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Sample records for spring yellowstone national

  1. Iron Homeostasis in Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Tringe, S. G.; Franklin, H.; Bryant, D. A.; Klatt, C. G.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that life may have originated on Earth, and possibly on Mars, in association with hydrothermal activity and high concentrations of ferrous iron. However, it is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to microbes, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, the study of microbial diversity in iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) and the mechanisms of iron homeostasis and suppression of oxidative stress may help elucidate how Precambrian organisms could withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe(2+) and O2. Proteins and clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis found in cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting environments with high and low [Fe] were main target of this analysis. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that the Chocolate Pots (CP) microbial community is heavily dominated by phototrophs from the cyanobacteria (CB), Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla, while the Mushroom Spring (MS) effluent channel harbors a more diverse community in which Chloroflexi are the dominant phototrophs. It is speculated that CB inhabiting IDHS have an increased tolerance to both high concentrations of Fe(2+) and ROS produced in the Fenton reaction. This hypothesis was explored via a comparative analysis of the diversity of proteins and COGs involved in Fe and redox homeostasis in the CP and MS microbiomes.

  2. Chemical analyses of waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming from 1974 to 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.M.; Yadav, S.

    1979-01-01

    Waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools of Yellowstone National Park have been analyzed. We report 422 complete major ion analyses from 330 different locations of geysers, hot springs, and pools, collected from 1974 to 1978. Many of the analyses from Upper, Midway, Lower, and Norris Geyser Basin are recollections of features previously reported.

  3. Archaeal and bacterial community analysis of several Yellowstone National Park hot springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, D. R.; Takacs-Vesbach, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    The hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are home to a diverse assemblage of microorganisms. Culture-independent studies have significantly expanded our understanding of the diversity of both Bacteria and Archaea present in YNP springs as well as the geochemical and ecological controls on communities. While the ecological analysis of Bacteria among the physicochemically heterogenous springs of YNP has been previously conducted, less is known about the extent of diversity of Archaeal communities and the chemical and ecological controls on their populations. Here we report a culture-independent analysis of 31 hot spring archaeal and bacterial communities of YNP springs using next generation sequencing. We found the phylogenetic diversity of Archaea to be generally comparable to that of co-occurring bacterial communities although overall, in the springs we investigated, diversity was higher for Bacteria than Archaea. Chemical and physical controls were similar for both domains with pH correlating most strongly with community composition. Community differences reflected the partitioning of taxonomic groups in low or high pH springs for both domains. Results will be discussed in a geochemical and ecological context.

  4. Characterization of novel bacteriochlorophyll-a-containing red filaments from alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, S M; Pierson, B K; Austinhirst, R; Castenholz, R W

    2000-09-01

    Novel red, filamentous, gliding bacteria formed deep red layers in several alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Filaments contained densely layered intracellular membranes and bacteriochlorophyll a. The in vivo absorption spectrum of the red layer filaments was distinct from other phototrophs, with unusual bacteriochlorophyll a signature peaks in the near-infrared (IR) region (807 nm and 911 nm). These absorption peaks were similar to the wavelengths penetrating to the red layer of the mats as measured with in situ spectroradiometry. The filaments also demonstrated maximal photosynthetic uptake of radiolabeled carbon sources at these wavelengths. The red layer filaments displayed anoxygenic photoheterotrophy, as evidenced by the specific incorporation of acetate, not bicarbonate, and by the absence of oxygen production. Photoheterotrophy was unaffected by sulfide and oxygen, but was diminished by high-intensity visible light. Near-IR radiation supported photoheterotrophy. Morphologically and spectrally similar filaments were observed in several springs in Yellowstone National Park, including Octopus Spring. Taken together, these data suggest that the red layer filaments are most similar to the photoheterotroph, Heliothrix oregonensis. Notable differences include mat position and coloration, absorption spectra, and prominent intracellular membranes.

  5. Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction in Chocolate Pots Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, N. W.; Roden, E. E.; Boyd, E. S.; Converse, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Previous work on dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has focused on high temperature, low pH environments where soluble Fe(III) is utilized as an electron acceptor for respiration. Much less attention has been paid to DIR in lower temperature, circumneutral pH environments, where solid phase Fe(III) oxides are the dominant forms of Fe(III). This study explored the potential for DIR in the warm (ca. 40-50°C), circumneutral pH Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) in YNP. Most probable number (MPN) enumerations and enrichment culture studies confirmed the presence of endogenous microbial communities that reduced native CP Fe(III) oxides. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR coupled to acetate and lactate oxidation through repeated transfers over ca. 450 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the dominant organisms in the enrichments were closely affiliated with the well known Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens. Additional taxa included relatives of sulfate reducing bacterial genera Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfovibrio; however, amendment of enrichments with molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, suggested that sulfate reduction was not a primary metabolic pathway involved in DIR in the cultures. A metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures is underway in anticipation of identifying genes involved in DIR in the less well-characterized dominant organisms. Current studies are aimed at interrogating the in situ microbial community at CP. Core samples were collected along the flow path (Fig. 1) and subdivided into 1 cm depth intervals for geochemical and microbiological analysis. The presence of significant quantities of Fe(II) in the solids indicated that DIR is active in situ. A parallel study investigated in vitro microbial DIR in sediments collected from three of the coring sites. DNA was extracted from samples from both studies for 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing in order to obtain a

  6. Small Scale Biodiversity of an Alkaline Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, K.; Oiler, J.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    To date, many phylogenetic diversity studies have been conducted in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) [1-7] focusing on the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and "metagenomic" datasets. However, few reports focus on diversity at small scales. Here, we report on a small scale biodiversity study of sediment and biofilm communities within a confined area of a YNP hot spring, compare and contrast these communities to other sediment and biofilm communities from previous studies [1-7], and with other sediment and biofilm communities in the same system. Sediment and biofilm samples were collected, using a 30 x 50 cm sampling grid divided in 5 x 5 cm squares, which was placed in the outflow channel of "Bat Pool", an alkaline (pH 7.9) hot spring in YNP. Accompanying geochemical data included a full range of spectrophotometry measurements along with major ions, trace elements, and DIC/DOC. In addition, in situ temperature and conductivity arrays were placed within the grid location. The temperature array closest to the source varied between 83-88°C, while the temperature array 40 cm downstream varied between ~83.5-86.5°C. The two conductivity arrays yielded measurements of 5632 μS and 5710 μS showing little variation within the sampling area. Within the grid space, DO ranged from 0.5-1.33 mg/L, with relatively similar, but slightly lower values down the outflow channel. Sulfide values within the grid ranged from 1020-1671 μg/L, while sulfide values outside of the grid region fluctuated, but generally followed the trend of decreasing from source down the outflow. Despite the relative heterogeneity of chemical and physical parameters in the grid space, there was biological diversity in sediments and biofilms at the 5 cm scale. Small scale biodiversity was analyzed by selecting a representative number of samples from within the grid. DNA was extracted and variable regions V3 and V6 (Archaea and Bacteria, respectively) were sequenced with 454 pyrosequencing. The datasets

  7. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  8. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as

  9. Isolation and Distribution of a Novel Iron-Oxidizing Crenarchaeon from Acidic Geothermal Springs in Yellowstone National Park▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, M.; Macur, R. E.; Korf, S.; Taylor, W. P.; Ackerman, G. G.; Nagy, A.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2008-01-01

    Novel thermophilic crenarchaea have been observed in Fe(III) oxide microbial mats of Yellowstone National Park (YNP); however, no definitive work has identified specific microorganisms responsible for the oxidation of Fe(II). The objectives of the current study were to isolate and characterize an Fe(II)-oxidizing member of the Sulfolobales observed in previous 16S rRNA gene surveys and to determine the abundance and distribution of close relatives of this organism in acidic geothermal springs containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe(II). Here we report the isolation and characterization of the novel, Fe(II)-oxidizing, thermophilic, acidophilic organism Metallosphaera sp. strain MK1 obtained from a well-characterized acid-sulfate-chloride geothermal spring in Norris Geyser Basin, YNP. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain MK1 exhibits only 94.9 to 96.1% sequence similarity to other known Metallosphaera spp. and less than 89.1% similarity to known Sulfolobus spp. Strain MK1 is a facultative chemolithoautotroph with an optimum pH range of 2.0 to 3.0 and an optimum temperature range of 65 to 75°C. Strain MK1 grows optimally on pyrite or Fe(II) sorbed onto ferrihydrite, exhibiting doubling times between 10 and 11 h under aerobic conditions (65°C). The distribution and relative abundance of MK1-like 16S rRNA gene sequences in 14 acidic geothermal springs containing Fe(III) oxide microbial mats were evaluated. Highly related MK1-like 16S rRNA gene sequences (>99% sequence similarity) were consistently observed in Fe(III) oxide mats at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80°C. Quantitative PCR using Metallosphaera-specific primers confirmed that organisms highly similar to strain MK1 comprised up to 40% of the total archaeal community at selected sites. The broad distribution of highly related MK1-like 16S rRNA gene sequences in acidic Fe(III) oxide microbial mats is consistent with the observed characteristics and growth optima of

  10. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McMleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 104 samples collected from numerous thermal and non-thermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2006-2008. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from 10 areas of YNP including Apollinaris Spring and Nymphy Creek along the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Crater Hills, the Geyser Springs Group, Nez Perce Creek, Rabbit Creek, the Mud Volcano area, and Washburn Hot Springs. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur redox species in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved on-site. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, emf (electromotive force or electrical potential), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured on-site at the time of sampling. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide was measured a few to several hours after sample collection by ion-specific electrode on samples preserved on-site. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally a few to several hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved iron and ferrous iron concentrations often were measured on-site in the

  11. Chemical analyses of hot springs, pools, geysers, and surface waters from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and vicinity, 1974-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Jenne, Everett A.; Vivit, Davison V.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents all analytical determinations for samples collected from Yellowstone National Park and vicinity during 1974 and 1975. Water temperature, pH, Eh, and dissolved O2 were determined on-site. Total alkalinity and F were determined on the day of sample collection. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was used to determine concentrations of Li, Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry was used to determine concentrations of Fe(II), Fe(III), As(III), and As(V). Direct-current plasma-optical-emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of B, Ba, Cd, Cs, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, and Zn. Two samples collected from Yellowstone Park in June 1974 were used as reference samples for testing the plasma analytical method. Results of these tests demonstrate acceptable precision for all detectable elements. Charge imbalance calculations revealed a small number of samples that may have been subject to measurement errors in pH or alkalinity. These data represent some of the most complete analyses of Yellowstone waters available.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, David A; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Bruce, David C; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia N; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-07-30

    Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10.

  13. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Sturtevant, Sabin A.

    2002-01-01

    Sixty-seven water analyses are reported for samples collected from 44 hot springs and their overflow drainages and two ambient-temperature acid streams in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 1990-2000. Thirty-seven analyses are reported for 1999, 18 for June of 2000, and 12 for September of 2000. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on microbially mediated sulfur oxidation in stream water, arsenic and sulfur redox speciation in hot springs, and chemical changes in overflow drainages that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. Most samples were collected from sources in the Norris Geyser Basin. Two ambient-temperature acidic stream systems, Alluvium and Columbine Creeks and their tributaries in Brimstone Basin, were studied in detail. Analyses were performed at or near the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory truck, or later in a USGS laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether or not it could be preserved effectively. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), and dissolved H2S were determined on-site at the time of sampling. Alkalinity, acidity, and F were determined within a few days of sample collection by titration with acid, titration with base, and ion-selective electrode or ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Concentrations of S2O3 and SxO6 were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by IC. Concentrations of Br, Cl, NH4, NO2, NO3, SO4, Fe(II), and Fe(total) were determined within a few days of sample collection. Densities were determined later in the USGS laboratory. Concentrations of Li and K were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As(total), B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Trace concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Sb were

  14. Siliceous Shrubs in Yellowstone's Hot Springs: Implications for Exobiological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    Potential relict hot springs have been identified on Mars and, using the Earth as an analog, Martian hot springs are postulated to be an optimal locality for recognizing preserved evidence of extraterrestrial life. Distinctive organic and inorganic biomarkers are necessary to recognize preserved evidence of life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial hot spring accumulations. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., contain a wealth of information about primitive microbial life and associated biosignatures that may be useful for future exobiological investigations. Numerous siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone contain abundant, centimeter-scale, spinose precipitates of opaline silica (opal-A). Although areally extensive in siliceous hot spring discharge channel facies, these spinose forms have largely escaped attention. These precipitates referred to as shrubs, consist of porous aggregates of spinose opaline silica that superficially resemble miniature woody plants, i.e., the term shrubs. Shrubs in carbonate precipitating systems have received considerable attention, and represent naturally occurring biotically induced precipitates. As such, shrubs have great potential as hot spring environmental indicators and, more importantly, proxies for pre-existing microbial life.

  15. Water-chemistry and on-site sulfur-speciation data for selected springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1994-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Cunningham, Kirk M.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Xu, Yong; DeMonge, Jennifer M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-two water analyses are reported for samples collected at 8 hot springs and their overflow drainages, two geysers, and two ambient-temperature acid streams in Yellowstone National Park during 1994-95. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of the initial research investigations on sulfur redox speciation in the hot springs of Yellowstone and to document chemical changes in overflows that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. The sulfur redox speciation research is a collaboration between the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Four hot springs, Ojo Caliente, Azure, Frying Pan, and Angel Terrace, were studied in detail. Analyses were performed adjacent to the sampling site or in an on-site mobile lab truck constructed by the USGS, or later in a USGS laboratory. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, D.O., and dissolved H2S were determined adjacent to the sample source at the time of sampling. Alkalinity and F- were determined on-site on the day of sample collection. Thiosulfate and polythionates were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by ion chromatography (IC). Other major anions (Cl-, SO4 2-, Br-) also were determined on-site by IC within two days of sample collection. Ammonium, Fe(II), and Fe(total) were determined on-site by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry within two days of sample collection. Later in the USGS laboratory, densities were determined. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Li, Na, and K were determined by flame atomic absorption and emission (Na, K) spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Trace concentrations of Al and Mg were determined by Zeeman-corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Three important conclusions from the sampling and analyses are: (1

  16. Complete genome sequences of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52, a xylan-degrading strain isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Phillip; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren J; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Chang, Yun-Juan; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 was isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). Based on 16S rRNA genes and average nucleotide identity, Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 and the related Geobacillus sp. Y412MC61 appear to be members of a new species of Geobacillus. The genome of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,628,883 bp, an average G + C content of 52 % and one circular plasmid of 45,057 bp and an average G + C content of 45 %. Y412MC52 possesses arabinan, arabinoglucuronoxylan, and aromatic acid degradation clusters for degradation of hemicellulose from biomass. Transport and utilization clusters are also present for other carbohydrates including starch, cellobiose, and α- and β-galactooligosaccharides.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, a novel biomass degrader isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Phillip J; Land, Miriam L; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 was one of several thermophilic organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences confirmed the classification of the strain as a G. thermoglucosidasius species. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). The genome of G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,893,306 bp and two circular plasmids of 80,849 and 19,638 bp and an average G + C content of 43.93 %. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses a xylan degradation cluster not found in the other G. thermoglucosidasius sequenced strains. This cluster appears to be related to the xylan degradation cluster found in G. stearothermophilus. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses two plasmids not found in the other two strains. One plasmid contains a novel gene cluster coding for proteins involved in proline degradation and metabolism, the other contains a collection of mostly hypothetical proteins.

  18. Evidence for high-temperature in situ nifH transcription in an alkaline hot spring of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Sara T; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Havig, Jeff R; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Shock, Everett L

    2012-05-01

    Genes encoding nitrogenase (nifH) were amplified from sediment and photosynthetic mat samples collected in the outflow channel of Mound Spring, an alkaline thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park. Results indicate the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation over the entire range of temperatures sampled (57.2°C to 80.2°C). Amplification of environmental nifH transcripts revealed in situ expression of nifH genes at temperatures up to 72.7°C. However, we were unable to amplify transcripts of nifH at the higher-temperature locations (> 72.7°C). These results indicate that microbes at the highest temperature sites contain the genetic capacity to fix nitrogen, yet either do not express nifH or do so only transiently. Field measurements of nitrate and ammonium show fixed nitrogen limitation as temperature decreases along the outflow channel, suggesting nifH expression in response to the downstream decrease in bioavailable nitrogen. Nitrogen stable isotope values of Mound Spring sediment communities further support geochemical and genetic data. DNA and cDNA nifH amplicons form several unique phylogenetic clades, some of which appear to represent novel nifH sequences in both photosynthetic and chemosynthetic microbial communities. This is the first report of in situ nifH expression in strictly chemosynthetic zones of terrestrial (non-marine) hydrothermal systems, and sets a new upper temperature limit (72.7°C) for nitrogen fixation in alkaline, terrestrial hydrothermal environments. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Water-Chemistry and On-Site Sulfur-Speciation Data for Selected Springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Schoonen, Martin A.A.; Xu, Yong

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-eight water analyses are reported for samples collected from 19 hot springs and their overflow drainages and one ambient-temperature acid stream in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 1996-98. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations on microbially mediated sulfur oxidation in stream waters and sulfur redox speciation in hot springs in YNP and chemical changes in overflow drainages that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. The research on sulfur redox speciation in hot springs is a collaboration with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Northern Arizona University, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One ambient-temperature acidic stream system, Alluvium Creek and its tributaries in Brimstone Basin, was studied in detail. Analyses were performed adjacent to the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory truck, or later in a USGS laboratory, depending on stability and preservability of the constituent. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), and dissolved H2S were determined on-site at the time of sampling. Alkalinity and F were determined within a few days of sample collection by titration and by ion-selective electrode, respectively. Concentrations of S2O3 and SxO6 were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by ion chromatography (IC). Concentrations of Cl, SO4, and Br were determined by IC within a few days of sample collection. Concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(total) were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry within a few days of sample collection. Densities were determined later in the USGS laboratory. Concentrations of Li, Na, and K were determined by flame atomic absorption (Li) and emission (Na, K) spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As(total), B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Trace

  20. Insights into the biological source and environmental gradients shaping the distribution of H-shaped glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in Yellowstone National Park geothermal springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C.; Xie, W.; Wang, J.; Boyd, E. S.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are ubiquitous in natural environments. The unique tetraether lipids in archaeal membranes enable the maintenance of ion permeability across broad environmental gradients. H-shaped isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (H-GDGTs), in which the two biphytanyl carbon skeletons are covalently bound by a carbon-carbon bond, have been recently identified in both marine and geothermal environments. Here we report the core H-GDGTs (C-H-GDGTs) and polar H-GDGTs (P-H-GDGTs) associated with sediments sampled from geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park and investigate their abundance in relation to environmental gradients. The abundance of C- and P-H-GDGTs exhibit strong and negative correlation with pH (P = 0.007), suggesting that H-shaped GDGTs help to maintain cell membrane fluidity in acidic environments. Reanalysis of archaeal 16S rRNA gene pyrotags published previously from (Boyd E. Hamilton T. L., Wang J., He L., Zhang C. L. 2013. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity. Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology. 4: doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00062) indicates that these H-GDGTs are associated with environments dominanted by Thermoplasmatales, which are thermoacidiphiles. Two equations were established to define the relationships between the abundance of H-GDGTs, the abundance of archaeal taxa based on 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic affiliations, and pH. Both equations have high predictive capacity in predicting the distribution of archaeal lipids in the geothermal system. These observations provide new insight into the biological source of H-GDGTs and suggest a prominent role for these lipids in the diversification of archaea into or out of acidic high temperature environments.

  1. Microbial iron cycling in acidic geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating molecular surveys, geochemical processes and isolation of novel Fe-active microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Kozubal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly similar to Metallosphaera yellowstonensis str. MK1, previously isolated from one of these sites. Other groups of archaea were consistently associated with different types of iron oxide mats, including undescribed members of the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences were dominated by relatives of Hydrogenobaculum spp. above 65-70 °C, but increased in diversity below 60 °C. Cultivation of relevant iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing microbial isolates included Sulfolobus str. MK3, Sulfobacillus str. MK2, Acidicaldus str. MK6, and a new candidate genus in the Sulfolobales referred to as Sulfolobales str. MK5. Strains MK3 and MK5 are capable of oxidizing ferrous iron autotrophically, while strain MK2 oxidizes iron mixotrophically. Similar rates of iron oxidation were observed for M. yellowstonensis str. MK1 and Sulfolobales str. MK5 cultures, and these rates are close to those measured in situ. Biomineralized phases of ferric iron varied among cultures and field sites, and included ferric oxyhydroxides, K-jarosite, goethite, hematite, and scorodite depending on geochemical conditions. Strains MK5 and MK6 are capable of reducing ferric iron under anaerobic conditions with complex carbon sources. The combination of geochemical and molecular data as well as physiological observations of isolates suggests that the community structure of acidic Fe mats is linked with Fe cycling across temperatures ranging from 53 to 88 oC.

  2. The question of recharge to the deep thermal reservoir underlying the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park: Chapter H in Integrated geoscience studies in Integrated geoscience studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area—Volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes in the Yellowstone geoecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Truesdell, Alfred Hemingway; Morgan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    The extraordinary number, size, and unspoiled beauty of the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (the Park) make them a national treasure. The hydrology of these special features and their relation to cold waters of the Yellowstone area are poorly known. In the absence of deep drill holes, such information is available only indirectly from isotope studies. The δD-δ18O values of precipitation and cold surface-water and ground-water samples are close to the global meteoric water line (Craig, 1961). δD values of monthly samples of rain and snow collected from 1978 to 1981 at two stations in the Park show strong seasonal variations, with average values for winter months close to those for cold waters near the collection sites. δD values of more than 300 samples from cold springs, cold streams, and rivers collected during the fall from 1967 to 1992 show consistent north-south and east-west patterns throughout and outside of the Park, although values at a given site vary by as much as 8 ‰ from year to year. These data, along with hot-spring data (Truesdell and others, 1977; Pearson and Truesdell, 1978), show that ascending Yellowstone thermal waters are modified isotopically and chemically by a variety of boiling and mixing processes in shallow reservoirs. Near geyser basins, shallow recharge waters from nearby rhyolite plateaus dilute the ascending deep thermal waters, particularly at basin margins, and mix and boil in reservoirs that commonly are interconnected. Deep recharge appears to derive from a major deep thermal-reservoir fluid that supplies steam and hot water to all geyser basins on the west side of the Park and perhaps in the entire Yellowstone caldera. This water (T ≥350°C; δD = –149±1 ‰) is isotopically lighter than all but the farthest north, highest altitude cold springs and streams and a sinter-producing warm spring (δD = –153 ‰) north of the Park. Derivation of this deep fluid solely from present-day recharge is

  3. New challenges for grizzly bear management in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2016-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the success of grizzly bear Ursus arctos conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem has been the existence of a large protected area, Yellowstone National Park. We provide an overview of recovery efforts, how demographic parameters changed as the population increased, and how the bear management program in Yellowstone National Park has evolved to address new management challenges over time. Finally, using the management experiences in Yellowstone National Park, we present comparisons and perspectives regarding brown bear management in Shiretoko National Park.

  4. Fungi from geothermal soils in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Litvintseva, A.; Sheehan, K.B.; Henson, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Geothermal soils near Amphitheater Springs in Yellowstone National Park were characterized by high temperatures (up to 70??C), high heavy metal content, low pH values (down to pH 2.7), sparse vegetation, and limited organic carbon. From these soils we cultured 16 fungal species. Two of these species were thermophilic, and six were thermotolerant. We cultured only three of these species from nearby cool (0 to 22??C) soils. Transect studies revealed that higher numbers of CFUs occurred in and below the root zone of the perennial plant Dichanthelium lanuginosum (hot springs panic grass). The dynamics of fungal CFUs in geothermal soil and nearby nongeothermal soil were investigated for 12 months by examining soil cores and in situ mesocosms. For all of the fungal species studied, the temperature of the soil from which the organisms were cultured corresponded with their optimum axenic growth temperature.

  5. Exterior sound level measurements of snowcoaches at Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Sounds associated with oversnow vehicles, such as snowmobiles and snowcoaches, are an important management concern at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. The John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Centers Environmental Measurement a...

  6. Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only...

  7. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft... Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... the Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Yellowstone...

  8. 78 FR 12353 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National... Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National... link to the 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan EIS), and at Yellowstone National Park headquarters...

  9. 76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Iobst, Deputy Superintendent, Yellowstone National Park, (307) 344-2002... material way the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or...

  10. Wolf-bison interactions in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Meagher, Mary; Clark, Wendy E.; Jaffe, Rosemary; Phillips, Michael K.; Mack, John A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied interactions of reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) with bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park. Only 2 of 41 wolves in this study had been exposed to bison before their translocation. Wolves were more successful killing elk (Cervus elaphus) than bison, and elk were more abundant than bison, so elk were the primary prey of wolves. Except for a lone emaciated bison calf killed by 8 1-year-old wolves 21 days after their release, the 1st documented kill occurred 25 months after wolves were released. Fourteen bison kills were documented from April 1995 through March 1999. All kills were made in late winter when bison were vulnerable because of poor condition or of bison that were injured or young. Wolves learned to kill bison and killed more bison where elk were absent or scarce. We predict that wolves that have learned to kill bison will kill them more regularly, at least in spring. The results of this study indicate how adaptable wolves are at killing prey species new to them.

  11. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  12. Predatory behavior of grizzly bears feeding on elk calves in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.

    1990-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) were observed preying on elk calves (Cervus elaphus) on 60 occasions in Yellowstone National Park, with 29 confirmed kills. Some bears were deliberate predators and effectively preyed on elk calves for short periods each spring, killing up to 1 calf daily. Primary hunting techniques were searching and chasing although some bears used a variety of techniques during a single hunt. They hunted both day and night and preyed on calves in the open and in the woods. Excess killing occurred when circumstances permitted. One bear caught 5 calves in a 15-minute interval. Elk used a variety of antipredator defenses and occasionally attacked predacious bears. The current level of this feeding behavior appears to be greater than previously reported. This is probably related to the increased availability of calves providing a greater opportunity for learning, and the adaptation of a more predatory behavior by some grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

  13. Wildlife health initiatives in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Plumb, G.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone Science 15(2) • 2007 and conservation organizations ( see inset page 7, The Yellowstone Wildlife Health Program ). Wildlife and Human Health are Linked Much of the interest in disease ecology and wildlife health has been prompted by the emergence, or resurgence, of many parasites that move between livestock, wildlife, and/or humans. Wildlife diseases are important because of their impact on both the natural ecosystem and human health. Many human dis - eases arise from animal reservoirs (WHO 2002). Hantaviruses, West Nile virus, avian influenza, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are examples of disease issues that have arisen over the last decade. Indeed, nearly 75% of all emerg - ing human infectious diseases are zoonotic (a disease that has spread to humans from another animal species). Many of these diseases have spilled over from natural wildlife reservoirs either directly into humans or via domestic animals (WHO/FAO/ OIE 2004). Unprecedented human population abundance and distribution, combined with anthropogenic environmental change, has resulted in dramatic increases in human–animal contact, thus increasing the intimate linkages between animal and human health (Figure 1). Linkage of human and animal health is not a new phenomenon, but the scope, scale, and worldwide impacts of contemporary zoonoses have no historical precedent (OIE 2004a). Zoonotic infectious diseases can have major impacts on wild and domestic animals and human health, resulting in

  14. Protecting the Geyser Basins of Yellowstone National Park: Toward a New National Policy for a Vulnerable Environmental Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Geyser basins provide high value recreation, scientific, economic and national heritage benefits. Geysers are globally rare, in part, because development activities have quenched about 260 of the natural endowment. Today, more than half of the world’s remaining geysers are located in Yellowstone National Park, northwest Wyoming, USA. However, the hydrothermal reservoirs that supply Yellowstone’s geysers extend well beyond the Park borders, and onto two “Known Geothermal Resource Areas”—Island Park to the west and Corwin Springs on the north. Geysers are sensitive geologic features that are easily quenched by nearby geothermal wells. Therefore, the potential for geothermal energy development adjacent to Yellowstone poses a threat to the sustainability of about 500 geysers and 10,000 hydrothermal features. The purpose here is to propose that Yellowstone be protected by a “Geyser Protection Area” (GPA) extending in a 120-km radius from Old Faithful Geyser. The GPA concept would prohibit geothermal and large-scale groundwater wells, and thereby protect the water and heat supply of the hydrothermal reservoirs that support Yellowstone’s geyser basins and important hot springs. Proactive federal leadership, including buyouts of private groundwater development rights, can assist in navigating the GPA through the greater Yellowstone area’s “wicked” public policy environment. Moreover, the potential impacts on geyser basins from intrusive research sampling techniques are considered in order to facilitate the updating of national park research regulations to a precautionary standard. The GPA model can provide the basis for protecting the world’s few remaining geyser basins.

  15. 77 FR 6581 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2310-0070-422] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental... the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy... Statement (SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming...

  16. 76 FR 77249 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact... Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of... Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. On December 5...

  17. Grizzly bear management in Yellowstone National Park: The heart of recovery in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Gunther, K.; McCullough, Dale R.; Kaji, Koichi; Yamanaka, Masami

    2006-01-01

    Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) management in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) in the past quarter century has resulted in more than doubling of the population from around 200 to more than 500, expansion of range back into habitats where the bear has extirpated more than a century ago, and a move toward removal from the U.S. Endangered Species list. At the center of this success story are the management programs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Regulations that restrict human activity, camping, and food storage, elimination of human food and garbage as attractants, and ranger attendance of roadside bears have all resulted in the population of grizzlies in YNP approaching carrying capacity. Recent studies suggest, however, that YNP alone is too small to support the current population, making management beyond the park boundary important and necessary to the demographics of the population as a whole. Demographic analyses suggest a source-sink dynamic exists within the GYE, with YNP and lands outside the park within the Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone (RZ) representing source habitats, whereas lands beyond the RZ constitute sinks. The source-sink demography in the GYE is indicative of carnivore conservation issues worldwide where many national parks or preserves designed to protect out natural resources are inadequate in size or shape to provide all necessary life history requirements for these wide-ranging species. Additionally, wide-ranging behavior and long-distance dispersal seem inherent to large carnivores, so mortality around the edges is virtually inevitable, and conservation in the GYE is inextricably linked to management regimes not only within YNP, but within the GYE as a whole. We discuss those needs here.

  18. The 2017 Maple Creek Seismic Swarm in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, G.; Hale, J. M.; Farrell, J.; Burlacu, R.; Koper, K. D.; Smith, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) performs near-real-time monitoring of seismicity in the region around Yellowstone National Park in partnership with the United States Geological Survey and the National Park Service. UUSS operates and maintains 29 seismic stations with network code WY (short-period, strong-motion, and broadband) and records data from five other seismic networks—IW, MB, PB, TA, and US—to enhance the location capabilities in the Yellowstone region. A seismic catalog is produced using a conventional STA/LTA detector and single-event location techniques (Hypoinverse). On June 12, 2017, a seismic swarm began in Yellowstone National Park about 5 km east of Hebgen Lake. The swarm is adjacent to the source region of the 1959 MW 7.3 Hebgen Lake earthquake, in an area corresponding to positive Coulumb stress change from that event. As of Aug. 1, 2017, the swarm consists of 1481 earthquakes with 1 earthquake above magnitude 4, 8 earthquakes in the magnitude 3 range, 115 earthquakes in the magnitude 2 range, 469 earthquakes in the magnitude 1 range, 856 earthquakes in the magnitude 0 range, 22 earthquakes with negative magnitudes, and 10 earthquakes with no magnitude. Earthquake depths are mostly between 3 and 10 km and earthquake depth increases toward the northwest. Moment tensors for the 2 largest events (3.6 MW and 4.4. MW) show strike-slip faulting with T axes oriented NE-SW, consistent with the regional stress field. We are currently using waveform cross-correlation methods to measure differential travel times that are being used with the GrowClust program to generate high-accuracy relative relocations. Those locations will be used to identify structures in the seismicity and make inferences about the tectonic and magmatic processes causing the swarm.

  19. Exterior sound level measurements of over-snow vehicles at Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Sounds associated with oversnow vehicles, such as snowmobiles and snowcoaches, are an : important management concern at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. The John A. : Volpe National Transportation Systems Centers Environmental Measureme...

  20. 75 FR 53979 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming ACTION: Reopening of public comment period... Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The original comment period was from 28...

  1. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

    1997-01-01

    From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months of life; eight of 21 transmitted pups died of CPV infection in 1992. The potential impact of these canine pathogens on wolves (C. lupus) reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park remains to be documented.

  2. Filamentous Morphology as a Means for Thermophilic Bacteria to Survive Steep Physical and Chemical Gradients in Yellowstone Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y.; Srivastava, V.; Bulone, V.; Keating, K. M.; Khetani, R. S.; Fields, C. J.; Inskeep, W.; Sanford, R. A.; Yau, P. M.; Imai, B. S.; Hernandez, A. G.; Wright, C.; Band, M.; Cann, I. K.; Ahrén, D.; Fouke, K. W.; Sivaguru, M.; Fried, G.; Fouke, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    The filamentous heat-loving bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense makes up more than 90% of the microbial community that inhabits turbulent, dysoxic hot spring outflow channels (66-71°C, 6.2-6.5 pH, 0.5-0.75 m/s flow rate) at Mammoth Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park. These environments contain abundantly available inorganic substrates (e.g., CO2, sulfide and thiosulfate) and are associated with extensive CaCO3 (travertine) precipitation driven in part by CO2 off-gassing. Evidence from integrated Meta-Omics analyses of DNA, RNA, and proteins (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics) extracted from these S. yellowstonense-dominated communities have detected 1499 non-rRNA open reading frames (ORFs), their transcripts and cognate proteins. During chemoautotrophy and CO2 carbon fixation, chaperons facilitate enzymatic stability and functionalities under elevated temperature. High abundance transcripts and proteins for Type IV pili and exopolysaccharides (EPS) are consistent with S. yellowstonense forming strong (up to 0.5 m) intertwined microbial filaments (fettuccini streamers) composed of linked individual cells that withstand hydrodynamic shear forces and extremely rapid travertine mineralization. Their primary energy source is the oxidation of reduced sulfur (e.g., sulphide, sulfur or thiosulfate) and the simultaneous uptake of extremely low concentrations of dissolved O2 facilitated by bd-type cytochromes. Field observations indicate that the fettuccini microbial filaments build up ridged travertine platforms on the bottom of the springs, parallel to the water flow, where living filaments attach almost exclusively to the top of each ridge. This maximizes their access to miniscule amounts of dissolved oxygen, while optimizing their ability to rapidly form down-flow branched filaments and thus survive in these stressful environments that few other microbes can inhabit.

  3. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; King, Susan; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Krabbenhoft, David P; Barkay, Tamar; Geesey, Gill G

    2009-04-01

    Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH approximately 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg(+)), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l(-1)) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g(-1) dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg(+) in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg(+) enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg(+) was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg(+) biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg(+) to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP.

  4. Dual stable isotopes of CH 4 from Yellowstone hot-springs suggest hydrothermal processes involving magmatic CO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Jay, Zackary J.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Beam, Jacob P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanism and post-magmatism contribute both significant annual CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere (on par with other natural sources such as forest fire and wild animal emissions) and have been implicated in past climate-change events. The Yellowstone hot spot is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth and is known to emit methane in addition to other greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide) but the ultimate source of this methane flux has not been elucidated. Here we use dual stable isotope analysis (δ2H and δ13C) of CH4(g) sampled from ten high-temperature geothermal pools in Yellowstone National Park to show that the predominant flux of CH4(g) is abiotic. The average δ13C and δ2H values of CH4(g) emitted from hot springs (-26.7 (±2.4) and -236.9 (±12.0) ‰, respectively) are not consistent with biotic (microbial or thermogenic) methane sources, but are within previously reported ranges for abiotic methane production. Correlation between δ13CCH4 and δ13C-dissolved inorganic C (DIC) also suggests that CO2 is a parent C source for the observed CH4(g). Moreover, CH4-CO2 isotopic geothermometry was used to estimate CH4(g) formation temperatures ranging from ~ 250 - 350°C, which is just below the temperature estimated for the hydrothermal reservoir and consistent with the hypothesis that subsurface, rock-water interactions are responsible for large methane fluxes from this volcanic system. An understanding of conditions leading to the abiotic production of methane and associated isotopic signatures are central to understanding the evolutionary history of deep carbon sources on Earth.

  5. On the origin of brucellosis in bison of Yellowstone National Park: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Mary; Meyer, Margaret E.

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus occurs in the free-ranging bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone and Wood Buffalo National Parks and in elk (Cervus elaphus) of the Greater Yellowstone Area. As a result of nationwide bovine brucellosis eradication programs, states and provinces proximate to the national parks are considered free of bovine brucellosis. Thus, increased attention has been focused on the wildlife within these areas as potential reservoirs for transmission to cattle. Because the national parks are mandated as natural areas, the question has been raised as to whether Brucella abortus is endogenous or exogenous to bison, particularly for Yellowstone National Park. We synthesized diverse lines of inquiry, including the evolutionary history of both bison and Brucella, wild animals as Brucella hosts, biochemical and genetic information, behavioral characteristics of host and organism, and area history to develop an evaluation of the question for the National Park Service. All lines of inquiry indicated that the organism was introduced to North America with cattle, and that the introduction into the Yellowstone bison probably was directly from cattle shortly before 1917. Fistulous withers of horses was a less likely possibility. Elk on winter feedgrounds south of Yellowstone National Park apparently acquired the disease directly from cattle. Bison presently using Grand Teton National Park probably acquired brucellosis from feedground elk.

  6. Brucellosis in Yellowstone National Park bison: Quantitative serology and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.; Gidlewski, T.; Hennager, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    We collected complete sets of tissues, fluids, and swabs (approx 30) from 37 Yellowstone National Park (YNP) female bison (Bison bison) killed as a result of management actions by the Montana Department of Livestock and YNP personnel. Our goal was to establish the relation between blood tests demonstrating an animal has antibody to Brucella and the potential of that animal to be infected during the second trimester of pregnancy, the time when most management actions are taken. Twenty-eight of the 37 bison were seropositive adults (27) or a seropositive calf (1). We cultured samples using macerated whole tissues plated onto 4 Brucella-selective media and incubated with added CO2 for 1 week. Specimens from 2 adult seropositive females were contaminated, thus eliminating them from our data. Twelve of the remaining 26 seropositive adult and calf female bison (46%) were culture positive for Brucella abortus from 1 or more tissues. Culture positive adult females had high serologic titers. All 11 adults measured 3+ at 1:40 for 10 of 11 (91%) animals. All culture positive female adults had either a PCFIA ???0.080 or a CF reaction ???4+ at 1:80. However 5 (36%) bison with high titers were culture negative for B. abortus. Our findings on the relation between Brucella serology and culture are similar to those reported from studies of chronically infected cattle herds.

  7. Pathology of brucellosis in bison from Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyan, Jack C.; Gidlewski, T.; Roffe, T.J.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1995 and June 1999, specimens from seven aborted bison (Bison bison) fetuses or stillborn calves and their placentas, two additional placentas, three dead neonates, one 2-wk-old calf, and 35 juvenile and adult female bison from Yellowstone National Park (USA) were submitted for bacteriologic and histopathologic examination. One adult animal with a retained placenta had recently aborted. Serum samples from the 35 juvenile and adult bison were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies. Twenty-six bison, including the cow with the retained placenta, were seropositive, one was suspect, and eight were seronegative. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three aborted fetuses and associated placentas, an additional placenta, the 2-wk-old calf, and 11 of the seropositive female bison including the animal that had recently aborted. Brucella abortus biovar 2 was isolated from one additional seropositive adult female bison. Brucella abortus was recovered from numerous tissue sites from the aborted fetuses, placentas and 2-wk-old calf. In the juvenile and adult bison, the organism was more frequently isolated from supramammary (83%), retropharyngeal (67%), and iliac (58%) lymph nodes than from other tissues cultured. Cultures from the seronegative and suspect bison were negative for B. abortus. Lesions in the B. abortus-infected, aborted placentas and fetuses consisted of necropurulent placentitis and mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. The infected 2-wk-old calf had bronchointerstitial pneumonia, focal splenic infarction, and purulent nephritis. The recently-aborting bison cow had purulent endometritis and necropurulent placentitis. Immunohistochemical staining of tissues from the culture-positive aborted fetuses, placentas, 2-wk-old calf, and recently-aborting cow disclosed large numbers of B. abortus in placental trophoblasts and exudate, and fetal and calf lung. A similar study with the same tissue collection and culture protocol was done using six

  8. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  9. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2310-0070-422] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental.... ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park...

  10. 76 FR 68503 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact.... ACTION: Notice of availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan... Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and [[Page 68504

  11. 75 FR 4842 - Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park... Park Service (NPS) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for...

  12. The U S national parks in international perspective: The Yellowstone model or conservation syncretism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, international conservation scholars and practitioners have largely dismissed the U.S. national park experience, often termed the “Yellowstone model,” as being too protectionist and exclusionary, and therefore irrelevant and even detrimental to park management and policy in lesser developed countries. A review of the U.S. national park experience finds...

  13. Holocene seasonal variability inferred from multiple proxy records from Crevice Lake, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Cathy; Dean, Walter E.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Stevens, Lora R.; Stone, Jeffery R.; Power, Mitchell J.; Rosenbaum, Joseph R.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Bracht-Flyr, Brandi B.

    2012-01-01

    A 9400-yr-old record from Crevice Lake, a semi-closed alkaline lake in northern Yellowstone National Park, was analyzed for pollen, charcoal, geochemistry, mineralogy, diatoms, and stable isotopes to develop a nuanced understanding of Holocene environmental history in a region of northern Rocky Mountains that receives both summer and winter precipitation. The limited surface area, conical bathymetry, and deep water (> 31 m) of Crevice Lake create oxygen-deficient conditions in the hypolimnion and preserve annually laminated sediment (varves) for much of the record. Pollen data indicate that the watershed supported a closed Pinus-dominated forest and low fire frequency prior to 8200 cal yr BP, followed by open parkland until 2600 cal yr BP, and open mixed-conifer forest thereafter. Fire activity shifted from infrequent stand-replacing fires initially to frequent surface fires in the middle Holocene and stand-replacing events in recent centuries. Low values of δ18O suggest high winter precipitation in the early Holocene, followed by steadily drier conditions after 8500 cal yr BP. Carbonate-rich sediments before 5000 cal yr BP imply warmer summer conditions than after 5000 cal yr BP. High values of molybdenum (Mo), uranium (U), and sulfur (S) indicate anoxic bottom-waters before 8000 cal yr BP, between 4400 and 3900 cal yr BP, and after 2400 cal yr BP. The diatom record indicates extensive water-column mixing in spring and early summer through much of the Holocene, but a period between 2200 and 800 cal yr BP had strong summer stratification, phosphate limitation, and oxygen-deficient bottom waters. Together, the proxy data suggest wet winters, protracted springs, and warm effectively wet summers in the early Holocene and less snowpack, cool springs, warm dry summers in the middle Holocene. In the late Holocene, the region and lake experienced extreme changes in winter, spring, and summer conditions, with particularly short springs and dry summers and winters during

  14. Use of ASTER and MODIS thermal infrared data to quantify heat flow and hydrothermal change at Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to use satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specific goals were to: 1) address the challenges of monitoring the surface thermal characteristics of the > 10,000 spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in the Park (including hot springs, pools, geysers, fumaroles, and mud pots) that are spread out over ~ 5000 km2, by using satellite TIR remote sensing tools (e.g., ASTER and MODIS), 2) to estimate the radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone's thermal areas, and 3) to identify normal, background thermal changes so that significant, abnormal changes can be recognized, should they ever occur (e.g., changes related to tectonic, hydrothermal, impending volcanic processes, or human activities, such as nearby geothermal development). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) were used to estimate the radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone's thermal features and update maps of thermal areas. MODIS TIR data (1-km pixels) were used to record background thermal radiance variations from March 2000 through December 2010 and establish thermal change detection limits. A lower limit for the radiant GHF estimated from ASTER TIR temperature data was established at ~ 2.0 GW, which is ~ 30–45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical thermometry. Also, about 5 km2 of thermal areas was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. A decade-long time-series of MODIS TIR radiance data was dominated by seasonal cycles. A background subtraction technique was used in an attempt to isolate variations due to geothermal changes. Several statistically significant perturbations were noted in the time-series from Norris Geyser Basin, however many of these did not correspond to documented thermal disturbances. This study provides concrete examples of the

  15. Time scale of hydrothermal water-rock reactions in Yellowstone National Park based on radium isotopes and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.F.; Turekian, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    We have measured 224 Ra (3.4 d), 228 Ra (5.7 yr), and 226 Ra (1620 yr) and chloride in hot spring waters from the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, Yellowstone National Park. Two characteristic cold-water components mix with the primary hydrothermal water: one for the travertine-depositing water related to the Mammoth Hot Springs and the other for the sinter-depositing Norris Geyser Basin springs. The Mammoth Hot Springs water is a mixture of the primary hydrothermal fluid with meteoric waters flowing through the Madison Limestone, as shown by the systematic decrease of the ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra) activity ratio proceeding northward. The Norris Geyser Basin springs are mixtures of primary hydrothermal water with different amounts of cold meteoric water with no modification of the primary hydrothermal ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra) activity ratio. Using a solution and recoil model for radium isotope supply to the primary hydrothermal water, a mean water-rock reaction time prior to expansion at 350degC and supply to the surface is 540 years assuming that 250 g of water are involved in the release of the radium from one gram of rock. The maximum reaction time allowed by our model is 1150 years. (orig.)

  16. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (65 °C) temperatures.

  17. Winter visitor use planning in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Sacklin; Kristin L. Legg; M. Sarah Creachbaum; Clifford L. Hawkes; George Helfrich

    2000-01-01

    Winter use in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks increased dramatically in the 1980s and early 1990s. That increase and the emphasis on snowmobiles as the primary mode of transportation brought into focus a host of winter-related issues, including air pollution, unwanted sound, wildlife impacts and the adequacy of agency budgets, staff and infrastructure to...

  18. Atlas of Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Marcus, A. W.; Meachan, J. E.; Rodman, A. W.; Steingisser, A. Y.; Allan, Stuart; West, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Established in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was the world’s first national park. In a fitting tribute to this diverse and beautiful region, the Atlas of Yellowstone is a compelling visual guide to this unique national park and its surrounding area. Ranging from art to wolves, from American Indians to the Yellowstone Volcano, and from geysers to population, each page explains something new about the dynamic forces shaping Yellowstone. Equal parts reference and travel guide, the Atlas of Yellowstone is an unsurpassed resource.

  19. Molecular Studies of Filamentous and Biofilm-Forming Hyperthermophilic Communities in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Bradley, A. S.; Dibbell, A. K.; Fredricks, H. F.; Hinrichs, K.; Jahnke, L. L.; Shock, E.; Amend, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The Aquificales, the most deeply-branching order of Bacteria in the phylogenetic tree of life, comprises eight recognized thermophilic genera, including Aquifex, Hydrogenobacter, and Thermocrinis. The common metabolism for these Bacteria, when grown in culture, is the oxidation of hydrogen with molecular oxygen (Knallgas reaction). Aquificales have been identified by molecular techniques (16S rRNA gene surveys, fluorescent in situ hybridization) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), sea vent chimneys and fluids, and many other terrestrial and marine locations. In situ, Aquificales can reside as biofilms on vent sinters but they also commonly form filamentous communities, otherwise known as pink streamers, which attach to solid substrates. Initial 16S rRNA gene surveys conducted on streamer communities from Octopus Spring YNP indicated that these were low diversity ecosystems dominated by a few phylotypes including Thermocrinis sp., Thermotoga sp. and one other bacterial clade (Reysenbach et al 1994). Archaea were notable for their absence. In one of the first geobiological studies of pink streamers and vent biofilms in Yellowstone National Park, Jahnke and coworkers (2001) used classical lipidological techniques to compare Aquificales cultures with environmental samples to show that YNP pink filaments were more phylogenetically diverse and physiologically more complex than the early genomic studies indicated. The presence of archaeol, the range and structures of other lipids and a wide dispersion in the carbon isotopic signatures of biomass and individual lipids (-15 to -27%) showed that Archaea were present in pink filament communities and that there was, at least, one additional bacterial group besides the dominant Aquificales component. New molecular studies that comprise analyses of 16S rRNA genes and total lipid extracts by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and chemical degradation with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry now show that Crenarchaea

  20. Optimal wildlife management in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem: A spatiotemporal model of disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    South of Yellowstone National Park there are twenty-three sites where elk herds are provided supplementary feeding during the winter and spring months. Supplementary feeding of elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has been practiced since the early twentieth century, but the practice has b...

  1. A Multi-Method Experiment to Investigate Geyser Dynamics: Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Johnston, M. J.; Sohn, R. A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rudolph, M. L.; Murphy, F.; McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Soule, S. A.; Pontbriand, C.; Meertens, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Geysers are intermittently discharging hot springs that are driven by steam and non-condensable gas. They provide unique opportunities to study multiphase eruption processes and the geophysical signals they induce. In September 2010 we carried out a four-day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park. The geyser is located about 5 km SSE of Old Faithful Geyser and 75 m north of the Upper Firehole River. Lone Star is a cone geyser that was selected for the experiment because it is isolated from other geysers, its eruptions are vigorous and voluminous, and its eruption intervals are relatively constant and predictable, occurring approximately every 3 hours. We made measurements during 32 eruption cycles using a suite of instruments including a broadband seismometer, 2 microphones, 5 platform tiltmeters, 3 collimating InfraRed sensors, 2 gravimeters, 2 self-potential sensors, 2 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, a Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) camera, high-speed video cameras, and stream gauging. We also integrated meteorological data from nearby weather stations. The large dataset acquired during the experiment allows for the detection of a myriad of processes in the subsurface and in the erupting column at many different frequencies. The analyzed data yield new insights on multiphase eruptive processes that have implications for understanding self-organized, intermittent processes in nature that result from phase separation and localized input of energy and mass. The geophysical signals recorded during the experiment allow comparison with signals recorded in more complex volcanic systems where gas-driven and magma-driven processes are often hard to distinguish.

  2. Creating Conditions for Policy Change in National Parks: Contrasting Cases in Yellowstone and Yosemite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochim, Michael J.; Lowry, William R.

    2016-05-01

    Public agencies face significant political obstacles when they try to change long-standing policies. This paper examines efforts by the U.S. National Park Service to change long-term policies in Yellowstone and Yosemite national parks. We argue that, to be successful, the agency and pro-change allies must expand the sphere of conflict to engage the support of the broader American public through positive framing, supportive science, compelling economic arguments, consistent goals, and the commitment of other institutional actors. We show that the agency is capable of creating these conditions, as in the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone, but we argue that this is not always the outcome, as in reducing automobile congestion in Yosemite Valley.

  3. A Serological Survey of Infectious Disease in Yellowstone National Park?s Canid Community

    OpenAIRE

    Almberg, Emily S.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, i...

  4. Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden and the founding of the Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1973-01-01

    Following the Civil War, the United States intensified the exploration of her western frontiers to gain a measure of the vast lands and natural resources in the region now occupied by our Rocky Mountain States. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories was formed and staffed under the leadership of geologist Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden. Originally organized under the U.S. Public Land Office in 1861, the Hayden Survey (as it was most often identified) was placed under the Secretary of the Interior in 1869 and later, under the newly created U.S. Geological Survey. Its records, maps, and photographs were then transferred to the latter agency. In commemorating the centennial of Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey drew upon those items deposited by Hayden to describe the early exploration of the Yellowstone area and to recount events that led to the establishment of Yellowstone as the Nation's first national park.

  5. Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Guo, Qinghai; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1–2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

  6. Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Kirk Nordstrom, D.; Blaine McCleskey, R.

    2014-11-01

    Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1-2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

  7. Climatic change and wetland desiccation cause amphibian decline in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Sarah K; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Wright, Christopher K

    2008-11-04

    Amphibians are a bellwether for environmental degradation, even in natural ecosystems such as Yellowstone National Park in the western United States, where species have been actively protected longer than anywhere else on Earth. We document that recent climatic warming and resultant wetland desiccation are causing severe declines in 4 once-common amphibian species native to Yellowstone. Climate monitoring over 6 decades, remote sensing, and repeated surveys of 49 ponds indicate that decreasing annual precipitation and increasing temperatures during the warmest months of the year have significantly altered the landscape and the local biological communities. Drought is now more common and more severe than at any time in the past century. Compared with 16 years ago, the number of permanently dry ponds in northern Yellowstone has increased 4-fold. Of the ponds that remain, the proportion supporting amphibians has declined significantly, as has the number of species found in each location. Our results indicate that climatic warming already has disrupted one of the best-protected ecosystems on our planet and that current assessments of species' vulnerability do not adequately consider such impacts.

  8. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone ecosystem as influenced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Another paper by Paul Carrara describes the recent movement of a large landslide block dated by tree-ring analyses in the Tower Falls area. The section under Yellowstone Lake studies begins with a classic paper by J. David Love and others on ancestral Lake Yellowstone. Other papers in this section include results and interpretation of the high-resolution bathymetric, seismic reflection, and submersible studies by Lisa Morgan and others. Ken Pierce and others describe results from their studies of shorelines along Yellowstone Lake and their interpretation of inflation-deflation cycles, tilting, and faulting in the Yellowstone caldera. The influence of sublacustrine hydrothermal vent fluids on the geochemistry of Yellowstone Lake is described by Laurie Balistrieri and others. In Pat Shanks and others' chapter, hydrothermal reactions, stable-isotope systematics, sinter deposition, and spire formation are related to the geochemistry of sublacustrine hydrothermal deposits in Yellowstone Lake. The geochemical studies section considers park-wide geochemical systems in Yellowstone National Park. In Bob Rye and Alfred Truesdell's paper, the question of recharge to the deep thermal reservoir underlying the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park is discussed. Irving Friedman and Dan Norton report on the chloride flux emissions from Yellowstone in their paper questioning whether Yellowstone is losing its steam. Wildlife issues as addressed by examining trace-element and stable-isotope geochemistry are discussed in a chapter by Maurice Chaffee and others. In another chapter by Chaffee and others, natural and anthropogenic anomalies and their potential impact on the environment using geochemistry is reported. Pam Gemery-Hill and others present geochemical data for selected rivers, lake waters, hydrothermal vents, and subaerial geysers for the time interval of 1996-2004. The life cycle of gold deposits near th

  9. Outcomes of the 'Data Curation for Geobiology at Yellowstone National Park' Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomer, A.; Palmer, C. L.; Fouke, B. W.; Rodman, A.; Choudhury, G. S.; Baker, K. S.; Asangba, A. E.; Wickett, K.; DiLauro, T.; Varvel, V.

    2013-12-01

    The continuing proliferation of geological and biological data generated at scientifically significant sites (such as hot springs, coral reefs, volcanic fields and other unique, data-rich locales) has created a clear need for the curation and active management of these data. However, there has been little exploration of what these curation processes and policies would entail. To that end, the Site-Based Data Curation (SBDC) project is developing a framework of guidelines and processes for the curation of research data generated at scientifically significant sites. A workshop was held in April 2013 at Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to gather input from scientists and stakeholders. Workshop participants included nine researchers actively conducting geobiology research at YNP, and seven YNP representatives, including permitting staff and information professionals from the YNP research library and archive. Researchers came from a range of research areas -- geology, molecular and microbial biology, ecology, environmental engineering, and science education. Through group discussions, breakout sessions and hands-on activities, we sought to generate policy recommendations and curation guidelines for the collection, representation, sharing and quality control of geobiological datasets. We report on key themes that emerged from workshop discussions, including: - participants' broad conceptions of the long-term usefulness, reusability and value of data. - the benefits of aggregating site-specific data in general, and geobiological data in particular. - the importance of capturing a dataset's originating context, and the potential usefulness of photographs as a reliable and easy way of documenting context. - researchers' and resource managers' overlapping priorities with regards to 'big picture' data collection and management in the long-term. Overall, we found that workshop participants were enthusiastic and optimistic about future collaboration and development of community

  10. The Distribution, Diversity, and Geobiology of Thermoproteales Populations in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Z.; Beam, J.; Bailey, C.; Dohnalkova, A.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Romine, M.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    The order Thermoproteales (phylum Crenarchaeota) consists of thermophilic, rod-shaped organisms that are found globally in geothermal habitats ranging in pH from ~3-9. Nearly all isolated Thermoproteales couple the respiration of inorganic sulfur species (e.g. elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfate) to the oxidation of hydrogen or complex organic carbon. Prior 16S rRNA and metagenome analysis revealed four prominent Thermoproteales-like populations in hypoxic, sulfidic hot springs In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA (Monarch Geyser [80° C, pH 4], Cistern Spring [76° C, pH 5] and Joseph's Coat Hot Spring [JCHS; 80° C, pH 6]). The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize and compare the indigenous Thermoproteales-like de novo assemblies identified from metagenomic sequence data available for geothermal systems across YNP, 2) determine the metabolic potential of the Thermoproteales-like populations and evaluate their role in the geochemical cycling of organic and inorganic constituents, and 3) contrast both the sequenced genome and growth physiology of the first Thermoproteales isolated from YNP ("Pyrobaculum yellowstonensis" strain WP30), to the indigenous Thermoproteales-like de novo assemblies. Sequences related to either Caldivirga or Vulcanisaeta spp. (Type I Thermoproteales) were identified in both aerobic and anaerobic habitats ranging in pH ~3 - 6. Thermoproteus or Pyrobaculum spp. (Type-II Thermoproteales) were identified in anoxic habitats, but were constrained to pH values >4. Annotation of the de novo assemblies indicate that both Type-I and Type-II Thermoproteales populations are primarily heterotrophic, although key proteins of the autotrophic dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle were also identified. Caldivirga/Vulcanisaeta-like populations appear to respire on elemental sulfur, sulfate, or molecular oxygen, while the Thermoproteus/Pyrobaculum-like population may also oxidize hydrogen and respire on elemental sulfur, thiosulfate

  11. History of pronghorn population monitoring, research, and management in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Kim A.

    2002-01-01

    Pronghorn antelope in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) persist in a small population that historically has experienced recurrent, sometimes dramatic declines. They apparently are isolated from other pronghorns, depend partly on private lands for winter range, experience heavy predation of fawns, and concentrate during winter in a relatively small area, thereby increasing their vulnerability to factors like disease or locally extreme weather. Overall, the situation raises serious concerns about the long-term viability of this population. Although such concerns are not new, evidence of a dramatic population decline since 1991 and continued poor recruitment has created a renewed sense of urgency.

  12. Modeling the Habitat Range of Phototrophic Microorganisms in Yellowstone National Park: Toward the Development of a Comprehensive Fitness Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBoyd

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which geochemical variation constrains the distribution of phototrophic metabolisms was modeled based on 439 observations in geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Wyoming. Generalized additive models (GAMs were developed to predict the distribution of photosynthesis as a function of spring temperature, pH, and total sulfide. GAMs comprised of temperature explained 42.7% of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolisms whereas GAMs comprised of sulfide and pH explained 20.7% and 11.7% of the variation, respectively. These results suggest that of the measured variables, temperature is the primary constraint on the distribution of phototrophic metabolism in YNP. GAMs comprised of multiple variables explained a larger percentage of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolism, indicating additive interactions among variables. A GAM that combined temperature and sulfide explained the greatest variation in the dataset (54.8% while minimizing the introduction of degrees of freedom. In an effort to verify the extent to which phototroph distribution reflects constraints on activity, we examined the influence of sulfide and temperature on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC uptake rates under both light and dark conditions. Light-driven DIC uptake decreased systematically with increasing concentrations of sulfide in acidic, algal-dominated systems, but was unaffected in alkaline, bacterial-dominated systems. In both alkaline and acidic systems, light-driven DIC uptake was suppressed in cultures incubated at temperatures 10°C greater than their in situ temperature. Collectively, these results suggest that the habitat range of phototrophs in YNP springs, specifically that of cyanobacteria and algae, largely results from constraints imposed by temperature and sulfide on the activity and fitness of these populations, a finding that is consistent with the predictions from GAMs.

  13. Multi-method, multi-scale geophysical observations in the Obsidian Pool Thermal Area, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Pasquet, S.; Sims, K. W. W.; Dickey, K.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the prominence of Yellowstone as the world's most active hydrothermal province, relatively little is known about the plumbing systems that link deeper hydrothermal fluids to the charismatic hot springs, geysers and mud pots at the surface. We present the results of a multi-method, multi-scale geophysical investigation of the Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) in Yellowstone National Park. OPTA hosts acid-sulfate hot springs and mud pots with relatively low pH. We present the results of seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, time-domain EM (TEM), soil conductivity meter (EMI), and GPR data acquired in July 2016. There is a strong contrast in physical properties in the upper 50 m of the subsurface between the low-lying hydrothermal area and surrounding hills: the hydrothermal area has much lower seismic velocities ( 1 km/s vs 3 km/s) and electrical resistivity ( 20 ohm-m vs 300 ohm-m). A prominent zone of very low resistivity (<10 ohm-m) exists at about 20 m depth beneath all hydrothermal features. Poisson's ratio, calculated from P-wave refraction tomography and surface wave inversions, shows low values beneath the "frying pan," where gas is emerging in small fumaroles, suggesting that Poisson's ratio is an effective "gas detector" in hydrothermal areas. Near-surface resistivity mapped from EMI shows a strong correlation with hydrothermal areas previously mapped by heat flow, with areas of high heat flow generally having low resistivity near the surface. Two exceptions are (1) the "frying pan," which shows a central area of high resistivity (corresponding to escaping gas) surrounding by a halo of low resistivity, and (2) a broad area of low resistivity connecting the hydrothermal centers to the lake, which may be clay deposits. TEM data penetrate up to 200 m in depth and suggest that a reservoir of hydrothermal fluids may underlie the entire area, including beneath the forested hills, at depths greater than 100 m, but that they rise toward the surface in

  14. Population viability of Arctic grayling in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Amber C.; Zale, Alexander V.; Koel, Todd M.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    The fluvial Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus is restricted to less than 5% of its native range in the contiguous United States and was relisted as a category 3 candidate species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2010. Although fluvial Arctic grayling of the lower Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were considered to have been extirpated by 1935, anglers and biologists have continued to report catching low numbers of Arctic grayling in the river. Our goal was to determine whether a viable population of fluvial Arctic grayling persisted in the Gibbon River or whether the fish caught in the river were downstream emigrants from lacustrine populations in headwater lakes. We addressed this goal by determining relative abundances, sources, and evidence for successful spawning of Arctic grayling in the Gibbon River. During 2005 and 2006, Arctic grayling comprised between 0% and 3% of the salmonid catch in riverwide electrofishing (mean Back-calculated lengths at most ages were similar among all fish, and successful spawning within the Gibbon River below the headwater lakes was not documented. Few Arctic grayling adults and no fry were detected in the Gibbon River, implying that a reproducing fluvial population does not exist there. These findings have implications for future Endangered Species Act considerations and management of fluvial Arctic grayling within and outside of Yellowstone National Park. Our comprehensive approach is broadly applicable to the management of sparsely detected aquatic species worldwide.

  15. Multireaction equilibrium geothermometry: A sensitivity analysis using data from the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2016-01-01

    A multireaction chemical equilibria geothermometry (MEG) model applicable to high-temperature geothermal systems has been developed over the past three decades. Given sufficient data, this model provides more constraint on calculated reservoir temperatures than classical chemical geothermometers that are based on either the concentration of silica (SiO2), or the ratios of cation concentrations. A set of 23 chemical analyses from Ojo Caliente Spring and 22 analyses from other thermal features in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park are used to examine the sensitivity of calculated reservoir temperatures using the GeoT MEG code (Spycher et al. 2013, 2014) to quantify the effects of solute concentrations, degassing, and mineral assemblages on calculated reservoir temperatures. Results of our analysis demonstrate that the MEG model can resolve reservoir temperatures within approximately ±15°C, and that natural variation in fluid compositions represents a greater source of variance in calculated reservoir temperatures than variations caused by analytical uncertainty (assuming ~5% for major elements). The analysis also suggests that MEG calculations are particularly sensitive to variations in silica concentration, the concentrations of the redox species Fe(II) and H2S, and that the parameters defining steam separation and CO2 degassing from the liquid may be adequately determined by numerical optimization. Results from this study can provide guidance for future applications of MEG models, and thus provide more reliable information on geothermal energy resources during exploration.

  16. Phenotypic and genetic differentiation among yellow monkeyflower populations from thermal and non-thermal soils in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Roskilly, Beth; Hendrick, Margaret F; Zabinski, Catherine A; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila

    2012-09-01

    In flowering plants, soil heterogeneity can generate divergent natural selection over fine spatial scales, and thus promote local adaptation in the absence of geographic barriers to gene flow. Here, we investigate phenotypic and genetic differentiation in one of the few flowering plants that thrives in both geothermal and non-thermal soils in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus) growing at two geothermal ("thermal") sites in YNP were distinct in growth form and phenology from paired populations growing nearby ( 0.34), which were only weakly differentiated from each other (all F (ST) geothermal gradient in Yellowstone.

  17. Vegetation monitoring to detect and predict vegetation change: Connecting historical and future shrub/steppe data in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Chong; David Barnett; Benjamin Chemel; Roy Renkin; Pamela Sikkink

    2011-01-01

    A 2002 National Research Council (NRC) evaluation of ungulate management practices in Yellowstone specifically concluded that previous (1957 to present) vegetation monitoring efforts were insufficient to determine whether climate or ungulates were more influential on shrub/steppe dynamics on the northern ungulate winter range. The NRC further recommended that the...

  18. Carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park predicted from remote sensing data and simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Crabtree, Robert; Huang, Shengli; Gross, Peggy; Genovese, Vanessa

    2011-08-11

    A simulation model based on remote sensing data for spatial vegetation properties has been used to estimate ecosystem carbon fluxes across Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was applied at a regional scale to estimate seasonal and annual carbon fluxes as net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration components. Predicted net ecosystem production (NEP) flux of CO2 is estimated from the model for carbon sinks and sources over multi-year periods that varied in climate and (wildfire) disturbance histories. Monthly Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) image coverages from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument (from 2000 to 2006) were direct inputs to the model. New map products have been added to CASA from airborne remote sensing of coarse woody debris (CWD) in areas burned by wildfires over the past two decades. Model results indicated that relatively cooler and wetter summer growing seasons were the most favorable for annual plant production and net ecosystem carbon gains in representative landscapes of YNP. When summed across vegetation class areas, the predominance of evergreen forest and shrubland (sagebrush) cover was evident, with these two classes together accounting for 88% of the total annual NPP flux of 2.5 Tg C yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for the entire Yellowstone study area from 2000-2006. Most vegetation classes were estimated as net ecosystem sinks of atmospheric CO2 on annual basis, making the entire study area a moderate net sink of about +0.13 Tg C yr-1. This average sink value for forested lands nonetheless masks the contribution of areas burned during the 1988 wildfires, which were estimated as net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, totaling to a NEP flux of -0.04 Tg C yr-1 for the entire burned area. Several areas burned in the 1988 wildfires were estimated to be among the lowest in overall yearly NPP, namely the Hellroaring Fire, Mink Fire, and Falls Fire areas. Rates of

  19. Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA, part 1: energetics and eruption dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Murphy, Fred; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Manga, Michael; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2013-01-01

    Geysers provide a natural laboratory to study multiphase eruptive processes. We present results from a four–day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We simultaneously measured water discharge, acoustic emissions, infraredintensity, and visible and infrared video to quantify the energetics and dynamics of eruptions, occurring approximately every three hours. We define four phases in the eruption cycle: 1) a 28 ± 3 minute phase with liquid and steam fountaining, with maximum jet velocities of 16–28 m s− 1, steam mass fraction of less than ∼ 0.01. Intermittently choked flow and flow oscillations with periods increasing from 20 to 40 s are coincident with a decrease in jet velocity and an increase of steam fraction; 2) a 26 ± 8 minute post–eruption relaxation phase with no discharge from the vent, infrared (IR) and acoustic power oscillations gliding between 30 and 40 s; 3) a 59 ± 13 minute recharge period during which the geyser is quiescent and progressively refills, and 4) a 69 ± 14 minute pre–play period characterized by a series of 5–10 minute–long pulses of steam, small volumes of liquid water discharge and 50–70 s flow oscillations. The erupted waters ascend froma 160 − 170° C reservoir and the volume discharged during the entire eruptive cycle is 20.8 ± 4.1 m3. Assuming isentropic expansion, we calculate a heat output from the geyser of 1.4–1.5 MW, which is < 0.1% of the total heat output from Yellowstone Caldera.

  20. Population Dynamics of Wolves and Coyotes at Yellowstone National Park: Modeling Interference Competition with an Infectious Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Krystal; Barley, Kamal; Mubayi, Anuj

    2014-01-01

    Gray wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in 1995. The population initially flourished, but since 2003 the population has experience significant reductions due to factors that may include disease-induced mortality, illegal hunting, park control pro- grams, vehicle induced deaths and intra-species aggression. Despite facing similar conditions, and interference competition with the wolves, the coyote population at YNP has persisted. In this paper we introduce an epidemiol...

  1. Geoarchaeota: a new candidate phylum in the Archaea from high-temperature acidic iron mats in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Kozubal, Mark A; Romine, Margaret; Jennings, Ryan deM; Jay, Zack J; Tringe, Susannah G; Rusch, Doug B; Beam, Jacob P; McCue, Lee Ann; Inskeep, William P

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an outstanding opportunity to understand the origin and evolution of metabolic processes necessary for life in extreme environments including low pH, high temperature, low oxygen and elevated concentrations of reduced iron. Previous phylogenetic studies of acidic ferric iron mats from YNP have revealed considerable diversity of uncultivated and undescribed archaea. The goal of this study was to obtain replicate de novo genome assem...

  2. 76 FR 27087 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... one of several methods. Internet: We encourage you to comment via the Internet at http://parkplanning... regarding Yellowstone in the winter, including educational materials and a detailed history of winter use in...

  3. Direct Measurement of the Volume of Liquid Water Emitted During Eruptions of Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F.; Hurwitz, S.; Johnston, M. J.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Pontbriand, C.; Sohn, R. A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rudolph, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    In September, 2010 a comprehensive series of instrumental observations was carried out at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park to measure changes in the geyser and its surroundings during eruptions. That project included measurements of flow in the streams that drain the geyser area. Three small streams convey liquid water from the geyser and many of the surrounding hot springs to the Firehole River, about 75 m south of the geyser cone. We developed rating curves for two of these streams by measuring channel cross-sections and timing floating markers (using stopwatches and video recordings) while simultaneously recording stream depth at two-second intervals at two locations using pressure transducers and dataloggers. We estimated the flow in the third (ungaged) stream to be 0.15 of the flow in the easternmost stream, with which it shares a source area and part of its channel. The eruption cycle takes about 3 hours, and a total of nine eruption cycles were observed. During these 3-hour cycles the geyser and the nearby hot springs deliver a total of between 15 and 28 m3 of water to the Firehole River. During the 10-20 minutes of the main phase of an eruption, the geyser delivered between 8 and 11 m3 of water to the three streams. The volume of water emitted during eruptions appears to display a significant diurnal variation which strongly correlates with air temperature, with significantly more flow during early afternoon hours. There were also significant variations in the distribution of flow between the different channels. Our calculations suggest that losses due to evaporation along the flow channels are negligible, and losses due to infiltration appear to be small. The calculated volumes of water discharge do not account for the volume of erupted steam or evaporation of liquid water from the jet. Steam discharge will be assessed using image analysis of high speed video. The calculated volumes provide accurate and important constraint for models of

  4. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: IV Acid-sulfate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Ball, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Many waters sampled in Yellowstone National Park, both high-temperature (30-94 ??C) and low-temperature (0-30 ??C), are acid-sulfate type with pH values of 1-5. Sulfuric acid is the dominant component, especially as pH values decrease below 3, and it forms from the oxidation of elemental S whose origin is H2S in hot gases derived from boiling of hydrothermal waters at depth. Four determinations of pH were obtained: (1) field pH at field temperature, (2) laboratory pH at laboratory temperature, (3) pH based on acidity titration, and (4) pH based on charge imbalance (at both laboratory and field temperatures). Laboratory pH, charge imbalance pH (at laboratory temperature), and acidity pH were in close agreement for pH ??10%, a selection process was used to compare acidity, laboratory, and charge balance pH to arrive at the best estimate. Differences between laboratory and field pH can be explained based on Fe oxidation, H2S or S2O3 oxidation, CO2 degassing, and the temperature-dependence of pK2 for H2SO4. Charge imbalances are shown to be dependent on a speciation model for pH values 350 mg/L Cl) decrease as the Cl- concentration increases from boiling which appears inconsistent with the hypothesis of H2S oxidation as a source of hydrothermal SO4. This trend is consistent with the alternate hypothesis of anhydrite solubility equilibrium. Acid-sulfate water analyses are occasionally high in As, Hg, and NH3 concentrations but in contrast to acid mine waters they are low to below detection in Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations. Even concentrations of SO4, Fe, and Al are much lower in thermal waters than acid mine waters of the same pH. This difference in water chemistry may explain why certain species of fly larvae live comfortably in Yellowstone's acid waters but have not been observed in acid rock drainage of the same pH.

  5. Group composition effects on aggressive interpack interactions of gray wolves in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A.; MacNulty, Daniel R.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of characteristics that promote group success during intraspecific encounters is key to understanding the adaptive advantages of sociality for many group-living species. In addition, some individuals in a group may be more likely than others to influence intergroup conflicts, a relatively neglected idea in research on social animals. Here we use observations of aggressive interactions between wolf (Canis lupus) packs over an extended period and use pack characteristics to determine which groups had an advantage over their opponents. During 16 years of observation in Yellowstone National Park from 1995 to 2010, we documented 121 interpack aggressive interactions. We recorded pack sizes, compositions, and spatial orientation related to residency to determine their effects on the outcomes of interactions between packs. Relative pack size (RPS) improved the odds of a pack displacing its opponent. However, pack composition moderated the effect of RPS as packs with relatively more old members (>6.0 years old) or adult males had higher odds of winning despite a numerical disadvantage. The location of the interaction with respect to pack territories had no effect on the outcome of interpack interactions. Although the importance of RPS in successful territorial defense suggests the evolution and maintenance of group living may be at least partly due to larger packs’ success during interpack interactions, group composition is also an important factor, highlighting that some individuals are more valuable than others during interpack conflicts.

  6. Interactions between wolves and female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2004-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) by the 1920s through predator control actions (Murie 1940,Young and Goldman 1944, Weaver 1978), then reintroduced into the park from 1995 to 1996 to restore ecological integrity and adhere to legal mandates (Bangs and Fritts 1996, Phillips and Smith 1996, Smith et al. 2000). Prior to reintroduction, the potential effects of wolves on the region’s threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population were evaluated (Servheen and Knight 1993). In areas where wolves and grizzly bears are sympatric, interspecific killing by both species occasionally occurs (Ballard 1980, 1982; Hayes and Baer 1992). Most agonistic interactions between wolves and grizzly bears involve defense of young or competition for carcasses (Murie 1944, 1981; Ballard 1982; Hornbeck and Horejsi 1986; Hayes and Mossop 1987; Kehoe 1995; McNulty et al. 2001). Servheen and Knight (1993) predicted that reintroduced wolves could reduce the frequency of winter-killed and disease-killed ungulates available for bears to scavenge, and that grizzly bears would occasionally usurp wolf-killed ungulate carcasses. Servheen and Knight (1993) hypothesized that interspecific killing and competition for carcasses would have little or no population level effect on either species.

  7. Bottom-up factors influencing riparian willow recovery in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercek, M.T.; Stottlemyer, R.; Renkin, R.

    2010-01-01

    After the elimination of wolves (Canis lupis L.) in the 1920s, woody riparian plant communities on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) declined an estimated 50%. After the reintroduction of wolves in 19951996, riparian willows (Salix spp.) on YNP's northern range showed significant growth for the first time since the 1920s. However, the pace of willow recovery has not been uniform. Some communities have exceeded 400 cm, while others are still at pre-1995 levels of 250 cm max. height) willow sites where willows had escaped elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing with "short" willow sites that could still be browsed. Unlike studies that manipulated willow height with fences and artificial dams, we examined sites that had natural growth differences in height since the reintroduction of wolves. Tall willow sites had greater water availability, more-rapid net soil nitrogen mineralization, greater snow depth, lower soil respiration rates, and cooler summer soil temperatures than nearby short willow sites. Most of these differences were measured both in herbaceous areas adjacent to the willow patches and in the willow patches themselves, suggesting that they were not effects of varying willow height recovery but were instead preexisting site differences that may have contributed to increased plant productivity. Our results agree with earlier studies in experimental plots which suggest that the varying pace of willow recovery has been influenced by abiotic limiting factors that interact with top-down reductions in willow browsing by elk. ?? 2010 Western North American Naturalist.

  8. Research Coordination Network: Geothermal Biology and Geochemistry in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Young, M. J.; Jay, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The number and diversity of geothermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) represent a fascinating array of high temperature geochemical environments that host a corresponding number of unique and potentially novel organisms in all of the three recognized domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. The geothermal features of YNP have long been the subject of scientific inquiry, especially in the fields of microbiology, geochemistry, geothermal hydrology, microbial ecology, and population biology. However, there are no organized forums for scientists working in YNP geothermal areas to present research results, exchange ideas, discuss research priorities, and enhance synergism among research groups. The primary goal of the YNP Research Coordination Network (GEOTHERM) is to develop a more unified effort among scientists and resource agencies to characterize, describe, understand and inventory the diverse biota associated with geothermal habitats in YNP. The YNP RCN commenced in January 2005 as a collaborative effort among numerous university scientists, governmental agencies and private industry. The YNP RCN hosted a workshop in February 2006 to discuss research results and to form three working groups focused on (i) web-site and digital library content, (ii) metagenomics of thermophilic microbial communities and (iii) development of geochemical methods appropriate for geomicrobiological studies. The working groups represent one strategy for enhancing communication, collaboration and most importantly, productivity among the RCN participants. If you have an interest in the geomicrobiology of geothermal systems, please feel welcome to join and or participate in the YNP RCN.

  9. Heat‐tolerant Flowering Plants of Active Geothermal Areas in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOUT, RICHARD G.; AL‐NIEMI, THAMIR S.

    2002-01-01

    A broad survey of most of the major geyser basins within Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) was conducted to identify the flowering plants which tolerate high rhizosphere temperatures (≥40 °C) in geothermally heated environments. Under such conditions, five species of monocots and four species of dicots were repeatedly found. The predominant flowering plants in hot soils (>40 °C at 2–5 cm depth) were grasses, primarily Dichanthelium lanuginosum. Long‐term (weeks to months) rhizosphere temperatures of individual D. lanuginosum above 40 °C were recorded at several different locations, both in the summer and winter. The potential role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the apparent adaptation of these plants to chronically high rhizosphere temperatures was examined. Antibodies to cytoplasmic class I small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and to HSP101 were used in Western immunoblot analyses of protein extracts from plants collected from geothermally heated soils. Relatively high levels of proteins reacting with anti‐sHSP antibodies were consistently detected in root extracts from plants experiencing rhizosphere temperatures above 40 °C, though these proteins were usually not highly expressed in leaf extracts from the same plants. Proteins reacting with antibodies to HSP101 were also present both in leaf and root extracts from plants collected from geothermal soils, but their levels of expression were not as closely related to the degree of heat exposure as those of sHSPs. PMID:12197524

  10. Eruptions at Lone Star geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 2. Constraints on subsurface dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Sohn, Robert A.; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Manga, Michael; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Soule, S. Adam; McPhee, Darcy K.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Karlstrom, Leif; Murphy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We use seismic, tilt, lidar, thermal, and gravity data from 32 consecutive eruption cycles of Lone Star geyser in Yellowstone National Park to identify key subsurface processes throughout the geyser's eruption cycle. Previously, we described measurements and analyses associated with the geyser's erupting jet dynamics. Here we show that seismicity is dominated by hydrothermal tremor (~5–40 Hz) attributed to the nucleation and/or collapse of vapor bubbles. Water discharge during eruption preplay triggers high-amplitude tremor pulses from a back azimuth aligned with the geyser cone, but during the rest of the eruption cycle it is shifted to the east-northeast. Moreover, ~4 min period ground surface displacements recur every 26 ± 8 min and are uncorrelated with the eruption cycle. Based on these observations, we conclude that (1) the dynamical behavior of the geyser is controlled by the thermo-mechanical coupling between the geyser conduit and a laterally offset reservoir periodically filled with a highly compressible two-phase mixture, (2) liquid and steam slugs periodically ascend into the shallow crust near the geyser system inducing detectable deformation, (3) eruptions occur when the pressure decrease associated with overflow from geyser conduit during preplay triggers an unstable feedback between vapor generation (cavitation) and mass discharge, and (4) flow choking at a constriction in the conduit arrests the runaway process and increases the saturated vapor pressure in the reservoir by a factor of ~10 during eruptions.

  11. Formaldehyde as a carbon and electron shuttle between autotroph and heterotroph populations in acidic hydrothermal vents of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Romine, Margaret F.; Riha, Krystin M.; Inskeep, William P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2016-03-19

    The Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains a large number of hydrothermal systems, which host microbial populations supported by primary productivity associated with a suite of chemolithotrophic metabolisms. We demonstrate that Metallosphaera yellowstonesis MK1, a facultative autotrophic archaeon isolated from a hyperthermal acidic hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) spring in Norris Geyser Basin, excretes formaldehyde during autotrophic growth. To determine the fate of formaldehyde in this low organic carbon environment, we incubated native microbial mat (containing M. yellowstonensis) from a HFO spring with 13C-formaldehyde. Isotopic analysis of incubation-derived CO2 and biomass showed that formaldehyde was both oxidized and assimilated by members of the community. Autotrophy, formaldehyde oxidation, and formaldehyde assimilation displayed different sensitivities to chemical inhibitors, suggesting that distinct sub-populations in the mat selectively perform these functions. Our results demonstrate that electrons originally resulting from iron oxidation can energetically fuel autotrophic carbon fixation and associated formaldehyde excretion, and that formaldehyde is both oxidized and assimilated by different organisms within the native microbial community. Thus, formaldehyde can effectively act as a carbon and electron shuttle connecting the autotrophic, iron oxidizing members with associated heterotrophic members in the HFO community.

  12. Hydrogeology of the Old Faithful area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and its relevance to natural resources and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Foley, Duncan; Fournier, Robert O.; Heasler, Henry P.; Hinckley, Bern; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    A panel of leading experts (The Old Faithful Science Review Panel) was convened by Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to review and summarize the geological and hydrological understanding that can inform National Park Service management of the Upper Geyser Basin area. We give an overview of present geological and hydrological knowledge of the Old Faithful hydrothermal (hot water) system and related thermal areas in the Upper Geyser Basin. We prioritize avenues for improving our understanding of key knowledge gaps that limit informed decision-making regarding human use in this fragile natural landscape. Lastly, we offer guidelines to minimize impacts to the hydrothermal system that could be used to aid decisions by park management.

  13. Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Matthew C; Smith, Douglas W; Vucetich, John A; Stahler, Daniel R; Peterson, Rolf O

    2012-05-01

    1. For large predators living in seasonal environments, patterns of predation are likely to vary among seasons because of related changes in prey vulnerability. Variation in prey vulnerability underlies the influence of predators on prey populations and the response of predators to seasonal variation in rates of biomass acquisition. Despite its importance, seasonal variation in predation is poorly understood. 2. We assessed seasonal variation in prey composition and kill rate for wolves Canis lupus living on the Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park. Our assessment was based on data collected over 14 winters (1995-2009) and five spring-summers between 2004 and 2009. 3. The species composition of wolf-killed prey and the age and sex composition of wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (the primary prey for NR wolves) varied among seasons. 4. One's understanding of predation depends critically on the metric used to quantify kill rate. For example, kill rate was greatest in summer when quantified as the number of ungulates acquired per wolf per day, and least during summer when kill rate was quantified as the biomass acquired per wolf per day. This finding contradicts previous research that suggests that rates of biomass acquisition for large terrestrial carnivores tend not to vary among seasons. 5. Kill rates were not well correlated among seasons. For example, knowing that early-winter kill rate is higher than average (compared with other early winters) provides little basis for anticipating whether kill rates a few months later during late winter will be higher or lower than average (compared with other late winters). This observation indicates how observing, for example, higher-than-average kill rates throughout any particular season is an unreliable basis for inferring that the year-round average kill rate would be higher than average. 6. Our work shows how a large carnivore living in a seasonal environment displays marked seasonal variation in

  14. Insights into Near-Surface Structural Control of Hydrothermal Fluid Movement at Rabbit Creek Thermal Area, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, B.; Elliot, M.; Sims, K. W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Recent geophysical imaging efforts at Yellowstone National Park have generated questions about the geologic controls of hydrothermal fluid movement within the parks thermal areas. Currently, faults and lava flow contacts are assumed to be the primary permeability pathways for deeper fluid migration to the surface. Although intuition dictates that these structures are responsible, few studies have definitively shown that this is true. Earlier geophysical imaging efforts of phase separation in Norris Geyser Basin have shown strong evidence for fractures and faulting conducting hydrothermal waters. However, no geologically mapped faults are at the surface to confirm these interpretations. Therefore, during the summer of 2017, UW surface geophysical data acquisition focused on understanding the geologic controls for a thermal area within the well-mapped Rabbit Creek Fault Zone (RCFZ). The RCFZ strikes N-S along the eastern edge of Midway Geyser Basin (i.e. the western edge of the Mallard Lake Dome) about 2.8 Km SE of Grand Prismatic spring. The section of the fault zone within the Rabbit Creek thermal area is exposed on the eastern valley wall and dips steeply to the west. Regardless at our site, this puts the two of the plateau rhyolites (i.e. the Biscuit Basin Flow and Mallard Lake flow) next to each other ( 100 m apart) with a small amount of overlying alluvial, glacial and hydrothermal deposits covering the actual fault trace. Interestingly, at least two mapped reverse faults from the Mallard Lake Dome trend NW-SE into the site and are interpreted to intersect to the RCFZ. At RCFZ, DC resistivity and seismic refraction profiling combined with Self-Potential, Magnetics, and Transient Electromagnetic soundings were acquired to provide images and in situ geophysical properties. These data highlight the variable fracturing and surface expressions of the hydrothermal fluids associated with the RCFZ and the NW trending fault zone associated with the Mallard Lake Dome

  15. Utilizing Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry with Airborne Visual and Thermal Images to Monitor Thermal Areas in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, B. B.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) are constantly changing. Persistent monitoring of these areas is necessary to better understand the behavior and potential hazards of both the thermal features and the deeper hydrothermal system driving the observed surface activity. As part of the Park's monitoring program, thousands of visual and thermal infrared (TIR) images have been acquired from a variety of airborne platforms over the past decade. We have used structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques to generate a variety of data products from these images, including orthomosaics, temperature maps, and digital elevation models (DEMs). Temperature maps were generated for Upper Geyser Basin and Norris Geyser Basin for the years 2009-2015, by applying SfM to nighttime TIR images collected from an aircraft-mounted forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera. Temperature data were preserved through the SfM processing by applying a uniform linear stretch over the entire image set to convert between temperature and a 16-bit digital number. Mosaicked temperature maps were compared to the original FLIR image frames and to ground-based temperature data to constrain the accuracy of the method. Due to pixel averaging and resampling, among other issues, the derived temperature values are typically within 5-10 ° of the values of the un-resampled image frame. We also created sub-meter resolution DEMs from airborne daytime visual images of individual thermal areas. These DEMs can be used for resource and hazard management, and in cases where multiple DEMs exist from different times, for measuring topographic change, including change due to thermal activity. For example, we examined the sensitivity of the DEMs to topographic change by comparing DEMs of the travertine terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, which can grow at > 1 m per year. These methods are generally applicable to images from airborne platforms, including planes, helicopters, and unmanned aerial

  16. Wolverine in Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Murphy; Jason Wilmot; Jeff Copeland; Dan Tyers; John. Squires

    2011-01-01

    The wolverine is one of the least studied carnivores in North America, particularly in the contiguous United States where it occurs at the southern extent of its range. This project documented the distribution of wolverines in the eastern portion of Yellowstone National Park and adjoining areas of national forest and their population characteristics, habitat...

  17. Triggering and modulation of geyser eruptions in Yellowstone National Park by earthquakes, earth tides, and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert A.; Luttrell, Karen; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We analyze intervals between eruptions (IBEs) data acquired between 2001 and 2011 at Daisy and Old Faithful geysers in Yellowstone National Park. We focus our statistical analysis on the response of these geysers to stress perturbations from within the solid earth (earthquakes and earth tides) and from weather (air pressure and temperature, precipitation, and wind). We conclude that (1) the IBEs of these geysers are insensitive to periodic stresses induced by solid earth tides and barometric pressure variations; (2) Daisy (pool geyser) IBEs lengthen by evaporation and heat loss in response to large wind storms and cold air; and (3) Old Faithful (cone geyser) IBEs are not modulated by air temperature and pressure variations, wind, and precipitation, suggesting that the subsurface water column is decoupled from the atmosphere. Dynamic stress changes of 0.1−0.2 MPa resulting from the 2002 M-7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake surface waves caused a statistically significant shortening of Daisy geyser's IBEs. Stresses induced by other large global earthquakes during the study period were at least an order of magnitude smaller. In contrast, dynamic stresses of >0.5 MPa from three large regional earthquakes in 1959, 1975, and 1983 caused lengthening of Old Faithful's IBEs. We infer that most subannual geyser IBE variability is dominated by internal processes and interaction with other geysers. The results of this study provide quantitative bounds on the sensitivity of hydrothermal systems to external stress perturbations and have implications for studying the triggering and modulation of volcanic eruptions by external forces.

  18. A serological survey of infectious disease in Yellowstone National Park's canid community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S; Mech, L David; Smith, Douglas W; Sheldon, Jennifer W; Crabtree, Robert L

    2009-09-16

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [>or=1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [>or=1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [>or=5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky

  19. Importance of dispersal and thermal environment for mycorrhizal communities: lessons from Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Meadow, James; Rohr, Jason R; Redecker, Dirk; Zabinski, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    The relative importance of dispersal and niche restrictions remains a controversial topic in community ecology, especially for microorganisms that are often assumed to be ubiquitous. We investigated the impact of these factors for the community assembly of the root-symbiont arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by sampling roots from geothermal and nonthermal grasslands in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), followed by sequencing and RFLP of AMF ribosomal DNA. With the exception of an apparent generalist RFLP type closely related to Glomus intraradices, a distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that the AMF community composition correlated with soil pH or pH-driven changes in soil chemistry. This was unexpected, given the large differences in soil temperature and plant community composition between the geothermal and nonthermal grasslands. RFLP types were found in either the acidic geothermal grasslands or in the neutral to alkaline grasslands, one of which was geothermal. The direct effect of the soil chemical environment on the distribution of two AMF morphospecies isolated from acidic geothermal grasslands was supported in a controlled greenhouse experiment. Paraglomus occultum and Scutellospora pellucida were more beneficial to plants and formed significantly more spores when grown in acidic than in alkaline soil. Distance among grasslands, used as an estimate of dispersal limitations, was not a significant predictor of AMF community similarity within YNP, and most fungal taxa may be part of a metacommunity. The isolation of several viable AMF taxa from bison feces indicates that wide-ranging bison could be a vector for at least some RFLP types among grasslands within YNP. In support of classical niche theory and the Baas-Becking hypothesis, our results suggest that AMF are not limited by dispersal at the scale of YNP, but that the soil environment appears to be the primary factor affecting community composition and distribution.

  20. Seeking a scientific approach to backcountry management in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Thomas Olliff; Sue Consolo Murphy

    2000-01-01

    Three criteria are used to assess how Yellowstone’s wilderness managers incorporate science into management: preciousness, vulnerability and responsiveness to management. Four observations are proposed. First, where scientists lead, managers will follow. Scientists that leave the best trail will be followed most closely. Second, managers need to refocus efforts on...

  1. A Serological Survey of Infectious Disease in Yellowstone National Park’s Canid Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991–2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5–0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [≥1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5–1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [≥1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6–4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [≥5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals’ odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might

  2. A serological survey of infectious disease in Yellowstone National Park's canid community.

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    Emily S Almberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray wolves (Canis lupus were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans, and red fox (Vulpes vulpes serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%, canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [>or=1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [>or=1.6 yrs]: 83%, and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [>or=5 yrs]: 87% suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future

  3. A serological survey of infectious disease in Yellowstone National Park's canid community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, E.S.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.; Sheldon, J.W.; Crabtree, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991–2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5–0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [≥1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5–1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [≥1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6–4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [≥5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals’ odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics

  4. An REU Project on the Precambrian Rocks of Yellowstone National Park: Some lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Mueller, P. A.; Foster, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    An NSF-funded REU project (2011-2013), based in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), was designed to characterize the geology, geochemistry and geochronology of Precambrian rocks in northern YNP. Over two field seasons two cadres of 12 students (12 women and 12 men) were chosen from small-to-large state universities and private colleges. REU students participated in three major activities constituting a complete research experience: Field studies involved geologic mapping and sampling of Precambrian basement; formulation of testable research questions by smaller working groups; and mapping and sampling projects to address research questions; Analytical studies, sample preparation immediately followed field work with petrographic analysis at students' home institutions and a week-long visit to analytical laboratories to conduct follow-up studies by small research groups during the academic year (Univ. Florida - geochemistry and geochronology; Univ. Minnesota - EMPA analysis); Communicating results, each working group submitted an abstract and collectively presented 13 posters at the 2011 and 2012 GSA Rocky Mountain sectional meetings. We used directed discovery to engage students in a community of practice in the field and found that a long apprenticeship (2-3 weeks) is optimal for novice-master interactions in exploring natural setting. Initial group hikes were used to normalize methods and language of the discipline. Students developed a sense of ownership of the overall project and assumed personal responsibility for directed research projects. Training was provided to: guide students in selection and appropriate use of tools; develop sampling strategies; discuss communal ethics, values, and expectations; develop efficient work habits; stimulate independent thinking; and engage decision-making. It was important to scaffold the field experience to students' level of development to lead to mastery. Analytical activities were designed from rock to analysis so that each

  5. The natural food habits of grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park, 1973-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Stephen Patrick

    1980-01-01

     The natural food habits of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord) in Yellowstone National Park were investigated in 1973-74 to identify the grizzly's energy sources and trophic level(s), nutrient use, and distribution. Food consumption was determined by scat analysis and field observations. Food quality and digestibility were estimated by chemical analysis. Grizzlies were distributed in 3 distinctive feeding economies: valley/plateau, a grass/rodent economy where grizzlies were intensive diggers; mountain, primarily a grass/springbeauty/root economy where grizzlies were casual diggers; and lake, primarily a fish/grass economy where grizzlies were fishers. The economies occured in areas with fertile soils; distribution of bears within each was related to the occurrence of succulent plants. The feeding cycle in the valley/plateau and mountain economies followed plant phenology. Grizzlies fed primarily on meat before green-up and on succulent herbs afterwards; meat, corms, berries, and nuts became important during the postgrowing season. Succulent grasses and sedges with an importance value percentage of 78.5 were the most important food items consumed. Protein from animal tissue was more digestible than protein from plant tissue. Storage fats were more digestible than structural fats. Food energy and digestibility were directly related. Five principle nutrient materials (listed with their percentage digestibilities) contributed to total energy intake: protein from succulent herbs, 42.8; protein and fat from animal material, 78.1; fat and protein from pine nuts, 73.6; starch, 78.8; and sugar from berries and fruits, digestibility undetermined. Protein from succulent herbs, with a nutritive value percentage of 77.3, was the grizzlies' primary energy source. Because succulent, preflowering herbs had higher protein levels than dry, mature herbs, grizzly use of succulent herbs guaranteed them the highest source of herbaceous protein. Low protein digestibility of

  6. Predicting breeding habitat for amphibians: a spatiotemporal analysis across Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E; Gallant, Alisa L; Klaver, Robert W; Wright, Chris K; Patla, Debra A; Peterson, Charles R

    2011-10-01

    The ability to predict amphibian breeding across landscapes is important for informing land management decisions and helping biologists better understand and remediate factors contributing to declines in amphibian populations. We built geospatial models of likely breeding habitats for each of four amphibian species that breed in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). We used field data collected in 2000-2002 from 497 sites among 16 basins and predictor variables from geospatial models produced from remotely sensed data (e.g., digital elevation model, complex topographic index, landform data, wetland probability, and vegetative cover). Except for 31 sites in one basin that were surveyed in both 2000 and 2002, all sites were surveyed once. We used polytomous regression to build statistical models for each species of amphibian from (1) field survey site data only, (2) field data combined with data from geospatial models, and (3) data from geospatial models only. Based on measures of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scores, models of the second type best explained likely breeding habitat because they contained the most information (ROC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.88). However, models of the third type could be applied to the entire YNP landscape and produced maps that could be verified with reserve field data. Accuracy rates for models built for single years were highly variable, ranging from 0.30 to 0.78. Accuracy rates for models built with data combined from multiple years were higher and less variable, ranging from 0.60 to 0.80. Combining results from the geospatial multiyear models yielded maps of "core" breeding areas (areas with high probability values for all three years) surrounded by areas that scored high for only one or two years, providing an estimate of variability among years. Such information can highlight landscape options for amphibian conservation. For example, our models identify alternative areas that could be protected for each species

  7. Characterization of organic matter in lake sediments from Minnesota and Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of sediment from lakes in Minnesota and Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), hydrogen richness by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope composition of bulk organic matter. Values of delta 13C of lake plankton tend to be around -28 to -32 parts per thousand (0/00). Organic matter with values of delta 13C in the high negative 20s overlap with those of organic matter derived from C3 higher terrestrial plants but are at least 10 0/00 more depleted in 13C than organic matter derived from C4 terrestrial plants. If the organic matter is produced mainly by photosynthetic plankton and is not oxidized in the water column, there may be a negative correlation between H-richness (Rock-Eval pyrolysis H-index) and delta 13C, with more H-rich, algal organic matter having lower values of delta 13C. However, if aquatic organic matter is oxidized in the water column, or if the organic matter is a mixture of terrestrial and aquatic organic matter, then there may be no correlation between H-richness and carbon-isotopic composition. Values of delta 13C lower than about -28 0/00 probably indicate a contribution of bacterial biomass produced in the hypolimnion by chemoautotrophy or methanotrophy. In highly eutrophic lakes in which large amounts of 13C-depleted organic matter is continually removed from the epilimnion by photosynthesis throughout the growing season, the entire carbon reservoir in the epilimnion may become severely 13C-enriched so that 13C-enriched photosynthetic organic matter may overprint 13C-depleted chemosynthetic bacterial organic matter produced in the hypolimnon. Most processes involved with the nitrogen cycle in lakes, such as production of ammonia and nitrate, tend to produce 15N-enriched values of delta 15N. Most Minnesota lake sediments are 15N-enriched. However, some of the more OC-rich sediments have delta 15N values close to zero (delta 15N of air), suggesting that organic matter production is

  8. Pyrobaculum Yellowstonensis Strain WP30 Respires On Elemental Sulfur And/or Arsenate in Circumneutral Sulfidic Sediments of Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, Z.; Beam, Jake; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lohmayer, R.; Bodle, B.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Inskeep, William

    2015-09-15

    Thermoproteales populations (phylum Crenarchaeota) are abundant in high-25 temperature (>70° C) environments of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are important in mediating biogeochemical cycles of sulfur, arsenic and carbon. The objectives of this study were to determine specific physiological attributes of the isolate Pyrobaculum yellowstonensis strain WP30, which was obtained from an elemental sulfur sediment (Joseph’s Coat Hot Spring [JCHS]; 80 °C; pH 6.1), and relate this organism to geochemical processes occurring in situ. Strain WP30 is a chemoheterotroph that utilizes organic carbon as a source of carbon and electrons and requires elemental sulfur and/or arsenic as electron acceptors. Growth in the presence of elemental sulfur and arsenate resulted in the production of thioarsenates and polysulfides relative to sterile controls. The complete genome of this organism was sequenced (1.99 Mb, 58 % G+C) and revealed numerous metabolic pathways for the degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids, multiple dimethylsulfoxide molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the reduction of sulfur and arsenic, and pathways for the de novo synthesis of nearly all required cofactors and metabolites. Comparative genomics of P. yellowstonensis versus assembled metagenome sequence from JCHS showed that this organisms is highly-related (~95% average nucleotide identity) to in situ populations. The physiological attributes and metabolic capabilities of P. yellowstonensis provide importanat information towards understanding the distribution and function of these populations in YNP.

  9. Using monitoring data to map amphibian breeding hotspots and describe wetland vulnerability in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Legg, Kristin; Sepulveda, Adam; Hossack, Blake R.; Patla, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians have been selected as a “vital sign” by several National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) networks. An eight-year amphibian monitoring data set provided opportunities to examine spatial and temporal patterns in amphibian breeding richness and wetland desiccation across Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. Amphibian breeding richness was variable across both parks and only four of 31 permanent monitoring catchments contained all four widely distributed species. Annual breeding richness was also variable through time and fluctuated by as much as 75% in some years and catchments. Wetland desiccation was also documented across the region, but alone did not explain variations in amphibian richness. High annual variability across the region emphasizes the need for multiple years of monitoring to accurately describe amphibian richness and wetland desiccation dynamics.

  10. Beaver damming, fluvial geomorphology, and climate in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, L.; Meyer, G.

    2008-12-01

    Beaver habitation is an important component of many fluvial landscapes that can impact a variety of hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic processes. Beaver damming, via long term valley aggradation, is thought to be important to the postglacial geomorphic evolution of many smaller mountain stream networks in the western United States. Loss of beaver dams can also cause rapid channel incision. Although several studies have documented rapid short-term aggradation of channels behind single beaver dams, there is little actual data on the long-term cumulative effect of beaver damming. In Yellowstone''s Northern Range, field surveys and stratigraphic section along six streams in the Northern Range reveal net thickness of mostly beaver-pond deposits. We estimate that reaches with clear morphologic and stratigraphic evidence for beaver-related aggradation constitute about 19% of the total stream network length. Reaches with probable and possible beaver-related aggradation make up an additional 8% and 2% of the network, respectively. The remaining 71% of the network has no clear evidence for beaver-related aggradation. Thirty-nine radiocarbon ages on beaver-pond deposits in northern Yellowstone fall primarily within the last 4000 yr, but gaps in dated beaver occupation from 2200-1800 and 950-750 cal yr BP correspond with severe and persistent droughts that likely caused low to ephemeral discharges in smaller streams. In the last two decades, severe drought has also caused streams that were occupied by beaver in the 1920s to become ephemeral. Beaver have been largely absent from the Northern Range since the mid-20th century, probably due to multiple ecological and climatic factors. This loss of beaver is thought to have led to widespread degradation of stream and riparian habitat via channel incision. Although 20th-century beaver loss has caused significant channel incision at some former dam sites, downcutting elsewhere in northern Yellowstone is unrelated to beaver dams or

  11. Large carnivores response to recreational big game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, T.E.; Smith, D.W.; Haroldson, M.A.; Buotte, P.C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Quigley, H.B.; Cherry, S.; Tyres, D.; Frey, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem contains the rare combination of an intact guild of native large carnivores, their prey, and differing land management policies (National Park versus National Forest; no hunting versus hunting). Concurrent field studies on large carnivores allowed us to investigate activities of humans and carnivores on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) northern boundary. Prior to and during the backcountry big-game hunting season, we monitored movements of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and cougars (Puma concolor) on the northern boundary of YNP. Daily aerial telemetry locations (September 1999), augmented with weekly telemetry locations (August and October 1999), were obtained for 3 grizzly bears, 7 wolves in 2 groups of 1 pack, and 3 cougars in 1 family group. Grizzly bears were more likely located inside the YNP boundary during the pre-hunt period and north of the boundary once hunting began. The cougar family tended to be found outside YNP during the pre-hunt period and moved inside YNP when hunting began. Wolves did not significantly change their movement patterns during the pre-hunt and hunting periods. Qualitative information on elk (Cervus elaphus) indicated they moved into YNP once hunting started, suggesting that cougars followed living prey or responded to hunting activity, grizzly bears focused on dead prey (e.g., gut piles, crippled elk), and wolves may have taken advantage of both. Measures of association (Jacob's Index) were positive within carnivore species but inconclusive among species. Further collaborative research and the use of new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand these species, the carnivore community and its interactions, and human influences on carnivores.

  12. Environmental Conditions Constrain the Distribution and Diversity of Archaeal merA in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Boyd, E.; Crane, S.; Lu-Irving, P.; Krabbenhoft, D.; King, S.; Dighton, J.; Geesey, G.; Barkay, T.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and phylogeny of extant protein-encoding genes recovered from geochemically diverse environments can provide insight into the physical and chemical parameters that led to the origin and which constrained the evolution of a functional process. Mercuric reductase (MerA) plays an integral role in mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry by catalyzing the transformation of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Putative merA sequences were amplified from DNA extracts of microbial communities associated with mats and sulfur precipitates from physicochemically diverse Hg-containing springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, using four PCR primer sets that were designed to capture the known diversity of merA. The recovery of novel and deeply rooted MerA lineages from these habitats supports previous evidence that indicates merA originated in a thermophilic environment. Generalized linear models indicate that the distribution of putative archaeal merA lineages was constrained by a combination of pH, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved total mercury and sulfide. The models failed to identify statistically well supported trends for the distribution of putative bacterial merA lineages as a function of these or other measured environmental variables, suggesting that these lineages were either influenced by environmental parameters not considered in the present study, or the bacterial primer sets were designed to target too broad of a class of genes which may have responded differently to environmental stimuli. The widespread occurrence of merA in the geothermal environments implies a prominent role for Hg detoxification in these environments. Moreover, the differences in the distribution of the merA genes amplified with the four merA primer sets suggests that the organisms putatively engaged in this activity have evolved to occupy different ecological niches within the geothermal gradient. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Environmental conditions constrain the distribution and diversity of archaeal merA in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Boyd, Eric; Crane, Sharron; Lu-Irving, Patricia; Krabbenhoft, David; King, Susan; Dighton, John; Geesey, Gill; Barkay, Tamar

    2011-11-01

    The distribution and phylogeny of extant protein-encoding genes recovered from geochemically diverse environments can provide insight into the physical and chemical parameters that led to the origin and which constrained the evolution of a functional process. Mercuric reductase (MerA) plays an integral role in mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry by catalyzing the transformation of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Putative merA sequences were amplified from DNA extracts of microbial communities associated with mats and sulfur precipitates from physicochemically diverse Hg-containing springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, using four PCR primer sets that were designed to capture the known diversity of merA. The recovery of novel and deeply rooted MerA lineages from these habitats supports previous evidence that indicates merA originated in a thermophilic environment. Generalized linear models indicate that the distribution of putative archaeal merA lineages was constrained by a combination of pH, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved total mercury and sulfide. The models failed to identify statistically well supported trends for the distribution of putative bacterial merA lineages as a function of these or other measured environmental variables, suggesting that these lineages were either influenced by environmental parameters not considered in the present study, or the bacterial primer sets were designed to target too broad of a class of genes which may have responded differently to environmental stimuli. The widespread occurrence of merA in the geothermal environments implies a prominent role for Hg detoxification in these environments. Moreover, the differences in the distribution of the merA genes amplified with the four merA primer sets suggests that the organisms putatively engaged in this activity have evolved to occupy different ecological niches within the geothermal gradient.

  14. Microscopic Examination of Distribution and Phenotypic Properties of Phylogenetically Diverse Chloroflexaceae-Related Bacteria in Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, U.; Bateson, Mary M.; Vandieken, V.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the diversity, distribution, and phenotypes of uncultivated Chloroflexaceae-related bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats of an alkaline hot spring (Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park). By applying a directed PCR approach, molecular cloning, and sequence analysis of 16S...

  15. Investigation of a Modern Incipient Stromatolite from Obsidian Pool Prime, Yellowstone National Park: Implications for Early Lithification in the Formation of Light-Dark Stromatolite Laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Mata, S. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Stromatolites have been defined multiple ways, but the presence of lamination is common to all definitions. Despite this commonality, the origin of the lamination in many ancient stromatolites remains vague. Lamination styles vary, but sub-mm light-dark couplets are common in many ancient stromatolites. Here, we investigate an actively forming incipient stromatolite from Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, to better understand the formation of light-dark couplets similar to many ancient stromatolites in texture and structure. In the OPP stromatolites, a dense network of layer-parallel bundles of cyanobacterial filaments (a dark layer) is followed by an open network of layer-perpendicular or random filaments (a light layer) that reflect a diurnal cycle in the leading edge of the microbial mat that coats the stromatolite's surface. Silica crust encases the cyanobacterial filaments maintaining the integrity of the lamination. Bubbles formed via oxygenic photosynthesis are commonly trapped within the light layers, indicating that lithification occurs rapidly before the bubbles can collapse. The filamentous, non-heterocystous stromatoite-building cyanobacterium from OPP is most closely related to a stromatolite-building cyanobacterium from a hot spring in Japan. Once built, "tenants" from multiple microbial phyla move into the structure, mixing and mingling to produce a complicated integrated biogeochemical signal that may be difficult to untangle in ancient examples. While the cyanobacterial response to the diurnal cycle has been previously implicated in the formation of light-dark couplets, the OPP example highlights the importance of early lithification in maintaining the fabric. Thus, the presence of light-dark couplets and bubble structures may indicate very early lithification and therefore a certain degree of mineral saturation in the ancient ocean or other aquatic system, and that bubble structures, if present, may be evidence

  16. Potential application of radiogenic isotopes and geophysical methods to understand the hydrothermal dystem of the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Long, Andrew J.; Koth, Karl R.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous geochemical and geophysical studies have been conducted at Yellowstone National Park to better understand the hydrogeologic processes supporting the thermal features of the Park. This report provides the first 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U data for thermal water from the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) intended to evaluate whether heavy radiogenic isotopes might provide insight to sources of groundwater supply and how they interact over time and space. In addition, this report summarizes previous geophysical studies made at Yellowstone National Park and provides suggestions for applying non-invasive ground and airborne studies to better understand groundwater flow in the subsurface of the UGB. Multiple samples from Old Faithful, Aurum, Grand, Oblong, and Daisy geysers characterized previously for major-ion concentrations and isotopes of water (δ2H, δ18O, and 3H) were analyzed for Sr and U isotopes. Concentrations of dissolved Sr and U are low (4.3–128 ng g-1 Sr and 0.026–0.0008 ng g-1 U); consequently only 87Sr/86Sr data are reported for most samples. Values of 87Sr/86Sr for most geysers remained uniform between April and September 2007, but show large increases in all five geysers between late October 2007 and early April, 2008. By late summer of 2008, 87Sr/86Sr values returned to values similar to those observed a year earlier. Similar patterns are not present in major-ion data measured on the same samples. Furthermore, large geochemical differences documented between geysers are not observed in 87Sr/86Sr data, although smaller differences between sites may be present. Sr-isotope data are consistent with a stratified hydrologic system where water erupted in spring and summer of 2007 and summer of 2008 equilibrated with local intracaldera rhyolite flows at shallower depths. Water erupted between October 2007 and April 2008 includes greater amounts of groundwater that circulated deep enough to acquire a radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, most likely from Archean basement

  17. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Mosher, Jennifer J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Carroll, Sue; Allman, Steve; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2010-02-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47(T), was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY. The isolate was a nonmotile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 microm long by 0.2 microm wide and grew at temperatures between 55 and 85 degrees C, with the optimum at 78 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 6.0 to 8.0, with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rate at 0.75 h(-1). The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass, and Populus. OB47(T) was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbitol, carboxymethylcellulose, and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth, and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2, although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5-liter batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol%, and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene placed OB47(T) within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47 is the type strain (ATCC BAA-2073).

  18. Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Gibson, Robert A; Green, Stefan J; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T J; Shields, John P; Damsté, Jaap S S; Elkins, James G

    2013-03-01

    A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated OPF15(T) was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The phylogeny of 16S rRNA and functional genes (dsrAB) placed the organism within the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. The organism displayed hyperthermophilic temperature requirements for growth with a range of 70-90 °C and an optimum of 83 °C. Optimal pH was around 6.5-7.0 and the organism required the presence of H2 or formate as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. Electron acceptors supporting growth included sulfate, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur. Lactate, acetate, pyruvate, benzoate, oleic acid, and ethanol did not serve as electron donors. Membrane lipid analysis revealed diacyl glycerols and acyl/ether glycerols which ranged from C14:0 to C20:0. Alkyl chains present in acyl/ether and diether glycerol lipids ranged from C16:0 to C18:0. Straight, iso- and anteiso-configurations were found for all lipid types. The presence of OPF15(T) was also shown to increase cellulose consumption during co-cultivation with Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, a fermentative, cellulolytic extreme thermophile isolated from the same environment. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic, and structural analyses, Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov. is proposed as a new species with OPF15(T) representing the type strain.

  19. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an Anaerobic, Extremely Thermophilic, Cellulolytic Bacterium Isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Mosher, Jennifer J.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Carroll, Sue; Allman, Steve; Phelps, Tommy J.; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G.

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY. The isolate was a nonmotile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 μm long by 0.2 μm wide and grew at temperatures between 55 and 85°C, with the optimum at 78°C. The pH range for growth was 6.0 to 8.0, with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rate at 0.75 h−1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass, and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbitol, carboxymethylcellulose, and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth, and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2, although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5-liter batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol%, and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47 is the type strain (ATCC BAA-2073). PMID:20023107

  20. Geoarchaeota: a new candidate phylum in the Archaea from high-temperature acidic iron mats in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Mark A; Romine, Margaret; Jennings, Ryan deM; Jay, Zack J; Tringe, Susannah G; Rusch, Doug B; Beam, Jacob P; McCue, Lee Ann; Inskeep, William P

    2013-03-01

    Geothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an outstanding opportunity to understand the origin and evolution of metabolic processes necessary for life in extreme environments including low pH, high temperature, low oxygen and elevated concentrations of reduced iron. Previous phylogenetic studies of acidic ferric iron mats from YNP have revealed considerable diversity of uncultivated and undescribed archaea. The goal of this study was to obtain replicate de novo genome assemblies for a dominant archaeal population inhabiting acidic iron-oxide mats in YNP. Detailed analysis of conserved ribosomal and informational processing genes indicates that the replicate assemblies represent a new candidate phylum within the domain Archaea referred to here as 'Geoarchaeota' or 'novel archaeal group 1 (NAG1)'. The NAG1 organisms contain pathways necessary for the catabolism of peptides and complex carbohydrates as well as a bacterial-like Form I carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex likely used for energy conservation. Moreover, this novel population contains genes involved in the metabolism of oxygen including a Type A heme copper oxidase, a bd-type terminal oxidase and a putative oxygen-sensing protoglobin. NAG1 has a variety of unique bacterial-like cofactor biosynthesis and transport genes and a Type3-like CRISPR system. Discovery of NAG1 is critical to our understanding of microbial community structure and function in extant thermophilic iron-oxide mats of YNP, and will provide insight regarding the evolution of Archaea in early Earth environments that may have important analogs active in YNP today.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15-152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  2. Geoarchaeota: a new candidate phylum in the Archaea from high-temperature acidic iron mats in Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, Mark; Romine, Margaret F.; Jennings, Ryan; Jay, Z.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Beam, Jake; McCue, Lee Ann; Inskeep, William P.

    2013-03-01

    Geothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an outstanding opportunity to understand the origin and evolution of metabolic processes necessary for life in extreme environments including low pH, high temperature, low oxygen and elevated concentrations of reduced iron. Previous phylogenetic studies of acidic ferric iron mats from YNP have revealed considerable diversity of uncultivated and undescribed archaea. The goal of this study was to obtain replicate de novo genome assemblies for a dominant archaeal population inhabiting acidic iron oxide mats in YNP. Detailed analysis of conserved ribosomal and informational processing genes indicate that the replicate assemblies represent a new phylum-level lineage referred to here as 'novel archaeal group 1 (NAG1)'. The NAG1 organisms contain pathways necessary for the catabolism of peptides and complex carbohydrates as well as a bacterial-like Form I CO dehydrogenase complex likely used for energy conservation. Moreover, this novel population contains genes involved in metabolism of oxygen including a Type A heme copper oxidase, a bd-type terminal oxidase and a putative oxygen sensing protoglobin. NAG1 has a variety of unique bacterial-like cofactor biosynthesis and transport genes and a Type3-like CRISPR system. Discovery of NAG1 is critical to our understanding of microbial community structure and function in extant thermophilic iron mats of YNP, and will provide insight regarding the evolution of Archaea in early Earth environments that may have important analogues active in YNP today.

  3. Insights into archaeal evolution and symbiosis from the genomes of a Nanoarchaeon and its crenarchaeal host from Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise [Portland State University; Koonin, Eugene [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Wolf, Yuri [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Makarova, Kira S. [National Center for Biotechnology Information

    2013-01-01

    A hyperthemophilic member of the Nanoarchaeota from Obsidian Pool, a thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park was characterized using single cell isolation and sequencing, together with its putative host, a Sulfolobales archaeon. This first representative of a non-marine Nanoarchaeota (Nst1) resembles Nanoarchaeum equitans by lacking most biosynthetic capabilities, the two forming a deep-branching archaeal lineage. However, the Nst1 genome is over 20% larger, encodes a complete gluconeogenesis pathway and a full complement of archaeal flagellum proteins. Comparison of the two genomes suggests that the marine and terrestrial Nanoarchaeota lineages share a common ancestor that was already a symbiont of another archaeon. With a larger genome, a smaller repertoire of split protein encoding genes and no split non-contiguous tRNAs, Nst1 appears to have experienced less severe genome reduction than N. equitans. The inferred host of Nst1 is potentially autotrophic, with a streamlined genome and simplified central and energetic metabolism as compared to other Sulfolobales. The two distinct Nanoarchaeota-host genomic data sets offer insights into the evolution of archaeal symbiosis and parasitism and will further enable studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of these relationships.

  4. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  5. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Guernsey, Debra S

    2006-07-01

    The foraging and feeding ecology of gray wolves is an essential component to understanding the role that top carnivores play in shaping the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), predation studies on a highly visible, reintroduced population of wolves are increasing our understanding of this aspect of wolf ecology. Wolves in YNP feed primarily on elk, despite the presence of other ungulate species. Patterns of prey selection and kill rates in winter have varied seasonally each year from 1995 to 2004 and changed in recent years as the wolf population has become established. Wolves select elk based on their vulnerability as a result of age, sex, and season and therefore kill primarily calves, old cows, and bulls that have been weakened by winter. Summer scat analysis reveals an increased variety in diet compared with observed winter diets, including other ungulate species, rodents, and vegetation. Wolves in YNP hunt in packs and, upon a successful kill, share in the evisceration and consumption of highly nutritious organs first, followed by major muscle tissue, and eventually bone and hide. Wolves are adapted to a feast-or-famine foraging pattern, and YNP packs typically kill and consume an elk every 2-3 d. However, wolves in YNP have gone without fresh meat for several weeks by scavenging off old carcasses that consist mostly of bone and hide. As patterns of wolf density, prey density, weather, and vulnerability of prey change, in comparison with the conditions of the study period described here, we predict that there will also be significant changes in wolf predation patterns and feeding behavior.

  6. Real-time Remote Data Online For Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Clor, L.; Cervelli, P. F.; Allen, S. T.; Heasler, H.; Moloney, T.

    2010-12-01

    Perry, John, Lowenstern, Jacob, Cervelli, Peter, Clor, Laura, Heasler, Henry, Allen, Scott, Moloney, Tim During June 2010, ten 900MHz wireless temperature data loggers (nodes) were installed around the Norris Geyser Basin to monitor geothermal features, streams and soil temperatures. The loggers can provide near real-time updates on temperature variations within 0.2 deg C due to hydrothermal discharges or subsurface fluid migration. Each sensor node is programmed to measure the temperature every two minutes and automatically upload data to the base station computer daily. The hardware consists of a waterproof case containing an M5 logger (made by Marathon Products, Inc.®) with internal memory, lithium D-cell batteries and a 900 MHz, 1-W-transceiver and 5 meter long Teflon-coated probe with a thermistor sensor. Tethered stub or panel antennas are oriented to optimize signal strength to the base station near the Norris Museum. A 0.61 meter-long base-station antenna located 10m high provides signal to the furthest node over 850 meters away with most being “line-of-sight”. A 20-meter coaxial cable and lightning grounding wire connects the base-station antenna to an Ethernet-radio connected to the YNP local-area network. A server located 26-km north at Mammoth Hot Springs requests data at regular intervals (normally daily), archives the information, and then sends it to the USGS for further archiving and internet distribution. During periods of unusual hydrothermal behavior, data can be requested as needed, and it is possible to set user-programmable alarm limits for notification. The RF network is designed to monitor changes from three different sub-basins at Norris (Gray Lakes, Steamboat-Echinus and Porcelain Basin), the main Tantalus Creek drainage, and five individual thermal features (Constant, Porkchop, Steamboat and Echinus Geysers, and Opalescent Spring). The logger installed in Nuphar Lake provides ambient temperatures controlled solely by local

  7. Denali Park wolf studies: Implications for Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Burch, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1987) recommends re-establishment of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park. Bills proposing wolf re-establishment in the Park have been introduced into the U.S. House and Senate. However, several questions have been raised about the possible effects of wolf re-establishment on other Yellowstone Park fauna, on human use of the Park and on human use of surrounding areas. Thus the proposed wolf re-establishment remains controversial.Information pertinent to some of the above questions is available from a current study of wolf ecology in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, which we began in 1986. Although Denali Park differs from Yellowstone in several ways, it is also similar enough in important respects to provide insight into questions raised about wolf re-establishment in Yellowstone.

  8. 77 FR 53908 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-IMRO-YELL-11188; 2310-0070-422] Winter Use... comment period on the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan... online at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/YELL (click on the link to the 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan...

  9. Community ecology of hot spring cyanobacterial mats: predominant populations and their functional potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klatt, C. G.; Wood, J. M.; Rusch, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mat communities from 60¿°C and 65¿°C regions in the effluent channels of Mushroom and Octopus Springs (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) were investigated by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Analyses of assembled metagenomic sequences resolved six dominant chlorophototrophic...

  10. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  11. Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently

  12. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  13. Cognitive Factors that Impact Learning in the Field: Observations from an REU Project on Precambrian Rocks of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Goodwin, C.

    2011-12-01

    Field work requires cognitive processing on many different levels, and constitutes a powerful and important learning environment. To be effective and meaningful, the context of field work must be fully understood in terms of key research questions, earlier published work, regional geology, geologic history, and geologic processes. Scale(s) of observation and sample selection methods and strategies must be defined. Logistical decisions must be made about equipment needed, points of access, and navigation in the field. Professional skills such as field note-taking, measuring structural data, and rock descriptions must be employed, including appropriate use of field tools. Interpretations of geologic features in the field must be interpreted through recall of concepts from the geologic knowledge base (e.g. crystallization history of igneous rocks interpreted through phase diagrams). Field workers need to be able to self-monitor and self-regulate their actions (metacognitively), and make adjustments to daily plans as needed. The results of field work must be accurately and effectively communicated to other geoscientists. Personal and professional ethics and values are brought to bear as decisions are made about whether or not the work has been satisfactorily completed at a field site. And, all of this must be done against a back drop of environmental factors that affect the ability to do this work (e.g. inclement weather, bears, impassable landscapes). The simultaneous relevance of all these factors creates a challenging, but rewarding environment for learning on many different scales. During our REU project to study the Precambrian rocks in the back country of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), we considered these cognitive factors in designing our project curriculum. To reduce the "novelty space" of the project a website was developed that described the project goals and expected outcomes, introduced primary literature, and alerted students about the physical demands

  14. Lake Generated Microseisms at Yellowstone Lake as a Record of Ice Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Mokhdhari, A. A.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.

    2017-12-01

    It has recently been shown that wave action in lakes produces microseisms, which generate noise peaks in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s as recorded by nearby seismic stations. Such noise peaks have been observed at seven seismic stations (H17A, LKWY, B208, B944, YTP, YLA, and YLT) located within 2 km of the Yellowstone Lake shoreline. Initial work using 2016 data shows that the variations in the microseism signals at Yellowstone Lake correspond with the freezing and thawing of lake ice: the seismic noise occurs more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. If this can be confirmed, then lake-generated microseisms could provide a consistent measure of the freezing and melting dates of high-latitude lakes in remote areas. The seismic data would then be useful in assessing the effects of climate change on the ice phenology of those lakes. In this work, we analyze continuous seismic data recorded by the seven seismic stations around Yellowstone Lake for the years of 1995 to 2016. We generate probability distribution functions of power spectral density for each station to observe the broad elevation of energy near a period of 1 s. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise energy is analyzed by extracting the power spectral density at 1 s from every processed hour. The seismic observations are compared to direct measurements of the dates of ice-out and freeze-up as reported by rangers at Yellowstone National Park. We examine how accurate the seismic data are in recording the freezing and melting of Yellowstone Lake, and how the accuracy changes as a function of the number of stations used. We also examine how sensitive the results are to the particular range of periods that are analyzed.

  15. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball James W

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan. Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

  16. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschel, G.K.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstorm, D.K.; Ball, J.W.; Xu, Y.; Cohn, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad??? AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad??? AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Division of Geochemistry of the American Chemical Society 2003.

  17. Framework for Springs Stewardship Program and proposed action development: Spring Mountains National Recreation Area, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Coles-Ritchie; Stephen J. Solem; Abraham E. Springer; Burton Pendleton

    2014-01-01

    In the desert Southwest, springs are an important ecological feature and serve as a focal point for both biological and human interactions on the landscape. As a result, attention has been placed on the stewardship and protection of these important resources. Management has traditionally focused on the more accessible and heavily used eastern canyons within the Spring...

  18. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  19. Cyanobacterial ecotypes in different optical microenvironments of a 68 C hot spring mat community revealed by 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Mike J.; Kühl, Michael; Wieland, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic photosynth...

  20. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

    2012-01-01

    Brimstone Basin, a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km east of the Yellowstone Caldera, is rarely studied and has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A field campaign in 2008 confirmed that gas emissions from the few small vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Geochemical and isotopic evidence from gas samples (3He/4He ~ 3RA, δ13C-CO2 ~ − 3‰) however, indicate continuing magmatic gas input to the system. Accumulation chamber measurements revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 (~ 277 t d-1) and H2S (0.6 t d-1). The flux of CO2 reduces the 18O content of the overlying cold groundwater and related stream waters relative to normal meteoric waters. Simple isotopic modeling reveals that the CO2 likely originates from geothermal water at a temperature of 93 ± 19 °C. These results and the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons (C1:C2 ~ 100 and δ13C-CH4 = − 46.4 to − 42.8‰) in gases require some heat source at depth and refute the assumption that this is a “fossil” hydrothermal system.

  1. The influence of herd size, conspecific risk, and predation risk on the vigilance of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, and, Interest, learning, and a thematic biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Mark A.

    This dissertation is a composite of biological and educational research. The biological research concerns Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus ) behavior. The educational research presents ideas and findings on the influence of a thematic general biology course on student interest and perception of learning. The dissertation begins with a Preface that attempts to bring the ideas presented in later chapters together. Chapter One is a review of the literature concerning sociality, social behaviors, and elk biology. It summarizes current research literature as a means of introduction to Chapter Two. Chapter Two presents findings concerning the effects of herd size, predation risk, and the risk of being near conspecifics on two behaviors commonly associated with social animals---vigilance and aggression. Vigilance and aggression were measured in elk in Yellowstone National Park in two regions that varied in their presence of elk predators (wolves---Canis lupus, and grizzly bears---Ursus arctos) and in two seasons (spring and fall) that varied in the risks of being near conspecifics. Overall, male and female elk responded very differently. Male elk adjust their vigilance and aggression in response to changes in conspecific risk, but not to changes in predation risk. Female elk adjust their vigilance in response to changes in predation risk, but not to changes in conspecific risk. Males show no response in vigilance to changes in herd size. Non-reproductive females, however, adjust their levels of vigilance with changes in herd size in high risk regions. Interestingly, in the spring, vigilance decreases with increasing herd size, but in the fall, vigilance increases with increasing herd size. Chapter Three presents findings concerning the influence of a thematic course design on student perceptions of interest and teaming in a non-major's biology course (Bins 100: Concepts of Biology). I compared responses on student evaluations from two sections of Bios 100 taught in a

  2. Geologic field-trip guide to the volcanic and hydrothermal landscape of the Yellowstone Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Robinson, Joel E.

    2017-11-20

    Yellowstone National Park, a nearly 9,000 km2 (~3,468 mi2) area, was preserved in 1872 as the world’s first national park for its unique, extraordinary, and magnificent natural features. Rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, Yellowstone National Park has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of late Cenozoic explosive and effusive volcanism, on-going tectonism, glaciation, and hydrothermal activity. The Yellowstone Caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau lies at the most northeastern front of the 17-Ma Yellowstone hot spot track, one of the few places on Earth where time-transgressive processes on continental crust can be observed in the volcanic and tectonic (faulting and uplift) record at the rate and direction predicted by plate motion. Over six days, this field trip presents an intensive overview into volcanism, tectonism, and hydrothermal activity on the Yellowstone Plateau (fig. 1). Field stops are linked directly to conceptual models related to monitoring of the various volcanic, geochemical, hydrothermal, and tectonic aspects of the greater Yellowstone system. Recent interest in young and possible future volcanism at Yellowstone as well as new discoveries and synthesis of previous studies, (for example, tomographic, deformation, gas, aeromagnetic, bathymetric, and seismic surveys), provide a framework in which to discuss volcanic, hydrothermal, and seismic activity in this dynamic region.

  3. Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of leaf biomass reveals contrasting photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 near geologic vents in Yellowstone National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we explore the use of natural CO2 emissions in Yellowstone National Park (YNP in Wyoming, USA to study responses of natural vegetation to elevated CO2 levels. Radiocarbon (14C analysis of leaf biomass from a conifer (Pinus contortus; lodgepole pine and an invasive, non-native herb (Linaria dalmatica; Dalmation toadflax was used to trace the inputs of vent CO2 and quantify assimilation-weighted CO2 concentrations experienced by individual plants near vents and in comparable locations with no geologic CO2 exposure. The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition and nitrogen percent of leaf biomass from the same plants was used to investigate photosynthetic responses of these plants to naturally elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The coupled shifts in carbon and oxygen isotope values suggest that dalmation toadflax responded to elevated CO2 exposure by increasing stomatal conductance with no change in photosynthetic capacity and lodgepole pine apparently responded by decreasing stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Lodgepole pine saplings exposed to elevated levels of CO2 likewise had reduced leaf nitrogen concentrations compared to plants with no enhanced CO2 exposure, further suggesting widespread and dominant conifer down-regulated photosynthetic capacity under elevated CO2 levels near geologic vents.

  4. Lessons from geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.; Hurwitz, S.

    2015-12-01

    The magma-hydrothermal system of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field encompasses over ten thousand individual springs, seeps, and fumaroles spread out over >9000 square kilometers, and produces a range of acid, neutral and alkaline waters. A prominent model (Fournier, 1989 and related papers) concludes that many neutral and alkaline fluids found in hot springs and geysers are derived from a uniform, high-enthalpy parent fluid through processes such as deep boiling and mixing with dilute meteoric groundwater. Acid waters are generally condensates of gas-bearing steam that boils off of subsurface geothermal waters. Our recent studies of gases at Yellowstone (Lowenstern et al., 2015 and references therein) are compatible with such a model, but also reveal that gases are largely decoupled from thermal waters due to open-system addition of abundant deep gas to (comparatively) shallow circulating thermal waters. Fumarole emissions at Yellowstone range from gas-rich (up to 15 mol%) composed of deeply derived CO2, He and CH4, to steam-rich emissions (16 RA) and low CH4 and He concentrations and 2) mantle-derived CO2 with much higher CH4 and/or He concentrations and abundant radiogenic He picked up from crustal degassing. Individual thermal areas have distinct CH4/He. It remains unclear whether some gas ratios mainly reflect subsurface geothermal temperatures. Instead, they may simply reflect signatures imparted by local rock types and mixing on timescales too fast for reequilibration. Overall, the gas chemistry reflects a broader view of mantle-crust dynamics than can be appreciated by studies of only dissolved solutes in the neutral and alkaline waters from Yellowstone geysers. Fournier (1989) Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. v. 17, p. 13-53. Lowenstern et al. (2015) JVGR, v. 302, 87-101.

  5. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 2, Spring 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) CUNY [City University of New York] Sheds Reputation as "Tutor U": The Nation's Largest Urban University Raises Standards, and Grapples with Remediation (Jon…

  6. Arab Spring National Dialogues in Tunisia and Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict societies are in a fragile state in which social cohesion needs to be gradually ... Tunisia's national dialogue has been more successful than Yemen's in ... topic, which followed a Canadian Policy Research Networks Roundtable on.

  7. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmers Christopher C; Getz Wayne M; Getz Wayne M

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefo...

  8. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher C Wilmers; Wayne M Getz

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefo...

  9. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing... the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 West Yellowstone, MT [Amended] West Yellowstone, Yellowstone Airport...

  10. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 2, Spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) "Effectiveness and Efficiency": The University System of Maryland's Campaign to Control Costs and Increase Student Aid (Kay Mills); (2) Remote Access: Western…

  11. 77 FR 74027 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...] Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone National... Availability of Amended Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan... Record of Decision for the Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and...

  12. Evaluating Gridded Spring Indices Using the USA National Phenology Network's Observational Phenology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Gerst, K.

    2017-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) produces and freely delivers daily and short-term forecast maps of spring onset dates at fine spatial scale for the conterminous United States and Alaska using the Spring Indices. These models, which represent the start of biological activity in the spring season, were developed using a long-term observational record of four species of lilacs and honeysuckles contributed by volunteer observers. Three of the four species continue to be tracked through the USA-NPN's phenology observation program, Nature's Notebook. The gridded Spring Index maps have utility for a wide range of natural resource planning and management applications, including scheduling invasive species and pest detection and control activities, anticipating allergy outbreaks and planning agricultural harvest dates. However, to date, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of how well the gridded Spring Index maps accurately reflect phenological activity in lilacs and honeysuckles or other species of plants. In this study, we used observational plant phenology data maintained by the USA-NPN to evaluate how well the gridded Spring Index maps match leaf and flowering onset dates in a) the lilac and honeysuckle species used to construct the models and b) in several species of deciduous trees. The Spring Index performed strongly at predicting the timing of leaf-out and flowering in lilacs and honeysuckles. The average error between predicted and observed date of onset ranged from 5.9 to 11.4 days. Flowering models performed slightly better than leaf-out models. The degree to which the Spring Indices predicted native deciduous tree leaf and flower phenology varied by year, species, and region. Generally, the models were better predictors of leaf and flowering onset dates in the Northeastern and Midwestern US. These results reveal when and where the Spring Indices are a meaningful proxy of phenological activity across the United States.

  13. Evaluating connection of aquifers to springs and streams, Great Basin National Park and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Jackson, Tracie R.; Dotson, K. Elaine; Plume, Russell W.; Hatch, Christine E.; Halford, Keith J.

    2015-12-22

    Federal agencies that oversee land management for much of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada, including the management of Great Basin National Park by the National Park Service, need to understand the potential extent of adverse effects to federally managed lands from nearby groundwater development. As a result, this study was developed (1) to attain a better understanding of aquifers controlling groundwater flow on the eastern side of the southern part of the Snake Range and their connection with aquifers in the valleys, (2) to evaluate the relation between surface water and groundwater along the piedmont slopes, (3) to evaluate sources for Big Springs and Rowland Spring, and (4) to assess groundwater flow from southern Spring Valley into northern Hamlin Valley. The study focused on two areas—the first, a northern area along the east side of Great Basin National Park that included Baker, Lehman, and Snake Creeks, and a second southern area that is the potential source area for Big Springs. Data collected specifically for this study included the following: (1) geologic field mapping; (2) drilling, testing, and water quality sampling from 7 test wells; (3) measuring discharge and water chemistry of selected creeks and springs; (4) measuring streambed hydraulic gradients and seepage rates from 18 shallow piezometers installed into the creeks; and (5) monitoring stream temperature along selected reaches to identify places of groundwater inflow.

  14. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  15. Animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: lessons from a Yellowstone elk herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Cook, John G; Cook, Rachel C; Nelson, Abigail A; Jimenez, Michael D; Klaver, Robert W

    2013-06-01

    Migration is a striking behavioral strategy by which many animals enhance resource acquisition while reducing predation risk. Historically, the demographic benefits of such movements made migration common, but in many taxa the phenomenon is considered globally threatened. Here we describe a long-term decline in the productivity of elk (Cervus elaphus) that migrate through intact wilderness areas to protected summer ranges inside Yellowstone National Park, USA. We attribute this decline to a long-term reduction in the demographic benefits that ungulates typically gain from migration. Among migratory elk, we observed a 21-year, 70% reduction in recruitment and a 4-year, 19% depression in their pregnancy rate largely caused by infrequent reproduction of females that were young or lactating. In contrast, among resident elk, we have recently observed increasing recruitment and a high rate of pregnancy. Landscape-level changes in habitat quality and predation appear to be responsible for the declining productivity of Yellowstone migrants. From 1989 to 2009, migratory elk experienced an increasing rate and shorter duration of green-up coincident with warmer spring-summer temperatures and reduced spring precipitation, also consistent with observations of an unusually severe drought in the region. Migrants are also now exposed to four times as many grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) as resident elk. Both of these restored predators consume migratory elk calves at high rates in the Yellowstone wilderness but are maintained at low densities via lethal management and human disturbance in the year-round habitats of resident elk. Our findings suggest that large-carnivore recovery and drought, operating simultaneously along an elevation gradient, have disproportionately influenced the demography of migratory elk. Many migratory animals travel large geographic distances between their seasonal ranges. Changes in land use and climate that disparately influence

  16. Insights into archaeal evolution and symbiosis from the genomes of a nanoarchaeon and its inferred crenarchaeal host from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Mircea; Makarova, Kira S; Graham, David E; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2013-04-22

    A single cultured marine organism, Nanoarchaeum equitans, represents the Nanoarchaeota branch of symbiotic Archaea, with a highly reduced genome and unusual features such as multiple split genes. The first terrestrial hyperthermophilic member of the Nanoarchaeota was collected from Obsidian Pool, a thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park, separated by single cell isolation, and sequenced together with its putative host, a Sulfolobales archaeon. Both the new Nanoarchaeota (Nst1) and N. equitans lack most biosynthetic capabilities, and phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA and protein sequences indicates that the two form a deep-branching archaeal lineage. However, the Nst1 genome is more than 20% larger, and encodes a complete gluconeogenesis pathway as well as the full complement of archaeal flagellum proteins. With a larger genome, a smaller repertoire of split protein encoding genes and no split non-contiguous tRNAs, Nst1 appears to have experienced less severe genome reduction than N. equitans. These findings imply that, rather than representing ancestral characters, the extremely compact genomes and multiple split genes of Nanoarchaeota are derived characters associated with their symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle. The inferred host of Nst1 is potentially autotrophic, with a streamlined genome and simplified central and energetic metabolism as compared to other Sulfolobales. Comparison of the N. equitans and Nst1 genomes suggests that the marine and terrestrial lineages of Nanoarchaeota share a common ancestor that was already a symbiont of another archaeon. The two distinct Nanoarchaeota-host genomic data sets offer novel insights into the evolution of archaeal symbiosis and parasitism, enabling further studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of these relationships. This article was reviewed by Patrick Forterre, Bettina Siebers (nominated by Michael Galperin) and Purification Lopez-Garcia.

  17. Paleomagnetic results from Tertiary volcanic strata and intrusions, Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup, Yellowstone National Park and vicinity: Contributions to the North American apparent polar wander path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, S.S.; Morgan, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    We report paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data from volcanic, volcaniclastic, and intrusive rocks of the 55-44Ma Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup (AVS) exposed along the northeastern margin of Yellowstone National Park and adjacent areas. Demagnetization behavior and rock magnetic experiments indicate that the remanence in most samples is carried by low-Ti titanomagnetite, although high-coercivity phases are present in oxidized basalt flows. Paleomagnetic demagnetization and rock magnetic characteristics, the presence of normal and reverse polarity sites, consistency with previous results, and positive conglomerate tests suggest that the observed remanences are primary thermoremanent magnetizations of Eocene age (c. 50Ma). An in situ grand-mean for 22 individual site- or cooling-unit means from this study that yield acceptable data combined with published data from Independence volcano yields a declination of 347.6?? and inclination of 59.2?? (k=21.8, ??95=6.8??) and a positive reversal test. Averaging 21 virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) that are well-grouped yields a mean at 137.1??E, 82.5??N (K=17.6, A95=7.8??), similar to results previously obtained from published studies from the AVS. Combining the VGPs from our study with published data yields a combined AVS pole at 146.3??E, 83.1??N (K=13.5, A95=6.2??, N=42 VGPs). Both poles are indistinguishable from c. 50Ma cratonic and synthetic reference poles for North America, and demonstrate the relative stability of this part of the Cordillera with respect to the craton. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure and Soil Characteristics of Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta) and Adjacent Stands of Old Growth Mixed Conifer in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Robert B.; Parker, V. Thomas; Cullings, Kenneth W.; Sun, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Forest development patterns following disturbance are known to influence the physical and chemical attributes of soils at different points in time. Changes in soil resources are thought to have a corresponding effect on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure. We used molecular methods to compare below-ground ECM species richness, composition, and abundance between adjacent stands of homogenous lodgepole pine and old growth mixed conifer in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). In each stand-type we collected soil cores to both identify mycorrhizae and assess soil chemistry. Although no statistical difference was observed in the mean number of ECM root tips per core between stand types, the total number of species identified (85 versus 35) and the mean number of species per core (8.8 +/- 0.6 versus 2.5 +/- 0.3) were significantly higher in lodgepole pine. Differences between the actual and estimated species richness levels indicated that these forest types support a high number of ECM species and that undersampling was severe. Species compositions were widely disparate between stands where only four species were shared out of a total of 116. Soil analysis also revealed that mixed conifer was significantly lower in pH, but higher in organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, and ammonium when compared to lodgepole pine stands. Species richness per core was correlated with these chemical data, however, analysis of covariance indicated that stand type was the only statistically significant factor in the observed difference in species richness. Our data suggest that ECM fungal richness increases as homogenous lodgepole pine stands grow and mature, but declines after Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir colonize. Despite difficulties linking species composition with soil chemistry, there are a variety of physical and chemical factors that could be influencing ECM community structure. Future field experiments are necessary to test some of the mechanisms potentially operating

  19. Migration of northern yellowstone elk: Implications of spatial structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P.J.; Proffitt, K.M.; Mech, L.D.; Evans, S.B.; Cunningham, J.A.; Hamlin, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Migration can enhance survival and recruitment of mammals by increasing access to higher-quality forage or reducing predation risk, or both. We used telemetry locations collected from 140 adult female elk during 20002003 and 20072008 to identify factors influencing the migration of northern Yellowstone elk. Elk wintered in 2 semidistinct herd segments and migrated 10140 km to at least 12 summer areas in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and nearby areas of Montana. Spring migrations were delayed after winters with increased snow pack, with earlier migration in years with earlier vegetation green-up. Elk wintering at lower elevations outside YNP migrated an average of 13 days earlier than elk at higher elevations. The timing of autumn migrations varied annually, but elk left their summer ranges at about the same time regardless of elevation, wolf numbers, or distance to their wintering areas. Elk monitored for multiple years typically returned to the same summer (96 fidelity, n 52) and winter (61 fidelity, n 41) ranges. Elk that wintered at lower elevations in or near the northwestern portion of the park tended to summer in the western part of YNP (56), and elk that wintered at higher elevations spent summer primarily in the eastern and northern parts of the park (82). Elk did not grossly modify their migration timing, routes, or use areas after wolf restoration. Elk mortality was low during summer and migration (8 of 225 elk-summers). However, spatial segregation and differential mortality and recruitment between herd segments on the northern winter range apparently contributed to a higher proportion of the elk population wintering outside the northwestern portion of YNP and summering in the western portion of the park. This change could shift wolf spatial dynamics more outside YNP and increase the risk of transmission of brucellosis from elk to cattle north of the park. ?? 2010 American Society of Mammalogists.

  20. Grizzly bear predation links the loss of native trout to the demography of migratory elk in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D; Morrison, Thomas A; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T; Proffitt, Kelly M; White, P J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Koel, Todd M; Brimeyer, Douglas G; Fairbanks, W Sue; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2013-07-07

    The loss of aquatic subsidies such as spawning salmonids is known to threaten a number of terrestrial predators, but the effects on alternative prey species are poorly understood. At the heart of the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, an invasion of lake trout has driven a dramatic decline of native cutthroat trout that migrate up the shallow tributaries of Yellowstone Lake to spawn each spring. We explore whether this decline has amplified the effect of a generalist consumer, the grizzly bear, on populations of migratory elk that summer inside Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Recent studies of bear diets and elk populations indicate that the decline in cutthroat trout has contributed to increased predation by grizzly bears on the calves of migratory elk. Additionally, a demographic model that incorporates the increase in predation suggests that the magnitude of this diet shift has been sufficient to reduce elk calf recruitment (4-16%) and population growth (2-11%). The disruption of this aquatic-terrestrial linkage could permanently alter native species interactions in YNP. Although many recent ecological changes in YNP have been attributed to the recovery of large carnivores--particularly wolves--our work highlights a growing role of human impacts on the foraging behaviour of grizzly bears.

  1. Grizzly bear predation links the loss of native trout to the demography of migratory elk in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Morrison, Thomas A.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Robbins, Charles T.; Proffitt, Kelly M.; White, P.J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Koel, Todd M.; Brimeyer, Douglas G.; Fairbanks, W. Sue; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The loss of aquatic subsidies such as spawning salmonids is known to threaten a number of terrestrial predators, but the effects on alternative prey species are poorly understood. At the heart of the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, an invasion of lake trout has driven a dramatic decline of native cutthroat trout that migrate up the shallow tributaries of Yellowstone Lake to spawn each spring. We explore whether this decline has amplified the effect of a generalist consumer, the grizzly bear, on populations of migratory elk that summer inside Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Recent studies of bear diets and elk populations indicate that the decline in cutthroat trout has contributed to increased predation by grizzly bears on the calves of migratory elk. Additionally, a demographic model that incorporates the increase in predation suggests that the magnitude of this diet shift has been sufficient to reduce elk calf recruitment (4–16%) and population growth (2–11%). The disruption of this aquatic–terrestrial linkage could permanently alter native species interactions in YNP. Although many recent ecological changes in YNP have been attributed to the recovery of large carnivores—particularly wolves—our work highlights a growing role of human impacts on the foraging behaviour of grizzly bears.

  2. Changing numbers of spawning cutthroat trout in tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake and estimates of grizzly bears visiting streams from DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.A.; Reinhart, Daniel P.; Podruzny, S.R.; Cegelski, C.; Waits, L.; Wyman, T.C.; Smith, J.

    2005-01-01

    Spawning Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) provide a source of highly digestible energy for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) that visit tributary streams to Yellowstone Lake during the spring and early summer. During 1985–87, research documented grizzly bears fishing on 61% of the 124 tributary streams to the lake. Using track measurements, it was estimated that a minimum of 44 grizzly bears fished those streams annually. During 1994, non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were discovered in Yellowstone Lake. Lake trout are efficient predators and have the potential to reduce the native cutthroat population and negatively impact terrestrial predators that use cutthroat trout as a food resource. In 1997, we began sampling a subset of streams (n = 25) from areas of Yellowstone Lake surveyed during the previous study to determine if changes in spawner numbers or bear use had occurred. Comparisons of peak numbers and duration suggested a considerable decline between study periods in streams in the West Thumb area of the lake. The apparent decline may be due to predation by lake trout. Indices of bear use also declined on West Thumb area streams. We used DNA from hair collected near spawning streams to estimate the minimum number of bears visiting the vicinity of spawning streams. Seventy-four individual bears were identified from 429 hair samples. The annual number of individuals detected ranged from 15 in 1997 to 33 in 2000. Seventy percent of genotypes identified were represented by more than 1 sample, but only 31% of bears were documented more than 1 year of the study. Sixty-two (84%) bears were only documented in 1 segment of the lake, whereas 12 (16%) were found in 2–3 lake segments. Twenty-seven bears were identified from hair collected at multiple streams. One bear was identified on 6 streams in 2 segments of the lake and during 3 years of the study. We used encounter histories derived from DNA and the Jolly-Seber procedure in Program MARK

  3. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison <2 years old was pregnant. Our findings are important to accurately predict the effects of brucellosis on Yellowstone bison population dynamics. We review our results relative to other studies of Yellowstone bison that concluded serological status for brucellosis influences pregnancy rates.

  4. Animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: Lessons from a Yellowstone elk herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Cook, John G.; Cook, Rachel C.; Nelson, Abigail A.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a striking behavioral strategy by which many animals enhance resource acquisition while reducing predation risk. Historically, the demographic benefits of such movements made migration common, but in many taxa the phenomenon is considered globally threatened. Here we describe a long-term decline in the productivity of elk (Cervus elaphus) that migrate through intact wilderness areas to protected summer ranges inside Yellowstone National Park, USA. We attribute this decline to a long-term reduction in the demographic benefits that ungulates typically gain from migration. Among migratory elk, we observed a 21-year, 70% reduction in recruitment and a 4-year, 19% depression in their pregnancy rate largely caused by infrequent reproduction of females that were young or lactating. In contrast, among resident elk, we have recently observed increasing recruitment and a high rate of pregnancy. Landscape-level changes in habitat quality and predation appear to be responsible for the declining productivity of Yellowstone migrants. From 1989 to 2009, migratory elk experienced an increasing rate and shorter duration of green-up coincident with warmer spring–summer temperatures and reduced spring precipitation, also consistent with observations of an unusually severe drought in the region. Migrants are also now exposed to four times as many grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) as resident elk. Both of these restored predators consume migratory elk calves at high rates in the Yellowstone wilderness but are maintained at low densities via lethal management and human disturbance in the year-round habitats of resident elk. Our findings suggest that large-carnivore recovery and drought, operating simultaneously along an elevation gradient, have disproportionately influenced the demography of migratory elk. Many migratory animals travel large geographic distances between their seasonal ranges. Changes in land use and climate that disparately influence

  5. Heavy Metals in Spring and Bottled Drinking Waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, lead, and copper) in spring, tap, and bottled waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (central Italy) were investigated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from 2004 to 2011. The mean (±SD) concentrations detected (1.3 ± 0.4 ng L -1 cadmium, 14 ± 6 ng L -1 lead, and 0.16 ± 0.10 μg L -1 copper) were below the limits stipulated by Italian and European legislation for drinking and natural mineral water. In the three studied areas of the park (Mount Bove north, Mount Bove south, and springs of River Nera) with very few exceptions, both mineral waters bottled in the area and aqueduct waters from public fountains had approximately the same metal concentrations as did the spring waters from which they were derived. Conversely, substantially higher metal concentrations were found at some sites in private houses, which may be due to release of metals from old metal pipes. At the time of this study, waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park were of good quality, and no influence of the bottling process on heavy metal concentrations was found.

  6. Coefficients of productivity for Yellowstone's grizzly bear habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  7. Vertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Scott, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument (TUSK) preserves 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash in the northern Las Vegas Valley (Nevada, USA). TUSK is home to extensive and stratigraphically complex groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits, called the Las Vegas Formation, which represent springs and desert wetlands that covered much of the valley during the late Quaternary. The GWD deposits record hydrologic changes that occurred here in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to abrupt climatic oscillations over the last ~300 ka (thousands of years). The deposits also entomb the Tule Springs Local Fauna (TSLF), one of the most significant late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate assemblages in the American Southwest. The TSLF is both prolific and diverse, and includes a large mammal assemblage dominated by Mammuthus columbi and Camelops hesternus. Two (and possibly three) distinct species of Equus, two species of Bison, Panthera atrox, Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Megalonyx jeffersonii, and Nothrotheriops shastensis are also present, and newly recognized faunal components include micromammals, amphibians, snakes, and birds. Invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. This field compendium highlights the faunal assemblage in the classic stratigraphic sequences of the Las Vegas Formation within TUSK, emphasizes the significant hydrologic changes that occurred in the area during the recent geologic past, and examines the subsequent and repeated effect of rapid climate change on the local desert wetland ecosystem.

  8. A national agenda for public health informatics: summarized recommendations from the 2001 AMIA Spring Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnoff, W A; Overhage, J M; Humphreys, B L; LaVenture, M

    2001-01-01

    The AMIA 2001 Spring Congress brought together members of the the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions of funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes-that all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research; and that informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health.

  9. Climate change is advancing spring onset across the U.S. national park system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B.; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Ault, Toby R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Gross, John E.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. national parks are already at the extreme warm end of their historical temperature distributions. With rapidly warming conditions, park resource management will be enhanced by information on seasonality of climate that supports adjustments in the timing of activities such as treating invasive species, operating visitor facilities, and scheduling climate-related events (e.g., flower festivals and fall leaf-viewing). Seasonal changes in vegetation, such as pollen, seed, and fruit production, are important drivers of ecological processes in parks, and phenology has thus been identified as a key indicator for park monitoring. Phenology is also one of the most proximate biological responses to climate change. Here, we use estimates of start of spring based on climatically modeled dates of first leaf and first bloom derived from indicator plant species to evaluate the recent timing of spring onset (past 10–30 yr) in each U.S. natural resource park relative to its historical range of variability across the past 112 yr (1901–2012). Of the 276 high latitude to subtropical parks examined, spring is advancing in approximately three-quarters of parks (76%), and 53% of parks are experiencing “extreme” early springs that exceed 95% of historical conditions. Our results demonstrate how changes in climate seasonality are important for understanding ecological responses to climate change, and further how spatial variability in effects of climate change necessitates different approaches to management. We discuss how our results inform climate change adaptation challenges and opportunities facing parks, with implications for other protected areas, by exploring consequences for resource management and planning.

  10. Anatomy of Old Faithful from subsurface seismic imaging of the Yellowstone Upper Geyser Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Sin-Mei; Ward, Kevin M.; Farrell, Jamie; Lin, Fan-Chi; Karplus, Marianne; Smith, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    The Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains one of the highest concentrations of hydrothermal features on Earth including the iconic Old Faithful geyser. Although this system has been the focus of many geological, geochemical

  11. Volcanic calderas delineate biogeographic provinces among Yellowstone thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Mitchell, Kendra; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2008-07-01

    It has been suggested that the distribution of microorganisms should be cosmopolitan because of their enormous capacity for dispersal. However, recent studies have revealed that geographically isolated microbial populations do exist. Geographic distance as a barrier to dispersal is most often invoked to explain these distributions. Here we show that unique and diverse sequences of the bacterial genus Sulfurihydrogenibium exist in Yellowstone thermal springs, indicating that these sites are geographically isolated. Although there was no correlation with geographic distance or the associated geochemistry of the springs, there was a strong historical signal. We found that the Yellowstone calderas, remnants of prehistoric volcanic eruptions, delineate biogeographical provinces for the Sulfurihydrogenibium within Yellowstone (chi(2): 9.7, P = 0.002). The pattern of distribution that we have detected suggests that major geological events in the past 2 million years explain more of the variation in sequence diversity in this system than do contemporary factors such as habitat or geographic distance. These findings highlight the importance of historical legacies in determining contemporary microbial distributions and suggest that the same factors that determine the biogeography of macroorganisms are also evident among bacteria.

  12. Spring Indices (SI): National (and Global) Indicators of Climate Impacts on Ecosystems and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Schwartz, M. D.; Ault, T. R.; McCabe, G. J.; Macalady, A. K.; Pederson, G. T.; Cook, B. P.; Henebry, G. M.; Moore, D. J.; Enquist, C.

    2011-12-01

    Indicators are vital in everyday life, such as tracking blood pressure to assess your health or monitoring the nation's economy using unemployment rates. Tracking the state of the environment in a uniform and integrated manner requires simple and broadly-applicable indicators of year-to-year variability and change. For example, indices such as the Start of Season (SOS) in remotely-sensed land surface phenology, Center of Mass (CM) in the hydrology of snowfed inland waters, and other biogeophysical metrics are being widely used as metrics of global change in seasonal timing. Here, we present a new, standardized spring index (SSI) that uses only daily minimum and maximum temperatures as input. This builds on an earlier version of the spring indices (SI) for lilac and honeysuckle phenology (first leaf and first flower) that required plant chilling to be satisfied over winter. The SSI tracks the transition from winter to spring by tallying phenologically relevant variables, (such as the number and intensity of warm days and total hours of sunlight) from January 1st onward, while ignoring the chilling requirement. This adjustment allows determination of first leaf and first bloom dates across the entire USA, including southernmost latitudes. Outputs from the new SSI is highly correlated with the earlier version, and both models process weather data into indices directly related to growth and development of many plants. Spatially averaged anomalies of SSI are well correlated with remotely sensed data and phenological observations from a wide variety of trees and shrubs in Europe, China, and North America. An advantage of SSI is that it only "sees" the atmosphere, meaning that it is free of local biological effects. Therefore, it can enhance the ability to identify important relationships between the large-scale climate modes of variability and the index itself, an advantage over other plant-based indices (such as SOS). If the state of these atmospheric modes can be

  13. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near Tassi and Pakoon Springs, western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Tassi and Pakoon Springs are both in the Grand Wash Trough in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument on the Arizona Strip. The monument is jointly managed by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Bureau of Land Management. This study was in response to NPS’s need to better understand the influence from regional increases in groundwater withdrawals near Grand Canyon-Parashant on the groundwater discharge from Tassi and Pakoon Springs. The climate of the Arizona Strip is generally semiarid to arid, and springs in the monument provide the water for the fragile ecosystems that are commonly separated by large areas of dry washes in canyons with pinyon and juniper. Available hydrogeologic data from previous investigations included water levels from the few existing wells, location information for springs, water chemistry from springs, and geologic maps. Available groundwater-elevation data from the wells and springs in the monument indicate that groundwater in the Grand Wash Trough is moving from north to south, discharging to springs and into the Colorado River. Groundwater may also be moving from east to west from Paleozoic rocks in the Grand Wash Cliffs into sedimentary deposits in the Grand Wash Trough. Finally, groundwater may be moving from the northwest in the Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks of the Virgin Mountains into the northern part of the Grand Wash Trough. Water discharging from Tassi and Pakoon Springs has a major-ion chemistry similar to that of other springs in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant. Stable-isotopic signatures for oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2 are depleted in the water from both Tassi and Pakoon Springs in comparison to other springs on the Arizona Strip. Tassi Spring discharges from multiple seeps along the Wheeler Fault, and the depleted isotopic signatures suggest that water may be flowing from multiple places into Lake Mead and seems to have a higher elevation or an older climate source. Elevated water

  14. National uranium resource evaluation, Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota and Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdell, D.B.; Daddazio, P.L.; Martin, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota and Nebraska, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The evaluation used criteria developed by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface reconnaissance was conducted using a portable scintillometer and a gamma spectrometer. Geochemical sampling was carried out in all geologic environments accessible within the quadrangle. Additional investigations included the followup of aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical anomalies and a subsurface study. Environments favorable for sandstone-type deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group and Chadron Member of the White River Group. Environments favorable for marine black-shale deposits occur in the Hayden Member of the Minnelusa Formation. A small area of the Harney Peak Granite is favorable for authigenic deposits. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are the Precambrian granitic and metasedimentary rocks and Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks other than those previously mentioned

  15. Final Program Report for 2010-2012: Monitoring and evaluation for conserving biological resources of the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen J. Solem; Burton K. Pendleton; Casey Giffen; Marc Coles-Ritchie; Jeri Ledbetter; Kevin S. McKelvey; Joy Berg; Jim Menlove; Carly K. Woodlief; Luke A. Boehnke

    2013-01-01

    The Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA) includes approximately 316,000 acres of National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada (see fig. 1-1). The Spring Mountains have long been recognized as an island of endemism, harboring flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. Conservation...

  16. Arab Spring, "Favelas," Borders, and the Artistic Transnational Migration: Toward a Curriculum for a Global Hip-Hop Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awad

    2017-01-01

    Straddling between the purely political and the poetically artistic, I am arguing, is a Global Hip-Hop Nation (GHHN), which is yet to be charted and its cartography is yet to be demarcated. Taking two examples, the first a Hip-Hop song from within the Arab Spring and the second from the "favelas" in Brazil, my intent is to show what…

  17. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  18. Taking the (southern) waters: science, slavery, and nationalism at the Virginia springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFauci, Lauren E

    2011-04-01

    'Taking the (southern) waters' argues that, in the pre-Civil War period, the space of Virginia's mineral water resorts and the philosophy of southern hydropathic medicine enabled--indeed, fostered--white southerners' constructions of a 'nationalist,' pro-slavery ideology. In the first half of the paper, the author explains how white southern health-seekers came to view the springs region as a medicinal resource peculiarly designed for the healing of southern diseases and for the restoration of white southern constitutions; in the second half, she shows how physical and social aspects of the resorts, such as architectural choices and political events, supported and encouraged pro-slavery ideologies. Taken together, these medical-social analyses reveal how elite white southerners in the antebellum period came to associate the health of their peculiarly 'southern' bodies with the future health of an independent southern nation, one that elided black bodily presence at the same time that its social structures and scientific apparatuses relied upon enslaved black labor.

  19. Geologic context of large karst springs and caves in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    The ONSR is a karst park, containing many springs and caves. The “jewels” of the park are large springs, several of first magnitude, that contribute significantly to the flow and water quality of the Current River and its tributaries. Completion of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping of the park and surrounding river basin, along with synthesis of published hydrologic data, allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the springs and the geologic framework to develop a conceptual model for genesis of these springs. Based on their similarity to mapped spring conduits, many of the caves in the ONSR are fossil conduit segments. Therefore, geologic control on the evolution of the springs also applies to speleogenesis in this part of the southern Missouri Ozarks.Large springs occur in the ONSR area because: (1) the Ozark aquifer, from which they rise, is chiefly dolomite affected by solution via various processes over a long time period, (2) Paleozoic hypogenic fluid migration through these rocks exploited and enhanced flow-paths, (3) a consistent and low regional dip of the rocks off of the Salem Plateau (less than 2° to the southeast) allows integration of flow into large groundwater basins with a few discreet outlets, (4) the springs are located where the rivers have cut down into structural highs, allowing access to water from stratigraphic units deeper in the aquifer thus allowing development of springsheds that have volumetrically larger storage than smaller springs higher in the section, and (5) quartz sandstone and bedded chert in the carbonate stratigraphic succession that are locally to regionally continuous, serve as aquitards that locally confine groundwater up dip of the springs creating artesian conditions. This subhorizontal partitioning of the Ozark aquifer allows contributing areas for different springs to overlap, as evidenced by dye traces that cross adjacent groundwater basin boundaries, and possibly contributes to alternate flow routes

  20. Cold-stenothermic spring fauna in mountainous headwaters of the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Martin; Zaenker, Stefan; Chifflard, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Since 2002, spring habitat investigations and mapping campaigns were executed in the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee (Central Germany, Federal State of Hesse). 693 springs are currently assessed within an ongoing ecological-faunistic inventory with additional data about physico-chemical properties and hydrological conditions of the spring water (e.g. pH value, electrical conductivity, water temperature and flow velocity). 1029 taxa are found so far, whereby, springs are investigated as a land-water ecotone where aquatic and terrestrial fauna was detected. Data continuously stored in the data base of the Hesse Biospeleological Register (Reiss, Steiner, Zaenker 2009) coupled with a Geographical Information System. Spring habitats can be characterized as mostly undisturbed, oligotrophic and near natural structured with heterogenous microhabitat conditions. Nearly 90 percentages of the springs are helocrenic habitats with a diffuse and low discharge, temporally dried out, but staying under wet substrate conditions. 85 percentages of the springs occurring under forests without any cultivation or forest management use. Coarse mineral substrate dominating slightly, followed up by fine mineral substrate types. Most common mineral related microhabitats are microlithal (coarse gravel) and psammopelal (fine silt). The high microhabitat diversity depends mostly to forest correlated organic substrate types. Here, most dominant are CPOM (leaf litter) and woody debris (deadwood). Substrate richness is significantly correlated to preferential fauna colonization of different, partly rare or endangered species. Undisturbed conditions are also characterized by relative cold stenothermy and oligotrophy. The latter is indicated by a very low electrical conductivity (Mean: 236 µS*cm-1). The mean annual water temperature is 9° Celsius with low amplitudes of max. and min. values. Spring water is nearly neutral and there is no identifiable trend in acidification (mean pH value of 6

  1. The thermal regime and species composition of fish and invertebrates in Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David; Farag, Aida

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the thermal regime and relative abundance of native and nonnative fish and invertebrates within Kelly Warm Spring and Savage Ditch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Water temperatures within the system remained relatively warm year-round with mean temperatures >20 °C near the spring source and >5 °C approximately 2 km downstream of the source. A total of 7 nonnative species were collected: Convict/Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum), Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii), Tadpole Madtom (Noturus gyrinus), Guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculata), and American bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Nonnative fish (Zebra Cichlids and Green Swordtails), red-rimmed melania snails, and bullfrog tadpoles dominated the upper 2 km of the system. Abundance estimates of the Zebra Cichlid exceeded 12,000 fish/km immediately downstream of the spring source. Relative abundance of native species increased movingdownstream as water temperatures attenuated with distance from the thermally warmed spring source; however, nonnative species were captured 4 km downstream from the spring. Fish diseases were prevalent in both native and nonnative fish from the Kelly Warm Spring pond. Clinostomum marginatum, a trematode parasite, was found in native species samples, and the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum was present in samples from nonnative species. Diphyllobothrium dendriticum is rare in Wyoming. Salmonella spp. were also found in some samples of nonnative species. These bacteria are associated with aquarium fish and aquaculture and are generally not found in the wild.

  2. 76 FR 61266 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton is at the heart of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, and includes the... elk, moose, bison, pronghorn, grizzly and black bears, grey wolves, and coyotes. Other species such as...

  3. Monitoring gas and heat emissions at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA based on a combined eddy covariance and Multi-GAS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Kelly, P. J.; Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. G.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2017-11-01

    We quantified gas and heat emissions in an acid-sulfate, vapor-dominated area (0.04-km2) of Norris Geyser Basin, located just north of the 0.63 Ma Yellowstone Caldera and near an area of anomalous uplift. From 14 May to 3 October 2016, an eddy covariance system measured half-hourly CO2, H2O and sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes and a Multi-GAS instrument measured (1 Hz frequency) atmospheric H2O, CO2 and H2S volumetric mixing ratios. We also measured soil CO2 fluxes using the accumulation chamber method and temperature profiles on a grid and collected fumarole gas samples for geochemical analysis. Eddy covariance CO2 fluxes ranged from - 56 to 885 g m- 2 d- 1. Using wavelet analysis, average daily eddy covariance CO2 fluxes were locally correlated with average daily environmental parameters on several-day to monthly time scales. Estimates of CO2 emission rate from the study area ranged from 8.6 t d- 1 based on eddy covariance measurements to 9.8 t d- 1 based on accumulation chamber measurements. Eddy covariance water vapor fluxes ranged from 1178 to 24,600 g m- 2 d- 1. Nighttime H and LE were considered representative of hydrothermal heat fluxes and ranged from 4 to 183 and 38 to 504 W m- 2, respectively. The total hydrothermal heat emission rate (H + LE + radiant) estimated for the study area was 11.6 MW and LE contributed 69% of the output. The mean ± standard deviation of H2O, CO2 and H2S mixing ratios measured by the Multi-GAS system were 9.3 ± 3.1 parts per thousand, 467 ± 61 ppmv, and 0.5 ± 0.6 ppmv, respectively, and variations in the gas compositions were strongly correlated with diurnal variations in environmental parameters (wind speed and direction, atmospheric temperature). After removing ambient H2O and CO2, the observed variations in the Multi-GAS data could be explained by the mixing of relatively H2O-CO2-H2S-rich fumarole gases with CO2-rich and H2O-H2S-poor soil gases. The fumarole H2O/CO2 and CO2/H2S end member ratios (101.7 and 27

  4. Monitoring gas and heat emissions at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA based on a combined eddy covariance and Multi-GAS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kelly, Peter; Bergfeld, Deborah; Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2017-01-01

    We quantified gas and heat emissions in an acid-sulfate, vapor-dominated area (0.04-km2) of Norris Geyser Basin, located just north of the 0.63 Ma Yellowstone Caldera and near an area of anomalous uplift. From 14 May to 3 October 2016, an eddy covariance system measured half-hourly CO2, H2O and sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes and a Multi-GAS instrument measured (1 Hz frequency) atmospheric H2O, CO2 and H2S volumetric mixing ratios. We also measured soil CO2 fluxes using the accumulation chamber method and temperature profiles on a grid and collected fumarole gas samples for geochemical analysis. Eddy covariance CO2 fluxes ranged from − 56 to 885 g m− 2 d− 1. Using wavelet analysis, average daily eddy covariance CO2 fluxes were locally correlated with average daily environmental parameters on several-day to monthly time scales. Estimates of CO2emission rate from the study area ranged from 8.6 t d− 1 based on eddy covariance measurements to 9.8 t d− 1 based on accumulation chamber measurements. Eddy covariance water vapor fluxes ranged from 1178 to 24,600 g m− 2 d− 1. Nighttime H and LEwere considered representative of hydrothermal heat fluxes and ranged from 4 to 183 and 38 to 504 W m− 2, respectively. The total hydrothermal heat emission rate (H + LE + radiant) estimated for the study area was 11.6 MW and LE contributed 69% of the output. The mean ± standard deviation of H2O, CO2 and H2S mixing ratios measured by the Multi-GAS system were 9.3 ± 3.1 parts per thousand, 467 ± 61 ppmv, and 0.5 ± 0.6 ppmv, respectively, and variations in the gas compositions were strongly correlated with diurnal variations in environmental parameters (wind speed and direction, atmospheric temperature). After removing ambient H2O and CO2, the observed variations in the Multi-GAS data could be explained by the mixing of relatively H2O-CO2-H2S-rich fumarole gases with CO2-rich and H2O-H2S-poor soil gases. The

  5. Willow on Yellowstone's northern range: evidence for a trophic cascade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hawthorne L; Merrill, Evelyn H; Varley, Nathan; Boyce, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    Reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995-1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the plant communities used by elk. We sampled two species of willow (Salix boothii and S. geyeriana) on the northern winter range to determine whether (1) there was quantitative evidence of increased willow growth following wolf reintroduction, (2) browsing by elk affected willow growth, and (3) any increase in growth observed was greater than that expected by climatic and hydrological factors alone, thereby indicating a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Using stem sectioning techniques to quantify historical growth patterns we found an approximately twofold increase in stem growth-ring area following wolf reintroduction for both species of willow. This increase could not be explained by climate and hydrological factors alone; the presence of wolves on the landscape was a significant predictor of stem growth above and beyond these abiotic factors. Growth-ring area was positively correlated with the previous year's ring area and negatively correlated with the percentage of twigs browsed from the stem during the winter preceding growth, indicating that elk browse impeded stem growth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade on Yellowstone's northern winter range following wolf reintroduction. We suggest that the community-altering effects of wolf restoration are an endorsement of ecological-process management in Yellowstone National Park.

  6. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison pregnancy rates.

  7. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  8. Spring and Autumn Phenological Variability across Environmental Gradients of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Norman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous regions experience complex phenological behavior along climatic, vegetational and topographic gradients. In this paper, we use a MODIS time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to understand the causes of variations in spring and autumn timing from 2000 to 2015, for a landscape renowned for its biological diversity. By filtering for cover type, topography and disturbance history, we achieved an improved understanding of the effects of seasonal weather variation on land surface phenology (LSP. Elevational effects were greatest in spring and were more important than site moisture effects. The spring and autumn NDVI of deciduous forests were found to increase in response to antecedent warm temperatures, with evidence of possible cross-seasonal lag effects, including possible accelerated green-up after cold Januarys and early brown-down following warm springs. Areas that were disturbed by the hemlock woolly adelgid and a severe tornado showed a weaker sensitivity to cross-year temperature and precipitation variation, while low severity wildland fire had no discernable effect. Use of ancillary datasets to filter for disturbance and vegetation type improves our understanding of vegetation’s phenological responsiveness to climate dynamics across complex environmental gradients.

  9. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eSchubotz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streamer biofilm communities (SBC are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae, Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and ‘Bison Pool’, using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate and glucose to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10 to 30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at ‘Bison Pool’ and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20 and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at ‘Bison Pool’ and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being

  10. Reprodctive biology of trout in a thermally enriched environment: the Firehole River of Yellowstone National Park. Second annual progress report, April 1, 1974--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature recordings indicate that trout inhabiting the warmest section of the river live at temperatures averaging 11.5 C higher than those inhabiting the upstream, cold-water section above most of the thermal discharges. Daily maximum temperatures during summer occasionally exceed published lethal levels for trout, and daily means consistently exceed the 20 0 C upper limit considered favorable for growth. Brown trout at the cold-water station show a normal reproductive pattern and spawn in the late fall. Brown trout at the warmest water station show a similar seasonal pattern; however about half of the specimens examined were either not maturing or were undergoing massive atresia of ova. Rainbow trout also have a similar reproductive pattern and spawn in late fall, in contrast to the normal spring and early summer spawning period of this species. Both species grow considerably faster at the warm-water stations than they do at the cold-water stations, despite having their growth inhibited by high summer temperatures. Differences in diet are evident. Trout captured from both warm and cold areas have internal body temperatures closely similar to water temperatures, and thus provide no evidence for the existence of cooler microhabitats within the general stream

  11. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, S. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  12. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  13. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  14. Tracking hydrothermal feature changes in response to seismicity and deformation at Mud Volcano thermal area, Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Hurwitz, S.; Murphy, F.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mud Volcano thermal area in Yellowstone National Park comprises many hydrothermal features including fumaroles, mudpots, springs, and thermal pools. Observations of hydrothermal changes have been made for decades in the Mud Volcano thermal area, and include reports of significant changes (the appearance of new features, increased water levels in pools, vigor of activity, and tree mortality) following an earthquake swarm in 1978 that took place beneath the area. However, no quantitative method to map and measure surface feature changes through time has been applied. We present an analysis of aerial photographs from 1954 to present to track temporal changes in the boundaries between vegetated and thermally barren areas, as well as location, extent, color, clarity, and runoff patterns of hydrothermal features within the Mud Volcano thermal area. This study attempts to provide a detailed, long-term (>50 year) inventory of hydrothermal features and change detection at Mud Volcano thermal area that can be used to identify changes in hydrothermal activity in response to seismicity, uplift and subsidence episodes of the adjacent Sour Creek resurgent dome, or other potential causes.

  15. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  16. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic, O(2)-inhibited process that reduces N(2) gas to biomass, is of paramount importance in biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. We analyzed the levels of nif transcripts of Synechococcus ecotypes, NifH subunit and nitrogenase activity over the diel cycle...... in the microbial mat of an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The results showed a rise in nif transcripts in the evening, with a subsequent decline over the course of the night. In contrast, immunological data demonstrated that the level of the NifH polypeptide remained stable during the night...

  17. Hydrogeology and sources of water to select springs in Black Canyon, south of Hoover Dam, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Wilson, Jon W.; Beard, L. Sue

    2015-11-03

    Springs in Black Canyon of the Colorado River, directly south of Hoover Dam in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, are important hydrologic features that support a unique riparian ecosystem including habitat for endangered species. Rapid population growth in areas near and surrounding Black Canyon has caused concern among resource managers that such growth could affect the discharge from these springs. The U.S. Geological Survey studied the springs in Black Canyon between January 2008, and May 2014. The purposes of this study were to provide a baseline of discharge and hydrochemical data from selected springs in Black Canyon and to better understand the sources of water to the springs.

  18. Technology Evaluation for the Big Spring Water Treatment System at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC

    2002-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) is an active manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that is located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. Building 9201-2 was one of the first process buildings constructed at the Y-12 Complex. Construction involved relocating and straightening of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) channel, adding large quantities of fill material to level areas along the creek, and pumping of concrete into sinkholes and solution cavities present within the limestone bedrock. Flow from a large natural spring designated as ''Big Spring'' on the original 1943 Stone and Webster Building 9201-2 Field Sketch FS6003 was captured and directed to UEFPC through a drainpipe designated Outfall 51. The building was used from 1953 to 1955 for pilot plant operations for an industrial process that involved the use of large quantities of elemental mercury. Past operations at the Y-12 Complex led to the release of mercury to the environment. Significant environmental media at the site were contaminated by accidental releases of mercury from the building process facilities piping and sumps associated with Y-12 Complex mercury handling facilities. Releases to the soil surrounding the buildings have resulted in significant levels of mercury in these areas of contamination, which is ultimately transported to UEFPC, its streambed, and off-site. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) is the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations prime contractor responsible for conducting environmental restoration activities at the Y-12 Complex. In order to mitigate the mercury being released to UEFPC, the Big Spring Water Treatment System will be designed and constructed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. This facility will treat the combined flow from Big Spring feeding Outfall 51 and the inflow now being processed at the East End Mercury Treatment System (EEMTS). Both discharge to UEFPC adjacent to

  19. Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic

  20. Aerosol optical properties observation and its relationship to meteorological conditions and emission during the Chinese National Day and Spring Festival holiday in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhao, Hujia; Gui, Ke; Sun, Tianze; An, Linchang; Yu, Jie; Liu, Chong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2017-11-01

    The reduction of traffic flow in downtown areas during the Chinese National Day holiday and the fireworks during the Spring Festival provide a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of urban anthropogenic activities on aerosol optical properties during these important Chinese festivals in Beijing. The National Day in 2014 and 2015 and Spring Festival in 2015 and 2016 were selected as study periods. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm increased over the all holiday periods and the average AODs during the 2015 National Day, 2015 Spring Festival and 2016 Spring Festival were about 81%, 21% and 36% higher than the background levels, respectively. The average AOD in 2014 National Day holiday was lower than background level partly influenced by precipitation event. The absorption AOD (AAOD) at 440 nm showed consistent variations with the AOD and the average AAODs during the 2015 National Day, 2015 Spring Festival and 2016 Spring Festival holidays were about 75%, 19% and 23% higher than the background level, respectively. The mean values of single scattering albedo were greater than the background level during the Spring Festival holidays, whereas the values during the National Day holiday in 2015 were lower partly due to the reduction of vehicular emissions in downtown areas. Fine- and coarse-mode particle volumes during pollution periods in holidays were 0.04-0.25 μm3 and 0.03-0.15 μm3 larger than background level, respectively. The results of potential source contribution function and concentration-weighted trajectory analyses identified the areas south of Beijing as the main source regions of PM2.5 and were responsible for the extremely high PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing during the holiday periods. The findings of this study may aid understanding the effects of human activities on aerosol optical properties over Beijing area and contribute to improving regional air quality.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    for Solar Power Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

  2. Glacial and Quaternary geology of the northern Yellowstone area, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This field guide focuses on the glacial geology and paleoecology beginning in the Paradise Valley and progressing southward into northern Yellowstone National Park. During the last (Pinedale) glaciation, the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier flowed out of Yellowstone Park and down the Yellowstone River Valley into the Paradise Valley. The field trip will traverse the following Pinedale glacial sequence: (1) deposition of the Eightmile terminal moraines and outwash 16.5 ± 1.4 10Be ka in the Paradise Valley; (2) glacial recession of ~8 km and deposition of the Chico moraines and outwash 16.1 ± 1.7 10Be ka; (3) glacial recession of 45 km to near the northern Yellowstone boundary and moraine deposition during the Deckard Flats readjustment 14.2 ± 1.2 10Be ka; and (4) glacial recession of ~37 km and deposition of the Junction Butte moraines 15.2 ± 1.3 10Be ka (this age is a little too old based on the stratigraphic sequence). Yellowstone's northern range of sagebrush-grasslands and bison, elk, wolf, and bear inhabitants is founded on glacial moraines, sub-glacial till, and outwash deposited during the last glaciation. Floods released from glacially dammed lakes and a landslide-dammed lake punctuate this record. The glacial geologic reconstruction was evaluated by calculation of basal shear stress, and yielded the following values for flow pattern in plan view: strongly converging—1.21 ± 0.12 bars (n = 15); nearly uniform—1.04 ± 0.16 bars (n = 11); and strongly diverging—0.84 ± 0.14 bars (n = 16). Reconstructed mass balance yielded accumulation and ablation each of ~3 km3/yr, with glacial movement near the equilibrium line altitude dominated by basal sliding. Pollen and charcoal records from three lakes in northern Yellowstone provide information on the postglacial vegetation and fire history. Following glacial retreat, sparsely vegetated landscapes were colonized first by spruce parkland and then by closed subalpine forests. Regional fire activity

  3. Exploring Yellowstone National Park with Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.; Carr, Ruth; Lackey, Dacia

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical modeling, a practice standard in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010), is a process by which students develop and use mathematics as a tool to make sense of the world around them. Students investigate a real-world situation by asking mathematical questions; along the way, they need to decide how to use…

  4. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Getz, Wayne M

    2005-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  5. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmers Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  6. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Wilmers

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  7. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  8. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Earl, Dent A; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of the grey wolf in Yellowstone National Park is an outstanding example of a successful reintroduction. A general question concerning reintroduction is the degree to which genetic variation has been preserved and the specific behavioural mechanisms that enhance the preservation of genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding. We have analysed 200 Yellowstone wolves, including all 31 founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the 10-year reintroduction period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (1995 H(0) = 0.69; 2004 H(0) = 0.73) with low levels of inbreeding (1995 F(IS) = -0.063; 2004 F(IS) = -0.051) and throughout, the population expanded rapidly (N(1995) = 21; N(2004) = 169). Pedigree-based effective population size ratios did not vary appreciably over the duration of population expansion (1995 N(e)/N(g) = 0.29; 2000 N(e)/N(g) = 0.26; 2004 N(e)/N(g) = 0.33). We estimated kinship and found only two of 30 natural breeding pairs showed evidence of being related (average r = -0.026, SE = 0.03). We reconstructed the genealogy of 200 wolves based on genetic and field data and discovered that they avoid inbreeding through a wide variety of behavioural mechanisms including absolute avoidance of breeding with related pack members, male-biased dispersal to packs where they breed with nonrelatives, and female-biased subordinate breeding. We documented a greater diversity of such population assembly patterns in Yellowstone than previously observed in any other natural wolf population. Inbreeding avoidance is nearly absolute despite the high probability of within-pack inbreeding opportunities and extensive interpack kinship ties between adjacent packs. Simulations showed that the Yellowstone population has levels of genetic variation similar to that of a population managed for high variation and low inbreeding, and greater than that expected for random breeding within packs or across the entire breeding pool. Although short

  9. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  10. Seasonal gravity change at Yellowstone caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, M. P.; de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, E.

    2017-12-01

    The driving forces behind Yellowstone's dynamic deformation, vigorous hydrothermal system, and abundant seismicity are usually ascribed to "magmatic fluids," which could refer to magma, water, volatiles, or some combination. Deformation data alone cannot distinguish the relative importance of these fluids. Gravity measurements, however, provide an indication of mass change over time and, when combined with surface displacements, can constrain the density of subsurface fluids. Unfortunately, several decades of gravity surveys at Yellowstone have yielded ambiguous results. We suspect that the difficulty in interpreting Yellowstone gravity data is due to seasonal variations in environmental conditions—especially surface and ground water. Yellowstone gravity surveys are usually carried out at the same time of year (generally late summer) to minimize the impact of seasonality. Nevertheless, surface and subsurface water levels are not likely to be constant from year to year, given annual differences in precipitation. To assess the overall magnitude of seasonal gravity changes, we conducted gravity surveys of benchmarks in and around Yellowstone caldera in May, July, August, and October 2017. Our goal was to characterize seasonal variations due to snow melt/accumulation, changes in river and lake levels, changes in groundwater levels, and changes in hydrothermal activity. We also hope to identify sites that show little variation in gravity over the course of the 2017 surveys, as these locations may be less prone to seasonal changes and more likely to detect small variations due to magmatic processes. Preliminary examination of data collected in May and July 2017 emphasizes the importance of site location relative to sources of water. For example, a site on the banks of the Yellowstone River showed a gravity increase of several hundred microgals associated with a 50 cm increase in the river level. A high-altitude site far from rivers and lakes, in contrast, showed a

  11. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  12. Geomicrobiology of sublacustrine thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake: Geochemical controls on microbial community structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA is a large high-altitude (2200 m, fresh-water lake, which straddles an extensive caldera and is the center of significant geothermal activity. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study was to evaluate the microbial populations inhabiting thermal vent communities in Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone Lake using 16S rRNA gene and random metagenome sequencing, and to determine how geochemical attributes of vent waters influence the distribution of specific microorganisms and their metabolic potential. Thermal vent waters and associated microbial biomass were sampled during two field seasons (2007 - 2008 using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. Sublacustrine thermal vent waters (circa 50 - 90 oC contained elevated concentrations of numerous constituents associated with geothermal activity including dissolved hydrogen, sulfide, methane and carbon dioxide. Microorganisms associated with sulfur-rich filamentous ‘streamer’ communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5 - 6 were dominated by bacteria from the Aquificales, but also contained thermophilic archaea from the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Novel groups of methanogens and members of the Korarchaeota were observed in vents from West Thumb and Elliot’s Crater (pH 5 - 6. Conversely, metagenome sequence from Mary Bay vent sediments did not yield large assemblies, and contained diverse thermophilic and nonthermophilic bacterial relatives. Analysis of functional genes associated with the major vent populations indicated a direct linkage to high concentrations of carbon dioxide, reduced sulfur (sulfide and/or elemental S, hydrogen and methane in the deep thermal ecosystems. Our observations show that sublacustrine thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake support novel thermophilic communities, which contain microorganisms with functional attributes not found to date in terrestrial geothermal systems of YNP.

  13. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  14. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Pierce, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing

  15. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  16. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  17. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  18. Infectious diseases of wolves in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    The summer of 2005 began with such promise for wolves in Yellowstone.  The population had been at an all-time high the last few years, and the wolves appeared to be in good condition.  Several packs had been particularly busy during the breeding season, and early summer pup counts suggested another healthy crop of new wolves rising through the ranks.

  19. The YNP Metagenome Project: Environmental Parameters Responsible for Microbial Distribution in the Yellowstone Geothermal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Yellowstone geothermal complex contains over 10,000 diverse geothermal features that host numerous phylogenetically deeply-rooted and poorly understood archaea, bacteria and viruses. Microbial communities in high-temperature environments are generally less diverse than soil, marine, sediment or lake habitats and therefore offer a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of different model microbial communities using environmental metagenomics. One of the broader goals of this study was to establish linkages among microbial distribution, metabolic potential and environmental variables. Twenty geochemically distinct geothermal ecosystems representing a broad spectrum of Yellowstone hot-spring environments were used for metagenomic and geochemical analysis and included approximately equal numbers of: (1 phototrophic mats, (2 ‘filamentous streamer’ communities, and (3 archaeal-dominated sediments. The metagenomes were analyzed using a suite of complementary and integrative bioinformatic tools, including phylogenetic and functional analysis of both individual sequence reads and assemblies of predominant phylotypes. This volume identifies major environmental determinants of a large number of thermophilic microbial lineages, many of which have not been fully described in the literature nor previously cultivated to enable functional and genomic analyses. Moreover, protein family abundance comparisons and in-depth analyses of specific genes and metabolic pathways relevant to these hot-spring environments reveal hallmark signatures of metabolic capabilities that parallel the distribution of phylotypes across specific types of geochemical environments.

  20. Consumption of pondweed rhizomes by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Podruzny, S.R.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.) are common foods of waterfowl throughout the Northern Hemisphere. However, consumption of pondweeds by bears has been noted only once, in Russia. We documented consumption of pondweed rhizomes by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Yellowstone region, 1977-96, during investigations of telemetry locations obtained from 175 radiomarked bears. We documented pondweed excavations at 25 sites and detected pondweed rhizomes in 18 feces. We observed grizzly bears excavating and consuming pondweed on 2 occasions. All excavations occurred in wetlands that were inundated during and after snowmelt, but dry by late August or early September of most years. These wetlands were typified by the presence of inflated sedge (Carex vesicaria) and occurred almost exclusively on plateaus of Pliocene-Pleistocene detrital sediments or volcanic rhyolite flows. Bears excavated wetlands with pondweeds when they were free of standing water, most commonly during October and occasionally during spring prior to the onset of terminal snowmelt. Most excavations were about 4.5 cm deep, 40 cubic decimeter (dm3) in total volume, and targeted the thickened pondweed rhizomes. Starch content of rhizomes collected near grizzly bear excavations averaged 28% (12% SD; n = 6). These results add to the documented diversity of grizzly bear food habits and, because pondweed is distributed circumboreally, also raise the possibility that consumption of pondweed by grizzly bears has been overlooked in other regions.

  1. Single-Cell-Genomics-Facilitated Read Binning of Candidate Phylum EM19 Genomes from Geothermal Spring Metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Eric D; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Ohlsson, J Ingemar; Briggs, Brandon R; Kanbar, Jad; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen R; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P; Swingley, Wesley D

    2016-02-15

    The vast majority of microbial life remains uncatalogued due to the inability to cultivate these organisms in the laboratory. This "microbial dark matter" represents a substantial portion of the tree of life and of the populations that contribute to chemical cycling in many ecosystems. In this work, we leveraged an existing single-cell genomic data set representing the candidate bacterial phylum "Calescamantes" (EM19) to calibrate machine learning algorithms and define metagenomic bins directly from pyrosequencing reads derived from Great Boiling Spring in the U.S. Great Basin. Compared to other assembly-based methods, taxonomic binning with a read-based machine learning approach yielded final assemblies with the highest predicted genome completeness of any method tested. Read-first binning subsequently was used to extract Calescamantes bins from all metagenomes with abundant Calescamantes populations, including metagenomes from Octopus Spring and Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park and Gongxiaoshe Spring in Yunnan Province, China. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that Calescamantes are heterotrophic, facultative anaerobes, which can utilize oxidized nitrogen sources as terminal electron acceptors for respiration in the absence of oxygen and use proteins as their primary carbon source. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, the geographically separate Calescamantes populations were highly similar in their predicted metabolic capabilities and core gene content, respiring O2, or oxidized nitrogen species for energy conservation in distant but chemically similar hot springs. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Monitoring Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem wetlands: Can long-term monitoring help us understand their future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Adam; Hossack, Blake R.; Patla, Debra; Thoma, David; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), changes in the drying cycles of wetlands have been documented. Wetlands are areas where the water table is at or near the land surface and standing shallow water is present for much or all of the growing season. We discuss how monitoring data can be used to document variation in annual flooding and drying patterns of wetlands monitored across Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks, investigate how these patterns are related to a changing climate, and explore how drying of wetlands may impact amphibians. The documented declines of some amphibian species are of growing concern to scientists and land managers alike, in part because disappearances have occurred in some of the most protected places. These disappearances are a recognized component of what is being described as Earth’s sixth mass extinction.

  3. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  4. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  5. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  6. Micrometeorological data for energy-budget studies near Rogers Spring, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, W.D.; Rapp, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The data were collected at two sites near Rogers Spring for use in energy-budget studies beginning in 1994. The data collected at each site included net radiation, air temperature at two heights, dew- point temperature at two heights, windspeed at two heights, soil heat flux, and soil temperature in the interval between the land surface and the buried heat-flux plates

  7. Hydrogeology, geochemistry, and quality of water of The Basin and Oak Spring areas of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Buszka, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Test drilling near two sewage lagoons in The Basin area of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas, has shown that the alluvium and colluvium on which the lagoons are located is not saturated in the immediate vicinity of the lagoons. A shallow aquifer, therefore, does not exist in this critical area at and near the lagoons. Should seepage outflow from the lagoons occur, the effluent from the lagoons might eventually be incorporated into shallow ground water moving westward in the direction of Oak Spring. Under these conditions such water could reach the spring. Test borings that bottomed in bedrock below the alluvial and colluvial fill material are dry, indicating that no substantial leakage from the lagoons was detected. Therefore, no contaminant plume was identified. Fill material in The Basin does not contain water everywhere in its extensive outcropping area and supplies only a small quantity of ground water to Window Pouroff, which is the only natural surface outlet of The Basin.

  8. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Rusch, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes...... the PEs are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. PEs responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each PE was maintained as the relative abundances of PEs changed, further indicating that each...

  9. Modeling survival: application of the Andersen-Gill model to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Boyce, Mark S.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

     Wildlife ecologists often use the Kaplan-Meier procedure or Cox proportional hazards model to estimate survival rates, distributions, and magnitude of risk factors. The Andersen-Gill formulation (A-G) of the Cox proportional hazards model has seen limited application to mark-resight data but has a number of advantages, including the ability to accommodate left-censored data, time-varying covariates, multiple events, and discontinuous intervals of risks. We introduce the A-G model including structure of data, interpretation of results, and assessment of assumptions. We then apply the model to 22 years of radiotelemetry data for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Greater Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, USA. We used Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) and multi-model inference to assess a number of potentially useful predictive models relative to explanatory covariates for demography, human disturbance, and habitat. Using the most parsimonious models, we generated risk ratios, hypothetical survival curves, and a map of the spatial distribution of high-risk areas across the recovery zone. Our results were in agreement with past studies of mortality factors for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Holding other covariates constant, mortality was highest for bears that were subjected to repeated management actions and inhabited areas with high road densities outside Yellowstone National Park. Hazard models developed with covariates descriptive of foraging habitats were not the most parsimonious, but they suggested that high-elevation areas offered lower risks of mortality when compared to agricultural areas.

  10. Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy, determined by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truzzi C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV was used to determine Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park, Central Italy. Samples were collected from three different areas of the Park (Mount Bove North, Mount Bove South and Springs of River Nera during the period 2004-2011. Physical-chemical parameters were also determined to obtain a general characterization of the waters. Very low metal concentrations were observed (i.e., Cd 1.3±0.4 ng L-1, Pb 13.8±5.6 ng L-1, Cu 157±95 ng L-1, well below the legal limits and also below the medians of known Italian and European data. Comparing the three areas it was noted that waters from the area of the Nera Springs are the poorest in heavy metals and the richest in minerals, that conversely the waters of Mt. Bove North are the richest in heavy metals and the poorest in mineral salts, and finally that intermediate values both for heavy metals and mineral salts were observed for the waters of Mt. Bove South.

  11. Volcano crisis response at Yellowstone volcanic complex - after-action report for exercise held at Salt Lake City, Utah, November 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    A functional tabletop exercise was run on November 14-15, 2011 in Salt Lake City, Utah, to test crisis response capabilities, communication protocols, and decision-making by the staff of the multi-agency Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) as they reacted to a hypothetical exercise scenario of accelerating volcanic unrest at the Yellowstone caldera. The exercise simulated a rapid build-up of seismic activity, ground deformation, and hot-spring water-chemistry and temperature anomalies that culminated in a small- to moderate-size phreatomagmatic eruption within Yellowstone National Park. The YVO scientific team's responses to the unfolding events in the scenario and to simulated requests for information by stakeholders and the media were assessed by (a) the exercise organizers; (b) several non-YVO scientists, who observed and queried participants, and took notes throughout the exercise; and (c) the participants themselves, who kept logs of their actions during the exercise and later participated in a group debriefing session and filled out detailed questionnaires. These evaluations were tabulated, interpreted, and summarized for this report, and on the basis of this information, recommendations have been made. Overall, the YVO teams performed their jobs very well. The exercise revealed that YVO scientists were able to successfully provide critical hazards information, issue information statements, and appropriately raise alert levels during a fast-moving crisis. Based on the exercise, it is recommended that several measures be taken to increase YVO effectiveness during a crisis: 1. Improve role clarification within and between YVO science teams. 2. Improve communications tools and protocols for data-sharing and consensus-building among YVO scientists, who are geographically and administratively dispersed among various institutions across the United States. 3. Familiarize YVO staff with Incident Command System (ICS) procedures and protocols, and provide more in

  12. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  13. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Andy P Dobson

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the r...

  14. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  15. The Purification and Characterization of Superoxide Dismutase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and the Effects of UV Radiation on the Activity of SOD and Catalase in Hydrothermal Mats of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Vanessa; Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermotolerant anoxygenic green phototrophic bacterium that is prominent in alkaline hot springs at temperatures between 52 and 60 C. This species often grows in the hyperoxic environment beneath cyanobacterial mats at higher temperatures up to 70 - 72 C. Cf. aurantiacus is an evolutionarily important organism since it is in the earliest branch of the eubacteria that are capable of photosynthesis and many of its characteristics can be found in other diverse groups of phototrophic bacteria. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Yaşamların Özü Olan Mevsimsel Bahâr Zemininde Ulusal Bahâr National Spring In Ground Seasonal Spring Being Essence Of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ADIGÜZEL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available North hemisfere is a season in which takes place march, april,may and in spring animation of plants between summer and winter.Spring is one of the four seasons. This season include alterations ineverything such as animations of plants, colorful and a good smell life.The spring is a new life, beauty. We won’t examine this beauty. We willexamine spring’s Word which from spring of anation. Although HalideNusret Zorlutuna’s “ Git Bahar, Ağla Bahar, Gel Bahar, Bahar Geldi”poems are piece of verse they are poems which follow each other. Thepoet, who starts her bad life with Mondros treaty, shows pictures withher piece of verses. İn her Works such as Git Bahar, Ağla Bahar, GelBahar, Bahr Geldi, she tells about the success of nation and save fromcaptivity.In this piece of verses, it is told about season of spring andTurkish nation had events and unforeseen dnager left a deep traces inTurkish nations life. These dominant components, which affact fourverses of poet, form rich images and strong concepts. As willemainementioned, The poet express country, the civilization Turkish nation’spsychology and strugle in Anatolia in her work. The poet efforts to beTurkish nation’s language, guide. The poet also efforts to be nation’svoice with her standing individual. This shows Turkish nation’ssituation. The literature which is a branch of life form the societyproblems with a big pleasure. Kuzey yarım kürede mart, nisan ve mayıs aylarını içine alan 21 Mart-22 Haziran arası zaman aralığı ilkyaz, bahâr, bitkilerin canlandığı, canlıların kanlandığı kış ve yaz arasındaki mevsimdir. Bahâr, yılın dört mevsiminden biridir. Bu mevsim dilimi, evrenin olağan dışı yenilemeler ve değişerek gelişmeler gösterdiği capcanlı, rengârenk güzel kokulu ipeksi bir yaşam kreasyonu, karesidir. Bahâr bir yeniden doğuştur, diriliştir, ihyadır. Bizler, bu güzel yaşam tablosunu irdelemeyeceğiz. Bahâr kelimesinin “bir farkl

  17. Effects of exotic species on Yellowstone's grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Daniel P.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Mattson, D.J.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans have affected grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by direct mortality, competition for space and resources, and introduction of exotic species. Exotic organisms that have affected grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Area include common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), nonnative clovers (Trifolium spp.), domesticated livestock, bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Some bears consume substantial amounts of dandelion and clover. However, these exotic foods provide little digested energy compared to higher-quality bear foods. Domestic livestock are of greater energetic value, but use of this food by bears often leads to conflicts with humans and subsequent increases in bear mortality. Lake trout, blister rust, and brucellosis diminish grizzly bears foods. Lake trout prey on native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in Yellowstone Lake; white pine blister rust has the potential to destroy native whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) stands; and management response to bovine brucellosis, a disease found in the Yellowstone bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus), could reduce populations of these 2 species. Exotic species will likely cause more harm than good for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Managers have few options to mitigate or contain the impacts of exotics on Yellowstone's grizzly bears. Moreover, their potential negative impacts have only begun to unfold. Exotic species may lead to the loss of substantial highquality grizzly bear foods, including much of the bison, trout, and pine seeds that Yellowstone grizzly bears currently depend upon.

  18. Autecology of an arsenite chemolithotroph: sulfide constraints on function and distribution in a geothermal spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Breary, Michele; McDermott, Timothy R

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies in an acid-sulfate-chloride spring in Yellowstone National Park found that microbial arsenite [As(III)] oxidation is absent in regions of the spring outflow channel where H(2)S exceeds approximately 5 microM and served as a backdrop for continued efforts in the present study. Ex situ assays with microbial mat samples demonstrated immediate As(III) oxidation activity when H(2)S was absent or at low concentrations, suggesting the presence of As(III) oxidase enzymes that could be reactivated if H(2)S is removed. Cultivation experiments initiated with mat samples taken from along the H(2)S gradient in the outflow channel resulted in the isolation of an As(III)-oxidizing chemolithotroph from the low-H(2)S region of the gradient. The isolate was phylogenetically related to Acidicaldus and was characterized in vitro for spring-relevant properties, which were then compared to its distribution pattern in the spring as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR. While neither temperature nor oxygen requirements appeared to be related to the occurrence of this organism within the outflow channel, H(2)S concentration appeared to be an important constraint. This was verified by in vitro pure-culture modeling and kinetic experiments, which suggested that H(2)S inhibition of As(III) oxidation is uncompetitive in nature. In summary, the studies reported herein illustrate that H(2)S is a potent inhibitor of As(III) oxidation and will influence the niche opportunities and population distribution of As(III) chemolithotrophs.

  19. Trend of the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Breiwick, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Yellowstone's grizzlies (Ursus arctos) have been studied for more than 40 years. Radio telemetry has been used to obtain estimates of the rate of increase of the population, with results reported by Schwartz et al. (2006). Counts of females with cubs-of-the-year unduplicated also provide an index of abundance and are the primary subject of this report. An exponential model was fitted to n=24 such counts, using nonlinear least squares. Estimates of the rate of increase, r, were about 0.053. 95% confidence intervals, were obtained by several different methods, and all had lower limits substantially above zero, indicating that the population has been increasing steadily, in contrast to the results of Schwartz et al. (2006), which could not exclude a decreasing population. The grizzly data have been repeatedly mis-used in current literature for reasons explained here.

  20. Trend of the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Eberhardt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellowstone's grizzlies (Ursus arctos have been studied for more than 40 years. Radiotelemetry has been used to obtain estimates of the rate of increase of the population, with results reported by Schwartz et al. (2006. Counts of females with cubs-of-the-year “unduplicated” also provide an index of abundance and are the primary subject of this report. An exponential model was fitted to n=24 such counts, using nonlinear leastsquares. Estimates of the rate of increase, r, were about 0.053. 95% confidence intervals, were obtained by several different methods, and all had lower limits substantially above zero, indicating that the population has been increasing steadily, in contrast to the results of Schwartz et al. (2006, which could not exclude a decreasing population. The grizzly data have been repeatedly mis-used in current literature for reasons explained here.

  1. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...... was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths...... was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation....

  2. History of surface displacements at the Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming, from leveling surveys and InSAR observations, 1923-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    ) repeated cycles of uplift and subsidence and sudden changes from uplift to subsidence or vice versa; (5) spatial and temporal relationships between changes in deformation mode and strong earthquake swarms; and (6) lateral dimensions of all three deforming areas that indicate source depths in the range of 5 to 15 km. We prefer a conceptual model in which surface displacements at Yellowstone are caused primarily by variations in the flux of basaltic magma into the crust beneath the caldera. Specifically, we envision a magmatic conduit system beneath the northeast part of the caldera that supplies basalt from a mantle source to an accumulation zone at 5-10 km depth, perhaps at a rheological boundary within a crystallizing rhyolite body remnant from past eruptions. Increases in the magma flux favor uplift of the caldera and decreases favor subsidence. A delicate equilibrium exists among the mass and heat flux from basaltic intrusions, heat and volatile loss from the crystallizing rhyolite body, and the overlying hydrothermal system. In the absence of basalt input, steady subsidence occurs mainly as a result of fluid loss from crystallizing rhyolite. At times when a self-sealing zone in the deep hydrothermal system prevents the escape of magmatic fluid, the resulting pressure increase contributes to surface uplift within the caldera; such episodes end when the seal ruptures during an earthquake swarm. To account for the north rim deformation source, we propose that magma or fluid exsolved from magma episodically escapes the caldera system at the three-way structural intersection of (1) the northern caldera boundary, (2) an active seismic belt to the north-northwest that is associated with the Hebgen Lake fault zone, and (3) the Norris - Mammoth corridor - a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the north rim of the caldera near Norris Geyser Basin to Mammoth Hot Springs near the northern boundary of Yellowstone National Park. Increased

  3. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  4. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plant for the Environmental Monitoring Plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Lockheed Martin Energy System, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  5. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plant for the Environmental Monitoring Plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Lockheed Martin Energy System, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources

  6. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources

  7. Predation risk, elk, and aspen: tests of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnie, John A

    2012-12-01

    Aspen in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are hypothesized to be recovering from decades of heavy browsing by elk due to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade (BMTC). Several authors have suggested that wolves interact with certain terrain features, creating places of high predation risk at fine spatial scales, and that elk avoid these places, which creates refugia for plants. This hypothesized BMTC could release aspen from elk browsing pressure, leading to a patchy recovery in places of high risk. I tested whether four specific, hypothesized fine-scale risk factors are correlated with changes in current elk browsing pressure on aspen, or with aspen recruitment since wolf reintroduction, in the Daly Creek drainage in Yellowstone National Park, and near two aspen enclosures outside of the park boundary. Aspen were not responding to hypothesized fine-scale risk factors in ways consistent with the current BMTC hypothesis.

  8. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles W; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-03-02

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed approximately 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected approximately 1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began approximately 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from approximately 150,000 to approximately 70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of approximately 70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system.

  9. Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Quimby, Kira A; Smith, Douglas W; Coulson, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of top-predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust their numbers to prey supply or compensate for human exploitation. However, studies to date have primarily focused on exploited wolf populations, in which density-dependent mechanisms are likely weak due to artificially low wolf densities. Using 13 years of data on 280 collared wolves in Yellowstone National Park, we assessed the effect of wolf density, prey abundance and population structure, as well as winter severity, on age-specific survival in two areas (prey-rich vs. prey-poor) of the national park. We further analysed cause-specific mortality and explored the factors driving intraspecific aggression in the prey-rich northern area of the park. Overall, survival rates decreased during the study. In northern Yellowstone, density dependence regulated adult survival through an increase in intraspecific aggression, independent of prey availability. In the interior of the park, adult survival was less variable and density-independent, despite reduced prey availability. There was no effect of prey population structure in northern Yellowstone, or of winter severity in either area. Survival was similar among yearlings and adults, but lower for adults older than 6 years. Our results indicate that density-dependent intraspecific aggression is a major driver of adult wolf survival in northern Yellowstone, suggesting intrinsic density-dependent mechanisms have the potential to regulate wolf populations at high ungulate densities. When low prey availability or high

  10. What is “natural”? : Yellowstone elk population - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Wagner, Frederic H.

    2000-01-01

    Ecology analyzes the structure and function of ecosystems at all points along the continuum of human disturbance, from so-called pristine forests to urban backyards. Undisturbed systems provide reference points at one end of the spectrum, and nature reserves and parks are highly valued because they can provide unique examples of such ecosystems. Unfortunately the concept of “natural” or pristine is not that easy to define. Indeed, although ecologists have considered pre-Columbian, western-hemisphere ecosystems to have been largely unaltered by human action, and have termed their state “natural” or “pristine,” evidence from archaeology challenges this view. U.S. and Canadian national parks are charged with preserving the “natural,” and thus need to be able to understand and manage for the “natural.” A pivotal “natural” question in Yellowstone National Park management is the size of the northern-range, wintering elk population at Park establishment in 1872, argued both to have been small and large. Integrating and quantifying several sources of evidence provides a consistent picture of a low population (ca. 5,000–6,000), largely migrating out of the northern range in winter, with little vegetation impact. If we accept this conclusion about what is natural for the Yellowstone ecosystem, then it dramatically alters how we view management alternatives for the Park, which currently supports a northern wintering herd of up to ˜ 25,000 elk.

  11. Factors controlling the distribution of archaeal tetraethers in terrestrial hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ann; Pi, Yundan; Zhao, Weidong; Li, WenJun; Li, Yiliang; Inskeep, William; Perevalova, Anna; Romanek, Christopher; Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2008-06-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) found in hot springs reflect the abundance and community structure of Archaea in these extreme environments. The relationships between GDGTs, archaeal communities, and physical or geochemical variables are underexamined to date and when reported often result in conflicting interpretations. Here, we examined profiles of GDGTs from pure cultures of Crenarchaeota and from terrestrial geothermal springs representing a wide distribution of locations, including Yellowstone National Park (United States), the Great Basin of Nevada and California (United States), Kamchatka (Russia), Tengchong thermal field (China), and Thailand. These samples had temperatures of 36.5 to 87 degrees C and pH values of 3.0 to 9.2. GDGT abundances also were determined for three soil samples adjacent to some of the hot springs. Principal component analysis identified four factors that accounted for most of the variance among nine individual GDGTs, temperature, and pH. Significant correlations were observed between pH and the GDGTs crenarchaeol and GDGT-4 (four cyclopentane rings, m/z 1,294); pH correlated positively with crenarchaeol and inversely with GDGT-4. Weaker correlations were observed between temperature and the four factors. Three of the four GDGTs used in the marine TEX(86) paleotemperature index (GDGT-1 to -3, but not crenarchaeol isomer) were associated with a single factor. No correlation was observed for GDGT-0 (acyclic caldarchaeol): it is effectively its own variable. The biosynthetic mechanisms and exact archaeal community structures leading to these relationships remain unknown. However, the data in general show promise for the continued development of GDGT lipid-based physiochemical proxies for archaeal evolution and for paleo-ecology or paleoclimate studies.

  12. In situ ecophysiology of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, J.; Jay, Z.; Tringe, S. G.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Rusch, D.; Schmid, M.; Wagner, M.; Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    The candidate phylum Aigarchaeota contains thermophilic archaea from terrestrial, subsurface, and marine geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, an accurate description of their metabolism, potential ecological interactions, and role in biogeochemical cycling is lacking. Here we report possible ecological interactions and the in situ metabolism of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, terrestrial hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community (Octopus Spring, pH = 8; T = 78 - 84 °C, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was combined with detailed genomic and transcriptomic reconstruction to elucidate the ecophysiological role of Aigarchaeota in these streamer communities. This novel population of Aigarchaeota are filamentous (~500 nm diameter by ~10-30 μm length), which is consistent with the morphology predicted by the presence and transcription of a single actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganotroph. A single heme copper oxidase complex was identified in de novo genome assemblies, and was highly transcribed in environmental samples. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, sugars, peptides, and aromatic compounds. Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this population of Aigarchaeota likely utilizes a broad range of reduced carbon substrates. Potential electron donors for this population may include extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms in close proximity. Flagellum genes were also highly transcribed, which suggests a potential mechanism for motility and/or cell-cell attachment

  13. Protocols for geologic hazards response by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau hosts an active volcanic system, with subterranean magma (molten rock), boiling, pressurized waters, and a variety of active faults with significant earthquake hazards. Within the next few decades, light-to-moderate earthquakes and steam explosions are certain to occur. Volcanic eruptions are less likely, but are ultimately inevitable in this active volcanic region. This document summarizes protocols, policies, and tools to be used by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) during earthquakes, hydrothermal explosions, or any geologic activity that could lead to a volcanic eruption.

  14. Geomicrobiology of Hydrothermal Vents in Yellowstone Lake: Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis suggest Importance of Geochemistry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Macur, R.; Jay, Z.; Clingenpeel, S.; Tenney, A.; Lavalvo, D.; Shanks, W. C.; McDermott, T.; Kan, J.; Gorby, Y.; Morgan, L. A.; Yooseph, S.; Varley, J.; Nealson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) is a large, high-altitude, fresh-water lake that straddles the most recent Yellowstone caldera, and is situated on top of significant hydrothermal activity. An interdisciplinary study is underway to evaluate the geochemical and geomicrobiological characteristics of several hydrothermal vent environments sampled using a remotely operated vehicle, and to determine the degree to which these vents may influence the biology of this young freshwater ecosystem. Approximately six different vent systems (locations) were sampled during 2007 and 2008, and included water obtained directly from the hydrothermal vents as well as biomass and sediment associated with these high-temperature environments. Thorough geochemical analysis of these hydrothermal environments reveals variation in pH, sulfide, hydrogen and other potential electron donors that may drive primary productivity. The concentrations of dissolved hydrogen and sulfide were extremely high in numerous vents sampled, especially the deeper (30-50 m) vents located in the Inflated Plain, West Thumb, and Mary Bay. Significant dilution of hydrothermal fluids occurs due to mixing with surrounding lake water. Despite this, the temperatures observed in many of these hydrothermal vents range from 50-90 C, and elevated concentrations of constituents typically associated with geothermal activity in Yellowstone are observed in waters sampled directly from vent discharge. Microorganisms associated with elemental sulfur mats and filamentous ‘streamer’ communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5-6) were dominated by members of the deeply-rooted bacterial Order Aquificales, but also contain thermophilic members of the domain Archaea. Assembly of metagenome sequence from the Inflated Plain vent biomass and to a lesser extent, West Thumb vent biomass reveal the importance of Sulfurihydrogenibium-like organisms, also important in numerous terrestrial geothermal

  15. Photochemical Cycling of Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydrothermal Springs: Impacts on Biosignature Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mave, M. A.; Hinman, N. W.; Stevens, L.

    2017-12-01

    Biosignatures can be preserved via rapid entombment by aqueous minerals in a system. Wilson et al. (2000) found that high UV flux leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which promote iron (Fe) oxidation, and possible accumulation on microbial surfaces, leading to detectable microfossils. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a measurable ROS that serves as proxy for less stable ROS. Overall diel cycling of H2O2 is likely controlled by changes in photoreactive speciation of Fe (McKnight et al., 1988) in Fe-rich systems. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a 48-hour photochemical field study of Elk Pool in the Norris Geyser Basin at Yellowstone National Park in July, 2017 in which we measured UVA and UVB, along with H2O2 via the scopoletin fluorescence quenching method (Holm et al., 1987). Measurements were taken every few hours, and we found that maximum ROS production occurred during maximum UV irradiation. We also ran several experiments on-site in which we collected and altered spring water to either inactivate or catalyze naturally occurring reactions as well as to isolate primary mechanisms responsible for production of H2O2. Experiments were run in UV permeable Whirlpak bags and Fisherbrand tubes. Elk Pool showed only trace Fe content (pH 4) at the time of our study, so Fe-silica coated petrographic slides were added to the tube experiments (Fe-added experiments). Both sets of experiments included filtered and unfiltered spring water to differentiate biotic from abiotic mechanisms, and both UV-exposed and dark controls to separate UV-induced mechanisms for ROS formation. UV-exposed water always had greater ROS than dark experiments. Filtered spring water had higher ROS concentrations than unfiltered water, except when Fe was added. In the Fe-added experiments, unfiltered spring water had slightly greater ROS production relative to filtered water and had the lowest pH and highest aqueous Fe content after 7 hours. All Fe-added experiments showed

  16. Ghosts of yellowstone: multi-decadal histories of wildlife populations captured by bones on a modern landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Miller

    Full Text Available Natural accumulations of skeletal material (death assemblages have the potential to provide historical data on species diversity and population structure for regions lacking decades of wildlife monitoring, thereby contributing valuable baseline data for conservation and management strategies. Previous studies of the ecological and temporal resolutions of death assemblages from terrestrial large-mammal communities, however, have largely focused on broad patterns of community composition in tropical settings. Here, I expand the environmental sampling of large-mammal death assemblages into a temperate biome and explore more demanding assessments of ecological fidelity by testing their capacity to record past population fluctuations of individual species in the well-studied ungulate community of Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone. Despite dramatic ecological changes following the 1988 wildfires and 1995 wolf re-introduction, the Yellowstone death assemblage is highly faithful to the living community in species richness and community structure. These results agree with studies of tropical death assemblages and establish the broad capability of vertebrate remains to provide high-quality ecological data from disparate ecosystems and biomes. Importantly, the Yellowstone death assemblage also correctly identifies species that changed significantly in abundance over the last 20 to ∼80 years and the directions of those shifts (including local invasions and extinctions. The relative frequency of fresh versus weathered bones for individual species is also consistent with documented trends in living population sizes. Radiocarbon dating verifies the historical source of bones from Equus caballus (horse: a functionally extinct species. Bone surveys are a broadly valuable tool for obtaining population trends and baseline shifts over decadal-to-centennial timescales.

  17. Volcanism at 1.45 Ma within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Tiffany A.; Furlong, Ryan; Vincent, Jaime; Gardiner, Stephanie; Jicha, Brian R.; Schmitz, Mark D.; Lippert, Peter C.

    2018-05-01

    Rhyolitic volcanism in the Yellowstone Volcanic Field has spanned over two million years and consisted of both explosive caldera-forming eruptions and smaller effusive flows and domes. Effusive eruptions have been documented preceding and following caldera-forming eruptions, however the temporal and petrogenetic relationships of these magmas to the caldera-forming eruptions are relatively unknown. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar dates for four small-volume eruptions located on the western rim of the second-cycle caldera, the source of the 1.300 ± 0.001 Ma Mesa Falls Tuff. We supplement our new eruption ages with whole rock major and trace element chemistry, Pb isotopic ratios of feldspar, and paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses. Eruption ages for the effusive Green Canyon Flow (1.299 ± 0.002 Ma) and Moonshine Mountain Dome (1.302 ± 0.003 Ma) are in close temporal proximity to the eruption age of the Mesa Falls Tuff. In contrast, our results indicate a period of volcanism at ca 1.45 Ma within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field, including the eruption of the Bishop Mountain Flow (1.458 ± 0.002 Ma) and Tuff of Lyle Spring (1.450 ± 0.003 Ma). These high-silica rhyolites are chemically and isotopically distinct from the Mesa Falls Tuff and related 1.3 Ma effusive eruptions. The 40Ar/39Ar data from the Tuff of Lyle Spring demonstrate significant antecrystic inheritance, prevalent within the upper welded ash-flow tuff matrix, and minimal within individual pumice. Antecrysts are up to 20 kyr older than the eruption, with subpopulations of grains occurring every few thousand years. We interpret these results as an indicator for the timing of magmatic pulses into a growing magmatic system that would ultimately erupt the Tuff of Lyle Spring, and which we more broadly interpret as the tempo of crustal accumulation associated with bimodal magmatism. We propose a system whereby chemically, isotopically, and temporally distinct, isolated small-volume magma batches are

  18. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2014-01-01

    We explored multiple linkages among grey wolves (Canis lupus), elk (Cervus elaphus), berry-producing shrubs and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Yellowstone National Park. We hypothesized competition between elk and grizzly bears whereby, in the absence of wolves, increases in elk numbers would increase browsing on berry-producing shrubs and decrease fruit availability to grizzly bears. After wolves were reintroduced and with a reduced elk population, we hypothesized there would be an increase in the establishment of berry-producing shrubs, such as serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), which is a major berry-producing plant. We also hypothesized that the percentage fruit in the grizzly bear diet would be greater after than before wolf reintroduction. We compared the frequency of fruit in grizzly bear scats to elk densities prior to wolf reintroduction during a time of increasing elk densities (1968-1987). For a period after wolf reintroduction, we calculated the percentage fruit in grizzly bear scat by month based on scats collected in 2007-2009 (n = 778 scats) and compared these results to scat data collected before wolf reintroduction. Additionally, we developed an age structure for serviceberry showing the origination year of stems in a northern range study area. We found that over a 19-year period, the percentage frequency of fruit in the grizzly diet (6231 scats) was inversely correlated (P wolves and other large carnivores on elk, a reduced and redistributed elk population, decreased herbivory and increased production of plant-based foods that may aid threatened grizzly bears. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  19. Plumbing the depths of Yellowstone's hydrothermal system from helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P.; Holbrook, W. S.; Auken, E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.; Sims, K. W. W.; Carr, B.; Dickey, K.

    2017-12-01

    Although Yellowstone's iconic hydrothermal systems and lava flows are well mapped at the surface, their groundwater flow systems and thickness are almost completely unknown. In order to track the geophysical signatures of geysers, hot springs, mud pots, steam vents, hydrothermal explosion craters and lava flows at depths to hundreds of meters, we collected helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic (HEM) data. The data cover significant portions of the caldera including a majority of the known thermal areas. HEM data constrain electrical resistivity which is sensitive to groundwater salinity and temperature, phase distribution (liquid-vapor), and clay formed during chemical alteration of rocks. The magnetic data are sensitive to variations in the magnetization of lava flows, faults and hydrothermal alteration. The combination of electromagnetic and magnetic data is ideal for mapping zones of cold fresh water, hot saline water, steam, clay, and altered and unaltered rock. Preliminary inversion of the HEM data indicates very low resistivity directly beneath the northern part of Yellowstone Lake, intersecting with the lake bottom in close correspondence with mapped vents, fractures and hydrothermal explosion craters and are also associated with magnetic lows. Coincident resistivity and magnetic lows unassociated with mapped alteration occur, for example, along the southeast edge of the Mallard Lake dome and along the northeastern edge of Sour Creek Dome, suggesting the presence of buried alteration. Low resistivities unassociated with magnetic lows may relate to hot and/or saline groundwater or thin (<50 m) layers of early lake sediments to which the magnetic data are insensitive. Resistivity and magnetic lows follow interpreted caldera boundaries in places, yet deviate in others. In the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, NNE-SSW trending linear resistivity and magnetic lows align with mapped faults. This pattern of coincident resistivity and magnetic lows may reflect fractures

  20. Yellowstone as an Analog for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, P. F.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Simmons, A.; Hulen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Enhanced water-rock interaction resulting from the emplacement of heat-generating nuclear waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, may result in changes to fluid flow (resulting from mineral dissolution and precipitation in condensation and boiling zones, respectively). Studies of water-rock interaction in active and fossil geothermal systems (natural analogs) provide evidence for changes in permeability and porosity resulting from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes. The objective of this research is to document the effects of coupled THC processes at Yellowstone and then examine how differences in scale could influence the impact that these processes may have on the Yucca Mountain system. Subsurface samples from Yellowstone National Park, one of the largest active geothermal systems in the world, contain some the best examples of hydrothermal self-sealing found in geothermal systems. We selected core samples from two USGS research drill holes from the transition zone between conductive and convective portions of the geothermal system (where sealing was reported to occur). We analyzed the core, measuring the permeability, porosity, and grain density of selected samples to evaluate how lithology, texture, and degree of hydrothermal alteration influence matrix and fracture permeability

  1. Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt

    2005-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...

  2. Evaluation of a recirculating pond system for rearing juvenile freshwater mussels at White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummert, A.; Newcomb, T.J.; Neves, R.J.; Parker, B.

    2006-01-01

    A recirculating double-pond system at White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery in West Virginia, U.S.A., was evaluated for suitability for culturing juvenile freshwater mussels. Newly metamorphosed juveniles of Villosa iris and Lampsilis fasciola were placed in the system, and their growth and survival were evaluated for 94 days. Throughout the study, parameters of water quality remained within ranges suitable for mussel survival. Planktonic algal densities in the pond system ranged from 2850 to 6892 cells/ml. Thirty-seven algal taxa were identified, primarily green algae (Chlorophyta), diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), and blue-green algae (Cyanoprokaryota). Over the culture period, juveniles of L. fasciola experienced significantly lower (p fasciola may indicate a failure of the flow-through pond environment to meet its habitat requirements or that variable microhabitat conditions within culture containers existed. Growth did not differ significantly between the species (p = 0.13). Survival of V. iris and growth of both species were similar to previous trials to culture juvenile mussels. Survival rates as high as 66.4% at 93 days for V. iris suggest that juveniles of some riverine species can be successfully cultured in a recirculating pond environment.

  3. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  4. Recent trend of administration on hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Shigeru [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Agency exercises jurisdiction over Hot Spring Act, and plans to protect the source of the hot spring and to utilize it appropriately. From the aspect of utilization, hot springs are widely used as a means to remedy chronic diseases and tourist spots besides places for recuperation and repose. Statistics on Japanese hot springs showed that the number of hot spring spots and utilized-fountainhead increased in 1987, compared with the number in 1986. Considering the utilized-headspring, the number of naturally well-out springs has stabilized for 10 years while power-operated springs have increased. This is because the demand of hot springs has grown as the number of users has increased. Another reason is to keep the amount of hot water by setting up the power facility as the welled-out amount has decreased. Major point of recent administration on the hot spring is to permit excavation and utilization of hot springs. Designation of National hot spring health resorts started in 1954 in order to ensure the effective and original use of hot springs and to promote the public use of them, for the purpose of arranging the sound circumstances of hot springs. By 1988, 76 places were designated. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Use of isotopic sulfur to determine whitebark pine consumption by Yellowstone bears: a reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2014-01-01

    Use of naturally occurring stable isotopes to estimate assimilated diet of bears is one of the single greatest breakthroughs in nutritional ecology during the past 20 years. Previous research in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), USA, established a positive relationship between the stable isotope of sulfur (δ34S) and consumption of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) seeds. That work combined a limited sample of hair, blood clots, and serum. Here we use a much larger sample to reassess those findings. We contrasted δ34S values in spring hair and serum with abundance of seeds of whitebark pine in samples collected from grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) in the GYE during 2000–2010. Although we found a positive relationship between δ34S values in spring hair and pine seed abundance for grizzly bears, the coefficients of determination were small (R2 ≤ 0.097); we failed to find a similar relationship with black bears. Values of δ34S in spring hair were larger in black bears and δ34S values in serum of grizzly bears were lowest in September and October, a time when we expect δ34S to peak if whitebark pine seeds were the sole source of high δ34S. The relationship between δ34S in bear tissue and the consumption of whitebark pine seeds, as originally reported, may not be as clean a method as proposed. Data we present here suggest other foods have high values of δ34S, and there is spatial heterogeneity affecting the δ34S values in whitebark pine, which must be addressed.

  6. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  7. 36 CFR 7.13 - Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... characteristics. (iv) Modifying or disabling a snowcoach's original pollution control equipment is prohibited... Loop Road from its junction with the East Entrance Road to Canyon Junction. (J) The South Canyon Rim... noon and 9 p.m. each day. (N) North Canyon Rim Drive, between noon and 9 p.m. each day. (O) Riverside...

  8. Denning of grizzly bears in the Yellowstone National Park area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Steven L.; Knight, Richard R.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to locate 101 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) dens from 1975 to 1980; 35 dens were examined on the ground. Pregnant females denned in late October, and most other bears denned by mid-November. Duration of denning average 113, 132, and 170 days for males, females, and females with new cubs, respectively. Males emerged from mid-February to late March, followed by single females and females with yearlings and 2-year-olds. Females with new cubs emerged from early mid-April. Den sites were associated with moderate tree cover (26%-75% canopy cover) on 30°-60° slopes. Dens occurred on all aspects, although northerly exposures were most common. Grizzly bears usually dug new dens but occasionally used natural cavities or a den from a previous year. Males usually dug larger dens than females with young. Eight excavated and 2 natural dens of the 35 examined dens were used for more than 1 year.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone National Park Commits to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  10. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob P. Beam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA, and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3 - 3.5; temperature = 68 - 75 °C in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4 - 40 d, and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 d, and reached steady-state levels within 14 - 30 d, corresponding to visible Fe(III-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 d, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 d and in mature Fe(III-oxide mats (1 - 2 cm thick. First-order rate constants of Fe(III-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 - 0.05 d-1, and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III-oxide mats are useful for understanding other Fe(II-oxidizing systems.

  11. Faunal isotope records reveal trophic and nutrient dynamics in twentieth century Yellowstone grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Nelson, Abigail A; Koch, Paul L; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-23

    Population sizes and movement patterns of ungulate grazers and their predators have fluctuated dramatically over the past few centuries, largely owing to overharvesting, land-use change and historic management. We used δ(13)C and δ(15)N values measured from bone collagen of historic and recent gray wolves and their potential primary prey from Yellowstone National Park to gain insight into the trophic dynamics and nutrient conditions of historic and modern grasslands. The diet of reintroduced wolves closely parallels that of the historic population. We suggest that a significant shift in faunal δ(15)N values over the past century reflects impacts of anthropogenic environmental changes on grassland ecosystems, including grazer-mediated shifts in grassland nitrogen cycle processes.

  12. Yellowstone wolf (Canis lupus) denisty predicted by elk (Cervus elaphus) biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a higher prey biomass density in the form of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) than any other system of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) and prey reported. Therefore, it is important to determine whether that wolf–prey system fits a long-standing model relating wolf density to prey biomass. Using data from 2005 to 2012 after elk population fluctuations dampened 10 years subsequent to wolf reintroduction, we found that NR prey biomass predicted wolf density. This finding and the trajectory of the regression extend the validity of the model to prey densities 19% higher than previous data and suggest that the model would apply to wolf–prey systems of even higher prey biomass.

  13. Population size estimation in Yellowstone wolves with error-prone noninvasive microsatellite genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Spong, Goran; Sands, Jennifer L; Rotella, Jay; Zeigle, Janet; Joe, Lawrence; Murphy, Kerry M; Smith, Douglas

    2003-07-01

    Determining population sizes can be difficult, but is essential for conservation. By counting distinct microsatellite genotypes, DNA from noninvasive samples (hair, faeces) allows estimation of population size. Problems arise because genotypes from noninvasive samples are error-prone, but genotyping errors can be reduced by multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For faecal genotypes from wolves in Yellowstone National Park, error rates varied substantially among samples, often above the 'worst-case threshold' suggested by simulation. Consequently, a substantial proportion of multilocus genotypes held one or more errors, despite multiple PCR. These genotyping errors created several genotypes per individual and caused overestimation (up to 5.5-fold) of population size. We propose a 'matching approach' to eliminate this overestimation bias.

  14. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  15. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy P

    2014-12-01

    Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding.

  16. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy P Dobson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding.

  17. Seismic Evidence for Lower Mantle Plume Under the Yellowstone Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Grand, S.

    2017-12-01

    The mantle plume hypothesis for the origin of intraplate volcanism has been controversial since its inception in the 1970s. The hypothesis proposes hot narrow upwelling of rock rooted at the core mantle boundary (CMB) rise through the mantle and interact with the base of the lithosphere forming linear volcanic systems such as Hawaii and Yellowstone. Recently, broad lower mantle (>500 km in diameter) slow velocity conduits, most likely thermochemical in origin, have been associated with some intraplate volcanic provinces (French and Romanowicz, 2015). However, the direct detection of a classical thin thermal plume in the lower mantle using travel time tomography has remained elusive (Anderson and Natland, 2014). Here we present a new shear wave tomography model for the mantle beneath the western United States that is optimized to find short wavelength, sub-vertical structures in the lower mantle. Our approach uses carefully measured SKS and SKKS travel times recorded by dense North American seismic networks in conjunction with finite frequency kernels to build on existing tomography models. We find the presence of a narrow ( 300 km diameter) well isolated cylindrically shaped slow anomaly in the lower most mantle which we associate with the Yellowstone Hotspot. The conduit has a 2% reduction in shear velocity and is rooted at the CMB near the California/Arizona/Nevada border. A cross sectional view through the anomaly shows that it is slightly tilted toward the north until about 1300 km depth where it appears to weaken and deflect toward the surficial positon of the hotspot. Given the anomaly's strength, proximity to the Yellowstone Hotspot, and morphology we argue that a thermal plume interpretation is the most reasonable. Our results provide strong support for a lower mantle plume origin of the Yellowstone hotspot and more importantly the existence of deep thermal plumes.

  18. Use of lodgepole pine cover types by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are a large and dynamic part of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) habitat in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Research in other areas suggests that grizzly bears select for young open forest stands, especially for grazing and feeding on berries. Management guidelines accordingly recommend timber harvest as a technique for improving habitat in areas potentially dominated by lodgepole pine. In this paper I examine grizzly bear use of lodgepole pine forests in the Yellowstone area, and test several hypotheses with relevance to a new generation of management guidelines. Differences in grizzly bear selection of lodgepole pine cover types (defined on the basis of stand age and structure) were not pronounced. Selection furthermore varied among years, areas, and individuals. Positive selection for any lodgepole pine type was uncommon. Estimates of selection took 5-11 years or 4-12 adult females to stabilize, depending upon the cover type. The variances of selection estimates tended to stabilize after 3-5 sample years, and were more-or-less stable to slightly increasing with progressively increased sample area. There was no conclusive evidence that Yellowstone's grizzlies favored young (<40 yr) stands in general or for their infrequent use of berries. On the other hand, these results corroborated previous observations that grizzlies favored open and/or young stands on wet and fertile sites for grazing. These results also supported the proposition that temporally and spatially robust inferences require extensive, long-duration studies, especially for wide-ranging vertebrates like grizzly bears.

  19. Carnivore re-colonisation: Reality, possibility and a non-equilibrium century for grizzly bears in the southern Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyare, Sanjay; Cain, S.; Moody, D.; Schwartz, C.; Berger, J.

    2004-01-01

    Most large native carnivores have experienced range contractions due to conflicts with humans, although neither rates of spatial collapse nor expansion have been well characterised. In North America, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) once ranged from Mexico northward to Alaska, however its range in the continental USA has been reduced by 95-98%. Under the U. S. Endangered Species Act, the Yellowstone grizzly bear population has re-colonised habitats outside Yellowstone National Park. We analysed historical and current records, including data on radio-collared bears, (1) to evaluate changes in grizzly bear distribution in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) over a 100-year period, (2) to utilise historical rates of re-colonisation to project future expansion trends and (3) to evaluate the reality of future expansion based on human limitations and land use. Analysis of distribution in 20-year increments reflects range reduction from south to north (1900-1940) and expansion to the south (1940-2000). Expansion was exponential and the area occupied by grizzly bears doubled approximately every 20 years. A complementary analysis of bear occurrence in Grand Teton National Park also suggests an unprecedented period of rapid expansion during the last 20-30 years. The grizzly bear population currently has re-occupied about 50% of the southern GYE. Based on assumptions of continued protection and ecological stasis, our model suggests total occupancy in 25 years. Alternatively, extrapolation of linear expansion rates from the period prior to protection suggests total occupancy could take > 100 years. Analyses of historical trends can be useful as a restoration tool because they enable a framework and timeline to be constructed to pre-emptively address the social challenges affecting future carnivore recovery. ?? 2004 The Zoological Society of London.

  20. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric; Becraft, Eric D; Bateson, Mary M; Kilian, Oliver; Bhaya, Devaki; Ward, David M; Peters, John W; Grossman, Arthur R; Kühl, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic, O2-inhibited process that reduces N2 gas to biomass, is of paramount importance in biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. We analyzed the levels of nif transcripts of Synechococcus ecotypes, NifH subunit and nitrogenase activity over the diel cycle in the microbial mat of an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The results showed a rise in nif transcripts in the evening, with a subsequent decline over the course of the night. In contrast, immunological data demonstrated that the level of the NifH polypeptide remained stable during the night, and only declined when the mat became oxic in the morning. Nitrogenase activity was low throughout the night; however, it exhibited two peaks, a small one in the evening and a large one in the early morning, when light began to stimulate cyanobacterial photosynthetic activity, but O2 consumption by respiration still exceeded the rate of O2 evolution. Once the irradiance increased to the point at which the mat became oxic, the nitrogenase activity was strongly inhibited. Transcripts for proteins associated with energy-producing metabolisms in the cell also followed diel patterns, with fermentation-related transcripts accumulating at night, photosynthesis- and respiration-related transcripts accumulating during the day and late afternoon, respectively. These results are discussed with respect to the energetics and regulation of N2 fixation in hot spring mats and factors that can markedly influence the extent of N2 fixation over the diel cycle.

  1. Survey of selected pathogens and blood parameters of northern yellowstone elk: Wolf sanitation effect implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; White, P.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The restoration or conservation of predators could reduce seroprevalences of certain diseases in prey if predation selectively removes animals exhibiting clinical signs. We assessed disease seroprevalences and blood parameters of 115 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) wintering on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park [YNP] during 2000-2005 and compared them to data collected prior to wolf (Canis lupus) restoration (WR) in 1995 and to two other herds in Montana to assess this prediction. Blood parameters were generally within two standard deviations of the means observed in other Montana herds (Gravelly-Snowcrest [GS] and Garnet Mountain [GM]), but Yellowstone elk had higher seroprevalences of parainfluenza-3 virus (95% CI YNP = 61.1-78.6, GS = 30.3-46.5) and bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type 1 (95% CI YNP = 15.9-31.9, GM = 0). In comparisons between pre-wolf restoration [pre-WR] (i.e., prior to 1995) seroprevalences with those post-wolf restoration [post-WR] in Yellowstone, we found lower seroprevalences for some disease-causing agents post-wolf restoration (e.g., bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type-1 [95% CI pre-WR = 73.1-86.3, post-WR = 15.9-31.9] and bovine-respiratory syncytial virus [95% CI pre-WR = 70.0-83.8, post-WR = 0]), but similar (e.g., Brucella abortus [95% CI pre-WR = 0-4.45, post-WR = 0-4.74] and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 0]) or higher for others (e.g., Anaplasma marginale [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 18.5-38.7] and Leptospira spp. [95% CI pre-WR = 0.5-6.5, post-WR = 9.5-23.5]). Though we did not detect an overall strong predation effect through reduced disease seroprevalence using retrospective comparisons with sparse data, our reference values will facilitate future assessments of this issue.

  2. State-space modeling to support management of brucellosis in the Yellowstone bison population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, N. Thompson; Geremia, Chris; Treanor, John; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2015-01-01

    The bison (Bison bison) of the Yellowstone ecosystem, USA, exemplify the difficulty of conserving large mammals that migrate across the boundaries of conservation areas. Bison are infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and their seasonal movements can expose livestock to infection. Yellowstone National Park has embarked on a program of adaptive management of bison, which requires a model that assimilates data to support management decisions. We constructed a Bayesian state-space model to reveal the influence of brucellosis on the Yellowstone bison population. A frequency-dependent model of brucellosis transmission was superior to a density-dependent model in predicting out-of-sample observations of horizontal transmission probability. A mixture model including both transmission mechanisms converged on frequency dependence. Conditional on the frequency-dependent model, brucellosis median transmission rate was 1.87 yr−1. The median of the posterior distribution of the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was 1.75. Seroprevalence of adult females varied around 60% over two decades, but only 9.6 of 100 adult females were infectious. Brucellosis depressed recruitment; estimated population growth rate λ averaged 1.07 for an infected population and 1.11 for a healthy population. We used five-year forecasting to evaluate the ability of different actions to meet management goals relative to no action. Annually removing 200 seropositive female bison increased by 30-fold the probability of reducing seroprevalence below 40% and increased by a factor of 120 the probability of achieving a 50% reduction in transmission probability relative to no action. Annually vaccinating 200 seronegative animals increased the likelihood of a 50% reduction in transmission probability by fivefold over no action. However, including uncertainty in the ability to implement management by representing stochastic variation in the number of accessible bison dramatically reduced the probability of

  3. Contrasting past and current numbers of bears visiting Yellowstone cutthroat trout streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Robbins, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) were historically abundant within tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake within Yellowstone National Park and were a highly digestible source of energy and protein for Yellowstone’s grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus). The cutthroat trout population has subsequently declined since the introduction of non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and in response to effects of drought and whirling disease (Myxobolus cerebralis). The trout population, duration of spawning runs, and indices of bear use of spawning streams had declined in some regions of the lake by 1997–2000. We initiated a 3-year study in 2007 to assess whether numbers of spawning fish, black bears, and grizzly bears within and alongside stream corridors had changed since 1997– 2000. We estimated numbers of grizzly bears and black bears by first compiling encounter histories of individual bears visiting 48 hair-snag sites along 35 historically fished streams.We analyzed DNA encounter histories with Pradel-recruitment and Jolly-Seber (POPAN) capture-mark-recapture models. When compared to 1997–2000, the current number of spawning cutthroat trout per stream and the number of streams with cutthroat trout has decreased. We estimated that 48 (95% CI¼42–56) male and 23 (95% CI¼21–27) female grizzly bears visited the historically fished tributary streams during our study. In any 1- year, 46 to 59 independent grizzly bears (8–10% of estimated Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem population) visited these streams. When compared with estimates from the 1997 to 2000 study and adjusted for equal effort, the number of grizzly bears using the stream corridors decreased by 63%. Additionally, the number of black bears decreased between 64% and 84%. We also document an increased proportion of bears of both species visiting front-country (i.e., near human development) streams. With the recovery of cutthroat trout, we suggest bears

  4. Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development - An Application on Alternative Fuels in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Cobb, D.A.; Worhach, P.; Jacobson, J.J.; Berrett, S.

    2000-12-30

    The Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development project integrated the Bechtel/Nexant Industrial Materials Exchange Planner and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory System Dynamic models, demonstrating their capabilities on alternative fuel applications in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Park system. The combined model, called the Dynamic Industrial Material Exchange, was used on selected test cases in the Greater Yellow Teton Parks region to evaluate economic, environmental, and social implications of alternative fuel applications, and identifying primary and secondary industries. The test cases included looking at compressed natural gas applications in Teton National Park and Jackson, Wyoming, and studying ethanol use in Yellowstone National Park and gateway cities in Montana. With further development, the system could be used to assist decision-makers (local government, planners, vehicle purchasers, and fuel suppliers) in selecting alternative fuels, vehicles, and developing AF infrastructures. The system could become a regional AF market assessment tool that could help decision-makers understand the behavior of the AF market and conditions in which the market would grow. Based on this high level market assessment, investors and decision-makers would become more knowledgeable of the AF market opportunity before developing detailed plans and preparing financial analysis.

  5. Post-glacial inflation-deflation cycles, tilting, and faulting in the Yellowstone Caldera based on Yellowstone Lake shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Cannon, Kenneth P.; Meyer, Grant A.; Trebesch, Matthew J.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2002-01-01

    The Yellowstone caldera, like many other later Quaternary calderas of the world, exhibits dramatic unrest. Between 1923 and 1985, the center of the Yellowstone caldera rose nearly one meter along an axis between its two resurgent domes (Pelton and Smith, 1979, Dzurisin and Yamashita, 1987). From 1985 until 1995-6, it subsided at about two cm/yr (Dzurisin and others, 1990). More recent radar interferometry studies show renewed inflation of the northeastern resurgent dome between 1995 and 1996; this inflation migrated to the southwestern resurgent dome from 1996 to 1997 (Wicks and others, 1998). We extend this record back in time using dated geomorphic evidence of postglacial Yellowstone Lake shorelines around the northern shore, and Yellowstone River levels in the outlet area. We date these shorelines using carbon isotopic and archeological methods. Following Meyer and Locke (1986) and Locke and Meyer (1994), we identify the modern shoreline as S1 (1.9 ? 0.3 m above the lake gage datum), map paleoshoreline terraces S2 to S6, and infer that the prominent shorelines were cut during intracaldera uplift episodes that produced rising water levels. Doming along the caldera axis reduces the gradient of the Yellowstone River from Le Hardys Rapids to the Yellowstone Lake outlet and ultimately causes an increase in lake level. The 1923-1985 doming is part of a longer uplift episode that has reduced the Yellowstone River gradient to a ?pool? with a drop of only 0.25 m over most of this 5 km reach. We also present new evidence that doming has caused submergence of some Holocene lake and river levels. Shoreline S5 is about 14 m above datum and estimated to be ~12.6 ka, because it post-dates a large hydrothermal explosion deposit from the Mary Bay area (MB-II) that occurred ~13 ka. S4 formed about 8 m above datum ~10.7 ka as dated by archeology and 14C, and was accompanied by offset on the Fishing Bridge fault. About 9.7 ka, the Yellowstone River eroded the ?S-meander?, followed

  6. The evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system over the past 630 kyr: Insights from the crystal record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelten, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field in northwestern Wyoming is one of the world's largest, active silicic volcanic centers, and has produced three caldera-forming "super eruptions" over the past 2.1 Myr. As a result, the petrologic evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system has been the focus of numerous studies over the past 60 years. Early studies at Yellowstone focused on characterizing whole-rock chemical and isotopic variations observed in magmas erupted over Yellowstone's lifetime. While these have provided important insights into the source of Yellowstone magmas and the processes controlling their compositional evolution though time, whole-rock studies are limited in their ability to identify the mechanisms and timescales of rhyolite generation. In contrast, much of the recent work at Yellowstone has focused on applying micro-analytical techniques to characterize the age and composition of phenocrysts hosted in Yellowstone rhyolites. These studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the magmatic system at Yellowstone and have provided crucial new insights into the mechanisms and timescales of rhyolite generation. In particular, recent work has focused on applying micro-analytical techniques to study the age and origin of the [1] three caldera-forming eruptions that produced the Huckleberry Ridge, Mesa Falls, Lava Creek tuffs and [2] post-Lava Creek tuff intracaldera rhyolites that compose the Plateau Rhyolite. As a result, a wealth of crystal-chemical data now exists for rhyolites erupted throughout Yellowstone's 2.1 Myr history. These data provide a unique opportunity to create a detailed reconstruction of Yellowstone's magmatic system through time. In this contribution, I integrate available age, chemical, and isotopic data for phenocrysts hosted in Yellowstone rhyolites to construct a model for the evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system from the caldera-forming eruption of the Lava Creek tuff at ca. 0.63 Ma to the present day. In particular

  7. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  8. Recovering aspen follow changing elk dynamics in Yellowstone: evidence of a trophic cascade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Luke E; Beschta, Robert L; Larsen, Eric J; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the extent and causes of recent quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment in northern Yellowstone National Park, we measured browsing intensity and height of young aspen in 87 randomly selected aspen stands in 2012, and compared our results to similar data collected in 1997-1998. We also examined the relationship between aspen recovery and the distribution of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) on the Yellowstone northern ungulate winter range, using ungulate fecal pile densities and annual elk count data. In 1998, 90% of young aspen were browsed and none were taller-than 200 cm, the height at which aspen begin to escape from elk browsing. In 2012, only 37% in the east and 63% in the west portions of the winter range were browsed, and 65% of stands in the east had young aspen taller than 200 cm. Heights of young aspen were inversely related to browsing intensity, with the least browsing and greatest heights in the eastern portion of the range, corresponding with recent changes in elk density and distribution. In contrast with historical elk distribution (1930s-1990s), the greatest densities of elk recently (2006-2012) have been north of the park boundary (approximately 5 elk/km2), and in the western part of the range (2-4 elk/km2), with relatively few elk in the eastern portion of the range (wolves (Canis lupius) in 1995-1996 played a role in these changing elk population dynamics, interacting with other influences including increased predation by bears (Ursus spp.), competition with an expanding bison population, and shifting patterns of human land use and hunting outside the park. The resulting new aspen recruitment is evidence of a landscape-scale trophic cascade in which a resurgent large carnivore community, combined with other ecological changes, has benefited aspen through effects on ungulate prey.

  9. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Brodie, Jedediah F; Jules, Erik S

    2010-09-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen Stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  10. Cougar survival and source-sink structure on Greater Yellowstone's Northern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, T.K.; Haroldson, M.A.; Murphy, K.M.; Buotte, P.C.; Hornocker, M.G.; Quigley, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    We studied survival and causes of mortality of radiocollared cougars (Puma concolor) on the Greater Yellowstone Northern Range (GYNR) prior to (1987–1994) and after wolf (Canis lupus) reintroduction (1998–2005) and evaluated temporal, spatial, and environmental factors that explain variation in adult, subadult, and kitten survival. Using Program MARK and multimodel inference, we modeled cougar survival based on demographic status, season, and landscape attributes. Our best models for adult and independent subadults indicated that females survived better than males and survival increased with age until cougars reached older ages. Lower elevations and increasing density of roads, particularly in areas open to cougar hunting north of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), increased mortality risks for cougars on the GYNR. Indices of ungulate biomass, cougar and wolf population size, winter severity, rainfall, and individual characteristics such as the presence of dependent young, age class, and use of Park or Wilderness were not important predictors of survival. Kitten survival increased with age, was lower during winter, increased with increasing minimum estimates of elk calf biomass, and increased with increasing density of adult male cougars. Using our best model, we mapped adult cougar survival on the GYNR landscape. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated a good model fit for both female (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.92, n = 35 locations) and male cougars (AUC = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.74–0.94, n = 49 locations) relative to hunter harvest locations in our study area. Using minimum estimates of survival necessary to sustain the study population, we developed a source-sink surface and we identify several measures that resource management agencies can take to enhance cougar population management based on a source-sink strategy.

  11. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  12. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Hill, G.S.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-09-01

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  13. Hydrogen Peroxide Cycling in High-Temperature Acidic Geothermal Springs and Potential Implications for Oxidative Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux M. Meslé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2•-, and hydroxyl radicals (OH• are produced in natural waters via ultraviolet (UV light-induced reactions between dissolved oxygen (O2 and organic carbon, and further reaction of H2O2 and Fe(II (i.e., Fenton chemistry. The temporal and spatial dynamics of H2O2 and other dissolved compounds [Fe(II, Fe(III, H2S, O2] were measured during a diel cycle (dark/light in surface waters of three acidic geothermal springs (Beowulf Spring, One Hundred Springs Plain, and Echinus Geyser Spring; pH = 3–3.5, T = 68–80°C in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. In situ analyses showed that H2O2 concentrations were lowest (ca. 1 μM in geothermal source waters containing high dissolved sulfide (and where oxygen was below detection and increased by 2-fold (ca. 2–3 μM in oxygenated waters corresponding to Fe(III-oxide mat formation down the water channel. Small increases in dissolved oxygen and H2O2 were observed during peak photon flux, but not consistently across all springs sampled. Iron-oxide microbial mats were sampled for molecular analysis of ROS gene expression in two primary autotrophs of acidic Fe(III-oxide mat ecosystems: Metallosphaera yellowstonensis (Archaea and Hydrogenobaculum sp. (Bacteria. Expression (RT-qPCR assays of specific stress-response genes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidases of the primary autotrophs were used to evaluate possible changes in transcription across temporal, spatial, and/or seasonal samples. Data presented here documented the presence of H2O2 and general correlation with dissolved oxygen. Moreover, two dominant microbial populations expressed ROS response genes throughout the day, but showed less expression of key genes during peak sunlight. Oxidative stress response genes (especially external peroxidases were highly-expressed in microorganisms within Fe(III-oxide mat communities, suggesting a significant role for these proteins during survival and growth in

  14. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  15. The Co-Distribution of Nitrifying Archaea and Diazotrophic Bacteria in Geothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Jewell, T. N. M.; de la Torre, J. R.; Boyd, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial processes that regulate availability of nutrients play key roles in shaping community composition. All life requires fixed nitrogen (N), and its bioavailability is what often limits ecosystem productivity. Biological nitrogen fixation, or the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), is a keystone process in N limited ecosystems, providing nitrogen for members of the community. N2 fixing organisms likely represent a 'bottom up control' on the structure of communities that develop in N limited environments. N2 fixation is catalyzed by a limited number of metabolically diverse bacteria and some methanogenic archaea and occurs in a variety of physically and geochemically diverse environments. Nitrification, or the sequential oxidation of NH4+ to nitrite (NO2-) and ultimately nitrate (NO3-), is catalyzed by several lineages of Proteobacteria at temperatures of < 62°C and by members of the Thaumarcheota at temperatures up to 90°C. Nitrification can thus be considered a 'top down control' on the structure of communities that develop in N limited environments. Our research in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) reveals a strong correspondence between the distribution of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrogen fixing aquificae (NFA) in nitrogen-limited geothermal hot springs over large environmental gradients. Based on the physiology of AOA and NFA, we propose that the strong co-distributional pattern results from interspecies interactions, namely competition for bioavailable ammonia. Our recent work has shown that in springs where the niche dimension of AOA and NFA overlap (e.g., Perpetual Spouter; pH 7.1, 86.4°C), the dissimilar affinities for NH4 result in AOA metabolism maintaining a low NH4(T) pool and selecting for inclusion of NFA during the assembly of these communities. Here, we examine in situ physiological interactions of AOA and NFA, tracking changes in transcript levels of key genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation of

  16. Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: physiological ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [(14)C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations.

  17. Months between rejuvenation and volcanic eruption at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Christy B.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Boyce, Jeremy W

    2015-01-01

    Rejuvenation of previously intruded silicic magma is an important process leading to effusive rhyolite, which is the most common product of volcanism at calderas with protracted histories of eruption and unrest such as Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Valles, USA. Although orders of magnitude smaller in volume than rare caldera-forming super-eruptions, these relatively frequent effusions of rhyolite are comparable to the largest eruptions of the 20th century and pose a considerable volcanic hazard. However, the physical pathway from rejuvenation to eruption of silicic magma is unclear particularly because the time between reheating of a subvolcanic intrusion and eruption is poorly quantified. This study uses geospeedometry of trace element profiles with nanometer resolution in sanidine crystals to reveal that Yellowstone’s most recent volcanic cycle began when remobilization of a near- or sub-solidus silicic magma occurred less than 10 months prior to eruption, following a 220,000 year period of volcanic repose. Our results reveal a geologically rapid timescale for rejuvenation and effusion of ~3 km3 of high-silica rhyolite lava even after protracted cooling of the subvolcanic system, which is consistent with recent physical modeling that predict a timescale of several years or less. Future renewal of rhyolitic volcanism at Yellowstone is likely to require an energetic intrusion of mafic or silicic magma into the shallow subvolcanic reservoir and could rapidly generate an eruptible rhyolite on timescales similar to those documented here.

  18. The Dark Side of the Mushroom Spring Microbial Mat: Life in the Shadow of Chlorophototrophs. II. Metabolic Functions of Abundant Community Members Predicted from Metagenomic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Hügler, Michael; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi . However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs. In this study, we analyzed the orange-colored undermat portion of the community of Mushroom Spring mats in a genome-centric approach and discuss the metabolic potentials of the major members. Metagenome binning recovered partial genomes of all abundant community members, ranging in completeness from ~28 to 96%, and allowed affiliation of function with taxonomic identity even for representatives of novel and Candidate phyla. Less complete metagenomic bins correlated with high microdiversity. The undermat portion of the community was found to be a mixture of phototrophic and chemotrophic organisms, which use bicarbonate as well as organic carbon sources derived from different cell components and fermentation products. The presence of rhodopsin genes in many taxa strengthens the hypothesis that light energy is of major importance. Evidence for the usage of all four bacterial carbon fixation pathways was found in the metagenome. Nitrogen fixation appears to be limited to Synechococcus spp. in the upper mat layer and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. in the undermat, and nitrate/nitrite metabolism was limited. A closed sulfur cycle is indicated by biological sulfate reduction combined with the presence of genes for sulfide oxidation mainly in phototrophs. Finally, a variety of undermat microorganisms have genes for

  19. The Dark Side of the Mushroom Spring Microbial Mat: Life in the Shadow of Chlorophototrophs. II. Metabolic Functions of Abundant Community Members Predicted from Metagenomic Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Thiel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs. In this study, we analyzed the orange-colored undermat portion of the community of Mushroom Spring mats in a genome-centric approach and discuss the metabolic potentials of the major members. Metagenome binning recovered partial genomes of all abundant community members, ranging in completeness from ~28 to 96%, and allowed affiliation of function with taxonomic identity even for representatives of novel and Candidate phyla. Less complete metagenomic bins correlated with high microdiversity. The undermat portion of the community was found to be a mixture of phototrophic and chemotrophic organisms, which use bicarbonate as well as organic carbon sources derived from different cell components and fermentation products. The presence of rhodopsin genes in many taxa strengthens the hypothesis that light energy is of major importance. Evidence for the usage of all four bacterial carbon fixation pathways was found in the metagenome. Nitrogen fixation appears to be limited to Synechococcus spp. in the upper mat layer and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. in the undermat, and nitrate/nitrite metabolism was limited. A closed sulfur cycle is indicated by biological sulfate reduction combined with the presence of genes for sulfide oxidation mainly in phototrophs. Finally, a variety of undermat

  20. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  1. Systematic variations in sinter mineralogy, microtexture and diagenesis in modern siliceous hot springs: Clues for interpreting depositional conditions in ancient deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, V. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Ruff, S. W.; Nunez, J.; Jahnke, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    The deposits of siliceous hydrothermal springs are known to capture and preserve a wide range of microbial fossil information. The recent discovery of hydrothermal silica at Home Plate, Columbia Hills, Mars has once again raised interest in the potential importance of ancient spring sinters as targets for future astrobiological mission to Mars. To create additional context information to support future in situ missions to Mars, we have documented systematic changes in the mineralogy and microtexture of modern siliceous hot spring deposits, observed along gradients in temperature, pH and flow velocity. Specific objectives are to: 1) identify chemical and physical factors that promote early diagenetic transformations of amorphous silica (opal-A), to progressively more ordered and crystalline phases (cristobalite, tridymite and quartz); 2) determine the composition and abundance of minor mineral phases, especially clays, in relationship to pH, temperature and paragenesis; and 3) to assess the usefulness of sinter mineralogy and microtexture in reconstructing the paleoenvironmental records preserved in ancient deposits. Study sites for acidic (pH 2-5) sinters included Nymph Creek, located in the Norris Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Active alkaline (pH 7-10) springs included Rabbit Creek, Steep Cone and Mound Spring located in the Lower Geyser Basin, YNP. Field measurements in active springs included pH, temperature and flow velocity, along with general microfacies assignments. To better constrain types and rates of silica diagenesis, the study also sampled older (Holocene-Pleistocene-aged) deposits. Laboratory analyses included X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), thermal infrared spectroscopy (TIR) and thin section petrography for characterizing sinter microtextures and for placing mineral phases (identified by XRPD and TIR) into a time-ordered diagenetic framework. In analyzing the phyllosilicates present in sinters, we applied clay separation and

  2. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 3. Comparative genomics of Synechococcus strains with different light responses and in situ diel transcription patterns of associated ecotypes in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie T. Olsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomes were obtained for three closely related strains of Synechococcus that are representative of putative ecotypes that predominate at different depths in the 1 mm-thick, upper-green layer in the 60°C mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and exhibit different light adaptation and acclimation responses. The genomes were compared to the published genome of a previously obtained, closely related strain from a neighboring spring, and differences in both gene content and orthologous gene alleles between high-light-adapted and low-light-adapted strains were identified. Evidence of genetic differences that relate to adaptation to light intensity and/or quality, CO2 uptake, nitrogen metabolism, organic carbon metabolism, and uptake of other nutrients were found between strains of the different putative ecotypes. In situ diel transcription patterns of genes, including genes unique to either low-light-adapted or high-light-adapted strains and different alleles of an orthologous photosystem gene, revealed that expression is fine-tuned to the different light environments experienced by ecotypes prevalent at various depths in the mat. This study suggests that strains of closely related putative ecotypes have different genomic adaptations that enable them to inhabit distinct ecological niches while living in close proximity within a microbial community.

  3. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  4. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  5. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-06-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51–54°C, pH 5.5–6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8–5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. Finally, this study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs—environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration.

  6. A Metastable Equilibrium Model for the Relative Abundances of Microbial Phyla in a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as “Bison Pool” in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that depend on both the

  7. The Bear Facts: Implications of Whitebark Pine Loss for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    Whitebark pine is a foundation species, and barometer of the health of high elevation forests ecosystems in the West. It provides food and cover for numerous wildlife species, including the Clark’s nutcracker, crossbill, grosbeak, red squirrel and chipmunk. Whitebark pine is particularly important in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where it provides an essential food source for the imperiled Yellowstone grizzly bear. We will review the current scientific knowledge about the relations...

  8. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  9. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  10. A field trip guide to the petrology of Quaternary volcanism on the Yellowstone Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Stelten, Mark; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Cooper, Kari

    2017-12-19

    The Yellowstone Plateau is one of the largest manifestations of silicic volcanism on Earth, and marks the youngest focus of magmatism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot. The earliest products of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism are from ~17 million years ago, but may be as old as ~32 Ma, and include contemporaneous eruption of voluminous mafic and silicic magmas, which are mostly located in the region of northwestern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. Since 17 Ma, the main locus of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism has migrated northeastward producing numerous silicic caldera complexes that generally remain active for ~2–4 million years, with the present-day focus being the Yellowstone Plateau. Northeastward migration of volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot resulted in the formation of the Snake River Plain, a low relief physiographic feature extending ~750 kilometers from northern Nevada to eastern Idaho. Most of the silicic volcanic centers along the Snake River Plain have been inundated by younger basalt volcanism, but many of their ignimbrites and lava flows are exposed in the extended regions at the margins of the Snake River Plain. 

  11. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  12. Beamlines on the SPring-8 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    SPring-8 project is going to construct a ultrahigh-brilliance X-ray synchrotron radiation facility and commissioning of the storage ring is expected in Spring 1977. The facility will be available to scientists and engineers of universities, national laboratories and industries not only from Japan but also from abroad. 20 proposals for public beamlines are submitted to the Beamline Committee and the ten public beamlines are scheduled for completion by the end of 1997. (author)

  13. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  14. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  15. Advancing Site-Based Data Curation for Geobiology: The Yellowstone Exemplar (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C. L.; Fouke, B. W.; Rodman, A.; Choudhury, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    While advances in the management and archiving of scientific digital data are proceeding apace, there is an urgent need for data curation services to collect and provide access to high-value data fit for reuse. The Site-Based Data Curation (SBDC) project is establishing a framework of guidelines and processes for the curation of research data generated at scientifically significant sites. The project is a collaboration among information scientists, geobiologists, data archiving experts, and resource managers at Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Based on our previous work with the Data Conservancy on indicators of value for research data, several factors made YNP an optimal site for developing the SBDC framework, including unique environmental conditions, a permitting process for data collection, and opportunities for geo-located longitudinal data and multiple data sources for triangulation and context. Stakeholder analysis is informing the SBDC requirements, through engagement with geologists, geochemists, and microbiologists conducting research at YNP and personnel from the Yellowstone Center for Resources and other YNP units. To date, results include data value indicators specific to site-based research, minimum and optimal parameters for data description and metadata, and a strategy for organizing data around sampling events. New value indicators identified by the scientists include ease of access to park locations for verification and correction of data, and stable environmental conditions important for controlling variables. Researchers see high potential for data aggregated from the many individual investigators conducting permitted research at YNP, however reuse is clearly contingent on detailed and consistent sampling records. Major applications of SBDC include identifying connections in dynamic systems, spatial temporal synthesis, analyzing variability within and across geological features, tracking site evolution, assessing anomalies, and greater awareness

  16. Evaluating estimators for numbers of females with cubs-of-the-year in the Yellowstone grizzly bear population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, S.; White, G.C.; Keating, K.A.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2007-01-01

    Current management of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Yellowstone National Park and surrounding areas requires annual estimation of the number of adult female bears with cubs-of-the-year. We examined the performance of nine estimators of population size via simulation. Data were simulated using two methods for different combinations of population size, sample size, and coefficient of variation of individual sighting probabilities. We show that the coefficient of variation does not, by itself, adequately describe the effects of capture heterogeneity, because two different distributions of capture probabilities can have the same coefficient of variation. All estimators produced biased estimates of population size with bias decreasing as effort increased. Based on the simulation results we recommend the Chao estimator for model M h be used to estimate the number of female bears with cubs of the year; however, the estimator of Chao and Shen may also be useful depending on the goals of the research.

  17. Land use planning: A potential force for retaining habitat connectivity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L. Shafer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE is perceived to have been isolated from the population in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem for a century. Better land use planning is needed to thwart progressive intra- and inter-ecosystem habitat fragmentation, especially due to private land development. The dilemma of private lands being intermixed in large landscapes is addressed. This review attempts to identify some land use planning levels and tools which might facilitate dispersal by the grizzly bear and other large mammals. The planning levels discussed include national, regional, state, county and municipal, and federal land management agency. Specific potential federal tools mentioned include zoning, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives, the Endangered Species Act, beyond boundary authority, land exchanges, less-than-fee acquisition and other incentives, the Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act, and federal land annexation. Besides summarizing existing recommendations, some derived observations are offered.

  18. Parasite invasion following host reintroduction: a case study of Yellowstone's wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S; Cross, Paul C; Dobson, Andrew P; Smith, Douglas W; Hudson, Peter J

    2012-10-19

    Wildlife reintroductions select or treat individuals for good health with the expectation that these individuals will fare better than infected animals. However, these individuals, new to their environment, may also be particularly susceptible to circulating infections and this may result in high morbidity and mortality, potentially jeopardizing the goals of recovery. Here, using the reintroduction of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) into Yellowstone National Park as a case study, we address the question of how parasites invade a reintroduced population and consider the impact of these invasions on population performance. We find that several viral parasites rapidly invaded the population inside the park, likely via spillover from resident canid species, and we contrast these with the slower invasion of sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The spatio-temporal patterns of mange invasion were largely consistent with patterns of host connectivity and density, and we demonstrate that the area of highest resource quality, supporting the greatest density of wolves, is also the region that appears most susceptible to repeated disease invasion and parasite-induced declines. The success of wolf reintroduction appears not to have been jeopardized by infectious disease, but now shows signs of regulation or limitation modulated by parasites.

  19. Anatomy of Old Faithful from subsurface seismic imaging of the Yellowstone Upper Geyser Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Sin-Mei

    2017-10-03

    The Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains one of the highest concentrations of hydrothermal features on Earth including the iconic Old Faithful geyser. Although this system has been the focus of many geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies for decades, the shallow (<200 m) subsurface structure remains poorly characterized. To investigate the detailed subsurface geologic structure including the hydrothermal plumbing of the Upper Geyser Basin, we deployed an array of densely spaced three-component nodal seismographs in November of 2015. In this study, we extract Rayleigh-wave seismic signals between 1-10 Hz utilizing non-diffusive seismic waves excited by nearby active hydrothermal features with the following results. 1) imaging the shallow subsurface structure by utilizing stationary hydrothermal activity as a seismic source, 2) characterizing how local geologic conditions control the formation and location of the Old Faithful hydrothermal system, and 3) resolving a relatively shallow (10-60 m) and large reservoir located ~100 m southwest of Old Faithful geyser.

  20. Cyanobacterial Community Structure In Lithifying Mats of A Yellowstone Hotspring-Implications for Precambrian Stromatolite Biocomplexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evan; Nash, C. Z.; Vogler, D. R.; Cullings, K.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences was used to investigate the molecular biodiversity of cyanobacterial communities inhabiting various lithified morpho-structures in two hotsprings of Yellowstone National Park. These morpho-structures - flat-topped columns, columnar cones, and ridged cones - resemble ancient stromatolites, which are possibly biogenic in origin. The top, middle and bottom sections of these lithified morpho-structures, as well as surrounding non-lithified mats were analyzed to determine the vertical and spatial distribution of cyanobacterial communities. Results from DGGE indicate that the cyanobacterial community composition of lithified morpho-structures (flat-topped columns, columnar cones, and ridged cones) were largely similar in vertical distribution as well as among the morpho-structures being studied. Preliminary results indicate that the cyanobacterial communities in these lithified morpho-structures were significantly different from communities in surrounding non-lithified mats. These results provide additional support to the theory that certain Phormidium/Leptolyngbya species are involved in the morphogenesis of lithifying morpho-structures in hotsprings and may have played a role in the formation of ancient stromatolites.

  1. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level

  2. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  3. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  4. Understanding the Yellowstone magmatic system using 3D geodynamic inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B. J. P.; Reuber, G. S.; Popov, A.; Baumann, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellowstone magmatic system is one of the largest magmatic systems on Earth. Recent seismic tomography suggest that two distinct magma chambers exist: a shallow, presumably felsic chamber and a deeper much larger, partially molten, chamber above the Moho. Why melt stalls at different depth levels above the Yellowstone plume, whereas dikes cross-cut the whole lithosphere in the nearby Snake River Plane is unclear. Partly this is caused by our incomplete understanding of lithospheric scale melt ascent processes from the upper mantle to the shallow crust, which requires better constraints on the mechanics and material properties of the lithosphere.Here, we employ lithospheric-scale 2D and 3D geodynamic models adapted to Yellowstone to better understand magmatic processes in active arcs. The models have a number of (uncertain) input parameters such as the temperature and viscosity structure of the lithosphere, geometry and melt fraction of the magmatic system, while the melt content and rock densities are obtained by consistent thermodynamic modelling of whole rock data of the Yellowstone stratigraphy. As all of these parameters affect the dynamics of the lithosphere, we use the simulations to derive testable model predictions such as gravity anomalies, surface deformation rates and lithospheric stresses and compare them with observations. We incorporated it within an inversion method and perform 3D geodynamic inverse models of the Yellowstone magmatic system. An adjoint based method is used to derive the key model parameters and the factors that affect the stress field around the Yellowstone plume, locations of enhanced diking and melt accumulations. Results suggest that the plume and the magma chambers are connected with each other and that magma chamber overpressure is required to explain the surface displacement in phases of high activity above the Yellowstone magmatic system.

  5. Using the US EPA's CompTox Dashboard to support identification and screening of emerging organic contaminants in the environment (ACS Spring National meeting) 2 of 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s iCSS CompTox Dashboard is a curated, publicly accessible resource provided by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (https://comptox.epa.gov). The Dashboard provides support for toxicology and risk assessment within and external to the EPA (including ToxC...

  6. Mass-Spectrometry Based Structure Identification of "Known-Unknowns" Using the EPA's CompTox Dashboard (ACS Spring National Meeting) 4 of 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CompTox Dashboard is a publicly accessible database provided by the National Center for Computational Toxicology at the US-EPA. The dashboard provides access to a database containing ~720,000 chemicals and integrates a number of our public-facing projects (e.g. ToxCast and Ex...

  7. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  8. Hot spring microbial community composition, morphology, and carbon fixation: implications for interpreting the ancient rock record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Caleb G.; Havig, Jeff R.; Hamilton, Trinity L.

    2017-11-01

    Microbial communities in hydrothermal systems exist in a range of macroscopic morphologies including stromatolites, mats, and filaments. The architects of these structures are typically autotrophic, serving as primary producers. Structures attributed to microbial life have been documented in the rock record dating back to the Archean including recent reports of microbially-related structures in terrestrial hot springs that date back as far as 3.5 Ga. Microbial structures exhibit a range of complexity from filaments to more complex mats and stromatolites and the complexity impacts preservation potential. As a result, interpretation of these structures in the rock record relies on isotopic signatures in combination with overall morphology and paleoenvironmental setting. However, the relationships between morphology, microbial community composition, and primary productivity remain poorly constrained. To begin to address this gap, we examined community composition and carbon fixation in filaments, mats, and stromatolites from the Greater Obsidian Pool Area (GOPA) of the Mud Volcano Area, Yellowstone National Park, WY. We targeted morphologies dominated by bacterial phototrophs located in close proximity within the same pool which are exposed to similar geochemistry as well as bacterial mat, algal filament and chemotrophic filaments from nearby springs. Our results indicate i) natural abundance δ13C values of biomass from these features (-11.0 to -24.3 ‰) are similar to those found in the rock record; ii) carbon uptake rates of photoautotrophic communities is greater than chemoautotrophic; iii) oxygenic photosynthesis, anoxygenic photosynthesis, and chemoautotrophy often contribute to carbon fixation within the same morphology; and iv) increasing phototrophic biofilm complexity corresponds to a significant decrease in rates of carbon fixation—filaments had the highest uptake rates whereas carbon fixation by stromatolites was significantly lower. Our data highlight

  9. Hot Spring Microbial Community Composition, Morphology, and Carbon Fixation: Implications for Interpreting the Ancient Rock Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb G. Schuler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in hydrothermal systems exist in a range of macroscopic morphologies including stromatolites, mats, and filaments. The architects of these structures are typically autotrophic, serving as primary producers. Structures attributed to microbial life have been documented in the rock record dating back to the Archean including recent reports of microbially-related structures in terrestrial hot springs that date back as far as 3.5 Ga. Microbial structures exhibit a range of complexity from filaments to more complex mats and stromatolites and the complexity impacts preservation potential. As a result, interpretation of these structures in the rock record relies on isotopic signatures in combination with overall morphology and paleoenvironmental setting. However, the relationships between morphology, microbial community composition, and primary productivity remain poorly constrained. To begin to address this gap, we examined community composition and carbon fixation in filaments, mats, and stromatolites from the Greater Obsidian Pool Area (GOPA of the Mud Volcano Area, Yellowstone National Park, WY. We targeted morphologies dominated by bacterial phototrophs located in close proximity within the same pool which are exposed to similar geochemistry as well as bacterial mat, algal filament and chemotrophic filaments from nearby springs. Our results indicate (i natural abundance δ13C values of biomass from these features (−11.0 to −24.3‰ are similar to those found in the rock record; (ii carbon uptake rates of photoautotrophic communities is greater than chemoautotrophic; (iii oxygenic photosynthesis, anoxygenic photosynthesis, and chemoautotrophy often contribute to carbon fixation within the same morphology; and (iv increasing phototrophic biofilm complexity corresponds to a significant decrease in rates of carbon fixation—filaments had the highest uptake rates whereas carbon fixation by stromatolites was significantly lower

  10. What's in the mud?: Water-rock-microbe interactions in thermal mudpots and springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, G. R.; Cox, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Limited aspects of mudpot geochemistry, mineralogy, and microbiology have been previously investigated in a total of 58 mudpots in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Kamchatka, Iceland, Italy, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, Nicaragua, and the Stefanos hydrothermal crater, Greece (Allen and Day, 1935; Raymahashay, 1968; Shevenell, 1987; Bradley, 2005; Prokofeva, 2006; Bortnikova, 2007; Kaasalainen, 2012; Szynkiewicz, 2012; Hynek, 2013; Pol, 2014; Kanellopoulos, 2016). The composition of 35 mudpots was analyzed for aqueous geochemistry of filtrate and solid phase characterization. Here mudpots are defined as thermal features with viscosities between 5 and 100 centipoise at the approximate temperature of the mudpot, which was measured by an Ofite hand cranked viscometer. Analogous samples of nearby hot springs provide comparisons between mudpots and non-viscous thermal features. Aqueous geochemistry from mudpots was obtained by a novel two-step filtration process consisting of gravity prefiltration by a 100 or 50 micron trace metal cleaned polyethylene bag filter followed by syringe filtration with 0.8/0.2 Supor membrane filters. This filtered sample water was preserved and analyzed for water isotopes, major anions and cations, dissolved organic carbon, and trace metals. Mudpot meter readings show dissolved oxygen values ranging from below the detection limit of 0.156 to 22.5uM, pH values ranging from 1.41 to 6.08, and temperatures ranging from 64.8 to 92.5°C. Mudpots and turbid hot springs exhibited an inverse relationship between dissolved rare earth element concentrations and dissolved calcium concentrations (where calcium concentrations > 0.4mM). Mudpots altered existing surficial geology to form clays, primarily kaolinite, montmorillionite, and alunite. This hydrothermal alteration leaches metals, allowing mudpots to concentrate metals. DNA was extracted from mudpot solids and amplified with eukaryotic, bacterial, archaeal, and universal primers, which yielded only

  11. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  12. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.258, year: 2015

  13. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... for water - a process which perhaps also is evidenced by temple constructions at Barbar, Umm al-Sujur and Abu Zaydan....

  14. Genomic Comparison of Two Family-Level Groups of the Uncultivated NAG1 Archaeal Lineage from Chemically and Geographically Disparate Hot Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Becraft

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress based on single-cell genomics and metagenomic investigations of archaea in a variety of extreme environments has led to significant advances in our understanding of the diversity, evolution, and metabolic potential of archaea, yet the vast majority of archaeal diversity remains undersampled. In this work, we coordinated single-cell genomics with metagenomics in order to construct a near-complete genome from a deeply branching uncultivated archaeal lineage sampled from Great Boiling Spring (GBS in the U.S. Great Basin, Nevada. This taxon is distantly related (distinct families to an archaeal genome, designated “Novel Archaeal Group 1” (NAG1, which was extracted from a metagenome recovered from an acidic iron spring in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. We compared the metabolic predictions of the NAG1 lineage to better understand how these archaea could inhabit such chemically distinct environments. Similar to the NAG1 population previously studied in YNP, the NAG1 population from GBS is predicted to utilize proteins as a primary carbon source, ferment simple carbon sources, and use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor under oxic conditions. However, GBS NAG1 populations contained distinct genes involved in central carbon metabolism and electron transfer, including nitrite reductase, which could confer the ability to reduce nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Despite inhabiting chemically distinct environments with large variations in pH, GBS NAG1 populations shared many core genomic and metabolic features with the archaeon identified from YNP, yet were able to carve out a distinct niche at GBS.

  15. Geomorphic Function and Restoration Potential of Spring Creeks in Southeastern Idaho: Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Hill, Z.; Levell, A.; Maguire, T.; Risso, D.

    2014-12-01

    A large wetland and floodplain complex adjacent to the Snake River in southeastern Idaho, USA, encompasses numerous spring-fed creeks that originate on the floodplain and discharge at their confluence with the Snake River and American Falls Reservoir. Resource managers are implementing a program to restore these spring creeks for the recovery of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and ecosystem health. Our objectives were to evaluate the physical characteristics of these spring creeks, develop a conceptual model of their geomorphic function, compare the restoration potential of individual reaches, and communicate our findings to a broad audience of resource managers and regional stakeholders in order to foster restoration planning. A geomorphic assessment along 38 km of three spring creeks was completed by collecting data at several transects within distinct geomorphic reaches, and by collecting data continuously throughout all reaches. These data were summarized in a GIS database and used to quantify the overall geomorphic functioning of each reach. The geomorphic functional scores were scaled from 0% (non-functional) to 100% (fully functional). Among all three spring creeks, geomorphic function ranged from 29% to 63%, with bank conditions and riparian vegetation being the primary causes of overall channel degradation. Results from the geomorphic assessment fostered the development of a conceptual model for spring creek function, whereby degraded bank conditions represent the primary controlling factor of decreased geomorphic function and fish habitat quality. The reach-based geomorphic functional scoring provides an indicator of relative restoration potential for each reach, and is one of the factors used in determining site-specific priorities for protecting, enhancing, and restoring spring creeks on the Fort Hall Bottoms. The study results, conceptual model and restoration strategy were communicated to resource managers and regional stakeholders through a graphically

  16. Distribution of ether lipids and composition of the archaeal community in terrestrial geothermal springs: impact of environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Wang, Jinxiang; Chen, Yufei; Zhu, Yuanqing; de la Torre, José R; Dong, Hailiang; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Hedlund, Brian P; Klotz, Martin G

    2015-05-01

    Archaea can respond to changes in the environment by altering the composition of their membrane lipids, for example, by modification of the abundance and composition of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Here, we investigated the abundance and proportions of polar GDGTs (P-GDGTs) and core GDGTs (C-GDGTs) sampled in different seasons from Tengchong hot springs (Yunnan, China), which encompassed a pH range of 2.5-10.1 and a temperature range of 43.7-93.6°C. The phylogenetic composition of the archaeal community (reanalysed from published work) divided the Archaea in spring sediment samples into three major groups that corresponded with spring pH: acidic, circumneutral and alkaline. Cluster analysis showed correlation between spring pH and the composition of P- and C-GDGTs and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, indicating an intimate link between resident Archaea and the distribution of P- and C-GDGTs in Tengchong hot springs. The distribution of GDGTs in Tengchong springs was also significantly affected by temperature; however, the relationship was weaker than with pH. Analysis of published datasets including samples from Tibet, Yellowstone and the US Great Basin hot springs revealed a similar relationship between pH and GDGT content. Specifically, low pH springs had higher concentrations of GDGTs with high numbers of cyclopentyl rings than neutral and alkaline springs, which is consistent with the predominance of high cyclopentyl ring-characterized Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmatales present in some of the low pH springs. Our study suggests that the resident Archaea in these hot springs are acclimated if not adapted to low pH by their genetic capacity to effect the packing density of their membranes by increasing cyclopentyl rings in GDGTs at the rank of community. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  18. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  19. Experimental Investigations of Boron, Lithium, and Halogens During High-Temperature Water-Rock Interaction: Insights into the Yellowstone Hydrothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, J. T.; Hurwitz, S.; Thordsen, J. J.; Barnes, J.

    2017-12-01

    thermal springs and the subsurface water-rhyolite equilibrium temperatures in the Yellowstone hydrothermal system. Work to characterize the alteration mineralogy and the temperature-dependent stable Cl, Li, and B isotope fractionation is currently ongoing. Keywords: Yellowstone, hydrothermal, halogens, experiments, water-rock interaction

  20. 78 FR 22470 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and park operations. Impacts associated with each of the... monitoring, including data regarding air quality, wildlife, soundscapes, and health and safety, were used in... impacts to wildlife, air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is...

  1. 76 FR 39048 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and visitor accessibility. Impacts associated with each... oversnow vehicles on the park's soundscapes. NPS Approved Snowmobiles and Snowcoaches The Superintendent..., air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is proposing to continue...

  2. 78 FR 63069 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and park operations. Impacts associated with each of the alternatives..., soundscapes, and health and safety, were used in formulating the alternatives in the Plan/SEIS. Applies the... To mitigate impacts to wildlife, air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety...

  3. 77 FR 73919 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... effect on the economy of $100 million or more. (b) Will not cause a major increase in costs or prices for... contain any new collection of information that requires approval by the Office of Management and Budget... reserving time off from work, booking airfares and hotel accommodations, making reservations for snowmobile...

  4. 77 FR 53826 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... effect on the economy of $100 million or more. (b) Will not cause a major increase in costs or prices for... approval by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the PRA of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). OMB... reserving time off from work, booking airfares and hotel accommodations, making reservations for snowmobile...

  5. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  6. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick

    2011-09-01

    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  7. 3 CFR 8362 - Proclamation 8362 of April 17, 2009. National Park Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurred over the long course of our history. Our system of National Parks is entrusted to each generation... Lincoln Memorial and Ellis Island to the Great Smoky Mountains and Yellowstone, National Parks attract... shared history. From the Prehistoric Trackways National Monument to the Civil War battlefield at...

  8. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  9. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  10. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples

  11. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  12. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Edwards, Daniel D.; Campbell, Linford J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, four domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, three dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concen- trations exceeded their respective laboratory reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Ethylbenzene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample.

  13. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1992-03-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, five domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, two dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Toluene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample. Two samples contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water

  14. Heat flow in vapor dominated areas of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field: implications for the thermal budget of the Yellowstone Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Harris, Robert; Werner, Cynthia Anne; Murphy, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the vigor of magmatic activity in Yellowstone requires knowledge of the mechanisms and rates of heat transport between magma and the ground surface. We present results from a heat flow study in two vapor dominated, acid-sulfate thermal areas in the Yellowstone Caldera, the 0.11 km2 Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) and the 0.25 km2 Solfatara Plateau Thermal Area (SPTA). Conductive heat flux through a low permeability layer capping large vapor reservoirs is calculated from soil temperature measurements at >600 locations and from laboratory measurements of soil properties. The conductive heat output is 3.6 ± 0.4 MW and 7.5 ± 0.4 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively. The advective heat output from soils is 1.3 ± 0.3 MW and 1.2 ± 0.3 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively and the heat output from thermal pools in the OPTA is 6.8 ± 1.4 MW. These estimates result in a total heat output of 11.8 ± 1.4 MW and 8.8 ± 0.4 MW from OPTA and SPTA, respectively. Focused zones of high heat flux in both thermal areas are roughly aligned with regional faults suggesting that faults in both areas serve as conduits for the rising acid vapor. Extrapolation of the average heat flux from the OPTA (103 ± 2 W·m−2) and SPTA (35 ± 3 W·m−2) to the ~35 km2 of vapor dominated areas in Yellowstone yields 3.6 and 1.2 GW, respectively, which is less than the total heat output transported by steam from the Yellowstone Caldera as estimated by the chloride inventory method (4.0 to 8.0 GW).

  15. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  16. Population growth of Yellowstone grizzly bears: Uncertainty and future monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.B.; White, Gary C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of the US Rocky Mountains have recently increased in numbers, but remain vulnerable due to isolation from other populations and predicted reductions in favored food resources. Harris et al. (2006) projected how this population might fare in the future under alternative survival rates, and in doing so estimated the rate of population growth, 1983–2002. We address issues that remain from that earlier work: (1) the degree of uncertainty surrounding our estimates of the rate of population change (λ); (2) the effect of correlation among demographic parameters on these estimates; and (3) how a future monitoring system using counts of females accompanied by cubs might usefully differentiate between short-term, expected, and inconsequential fluctuations versus a true change in system state. We used Monte Carlo re-sampling of beta distributions derived from the demographic parameters used by Harris et al. (2006) to derive distributions of λ during 1983–2002 given our sampling uncertainty. Approximate 95% confidence intervals were 0.972–1.096 (assuming females with unresolved fates died) and 1.008–1.115 (with unresolved females censored at last contact). We used well-supported models of Haroldson et al. (2006) and Schwartz et al. (2006a,b,c) to assess the strength of correlations among demographic processes and the effect of omitting them in projection models. Incorporating correlations among demographic parameters yielded point estimates of λ that were nearly identical to those from the earlier model that omitted correlations, but yielded wider confidence intervals surrounding λ. Finally, we suggest that fitting linear and quadratic curves to the trend suggested by the estimated number of females with cubs in the ecosystem, and using AICc model weights to infer population sizes and λ provides an objective means to monitoring approximate population trajectories in addition to demographic

  17. Leaders' perspectives in the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Clark, S.G.; Byrd, K.L.; Brown, S.R.; Robinson, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative (Y2Y) was created in 1993 to advance conservation in a 1.2 million km2 portion of the North American Rocky Mountains. We assembled 21 people with influence over Y2Y in a workshop to elucidate perspectives on challenges and solutions for this organization at a key point in its evolution, and used Q method to define four perspectives on challenges and three on solutions. Participants were differentiated by four models for effecting change-vision-based advocacy, practice-based learning, political engagement, and scientific management-with emphasis on the first three. Those with authority in Y2Y aligned with vision-based advocacy and expressed ambivalence about practice-based adaptive learning and rigorous appraisals of existing strategies. Workshop results were consistent with an apparent trend toward organizational maturation focused on stabilizing revenues, developing formal organizational arrangements, and focusing strategies. Consolidation of power in Y2Y around a long-standing formula does not bode well for the effectiveness of Y2Y. We recommend that leaders in Y2Y and similar organizations focused on large-scale conservation to create and maintain an open system-philosophically and operationally-that capitalizes on the diverse perspectives and skills of individuals who are attracted to such efforts. We also recommend that the Y2Y initiative be followed closely to harvest additional lessons for potential application to large-scale conservation efforts elsewhere. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC(outside the USA).2011.

  18. The climate adaptation programs and activities of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy L. Francis

    2011-01-01

    The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative (Y2Y) is an innovative transboundary effort to protect biodiversity and facilitate climate adaptation by linking large protected core areas through compatible land uses on matrix lands. The Y2Y organization acts as the keeper of the Y2Y vision and implements two interconnected programs - Science and Action, and Vision...

  19. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  20. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  1. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  2. Lower-mantle plume beneath the Yellowstone hotspot revealed by core waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter L.; Grand, Stephen P.

    2018-04-01

    The Yellowstone hotspot, located in North America, is an intraplate source of magmatism the cause of which is hotly debated. Some argue that a deep mantle plume sourced at the base of the mantle supplies the heat beneath Yellowstone, whereas others claim shallower subduction or lithospheric-related processes can explain the anomalous magmatism. Here we present a shear wave tomography model for the deep mantle beneath the western United States that was made using the travel times of core waves recorded by the dense USArray seismic network. The model reveals a single narrow, cylindrically shaped slow anomaly, approximately 350 km in diameter that we interpret as a whole-mantle plume. The anomaly is tilted to the northeast and extends from the core-mantle boundary to the surficial position of the Yellowstone hotspot. The structure gradually decreases in strength from the deepest mantle towards the surface and if it is purely a thermal anomaly this implies an initial excess temperature of 650 to 850 °C. Our results strongly support a deep origin for the Yellowstone hotspot, and also provide evidence for the existence of thin thermal mantle plumes that are currently beyond the resolution of global tomography models.

  3. Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony L. Westerling; Monica G. Turner; Erica A. H. Smithwick; William H. Romme; Michael G. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter wildfire regimes, but the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in regional fire regimes are not well understood. We considered how the occurrence, size, and spatial location of large fires might respond to climate projections in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) (Wyoming), a large wildland ecosystem dominated...

  4. Attributes of Yellowstone cutthroat trout redds in a tributary of the Snake River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell F. Thurow; John G. King

    1994-01-01

    We characterized spawning sites of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri, described the microhabitat of completed redds, and tested the influence of habitat conditions on the morphology of completed redds in Pine Creek, Idaho. Cutthroat trout spawned in June as flows subsided after peak stream discharge. During spawning, minimum and maximum water...

  5. Twenty Years After the 1988 Yellowstone Fires: Lessons About Disturbance and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romme, W.H.; Boyce, M.S.; Gresswell, R.; Merrill, E.H.; Minshall, G.W.; Whitlock, C.; Turner, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The 1988 Yellowstone fires were among the first in what has proven to be an upsurge in large severe fires in the western USA during the past 20 years. At the time of the fires, little was known about the impacts of such a large severe disturbance because scientists had had few previous opportunities to study such an event. Ecologists predicted short- and long-term effects of the 1988 fires on vegetation, biogeochemistry, primary productivity, wildlife, and aquatic ecosystems based on scientific understanding of the time. Twenty-plus years of subsequent study allow these early predictions to be evaluated. Most of the original predictions were at least partially supported, but some predictions were refuted, others nuanced, and a few postfire phenomena were entirely unexpected. Post-1988 Yellowstone studies catalyzed advances in ecology focused on the importance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, contingent influences, and multiple interacting drivers. Post-1988 research in Yellowstone also has changed public perceptions of fire as an ecological process and attitudes towards fire management. Looking ahead to projected climate change and more frequent large fires, the well-documented ecological responses to the 1988 Yellowstone fires provide a foundation for detecting and evaluating potential changes in fire regimes of temperate mountainous regions. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. NEFSC 2001 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0104, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  7. SEAMAP 2011 Spring Plankton Survey (CU1101, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary survey objective was to assess the occurrence, abundance and geographical distribution of the early life stages of spring spawning fishes, especially...

  8. NEFSC 1999 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9903, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  9. SEAMAP Spring 2016 Plankton Survey (R21601, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2016 Spring Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  10. SEAMAP Spring 2015 Plankton Survey (GU1501, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2015 Spring Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  11. NEFSC 2000 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0002, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  12. NEFSC 2001 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0103, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  13. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  14. Bioinspired spring origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jakob A.; Arrieta, Andres F.; Studart, André R.

    2018-03-01

    Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets. Inspired by this biological wing, we establish a spring origami model that broadens the folding design space of traditional origami and allows for the fabrication of precisely tunable, four-dimensional–printed objects with programmable bioinspired morphing functionalities.

  15. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  16. Projecting the spatiotemporal carbon dynamics of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem from 2006 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Jinxun; Dahal, Devendra; Young, Claudia; Davis, Brian; Sohl, Terry L; Hawbaker, Todd J; Sleeter, Ben; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and the concurrent change in wildfire events and land use comprehensively affect carbon dynamics in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The purpose of this study was to project the spatial and temporal aspects of carbon storage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) under these changes from 2006 to 2050. We selected three emission scenarios and produced simulations with the CENTURY model using three General Circulation Models (GCMs) for each scenario. We also incorporated projected land use change and fire occurrence into the carbon accounting. The three GCMs showed increases in maximum and minimum temperature, but precipitation projections varied among GCMs. Total ecosystem carbon increased steadily from 7,942 gC/m 2 in 2006 to 10,234 gC/m 2 in 2050 with an annual rate increase of 53 gC/m 2 /year. About 56.6% and 27% of the increasing rate was attributed to total live carbon and total soil carbon, respectively. Net Primary Production (NPP) increased slightly from 260 gC/m 2 /year in 2006 to 310 gC/m 2 /year in 2050 with an annual rate increase of 1.22 gC/m 2 /year. Forest clear-cutting and fires resulted in direct carbon removal; however, the rate was low at 2.44 gC/m 2 /year during 2006-2050. The area of clear-cutting and wildfires in the GYE would account for 10.87% of total forested area during 2006-2050, but the predictive simulations demonstrated different spatial distributions in national forests and national parks. The GYE is a carbon sink during 2006-2050. The capability of vegetation is almost double that of soil in terms of sequestering extra carbon. Clear-cutting and wildfires in GYE will affect 10.87% of total forested area, but direct carbon removal from clear-cutting and fires is 109.6 gC/m 2 , which accounts for only 1.2% of the mean ecosystem carbon level of 9,056 gC/m 2 , and thus is not significant.

  17. Geochemical and physical drivers of microbial community structure in hot spring ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, J. R.; Hamilton, T. L.; Boyd, E. S.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Shock, E.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial communities in natural systems are typically characterized using samples collected from a single time point, thereby neglecting the temporal dynamics that characterize natural systems. The composition of these communities obtained from single point samples is then related to the geochemistry and physical parameters of the environment. Since most microbial life is adapted to a relatively narrow ecological niche (multiplicity of physical and chemical parameters that characterize a local habitat), these assessments provide only modest insight into the controls on community composition. Temporal variation in temperature or geochemical composition would be expected to add another dimension to the complexity of niche space available to support microbial diversity, with systems that experience greater variation supporting a greater biodiversity until a point where the variability is too extreme. . Hot springs often exhibit significant temporal variation, both in physical as well as chemical characteristics. This is a result of subsurface processes including boiling, phase separation, and differential mixing of liquid and vapor phase constituents. These characteristics of geothermal systems, which vary significantly over short periods of time, provide ideal natural laboratories for investigating how i) the extent of microbial community biodiversity and ii) the composition of those communities are shaped by temporal fluctuations in geochemistry. Geochemical and molecular samples were collected from 17 temporally variable hot springs across Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Temperature measurements using data-logging thermocouples, allowing accurate determination of temperature maximums, minimums, and ranges for each collection site, were collected in parallel, along with multiple geochemical characterizations as conditions varied. There were significant variations in temperature maxima (54.5 to 90.5°C), minima (12.5 to 82.5°C), and range (3.5 to 77.5°C) for

  18. Seismic and GPS constraints on the dynamics and kinematics of the Yellowstone volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. B.; Farrell, J.; Jordan, M.; Puskas, C.; Waite, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    The seismically and volcanically Yellowstone hotspot resulted from interaction of a mantle plume with the overriding North America plate. This feature and related processes have modified continental lithosphere producing the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain-Newberry silicic volcanic field (YSRPN) system, with its NE volcanically active Yellowstone volcanic field. The size and accessibility of the Yellowstone area has allowed a range of geophysical experiments including earthquake monitoring and seismic and GPS imaging of this system. Seismicity is dominated by small-magnitude normal- to oblique-slip faulting earthquake swarms with shallow focal depths, maximum of ~5 km, restricted by high temperatures and a weak elastic layer. There is developing evidence of non-double couple events. Outside the caldera, earthquakes are deeper, ~20 km, and capable of M 7+ earthquakes. We integrate the results from a multi-institution experiment that recorded data from 110 seismic stations and 180 GPS stations for 1999-2004. The tomographic images confirm the existence of a low Vp-body beneath the Yellowstone caldera at depths greater than 8 km, possibly representing hot, crystallizing magma. A key result of our study is a volume of anomalously low Vp and Vp/Vs in the northwestern part of the volcanic field at shallow depths of stress field inverted from seismic and GPS data is dominated by regional SW extension with superimposed volumetric expansion and uplift from local volcanic sources. Mantle tomography derived from integrated inversion of teleseismic and local earthquake data constrained by geoid, crustal structure, discontinuity structure reveals an upper-mantle low P and S velocity body extends from 80 km to ~250 km directly beneath Yellowstone and then continues to 650 km with unexpected westward tilt to the west at ~60° with a 1% to 2% melt. This geometry is consistent with the ascent of the buoyant magma entrained in eastward return-flow of the upper mantle. Some remaining

  19. 78 FR 77709 - Notice of Extension of Concession Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Jackson Hole Llamas.... Yellowstone National Park. YELL107-04 Wyoming Backcountry Yellowstone National... Creek Yellowstone National Outfitters, Inc. Park. YELL121-04 Yellowstone Llamas..... Yellowstone...... Yellowstone National Park. YELL168-04 Llama Trips in Yellowstone National Yellowstone. Park. YELL170-04 Rockin...

  20. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  1. Magnetotelluric Investigations of the Yellowstone Caldera: Understanding the Emplacement of Crustal Magma Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrola, R. M.; Neal, B. A.; Bennington, N. L.; Cronin, R.; Fry, B.; Hart, L.; Imamura, N.; Kelbert, A.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Miller, D. J.; Scholz, K. J.; Schultz, A.

    2017-12-01

    Wideband magnetotellurics (MT) presents an ideal method for imaging conductive shallow magma bodies associated with contemporary Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) magmatism. Particularly, how do these magma bodies accumulate in the mid to upper crust underlying the Yellowstone Caldera, and furthermore, what role do hydrothermal fluids play in their ascent? During the summer 2017 field season, two field teams from Oregon State University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison installed forty-four wideband MT stations within and around the caldera, and using data slated for joint 3-D inversion with existing seismic data, two 2-D vertical conductivity sections of the crust and upper mantle were constructed. These models, in turn, provide preliminary insight into the emplacement of crustal magma bodies and hydrothermal processes in the YSRP region.

  2. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  3. Tree-ring 14C links seismic swarm to CO2 spike at Yellowstone, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; McGeehin, J.P.; King, J.C.; Heasler, H.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms to explain swarms of shallow seismicity and inflation-deflation cycles at Yellowstone caldera (western United States) commonly invoke episodic escape of magma-derived brines or gases from the ductile zone, but no correlative changes in the surface efflux of magmatic constituents have ever been documented. Our analysis of individual growth rings in a tree core from the Mud Volcano thermal area within the caldera links a sharp ~25% drop in 14C to a local seismic swarm in 1978. The implied fivefold increase in CO2 emissions clearly associates swarm seismicity with upflow of magma-derived fluid and shows that pulses of magmatic CO2 can rapidly traverse the 5-kmthick brittle zone, even through Yellowstone's enormous hydrothermal reservoir. The 1978 event predates annual deformation surveys, but recognized connections between subsequent seismic swarms and changes in deformation suggest that CO2 might drive both processes. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  4. Monitoring changes in Greater Yellowstone Lake water quality following the 1988 wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.; Vande Castle, John D.; Brass, James A.

    1994-01-01

    The fires that burned the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) during the summer of 1988 were the largest ever recorded for the region. Wildfire can have profound indirect effects on associated aquatic ecosystems by increased nutrient loading, sediment, erosion, and runoff. Satellite remote sensing and water quality sampling were used to compare pre- versus post-fire conditions in the GYA's large oliotrophic (high transparency, low productivity) lakes. Inputs of suspended sediment to Jackson Lake appear to have increased. Yellowstone Lake has not shown any discernable shift in water quality. The insights gained separately from the Landsat Thematic and NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) remote sensing systems, along with conventional in-situ sampling, can be combined into a useful water quality monitoring tool.

  5. Water tables constrain height recovery of willow on Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Danielle M; Cooper, David J; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Excessive levels of herbivory may disturb ecosystems in ways that persist even when herbivory is moderated. These persistent changes may complicate efforts to restore ecosystems affected by herbivores. Willow (Salix spp.) communities within the northern range in Yellowstone National Park have been eliminated or degraded in many riparian areas by excessive elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing. Elk browsing of riparian willows appears to have diminished following the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupis L.), but it remains uncertain whether reduced herbivory will restore willow communities. The direct effects of elk browsing on willows have been accompanied by indirect effects from the loss of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) activity, including incision of stream channels, erosion of fine sediments, and lower water tables near streams historically dammed by beaver. In areas where these changes have occurred, lowered water tables may suppress willow height even in the absence of elk browsing. We conducted a factorial field experiment to understand willow responses to browsing and to height of water tables. After four years of protection from elk browsing, willows with ambient water tables averaged only 106 cm in height, with negligible height gain in two of three study species during the last year of the experiment. Willows that were protected from browsing and had artificially elevated water tables averaged 147 cm in height and gained 19 cm in the last year of the experiment. In browsed plots, elevated water tables doubled height gain during a period of slightly reduced browsing pressure. We conclude that water availability mediates the rate of willow height gain and may determine whether willows grow tall enough to escape the browse zone of elk and gain resistance to future elk browsing. Consequently, in areas where long-term beaver absence has resulted in incised stream channels and low water tables, a reduction in elk browsing alone may not be sufficient for recovery

  6. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  7. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  8. A comparative ToF-SIMS and GC–MS analysis of phototrophic communities collected from an alkaline silica-depositing hot spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siljeström, S.; Parenteau, M. N.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2017-07-01

    One of few techniques that is able to spatially resolve chemical data, including organic molecules, to morphological features in modern and ancient geological samples, is time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The ability to connect chemical data to morphology is key for interpreting the biogenicity of preserved remains in ancient samples. However, due to the lack of reference data for geologically relevant samples and the ease with which samples can be contaminated, ToF-SIMS data may be difficult to interpret. In this project, we aimed to build a ToF-SIMS spectral database by performing parallel ToF-SIMS and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses of extant photosynthetic microbial communities collected from an alkaline silica-depositing hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We built the library by analyzing samples of increasing complexity: pure lipid standards commonly found in thermophilic phototrophs, solvent extracts of specific lipid fractions, total lipid extracts, pure cultures of dominant phototrophic community members, and unsilicified phototrophic streamer communities. The results showed that important lipids and pigments originating from phototrophs were detected by ToF-SIMS (e.g., wax esters, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, sufloquinovosyldiaglycerol, alkanes, etc.) in the streamer lipid extracts. Many of the lipids were also detected in situ in the unsilicified streamer, and could even be spatially resolved to individual cells within the streamer community. Together with the ToF-SIMS database, this mapping ability will be used to further explore other microbial mats and their fossilized counterparts in the geological record. This is likely to expand the geochemical understanding of these types of samples.

  9. Quantifying Carbon Consequences of Recent Land Management, Disturbances and Subsequent Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystems (GYE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F. R.; Healey, S. P.; McCarter, J. B.; Garrard, C.; Zhu, Z.; Huang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Natural disturbances and land management directly alter C stored in biomass and soil pools, and forest recovery following these events are critical for long-term regional C balance. The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), located in Central Rocky Mountains of United States, is of different land ownerships within similar environmental settings, making it an ideal site to examine the impacts of land management, disturbance and forest recovery on regional C dynamics. Recent advances in the remote sensing of vegetation condition and change, along with new techniques linking remote sensing with inventory records, have allowed investigations that are much more tightly constrained to actual landscape environments instead of hypothetical or generalized conditions. These new capabilities are built into the Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF), which is being used by the National Forest System to not only model, but to monitor across very specific management units, the impact of different kinds of disturbance on carbon storage. In this study, we used the ForCaMF approach to examine three C related management questions in GYE National Parks and National Forests: 1) what was the carbon storage impact of fire disturbance and management activities from 1985 to 2010 in the GYE National Parks and National Forests? 2) Using an historic fire that occurred in 1988 as a basis for comparison, what difference would active post-fire forest restoration make in subsequent C storage? 3) In light of the fact that GYE National Forests significantly reduced harvest rates in the 1990s, how would maintaining high harvest rates of the 1980s impacted C storage? Simulation results show that recent forest fires in the GYE National Parks induced an accumulative C storage loss of about 12 Mg/ha, compared with C storage loss up to 2 Mg/ha in the GYE National Forests by harvests. If the high harvest rates as of the 1980s had been maintained, C emissions from the National Forests ( 11 Mg

  10. Multiscale Genetic Structure of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cegelski, Christine C.; Campbell, Matthew R.

    2006-05-30

    Populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii have declined throughout their native range as a result of habitat fragmentation, overharvest, and introductions of nonnative trout that have hybridized with or displaced native populations. The degree to which these factors have impacted the current genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations is of primary interest for their conservation. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho and Nevada with data from six polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 1,392 samples were analyzed from 45 sample locations throughout 11 major river drainages. We found that levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation varied extensively. The Salt River drainage, which is representative of the least impacted migration corridors in Idaho, had the highest levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation. High levels of genetic differentiation were observed at similar or smaller geographic scales in the Portneuf River, Raft River, and Teton River drainages, which are more altered by anthropogenic disturbances. Results suggested that Yellowstone cutthroat trout are naturally structured at the major river drainage level but that habitat fragmentation has altered this structuring. Connectivity should be restored via habitat restoration whenever possible to minimize losses in genetic diversity and to preserve historical processes of gene flow, life history variation, and metapopulation dynamics. However, alternative strategies for management and conservation should also be considered in areas where there is a strong likelihood of nonnative invasions or extensive habitat fragmentation that cannot be easily ameliorated.

  11. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  12. A Long-Term Comparison of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Abundance and Size Structure in Their Historical Range in Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Schill, Daniel J.; Elle, F. Steven

    2002-05-23

    We compared estimates of population abundance and size structure for Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri obtained by electrofishing 77 stream segments across southeastern Idaho in the 1980s and again in 1999-2000 to test whether populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout had changed. Sites sampled in the 1980s were relocated in 1999-2000 by using maps and photographs or by finding original site-boundary stakes, so that the same reach of stream was sampled during both periods. Abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout longer than 10 cm did not change, averaging 41 fish/100 m of stream during both the 1980s and 1999-2000. The proportion of the total catch of trout composed of Yellowstone cutthroat trout also did not change, averaging 82% in the 1980s and 78% in 1999-2000. At the 48 sites where size structure could be estimated for both periods, the proportion of Yellowstone cutthroat trout that were 10-20 cm long declined slightly (74% versus 66%), but the change was due entirely to the shift in size structure at the Teton River sites. The number of sites that contained rainbow trout O. mykiss or cutthroat trout 3 rainbow trout hybrids rose from 23 to 37, but the average proportion of the catch composed of rainbow trout and hybrids did not increase (7% in both the 1980s and 1999-2000). Although the distribution and abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout have been substantially reduced in Idaho over the last century, our results indicate that Yellowstone cutthroat trout abundance and size structure in Idaho have remained relatively stable at a large number of locations for the last 10-20 years. The expanding distribution of rainbow trout and hybrids in portions of the upper Snake River basin, however, calls for additional monitoring and active management actions.

  13. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  14. Simulation of water-rock interaction in the yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, P.F.; Salah, S.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal system provides an ideal opportunity to test the ability of reactive transport models to accurately simulate water-rock interaction. Previous studies of the Yellowstone geothermal system have characterized water-rock interaction through analysis of rocks and fluids obtained from both surface and downhole samples. Fluid chemistry, rock mineralogy, permeability, porosity, and thermal data obtained from the Y-8 borehole in Upper Geyser Basin were used to constrain a series of reactive transport simulations of the Yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT. Three distinct stratigraphic units were encountered in the 153.4 m deep Y-8 drill core: volcaniclastic sandstone, perlitic rhyolitic lava, and nonwelded pumiceous tuff. The main alteration phases identified in the Y-8 core samples include clay minerals, zeolites, silica polymorphs, adularia, and calcite. Temperatures observed in the Y-8 borehole increase with depth from sub-boiling conditions at the surface to a maximum of 169.8 C at a depth of 104.1 m, with near-isothermal conditions persisting down to the well bottom. 1-D models of the Y-8 core hole were constructed to determine if TOUGHREACT could accurately predict the observed alteration mineral assemblage given the initial rock mineralogy and observed fluid chemistry and temperatures. Preliminary simulations involving the perlitic rhyolitic lava unit are consistent with the observed alteration of rhyolitic glass to form celadonite

  15. Growth, morphology, and developmental instability of rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout, and four hybrid generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Duda, J.J.; Graham, J.H.; Zhang, S.; Haywood, K. P.; Miller, B.; Lerud, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii with nonindigenous rainbow trout O. mykiss contributes to the decline of cutthroat trout subspecies throughout their native range. Introgression by rainbow trout can swamp the gene pools of cutthroat trout populations, especially if there is little selection against hybrids. We used rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarkii bouvieri, and rainbow trout × Yellowstone cutthroat trout F1 hybrids as parents to construct seven different line crosses: F1 hybrids (both reciprocal crosses), F2 hybrids, first-generation backcrosses (both rainbow trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout), and both parental taxa. We compared growth, morphology, and developmental instability among these seven crosses reared at two different temperatures. Growth was related to the proportion of rainbow trout genome present within the crosses. Meristic traits were influenced by maternal, additive, dominant, overdominant, and (probably) epistatic genetic effects. Developmental stability, however, was not disturbed in F1 hybrids, F2 hybrids, or backcrosses. Backcrosses were morphologically similar to their recurrent parent. The lack of developmental instability in hybrids suggests that there are few genetic incompatibilities preventing introgression. Our findings suggest that hybrids are not equal: that is, growth, development, character traits, and morphology differ depending on the genomic contribution from each parental species as well as the hybrid generation.

  16. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  17. Green Team Readies for Spring with Plant Swap | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Those looking for a cost-effective way to spruce up their yards this spring can stop by the National Cancer Institute at Frederick Green Team’s booth during the Spring Research Festival (SRF) on May 7 and 8. Pick up a free plant, donate overgrown plants from your yard, or swap for a new plant. Everyone is invited to participate in the swap, whether you have plants to donate or not.

  18. Response of Yellowstone grizzly bears to changes in food resources: A synthesis. Final report to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee and Yellowstone Ecosystem Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; van Manen, Frank T.; Costello, Cecily M.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Thompson, Daniel J.; Higgs, Megan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Legg, Kristin; Tyers, Daniel B.; Landenburger, Lisa; Cain, Steven L.; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) was listed as a threatened species in 1975 (Federal Register 40 FR:31734-31736). Since listing, recovery efforts have focused on increasing population size, improving habitat security, managing bear mortalities, and reducing bear-human conflicts. The Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee (IGBC; partnership of federal and state agencies responsible for grizzly bear recovery in the lower 48 states) and its Yellowstone Ecosystem Subcommitte (YES; federal, state, county, and tribal partners charged with recovery of grizzly bears in the Greater Yelowston Ecosystem [GYE]) tasked the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team to provide information and further research relevant to three concerns arising from the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals November 2011 decision: 1) the ability of grizzly bears as omnivores to find alternative foods to whitebark pine seeds; 2) literature to support their conclusions; and 3) the non-intuitive biological reality that impacts can occur to individuals without causing the overall population to decline. Specifically, the IGBC and YES requested a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge regarding whitebark pinbe decline and individual and population-level responses of grizzly bears to changing food resources in the GYE. This research was particularly relevant to grizzly bear conservation given changes in the population trajectory observed during the last decade.

  19. Best Collaborative Publication Announced during Spring Research Festival Week | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The winner of the 2012 competition for the best collaborative publication was announced on May 7, as part of the lead-up to the Spring Research Festival sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR) and the National Cancer Institute at Frederick on May 8 and 9.

  20. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  1. Spring valve for well completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatov, P T

    1966-07-22

    A spring-loaded valve for well completion consists of a housing with a spring-loaded closing element. In order to protect the closing element from corrosion which might lower the pressure drop, the closing element is made in the form of a piston. It is tightly connected with sealing elements. The housing has orifices, overlapping the piston in the initial position.

  2. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  3. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  4. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  5. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  6. The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

  7. Radioactivity measurement in spring waters of Cantabria, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Torres, J.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the radioactivity existing in a high number of springs located in Cantabria, Northern Spain, was made. The spring analyzed in three sampling campaign's, And alpha and beta total activities and 226 Ra and 222 Rn concentrations were determined for each sample. The measuring techniques employed were gamma spectrometry with Ge detector, counting with gas flow proportional counter, and counting with ZnS(Ag) scintillating detector. Results show that springs with high radon water concentration have high values respect to the national mean. The springs with the highest radium and radon levels have thermal waters and are located on two deep fault, those have historic seismicity and seismical and geomorphological evidences of recent tectonic activity

  8. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Fervidicoccus fontis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, thermophilic crenarchaeote from terrestrial hot springs, and proposal of Fervidicoccaceae fam. nov. and Fervidicoccales ord. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalova, Anna A; Bidzhieva, Salima Kh; Kublanov, Ilya V; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Liu, Xiaolei L; Mardanov, Andrey V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2010-09-01

    Two novel thermophilic and slightly acidophilic strains, Kam940(T) and Kam1507b, which shared 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, were isolated from terrestrial hot springs of the Uzon caldera on the Kamchatka peninsula. Cells of both strains were non-motile, regular cocci. Growth was observed between 55 and 85 degrees C, with an optimum at 65-70 degrees C (doubling time, 6.1 h), and at pH 4.5-7.5, with optimum growth at pH 5.5-6.0. The isolates were strictly anaerobic organotrophs and grew on a narrow spectrum of energy-rich substrates, such as beef extract, gelatin, peptone, pyruvate, sucrose and yeast extract, with yields above 10(7) cells ml(-1). Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and nitrate added as potential electron acceptors did not stimulate growth when tested with peptone. H(2) at 100 % in the gas phase inhibited growth on peptone. Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with zero to four cyclopentyl rings were present in the lipid fraction of isolate Kam940(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Kam940(T) was 37 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates were archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota, only distantly related to the cultured members of the class Thermoprotei (no more than 89 % identity), and formed an independent lineage adjacent to the orders Desulfurococcales and Acidilobales and clustering only with uncultured clones from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and Iceland as the closest relatives. On the basis of their phylogenetic position and novel phenotypic features, isolates Kam940(T) and Kam1507b are proposed to be assigned to a new genus and species, Fervidicoccus fontis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Fervidicoccus fontis is strain Kam940(T) (=DSM 19380(T) =VKM B-2539(T)). The phylogenetic data as well as phenotypic properties suggest that the novel crenarchaeotes form the basis of a new family, Fervidicoccaceae fam. nov., and order, Fervidicoccales ord. nov

  10. A sense of place: Ecoregional design at Mesa Verde National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Bailey

    2012-01-01

    When the National Park Service was established in 1916, the new agency inherited an architectural legacy developed by private interests, particularly the railroads. This legacy included Northern Pacific's Old Faithful Inn in Yellowstone and Santa Fe's El Tovar at the south rim of the Grand Canyon, both built in the Swiss Chalet­Norway Villa tradition. This...

  11. Laurel Springs & DoDEA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jhung, Seung

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the client organization, Laurel Springs School, we developed an in-depth market analysis of comparable educational programs offered within the Department of Defense Education Activities (DoDEA...

  12. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  13. Travel Times, Streamflow Velocities, and Dispersion Rates in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is a vital natural resource to the residents of southeastern Montana and is a primary source of water for irrigation and recreation and the primary source of municipal water for several cities. The Yellowstone River valley is the primary east-west transportation corridor through southern Montana. This complex of infrastructure makes the Yellowstone River especially vulnerable to accidental spills from various sources such as tanker cars and trucks. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine instream travel times, streamflow velocities, and dispersion rates for the Yellowstone River from Lockwood to Glendive, Montana. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of this study and summarize data collected at each of the measurement sites between Lockwood and Glendive. This report also compares the results of this study to estimated travel times from a transport model developed by the USGS for a previous study. For this study, Rhodamine WT dye was injected at four locations in late September and early October 2008 during reasonably steady streamflow conditions. Streamflows ranged from 3,490 to 3,770 cubic feet per second upstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River and ranged from 6,520 to 7,570 cubic feet per second downstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume for subreaches that were completely laterally mixed ranged from 1.83 to 3.18 ft/s within the study reach from Lockwood Bridge to Glendive Bridge. The mean of the completely mixed centroid velocity for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between Forsyth Bridge and Cartersville Dam, was 2.80 ft/s. Longitudinal

  14. Origin and Evolution of the Yellowstone Hotspot from Seismic-GPS Imaging and Geodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. B.; Jordan, M.; Puskas, C. M.; Farrell, J.; Waite, G. P.

    2006-12-01

    The Yellowstone hotspot resulted from interaction of a mantle plume with the overriding North America plate. This feature and related processes have influenced a large part of the western U.S., producing the 16 Ma Yellowstone-Snake River Plain-Newberry silicic-basalt volcanic field (YSRPN). We integrate results from a multi-institution experiment that deployed 80 seismic stations and 160 campaign and 21 permanent GPS stations for 1999-2003. Crust and mantle velocity models were derived from inversion of teleseismic and local earthquake data. Kinematic and dynamic models were derived from inversion of GPS velocities constrained by stresses associated the topography and the +15 m geoid anomaly. Tomography revealed a P- and S-wave low-velocity body at depths of 8-16 km beneath the caldera that is interpreted as partial melt of 8-15% that feeds the youthful Yellowstone volcanic field. Volume changes in the magma chamber are responsible for GPS-measured episodes of uplift and subsidence of the caldera at decadal scales with average rates of ~20 mm/yr but much higher short-term rates of up to 80 mm/yr. An upper-mantle low-velocity body was imaged by inverting teleseismic data constrained by the geoid structure, crustal structure, and the upper mantle discontinuities. This low P and S velocity body extends from 80 km to ~250 km directly beneath Yellowstone and then continues to 650 km with unexpected tilt to the west at ~60°. The tilt is consistent with the ascent of the buoyant magma entrained in eastward return-flow of the upper mantle. We estimate this body has an excess temperature from 85K to 120K, depending on the water content and with up to 1.5% melt. Using the inclined plume-geometry and plate motion history, we extrapolate the Yellowstone mantle source southwestward ~800 km as a plume-head in oceanic lithosphere centered beneath the Columbia Plateau basalt field at 16 Ma. Magma ascent was truncated there by the passage of thicker continental lithosphere over

  15. Estimating Spring Condensation on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Welp, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region provides opportunities for shipping, recreation, and consumptive water use to a large part of the United States and Canada. Water levels in the lakes fluctuate yearly, but attempts to model the system are inadequate because the water and energy budgets are still not fully understood. For example, water levels in the Great Lakes experienced a 15-year low period ending in 2013, the recovery of which has been attributed partially to decreased evaporation and increased precipitation and runoff. Unlike precipitation, the exchange of water vapor between the lake and the atmosphere through evaporation or condensation is difficult to measure directly. However, estimates have been constructed using off-shore eddy covariance direct measurements of latent heat fluxes, remote sensing observations, and a small network of monitoring buoys. When the lake surface temperature is colder than air temperature as it is in spring, condensation is larger than evaporation. This is a relatively small component of the net annual water budget of the lakes, but the total amount of condensation may be important for seasonal energy fluxes and atmospheric deposition of pollutants and nutrients to the lakes. Seasonal energy fluxes determine, and are influenced by, ice cover, water and air temperatures, and evaporation in the Great Lakes. We aim to quantify the amount of spring condensation on the Great Lakes using the National Center for Atmospheric Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP NARR) Data for Winter 2013 to Spring 2017 and compare the condensation values of spring seasons following high volume, high duration and low volume, low duration ice cover.

  16. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  17. Spring Into Action

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-12

    Physical inactivity is one factor that contributes to the steady rise in rates of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. This podcast gives information and resources to help make your community a place that makes healthy living easier.  Created: 3/12/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/12/2013.

  18. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  19. A fluid-driven earthquake swarm on the margin of the Yellowstone caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Hill, David P.; Massin, Frederick; Farrell, Jamie; Smith, Robert B.; Taira, Taka'aki

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the Yellowstone caldera has experienced frequent earthquake swarms and repeated cycles of uplift and subsidence, reflecting dynamic volcanic and tectonic processes. Here, we examine the detailed spatial-temporal evolution of the 2010 Madison Plateau swarm, which occurred near the northwest boundary of the Yellowstone caldera. To fully explore the evolution of the swarm, we integrated procedures for seismic waveform-based earthquake detection with precise double-difference relative relocation. Using cross-correlation of continuous seismic data and waveform templates constructed from cataloged events, we detected and precisely located 8710 earthquakes during the three-week swarm, nearly four times the number of events included in the standard catalog. This high-resolution analysis reveals distinct migration of earthquake activity over the course of the swarm. The swarm initiated abruptly on January 17, 2010 at about 10 km depth and expanded dramatically outward (both shallower and deeper) over time, primarily along a NNW-striking, ~55º ENE-dipping structure. To explain these characteristics, we hypothesize that the swarm was triggered by the rupture of a zone of confined high-pressure aqueous fluids into a pre-existing crustal fault system, prompting release of accumulated stress. The high-pressure fluid injection may have been accommodated by hybrid shear and dilatational failure, as is commonly observed in exhumed hydrothermally affected fault zones. This process has likely occurred repeatedly in Yellowstone as aqueous fluids exsolved from magma migrate into the brittle crust, and it may be a key element in the observed cycles of caldera uplift and subsidence.

  20. The Yellowstone ‘hot spot’ track results from migrating Basin Range extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Gillian R.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Anderson, Don L.; Foulger, Gillian R.; Lustrino, Michele; King, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Whether the volcanism of the Columbia River Plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone (western U.S.) is related to a mantle plume or to plate tectonic processes is a long-standing controversy. There are many geological mismatches with the basic plume model as well as logical flaws, such as citing data postulated to require a deep-mantle origin in support of an “upper-mantle plume” model. USArray has recently yielded abundant new seismological results, but despite this, seismic analyses have still not resolved the disparity of opinion. This suggests that seismology may be unable to resolve the plume question for Yellowstone, and perhaps elsewhere. USArray data have inspired many new models that relate western U.S. volcanism to shallow mantle convection associated with subduction zone processes. Many of these models assume that the principal requirement for surface volcanism is melt in the mantle and that the lithosphere is essentially passive. In this paper we propose a pure plate model in which melt is commonplace in the mantle, and its inherent buoyancy is not what causes surface eruptions. Instead, it is extension of the lithosphere that permits melt to escape to the surface and eruptions to occur—the mere presence of underlying melt is not a sufficient condition. The time-progressive chain of rhyolitic calderas in the eastern Snake River Plain–Yellowstone zone that has formed since basin-range extension began at ca. 17 Ma results from laterally migrating lithospheric extension and thinning that has permitted basaltic magma to rise from the upper mantle and melt the lower crust. We propose that this migration formed part of the systematic eastward migration of the axis of most intense basin-range extension. The bimodal rhyolite-basalt volcanism followed migration of the locus of most rapid extension, not vice versa. This model does not depend on seismology to test it but instead on surface geological observations.

  1. Thermal controls of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and invasive fishes under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Alder, Jay R.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Shepard, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    We combine large observed data sets and dynamically downscaled climate data to explore historic and future (2050–2069) stream temperature changes over the topographically diverse Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (elevation range = 824–4017 m). We link future stream temperatures with fish growth models to investigate how changing thermal regimes could influence the future distribution and persistence of native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT) and competing invasive species. We find that stream temperatures during the recent decade (2000–2009) surpass the anomalously warm period of the 1930s. Climate simulations indicate air temperatures will warm by 1 °C to >3 °C over the Greater Yellowstone by mid-21st century, resulting in concomitant increases in 2050–2069 peak stream temperatures and protracted periods of warming from May to September (MJJAS). Projected changes in thermal regimes during the MJJAS growing season modify the trajectories of daily growth rates at all elevations with pronounced growth during early and late summer. For high-elevation populations, we find considerable increases in fish body mass attributable both to warming of cold-water temperatures and to extended growing seasons. During peak July to August warming, mid-21st century temperatures will cause periods of increased thermal stress, rendering some low-elevation streams less suitable for YCT. The majority (80%) of sites currently inhabited by YCT, however, display minimal loss (changes in total body mass by midcentury; we attribute this response to the fact that many low-elevation populations of YCT have already been extirpated by historical changes in land use and invasions of non-native species. Our results further suggest that benefits to YCT populations due to warmer stream temperatures at currently cold sites could be offset by the interspecific effects of corresponding growth of sympatric, non-native species, underscoring the importance of developing climate adaptation

  2. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulley, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  3. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  4. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  5. Temporal, spatial, and environmental influences on the demographics of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; White, Gary C.; Harris, Richard B.; Cherry, Steve; Keating, Kim A.; Moody, Dave; Servheen, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has increased in numbers and expanded in range. Understanding temporal, environmental, and spatial variables responsible for this change is useful in evaluating what likely influenced grizzly bear demographics in the GYE and where future management efforts might benefit conservation and management. We used recent data from radio-marked bears to estimate reproduction (1983–2002) and survival (1983–2001); these we combined into models to evaluate demographic vigor (lambda [λ]). We explored the influence of an array of individual, temporal, and spatial covariates on demographic vigor.

  6. Influence of whitebark pine decline on fall habitat use and movements of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; van Manen, Frank T; Haroldson, Mark A; Ebinger, Michael R; Cain, Steven L; Gunther, Kerry A; Bjornlie, Daniel D

    2014-05-01

    When abundant, seeds of the high-elevation whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) are an important fall food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Rates of bear mortality and bear/human conflicts have been inversely associated with WBP productivity. Recently, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have killed many cone-producing WBP trees. We used fall (15 August-30 September) Global Positioning System locations from 89 bear years to investigate temporal changes in habitat use and movements during 2000-2011. We calculated Manly-Chesson (MC) indices for selectivity of WBP habitat and secure habitat (≥500 m from roads and human developments), determined dates of WBP use, and documented net daily movement distances and activity radii. To evaluate temporal trends, we used regression, model selection, and candidate model sets consisting of annual WBP production, sex, and year. One-third of sampled grizzly bears had fall ranges with little or no mapped WBP habitat. Most other bears (72%) had a MC index above 0.5, indicating selection for WBP habitats. From 2000 to 2011, mean MC index decreased and median date of WBP use shifted about 1 week later. We detected no trends in movement indices over time. Outside of national parks, there was no correlation between the MC indices for WBP habitat and secure habitat, and most bears (78%) selected for secure habitat. Nonetheless, mean MC index for secure habitat decreased over the study period during years of good WBP productivity. The wide diet breadth and foraging plasticity of grizzly bears likely allowed them to adjust to declining WBP. Bears reduced use of WBP stands without increasing movement rates, suggesting they obtained alternative fall foods within their local surroundings. However, the reduction in mortality risk historically associated with use of secure, high-elevation WBP habitat may be diminishing for bears residing in multiple-use areas.

  7. Influence of whitebark pine decline on fall habitat use and movements of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M.; van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Cain, Steven L.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    When abundant, seeds of the high-elevation whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) are an important fall food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Rates of bear mortality and bear/human conflicts have been inversely associated with WBP productivity. Recently, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have killed many cone-producing WBP trees. We used fall (15 August–30 September) Global Positioning System locations from 89 bear years to investigate temporal changes in habitat use and movements during 2000–2011. We calculated Manly–Chesson (MC) indices for selectivity of WBP habitat and secure habitat (≥500 m from roads and human developments), determined dates of WBP use, and documented net daily movement distances and activity radii. To evaluate temporal trends, we used regression, model selection, and candidate model sets consisting of annual WBP production, sex, and year. One-third of sampled grizzly bears had fall ranges with little or no mapped WBP habitat. Most other bears (72%) had a MC index above 0.5, indicating selection for WBP habitats. From 2000 to 2011, mean MC index decreased and median date of WBP use shifted about 1 week later. We detected no trends in movement indices over time. Outside of national parks, there was no correlation between the MC indices for WBP habitat and secure habitat, and most bears (78%) selected for secure habitat. Nonetheless, mean MC index for secure habitat decreased over the study period during years of good WBP productivity. The wide diet breadth and foraging plasticity of grizzly bears likely allowed them to adjust to declining WBP. Bears reduced use of WBP stands without increasing movement rates, suggesting they obtained alternative fall foods within their local surroundings. However, the reduction in mortality risk historically associated with use of secure, high-elevation WBP habitat may be diminishing for bears residing in multiple-use areas.

  8. Controls on Magmatic and Hydrothermal Processes at Yellowstone Supervolcano: The Wideband Magnetotelluric Component of an Integrated MT/Seismic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bennington, N. L.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Imamura, N.; Cronin, R. A.; Miller, D. J.; Hart, L.; Gurrola, R. M.; Neal, B. A.; Scholz, K.; Fry, B.; Carbonari, R.

    2017-12-01

    Previous seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) studies beneath Yellowstone (YS) have provided insight into the origin and migration of magmatic fluids within the volcanic system. However, important questions remain concerning the generation of magmatism at YS, the migration and storage of these magmatic fluids, as well as their relationships to hydrothermal expressions. Analysis of regional-scale EarthScope MT data collected previously suggests a relative absence of continuity in crustal partial melt accumulations directly beneath YS. This is in contrast to some seismic interpretations, although such long-period MT data have limited resolving power in the upper-to-mid crustal section. A wideband MT experiment was designed as a component of an integrated MT/seismic project to examine: the origin and location of magmatic fluids at upper mantle/lower crustal depths, the preferred path of migration for these magmatic fluids into the mid- to upper-crust, the resulting distribution of the magma reservoir, the composition of the magma reservoir, and implications for future volcanism at YS. A high-resolution wideband MT survey was carried out in the YS region in the summer of 2017, with more than forty-five wideband stations installed within and immediately surrounding the YS National Park boundary. These data provided nearly six decades of bandwidth ( 10-3 Hz -to- 103 Hz). Extraordinary permitting restrictions prevented us from using conventional installation methods at many of our sites, and an innovative "no-dig" subaerial method of wideband MT was developed and used successfully. Using these new data along with existing MT datasets, we are inverting for the 3D resistivity structure at upper crustal through upper mantle scales at YS. Complementary to this MT work, a joint inversion for the 3D crustal velocity structure is being carried out using both ambient noise and earthquake travel time data. Taken together, these data should better constrain the crustal velocity

  9. 77 FR 30321 - Proposed Concession Contract for Yellowstone National Park-Alternative Formula for Calculating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    .... Elective Franchise Fee Reduction/LSI Buy Down Provision The NPS also points out that it intends to include an elective franchise fee reduction/LSI buy down provision in the terms of the prospectus for YELL007... it would be in its best interest to elect to accept the elective franchise fee reduction/ LSI buy...

  10. Mapping forest canopy fuels in Yellowstone National Park using lidar and hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Kerry Quinn

    The severity and size of wildland fires in the forested western U.S have increased in recent years despite improvements in fire suppression efficiency. This, along with increased density of homes in the wildland-urban interface, has resulted in high costs for fire management and increased risks to human health, safety and property. Crown fires, in comparison to surface fires, pose an especially high risk due to their intensity and high rate of spread. Crown fire models require a range of quantitative fuel parameters which can be difficult and costly to obtain, but advances in lidar and hyperspectral sensor technologies hold promise for delivering these inputs. Further research is needed, however, to assess the strengths and limitations of these technologies and the most appropriate analysis methodologies for estimating crown fuel parameters from these data. This dissertation focuses on retrieving critical crown fuel parameters, including canopy height, canopy bulk density and proportion of dead canopy fuel, from airborne lidar and hyperspectral data. Remote sensing data were used in conjunction with detailed field data on forest parameters and surface reflectance measurements. A new method was developed for retrieving Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Canopy Models (DCM) from first return lidar data. Validation data on individual tree heights demonstrated the high accuracy (r2 0.95) of the DCMs developed via this new algorithm. Lidar-derived DCMs were used to estimate critical crown fire parameters including available canopy fuel, canopy height and canopy bulk density with linear regression model r2 values ranging from 0.75 to 0.85. Hyperspectral data were used in conjunction with Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) to assess fuel quality in the form of live versus dead canopy proportions. Severity and stage of insect-caused forest mortality were estimated using the fractional abundance of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and shade obtained from SMA. Proportion of insect attack was estimated with a linear model producing an r2 of 0.6 using SMA and bark endmembers from image and reference libraries. Fraction of red attack, with a possible link to increased crown fire risk, was estimated with an r2 of 0.45.

  11. An environmental survey of Serpentine Hot Springs: Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Hasselbach, Linda; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Skorupa, Dana; McCleskey, R. Blaine; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Serpentine Hot Springs is the most visited site in the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve. The hot springs have traditionally been used by the Native people of the Seward Peninsula for religious, medicinal and spiritual purposes and continue to be used in many of the same ways by Native people today. The hot springs are also popular with non-Native users from Nome and other communities, recreational users and pilots from out of the area, and hunters and hikers.

  12. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  13. The battle for Yellowstone: Morality and the  sacred roots of environmental conflict, by Justin Farrell

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of intractable environmental conflicts involving interest groups with deeply held beliefs are resisting resolution in spite of extensive scientific analysis and legal and bureaucratic attention. Justin Farrell addresses three such conflicts in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) as moral and spiritual conflicts, each uniquely animated by history,...

  14. Evaluation of rules to distinguish unique female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cherry, S.; Keating, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service uses counts of unduplicated female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year to establish limits of sustainable mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Sightings are dustered into observations of unique bears based on an empirically derived rule set. The method has never been tested or verified. To evaluate the rule set, we used data from radiocollared females obtained during 1975-2004 to simulate populations under varying densities, distributions, and sighting frequencies. We tested individual rules and rule-set performance, using custom software to apply the rule-set and duster sightings. Results indicated most rules were violated to some degree, and rule-based dustering consistently underestimated the minimum number of females and total population size derived from a nonparametric estimator (Chao2). We conclude that the current rule set returns conservative estimates, but with minor improvements, counts of unduplicated females-with-cubs can serve as a reasonable index of population size useful for establishing annual mortality limits. For the Yellowstone population, the index is more practical and cost-effective than capture-mark-recapture using either DNA hair snagging or aerial surveys with radiomarked bears. The method has useful application in other ecosystems, but we recommend rules used to distinguish unique females be adapted to local conditions and tested.

  15. Rapid heterogeneous assembly of multiple magma reservoirs prior to Yellowstone supereruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Bindeman, Ilya N; Stern, Richard A; D'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Schaltegger, Urs

    2015-09-10

    Large-volume caldera-forming eruptions of silicic magmas are an important feature of continental volcanism. The timescales and mechanisms of assembly of the magma reservoirs that feed such eruptions as well as the durations and physical conditions of upper-crustal storage remain highly debated topics in volcanology. Here we explore a comprehensive data set of isotopic (O, Hf) and chemical proxies in precisely U-Pb dated zircon crystals from all caldera-forming eruptions of Yellowstone supervolcano. Analysed zircons record rapid assembly of multiple magma reservoirs by repeated injections of isotopically heterogeneous magma batches and short pre-eruption storage times of 10(3) to 10(4) years. Decoupled oxygen-hafnium isotope systematics suggest a complex source for these magmas involving variable amounts of differentiated mantle-derived melt, Archean crust and hydrothermally altered shallow-crustal rocks. These data demonstrate that complex magma reservoirs with multiple sub-chambers are a common feature of rift- and hotspot related supervolcanoes. The short duration of reservoir assembly documents rapid crustal remelting and two to three orders of magnitude higher magma production rates beneath Yellowstone compared to continental arc volcanoes. The short pre-eruption storage times further suggest that the detection of voluminous reservoirs of eruptible magma beneath active supervolcanoes may only be possible prior to an impending eruption.

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica: an unlikely cause of positive brucellosis tests in greater yellowstone ecosystem bison (Bison bison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Wade; Edwards, William H; Dauwalter, Stacey; Almendra, Claudia; Kardos, Martin D; Lowell, Jennifer L; Wallen, Rick; Cain, Steven L; Holben, William E; Luikart, Gordon

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 has identical O-antigens to those of Brucella abortus and has apparently caused false-positive reactions in numerous brucellosis serologic tests in elk (Cervus canadensis) from southwest Montana. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was occurring in brucellosis antibody-positive bison (Bison bison) using Y. enterocolitica culturing techniques and multiplex PCR of four diagnostic loci. Feces from 53 Yellowstone bison culled from the population and 113 free-roaming bison from throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) were tested. Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was not detected in any of 53 the bison samples collected at slaughter facilities or in any of the 113 fecal samples from free-ranging bison. One other Y. enterocolitica serotype was isolated; however, it is not known to cause cross-reaction on B. abortus serologic assays because it lacks the perosamine synthetase gene and thus the O-antigens. These findings suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:9 cross-reactivity with B. abortus antigens is unlikely to have been a cause of false-positive serology tests in GYE bison and that Y. enterocolitica prevalence was low in bison in the GYE during this study.

  17. Spring Research Festival Highlighted on WHAG-TV | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHAG-TV (Hagerstown, Md.) visited Fort Detrick to highlight the 2015 Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR). Visit the WHAG-TV website to see the video broadcast, which aired May 6. The video was produced by WHAG Reporter Mallory Sofastaii. The video featured Linganore High School senior Rebecca

  18. 22nd Spring Research Festival Showcases Fort Detrick Science | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainy weather couldn’t dampen the spirits of visitors to the 2018 Spring Research Festival, which brought together scientists from the Frederick National Laboratory (FNL), NCI at Frederick, and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) and showcased the important research that takes place every day at Fort Detrick.

  19. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  20. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  1. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  2. Open-Coil Retraction Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. “Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS” is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.. A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement.

  3. The role of risk assessment in project planning at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used to prepare a baseline risk evaluation of the bulk wastes at the quarry. The DOE is proposing to remove these bulk wastes and transport them approximately 6.4 km (4 mi) to a temporary storage facility at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The DOE has responsibility for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). A baseline risk evaluation is an evaluation of the potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from a site in the absence of site remediation. This evaluation is a key component of the remedial investigation (RI) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List

  4. Feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program, is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Weldon Spring site, which is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), became contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildlife Area and is near a well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk waste contained therein. 105 refs., 33 figs., 42 tabs

  5. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  6. Linking rapid magma reservoir assembly and eruption trigger mechanisms at evolved Yellowstone-type supervolcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, J.F.; Bindeman, I.N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, A.K.; Caricchi, L.; Schaltegger, U.

    2014-01-01

    The geological record contains evidence of volcanic eruptions that were as much as two orders of magnitude larger than the most voluminous eruption experienced by modern civilizations, the A.D. 1815 Tambora (Indonesia) eruption. Perhaps nowhere on Earth are deposits of such supereruptions more prominent than in the Snake River Plain–Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) volcanic province (northwest United States). While magmatic activity at Yellowstone is still ongoing, the Heise volcanic field in eastern Idaho represents the youngest complete caldera cycle in the SRP-YP, and thus is particularly instructive for current and future volcanic activity at Yellowstone. The Heise caldera cycle culminated 4.5 Ma ago in the eruption of the ∼1800 km3 Kilgore Tuff. Accessory zircons in the Kilgore Tuff display significant intercrystalline and intracrystalline oxygen isotopic heterogeneity, and the vast majority are 18O depleted. This suggests that zircons crystallized from isotopically distinct magma batches that were generated by remelting of subcaldera silicic rocks previously altered by low-δ18O meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Prior to eruption these magma batches were assembled and homogenized into a single voluminous reservoir. U-Pb geochronology of isotopically diverse zircons using chemical abrasion–isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry yielded indistinguishable crystallization ages with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 4.4876 ± 0.0023 Ma (MSWD = 1.5; n = 24). These zircon crystallization ages are also indistinguishable from the sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dates, and thus zircons crystallized close to eruption. This requires that shallow crustal melting, assembly of isolated batches into a supervolcanic magma reservoir, homogenization, and eruption occurred extremely rapidly, within the resolution of our geochronology (103–104 yr). The crystal-scale image of the reservoir configuration, with several isolated magma batches, is very similar to the

  7. Evaluation of ML-MC as a Depth Discriminant in Yellowstone, USA and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.; Sun, D.; D'Amico, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent work has shown that the difference between two magnitude scales, ML (local Richter magnitude) and MC (coda/duration magnitude), acts as a depth discriminant in Utah. Shallow seismic sources, such as mining induced earthquakes and explosions, have strongly negative ML-MC values, while deeper tectonic earthquakes have ML-MC values near zero. These observations imply that ML-MC might be effective at discriminating small explosions from deeper natural earthquakes at local distances. In this work, we examine seismicity catalogs for the Yellowstone region and Italy to determine if ML-MCacts as a depth discriminant in these regions as well. We identified 4,780 earthquakes that occurred in the Yellowstone region between Sept. 24, 1994 and March 31, 2017 for which both ML and MC were calculated. The ML-MC distribution is well described by a Gaussian function with a mean of 0.102 and a standard deviation of 0.326. We selected a subset of these events with accurate depths and determined mean ML-MC values in various depth bins. An event depth was considered accurate if the formal depth error was less than 2 km and either (1) the nearest station was within one focal depth or (2) the distance to the nearest station was smaller than the bin size. We find that ML-MC decreases as event depths become shallower than about 10 km. Similar to the results for Utah, the decrease is statistically significant and is robust with respect to small changes in bin size and the criteria used to define accurate depths. We used a similar process to evaluate whether ML-MC was a function of source depth for 63,555 earthquakes that occurred between April 16, 2005 and April 30, 2012 in Italy. The ML-MC values in Italy are also well described by a normal distribution, with a mean of -0.477 and standard deviation of 0.315. We again find a statistically significant decrease in ML-MC for shallow earthquakes. In contrast to the Yellowstone results, for Italy ML-MC decreases at a nearly constant rate

  8. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  9. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  10. Balneological Evaluation of the Tafadek Spring, Agadez Region, Niger Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghargbu, K.; Latour, T.; Ponikowska, I.; Kurowska, E.

    2012-04-01

    West Africa, particularly Niger Republic is home to thousands of tourists annually. The vast Saharan desert and it's numerous oases in the northern parts of the Republic are a hot attraction on their own. However, in a recent survey of medicinal springs within the West African sub-region, the only hot spring in this country known locally for its therapeutic egress was analyzed. Located about 160km West of Agadez, the "Tafadek" spring with a yield of over 5l/s and temperature of about 50oC, rich in fluoride and silica is a specific water with capacity for application in balneotherapy for the treatment of orthopaedic, rheumatological, neurological, urinary tract infections, and osteoporosis. If the Tafadek spring is developed into a modern health resort promoting balneotherapy, health (balnear) tourism which is non-existent in Niger Republic today could kick start a new dawn in the health/economic development of the nation and the sub-region at large. Keywords: West Africa, Nigeria, Balneotherapy, Health tourism, Spring

  11. A spatially explicit model for an Allee effect: why wolves recolonize so slowly in Greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, Amy; Hebblewhite, Mark; Lewis, Mark A

    2006-11-01

    A reduced probability of finding mates at low densities is a frequently hypothesized mechanism for a component Allee effect. At low densities dispersers are less likely to find mates and establish new breeding units. However, many mathematical models for an Allee effect do not make a distinction between breeding group establishment and subsequent population growth. Our objective is to derive a spatially explicit mathematical model, where dispersers have a reduced probability of finding mates at low densities, and parameterize the model for wolf recolonization in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). In this model, only the probability of establishing new breeding units is influenced by the reduced probability of finding mates at low densities. We analytically and numerically solve the model to determine the effect of a decreased probability in finding mates at low densities on population spread rate and density. Our results suggest that a reduced probability of finding mates at low densities may slow recolonization rate.

  12. Disparate stakeholder management: the case of elk and bison feeding in southern Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Hoag, Dana; DeLong, Don

    2012-01-01

    For resource decisions to make the most possible progress toward achieving agency mandates, managers must work with stakeholders and may need to at least partially accommodate some of their key underlying interests. To accommodate stakeholder interests, while also substantively working toward fulfilling legal mandates, managers must understand the sociopolitical factors that influence the decision-making process. We coin the phrase disparate stakeholder management (DSM) to describe situations with disparate stakeholders and disparate management solutions. A DSM approach (DSMA) requires decision makers to combine concepts from many sciences, thus releasing them from disciplinary bonds that often constrain innovation and effectiveness. We combined three distinct approaches to develop a DSMA that assisted in developing a comprehensive range of elk and bison management alternatives in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Area. The DSMA illustrated the extent of compromise between meeting legal agency mandates and accommodating the preferences of certain stakeholder groups.

  13. Body condition and pregnancy in northern Yellowstone elk: evidence for predation risk effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P J; Garrott, Robert A; Hamlin, Kenneth L; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Cunningham, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    S. Creel et al. reported a negative correlation between fecal progesterone concentrations and elk:wolf ratios in greater Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) herds and interpreted this correlation as evidence that pregnancy rates of elk decreased substantially in the presence of wolves (Canis lupus). Apparently, the hypothesized mechanism is that decreased forage intake reduces body condition and either results in elk failing to conceive during the autumn rut or elk losing the fetus during winter. We tested this hypothesis by comparing age-specific body condition (percentage ingesta-free body fat) and pregnancy rates for northern Yellowstone elk, one of the herds sampled by Creel et al., before (1962-1968) and after (2000-2006) wolf restoration using indices developed and calibrated for Rocky Mountain elk. Mean age-adjusted percentage body fat of female elk was similarly high in both periods (9.0%-0.9% pre-wolf; 8.9%-0.8% post-wolf). Estimated pregnancy rates (proportion of females that were pregnant) were 0.91 pre-wolf and 0.87 post-wolf for 4-9 year-old elk (95% CI on difference = -0.15 to 0.03, P = 0.46) and 0.64 pre-wolf and 0.78 post-wolf for elk > 9 years old (95% CI on difference = -0.01 to 0.27, P = 0.06). Thus, there was little evidence in these data to support strong effects of wolf presence on elk pregnancy. We caution that multiple lines of evidence and/or strong validation should be brought to bear before relying on indirect measures of how predators affect pregnancy rates.

  14. Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1992-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, K.A.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cain, S.L.; Copeland, J.; Frey, K.; Schwartz, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the primary strategy for managing grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) that came into conflict with humans in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) was to capture and translocate the offending bears away from conflict sites. Translocation usually only temporarily alleviated the problems and most often did not result in long-term solutions. Wildlife managers needed to be able to predict the causes, types, locations, and trends of conflicts to more efficiently allocate resources for pro-active rather than reactive management actions. To address this need, we recorded all grizzly bear-human conflicts reported in the GYE during 1992-2000. We analyzed trends in conflicts over time (increasing or decreasing), geographic location on macro- (inside or outside of the designated Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone [YGBRZ]) and micro- (geographic location) scales, land ownership (public or private), and relationship to the seasonal availability of bear foods. We recorded 995 grizzly bear-human conflicts in the GYE. Fifty-three percent of the conflicts occurred outside and 47% inside the YGBRZ boundary. Fifty-nine percent of the conflicts occurred on public and 41% on private land. Incidents of bears damaging property and obtaining anthropogenic foods were inversely correlated to the abundance of naturally occurring bear foods. Livestock depredations occurred independent of the availability of bear foods. To further aid in prioritizing management strategies to reduce conflicts, we also analyzed conflicts in relation to subsequent human-caused grizzly bear mortality. There were 74 human-caused grizzly bear mortalities during the study, primarily from killing bears in defense of life and property (43%) and management removal of bears involved in bear-human conflicts (28%). Other sources of human-caused mortality included illegal kills, electrocution by downed power-lines, mistaken identification by American black bear (Ursus americanus) hunters, and vehicle strikes

  15. Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/dΔ. Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation

  16. Body and diet composition of sympatric black and grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has experienced changes in the distribution and availability of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) food resources in recent decades. The decline of ungulates, fish, and whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis) has prompted questions regarding their ability to adapt. We examined body composition and diet of grizzly bears using bioelectrical impedance and stable isotopes to determine if 1) we can detect a change in diet quality associated with the decline in either ungulates or whitebark pine, and 2) the combined decline in ungulates, fish, and pine seeds resulted in a change in grizzly bear carrying capacity in the GYE. We contrasted body fat and mass in grizzly bears with a potential competitor, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to address these questions. Grizzly bears assimilated more meat into their diet and were in better body condition than black bears throughout the study period, indicating the decline in ungulate resources did not affect grizzly bears more than black bears. We also found no difference in autumn fat levels in grizzly bears in years of good or poor pine seed production, and stable isotope analyses revealed this was primarily a function of switching to meat resources during poor seed-producing years. This dietary plasticity was consistent over the course of our study. We did not detect an overall downward trend in either body mass or the fraction of meat assimilated into the diet by grizzly bears over the past decade, but we did detect a downward trend in percent body fat in adult female grizzly bears after 2006. Whether this decline is an artifact of small sample size or due to the population reaching the ecological carrying capacity of the Yellowstone ecosystem warrants further investigation.

  17. Genome Sequence of a Novel Archaeal Rudivirus Recovered from a Mexican Hot Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servín-Garcidueñas, L; Peng, X; Garrett, R

    2013-01-01

    We report the consensus genome sequence of a novel GC-rich rudivirus, designated SMR1 (Sulfolobales Mexican rudivirus 1), assembled from a high-throughput sequenced environmental sample from a hot spring in Los Azufres National Park in western Mexico.......We report the consensus genome sequence of a novel GC-rich rudivirus, designated SMR1 (Sulfolobales Mexican rudivirus 1), assembled from a high-throughput sequenced environmental sample from a hot spring in Los Azufres National Park in western Mexico....

  18. A perfect storm: multiple stressors interact to drive postfire regeneration failure of lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir forests in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W. D.; Braziunas, K. H.; Rammer, W.; Seidl, R.; Turner, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Twenty-first century forests will experience increased stress as environmental conditions and disturbance regimes change. Whether forests retain their structure or transitions to alternate states, particularly when affected by multiple stressors, remains unresolved. Subalpine forests in Yellowstone National Park, WY experience large severe wildfires, and postfire-tree regeneration is necessary to assure resilience. Drying is projected, causing frequent larger wildfires that could reduce seed supply and drought that could constrain postfire-seedling establishment. We asked what combinations of warming-drying conditions, increased fire frequency, and increased burned-patch size cause postfire tree-regeneration failure in Yellowstone? We conducted a simulation experiment to identify combinations of fire frequency, fire size, postfire climate, substrate type, and elevation where lodgepole-pine and Douglas-fir regeneration failed. We expected postfire densities to be reduced if burned-patch sizes exceeded effective dispersal distance, sequential fires burned before trees reached reproductive maturity, or drought occurred after fire. We also expected regeneration failure only where multiple stressors occurred simultaneously at low elevation or on poor substrates.Douglas-fir stands were most vulnerable to regeneration failure. 98% of simulated Douglas-fir stands located in the middle of large burned patches failed to regenerate 30 years post fire. Lodgepole-pine stands in the middle of large burned patches failed to regenerate if they were also located at low elevations (93%) or at higher elevations on soils with poor water retention (73%). Stands of serotinous lodgepole (i.e., trees with closed cones that open when heated) also failed to regenerate if fire recurred before trees were reproductively mature (82%). Drought constrained postfire regeneration, yet, enhanced establishment due to release from cold-temperatures during mid-to-late 21st century often outweighed

  19. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  20. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Hori, T.; Suzuki, S.; Yanagida, K.; Itoh, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Taniuchi, T.; Sakaki, H.; Kuba, A.; Fukushima, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaka, T.; Yokomizo, H.

    1996-01-01

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  1. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  2. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  3. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Schwarz, J M; Das, Moumita

    2014-12-01

    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, p(x) and p(y), for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of p(x) and p(y). We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  4. Baseline risk evaluation for exposure to bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and a quarry. This baseline risk evaluation has been prepared to support a proposed response action for management of contaminated bulk wastes in the quarry. The quarry became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of various wastes that were disposed of there between 1942 and 1969. This risk evaluation assesses potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from the quarry under current site conditions. Risk assessment is a key component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); this process addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List. The DOE is also responsible for complying with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, which requires federal agencies to consider the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of the decision-making process for that action. Although this document has not been prepared to fulfill specific NEPA requirements, the analyses contained herein --- along with the analyses provided in the remedial investigation, feasibility study, and other supporting documents --- are intended to meet the environmental assessment requirements of NEPA

  5. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville... (collectively referred to as the Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs... proposed project would address voltage stability and reliability concerns of two of BPA's full requirements...

  6. Influence of whitebark pine decline on fall habitat use and movements of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Cecily M; van Manen, Frank T; Haroldson, Mark A; Ebinger, Michael R; Cain, Steven L; Gunther, Kerry A; Bjornlie, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    When abundant, seeds of the high-elevation whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) are an important fall food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Rates of bear mortality and bear/human conflicts have been inversely associated with WBP productivity. Recently, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have killed many cone-producing WBP trees. We used fall (15 August–30 September) Global Positioning System locations from 89 bear years to investigate tempo...

  7. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  8. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  9. The duration of a Yellowstone super-eruption cycle and implications for the age of the Olduvai subchron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Tiffany A.; Darata, Rachel; Lippert, Peter C.; Jicha, Brian R.; Schmitz, Mark D.

    2017-12-01

    Small-volume rhyolitic eruptions preceding and following a caldera-forming eruption can provide insights into the tempo of eruption cycles and timing of magmatic recharge. In this contribution, high-precision 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages were obtained on the three effusive eruptions bracketing the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, which comprise Yellowstone's first volcanic cycle. These dates are supplemented with detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses to resolve discrepancies with previous reported stratigraphy. The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (2.08 Ma) was preceded by an eruption at 2.14 Ma, and followed by eruptions at 1.98 and 1.95 Ma, all of which occurred during four distinct periods of geomagnetic instability within the Matuyama chron. The first volcanic cycle of Yellowstone has now been constrained to within a 200 kyr timespan, or half of the previously proposed duration, and similar to the duration of volcanic activity for caldera-forming systems in the Jemez Volcanic Field. The maximum duration for magmatic recharge for the first Yellowstone volcanic cycle is no greater than 100 kyr, and likely closer to 40 kyr. Furthermore, the combined 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages and paleomagnetic results provide polarity anchors for the Pre-Olduvai excursion and Olduvai subchron, which are often used as tie-points in studies of early Pleistocene hominin evolution.

  10. Thermomechanical Modeling of the Formation of a Multilevel, Crustal-Scale Magmatic System by the Yellowstone Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, D. P.; Bindeman, I. N.; Gerya, T. V.

    2018-05-01

    Geophysical imaging of the Yellowstone supervolcano shows a broad zone of partial melt interrupted by an amagmatic gap at depths of 15-20 km. We reproduce this structure through a series of regional-scale magmatic-thermomechanical forward models which assume that magmatic dikes stall at rheologic discontinuities in the crust. We find that basaltic magmas accumulate at the Moho and at the brittle-ductile transition, which naturally forms at depths of 5-10 km. This leads to the development of a 10- to 15-km thick midcrustal sill complex with a top at a depth of approximately 10 km, consistent with geophysical observations of the pre-Yellowstone hot spot track. We show a linear relationship between melting rates in the mantle and rhyolite eruption rates along the hot spot track. Finally, melt production rates from our models suggest that the Yellowstone plume is 175°C hotter than the surrounding mantle and that the thickness of the overlying lithosphere is 80 km.

  11. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  12. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  13. Spring 1991 Meeting outstanding papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atmospheric Sciences Committee has presented Kaye Brubaker and Jichun Shi with Outstanding Student Paper awards for presentations given at the AGU 1991 Spring Meeting, held in Baltimore May 28-31.Brubaker's paper, “Precipitation Recycling Estimated from Atmospheric Data,” presented quantitative estimates of the contribution of locallyevaporated moisture to precipitation over several large continental regions. Recycled precipitation is defined as water that evaporates from the land surface of a specified region and falls again as precipitation within the region. Brubaker applied a control volume analysis based on a model proposed by Budyko.

  14. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels

  15. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  16. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011). The study is based on a mixed...... quantitative and qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying patterns of news reporting of the Arab Spring. The investigation looks into whether temporal developments of the Arab revolutions, the level of journalistic presence in the region, and national differences influence Danish press coverage...... of the Arab Spring. The findings indicate that media coverage of the Arab Spring points in different directions. On the one hand there has been a remarkable increase in media attention to the Middle East in purely quantitative terms. On the other hand the study finds that a number of traditional media...

  17. Evaluation of Quality-Assurance/Quality-Control Data Collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Wells and Springs between the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1989 through 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.M.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Campbell, L.J.

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Geological (USGS) and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected and analyzed water samples to monitor the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho. Concurrently, replicate samples and blank samples were collected and analyzed as part of the quality-assurance/quality-control program. Samples were analyzed from inorganic constituents, gross radioactivity and radionuclides, organic constituents, and stable isotopes. To evaluate the precision of field and laboratory methods, analytical results of the water-quality and replicate samples were compared statistically for equivalence on the basis of the precision associated with each result. Statistical comparisons of the data indicated that 95 percent of the results of the replicate pairs were equivalent. Blank-sample analytical results indicated th at the inorganic blank water and volatile organic compound blank water from the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory and the distilled water from the Idaho Department of Water Resources were suitable for blanks; blank water from other sources was not. Equipment-blank analytical results were evaluated to determine if a bias had been introduced and possible sources of bias. Most equipment blanks were analyzed for trace elements and volatile organic compounds; chloroform was found in one equipment blank. Two of the equipment blanks were prepared after collection and analyses of the water-quality samples to determine whether contamination had been introduced during the sampling process. Results of one blank indicated that a hose used to divert water away from pumps and electrical equipment had contaminated the samples with some volatile organic compounds. Results of the other equipment blank, from the apparatus used to filter dissolved organic carbon samples, indicated that the filtering

  18. Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.; Ansorge, J.; Baker, M.R.; Sparlin, M.A.; Prodehl, C.; Schilly, M.M.; Healy, J.H.; Mueller, S.; Olsen, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that the crust of the ESRP is highly anomalous. Approximately 3 to 6 km of volcanic rocks (with some interbedded sediments) overlie an upper-crustal layer (compressional velocity approx. =6.1 km/s) which thins southwestward along the ESRP from a thickness of 10 km near Island Park Caldera to 2 to 3 km beneath the central and southwestern portions of the ESRP. An intermediate-velocity (approx. =6.5 km/s) layer extends from approx. =10 to approx. =20 km depth. a thick (approx. =22 km) lower crust of compressional velocity 6.8 km/s, a total crustall thickness of approx. =42 km, and a P/sub n/ velocity of approx. =7.9 km/s is observed in the ESRP, similar to the western Snake River Plain and the Rocky Mountains Provinces. High attenuation is evident on the amplitude corrected seismic data due to low-Q values in the volcanic rocks (Q/sub p/ = 20 to 200) and throughout the crust (Q/sub p/ = 160 to 300). Based on these characteristics of the crustal structure and volcanic-age progression data, it is suggested that the ESRP has resulted from an intensitive period of intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into the upper crust generating explosive silicic volcanism and associated regional uplift and caldera collapse. This activity began about 15 m.y. ago in southwestern Idaho and has migrated northeast to its present position at Yellowstone. Subsequent cooling of the intruded upper crust results in the 6.5 km/s velocity intermediate layer. Crustal subsidence and periodic basaltic volcanism as represented by the ESRP complete the sequence of crustal evolution

  19. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  20. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Precision Gravity Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.; Langford, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole domestic water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the fracture controlled aquifer system. We have conducted a series of precision gravity surveys (station spacing 200 to 300 m in a 4 x 4 km area), combined with other geophysical studies and geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our combined results suggest several pathways for water to enter the springs. A series of WNW-ESE striking features are apparent in our gravity data that appear to align with relict spring valleys we have mapped to the west of the springs. A self potential survey indicates that water is entering the springs at a shallow level from the northwest direction. However, gravity data also indicate a north-south trending fracture system could be providing a pathway for water to enter from the south. This is consistent with drawdown tests conducted in the 1950’s and 1960’s on irrigation wells located to the south of the springs. The north-south fracture system appears related to a basin bounding fault system observed in the regional gravity data.

  1. Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.

  2. Work Term Assignment Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sico, Mallory

    2017-01-01

    My tour in the Engineering Robotics directorate exceeded my expectations. I learned lessons about Creo, manufacturing and assembly, collaboration, and troubleshooting. During my first tour, last spring, I used Creo on a smaller project, but had limited experience with it before starting in the Dynamic Systems Test branch this spring. I gained valuable experience learning assembly design, sheet metal design and designing with intent for manufacturing and assembly. These skills came from working both on the hatch and the floor. I also learned to understand the intent of other designers on models I worked with. While redesigning the floor, I was modifying an existing part and worked to understand what the previous designer had done to make it fit with the new model. Through working with the machine shop and in the mock-up, I learned much more about manufacturing and assembly. I used a Dremel, rivet gun, belt sander, and countersink for the first time. Through taking multiple safety training for different machine shops, I learned new machine shop safety skills specific to each one. This semester also gave me new collaborative opportunities. I collaborated with engineers within my branch as well as with Human Factors and the building 10 machine shop. This experience helped me learn how to design for functionality and assembly, not only for what would be easiest in my designs. In addition to these experiences, I learned many lessons in troubleshooting. I was the first person in my office to use a Windows 10 computer. This caused unexpected issues with NASA services and programs, such as the Digital Data Management Server (DDMS). Because of this, I gained experience finding solutions to lockout and freeze issues as well as Creo specific settings. These will be useful skills to have in the future and will be implemented in future rotations. This co-op tour has motivated me more to finish my degree and pursue my academic goals. I intend to take a machining Career Gateway

  3. Determination of groundwater travel time in a karst aquifer by stable water isotopes, Tanour and Rasoun spring (Jordan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    . Water Information System, National Master Plan Directorate. Jordan. Hamdan I., Wiegand B., Toll M., Sauter M. (2016) Spring response to precipitation events using δ 18O and δ 2H in the Tanour catchment, NW-Jordan. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies journal. Accepted GIEH-2015-0139. Hamdan, I.~in preparation.~Characterization of groundwater flow and vulnerability assessment of karstic aquifer - A case study from Tanour and Rasoun spring catchment (Ajloun, NW-Jordan).~Ph.D. Thesis, University of Göttingen, Germany.

  4. Monitoring super-volcanoes: geophysical and geochemical signals at Yellowstone and other large caldera systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B; Smith, Robert B; Hill, David P

    2006-08-15

    Earth's largest calderas form as the ground collapses during immense volcanic eruptions, when hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometres of magma are explosively withdrawn from the Earth's crust over a period of days to weeks. Continuing long after such great eruptions, the resulting calderas often exhibit pronounced unrest, with frequent earthquakes, alternating uplift and subsidence of the ground, and considerable heat and mass flux. Because many active and extinct calderas show evidence for repetition of large eruptions, such systems demand detailed scientific study and monitoring. Two calderas in North America, Yellowstone (Wyoming) and Long Valley (California), are in areas of youthful tectonic complexity. Scientists strive to understand the signals generated when tectonic, volcanic and hydrothermal (hot ground water) processes intersect. One obstacle to accurate forecasting of large volcanic events is humanity's lack of familiarity with the signals leading up to the largest class of volcanic eruptions. Accordingly, it may be difficult to recognize the difference between smaller and larger eruptions. To prepare ourselves and society, scientists must scrutinize a spectrum of volcanic signals and assess the many factors contributing to unrest and toward diverse modes of eruption.

  5. Whitebark pine vulnerability to climate-driven mountain pine beetle disturbance in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jesse A; MacFarlane, William W; Willcox, Louisa

    2010-06-01

    Widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetles (MPB) are occurring throughout the range of this native insect. Episodic outbreaks are a common occurrence in the beetles' primary host, lodgepole pine. Current outbreaks, however, are occurring in habitats where outbreaks either did not previously occur or were limited in scale. Herein, we address widespread, ongoing outbreaks in high-elevation, whitebark pine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, where, due to an inhospitable climate, past outbreaks were infrequent and short lived. We address the basic question: are these outbreaks truly unprecedented and a threat to ecosystem continuity? In order to evaluate this question we (1) present evidence that the current outbreak is outside the historic range of variability; (2) examine system resiliency to MPB disturbance based on adaptation to disturbance and host defenses to MPB attack; and (3) investigate the potential domain of attraction to large-scale MPB disturbance based on thermal developmental thresholds, spatial structure of forest types, and the confounding influence of an introduced pathogen. We conclude that the loss of dominant whitebark pine forests, and the ecological services they provide, is likely under continuing climate warming and that new research and strategies are needed to respond to the crisis facing whitebark pine.

  6. Microbial communities and chemosynthesis in Yellowstone Lake sublacustrine hydrothermal vent waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eYang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Five sublacustrine hydrothermal vent locations from 1-109 m water depth in Yellowstone Lake were surveyed by ribosomal RNA sequencing in relation to their chemical composition and dark CO2 fixation rates. They harbor distinct chemosynthetic bacterial communities, depending on temperature (16 - 110ºC and electron donor supply (H2S <1 - >100µM; NH3 <0.5 - >10µM. Members of the Aquificales, most closely affiliated with the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium, are the most frequently recovered bacterial 16S rRNA gene phylotypes in the hottest samples; the detection of these thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing autotrophs coincided with maximal dark CO2 fixation rates reaching near 9 µM C h-1 at temperatures of 50 to 60°C. Vents at lower temperatures yielded mostly phylotypes related to the mesophilic gammaproteobacterial sulfur oxidizer Thiovirga. In contrast, cool vent water with low chemosynthetic activity yielded predominantly phylotypes related to freshwater Actinobacterial clusters with a cosmopolitan distribution.

  7. Genetic analysis of individual origins supports isolation of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles; Kendall, Katherine C.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Moody, David S.; Frey, Kevin L.; Paetkau, David

    2010-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) supports the southernmost of the 2 largest remaining grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the contiguous United States. Since the mid-1980s, this population has increased in numbers and expanded in range. However, concerns for its long-term genetic health remain because of its presumed continued isolation. To test the power of genetic methods for detecting immigrants, we generated 16-locus microsatellite genotypes for 424 individual grizzly bears sampled in the GYE during 1983–2007. Genotyping success was high (90%) and varied by sample type, with poorest success (40%) for hair collected from mortalities found ≥1 day after death. Years of storage did not affect genotyping success. Observed heterozygosity was 0.60, with a mean of 5.2 alleles/marker. We used factorial correspondence analysis (Program GENETIX) and Bayesian clustering (Program STRUCTURE) to compare 424 GYE genotypes with 601 existing genotypes from grizzly bears sampled in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) (FST  =  0.096 between GYE and NCDE). These methods correctly classified all sampled individuals to their population of origin, providing no evidence of natural movement between the GYE and NCDE. Analysis of 500 simulated first-generation crosses suggested that over 95% of such bears would also be detectable using our 16-locus data set. Our approach provides a practical method for detecting immigration in the GYE grizzly population. We discuss estimates for the proportion of the GYE population sampled and prospects for natural immigration into the GYE.

  8. Effects of management and climate on elk brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Edwards, W.H.; Scurlock, B.M.; Maichak, E.J.; Rogerson, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Every winter, government agencies feed ???6000 metric tons (6 ?? 106 kg) of hay to elk in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) to limit transmission of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis, from elk to cattle. Supplemental feeding, however, is likely to increase the transmission of brucellosis in elk, and may be affected by climatic factors, such as snowpack. We assessed these possibilities using snowpack and feeding data from 1952 to 2006 and disease testing data from 1993 to 2006. Brucellosis seroprevalence was strongly correlated with the timing of the feeding season. Longer feeding seasons were associated with higher seroprevalence, but elk population size and density had only minor effects. In other words, the duration of host aggregation and whether it coincided with peak transmission periods was more important than just the host population size. Accurate modeling of disease transmission depends upon incorporating information on how host contact rates fluctuate over time relative to peak transmission periods. We also found that supplemental feeding seasons lasted longer during years with deeper snowpack. Therefore, milder winters and/or management strategies that reduce the length of the feeding season may reduce the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the elk populations of the southern GYE. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Brucellosis Transmission between Wildlife and Livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Inferences from DNA Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael P; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Anderson, Neil; Ceballos, Ruben M; Edwards, William H; Harris, Beth; Wallen, Rick L; Costa, Vânia

    2017-04-01

    The wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. Brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, Brucella abortus . We examined B. abortus transmission between American bison ( Bison bison ), Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( Bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers on DNA from 98 B. abortus isolates recovered from populations in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, US. Our analyses reveal interspecies transmission. Two outbreaks (2007, 2008) in Montana cattle had B. abortus genotypes similar to isolates from both bison and elk. Nevertheless, similarity in elk and cattle isolates from the 2008 outbreak suggest that elk are the likely source of brucellosis transmission to cattle in Montana and Wyoming. Brucella abortus isolates from sampling in Montana appear to be divided in two clusters: one found in local Montana elk, cattle, and bison; and another found mainly in elk and a bison from Wyoming, which is consistent with brucellosis having entered Montana via migration of infected elk from Wyoming. Our findings illustrate complex patterns of brucellosis transmission among elk, bison, and cattle as well as the utility of VNTRs to infer the wildlife species of origin for disease outbreaks in livestock.