring assemblage, occurring at surface seawater temperatures ichthyoplankton communities occurred in early June, coinciding with the onset of summer hydrographical conditions and the local benthic productivity peak.

  2. Standards, Assessments & Opting Out, Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advance Illinois, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring, Illinois students will take new state assessments that reflect the rigor and relevance of the new Illinois Learning Standards. But some classmates will sit out and join the pushback against standardized testing. Opt-out advocates raise concerns about over-testing, and the resulting toll on students as well as the impact on classroom…

  3. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  4. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    acting on the SFD are presented. It is worth mentioning, that the maps and diagrams can be used as design guidance. Finally, a comparison between the numerical results and experimental result is facilitated in form of waterfall diagrams. For this, a full scale model of the arc-spring damper was designed...

  5. Tried and True: Springing into Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In eighth grade, students usually learn about forces in science class and linear relationships in math class, crucial topics that form the foundation for further study in science and engineering. An activity that links these two fundamental concepts involves measuring the distance a spring stretches as a function of how much weight is suspended…

  6. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  7. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 18, Spring 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    our arms.” JFQ ■ O F F T H E S H E L F 142 JFQ / Spring 1998 Colonel Harry G. Summers, Jr., USA (Ret.), is a syndicated columnist and noted lecturer...a syndicate leader at a German staff college is considered a high-prestige post that usually presages promo- tion to flag rank. Two other foreign

  8. Manomaterials research activities at the SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Sigeru; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan started the 'Nanotechnology Support Project' from 2002 for the purpose to support nanotechnology researches. As part of the nanotechnology support project, SPring-8 has supported nanotechnology researches using synchrotron radiation. In this article, some research activities of the project are introduced. (author)

  9. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

  10. The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstetter, Ned

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan examining Rachel Carson's call to arms concerning the harmful consequences of pesticides. Students view a video documentary on Carson's work and read a synopsis of her book, "Silent Spring." Assessment is provided by various activities including writing assignments, creating posters, and editorial cartoons. (MJP)

  11. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  12. [The variability of vegetation beginning date of greenness period in spring in the north-south transect of eastern China based on NOAA NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Guo, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Lian-di

    2010-10-01

    NDVI based on NOAA/AVHRR from 1982 to 2003 are used to monitor variable rules for the growing season in spring of vegetation in the north-south transect of eastern China (NSTEC). The following, mainly, are included: (1) The changing speed of greenness period in spring of most regions in NSTEC is slow and correlation with the year is not distinct; (2) The regions in which greenness period in spring distinctly change mainly presented an advance; (3) The regions in which inter-annual fluctuation of greenness period in spring is over 10 days were found in 3 kinds of areas: the area covered with agricultural vegetation types; the areas covered with evergreen vegetation types; the areas covered with steppe vegetation types; (4) changes of vegetation greenness period in spring have spatio-temporal patterns.

  13. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Nowadly, F.K.; Knight, W.C.; Vajda, G.F.

    1988-08-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is being conducted as a Major System Acquisition under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. The Weldon Spring site is located near Weldon Spring, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It is surrounded by large tracts of land owned by the federal government and the state of Missouri. The site consists of four raffinate pits, an inactive chemical plant, and a contaminated quarry. The raffinate pits and chemical plant are on adjoining land about 3.2 km (2 mi) southwest of the junction of Missouri (State) Route 94 and US Route 40/61, with access from Route 94. The quarry is located in a comparatively remote area about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area; the quarry can also be accessed from Route 94. These areas are fenced and closed to the public. From 1941 to 1944, the US Department of the Army operated the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works, constructed on the land that is now the Weldon Spring site, for production of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT). The Army used the quarry for disposal of rubble contaminated with TNT. In the mid 1950s, 83 ha (205 acres) of the ordnance works property was transferred to the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC); this is now the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. An additional 6 ha (15 acres) was later transferred to the AEC for expansion of waste storage capacity. 23 refs., 37 figs., 21 tabs

  14. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  15. An experimental and analytical study on the feasibility of SMA spring driven actuation of an iris mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Aravindh; Abouseada, Mostafa; Manghaipathy, Pavithra; Ozalp, Nesrin; Majid, Feras Abdul; Salem, Ayman; Srinivasa, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An iris mechanism proposed in response to fluctuations in solar energy. • Iris motion controlled with the use of Nickel–Titanium Shape Memory Alloy springs. • Variation of the force exerted by SMA spring w.r.t. temperature tested experimentally. • An analytical expression that relates the aperture area and crank rotation is given. • SMA springs showed promising actuation mechanism as a replacement to motor. - Abstract: Variation in incoming solar energy adversely affects the temperature inside a solar reactor and lowers its efficiency. Therefore, it is important to develop a mechanism that can maintain semi-constant temperatures inside the reactor from sunrise to sunset. In this paper, we present an iris mechanism that reduces or enlarges its circular opening with the use of Nickel–Titanium Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) springs. SMA springs possess memory of their shapes at certain temperatures. Hence, by controlling the temperature of the spring, it is possible to exert different forces that may then be transferred to the variable aperture mechanism. In this study, variation of the force exerted by an SMA spring with respect to temperature was experimentally tested and the viability of an SMA spring’s use in actuating an iris mechanism aperture was examined. In order to simulate conditions under fluctuating solar radiation, a 7 kW solar simulator was used in experiments at varying power levels. It was observed that SMA springs are promising as a replacement of the actuation mechanism driven by a motor.

  16. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition

  17. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Pu, Feiyu; Li, Yunpeng; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Jianping; Pan, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major meteorological

  18. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major

  19. Multimedia assessment of health risks for the Weldon Spring site remedial action project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, L.A.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. The Weldon Spring site became radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The US Department of the Army used the Weldon Spring site to produce dinitrotoluene (DNT) and trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives from 1941 to 1946. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, predecessor of the DOE) used the site to process uranium and thorium ore concentrates from 1957 to 1966. The quarry was used by the Army and the AEC for waste disposal beginning in the early 1940s; it was last used for disposal in 1969. Wastes placed in the quarry include TNT and DNT residues and radioactively contaminated materials. A summary of disposal activities at the quarry is presented. As part of the environmental compliance process at the Weldon Spring site, a baseline risk evaluation (BRE) was prepared to assess the potential risks associated with contamination present at the quarry. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  20. A springs actuated finger exoskeleton: From mechanical design to spring variables evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Roberto; Mello, Ashley N; Piovesan, Davide

    2017-07-01

    In the context of post-stroke patients, suffering of hemiparesis of the hand, robot-aided neuro-motor rehabilitation allows for intensive rehabilitation treatments and quantitative evaluation of patients' progresses. This work presents the design and evaluation of a spring actuated finger exoskeleton. In particular, the spring variables and the interaction forces between the assembly and the hand were investigated, in order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed exoskeleton.

  1. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA's National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impact associated with the proposed action

  2. Geodatabase and characteristics of springs within and surrounding the Trinity aquifer outcrops in northern Bexar County, Texas, 2010--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Pedraza, Diana E.; Morris, Robert R.; Garcia, Travis J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Trinity Glen Rose Groundwater Conservation District, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, and the San Antonio River Authority, developed a geodatabase of springs within and surrounding the Trinity aquifer outcrops in a 331-square-mile study area in northern Bexar County, Texas. The data used to develop the geodatabase were compiled from existing reports and databases, along with spring data collected between October 2010 and September 2011. Characteristics including the location, discharge, and water-quality properties were collected for known springs and documented in the geodatabase. A total of 141 springs were located within the study area, and 46 springs were field verified. The discharge at springs with flow ranged from 0.003 to 1.46 cubic feet per second. The specific conductance of the water discharging from the springs ranged from 167 to 1,130 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius with a majority of values in the range of 500 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius.

  3. [Air Quality Characteristics in Beijing During Spring Festival in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nian-liang; Chen, Tian; Zhang, Da-wei; Li, Yun-ting; Sun, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Jia-lin; Liu, Bao-xian; Sun, Rui-wen

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the impacts of emissions from fireworks on the air quality, monitoring data of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 chemical compositions of PM2.5 of automatic air quality stations in Beijing during Spring Festival(February 18th-24th) in 2015 were investigated. Moreover, we also estimated the fireworks on the New Year's Eve produced based on the ratio of PM.5 to CO. Analysis results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 during 2015 Spring Festival was 116. 85, 184.71, 22. 14, and 36. 27 µg.m-3 respectively, which raised 52. 61%, 92. 41%, - 40. 15%, - 0.46% respectively compared to the same period in 2014; the concentration peaks of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 at 1 : 00 am on 19th was 412. 69, 541. 63, 152. 73, 51. 09 µg.m-3, respectively, which was increased 19. 02%, 14. 37%, 76. 57%, 11. 35% compared to that of 2014; the concentration peaks at dense population area were significantly higher than that in other districts; fireworks had great influence on the chemical compositions of PM2.5 especially on the concentrations of chloride ion, potassium ion, magnesian ion, which were 18. 85, 66. 72, and 70. 10 times than that in 2013-2014; fireworks resulted in severe air pollution in a short time and the estimated fireworks on the New Year's Eve was approximately 2. 13 x 10(5) kg of PM2.5. Reduction of pollutants during Spring Festival had a positive significant impact on air quality in Beijing.

  4. R&W Club Frederick Readies for Spring and Beyond | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer What do discounted Frederick Keys tickets, a wine tour of Frederick area vineyards, a Segway tour of Washington, DC, a summertime National Parks tour, and a special children’s Easter party have in common? All are activities that the Recreation & Welfare (R&W) Club Frederick is currently developing for spring 2013. At the first members meeting

  5. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing......-linear (second order) high frequency springing analyses with unidirectional wave excitation are much more scattered. Some of the reasons are different level of wave excitation accounted in the different Executive Summary ivtheories, inclusion of additional hydrodynamic phenomena e.g. slamming in the time...... because, to the author's knowledge, this is the first time that the wave data were collected simultaneously with stress records on the deck of the ship. This is highly appreciated because one can use the precise input and not only the most probable sea state statistics. The actual picture of the sea waves...

  6. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  7. Modelling Flat Spring performance using FEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatola, B O; Keogh, P; Hicks, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports how the stiffness of a Flat Spring can be predicted using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analysis of a Flat Spring is a nonlinear problem involving contact mechanics, geometric nonlinearity and material property nonlinearity. Research has been focused on improving the accuracy of the model by identifying and exploring the significant assumptions contributing to errors. This paper presents results from some of the models developed using FEA software. The validation process is shown to identify where improvements can be made to the model assumptions to increase the accuracy of prediction. The goal is to achieve an accuracy level of ±10 % as the intention is to replace practical testing with FEA modelling, thereby reducing the product development time and cost. Results from the FEA models are compared with experimental results to validate the accuracy.

  8. Fast Times During Spring Breaks: Are Traffic Fatalities Another Consequence?

    OpenAIRE

    French, Michael; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of college students travel for spring break, spending billions of dollars. We examine a potential adverse consequence of spring break that has received little attention in the literature - traffic safety. In particular, we estimate the impact of spring break season on fatal passenger vehicle crashes. Using daily county-level longitudinal data on traffic fatalities in popular spring break destinations from 1982-2011, we conduct separate analyses by age...

  9. The comparison of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in the water and sediment during spring and neap tide tidal periods in Popoh Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yona, D.; Febriana, R.; Handayani, M.

    2018-04-01

    This study attempted to investigate different concentration of lead (Pb) dan cadmium (Cd) in the water and sediment during spring and neap tidal periods in the Popoh Bay, Indonesia. Water and sediment samples were taken during spring and neap tides from eight sampling stations in the study area. The result shows higher concentration of Pb than the concentration of Cd in both spring and neap tides due to higher input of Pb from the oil pollution by boat and fisheries activities. Pb concentrations were doubled during neap tide in both water and sediments with the value of 0.51 and 0.28 ml/L in the water during neap and spring tide, respectively; and 0.27 ppm and 0.16 mg/kg in the sediment during neap and spring tide, respectively. On the other hand, Cd concentrations in the water were found in almost similar values between spring and neap tide (0.159 and 0.165 ml/L in spring tide and neap tide, respectively), but in the sediment, the concentration was a little higher during spring tide (0.09 and 0.05 mg/kg during spring and neap tide, respectively). This study shows that water movement during spring and neap tides has significant effect on the distribution of heavy metals.

  10. Geology and hydrology between Lake McMillan and Carlsbad Springs, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Edward Riley

    1967-01-01

    leakage from a reservoir at the Brantley site, the dam should be downstream from all sprints in the Major Johnson Springs area but upstream from a point where the river begin losing water to the Yates Formation.

  11. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 4, Spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Martin J. Peters, Jr. Calvin B. Kelley Art Direction Typography and Design Division Government Printing Office Joint Force Quarterly is published by...within larger organizations. For example, the concept 6 JFQ / Spring 1994 of the combined joint task force for Europe is designed to provide just such...or financial, may be the shared outcome for all parties to future conflicts. The image of war, shaped over centuries, is precise, graphic , and

  12. Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation

    CERN Document Server

    Winterflood, J; Blair, D G

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance.

  13. Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, J; Barber, T; Blair, D G

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance

  14. Recent results from LEPS at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, T.

    2004-01-01

    The polarized photon beam at SPring-8 is produced by backward-Compton scattering of laser photons from 8 GeV electrons. The maximum energy of the photon beam is 2.4 GeV which is above the ss-bar production threshold. We report the status of the facility and new results obtained by experiments with this high quality beam. (author)

  15. Estimating Spring Condensation on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Welp, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region provides opportunities for shipping, recreation, and consumptive water use to a large part of the United States and Canada. Water levels in the lakes fluctuate yearly, but attempts to model the system are inadequate because the water and energy budgets are still not fully understood. For example, water levels in the Great Lakes experienced a 15-year low period ending in 2013, the recovery of which has been attributed partially to decreased evaporation and increased precipitation and runoff. Unlike precipitation, the exchange of water vapor between the lake and the atmosphere through evaporation or condensation is difficult to measure directly. However, estimates have been constructed using off-shore eddy covariance direct measurements of latent heat fluxes, remote sensing observations, and a small network of monitoring buoys. When the lake surface temperature is colder than air temperature as it is in spring, condensation is larger than evaporation. This is a relatively small component of the net annual water budget of the lakes, but the total amount of condensation may be important for seasonal energy fluxes and atmospheric deposition of pollutants and nutrients to the lakes. Seasonal energy fluxes determine, and are influenced by, ice cover, water and air temperatures, and evaporation in the Great Lakes. We aim to quantify the amount of spring condensation on the Great Lakes using the National Center for Atmospheric Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP NARR) Data for Winter 2013 to Spring 2017 and compare the condensation values of spring seasons following high volume, high duration and low volume, low duration ice cover.

  16. School in nature from spring to winter

    OpenAIRE

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  17. Environmental quality assessment of cold water stream spring in urban perimeter of Codo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana dos Santos Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of planning, accelerated and uncontrolled growth of Brazilian cities, has triggered a series of impacts in the aquatic ecosystems, including the degradation of springs. This study evaluated the macroscopic shape of the nascent state of cold water creek conservation in the urban area of Codo City, Maranhao State, by applying the Headwaters Environmental Impact Index (IIAN during the visit in the field. The spring is located in New Jerusalem neighborhood, with a poor degree of protection, with main macroscopic impact in degraded vegetation, easy access and the approach of urban facilities.

  18. CiSE: a circular spring embedder layout algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrusoz, Ugur; Belviranli, Mehmet E; Dilek, Alptug

    2013-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic layout of clustered graphs using a circular style. The algorithm tries to determine optimal location and orientation of individual clusters intrinsically within a modified spring embedder. Heuristics such as reversal of the order of nodes in a cluster and swap of neighboring node pairs in the same cluster are employed intermittently to further relax the spring embedder system, resulting in reduced inter-cluster edge crossings. Unlike other algorithms generating circular drawings, our algorithm does not require the quotient graph to be acyclic, nor does it sacrifice the edge crossing number of individual clusters to improve respective positioning of the clusters. Moreover, it reduces the total area required by a cluster by using the space inside the associated circle. Experimental results show that the execution time and quality of the produced drawings with respect to commonly accepted layout criteria are quite satisfactory, surpassing previous algorithms. The algorithm has also been successfully implemented and made publicly available as part of a compound and clustered graph editing and layout tool named CHISIO.

  19. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source

  20. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

  1. Can Growing Degree Days and Photoperiod Predict Spring Wheat Phenology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Aslam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum production in the rainfed area of Pothwar Pakistan is extremely vulnerable to high temperature. The expected increase in temperature due to global warming should result in shorter crop life cycles, and thus lower biomass and grain yield. Two major factors control wheat phenological development: temperature and photoperiod. To evaluate wheat development in response to these factors, we conducted experiments that created diverse temperature and daylength conditions by adjusting the crop sowing time. The study was conducted during 2013–14 and 2014–15 using five spring wheat genotypes, four sowing times, at three sites under rainfed management in Pothwar, Pakistan. Wheat crops experienced more cold days with early sowing, but later sowing dates resulted in higher temperatures, especially from anthesis to maturity. These treatments produced large differences in phenology, biomass production, and yield. To investigate whether growing degree days (GDD and photoperiod algorithms could predict wheat phenology under these changing conditions, GDD was calculated based on the method proposed by Wang and Engel while photoperiod followed the approach introduced in the APSIM crop growth model. GDD was calculated separately and in combination with photoperiod from germination to anthesis. For the grain filling period, only GDD was calculated. The observed and predicted number of days to anthesis and maturity were in good agreement, showing that the combination of GDD and photoperiod algorithms provided good estimations of spring wheat phenology under variable temperature and daylength conditions.

  2. Natural Radioactivity of Thermal Springs in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.; Cesar, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia is rich in thermal and mineral springs, which are widely popular for medical therapy, tourism, recreation, rehabilitation and drinking. Considering the popularity of the spas and the habits of our population to use the beneficial effects of these springs it is of interest to estimate the radiation doses received by patients or tourists staying in the spas. In view of this, the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb has been engaged in a research programme dealing with the natural radioactivity concentration in the Croatian thermal and mineral waters. The aim of this paper was to estimate total natural radioactivity (Ra, Ra decay) in thermal and mineral waters from the several spas in Croatia. On basis of the obtained data the Ra and Ra activity ratio was calculated for each investigated spa. In this study possible effects of natural radioactivity were determined for each radionuclide using a derived concentration (DC) for a group of individuals for municipal drinking water supplies. Values exceeding DC represent radionuclide concentrations for radioactive waste. Total percentage ratio for each spring was also calculated. Since natural radioactivity in some spas exceeds DC value the practise of using these waters should be regularly estimated and monitored in order to avoid any possible health effects. (author)

  3. Microbiology of Kamchatka Peninsula Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonch-Osmolovsk, E.

    2005-12-01

    Hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Geyser Valley, Moutnovsky Volcano (Kamchatka Peninsula) served as the sources of isolation of numerous thermophilic prokaryotes, many of them representing new taxa. Among new isolates there were hyperthermophilic archaea - neutrophilic or acidophilic anaerobic organotrophs, able to use a wide range of polymeric organic substrates. Bacterial isolates were in majority represented by moderate thermophiles - organotrophs and lithoautotrophs. Latter group consisted of anaerobes oxidizing molecular hydrogen in the course of sulfate, sulfur or iron reduction, and of anaerobic CO-oxidizing, hydrogen-producing bacteria. Some of new isolates represented deep phylogenetic lineages in Bacteria domain. Microbial activity in Kamchatka hot springs was studied by means of radioisotopic tracing. The rates of methanogenesis, acetogenesis, inorganic carbon assimilation, acetate oxidation were determined in three different hot springs with pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.5 and water temeperature being in the range from 55 to 85oC. The results indicated the presence and activity of novel metabolic groups of thermophilic prokaryotes that so far have not been known in laboratory cultures.

  4. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  5. Flow-induced vibration of helical coil compression springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, F.E.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Helical coil compression springs are used in some nuclear fuel assembly designs to maintain holddown and to accommodate thermal expansion. In the reactor environment, the springs are exposed to flowing water, elevated temperatures and pressures, and irradiation. Flow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the spring may excite the spring coils and cause vibration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the flow-induced vibration (FIV) response characteristics of the helical coil compression springs. Experimental tests indicate that a helical coil spring responds like a single circular cylinder in cross-flow. Two FIV excitation mechanisms control spring vibration. Namely: 1) Turbulent Buffeting causes small amplitude vibration which increases as a function of velocity squared. 2) Vortex Shedding causes large amplitude vibration when the spring natural frequency and Strouhal frequency coincide. Several methods can be used to reduce or to prevent vortex shedding large amplitude vibrations. One method is compressing the spring to a coil pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2 thereby suppressing the vibration amplitude. Another involves modifying the spring geometry to alter its stiffness and frequency characteristics. These changes result in separation of the natural and Strouhal frequencies. With an understanding of how springs respond in the flowing water environment, the spring physical parameters can be designed to avoid large amplitude vibration. (orig.)

  6. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year

  7. Assessment of sulfurous springs in the west of Iraq for balneotherapy, drinking, irrigation and aquaculture purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh, Salih Muhammad; Al-Ghani, Sura Abdul

    2014-06-01

    This research deals with the sulfurous spring waters flow along the course of the Euphrates River in western Iraq in the area extended between Haqlaniya and Hit within the Al-Anbar governorate. Eleven springs (3 in Haqlanya, 4 in Kubaysa and 4 in Hit) have been addressed for the purpose of water evaluation for balneology, drinking, irrigation and aquaculture (fish farming). In order to meet the objectives of this research, all springs were sampled and analyzed for the total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, major cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+) and K(+)), major anions (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-) and CO(3)(2-)), minor anions (PO(4)(3-)and NO(3)(-)) as well as the trace elements that included Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cu, Br, F, Ba, B, Sr, Al, As, Cr, Hg and Se. The International Standards of World Health Organization are used for assessing the water quality. The results revealed that the springs belong to the tepid springs of 27-30 °C and classified as hypothermal to the thermal springs. Lithochemistry and geochemical processes clearly affected the water chemistry. The hydrogeochemical processes are responsible for the element enrichment in water by the chemical dissolution of carbonate and gypsum and evaporation as well. The results of the study indicate the possibility of using spring water for therapeutic purposes, but not allowed for drinking and aquaculture (fish farming), except those free of H(2)S gas. On the other hand, it can be used for irrigation with risk. However, soil type as well as proper selection of plants should be taken into consideration.

  8. Streamlined RI/FS planning for the groundwater operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picel, M.H.; Durham, L.A.; Blunt, D.L.; Hartmann, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis and 22 km (14 mi) southwest of the City of St. Charles. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission during the 1950s and 1960s. The Army also used the chemical plant area for the production of explosives in the 1940s. The Weldon Spring Site chemical plant area was listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Adjacent to the chemical plant area is another NPL site known as the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works. The ordnance works area is a former explosive production facility that manufactured trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) during World War II. The ordnance works area covers 7,000 ha (17,232 acres); cleanup of this site is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE)

  9. Investigation of the mineral potential of the Clipper Gap, Lone Mountain-Weepah, and Pipe Spring plutons, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingley, J.V.; Maldonado, F.

    1983-01-01

    The Clipper Gap pluton, composed mostly of quartz monzonite with minor granite, granodiorite, and crosscutting alaskite dikes, intrudes Paleozoic western facies strata. A narrow zone of contact metamorphism is present at the intrusive-sediment contact. No mineral production has been recorded from Clipper Gap, but quartz veins containing gold-silver-copper mineral occurrences have been prospected there from the late 1800's to the present. Areas of the Lone Mountain-Weepah plutons that were studied are located in Esmeralda County about 14 km west of Tonopah, Nevada. At Lone Mountain, a Cretaceous intrusive cuts folded Precambrian and Cambrian sediments. Lead-zinc ores have been mined from small replacement ore bodies in the Alpine district, west of Lone Mountain. Copper and molybdenum occurrences have been found along the east flank of Lone Mountain, and altered areas were noted in intrusive outcrops around the south end of Lone Mountain. Mineral occurrences are widespread and varied with mining activity dating back to the 1860's. The Pipe Spring pluton study area is flanked by two important mining districts, Manhattan to the north and Belmont to the northeast. Mining activity at Belmont dates from 1865. Activity at Manhattan was mainly between 1907 and 1947, but the district is active at the present time (1979). Four smaller mining areas, Monarch, Spanish Springs, Baxter Spring, and Willow Springs, are within the general boundary of the area. The Pipe Spring pluton study area contains numerous prospects along the northern contact zone of the pluton. Tungsten-bearing veins occur within the pluton near Spanish Springs, with potential for gold-tungsten placer in the Ralston Valley. Nickel and associated metals occur at Willow Spring and Monarch Ranch, where prospects may be associated with the margin of the Big Ten Peak Caldera

  10. Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jones, A. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-26

    This report explores the correlation between energy efficiency and the business success of home builders by examining a data set of builders and homes in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, market between 2006 and 2014. During this time, the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009 occurred, and new-home sales plummeted both nationally and in Colorado Springs. What is evident from an analysis of builders and homes in Colorado Springs is that builders who had Home Energy Rating System (HERS) ratings performed on some or all of their homes during the Recession remained in business during this challenging economic period. Many builders who did not have HERS ratings performed on their homes at that time went out of business or left the area. From the analysis presented in this report, it is evident that a correlation exists between energy efficiency and the business success of home builders, although the reasons for this correlation remain largely anecdotal and not yet clearly understood.

  11. Flat magnetic exchange springs as mechanism for additional magnetoresistance in magnetic nanoisland arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltaev, A.P.; Pudonin, F.A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sherstnev, I.A., E-mail: sherstnev@lebedev.ru [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Egorov, D.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozmin, A.M. [National Research University of Electronic Technology, Shokin Square, 1, Zelenograd, 124482 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Process of magnetization and magnetoresistance have been studied in nanoisland bilayer systems of FeNi-Co. Hysteresis loops show characteristic features (steps) most clearly observed in certain orientations of the sample in a magnetic field. To explain these features the concept of flat magnetic exchange spring has been introduced for nanoisland bilayers. It has been proposed that additional magnetoresistance can be the result of spin-dependent scattering of electrons in the area of flat magnetic exchange spring. Magnetoresistance studies of bilayer systems has shown that additional magnetoresistance occurs at the same magnetic fields as steps on hysteresis loops. - Highlights: • Metallic FeNi-Co bilayers are studied. • FeNi and Co layers magnetize independently. • Concept of flat spin spring is proposed. • Additional magnetoresistance occurs in intermediate magnetic fields.

  12. Local temperature fine-tunes the timing of spring migration in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P.; Rainio, Kalle; Coppack, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    and predict consequences of climatic change for migratory birds. In order to better understand migration phenology and adaptation in environmental changes, we here assess the scale at which weather affects timing of spring migration in passerine birds. We use three commonly used proxies of spring......-time climatic conditions: (1) vegetation "greenness" (NDVI) in Europe, (2) local spring temperatures in northern Europe, and (3) the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) as predictors of the phenology of avian migration as well as the strength of their effect on different subsets of populations...... breeding area. Local temperature was the best single predictor of phenology with the highest explanatory power achieved in combination with NAO. Furthermore, early individuals are more affected by climatic variation compared to individuals on later passage, indicating that climatic change affects subsets...

  13. Flat magnetic exchange springs as mechanism for additional magnetoresistance in magnetic nanoisland arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltaev, A.P.; Pudonin, F.A.; Sherstnev, I.A.; Egorov, D.A.; Kozmin, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Process of magnetization and magnetoresistance have been studied in nanoisland bilayer systems of FeNi-Co. Hysteresis loops show characteristic features (steps) most clearly observed in certain orientations of the sample in a magnetic field. To explain these features the concept of flat magnetic exchange spring has been introduced for nanoisland bilayers. It has been proposed that additional magnetoresistance can be the result of spin-dependent scattering of electrons in the area of flat magnetic exchange spring. Magnetoresistance studies of bilayer systems has shown that additional magnetoresistance occurs at the same magnetic fields as steps on hysteresis loops. - Highlights: • Metallic FeNi-Co bilayers are studied. • FeNi and Co layers magnetize independently. • Concept of flat spin spring is proposed. • Additional magnetoresistance occurs in intermediate magnetic fields.

  14. A Geological and Geophysical Study of the Geothermal Energy Potential of Pilgrim Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    The Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located about 75 km north of Nome, was the subject of an intensive, reconnaissance-level geophysical and geological study during a 90-day period in the summer of 1979. The thermal springs are located in a northeast-oriented, oval area of thawed ground approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} in size, bordered on the north by the Pilgrim River. A second, much smaller, thermal anomaly was discovered about 3 km northeast of the main thawed area. Continuous permafrost in the surrounding region is on the order of 100 m thick. Present surface thermal spring discharge is {approx} 4.2 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 3} s{sup -1} (67 gallons/minute) of alkali-chloride-type water at a temperature of 81 C. The reason for its high salinity is not yet understood because of conflicting evidence for seawater vs. other possible water sources. Preliminary Na-K-Ca geothermometry suggests deep reservoir temperatures approaching 150 C, but interpretation of these results is difficult because of their dependence on an unknown water mixing history. Based on these estimates, and present surface and drill hole water temperatures, Pilgrim Springs would be classified as an intermediate-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system.

  15. Thermal algae in certain radioactive springs in Japan, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mifune, Masaaki; Hirose, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Shikano Hot Springs are located at five km to the south of Hamamura Station on the Sanin Line in Tottori Prefecture. The water temperature and the pH of the springs are 40.2 - 61.2 0 C, and 7.5 - 7.8, respectively. They belong to simple thermals. Hamamura Hot Springs are located in the neighbourhood of Hamamura Station. The highest radon content of the hot springs is 175.1 x 10 -10 Ci/l, and the great part of the springs belong to radioactive ones. From the viewpoint of the major ionic constituents, they are also classified under weak salt springs, sulfated salt springs, and simple thermals. Regarding the habitates of the algal flora, the water temperature and the pH of the springs are 28.0 - 68.0 0 C, and 6.8 - 7.4, respectively. The thermal algae found by Ikoma and Doi at Hamamura Hot Springs were two species of Cyanophyceae. By the authors, nine species and one variety of Cyanophyceae including Ikoma and Doi's two species were newly found at Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs. Chlorophyceous alga was not found. The dominant thermal algae of these hot springs were Mastigocladus laminosus, and the other algae which mainly consist of Oscillatoriaceous algae. From these points, it seems that the thermal algae of Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs belong to the normal type of thermal algae, and they are different from the thermal algae of Ikeda Mineral Springs and Masutomi Hot Springs which belong to strongly radioactive springs. (author)

  16. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  17. Utilization of Indonesia's Hot Spring Sources for Electricity using Kalina Cycle and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabumukti, Grano; Purwanto; Widodo, Wahyu

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia posses 40% of the world's geothermal energy sources. The existence of hydrothermal sources is usually characterized by their surface manifestations such as hot springs, geysers and fumarole. Hot spring has a potential to be used as a heat source to generate electricity especially in a rural and isolated area. Hot springs can be converted into electricity by binary thermodynamic cycles such as Kalina cycle and ORC. The aim of this study is to obtain the best performances of cycle configuration and the potential power capacity. Simulation is conducted using UNISIM software with working fluid and its operating condition as the decision variables. The simulation result shows that R1234yf and propene with simple ORC as desired working fluid and cycle configuration. It reaches a maximum thermal efficiency up to 9.6% with a specific turbine inlet pressure. Higher temperature heat source will result a higher thermal efficiency‥ Cycle thermal efficiency varies from 4.7% to 9.6% depends on source of hot spring temperature. Power capacity that can be generated using Indonesia's hot spring is ranged from 2 kWe to 61.2 kWe. The highest capacity located in Kawah Sirung and the least located in Kaendi.

  18. Nitrate concentration in spring water at the Nogawa basin and its possible source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Norio

    1978-01-01

    Fluctuation of nitrate concentration in spring water at the Nogawa basin was studied during 1976 - 1977, and the possible source of nitrate nitrogen was discussed. Nitrate concentration in spring water at the station N-O in Kokubunji, Tokyo ranged from 360 to 574 μg at/l with an average value of 502 μg at/l. It seemed that the effluent of spring water at N-O was influenced by rainfall within a short period. A laboratory experiment on production of nitrate in soil showed that ammonium nitrogen added to fresh soil was transformed quantitatively to nitrate nitrogen during 23 days incubation. Thd sup(delta15)N value of nitrate nitrogen in spring water (+0.89%) was similar to that of ammonium nitrogen in sewage (+0.82%) discharging into the Nogawa River. In the area near N-O, domestic wastes have been discharged into the Nogawa River by simple sewers or percolated downward through the soil. These results suggest that one of the main source of nitrate nitrogen in spring water is ammonium and organic nitrogen in domestic wastes. (author)

  19. Effects of spring conditions on breeding propensity of Greater Snow Goose females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed, E. T.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding propensity, defined as the probability that a sexually mature adult will breed in a given year, is an important determinant of annual productivity. It is also one of the least known demographic parameters in vertebrates. We studied the relationship between breeding propensity and conditions on spring staging areas (a spring conservation hunt and the breeding grounds (spring snow cover in Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica, a long distance migrant that breeds in the High Arctic. We combined information from mark–recapture, telemetry, and nest survey data to estimate breeding propensity over a 7– year period. True temporal variation in breeding propensity was considerable (mean: 0.574 [95% CI considering only process variation: 0.13 to 1.0]. Spring snow cover was negatively related to breeding propensity (bsnow=-2,05 ± 0,96 SE and tended to be reduced in years with a spring hunt (b = -0,78 ± 0,35. Nest densities on the breeding colony and fall ratios of young:adults were good indices of annual variation in breeding propensity, with nest densities being slightly more precise. These results suggest that conditions encountered during the pre-breeding period can have a significant impact on productivity of Arctic-nesting birds

  20. Variation of phytoplankton biomass and primary production in Daya Bay during spring and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xingyu; Huang Liangmin; Zhang Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang Junbin; Yin Jianqiang; Tan Yehui; Liu Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors, phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) and primary production of two water areas in Daya Bay (Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay) were investigated during the transition period from spring to summer. Chl a ranged from 3.20 to 13.62 and 13.43 to 26.49 mg m -3 in Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay respectively, if data obtained during red tides are excluded. Primary production varied between 239.7 and 1001.4 mgC m -2 d -1 in Dapeng'ao Bay. The regional distribution of Chl a and primary production were mostly consistent from spring to summer in both bays. Seasonal transition characters have been found in Daya Bay from spring to summer, including high values of DO, nitrate and silicate. Size structures of phytoplankton and its primary production do not change very much from spring to summer, with micro-phytoplankton dominating and contributing about 50% of the whole. In Daya Bay, phytoplankton is limited by nitrogen in spring, and by phosphate in summer. Artificial impacts are evident from high temperature effluent from nuclear power stations, aquaculture and sewage. During the investigation, a red tide occurred in Aotou Bay, with a maximum Chl a of 103.23 mg m -3 at surface and primary production of 2721.9 mgC m -2 d -1 in the red tide center. Raised water temperature and nutrient supply from land-sources help to stimulate annual red tides

  1. Diversity and Distribution of Thermophilic Bacteria in Hot Springs of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Salam, Nimaichand; Kim, Byung-Yong; Singh, Dharmesh; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Chilas and Hunza areas, located in the Main Mantle Thrust and Main Karakoram Thrust of the Himalayas, host a range of geochemically diverse hot springs. This Himalayan geothermal region encompassed hot springs ranging in temperature from 60 to 95 °C, in pH from 6.2 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from bicarbonates (Tato Field), sulfates (Tatta Pani) to mixed type (Murtazaabad). Microbial community structures in these geothermal springs remained largely unexplored to date. In this study, we report a comprehensive, culture-independent survey of microbial communities in nine samples from these geothermal fields by employing a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique. The bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominant in all samples from Tato Field, Tatta Pani, and Murtazaabad. The community structures however depended on temperature, pH, and physicochemical parameters of the geothermal sites. The Murtazaabad hot springs with relatively higher temperature (90-95 °C) favored the growth of phylum Thermotogae, whereas the Tatta Pani thermal spring site TP-H3-b (60 °C) favored the phylum Proteobacteria. At sites with low silica and high temperature, OTUs belonging to phylum Chloroflexi were dominant. Deep water areas of the Murtazaabad hot springs favored the sulfur-reducing bacteria. About 40% of the total OTUs obtained from these samples were unclassified or uncharacterized, suggesting the presence of many undiscovered and unexplored microbiota. This study has provided novel insights into the nature of ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities, which in turn will help in determining future study courses in these sites.

  2. Online analysis: Deeper insights into water quality dynamics in spring water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rebecca M; Besmer, Michael D; Epting, Jannis; Sigrist, Jürg A; Hammes, Frederik; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the dynamics of water quality in three karst springs taking advantage of new technological developments that enable high-resolution measurements of bacterial load (total cell concentration: TCC) as well as online measurements of abiotic parameters. We developed a novel data analysis approach, using self-organizing maps and non-linear projection methods, to approximate the TCC dynamics using the multivariate data sets of abiotic parameter time-series, thus providing a method that could be implemented in an online water quality management system for water suppliers. The (TCC) data, obtained over several months, provided a good basis to study the microbiological dynamics in detail. Alongside the TCC measurements, online abiotic parameter time-series, including spring discharge, turbidity, spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) and electrical conductivity, were obtained. High-density sampling over an extended period of time, i.e. every 45min for 3months, allowed a detailed analysis of the dynamics in karst spring water quality. Substantial increases in both the TCC and the abiotic parameters followed precipitation events in the catchment area. Differences between the parameter fluctuations were only apparent when analyzed at a high temporal scale. Spring discharge was always the first to react to precipitation events in the catchment area. Lag times between the onset of precipitation and a change in discharge varied between 0.2 and 6.7h, depending on the spring and event. TCC mostly reacted second or approximately concurrent with turbidity and SAC254, whereby the fastest observed reaction in the TCC time series occurred after 2.3h. The methodological approach described here enables a better understanding of bacterial dynamics in karst springs, which can be used to estimate risks and management options to avoid contamination of the drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrograph monitoring and analysis for sustainable karst water management in Nyadeng Spring, East Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, M.; Fatchurohman, H.; Fathoni, W. A.; Hakim, A. A.; Haryono, E.

    2018-04-01

    Karst aquifer stores abundant water resources within its matrix, conduits, and intergranular pores. Karst aquifer plays an important role in providing water supply, especially in the areas nearby that commonly dry and lack of surface water resources. Karst spring hydrograph analysis is very fundamental step to–assess and determines the condition of the catchment area in karst terrain. Recession curve is believed to be the most stable part in single flood hydrograph that represents the aquifer characteristics. Nyadeng is one of the most significant karst springs that located in Merabu Karst Area, East Borneo. Villagers in Merabu highly depend on Nyadeng Spring for fulfilled their freshwater need. Hydrograph monitoring has been initiated for one year in Nyadeng Spring as a preliminary action for karst water management in Merabu. Water level data series obtained using automatic water level data logger and then correlated with manual discharge measurement to generate stage-discharge rating curve. The stage-discharge rating curve formula for Nyadeng Spring calculated as y = 0,0102e5,8547x with r2 value = 0.8759. From the combination of several single flood events, Master Recession Curve (MRC) was generated to determine flow regime as the main consideration for karstification degree calculation. From the MRC result, flow regimes formula determined as Qt = 3.2-0.001t + 1.2(1-0.012t)+1.6(1-0.035t) indicated that one sub-regime with laminar flow and two sub-regimes with turbulent flow existed. From the MRC formula, the degree of karstification in Nyadeng Spring classified at seventh scale (developed karstification of the aquifer) based on Malik’s karstification degree (2012). The degree of karstification in Nyadeng Spring indicates that the aquifer formed by large conduit channels, fissures, and macro fissures which are able to provide significant water sources that can be utilized for multi purposes. Therefore, it is concluded that spring hydrograph monitoring provide

  4. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (Kangding-Litang-Batang geothermal belt. Cluster analysis and factor analysis are employed to character the hydrochemical properties of hot springs in different fault zones and the possible hydrochemical evolution processes of these hot springs. Our study shows that the hot springs can be divided into three groups based on their locations. The hot springs in the first group mainly originate from the volcanic rock and the springs in the second group originate from the metamorphic rock while the springs in the third group originate from the result of mixture of shallow water. Water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and the water environment are the three dominant factors that control the hydrochemical evolution process in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. These results are also in well agreement with the isotopic and chemical analysis.

  5. Temporal change of SF6 age in spring during rainstorms in a forested headwater catchment, Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Iwagami, Sho; Sato, Yutaro; Nagano, Kosuke

    2017-04-01

    Time variant water age in catchments can fundamentally describe catchment function, controlling rainfall-runoff generation, groundwater flow pathway, and water storage. We observed sulfur hexafluoride concentration in the stream and groundwater with 1 - 2 hours interval during rainstorm events in order to reveal temporal variations of rainfall-runoff water age. Target's spring is perennial in a forested headwater catchment with an area of 0.045 square km, Fukushima, Japan. The observed hydrological data and tracer data of water in the catchment (stable isotopic compositions, inorganic solute concentrations) were used for clarifying rainfall-runoff processes related to water age variances. The storm hydrograph and groundwater table clearly responded to rainfall especially with more than 30 mm per day throughout the monitoring period (May 2015 - October 2016). Large variations of SF6 age in spring ranging from zero to 14 years were found in the short period during rainstorms. In particular, the SF6 age in spring was evidently old when the runoff was over 2 mm per day. At the high runoff condition, the SF6 age in spring positively correlated with discharge rate: the spring age became older as the discharge rate increased. With regard to spatial distributions of SF6 age in groundwater, the old groundwater age (9 - 13 years) in the shallow subsurface area along the valley was confirmed after heavy rainfall. This groundwater age was similar age to the deep groundwater at no-rainfall conditions. In addition, inorganic solute concentrations such as chloride ion, sodium ion, and silica in spring water showed dominant levels in the deep and ridge groundwater. All facts suggest that the old groundwater, stored in the ridge or deeper subsurface area, replaced the shallow groundwater in the vicinity of the spring due to heavy rainfall, then it contributed to the spring discharge. Therefore, rainstorm events play important roles as triggers for discharging older water stored in

  6. Top Nozzle Holddown Spring Optimization of KSNP Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Ki; Park, Nam Kyu; Kim, Hyeong Koo; Lee, Joon Ro; Kim, Jae Won

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear fuel assembly for Korea Standard Nuclear Power (KSNP) Plant has 4 helical compression springs at the upper end of it. The springs, in conjunction with the fuel assembly weight, apply a holddown force against excess of buoyancy forces and the upward hydraulic forces due to the reactor coolant flow. Thus the holddown spring is to be designed such that the positive net downward force will be maintained for all normal and anticipated transient flow and temperature conditions in the nuclear reactor. With satisfying these in-reactor requirements of the fuel assembly holddown spring. Under the assumption that spring density is constant, the volume nozzle holddown spring. Under the assumption that spring density is constant, the volume minimization is executed by using the design variables, viz., wire diameter, mean coil diameter, minimization is executed by using the design variables, viz., wire diameter, mean coil diameter are within the compatible range of the fuel assembly structural components. Based on these conditions, the optimum design of the holddown spring is obtained considering the reactor operating condition and by using ANSYS code. The optimized spring has the properties that are a decreased volume and increased stiffness, compared with the existing one even if the absolute values are very similar each other. The holddown spring design features and the algorithm developed in this study could be directly applicable to the current commercial production. Therefore, it could be used to enhance the design efficiency and the functional performance of the spring, and to reduce a material cost a little

  7. Shape modification for decreasing the spring stiffness of double-plate nozzle type spacer grid spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. H.; Kang, H. S.; Song, K. N.; Yun, K. H.; Kim, H. K.

    2001-01-01

    Nozzle of the double-plated grid plays the role of the spirng to support a fuel rod as well as the coolant path in grid. The nozzle was known to be necessary to reduce the spring stiffness for supporting performance. In this study, the contact analysis between the fuel rod and the newly designed nozzle was performed by ABAQUS computer code to propose the preferable shape in term of spring performance. Two small cut at the upper and lower part of the nozzle appeared to have a minor effect in decreasing the nozzle stiffness. A long slot at the center of the nozzle was turned out not only to decrease the spring constant as desired but also to increase the elastic displacement

  8. Characteristics Analysis and Testing of SMA Spring Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzuo Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biasing form two-way shape memory alloy (SMA actuator composed of SMA spring and steel spring is analyzed. Based on the force equilibrium equation, the relationship between load capacity of SMA spring and geometric parameters is established. In order to obtain the characteristics of SMA spring actuator, the output force and output displacement of SMA spring under different temperatures are analyzed by the theoretical model and the experimental method. Based on the shape memory effect of SMA, the relationship of the SMA spring actuator's output displacement with the temperature, the stress and strain, the material parameters, and the size parameters is established. The results indicate that the trend of theoretical results is basically consistent with the experimental data. The output displacement of SMA spring actuator is increased with the increasing temperature.

  9. Stiffness and design for strength of trapezoidal Belleville springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    2011-01-01

    in this paper. Finite element results are compared with analytical predictions and critically analysed in terms of the effect of Poisson ratio, overall stiffness, and stress distribution in the spring. This is done in order to verify the range of validity of design standards. Finite element analysis emerges......Belleville springs or coned disc springs are commonly used in machine design. The geometric dimensions of the spring and the determination of non-linear force–displacement curve are regulated by different standards. However, the theory behind Belleville spring design standards is founded on a study...... published in 1936. Furthermore, the common spring design with cross-sections of uniform thickness poses problems in terms of non-uniformity of stress distribution. In view of this, non-linear three-dimensional finite element analyses of spring designs including uniform or variable thickness are carried out...

  10. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near Tassi and Pakoon Springs, western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Tassi and Pakoon Springs are both in the Grand Wash Trough in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument on the Arizona Strip. The monument is jointly managed by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Bureau of Land Management. This study was in response to NPS’s need to better understand the influence from regional increases in groundwater withdrawals near Grand Canyon-Parashant on the groundwater discharge from Tassi and Pakoon Springs. The climate of the Arizona Strip is generally semiarid to arid, and springs in the monument provide the water for the fragile ecosystems that are commonly separated by large areas of dry washes in canyons with pinyon and juniper. Available hydrogeologic data from previous investigations included water levels from the few existing wells, location information for springs, water chemistry from springs, and geologic maps. Available groundwater-elevation data from the wells and springs in the monument indicate that groundwater in the Grand Wash Trough is moving from north to south, discharging to springs and into the Colorado River. Groundwater may also be moving from east to west from Paleozoic rocks in the Grand Wash Cliffs into sedimentary deposits in the Grand Wash Trough. Finally, groundwater may be moving from the northwest in the Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks of the Virgin Mountains into the northern part of the Grand Wash Trough. Water discharging from Tassi and Pakoon Springs has a major-ion chemistry similar to that of other springs in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant. Stable-isotopic signatures for oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2 are depleted in the water from both Tassi and Pakoon Springs in comparison to other springs on the Arizona Strip. Tassi Spring discharges from multiple seeps along the Wheeler Fault, and the depleted isotopic signatures suggest that water may be flowing from multiple places into Lake Mead and seems to have a higher elevation or an older climate source. Elevated water

  11. seward_ak_8sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. seward_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  15. Proceedings of the KNS spring meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of 2004 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 27-28, 2004 in Gyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 10 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: reactor physics and nuclear reactor design, thermodynamics and fluid flow, reactor operation and control, reactor safety, reactor fuels and nuclear materials, fuel cycle and waste management, radiation protection, nuclear fusion and laser technology, fuel cycle and waste management, nuclear fuel and nuclear materials, radiation protection, radiation application, life time management and decontamination, nuclear structure, nuclear beam application and nuclear fusion, nuclear policy. (Yi, J. H.)

  16. Proceedings of the KNS spring meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of 2003 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 29-30, 2003 in Gyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 12 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: reactor physics and nuclear reactor design, reactor operation and control, thermodynamics and fluid flow, reactor safety, reactor fuels and nuclear materials, fuel cycle and waste management, radiation protection, nuclear fusion and laser technology, fuel cycle and waste management, nuclear fuel and nuclear materials, radiation protection, radiation application, life time management and decontamination, nuclear structure, nuclear physics and nuclear fusion, nuclear policy. (Yi, J. H.)

  17. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  18. Novosadski golozrni, a spring oat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The naked oat variety Novosadski golozrni was developed from a cross between the variety Adam and a spring-type naked oat line from Canada. The variety is early, medium tall, with excellent resistance to lodging. The yield of Novosadski golozrni is 30-40% lower than that of the hulled standard and it is to the largest measure dependent on the interaction variety x year x location. The variety has high contents of proteins and fats (19.2% DM and 6.2% DM, respectively and a low cellulose content (2.8% DM. .

  19. South Atlantic Humanities Center Seminars -- Spring 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The South Atlantic Humanities Center (SAHC) at Virginia Tech is sponsoring several seminars this spring.•À_•À_ SAHC is a partnership of the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Virginia Tech, and the University of Virginia.•À_•À_ SAHC focuses on the U.S. South Atlantic from a regional and transatlantic perspective. It explores and preserves the rich heritage of a region stretching from Virginia to the Virgin Islands.•À_•À_ It engages artists and performers, writers and filmmakers, teachers...

  20. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  1. The United States and the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kivimäki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals, by studying correlative relationships between US regime support and regime properties, that the US foreign policy in the Middle East has traditionally helped governments to limit the political participation of Islamists, communists, enemies of Israel and populations that could be hostile to the US oil interests. This way the US economic and strategic security interests have contributed to human insecurity in the region. With the exception of the last interest, the US has relaxed its support for repression of the above-mentioned groups. This seems to be one of the international factors that made the Arab Spring possible.

  2. Getting started with Spring Framework a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, J

    2016-01-01

    Getting started with Spring Framework is a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework. The examples (consisting of 74 sample projects) that accompany this book are based on Spring 4.3 and Java 8. You can download the examples described in this book from the following GitHub project:github.com/getting-started-with-spring/3rdEdition This book is meant for Java developers with little or no knowledge of Spring Framework. Getting started with Spring Framework, Third Edition has been updated to reflect changes in Spring 4.3 and also includes new chapters on Java-based configuration and Spring Data (covers Spring Data JPA and Spring Data MongoDB projects). The existing chapters have been revised to include information on Java-based configuration. The book also includes some new information on bean definition profiles, importing application context XML files, lazy autowiring, creating custom qualifier annotations, JSR 349 annotations, spring-messaging module, Java 8's Optional type, and s...

  3. Hydroclimate of the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Flint, Alan L.; Damar, Nancy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Hurja, James

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration often are used to characterize the hydroclimate of a region. Quantification of these parameters in mountainous terrains is difficult because limited access often hampers the collection of representative ground data. To fulfill a need to characterize ecological zones in the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range of southern Nevada, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of these hydroclimatic parameters are determined from remote-sensing and model-based methodologies. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation estimates for this area ranges from about 100 millimeters (mm) in the low elevations of the study area (700 meters [m]) to more than 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains (> 2,800 m). The PRISM model underestimates precipitation by 7–15 percent based on a comparison with four high‑elevation precipitation gages having more than 20 years of record. Precipitation at 3,000-m elevation is 50 percent greater in the Spring Mountains than in the Sheep Range. The lesser amount of precipitation in the Sheep Range is attributed to partial moisture depletion by the Spring Mountains of eastward-moving, cool-season (October–April) storms. Cool-season storms account for 66–76 percent of annual precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the Basin Characterization Model range from about 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains to 1,600 mm in the low elevations of the study area. The model realistically simulates lower potential evapotranspiration on northeast-to-northwest facing slopes compared to adjacent southeast-to-southwest facing slopes. Actual evapotranspiration, estimated using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based water-balance model, ranges from about 100 to 600 mm. The magnitude and spatial variation of simulated, actual evapotranspiration was validated by comparison to PRISM precipitation

  4. Study of the corrosion fatigue resistance of steel grades for automotive suspension springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougin, J. [Ascometal CREAS, BP70045, F-57301 Hagondange Cedex (France); Mostacchi, A. [Ascometal Developpement, BP17, F-38570 Le Cheylas (France); Hersart, Y. [Allevard Rejna Autosuspensions CRDT, 201 Rue de Sin-le-Noble, BP629, F-59506 Douai Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    In order to reduce the total weight of vehicles for ecological and economical reasons, the car makers use down-sizing for several components of the cars. Concerning helical suspension springs, the size of the bar diameter and the number of spring coils are decreased, leading to an increase of the stress level applied on the spring. In this respect, steels with high mechanical properties are required, to achieve a good fatigue resistance of the springs. The corrosion resistance is also important for this application. Indeed, during service, the protective coating applied on the springs can be scratched by gravels, and bare underlying metal can be put in contact with the atmosphere, including humidity, drops of rain but also de-icing salts. Generally speaking, an increase of mechanical properties decreases the corrosion fatigue resistance of the steels. In this respect, a compromise needs to be found, that is why the study of corrosion fatigue resistance is very important. In order to study the corrosion fatigue resistance of spring steels, an original device and test procedure have been set up. Torsional fatigue on specimens is used to simulate the stress applied on each spring coil. The stress levels are chosen to be representative of the actual inservice loads. The specimens are shot-peened and coated in a same way as the actual springs. Scratching of the painting is performed, giving rise to small areas of bare metal. Three types of tests are performed: fatigue in air (taken as the reference level), fatigue on specimens which have been corroded previously (test similar to the spring-makers practice) and coupled corrosion fatigue. The mechanisms involved in corrosion fatigue have been studied. For all the specimens, crack initiated on corrosion pits. For the specimens corroded prior fatigue testing, the corrosion pits can be quite severe. In this case, these pits act as a surface defect which increases locally the stress concentration and accelerates the crack

  5. Characteristics and Origins of Hot Springs in the Tatun Volcano Group in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mei Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematically surveyed distribution and field occurrences of 13 hot springs as well as geochemical investigation on the geothermal area of the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG. According to Piper diagrams, pH values, field occurrences and water-rock interactions, these hot springs can be classified into three types: (1 Type I, SO42- acidic water where the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation; (2 Type II, HCO3- a near neutral spring where waters originate from the volcanic terrane (andesite; and (3 Type III, Cl- -rich acidic water where waters emanate from shallower Wuchishan Formation. In terms of isotopic ratio, δD and δ18O values, two groups of hot spring can be recognized. One is far away from the meteoric water line of the Tatun area with values ranging between -26.2‰ and -3.5‰, and from -3.2‰ to 1.6‰, respectively. However, another close to the meteoric water line of the Tatun area is between -28.4‰ and -13.6‰, and from -5.5‰ to -4.2‰, respectively. In addition, the δ34S value of thermal waters can also be distinguished into two groups, one ranging from 26.1‰ to 28.5‰, and the other between 0.8‰ and 7.8‰. Based on field occurrences and geochemical characteristics, a model has been proposed to illustrate the origin of these hot springs.

  6. Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Ognjen

    2001-07-01

    Analyses are presented of the conditions that limit the discharge of some karst springs. The large number of springs studied show that, under conditions of extremely intense precipitation, a maximum value exists for the discharge of the main springs in a catchment, independent of catchment size and the amount of precipitation. Outflow modelling of karst-spring discharge is not easily generalized and schematized due to numerous specific characteristics of karst-flow systems. A detailed examination of the published data on four karst springs identified the possible reasons for the limitation on the maximum flow rate: (1) limited size of the karst conduit; (2) pressure flow; (3) intercatchment overflow; (4) overflow from the main spring-flow system to intermittent springs within the same catchment; (5) water storage in the zone above the karst aquifer or epikarstic zone of the catchment; and (6) factors such as climate, soil and vegetation cover, and altitude and geology of the catchment area. The phenomenon of limited maximum-discharge capacity of karst springs is not included in rainfall-runoff process modelling, which is probably one of the main reasons for the present poor quality of karst hydrological modelling. Résumé. Les conditions qui limitent le débit de certaines sources karstiques sont présentées. Un grand nombre de sources étudiées montrent que, sous certaines conditions de précipitations extrêmement intenses, il existe une valeur maximale pour le débit des sources principales d'un bassin, indépendante des dimensions de ce bassin et de la hauteur de précipitation. La modélisation des débits d'exhaure d'une source karstique n'est pas facilement généralisable, ni schématisable, à cause des nombreuses caractéristiques spécifiques des écoulements souterrains karstiques. Un examen détaillé des données publiées concernant quatre sources karstiques permet d'identifier les raisons possibles de la limitation de l'écoulement maximal: (1

  7. Annual report of SPring-8, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the SPring-8 Project in 1996. The purpose of the SPring-8 Project is to construct the world's most brilliant synchrotron radiation source in the soft and hard x-ray regions. The construction of the facility started in 1990, and the Project approaches its final stage of construction with the most outstanding progress in 1996 being the successful commissioning of the injector linac and the booster synchrotron. Installation of the linac was completed by the end of 1995 and the power test of the entire system started in January 1996. After the RF aging of the waveguide and accelerator columns for three months, the commissioning of the linac started on August 1 and it succeeded to accelerate electrons up to 1 GeV one week later. As for the booster synchrotron, its installation and precise alignment were completed in September. After the full power test of two months, the synchrotron commissioning started on December 6. Electrons were accelerated up to 8 GeV on December 16. The installation of all magnets in the storage ring was completed and the precise alignment of focusing magnets is under way. The installation of vacuum chambers and RF cavities has already been completed and the evacuation test is going on. The commissioning of the storage ring is scheduled in March, 1997. (M.N.)

  8. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  9. Nuclear resonant scattering beamline at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1996-04-01

    Mainly by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research and Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, the construction of the Super Photon ring-8 GeV (SPring-8) which is the large scale synchrotron radiation facility for a high luminance light source placing emphasis on short wavelength region (shorter than about 1 nm) is in progress at the Harima Science Park City, Hyogo Prefecture. The features of the SPring-8 are the high luminance of light, the good parallelism and directionality of light, the quasi-monochromatic light with variable wavelength, and the possibility of design from straight polarization to circular polarization. The injection system that accelerates electrons up to 8 GeV and the storage ring storing the 8 GeV electrons for long hours, and 61 beamlines are explained. The manufacture of the nuclear resonant scattering beamline as the beamline for joint utilization was begun. Its transport channel and the experiment hutch are shown. By the features of undulator synchrotron radiation, the research on the matters with small recoilless fraction such as biological substances, liquid, gas and others and the research on time-dependent phenomena become feasible anew. The research on the dynamic structural analysis of heme protein is planned. (K.I.)

  10. Health Care, the Arab Spring and After

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Alianak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of health care on Middle Eastern countries on the eve of and soon after the Arab Spring. It posits that countries that were most stable were the healthiest ones; countries which underwent revolutions were the unhealthiest ones; whereas countries that settled for reforms were moderate in health. It presents a hypothesis, the Inverted Funnel Model Hypothesis, that states that as the level of health care of a country rises so does its stability, which in turn leads to better health care as if down an inverted funnel to hypothetical maximums of both health care and stability. To test the hypothesis both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. The quantitative part involves first of all compiling seven health indicators based on the World Health Organization Annual Reports on twelve individual countries, for a period of five years preceding the Arab Spring’s onset in 2011 and in the immediate aftermath of 2011, and, second of all running correlations with political stability of each country, grouped in a three-way typology of countries. This is supplemented by a qualitative part which analyzes the health perceptions and demands of Arab Spring protesters in search of social justice.

  11. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, William P.; Frederick, Logan E.; Millington, Mallory R.; Vala, David; Reese, Barbara K.; Freedman, Dina R.; Stenten, Christina J.; Trauscht, Jacob S.; Tingey, Christopher E.; Kip Solomon, D.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen–solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. - Highlights: • The potential water quality impacts of the first US tar sand development are considered. • Analyses of perennial springs in adjacent canyons indicate hydrologic

  12. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William P.; Frederick, Logan E.; Millington, Mallory R. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Vala, David [Murray High School, Murray, UT 84107 (United States); Reese, Barbara K. [Butler Middle School, Cottonwood Heights, UT 84121 (United States); Freedman, Dina R. [Hillside Middle School, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Stenten, Christina J. [Draper Park Middle School, Draper, UT 84020 (United States); Trauscht, Jacob S.; Tingey, Christopher E.; Kip Solomon, D.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Bowen, Gabriel J. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen–solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. - Highlights: • The potential water quality impacts of the first US tar sand development are considered. • Analyses of perennial springs in adjacent canyons indicate hydrologic

  13. Determination of Hot Springs Physico-Chemical Water Quality Potentially Use for Balneotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Nurul Latiffah Abd Rani; Ahmad Saat; Ab Khalik Wood

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs areas are attractive places for locals and foreigners either for excursion or for medical purposes such as for healing of various types of diseases. This is because the hot spring water is believed rich in salt, sulfur, and sulfate in the water body. For many thousands of years, people have used hot springs water both for cozy bathing and therapy. Balneotherapy is the term used where the patients were immersed in hot mineral water baths emerged as an important treatment in Europe around 1800s. In view of this fact, a study of hot springs water was performed with the objective to determine the concentration of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , S, SO 4 2- and Cl - in hot springs water around the State of Selangor, Malaysia. Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescent Spectrometry (EDXRF) was used to measure the concentrations of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and S meanwhile for SO 4 2- and Cl - anion, Ion Chromatography (IC) was used. The concentration of Na + obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples ranged from 33.68 to 80.95 and 37.03 to 81.91 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding concentrations of K + ranged from 1.47 to 45.72 and 1.70 to 56.81 ppm. Concentrations of Ca 2+ ranged from 2.44 to 18.45 and 3.75 to 19.77 ppm. The concentration of S obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples ranged from 1.87 to 12.41 and 6.25 to 12.86 ppm. The concentrations for SO 4 2- and Cl - obtained ranged from 0.15 to 1.51 ppm and 7.06 to 20.66 ppm for filtered samples. The data signified higher concentration of salt and other important nutrients in hot spring water. (author)

  14. Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Changchun; Sun Xiaoxin; Sun Li; Miao Yuqing; Wang Xianwei; Guo Yuedong; Xu Xiaofeng; Tian Hanqin

    2012-01-01

    The permafrost carbon–climate feedback is one of the major mechanisms in controlling the climate–ecosystem interactions in northern high latitudes. Of this feedback, methane (CH 4 ) emission from natural wetlands is critically important due to its high warming potential. The freeze–thaw transition has been confirmed to play an important role in annual CH 4 budget, yet the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. An intensive field campaign was carried out in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China to estimate the CH 4 emission in the spring freeze–thaw transition period. The observation concluded that a large CH 4 source was caused by spring thaw; the maximum hourly emission rate was 48.6 g C m −2 h −1 , more than three orders of the regularly observed CH 4 emission rate in the growing season. In some sporadically observed ‘hot spots’, the spring thawing effect contributed to a large CH 4 source of 31.3± 10.1 g C m −2 , which is approximately 80% of the previously calculated annual CH 4 emission in the same study area. If our results are typical for natural wetlands in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region, we estimate a global CH 4 source strength of 0.5–1.0 Tg C (1 Tg =10 12 g) caused by spring thaw in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region in the year 2011. Combining with available satellite and flask data, a regional extrapolation reaches a temporal pattern of CH 4 emission during 2003–2009 which is consistent with recently observed changes in atmospheric CH 4 concentration in the high latitudes. This suggests that the CH 4 emission upon spring thaw in the high latitudes might be enhanced by the projected climate warming. These findings indicate that the spring thawing effect is an important mechanism in the permafrost carbon–climate feedback and needs to be incorporated in Earth system models. (letter)

  15. River Intrusion in Karst Springs in Eogenetic Aquifers: Implications for Speleogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Screaton, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    Conceptual models of speleogenesis generally assume uni-directional transport in integrated conduit systems from discrete recharge points to discharge at karst springs. Estavelles, however, are karst springs that function intermittently as discrete recharge points when river stage rises more rapidly than local aquifer heads. As river water chemistry changes between baseflow and floods, estavelles should influence mass transport through (e.g. organic carbon, nutrients, and oxygen) and speleogenesis within karst systems. Estavelles are common in our study area in north-central Florida, particularly along the lower reaches of the Santa Fe River, where it flows across the unconfined karstic Floridan aquifer. River stage in this unconfined region can rise much faster than aquifer heads when large amounts of rain fall on the confined regions in its upper reaches. Backflooding into the estavelles during elevated river stage drives river water into the ground, causing some springs to reverse and other springs to recirculate large volumes of river water. Floodwaters originating in the confined region are highly undersaturated with respect to calcite, and thus river water transitions from slightly supersaturated to highly undersaturated with respect to calcite during flood events. As a result, conduits connected to estavelles are continuously enlarged as springs reverse or recirculate calcite-undersaturated river water. It has been suggested that currently flooded caves (i.e. karst conduits) associated with springs in Florida formed entirely underwater because speleothems, which are prevalent in flooded caves in the Yucatan and Bahamas, have not been observed by cave divers. Results of this study indicate that the absence of speleothems does not necessarily provide evidence of a continuous phreatic history for underwater caves. Instead speleothems that formed in caves while dry could have been dissolved by backflooding of estavelles with undersaturated water

  16. Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper.A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.

  17. Hot spring deposits on a cliff face: A case study from Jifei, Yunnan Province, China