WorldWideScience

Sample records for spring wheat cultivars

  1. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawraca?a, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; ?acka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium?solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-s...

  2. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawracała, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; Łacka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars ( Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly ( Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium-solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-stemmed AC Abbey cultivar. There was no regeneration from the explants of four cultivars: CLTR 7027, Alentejano, Marquis and Bombona. Principal component analysis showed no differences between the cases under observation (callus induction and green plant regeneration) in their response to pre-treatment temperatures (4 and 8°C). The examination of the effects of various auxin types in the induction medium on callus formation and green plant regeneration revealed that the strongest stimulation of these processes was observed in the C17 medium with 2,4-D and dicamba. The efficiency of callus formation and green plant regeneration was greater in solid-stemmed cultivars than in hollow-stemmed cultivars.

  3. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  4. Combined impact of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date on spring wheat phenology in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu; Shen, Yanjun; Qi, Yongqing

    2016-08-01

    Distinct climate changes since the end of the 1980s have led to clear responses in crop phenology in many parts of the world. This study investigated the trends in the dates of spring wheat phenology in relation to mean temperature for different growth stages. It also analyzed the impacts of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date adjustments on phenological events/phases of spring wheat in northern China (NC). The results showed that significant changes have occurred in spring wheat phenology in NC due to climate warming in the past 30 years. Specifically, the dates of anthesis and maturity of spring wheat advanced on average by 1.8 and 1.7 day (10 yr)-1. Moreover, while the vegetative growth period (VGP) shortened at most stations, the reproductive growth period (RGP) prolonged slightly at half of the investigated stations. As a result, the whole growth period (WGP) of spring wheat shortened at most stations. The findings from the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model simulated results for six representative stations further suggested that temperature rise generally shortened the spring wheat growth period in NC. Although the warming trend shortened the lengths of VGP, RGP, and WGP, the shift of new cultivars with high accumulated temperature requirements, to some extent, mitigated and adapted to the ongoing climate change. Furthermore, shifts in sowing date exerted significant impacts on the phenology of spring wheat. Generally, an advanced sowing date was able to lower the rise in mean temperature during the different growth stages (i.e., VGP, RGP, and WGP) of spring wheat. As a result, the lengths of the growth stages should be prolonged. Both measures (cultivar shift and sowing date adjustments) could be vital adaptation strategies of spring wheat to a warming climate, with potentially beneficial effects in terms of productivity.

  5. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  6. Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of diversity and classify agro-morphological characters under normal irrigation and drought stress in spring wheat cultivars, 20 cultivars were evaluated in the research farm of University of Tabriz, Iran. According to the results, significant correlation was found between grain yield and number of spikes per plant, number of tiller per plant, number of fertile tillers, spike length, root length, root number, root volume, root diameter and root dry weight under both conditions. Moreover, 1,000 grain weight and plant dry weight had significant positive correlation with grain yield under drought stress. Factor analysis detected four and two factors which explained 96.77% and 90.59% of the total variation in normal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. In drought stress condition the first factor justified 69.52% of total variation and was identified as yield factor. The second factor explained 21.07% of total variation and represented the biomass and plant height factor. Cluster analysis was based on the four and two factors obtained. According to the amount of factors for clusters obtained under drought stress, ‘Kavir’, ‘Niknejhad’, ‘Moghan 3’, ‘Darya’ and ‘Marvdasht’ were identified as the most drought tolerant cultivars. Other cluster was comprised of ‘Bahar’, ‘Pishtaz’, ‘Bam’, ‘Sepahan’, ‘Sistan’, ‘Pars’ and ‘Sivand’ and was named as the most sensitive under drought stress. Tolerant cultivars identified within the study can be used for direct culture or as genitors in breeding programs.

  7. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  8. Response of spring type wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars to different chilling treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late sowing of wheat in autumn due to environmental conditions or late harvesting of cotton crop results in substantial yield loss. It may be attributed to non-fulfillment of chilling requirements. The present study was conducted to identify the chilling requirement of autumn sown cultivars of wheat...

  9. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  10. Screening for resistance to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Dr. Olga E.; Steenhuis-Broers, Greet; Osman, Aart; Bremer, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium fungi cause Fusarium head blight in wheat. This disease is a problem that occurs both in organic and conventional farming systems. As Fusarium fungi produce mycotoxins in wheat kernels they are a threat to human and animal health. Breeding for disease resistance is the only way to prevent or reduce the occurrence of the disease. The aim of the current research project is to identify different mechanisms of resistance in cultivars and breeding lines to be used in further breeding pro...

  11. Profiling dehydrin gene sequence and physiological parameters in drought tolerant and susceptible spring wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological and yield traits such as stomatal conductance (mmol m-/sup 2/s/sup -1/), Leaf relative water content (RWC %) and grain yield per plant were studied in a separate experiment. Results revealed that five out of sixteen cultivars viz. Anmol, Moomal, Sarsabz, Bhitai and Pavan, appeared to be relatively more drought tolerant. Based on morphophysiological results, studies were continued to look at these cultivars for drought tolerance at molecular level. Initially, four well recognized primers for dehydrin genes (DHNs) responsible for drought induction in T. durum L., T. aestivum L. and O. sativa L. were used for profiling gene sequence of sixteen wheat cultivars. The primers amplified the DHN genes variably like Primer WDHN13 (T. aestivum L.) amplified the DHN gene in only seven cultivars whereas primer TdDHN15 ( T. durum L.) amplified all the sixteen cultivars with even different DNA banding patterns some showing second weaker DNA bands. Third primer TdDHN16 (T. durum L.) has shown entirely different PCR amplification prototype, specially showing two strong DNA bands while fourth primer RAB16C (O. sativa L.) failed to amplify DHN gene in any of the cultivars. Examination of DNA sequences revealed several interesting features. First, it identified the two exon/one intron structure of this gene (complete sequences were not shown), a feature not previously described in the two database cDNA sequences available from T. aestivum L. (gi|21850). Secondly, the analysis identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), positions in gene sequence. Although complete gene sequence was not obtained for all the cultivars, yet there were a total of 38 variable positions in exonic (coding region) sequence, from a total gene length of 453 nucleotides. Matrix of SNP shows these 37 positions with individual sequence at positions given for each of the 14 cultivars (sequence of two cultivars was not obtained) included in this analysis. It demonstrated a considerab le

  12. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2015-01-01

    with heat tolerance. Fifteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were grown in pots under semifield conditions, and heat stress (35/26 °C) and control treatments (20/12 °C) were applied in growth chambers for 5 days starting 14 days after flowering. The heat stress treatment reduced final yield...... in the grain-filling period was negatively correlated with grain nitrogen yield (r = −0.60). A positive correlation (r = 0.73) was found between the treatment effect on green leaf area (GLA) and the reduction in yield resulting from heat stress. The amount of stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC...

  13. Eco-physiolgoical role of root-sourced signal in three genotypes of spring wheat cultivars: a cue of evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Kong, H.Y.; Sun, G.J.; Cheng, Z.G.; Batool, A.; Jiang, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-hydraulic root-sourced signal (nHRS) is so far affirmed to be a unique and positive early-warning response of plant to drying soil, but its functional role and potential evolutionary implication is little known in dryland wheat. Three spring wheat cultivars, Monkhead (1940-1960s), Dingxi 24 (1970-1980s) and Longchun 8139 (1990-present) with different drought sensitivity were chosen as materials for the research. Physiological and agronomic parameters were measured and analyzed in two relatively separated but closely related trials under environment-controlled conditions. The results showed that characteristics of nHRS and its eco-physiological effects varied from cultivars. Threshold ranges (TR) of soil moisture at which nHRS was switched on and off were 60.1-51.4% (% of FWC) in Monkhead, 63.8-47.3% in Dingxi 24 and 66.5-44.8% in Longchun 8139 respectively, suggesting that earlier onset of nHRS took place in modern cultivars. Leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration was significantly greater and increased more rapidly in old cultivars, Monkhead and Dingxi 24 than that of Longchun 8139 during the operation of nHRS. As a result of nHRS regulation, maintenance rate of grain yield was 43.4%, 60.8% and 79.3%, and water use efficiency was 1.47, 1.65 and 2.25 g/L in Monkhead, Dingxi 24 and Longchun 8139 respectively. In addition, drought susceptibility indices were 0.8858, 0.6037 and 0.3182 for the three cultivars, respectively. This suggests that earlier trigger of nHRS led to lower ABA-led signal intensity and better drought adaptability. It can be argued that the advances in yield performance and drought tolerance might be made by targeted selection for an earlier onset of nHRS. Finally, we attempted developing a conceptual model regarding root-sourced signal weakening and its evolutionary cue in dryland wheat. (author)

  14. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC analysis of gluten forming proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed to determine how they cluster in terms of parentage and protein data, analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) of gliadins, and size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) of unreduced proteins. Dwarfing genes in...

  15. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  16. BRS 374 – Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 374 is a wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa. It resulted from a cross between the F1 generation of PF 88618/Coker80.33 and Frontana/Karl. BRS 374 belongs to the soft wheat class, has a low plant height, a high potential grain yield, andwhite flour.

  17. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  18. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

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    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  19. Salt-induced variation in some potential physiochemical attributes of two genetically diverse spring wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in salt tolerance potential of two contrasting wheat cultivars (salt tolerant S-24 and moderately salt sensitive MH-97) at different growth stages was observed when these wheat cultivars were exposed to salinity stress in hydroponic culture. Salinity caused a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigments, transpiration and photos synthetic rates, and stomatal conductance at early growth stages in both wheat cultivars, being more prominent in cv. MH-97. In addition, a marked salt-induced alteration was observed in different attributes of chlorophyll fluorescence. On the basis of physiological characterization of these two wheat cultivars at different growth stages, it was inferred that cv. S-24 exhibited higher salinity tolerance at all growth stages in terms of less salinity-induced degradation of photosynthetic pigments, higher photosynthetic rates, maintenance of photosystem II under salinity stress as compared to that in cv. MH-97. In view of the results presented here, it is evident that wheat plants were prone to adverse effects of salinity at early growth stages as compared to later growth stages. (author)

  20. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  1. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  2. Registration of 'Bolles' hard red spring wheat with high grain protein concentration and superior baking quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hard red spring wheat market class in the U.S. commands the highest prices on the worldwide wheat markets because of its high protein content, strong gluten, and good baking properties. ‘Bolles’ (PI 678430), a hard red spring wheat cultivar, was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultu...

  3. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  4. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty durum wheat (19 commercial cultivars and 11 breeding lines) and 30 bread wheat (20 commercial cultivars and 10 breeding lines) were tested for gene postulation. Stem rust infection types produced on wheat cultivars and breeding lines by ten Pgt races was compared with infection types produced on 40 near ...

  5. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  6. Effect of Protein Molecular Weight Distribution on Kernel and Baking Characteristics and Intra-varietal Variation in Hard Spring Wheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific wheat protein fractions are known to have distinct associations with wheat quality traits. Research was conducted on 10 hard spring wheat cultivars grown at two North Dakota locations to identify protein fractions that affected wheat kernel characteristics and breadmaking quality. SDS ext...

  7. Genetics and molecular mapping of genes for race-specific all-stage resistance and non-race-specific high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat cultivar Alpowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F; Chen, X M

    2007-05-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred control of the disease. The spring wheat cultivar 'Alpowa' has both race-specific, all-stage resistance and non-race-specific, high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistances to stripe rust. To identify genes for the stripe rust resistances, Alpowa was crossed with 'Avocet Susceptible' (AVS). Seedlings of the parents, and F(1), F(2) and F(3) progeny were tested with races PST-1 and PST-21 of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici under controlled greenhouse conditions. Alpowa has a single partially dominant gene, designated as YrAlp, conferring all-stage resistance. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques were used to identify molecular markers linked to YrAlp. A linkage group of five RGAP markers and two SSR markers was constructed for YrAlp using 136 F(3) lines. Amplification of a set of nulli-tetrasomic Chinese Spring lines with RGAP markers Xwgp47 and Xwgp48 and the two SSR markers indicated that YrAlp is located on the short arm of chromosome 1B. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the non-race-specific HTAP resistance, the parents and 136 F(3) lines were tested at two sites near Pullman and one site near Mount Vernon, Washington, under naturally infected conditions. A major HTAP QTL was consistently detected across environments and was located on chromosome 7BL. Because of its chromosomal location and the non-race-specific nature of the HTAP resistance, this gene is different from previously described genes for adult-plant resistance, and is therefore designated Yr39. The gene contributed to 64.2% of the total variation of relative area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) data and 59.1% of the total variation of infection type data recorded at the heading-flowering stages. Two RGAP markers, Xwgp36 and Xwgp45 with the highest R (2) values

  8. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  9. [Analysis of diversity of Russian and Ukrainian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrotvorskaia, T V; Martynov, S P

    2011-07-01

    The allelic diversity of high-moleculat-weght glutenin subunits (H WIGS) in Russian and Ukrainian bread wheat cultivars was analyzed. The diversity of spring wheat cultivars for alleles of the Glu-1 loci is characterized by medium values of the polymorphism index (polymorphism information content, PlC), and in winter wheats it varies from high at the Glu-A1 locus to low at the Glu-D1 locus. The spring and winter cultivars differ significantly in the frequencies of alleles of the glutenin loci. The combination of the Glu-A1b, Glu-B1c, and Glu-D1a alleles prevails among the spring cultivars, and the combination of the Glu-A1a, Glu-B1c, and Glu-D1d alleles prevails among the winter cultivars. The distribution of the Glu-1 alleles significantly depends on the moisture and heat supply in the region of origin of the cultivars. Drought resistance is associated with the Glu-D1a allele in the spring wheat and with the Glu-B1b allele in the winter wheat. The sources of the Glu-1 alleles were identified in the spring and wheat cultivars. The analysis of independence of the distribution of the spring and winter cultivars by the market classes and by the alleles of the HMWGS loci showed a highly significant association of the alleles of three Glu-1 loci with the market classes in foreign cultivars and independence or a weak association in the Russian and Ukrainian cultivars. This seems to be due to the absence of a statistically substantiated system of classification of the domestic cultivars on the basis of their quality.

  10. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  11. IPR CATUARA TM – new cultivar of high gluten wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar IPR Catuara TM, obtained from a cross between the line LD 975 and the cultivar IPR 85, exhibits high gluten strength, which will allow the milling industry to supplement flours from wheats with weaker gluten strength, resulting in better quality products for the final consumer.

  12. Evaluation of nitrogen uptake patterns in spring and winter wheat in western Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the ground nitrogen (N) uptake pattern for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to facilitate nitrogen management. The purpose of this study was to determine the nitrogen uptake pattern of spring and winter wheat grown in western Oregon, USA. Data used in this study were obtained from three different trials. For spring wheat rotation trials five spring wheat cultivars were used. Fertilizer N (16-16-16-4) at the rate of 140 kg ha/sup -1/ was applied at the time of planting. In small plot rotation trials five fertilizer treatments - 0, 50, 100,150 and 200 kg N ha/sup -1/ were used. Rotations include winter wheat following clover and winter wheat following oat. The N uptake and dry matter yield of winter wheat were also determined from unfertilized plots of wheat trial. The maximum N uptake for spring wheat and winter wheat were at 1100 and 2000 accumulated growing degree days (GDD), before Feekes 10, respectively. The maximum N uptake rate for spring wheat, 0.038 kg N GDD/sup -1/, occurred at 750 GDD and the peak N uptake was observed approximately 35 days after Feekes 2. Nitrogen uptake in winter wheat was significantly affected by rotations. (author)

  13. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  14. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  15. Srain Yield Stability of some Bread Wheat Cultivars Introduced in Moderate and Cold Area of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tarinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to genotype×environmental interaction, seed yields of genotypes are usually evaluated in broad range of environmental conditions to obtain efficient information concering cultivar selection and introduction. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted based on RCBD with three replications, using 20 bread wheat cultivars to study seed yield stability of cultivars introduced during the past several years to cold, and moderate areas of Iran. This experiment was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch during 2009-2012, for 4 years. Because of significant genotype×environmental interaction, stability analysis was performed by all possible methods to obtain stable and high potential cultivars. The result of stability analysis showed non parametric, AMMI, GGE biplot and simultaneous selection stability methods introduce lower, high, and higher yielding cultivars to be stable. On basis of all stability methods, Bahar (spring type introduced in 2008, Mahdavi (facultative type released in 1995, and Azadi cultivar (winter type introduced in 1989 respectively with 7.27, 7.13 and 6.88 (t/ha grain yield were stable and were highly potential cultivars among other cultivars. These cultivars could be introduced to researchers as stable cultivars to be used as parental ones in breeding programs for production of highly stable and seed yielding lines.

  16. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  17. Registration of 'Linkert' spring wheat with good straw strength and field resistance to the Ug99 family of stem rust races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw strength is one of the most important criteria for spring wheat cultivar selection in the north central U.S. ‘Linkert’ (PI 672164) hard red spring wheat was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2013 and has very good straw strength, high grain protein con...

  18. Distribution of photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-A1a and its effect on heading time in Japanese wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masako; Chono, Makiko; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Sato, Mikako; Yoshimura, Yasuhiro; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Fujita, Masaya; Oda, Shunsuke; Kubo, Katashi; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Kojima, Hisayo; Nishida, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The Ppd-A1 genotype of 240 Japanese wheat cultivars and 40 foreign cultivars was determined using a PCR-based method. Among Japanese cultivars, only 12 cultivars, all of which were Hokkaido winter wheat, carried the Ppd-A1a allele, while this allele was not found in Hokkaido spring wheat cultivars or Tohoku-Kyushu cultivars. Cultivars with a photoperiod-insensitive allele headed 6.9-9.8 days earlier in Kanto and 2.5 days earlier in Hokkaido than photoperiod-sensitive cultivars. The lower effect of photoperiod-insensitive alleles observed in Hokkaido could be due to the longer day-length at the spike formation stage compared with that in Kanto. Pedigree analysis showed that 'Purple Straw' and 'Tohoku 118' were donors of Ppd-A1a and Ppd-D1a in Hokkaido wheat cultivars, respectively. Wheat cultivars recently developed in Hokkaido carry photoperiod-insensitive alleles at a high frequency. For efficient utilization of Ppd-1 alleles in the Hokkaido wheat-breeding program, the effect of Ppd-1 on growth pattern and grain yield should be investigated. Ppd-A1a may be useful as a unique gene source for fine tuning the heading time in the Tohoku-Kyushu region since the effect of Ppd-A1a on photoperiod insensitivity appears to differ from the effect of Ppd-B1a and Ppd-D1a.

  19. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  20. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 3. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and botanical varieties evaluated by ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers. A. Carvalho H. Guedes-Pinto J. Lima-Brito. Research Note Volume 88 Issue 3 December 2009 pp 363-367 ...

  1. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207 to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46, the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA, and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs.

  2. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Metwally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the concentration of boron was increased. Elevated concentration of boron had a notable inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of pigments fractions in the test wheat cultivars as severely as dry matter gain. The adverse concentration effects of boron on some metabolic responses were clearly displayed by shoot and root systems, exhibited in the elevated rates of proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde formation. Potassium leakage was severely affected by boron-stress in some cultivars at all tested concentrations, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher boron concentrations.Conclusions: Sakha 93 out of all the different cultivars investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to boron-stress, while Gemmeza 9 was the most sensitive one.

  3. Molecular genetic identification of some wheat cultivars in the sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekki, I. I; El Amin, H. B.

    2002-01-01

    Four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely condor, El-Nellene, Wadi El Neil and Debeira were characterized on biochemical and molecular bases. The biochemical ones were protein-banding patterns, using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and isozymes to identify the biochemical genetic fingerprint of the four cultivars. Water-soluble protein-banding pattern showed no polymorphisms among the tested cultivars. The data from starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), esterase (EST) and acid phosphate (ACPH) showed that the cultivars are monomorphic. Further trials to identify the molecular genetic fingerprints of the studied cultivars were carried out using RAPD-PCR twenty-five primers were tested to perform. RAPD-PCR analysis. From the PCR products, a phylogenetic map, i.e, dendrogram, was constructed for the studied cultivars which depicted tow groups. The first group contained Wadi El Neil and Deberia with 48.4% similarity, and the second group contained Condor and El Neileen with 100% similarity. There was no similarity between Condor and Debeira (100% dissimilarity). Therefor, these data can be used subsequently for genetic engineering research and for wheat breeding programmes in the Sudan.(Author)

  4. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Norvell, W.A.; Welch, R.M.; Sullivan, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Sodium Chloride on Germination Characteristics of 20 Cultivars of Bread and Durum Wheat20 Cultivars of Bread and Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bijanzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salt stress is a major stress influencing wheat seedling establishment. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of 20 cultivars of wheat to two levels of salinity (8 and 16 dS/m NaCl, at the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran in 2008. Maximum root length was obtained in Dabira (5.73 mm at 16dS/m salinity level. In control, durum wheat cultivars including D81-17, Yavaros, D82-16, D79-15 and Taro3 had the maximum root length compared to bread wheat, however, with increasing salinity level to 16dS/m, minimum root length was observed in D82-16 (0.3 mm. In all cultivars, with increasing salinity level, shoot length was decreased and minimum shoot length was observed in D82-16 and D79-15. Under control conditions, Taro 3 cultivar had maximum seedling dry weight (108.6 mm, however, at 8 and 16 dS/m salinity levels, seedling dry weight of this cultivar was decreased to 92.33 and 78.43 mg, respectively. All seeds (100% were germinated in D82-16, Taro3, Bolani Cross, and Chamran cultivars under 16 dS/m but in Marvdasht cultivar, seed germination percentage under 8 and 16 dS/m reached to 65 and 50%, respectively. Shiraz (10.8 seeds/day, Adl Cross(10 seeds/day, and Bolani Cross (9.1 seeds/day had maximum germination rate under 16 dS/m salinity level. Differences among wheat cultivars also found in germination stress index (germination rate under stress divided by germination rate under control and Shiraz, Adl Cross and Bolani Cross had maximum germination stress index, while Yavaros and D82-16 had minimum germination stress index. Furthermore, with increasing salinity level, different responses were observed among wheat cultivars in root and shoot length, germination rate and germination stress index which demonstrated the genetic diversity among wheat cultivars. It appeared that durum wheat cultivars, compared to bread wheat cultivars, had lower germination stress index and germination rate. Among what

  6. Emergy assessment method for wheat cultivar efficiency and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jankowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on emergy was applied to quantify the fluxes of the energy, matter and monetary investment use (water, seeds, work, fertilizer and plant protecting agents, fuel, goods and services, productivity, environmental services and sustainability in typical wheat cultivar conducted in Wielkopolska. In order to convert all the flows mentioned into common base (seJ a conversion factors (solar transformities were used. In this way it was possible to consider also such flows that are free and generally neglected in the traditional balances. Generally only 52% emergy inflow is delivered by financial investment, while the remaining part, delivered in the form of the environmental services, is free. The Emergy Yield Ratio EYR = 1.14 indicate a low level of output per emergy investment unit. The values of Environmental Loading Ratio ELR = 11 and Emergy Sustainability Index ESI = 0.1 indicate an environmental stress and low level of cultivar sustainability, respectively. The final cultivar product (wheat has the emergy density 4.35 E12 seJ/kg and transformity 26.3 E4 seJ/J.

  7. Physiological response cascade of spring wheat to soil warming and drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldearegay, Dawit Fisseha; Yan, F.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is affecting wheat production in Northern Europe; in particular, drought and soil warming during anthesis may cause significant yield losses of the crop. In a search for genotypes tolerant to these stresses, the physiological responses of three spring wheat cultivars to increased...... D and HD had significant effects. The variable most sensitive to soil drying was gs, followed by A, Ψl, and RWC. Among the three cultivars, earlier stomatal closure during drought in Alora could be a good adaptive strategy to conserve soil water for a prolonged drought, but may not be of benefit...... under intermittent drought conditions. Later stomatal closure and decline in A for Scirocco under HD and D stresses would be a favourable trait to sustain productivity under intermittent drought. A lower soil-water threshold of gs associated with a later decrease in A for Scirocco implies...

  8. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  9. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  10. The Competitive Response Investigation of Eighteen Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars with Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh abdolahi

    2018-02-01

    ] with and without competition. Treatments were arranged in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Each pot was filled with almost 5 kg soil mixture of sand and manure. In each pot 15 wheat seeds along or with wild mustard seeds had sown. In the spring after establishment of wheat seedlings, pots were thinned and 6 wheat seedling in each pots and only one established wild mustard was remained. At tillering stage, tillering numbers in 3 wheat plants were counted. Leaf area was calculated by Ross (28 and Pearcy et al. (27 method at heading stage then leaf area index was estimated by following equation. Leaf area= K× (leaf length × maximum leaf width In which: K is constant coefficient (K = 0.75. Light penetration within canopy and soil surface was measured by Lux meter version (LX-101. Wheat and wild mustard coverage were assessed visually (34, 23. All trails that involving yield such as (spike number, seeds number per spike and thousand seeds weight, at ripening stage of all wheat in the pots measured and weighted. Data were subjected to ANOVA, and means were separated using Fisher’s Protected LSD test at 0.05 probability (P ≤ 0.05. Results: Analysis showed that wheat cultivars had a significant effect on tillers number, but wild mustard competition had no significant effect (P ≤ 0.05. Means comparison showed that Alvand, Alborz, and Bam cultivars have 8 tillers and Flat only 2 tillers. Also, wheat cultivars at the stem elongation had significant difference on the leaf area but, wild mustard competition effects and interaction effects were did not a significant effects on the mentioned factor (P ≤ 0.05. Between wheat cultivars Alvand had maximum (1.09 and Alborz, Sepahan, Roshan and Flat had minimum leaf area. Wheat coverage at both tillering and stem elongation was different between wheat cultivars. At tillering stage, wheat coverage ranged 7.16 – 53.3, so Alvand and Bam had maximum and Flat and Ghods had

  11. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  12. The Effect of Seed Size on Seed Vigor Indices of Different Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tavakoli Kakhki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germination and beneficial seedling establishment is affected by different seed vigor indices. In order to study the effect of seed size on seed vigor indices of wheat, a factorial experiment with two factors was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Agricultural Natural Resources Research Center Lab of Khorasan Razavi. The first factor was thirteen genotypes of wheat in three types of growth, containing winter, facultative and spring and the second factor was seed size in four levels including 3, 2.5, 2 and 1.5 millimeter. Germination percentage, germination rate, shoots and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio characteristics were investigated. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of wheat cultivars and seed size on traits was significant (p≤ 0.01 but interaction effect of seed size and wheat cultivar was significant (p≤ 0.01 only for shoot and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio. The highest and lowest seedling growth rate was (15.85 and 8.23 mg dry weight/germinal seedling that they were related to 3 and 1.5mm seed size, respectively. According to these observations the most and least percentage and germination rate was related to these seed size treatments. Correlation coefficient of seed size and seedling growth rate was highly significant (r=0.85 p≤ 0.01. Stepwise regression method indicated that the seed size (x1 and shoot length (x2 as independent variables could be described (r2=0.84 seedling growth rate as a dependent variable in y= -5.000955+(5.128078x1+(0.78494x2 equation. Keywords: Seedling growth rate, Germination rate, Correlation, Regression

  13. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  14. Adaptability and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Spring Wheat Cultivars in Chile using Regression Analysis, AMMI, and SRAG Adaptabilidad e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Trigos de Primavera utilizando Análisis de Regresión, AMMI y SREG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genetic improvement objectives include obtaining cultivars capable of expressing their maximum potential yield and quality in diverse environments. This make necessary to know and define the environment in which a variety can express its maximum potential yield and quality. The objective of this study was to assess which method is the most efficient to study cultivars response in multiple environments. For this, we analyze the adaptability, stability, and genotype x environment (GxE interaction effect, grain yield, sedimentation, and wet gluten content of 13 spring wheat cultivars sown in six environments in the central-south and southern zones of Chile during two seasons. The data were analyzed by regression analysis, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI, and the sites regression (SREG model. By this was thus established that SREG analysis is the most efficient for this type of study since, in addition to analyzing stability, adaptability, and effect (GxE, it allows identifying the best cultivar. In this case, 'Pandora-INIA' stands out by exhibiting the best yield (7.38 t ha-1, high sedimentation (36.95 cm³, and wet gluten (41.54% indices in all the environments, and this positions it as a variety having both high yield and quality.Dentro de los objetivos del mejoramiento genético del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. figura la obtención de variedades capaces de expresar su máximo potencial de rendimiento y calidad en diversos ambientes. Por lo cual es necesario conocer y definir el ambiente en que una variedad puede expresar al máximo su potencial de rendimiento y de calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar una metodología eficiente para analizar la respuesta de diversos cultivares de trigo a distintos ambientes. Para ello se analizó la adaptabilidad, estabilidad y la interacción Genotipo x Ambiente (GxE de 13 variedades de trigo de primavera, sembradas, en seis ambientes de la

  15. Can Growing Degree Days and Photoperiod Predict Spring Wheat Phenology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Aslam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum production in the rainfed area of Pothwar Pakistan is extremely vulnerable to high temperature. The expected increase in temperature due to global warming should result in shorter crop life cycles, and thus lower biomass and grain yield. Two major factors control wheat phenological development: temperature and photoperiod. To evaluate wheat development in response to these factors, we conducted experiments that created diverse temperature and daylength conditions by adjusting the crop sowing time. The study was conducted during 2013–14 and 2014–15 using five spring wheat genotypes, four sowing times, at three sites under rainfed management in Pothwar, Pakistan. Wheat crops experienced more cold days with early sowing, but later sowing dates resulted in higher temperatures, especially from anthesis to maturity. These treatments produced large differences in phenology, biomass production, and yield. To investigate whether growing degree days (GDD and photoperiod algorithms could predict wheat phenology under these changing conditions, GDD was calculated based on the method proposed by Wang and Engel while photoperiod followed the approach introduced in the APSIM crop growth model. GDD was calculated separately and in combination with photoperiod from germination to anthesis. For the grain filling period, only GDD was calculated. The observed and predicted number of days to anthesis and maturity were in good agreement, showing that the combination of GDD and photoperiod algorithms provided good estimations of spring wheat phenology under variable temperature and daylength conditions.

  16. Rapid and targeted introgression of genes into popular wheat cultivars using marker-assisted background selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpinder S Randhawa

    Full Text Available A marker-assisted background selection (MABS-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG can be recovered in just two backcross (BC generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on 'Plabsim' computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was approximately 12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar 'Zak', marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC(2F(2ratio3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC(4F(7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

  17. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  18. New wheat cultivars induced by fast neutrons in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.; Al-Maaroof, E.M.; Al-Aubaidi, M.O.; Al-Janabi, K.K.; Al-Janabi, A.A.; Al-Rawi, L.; Ali, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) seeds from the cultivar Mexipak and F2 of the cross SaberBeg/Mexipak and saberBeg/Mexipak/Abu-Ghraib-4 were irradiated with fast neutrons and screened for resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.) during three generations. Thirty-eight and 226 variants showing resistant and moderately resistant reactions, respectively, were selected. Of these variants three mutants showing genetic purity and stability were studied for yield components for four successive generations. Analyses of proteins and isozymes along with chemical and physical properties were conducted on these mutants and their parents. Data on disease incidence, lodging, shattering and yield components indicated that all the mutants significantly surpassed the cultivars Mexipak, SaberBeg and Abu-Ghraib-4. Both mutants Tamuz-1 and Tamuz-2 surpassed Mexipak in bread-making quality, while the mutant Tamuz-3 had a higher tendency for better bread-making quality than Mexipak or SeberBeg

  19. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  20. Evaluation of Local Wheat Cultivars Susceptibility to infection with Black Stem Rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, Y.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of seven local wheat cultivars from Palestine to infection with black stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Two techniques of disease inoculation were applied during bioassays: global inoculation of entire wheat plants with urediospores and localized inoculation with urediospores and localized inoculation with urediospores on wheat leaf-pieces incubated under humid conditions. Susceptibility of tested cultivars was evaluated according to disease scale based on number and size of typical unredial pustules that appeared after inoculation on entire plants or leaf pieces. Results obtained on bioassay of susceptibility and disease rating on entire plants indicated that Anbar, Kamata and Hetiya safra cultivars were the least susceptible to P. g. tritici infection, whereas Debiya beda cultivar was the most susceptible. The other tested cultivars such as Nab-El-Jama, sawda and Senf 870 were moderately susceptible. On leaf-pieces, Anbar and Kamatat were the least susceptible cultivars, whereas Debiya beda and Nab-El-Jamal were the most susceptible cultivars. The other tested cultivars such as Debiya swada, Senf 870 and Hetiya safra were moderately susceptible. Significant reductions were obtained for the size of unredial postules formed on leaf-pieces when inoculated in an unwounded state compared to the wounded indicating the importance of wounds during inoculation. The global results indicated the possibility of using above method of disease inoculating, scaling and rating for evaluation of wheat cultivars susceptibility for the eventual use in breeding program for resistant varieties in Palestine. (author)

  1. The effect of aluminium on enzyme activities in two wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aluminium on enzyme activities in two wheat cultivars. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... and Maroon (Al-tolerant) were grown on hydroponic solution (non modified Hoagland solution) containing AlCl3 (0-100-200-300 M).

  2. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J.; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    , results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits

  3. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

  4. Suitability of spring wheat varieties for the production of best quality pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehseen, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Pasha, Imran; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Saeed, Farhan

    2014-08-01

    The selection of appropriate wheat cultivars is an imperative issue in product development and realization. The nutritional profiling of plants and their cultivars along with their suitability for development of specific products is of considerable interests for multi-national food chains. In this project, Pizza-Hut Pakistan provided funds for the selection of suitable newly developed Pakistani spring variety for pizza production. In this regard, the recent varieties were selected and evaluated for nutritional and functional properties for pizza production. Additionally, emphasis has been paid to assess all varieties for their physico-chemical attributes, rheological parameters and mineral content. Furthermore, pizza prepared from respective flour samples were further evaluated for sensory attributes Results showed that Anmool, Abadgar, Imdad, SKD-1, Shafaq and Moomal have higher values for protein, gluten content, pelshenke value and SDS sedimentation and these were relatively better in studied parameters as compared to other varieties although which were considered best for good quality pizza production. TD-1 got significantly highest score for flavor of pizza and lowest score was observed from wheat variety Kiran. Moreover, it is concluded from current study that all wheat varieties except TJ-83 and Kiran exhibited better results for flavor.

  5. Low crop plant population densities promote pollen-mediated gene flow in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops.

  6. TaALMT1 promoter sequence compositions, acid tolerance, and Al tolerance in wheat cultivars and landraces from Sichuan in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C; Dai, S F; Liu, D C; Pu, Z J; Wei, Y M; Zheng, Y L; Wen, D J; Zhao, L; Yan, Z H

    2013-11-18

    Previous genetic studies on wheat from various sources have indicated that aluminum (Al) tolerance may have originated independently in USA, Brazil, and China. Here, TaALMT1 promoter sequences of 92 landraces and cultivars from Sichuan, China, were sequenced. Five promoter types (I', II, III, IV, and V) were observed in 39 cultivars, and only three promoter types (I, II, and III) were observed in 53 landraces. Among the wheat collections worldwide, only the Chinese Spring (CS) landrace native to Sichuan, China, carried the TaALMT1 promoter type III. Besides CS, two other Sichuan-bred landraces and six cultivars with TaALMT1 promoter type III were identified in this study. In the phylogenetic tree constructed based on the TaALMT1 promoter sequences, type III formed a separate branch, which was supported by a high bootstrap value. It is likely that TaALMT1 promoter type III originated from Sichuan-bred wheat landraces of China. In addition, the landraces with promoter type I showed the lowest Al tolerance among all landraces and cultivars. Furthermore, the cultivars with promoter type IV showed better Al tolerance than landraces with promoter type II. A comparison of acid tolerance and Al tolerance between cultivars and landraces showed that the landraces had better acid tolerance than the cultivars, whereas the cultivars showed better Al tolerance than the landraces. Moreover, significant difference in Al tolerance was also observed between the cultivars raised by the National Ministry of Agriculture and by Sichuan Province. Among the landraces from different regions, those from the East showed better acid tolerance and Al tolerance than those from the South and West of Sichuan. Additional Al-tolerant and acid-tolerant wheat lines were also identified.

  7. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well......-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark....... Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed...

  8. Evaluation of 10 wheat cultivars under water stress at Moghan (Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hami

    2011-09-14

    Sep 14, 2011 ... Accepted 20 May, 2011. Water deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect yield and yield component of wheat planted in ... evaluate the effects of water stress on seed yield and yield components of ten wheat cultivars and lines that differ in .... Analysis of variance is presented in Table 2. According to.

  9. CD 1550 – bread wheat cultivar with high gluten strength for the cooler regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivar CD 1550 is well-suited for the wheat-growing regions 1 and 2 of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná and 3 of Paraná. It has the characteristics of bread wheat and high gluten strength. The average potential yield is 3828 kg ha-1, 7% higher than that of the controls.

  10. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  11. Characterization of cadmium binding, uptake, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Welch, R.M.; Norvell, W.A.; Sullivanm, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    High Cd content in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) grain grown in the United States and Canada presents potential health and economic problems for consumers and growers. In an effort to understand the biological processes that result in excess Cd accumulation, root Cd uptake and xylem translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat cultivars were studied. Whole-plant Cd accumulation was somewhat greater in the bread wheat cultivar, but this was probably because of increased apoplastic Cd binding. Concentration-dependent 109Cd2+-influx kinetics in both cultivars were characterized by smooth, nonsaturating curves that could be dissected into linear and saturable components. The saturable component likely represented carrier-mediated Cd influx across root-cell plasma membranes (Michaelis constant, 20-40 nM; maximum initial velocity, 26-29 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1), whereas linear Cd uptake represented cell wall binding of 109Cd. Cd translocation to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar than in the durum cultivar because a larger proportion of root-absorbed Cd moved to shoots. Our results indicate that excess Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain is not correlated with seedling-root influx rates or root-to-shoot translocation, but may be related to phloem-mediated Cd transport to the grain

  12. Identification of Ppd-B1 alleles in common wheat cultivars by CAPS marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoń, S; Kowalczyk, K; Miazga, D

    2012-05-01

    Photoperiod response is a major determinant of the duration of growth stages in common wheat. In common wheat, many genes play a role in determining flowering time, but the Ppd genes located on the homoeologous group 2 play a major role. Of these Ppd-B1 is located on the short arm of 2B. In 107 common wheat cultivars grown in Poland and neighboring countries, the identification of Ppd-B1 alleles using in-del analysis by using a CAPS markers was investigated. 87 cultivars were shown to carry dominant Ppd-B1 alleles. This shows that Ppd-B1 alleles is have been widely used in common wheat breeding programme in these countries. Recessive ppd-B1 alleles were found only in 20 cultivars (12 Polish, 5 former Soviet Union, 2 German, 1 Swedish).

  13. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  15. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  16. Novi Sad wheat cultivars and their seed production in the period 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad started a large-scale seed production of its wheat cultivars in1971. This activity was done in cooperation with a large number of seed companies from the former Yugoslavia and later on from Serbia. A total volume of production of all seed categories for the period from 1971 to 2010 was 3,790,712 tons. On average for this period, the annual production of certified seed was 94,768 t. The largest amount of seed of Novi Sad wheat cultivars was placed on the market in 1982 - 168,248 t (excluding exports. In the former Yugoslavia, Novi Sad wheat cultivars took from 30 to 65% of the total wheat market share. In the new Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, and finally in Serbia, the market share of Novi Sad cultivars ranged from 80 to 97%. The most popular and bestselling Novi Sad wheat cultivars were: Sava, Partizanka, Novi Sad Early 2 and 1, Balkan, Jugoslavija, Lasta, Evropa, Evropa 90, Pobeda, Novi Sad Early 5 and Renesansa.

  17. Genetic analysis of rust resistance genes in global wheat cultivars: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktar-Uz-Zaman, Md; Tuhina-Khatun, Mst; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Sahebi, Mahbod

    2017-01-01

    Rust is the most devastating fungal disease in wheat. Three rust diseases, namely, leaf or brown rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, stem or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici West, and stripe or yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. Tritici Eriks, are the most economically significant and common diseases among global wheat cultivars. Growing cultivars resistant to rust is the most sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for controlling rust diseases. To date, more than 187 rust resistance genes (80 leaf rust, 58 stem rust and 49 stripe rust) have been derived from diverse wheat or durum wheat cultivars and the related wild species using different molecular methods. This review provides a detailed discussion of the different aspects of rust resistance genes, their primitive sources, their distribution in global wheat cultivars and the importance of durable resistant varieties for controlling rust diseases. This information will serve as a foundation for plant breeders and geneticists to develop durable rust-resistant wheat varieties through marker-assisted breeding or gene pyramiding

  18. Dissection of the multigenic wheat stem rust resistance present in the Montenegrin spring wheat accession PI 362698

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to identify and characterize stem rust resistance genes in common wheat, Triticum aestivum, has been stimulated by the emergence of Ug99-lineage races of the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), in Eastern Africa. The Montenegrin spring wheat landrace PI 362698 ...

  19. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Vishakha; Chaudhary, Swati; Tyagi, Anshika; Mishra, Poonam; Priyadarshini, Anupama; Singh, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  20. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinita Sthapit Kandel

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for stripe rust resistance in PI 480035. A spring wheat, "Avocet Susceptible" (AvS, was crossed with PI 480035 to develop a biparental population of 110 recombinant inbred lines (RIL. The population was evaluated in the field in 2013 and 2014 and seedling reactions were examined against three races (PSTv-14, PSTv-37, and PSTv-40 of the pathogen under controlled conditions. The population was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing and microsatellite markers across the whole wheat genome. A major QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-1BS was identified on chromosome 1B. The closest flanking markers were Xgwm273, Xgwm11, and Xbarc187 1.01 cM distal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS, Xcfd59 0.59 cM proximal and XA365 3.19 cM proximal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS. Another QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-3B, was identified on 3B, which was significant only for PSTv-40 and was not significant in the field, indicating it confers a race-specific resistance. Comparison with markers associated with previously reported Yr genes on 1B (Yr64, Yr65, and YrH52 indicated that QYr.wrsggl1-1BS is potentially a novel stripe rust resistance gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials, along with other all-stage and adult-plant resistance genes to develop cultivars that can provide durable resistance.

  1. 76 FR 44574 - Antidumping Duty Investigation and Countervailing Duty Investigation of Hard Red Spring Wheat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Investigation and Countervailing Duty Investigation of Hard Red Spring Wheat From Canada: Notice of Court... of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (``CAFC''), in Canadian Wheat Board v. United States, 2010-1083 (Fed. [[Page 44575

  2. Genetic variation at loci controlling quality traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Iqbal, M.; Asif, M.

    2013-01-01

    Selection for quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during early breeding generations requires quick analytical methods that need small grain samples. Marker assisted selection can be useful for the improvement of quality traits in wheat. The present study was conducted to screen 117 Pakistani adapted spring wheat varieties with DNA markers linked with genes controlling composition of low and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS and HMW-GS, respectively), starch viscosity, Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and grain hardness. DNA fragments associated with the presence/absence of quality related genes were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detected using agarose gel electrophoresis. Positive allele of beta-secalin, which indicates presence of 1B.1R translocation, was found in 77 (66%) varieties. The marker PPO05 was found in 30 (26%) varieties, indicating lower PPO activity. Grain hardness controlled by Pinb-D1b allele was present in 49 (42%) varieties. Allele Wx-B1b which confers superior noodle quality was found in 48 (41%) varieties. HMW-GS encoded by Glu-D1d allele that exerts a positive effect on dough strength was present in 115 (98%) varieties. LMW-GS alleles Glu-A3d and Glu-B3 were observed in 21 (18%) and 76 (65%) varieties, respectively. Results of the present study may help wheat breeders in selecting parents for improving desirable quality attributes of future wheat varieties. The varieties, identified having desirable quality genes, in this study can be used in the wheat breeding programs aiming to improve quality traits. Early generation marker assisted selection can help to efficiently utilize resources of a breeding program. (author)

  3. Breeding high yielding, high protein spring wheats: Problems, progress and approaches to further advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzak, C.F.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary data offer promise that advances have been made in breeding hard red spring wheat selections with a yielding capacity about equal to current cultivars and with an increased capacity for producing high protein grain. The most promising new selections are derivatives of Magnif 41M1, CI17689, a semi-dwarf mutant of an Argentinian high protein cultivar. Rapid changes in disease and pest problems also required immediate attention and a reorientation of breeding materials and goals. Selection procedures suggested as promising include early generation (F 2 and F 3 ) screening for disease resistance and agronomic type, with screening for protein content delayed until F 4 or F 5 . Cultural conditions conducive for expressing the highest yield capacity are proposed as optimum for identifying those selections also able to produce high protein grain. A goal of routine production of 14.5% (or higher) protein grain is considered necessary and achievable under fertility management conditions required for maximum yield expression of agronomically competitive cultivars. Agronomically improved sources of high protein genes, an increasing number of induced high protein mutants, and numerous high protein crossbred derivatives of T. dicoccoides and Aegilops species have recently become available. These new or improved germplasm sources as well as a considerable reserve of yet untapped germplasm variability in other accessions of wild T. dicoccoides offer increased optimism that further, rapid advances in the breeding of adapted high yielding, high protein wheats are achievable. Improved breeding schemes, using induced male sterility mutants either to aid in crossing or to develop male sterile facilitated recurrent selection (MSFRS) populations, should contribute towards an earlier achievement of the desired goal while providing the basis for buffering against rapid changes in disease and pest problems

  4. Analysis of grain filling process to the varied meteorological conditions in winter wheat [Triticum aestivum] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of varied meteorological conditions on the grain filling periods, stabilities of yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars with different maturity characteristics (cv. Ayahikari, Norin61, Bandowase, and Tsurupikari). In the field experiments, the meteorological treatments were made during the first heading time on 17 April 2001 and the middle heading time on 24 April 2000. Air temperature, global solar radiation and soil moisture were controlled using a rain shelter, cheesecloth and irrigation system. The growth speed and growth period of wheat grains varied among four winter wheat cultivars, depending on meteorological conditions. The growth speed increased within 1 8.4 deg C of mean air temperature over the 30 days after the anthesis. On the other hand, it was found that the growth speed of wheat grains and the maximum number of wheat grains (Ymax) decreased greatly with the 44.4% interception of global solar radiation. Logistic functions were fitted to the relationship between the relative thousand-kernel-weight (Y/Ymax) and the total integrated temperature (sigmaTa) after heading for all treatment conditions. The maximum weight of grains (Ymax) achieved at the harvest time varied somewhat clearly among four winter wheat cultivars and meteorological conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that the grain yield (Ymax) of four wheat cultivars correlated positively with daily mean solar radiation. It was also found that the cultivar Ayahikari had a highly significant negative correlation between its grain weight and soil moisture. Namely, the grain weight of high soil moisture plot with pF=1.5 was lower by about 9% than that of a control plot with pF=3.5. On the other hand, the grain yield of cultivar Norin61 responded inversely to a wet environment, indicating that its grain weight was higher for high soil moisture and high wet-bulb temperature than for a dry environment. The grain yield of early varieties of Bandowase and

  5. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  6. Evaluation of Cd effects on growth and some oxidative stress parameters of wheat cultivars during seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Esfandiari

    2016-03-01

    S-transferase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes are probably the main reasons of the lipid peroxidation increase in Kohdasht cultivar. However, there was no damage on membranes of Izengran and Pishtase cultivars, which indicates the balance between production and scavenging of damaging factors of these cultivars. Generally, it can be stated that available Cd in medium was adsorbed and accumulated in wheat leaves resulting in reduction in dry matter of different parts and whole seedling of wheat which is due to susebtability of different cultivars to Cd. However, there were no oxidative stresses in leaves of Gaskogen, Agosta and MV17 cultivars due to their better defense mechanisms.

  7. Irrigation scheduling of spring wheat using infrared thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegman, E.C.; Soderlund, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling for spring wheat requires information on different irrigation timing methods. Irrigation timing based on allowable root zone available water depletion and selected crop water stress index (CWSI) thresholds were evaluated in terms of their effect on spring wheat yield. A field study was conducted at Oakes, North Dakota in 1987 and 1988 on a Maddock sandy loam soil with two varieties of spring wheat (Marshall and Wheaton) using a split plot randomized block design. Irrigation was metered to each plot using trickle irrigation tubing. Neutron soil water measurements along with a water balance model were used to time irrigations that were based on different allowed root zone depletions. Infrared thermometer sensors (IRT) were used to measure in situ canopy temperatures and along with measured climatic information were used to time irrigations using the CWSI approach. Additionally, crop phenological stages and final grain yield were measured. The non-water-stressed baselines necessary for the CWSI differed between the two seasons but were similar to those from previous studies. The CWSI methods were feasible from the Feekes scale S4 (beginning pseudo-stem) to S11.2 (mealy ripe). Minimal yield reductions were observed using the CWSI method for thresholds less than 0.4-0.5 during this period. Minimal yield reductions were observed by maintaining the root zone allowable depletion below 50%. The grain yield-evapotranspiration (ET) relationship was linear in both years but with different slopes and intercepts. When analyzed on a relative basis to maximum ET (ETm), a single relationship fit both years’ data with a yield sensitivity factor of 1.58. Irrigations timed at CWSI = 0.5 reduced seasonal water application by 18% relative to treatments irrigated at CWSI = 0.2. (author)

  8. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  9. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  10. Characterization of Root and Shoot Traits in Wheat Cultivars with Putative Differences in Root System Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Figueroa-Bustos

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Root system size is a key trait for improving water and nitrogen uptake efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. This study aimed (i to characterize the root system and shoot traits of five wheat cultivars with apparent differences in root system size; (ii to evaluate whether the apparent differences in root system size observed at early vegetative stages in a previous semi-hydroponic phenotyping experiment are reflected at later phenological stages in plants grown in soil using large rhizoboxes. The five wheat cultivars were grown in a glasshouse in rhizoboxes filled to 1.0 m with field soil. Phenology and shoot traits were measured and root growth and proliferation were mapped to quantify root length density (RLD, root length per plant, root biomass and specific root length (SRL. Wheat cultivars with large root systems had greater root length, more root biomass and thicker roots, particularly in the top 40 cm, than those with small root systems. Cultivars that reached anthesis later had larger root system sizes than those that reached anthesis earlier. Later anthesis allowed more time for root growth and proliferation. Cultivars with large root systems had 25% more leaf area and biomass than those with small root systems, which presumably reflects high canopy photosynthesis to supply the demand for carbon assimilates to roots. Wheat cultivars with contrasting root system sizes at the onset of tillering (Z2.1 in a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system maintained their size ranking at booting (Z4.5 when grown in soil. Phenology, particularly time to anthesis, was associated with root system size.

  11. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  12. Impact of temperatures to Hessian Fly resistance of selected wheat cultivars in the Great Plains Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in temperature can result in fundamental changes in plant physiology. This study investigated the impact of different temperatures from 14 to 26 °C on the resistance or susceptibility to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, of selected wheat cultivars that are either currently popular in ...

  13. Mineral nutrition as a factor of stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Afield trial was carried out with eight cultivars (Libellula, Drina, Sremica NSR-2, Jugoslavija, Somborka, Lasta and Pobeda of winter wheat (Trticum aestivum L representing several different periods in our country's wheat selection and having different potentials for technological grain quality. Six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer were tested: 0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kgNha-1. Increasing N fertilizer rates resulted in a linear increase of the direct and indirect indicators of quality. The best results were obtained with the cultivar Sremica and the poorest with Lasta, while Jugoslavija and Pobeda were shown to be of approximately the same quality. The contribution of N fertilizer variance to total variance was the largest for protein content (43.7%. N nutrition had a greater influence on protein content in cultivars from the earlier periods of selection. Its effect on sedimentation value, on the other hand, was greater in the recently released cultivars. The contribution of the genetic factor to total variance was the highest for crumb value number (CVN (58.7% and bread volume yield (44.2% and the lowest for protein content (20.8%. The absence of significant differences in the CVN means at any of the N nutrition levels studied resulted from the variability of the indirect indicators closely linked with the direct indicators of baking quality, showing the importance of N nutrition for maintaining the stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars.

  14. Effect of Sowing Date on Some Agronomic Characteristics and Seed Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ganbari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sowing dates on yield, yield components and some agronomic characteristics of four winter wheat cultivars and also their phenological changes, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station of Ardabil (Iran during 2009 growing season. First factor consisted of four wheat cultivars (Azar2, Sabalan, Sardari and Zagros and second factor consisted of four sowing dates (1st, 10th, 20th and 30th of September. The results showed that sowing date had significant effect on the number of spikes, the number of seed per spike, 1000-seed weight, germination percentage, days to spike appearance, days to ripening, growing degree days, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The highest and lowest seed yields of wheat were obtained from sowing date of the September the first (4616 kg/ha and sowing date of September 30th (2197 kg/ha respectively. Delaying planting decreased the number of spikes per m2 and 1000-seed weight. Cultivars had significant effect on all of the traits measured, except leaf number, fertile and non-fertilie tillers. The highest and the lowest seed yields were obtained from Sabalan (4750 kg/ha and Zagros (2757 kg/ha cultivars respectively. Interaction of sowing date and cultivar were significant on all of traits measured, except stem height, the leaf number, the number of spikes, 1000-seed weight and seed yield (P

  15. Testing Optimum Seeding Rates for five Bread Wheat Cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wekesa, S.J.; Kiriswa, F.; Owuoche, J.

    1999-01-01

    A cultivar by seed rate trial was conducted in 1994-1995 crop seasons at Njoro, Kenya. Yield results were found to be significant (P > 0.01) for year, variety, seed rate and year by seed rate interaction. Test weight was highly significant (P -1 were grouped together for significantly higher yields (A) whereas seed rates 85 and 50 kg ha -1 had lower significant yields (B and C respectively). The same grouping was repeated for test weight. There was no significant cultivar by seed rate interaction and no cultivar, specific seed rate. However, since seed rates 245, 205, 165 and 125 kg ha -1 were grouped together, the lowest seed rate, 125 kg ha -1 can be recommended as the optimum seed rate for the above cultivars, as higher seed rates do not give significantly higher yields or higher test weights

  16. Genetic characterization of stem rust resistance in a global spring wheat germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust is considered one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. The recent emergence of the stem rust Ug99 race group poses a serious threat to world wheat production. Utilization of genetic resistance in cultivar development is the optimal way to control stem rust. Here we report association ma...

  17. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. In view of the global climate change, heat stress is an increasing constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Our aim was to identify contrasting cultivars in terms of heat tolerance by mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse origin, based...... with a milder heat stress of 38Cin 300 mmolm–2 s–1 for 2 h with preheating at 33–35Cfor 19 h in 7–14 mmolm–2 s–1 light showed a genetic determination of 8.52.7%.Aheat treatment of 40Cin 300 mmolm–2 s–1 for 72 h in the second screening with 138 selected cultivars resulted in larger differentiation of cultivars...... with an increased genetic component (15.43.6%), which was further increased to 27.96.8% in the third screening with 41 contrasting cultivars. This contrasting set of cultivars was then used to compare the ability of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to detect genetic difference in heat tolerance...

  18. Differential response of wheat cultivars to Pseudomonas brassicacearum and take-all decline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingming; Mavrodi, Dmitri; Thomashow, Linda S; Weller, David M

    2018-06-15

    2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas spp. in the P. fluorescens complex are primarily responsible for a natural suppression of take-all of wheat known as take-all decline (TAD) in many fields in the USA. P. brassicacearum, the most common DAPG producer found in TAD soils in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, has biocontrol, growth promoting and phytotoxic activities. In this study, we explored how the wheat cultivar affects the level of take-all suppression when grown in a TAD soil, and how cultivars respond to colonization by P. brassicacearum. Three cvs. Tara, Finley and Buchanan supported similar rhizosphere population sizes of P. brassicacearum when grown in a TAD soil, however they developed significantly different amounts of take-all. Cultivars Tara and Buchanan developed the least and most take-all, respectively, and Finley showed an intermediate amount of disease. However, when grown in TAD soil that was pasteurized to eliminate both DAPG producers and take-all suppression, all three cultivars were equally susceptible to take-all. The three cultivars also responded differently to the colonization and phytotoxicity of P. brassicacearum strains Q8r1-96 and L5.1-96, which are characteristic of DAPG producers in PNW TAD soils. As compared to cv. Tara, cv. Buchanan showed significantly reduced seedling emergence and root growth when colonized by P. brassicacearum, and the response of Finley was intermediate. However, all cultivars emerged equally when treated with a DAPG-deficient mutant of Q8r1-96. Our results indicate that wheat cultivars grown in a TAD soil modulate both the robustness of take-all suppression and the potential phytotoxicity of the antibiotic DAPG.

  19. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of yield and yield stability in modern spring barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.; Niks, R.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stam, P.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Associations between markers and complex quantitative traits were investigated in a collection of 146 modern two-row spring barley cultivars, representing the current commercial germ plasm in Europe. Using 236 AFLP markers, associations between markets were found for markers as far apart as 10 cM.

  20. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of morphological, resistance, and other agronomically relevant traits in modern spring barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.; Martinez, F.; Mussiraliev, B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Niks, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    A set of 148 modern spring barley cultivars was explored for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes governing traits and nearby marker alleles. Associations of agronomically relevant traits (days to heading, plant height), resistance traits (leaf rust, barley yellow dwarf virus

  1. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat......Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...

  2. Genetic Architecture of Anther Extrusion in Spring and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quddoos H. Muqaddasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid wheat breeding is gaining prominence worldwide because it ensures higher and more static yield than conventionally bred varieties. The cleistogamous floral architecture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. impedes anthers inside the floret, making it largely an inbreeder. For hybrid seed production, high anther extrusion is needed to promote cross pollination and to ensure a high level of pollen availability for the seed plant. This study, therefore, aimed at the genetic dissection of anther extrusion (AE in panels of spring (SP, and winter wheat (WP accessions by genome wide association studies (GWAS. We performed GWAS to identify the SNP markers potentially linked with AE in each panel separately. Phenotypic data were collected for 3 years for each panel. The average levels of Pearson's correlation (r among all years and their best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs within both panels were high (r(SP = 0.75, P < 0.0001;r(WP = 0.72, P < 0.0001. Genotypic data (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied included 12,066 and 12,191 SNP markers for SP and WP, respectively. Both genotypes and environment influenced the magnitude of AE. In total, 23 significant (|log10(P| > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected (SP = 11; WP = 12. Anther extrusion behaved as a complex trait with significant markers having either favorable or unfavorable additive effects and imparting minor to moderate levels of phenotypic variance (R2(SP = 9.75−14.24%; R2 (WP = 9.44−16.98%. All mapped significant markers as well as the markers within their significant linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.30 regions were blasted against wheat genome assembly (IWGSC1+popseq to find the corresponding genes and their high confidence descriptions were retrieved. These genes and their orthologs in Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor revealed syntenic genomic regions potentially involved in flowering-related traits. Moreover, the

  3. Characterization of brazilian wheat cultivars in terms of nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lemes da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N management in wheat crop is one of the most studied agricultural practices in Brazil; however, there are few reports on its use efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize 18 Brazilian wheat cultivars, which are representative and have been recently released to cultivation, for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE. The experiments were carried out in Pato Branco, Paraná, and Coxilha, Rio Grande do Sul, during the 2011 crop season. It was used a randomized block design with three replications, in factorial scheme (2 environments × 18 cultivars. Genetic variability was observed for nitrogen utilization efficiency by grains (NUtEg=47.6 to 81.1 kg kg-1 and nitrogen harvest index (NHI=71.3 to 84.6% with significant effects relating to the environment of cultivation and performance of these traits. The evaluation of the protein concentration of grain by near infrared spectrometry (GPC N produced equivalent results to the direct analytical method of Kjeldahl (GPC K, in Pato Branco (r=0.56 and Coxilha (RS (r=0.80. However the CPG N overestimated the protein values by 16.85%. The GPC and protein yield were positively correlated with NUtEg and NHI. The best performance for the traits associated with NUE was observed for the following cultivars: Mirante, Quartzo, Fundacep Cristalino, Fundacep Raízes and CD 150. This is the first report of differences between Brazilian wheat cultivars for nitrogen use efficiency.

  4. Effect of temperature stress on polyphenol oxidase activity in grains of some wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayani, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    Color is a key quality trait of wheat-based products and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is implicated to play a significant role in their undesirable darkening. Polyphenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinines, which auto oxidize and polymerize with amino acid of cellular proteins resulting brown and black pigmentation propounding reduced nutritional values. In present study, the PPO activity in 50 different Pakistani wheat cultivars was investigated and grouped into three categories viz; low, medium and high PPO activity cultivars. PPO is a heat labile enzyme. To investigate effect of heat stress, nine cultivars from each category were chosen for treatment at 30, 40 and 50 deg. C for 30, 60, and 120 minutes each. A substantial change was experienced in PPO activity as compared to room temperature. Two wheat cultivar Wafaq-2001 and AS-2002 showed a compromising attitude of minimum PPO activity at 30 deg. C for a period of 30 and 60 minutes of incubation. In general, an incubation of 30 deg. C or 60 deg. C (low or high) for a period of 30 minutes can be recommended for suppressing PPO activity. (author)

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat cultivars with differing drought stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L Ford

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a series of multiplexed experiments we studied the quantitative changes in protein abundance of three Australian bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. in response to a drought stress. Three cultivars differing in their ability to maintain grain yield during drought, Kukri (intolerant, Excalibur (tolerant and RAC875 (tolerant, were grown in the glasshouse with cyclic drought treatment that mimicked conditions in the field. Proteins were isolated from leaves of mature plants and isobaric tags were used to follow changes in the relative protein abundance of 159 proteins. This is the first shotgun proteomics study in wheat, providing important insights into protein responses to drought as well as identifying the largest number of wheat proteins (1,299 in a single study. The changes in the three cultivars at the different time points reflected their differing physiological responses to drought, with the two drought tolerant varieties (Excalibur and RAC875 differing in their protein responses. Excalibur lacked significant changes in proteins during the initial onset of the water deficit in contrast to RAC875 that had a large number of significant changes. All three cultivars had changes consistent with an increase in oxidative stress metabolism and ROS scavenging capacity seen through increases in superoxide dismutases and catalases as well as ROS avoidance through the decreases in proteins involved in photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle.

  6. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  7. Global adaptation patterns of Australian and CIMMYT spring bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ky L; Chapman, Scott C; Trethowan, Richard; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang; van Ginkel, Maarten; Crossa, Jose; Payne, Thomas; Delacy, Ian; Fox, Paul N; Cooper, Mark

    2007-10-01

    The International Adaptation Trial (IAT) is a special purpose nursery designed to investigate the genotype-by-environment interactions and worldwide adaptation for grain yield of Australian and CIMMYT spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). The IAT contains lines representing Australian and CIMMYT wheat breeding programs and was distributed to 91 countries between 2000 and 2004. Yield data of 41 reference lines from 106 trials were analysed. A multiplicative mixed model accounted for trial variance heterogeneity and inter-trial correlations characteristic of multi-environment trials. A factor analytic model explained 48% of the genetic variance for the reference lines. Pedigree information was then incorporated to partition the genetic line effects into additive and non-additive components. This model explained 67 and 56% of the additive by environment and non-additive by environment genetic variances, respectively. Australian and CIMMYT germplasm showed good adaptation to their respective target production environments. In general, Australian lines performed well in south and west Australia, South America, southern Africa, Iran and high latitude European and Canadian locations. CIMMYT lines performed well at CIMMYT's key yield testing location in Mexico (CIANO), north-eastern Australia, the Indo-Gangetic plains, West Asia North Africa and locations in Europe and Canada. Maturity explained some of the global adaptation patterns. In general, southern Australian germplasm were later maturing than CIMMYT material. While CIANO continues to provide adapted lines to northern Australia, selecting for yield among later maturing CIMMYT material in CIANO may identify lines adapted to southern and western Australian environments.

  8. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  9. Effectiveness of time of sowing and cultivar choice for managing climate change: wheat crop phenology and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; O'Leary, Garry; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2018-02-08

    Climate change (CC) presents a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production systems in Australia. This study aimed to (1) quantify the impact of future CC on wheat grain yield for the period centred on 2030 from the perspectives of wheat phenology, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of changing sowing times and cultivars in response to the expected impacts of future CC on wheat grain yield. The daily outputs of CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model for baseline and future periods were used by a stochastic weather generator to derive changes in mean climate and in climate variability and to construct local climate scenarios, which were then coupled with a wheat crop model to achieve the two research aims. We considered three locations in New South Wales, Australia, six times of sowing (TOS) and three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in this study. Simulation results show that in 2030 (1) for impact analysis, wheat phenological events are expected to occur earlier and crop water use is expected to decrease across all cases (the combination of three locations, six TOS and three cultivars), wheat grain yield would increase or decrease depending on locations and TOS; and WUE would increase in most of the cases; (2) for adaptation considerations, the combination of TOS and cultivars with the highest yield varied across locations. Wheat growers at different locations will require different strategies in managing the negative impacts or taking the opportunities of future CC.

  10. Effectiveness of time of sowing and cultivar choice for managing climate change: wheat crop phenology and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; O'Leary, Garry; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2018-02-01

    Climate change (CC) presents a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production systems in Australia. This study aimed to (1) quantify the impact of future CC on wheat grain yield for the period centred on 2030 from the perspectives of wheat phenology, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of changing sowing times and cultivars in response to the expected impacts of future CC on wheat grain yield. The daily outputs of CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model for baseline and future periods were used by a stochastic weather generator to derive changes in mean climate and in climate variability and to construct local climate scenarios, which were then coupled with a wheat crop model to achieve the two research aims. We considered three locations in New South Wales, Australia, six times of sowing (TOS) and three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in this study. Simulation results show that in 2030 (1) for impact analysis, wheat phenological events are expected to occur earlier and crop water use is expected to decrease across all cases (the combination of three locations, six TOS and three cultivars), wheat grain yield would increase or decrease depending on locations and TOS; and WUE would increase in most of the cases; (2) for adaptation considerations, the combination of TOS and cultivars with the highest yield varied across locations. Wheat growers at different locations will require different strategies in managing the negative impacts or taking the opportunities of future CC.

  11. Postulation of rust resistance genes in Nordic spring wheat genotypes and identification of widely effective sources of resistance against the Australian rust flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mandeep; Bansal, Urmil; Lillemo, Morten; Miah, Hanif; Bariana, Harbans

    2016-11-01

    Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars. A high proportion of cultivars were identified to carry linked rust resistance genes Sr15 and Lr20. Although 51 cultivars showed variation against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes used in this study, results were not clearly contrasting to enable postulation of stripe rust resistance genes in these genotypes. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr27 was postulated in four cultivars and Yr1 was present in cultivar Zebra. Cultivar Tjalve produced low stripe rust response against all Pst pathotypes indicating the presence either of a widely effective resistance gene or combination of genes with compensating pathogenic specificities. Several cultivars carried moderate to high level of APR to leaf rust and stripe rust. Seedling stem rust susceptible cultivar Aston exhibited moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response, whereas other cultivars belonging to this class were rated moderately susceptible or higher. Molecular markers linked with APR genes Yr48, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Lr68 and Sr2 detected the presence of these genes in some genotypes.

  12. Drought priming effects on alleviating later damages of heat and drought stress in different wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendanha, Thayna; Hyldgaard, Benita; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    The ongoing change is climate; in particular the increase of drought and heat waves episodes are a major challenge in the prospect of food safety. Under many field conditions, plants are usually exposed to mild intermittent stress episodes rather than a terminal stress event. Previous, but limited...... studies suggest that plants subjected to early stress (primed) can be more resistant to future stress exposure than those not stressed during seedling stage. In our experiment we aimed to test if repeated mild drought stresses could improve heat and drought tolerance during anthesis heat and drought...... stresses in wheat cultivars. Two wheat cultivars, Gladius and Paragon, were grown in a fully controlled gravimetric platform and subjected to either no stress (control) or two (P) drought cycles during seedling stage, at three and five complete developed leaves. Each cycle consisted of withholding water...

  13. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    OpenAIRE

    Máximo Lorenzo; Silvia G. Assuero; Jorge A. Tognetti

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production) worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showi...

  14. Simulation of spring wheat responses to elevated CO2 and temperature by using CERES-wheat crop model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LAURILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The CERES-wheat crop simulation model was used to estimate the changes in phenological development and yield production of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Polkka under different temperature and CO2 growing conditions. The effects of elevated temperature (3-4°C and CO2 concentration (700 ppm as expected for Finland in 2100 were simulated. The model was calibrated for long-day growing conditions in Finland. The CERES-wheat genetic coefficients for cv. Polkka were calibrated by using the MTT Agrifood Research Finland (MTT official variety trial data (1985-1990. Crop phenological development and yield measurements from open-top chamber experiments with ambient and elevated temperature and CO2 treatments were used to validate the model. Simulated mean grain yield under ambient temperature and CO2 conditions was 6.16 t ha-1 for potential growth (4.49 t ha-1 non-potential and 5.47 t ha-1 for the observed average yield (1992-1994 in ambient open-top chamber conditions. The simulated potential grain yield increased under elevated CO2 (700 ppm to 142% (167% non-potential from the simulated reference yield (100%, ambient temperature and CO2 350 ppm. Simulations for current sowing date and elevated temperature (3°C indicate accelerated anthesis and full maturity. According to the model estimations, potential yield decreased on average to 80.4% (76.8% non-potential due to temperature increase from the simulated reference. When modelling the concurrent elevated temperature and CO2 interaction, the increase in grain yield due to elevated CO2 was reduced by the elevated temperature. The combined CO2 and temperature effect increased the grain yield to 106% for potential growth (122% non-potential compared to the reference. Simulating the effects of earlier sowing, the potential grain yield increased under elevated temperature and CO2 conditions to 178% (15 days earlier sowing from 15 May, 700 ppm CO2, 3°C from the reference. Simulation results suggest

  15. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  16. Virulence of Egyptian blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici population and powdery mildew response of Egyptian wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer f. sp. tritici (Em. Marchal) is a serious disease of wheat that can cause a severe reduction in yield. In Egypt, high powdery mildew severity has been observed in the past few years on many commercial cultivars of both bread and durum wheat. Lit...

  17. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  18. Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlani Ângela Maria Cangiani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Field symptoms of open spikelets in wheat were observed in specific cultivars and supposedly related to low B soils and differential B requirement among cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the response of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 60, IAC 287 and IAC 289, to increasing B concentrations in nutrient solution. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and five B concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 and 2.0 mg L-1, during 1997/1998, in a greenhouse. Plants were grown to maturity and evaluated for plant height, spike number and length, open spikelet number, grains per spike, plant parts dry matter, B, P, K, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations and total nutrient contents. The visual symptoms of B deficiency consisted of open spikelets, distorted spikes without grains. 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 287' had higher B efficiency, with the highest grain yields in lower B concentrations. The 'IAC 287' and 'IAC 24' were more tolerant to the highest B concentrations. 'IAC 24' required more B for grain production as compared to the other cultivars. The critical leaf B concentration for deficiency was 25 mg kg-1 of dry matter tissue for all cultivars, and for toxicity were: 44 to 45 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 289'; 228 and 318 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 24' and 'IAC 287', respectively. Except for the highest B level in the nutrient solution, the leaf P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations and whole plant contents were in an adequate range in the plants and did not vary among cultivars.

  19. Chemometric Analysis of High Molecular Mass Glutenin Subunits and Image Data of Bread Crumb Structure from Croatian Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Zorica Jurković; Rezica Sudar; Damir Magdić; Daniela Horvat; Želimir Kurtanjek

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate functional relationships among wheat properties, high molecular mass (weight) (HMW) glutenin subunits and bread quality produced from eleven Croatian wheat cultivars by chemometric analysis. HMW glutenin subunits were fractionated by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subsequently analysed by scanning densitometry in order to quantify HMW glutenin fractions. Wheat properties are characterised by four variables: protein...

  20. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  1. Effects of drought stress condition on the yield of spring wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of drought stress condition on the yield of spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) lines. ... Drought stress tolerance is seen in almost all plants but its extent varies from species to species and even within species. ... from 32 Countries:.

  2. Survey the Effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum of Wheat Cultivars Resistance in Yellow Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wheat is one of the major agricultural crops with respect to human nutrition. It is cultivated over a wide range of environments, because of wide adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. In Iran, 6.2 million hectares are under wheat cultivation, of which 33% is irrigated and 67% is rain-fed, the irrigated wheat growing areas (2 million hectares are located mostly in southern, central and east of Iran Production of crops is under the influence of plant genetic structure, environmental conditions and their interactions. Biotic and abiotic stresses are considered to lower production. Among the biotic stress, the fungal disease is the main factor limiting production of crop plants in hot and humid regions. Stripe rust was not a serious economic concern to the wheat industry for most of the 1990’s due to the use of resistant varieties. However, by 2003 it had developed into a significant issue, particularly as new path types evolved. Even in the dry years of 2003 and 2004, stripe rust cost growers significant income. Provide country's need for wheat as a strategic product, meanwhile, production is free from chemical fungicide is a high but achievable goal. So in order to achieve fertilizer and fungicide resources that in addition to having no adverse effects on consumers and the environment, has been economically able to provide nutrition need of crop plant, is very important. Materials and Methods: With this approach, to survey the effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum in resistance to yellow rust in wheat cultivars, an experiment was conducted at the research station of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments include of Mycorrhiza fungi in three levels (without application of Mycorrhiza strain and using strain Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae, Azospirillum lipoferum bacterium in two

  3. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi

  4. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  5. A 3D virtual plant-modelling study : Tillering in spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.

    2007-01-01

    Tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by both light intensity and the ratio between the intensities of red and far-red light. The relationships between canopy architecture, light properties within the canopy, and tillering in spring-wheat plants were studied using a 3D virtual

  6. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this resear...

  7. Molecular and morpho-anatomical characterization of some Egyptian durum wheat cultivars/lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.; Hamiedeldin, N.; Khafaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grains of eight durum wheat cultivars were tested for identification of genetic relationship among molecular, anatomical and morphological levels. On the molecular level, two techniques have been used; Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR). Amplification of RAPD primers showed different numbers of fragments ranged from six to thirteen fragments. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 0% to 100%. The highest similarity value recorded was 91%, while the lowest similarity value was 69%. Amplification of ISSR primers showed different numbers of fragments ranged from six to twelve fragments. The highest similarity value recorded was 91%, while the lowest similarity value was 68%. The grain's coat morphology was reticulated in all taxa. There were variations with regard to the alignment and the shape of network and architecture of interspaces enclosed by raised line. Reticulate surface patterns appeared some variations ranged from weakly reticulate such as G 413 to strongly reticulate such as G 203. Stem cuticles of all cultivars were thick except cultivar; Benisweif 1. For leaf anatomy, all cultivars had epidermis composed of one layer of thick wall cells except cultivars; G 203 and Benisweif 1. (author)

  8. Influence of sowing dates on phenological development and yield of dual purpose wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Ali, K.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-purpose wheat is getting recognition among community in diverse farming systems. Success of the system depends on management decisions regarding appropriate sowing dates, choice of cultivars, harvesting time and stage. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors influence the growth and phenology of dual purpose wheat is needed for comparison of grain only wheat to dual purpose system to feed the ever increasing population under this system. The existing higher yielding varieties (Saleem-2000, Bathoor-2007, Fakhre Sarhad-99, Uqab-2000, Siran-2008, and Ghaznavi-98) of wheat were sown on various planting dates from early to normal (15th, 30th October and 14th November) and were given cut after 70 days of sowing. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications. Results of the study indicated that booting, heading and physiological maturity were significantly influenced by planting dates, among the cultivars and cutting imposed 70 days after sowing. Mid October sowing prolonged booting, heading, anthesis, maturity and had long stature plants and higher grain yield than sowing in mid November. Uqab-2000 booted, headed and reached to anthesis and maturity earlier followed by Ghaznavi-98, Bathoor-2007 and Saleem-2000. Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008 had higher grain yield than other cultivars. Booting, heading, anthesis and maturity were significantly delayed in cutting as compared to no cut plots. Wheat varieties Bathoor-2007, Uqab-2000 and Fakhre Sarhad-99 produced taller plants compared to Saleem-2000. It is concluded that early sowing on mid October had prolonged phenological traits and higher yield of wheat with long stature plants than later sowing (15th November) and variety Fakhre Sarhad-99 unlike Uqab-2000 was late with respect to phenological development. Cutting prior to stem elongation had not delayed the maturity from three days without substantial yield reduction which revealed that

  9. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also ...

  10. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-02

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement.

  11. Chromosome-scale comparative sequence analysis unravels molecular mechanisms of genome evolution between two wheat cultivars

    KAUST Repository

    Thind, Anupriya Kaur

    2018-02-08

    Background: Recent improvements in DNA sequencing and genome scaffolding have paved the way to generate high-quality de novo assemblies of pseudomolecules representing complete chromosomes of wheat and its wild relatives. These assemblies form the basis to compare the evolutionary dynamics of wheat genomes on a megabase-scale. Results: Here, we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the 700-megabase chromosome 2D between two bread wheat genotypes, the old landrace Chinese Spring and the elite Swiss spring wheat line CH Campala Lr22a. There was a high degree of sequence conservation between the two chromosomes. Analysis of large structural variations revealed four large insertions/deletions (InDels) of >100 kb. Based on the molecular signatures at the breakpoints, unequal crossing over and double-strand break repair were identified as the evolutionary mechanisms that caused these InDels. Three of the large InDels affected copy number of NLRs, a gene family involved in plant immunity. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density revealed three haploblocks of 8 Mb, 9 Mb and 48 Mb with a 35-fold increased SNP density compared to the rest of the chromosome. Conclusions: This comparative analysis of two high-quality chromosome assemblies enabled a comprehensive assessment of large structural variations. The insight obtained from this analysis will form the basis of future wheat pan-genome studies.

  12. Evaluation of Spring Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moghaddaszadeh-Ahrabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Wheat as a strategic agricultural products faces water deficiency in most areas of the country. Therefore, identification of the resistant varieties to drought stress is one of main aims for breeders. To assess effect of drought stress at heading on 72 spring wheat recombinant inbred lines derived from American Yecora Rojo (high yielder, dwarf and early maturity as paternal parent and Iranian No. 49 line (tall and late maturiting as maternal parent cross were studied. The experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the University of Tabriz using a randomized complete block design with two replications during 2009 growing season. Based on the results from combined analysis of variance significant difference was observed among lines for all of traits studied, except for harvest index, grain number per spike and days to heading. There was significant difference between normal and drought stress conditions. Since the interaction between line and conditions was insignificant for all traits, it does therefore, provide the possibility of comparing the lines without regard to irrigation levels. Based on the means of, the traits it was found that the lines 96, 122, 123 and 155 were superior. MP, GMP and STI indices were recognized to be suitable indices to identify superior lines. With respect to these indices, lines 96, 122, 123, 138, 149 and 155 were found superior as compared with remaining lines. Based on stepwise regression analysis of grain yield with other traits, respectively grain number per spike, number of spikes/m2 and 1000 kernel weight were inserted into final model as effective variables on grain yield, which made 81/9 percent of the grain yield variation. Path analysis of grain yield and related traits, based on stepwise regression, demonstrated the significant positive direct effect for grain number per spike, number of spikes/m2 and 1000 kernel weight on grain yield

  13. Influence of temperature, precipitation, and cultivar characteristics on changes in the spectrum of pathogenic fungi in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hýsek, Josef; Vavera, Radek; Růžek, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    In view of the threat posed by climate change, we studied the influence of temperature, precipitation, cultivar characteristics, and technical management measures on the occurrence of phytopathogenic fungi in wheat during 2009-2013. This work involved experiments at two sites differing in average temperatures and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation appear to influence differences in the spectrum of phytopathogenic fungi at the individual sites. In 2009 (the warmest year), Alternaria triticina was dominant. In 2010 (having the smallest deviations from the average for individual years), Septoria tritici dominated. In 2011, Puccinia triticina was most prominent, while in 2012, the genus Drechslera (Pyrenophora) and in 2013, S. tritici and Drechslera tritici-repentis (DTR) dominated. Temperature and precipitation levels in the individual spring months (warmer March to May) played a large role, especially for the leaf rust P. triticina in 2011. A change of only 1 °C with different precipitation during a year played a significant role in changing wheat's fungal spectrum. Cluster analysis showed the differences between single pathogenic fungi on wheat in a single year due to temperature and precipitation. Alternaria abundance was strongly influenced by year (p < 0.001) while locality was significant only in certain years (2012, 2013; p = 0.004 and 0.015, respectively). The same factors were revealed to be significant in the case of Puccinia, but locality played a role (p < 0.001) in different years (2011, 2013). The abundance of S. tritici and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Drechslera tritici-repentis) was influenced only by year (p < 0.001).

  14. Evaluation of alternative planting strategies to reduce wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) damage to spring wheat in the northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, B L; Cárcamo, H A; Bremer, E

    2009-12-01

    Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., producers are often reluctant to use solid-stemmed wheat cultivars resistant to wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), due to concerns regarding yield, efficacy or market opportunities. We evaluated the impact of several planting strategies on wheat yield and quality and wheat stem sawfly infestation at two locations over a three-year period. Experimental units consisted of large plots (50 by 200 m) located on commercial farms adjacent to wheat stem sawfly-infested fields. Compared with a monoculture of a hollow-stemmed cultivar ('AC Barrie'), planting a monoculture of a solid-stemmed cultivar ('AC Eatonia') increased yield by an average of 16% (0.4 mg ha(-1)) and increased the grade of wheat by one unit at the two most heavily infested site-years. Planting a 1:1 blend of AC Eatonia and AC Barrie increased yield by an average of 11%, whereas planting 20- or 40-m plot margins to AC Eatonia increased yield by an average of 8%. High wheat stem sawfly pressure limited the effectiveness of using resistant cultivars in field margins because plants were often infested beyond the plot margin, with uniform infestation down the length of the plots at the two most heavily infested site-years. The effectiveness of AC Eatonia to reduce wheat stem sawfly survivorship was modest in this study, probably due to weather-related factors influencing pith expression and to the high abundance of wheat stem sawfly. Greater benefits from planting field margins to resistant cultivars or planting a blend of resistant and susceptible cultivars might be achievable under lower wheat stem sawfly pressure.

  15. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  16. Characterization of heat tolerance in wheat cultivars and effects on production components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adérico Júnior Badaró Pimentel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is a need for heat tolerant wheat cultivars adapted to the expansion of cultivation areas in warmer regions due to the high demand of this cereal for human consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high temperatures on grain yield and yield components of wheat and characterize heat tolerant wheat genotypes at different development stages. The genotypes were evaluated in the field with and without heat stress. High temperatures reduced the number of spikelets per spike (21%, number of grains per spike (39%, number of grains per spikelet (23%, 1000-grain weight (27% and grain yield (79%. Cultivars MGS 1 Aliança, Embrapa 42, IAC 24-Tucuruí and IAC 364-Tucuruí III are the most tolerant to heat stress between the stages double ridge and terminal spikelet; MGS 1 Aliança, BRS 264, IAC 24-Tucuruí, IAC 364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between meiosis and anthesis; and BRS 254, IAC-24-Tucuruí, IAC-364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between anthesis and physiological maturity. High temperatures reduce grain yield and yield components. The number of grains per spike is the most reduced component under heat stress. The genotypes differed in tolerance to heat stress in different developmental stages.

  17. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Takahashi

    Full Text Available Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  18. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  19. Effects of changing climate and cultivar on the phenology and yield of winter wheat in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Zhijuan; Lu, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate and cultivars influence crop phenology and potential yield is essential for crop adaptation to future climate change. In this study, crop and daily weather data collected from six sites across the North China Plain were used to drive a crop model to analyze the impacts of climate change and cultivar development on the phenology and production of winter wheat from 1981 to 2005. Results showed that both the growth period (GP) and the vegetative growth period (VGP) decreased during the study period, whereas changes in the reproductive growth period (RGP) either increased slightly or had no significant trend. Although new cultivars could prolong the winter wheat phenology (0.3∼3.8 days per decade for GP), climate warming impacts were more significant and mainly accounted for the changes. The harvest index and kernel number per stem weight have significantly increased. Model simulation indicated that the yield of winter wheat exhibited increases (5.0∼19.4%) if new cultivars were applied. Climate change demonstrated a negative effect on winter wheat yield as suggested by the simulation driven by climate data only (-3.3 to -54.8 kg ha(-1) year(-1), except for Lushi). Results of this study also indicated that winter wheat cultivar development can compensate for the negative effects of future climatic change.

  20. Absorption and distribution of Zn by spring wheat in high zinc soil and effect of rhizosphere soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Lingyu; Wei Dongpu; Hua Luo; Chen Shibao

    1999-01-01

    The isotope tracer technique was used to study the absorption and distribution of 65 Zn by spring wheat in high zinc soil. The results showed that the distribution of 65 Zn in the organs of spring wheat was in the order as stem leaf>grain>root>wheat husk; the specific activity of 65 Zn and the transfer factor of 65 Zn in the organs of spring wheat were in the order as root>grain>wheat husk>stem leaf. With added 65 Zn increased, the absorption amount of 65 Zn by spring wheat and the distribution of 65 Zn in root increased. The 65 Zn applied was enriched by rhizosphere soil of spring wheat

  1. Fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin accumulation in three durum wheat cultivars in relation to sowing date and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Anna; Oleksy, Andrzej; Gala-Czekaj, Dorota; Urbaniak, Monika; Laskowska, Magdalena; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland. Low disease severity was observed in 2011/2012 in all durum wheat cultivars analyzed, and high FHB occurrence was recorded in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant pathogen, followed by Fusarium avenaceum. Through all three seasons, cultivar Komnata was the most susceptible to FHB and to mycotoxin accumulation, while cultivars Auradur and IS Pentadur showed less symptoms. High susceptibility of cv. Komnata was reflected by the number of Fusarium isolates and elevated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and moniliformin) content in the grain of this cultivar across all three seasons. Nivalenol was identified in the samples of cv. Komnata only. Genotype-dependent differences in FHB susceptibility were observed for the plants sown at optimal date but not at delayed sowing date. It can be hypothesized that cultivars bred in Austria and Slovakia show less susceptibility towards FHB than the cultivar from Poland because of the environmental conditions allowing for more efficient selection of breeding materials.

  2. [Differences in root developmenly of winter wheat cultivars in Huang-Huai Plain, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin-Qiang; Gao, Yang; Li, Xin-Qiang; Huang, Ling; Duan, Ai-Wang

    2012-07-01

    Selecting one presently popularized winter wheat cultivar (Zhengmai 9023) and two cultivars (Abo and Fengchan 3) introduced in the 1950s and 1960s in Huang-Huai Plain as test materials, and by using minirhizotron technique, this paper studied the live root length, root diameter distribution, and net root growth rate of the cultivars. Fine roots with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm occupied the majority of the whole root system, and the fine roots with a diameter less than 0.5 mm accounted for 98% of the live root length. The average root diameter varied with plant growth, the variation range being 0.15 - 0.22 mm, and no significant difference was observe among the cultivars. The live root length was significantly positively correlated root number, suggesting that root number was the main factor for the increase of live root length. The most vigorous growth period of the roots was from reviving to jointing stage, and Abo and Fengchan 3 had a longer period increased root vitality, as compared with Zhengmai 9023. For Zhengmai 9023, its fine roots with a diameter more than 0.1 mm had an increasing proportion after jointing stage, which was helpful for improving plant resistance, root activity, and grain-filling at late growth stages.

  3. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Organic Fertilizers Application on Yield Components of Two Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholamalizadeh Ahangar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the direct effects of organic and bio - fertilizers on yield components of two native wheat cultivars, Bolani and cross - Bolani. The experiment conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatment includes fertilizer factor: vermicompost (F1, vermicompost + compost (F2, vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F3, compost + vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F4, compost (F5, mycorrhiza + compost (F6, mycorrhiza (F7 and control (no fertilizer application F8 and cultivar factor includes two cultivar Bolani (C1 and cross - Bolani (C2. The results showed that the interaction effect of combined treatments (F7C2 of high yield (1.13 g.pot-1 obtained. The treatment combination (F7C2 of (0.355 was highest harvest index. The high correlation between weight per plant with plant height, spike length, grain yield and harvest index were observed. Generally the combined application of vermicompost and mycorrhiza cultivar cross - Bolani is more suitable for grain production.

  4. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  5. Effects of external potassium (k) supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiguang; Li, Caihong; Li, Yong; Jiang, Gaoming; Cheng, Guanglei; Zheng, Yanhai

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM) and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20%) for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+) content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  6. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  7. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  8. Influence of stress conditions on irradiated wheat cultivar (triticum aestivum L.). Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, T.Z.

    1996-01-01

    This study was carried out from 1992-1994. It aimed to study genetic improvement in yield components namely: shoot length, shoot dry weight, and leaf area at 4, 8, and 12 weeks age under salt stress condition; plant, dry weight/plant earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100 - grain weight at harvest time under drought stress in three mutagenic generations. Results of the two experiments showed that the most suitable mutagenic dose was 75 Gy gamma ray, which caused improvement in stress tolerance for SK 6 9 wheat cultivar by increased growth behaviour, and/or maintaining an active metabolism in plants under salinity and drought conditions. 3 tabs

  9. Comparative study of the nutritional quality of potato-wheat steamed and baked breads made with four potato flour cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingli; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang; Fauconnier, Maire Laure

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the nutritional quality of steamed and baked breads containing 35% potato flour from four potato cultivars. Compared with traditional wheat varieties, potato-wheat steamed and baked breads contained higher dietary fiber (1.87-fold), K (2.68-fold), vitamin C (28.56-fold), and total polyphenol (1.90-fold) contents and greater antioxidant activity (1.23-fold). Moreover, the estimated glycemic index of potato-wheat breads ranged from 61.20 (Hongmei-wheat baked bread) to 67.36 (Atlantic-wheat steamed bread), which was lower than that of wheat steamed bread (70.22) and baked bread (70.62). In terms of nutritional value, Hongmei was the optimum cultivar, followed by Blue Congo, Shepody, and Atlantic. For the same cultivar, the nutritional value of steamed bread was higher than that of baked bread. In conclusion, potato flour is a potential wheat flour supplement that improves the nutritional and functional properties of breads.

  10. The transportation and accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, and phosphorus in 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Gao Ling; Zhu, Shun; Bai, Sheng Nan; Xia, Yan; Lou, Lai Qing, E-mail: loulq@njau.edu.cn; Cai, Qing Sheng, E-mail: qscai@njau.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • As and Cd concentrations in wheat grain differed significantly among 12 cultivars. • As and Cd in wheat grains were correlated with P in straw and grain. • A significant positive correlation was observed between root As and Cd. • Rachis may play a key role in the difference between As and Cd transport to grains. - Abstract: Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the difference in arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorus (P) uptake, accumulation, and translocation among 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other in soil “naturally” contaminated with both As and Cd. As, Cd, and P concentrations in wheat grain, straw, and root differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the 12 wheat cultivars. The grain As concentration was not correlated with straw and root As, or the total As content in plants, but was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with As translocation factors (TFs), i.e., TFs{sub (Grain/Root)} and TFs{sub (Grain/Straw)}. The grain Cd concentration was positively correlated with the total Cd content and TFs{sub (Grain/Straw).} The grain P concentration was positively correlated with straw and root P. Both As and Cd concentrations in wheat grains were correlated with P in wheat straw and grain. Compared with As, Cd was more easily transported to the wheat grain, and the rachis played a key role in ensuring this difference. A significant positive correlation was observed between root As and Cd, but no significant relationship was detected between grain As and Cd concentrations. The lack of a relationship between grain As and Cd suggests the possibility of selecting cultivars in which little As and Cd accumulation occurs in the wheat grain.

  11. Seedling Resistance to Stem Rust and Molecular Marker Analysis of Resistance Genes in Wheat Cultivars of Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya Li

    Full Text Available Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China. This study investigated the levels of resistance in key wheat cultivars (lines of Yunnan Province. In addition, the existence of Sr25, Sr26, Sr28, Sr31, Sr32, and Sr38 genes in 119 wheat cultivars was assessed using specific DNA markers. The results indicated that 77 (64.7% tested wheat varieties showed different levels of resistance to all the tested races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Using molecular markers, we identified the resistance gene Sr31 in 43 samples; Sr38 in 10 samples; Sr28 in 12 samples, and one sample which was resistant against Ug99 (avirulent to Sr32. No Sr25 or Sr26 (effective against Ug99 was identified in any cultivars tested. Furthermore, 5 out of 119 cultivars tested carried both Sr31 and Sr38 and eight contained both Sr31 and Sr28. The results enable the development of appropriate strategies to breed varieties resistant to stem rust.

  12. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.

    2013-01-01

    efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates in leaves were analysed before and during the stress treatments as well as after one day of recovery. Heat stress reduced PN and Fv/Fm in both wheat cultivars, but plants grown in elevated CO2 maintained...... higher PN and Fv/Fm in comparison to plants grown in ambient CO2. Heat stress reduced leaf chlorophyll contents and increased leaf sucrose contents in both cultivars grown at ambient and elevated CO2. The content of hexoses in the leaves increased mainly in the tolerant cultivar in response...... to the combination of elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results show that heat stress tolerance in wheat is related to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence...

  13. New spring wheat varieties ‘Panianka’ and ‘Diana’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Демидов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To create new competitive spring wheat varieties. Methods. Field study, laboratory test. Results. Based on the competitive variety trial, bread spring wheat line ‘Lutescens 07-26’ has been selected due to high values of such traits as resistance to fungal diseases, grain qua­lity(protein content accounted for 15.0%, 1000 kernel weight (44.6 g productivity (3.92 t/ha and lodging resistance (9 points. In 2011, it was submitted to the State variety testing as ‘Panianka’ variety. Durum spring wheat line ‘Leukurum 08-11’ was characterized by a number of positive traits: quite a high productivity (3.05 t/ha, short stem (79 cm, resistance to fungal diseases and lodging(9 points, and in 2011 it was submitted to the State variety testing as ‘Diana’ variety. According to the results of the State variety testing in 2012–2014, spring wheat varieties ‘Panianka’ and ‘Diana’ in 2015 were put on the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine. Conclusions. For farms in Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones of Ukraine, bread and durum spring wheat varieties were bred by V. M.Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine that demonstrated rather high potential of productivity and adaptability to stress conditions. This goes to prove that cultivation of domestic spring wheat varieties will promote formation of high and quality grain yields.

  14. Crop Sequence Influences on Sustainable Spring Wheat Production in the Northern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Krupinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems in American agriculture are highly successful since World War II, but have become highly specialized, standardized, and simplified to meet the demands of an industrialized food system. Minimal attention has been given to the efficient exploitation of crop diversity and the synergistic and/or antagonistic relationships of crops in crop sequences. Objectives of our research were to determine if previous crop sequences have long-term benefits and/or drawbacks on spring wheat seed yield, seed N concentration, and seed precipitation-use efficiency in the semiarid northern Great Plains, USA. Research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan, ND using a 10 × 10 crop matrix technique as a research tool to evaluate multiple crop sequence effects on spring wheat (triticum aestivum L. production in 2004 and 2005. Spring wheat production risks can be mitigated when second year crop residue was dry pea (Pisium sativum L. averaged over all first year crop residues. When compared to spring wheat as second year crop residue in the dry year of 2004, dry pea as the second year residue crop resulted in a 30% spring wheat seed yield increase. Sustainable cropping systems need to use precipitation efficiently for crop production, especially during below average precipitation years like 2004. Precipitation use efficiency average over all treatments, during the below average precipitation year was 23% greater than the above average precipitation year of 2005. Diversifying crops in cropping systems improves production efficiencies and resilience of agricultural systems.

  15. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  16. The International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment for modeling wheat response to heat: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martre, P.; Reynolds, M.P.; Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Alderman, P.D.; Cammarano, D.; Maiorano, Andrea; Ruane, A.C.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Anothai, J.; Supit, I.; Wolf, J.

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains a portion of the International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment (IHSGE) data used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat crop models and quantify the impact of heat on global wheat yield productivity. It includes two spring wheat cultivars grown during

  17. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  18. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  19. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Pu, Feiyu; Li, Yunpeng; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Jianping; Pan, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major meteorological

  20. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major

  1. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  2. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv...... heat tolerance characteristics as compared to the other three cultivars. The largest decrease in Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m after heat stress occurred in the cultivar PWS7, which did not recover completely after 72 h. All cultivars grown at 25 °C had a slightly increased heat tolerance and better recovery...

  3. Carbon-13 discrimination as a criterion for identifying high water use efficiency wheat cultivars under water deficit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    1996-01-01

    During four consecutive years, 20 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) and bread wheat (Triticum aestrivum L.) cultivars were grown under rain-fed conditions and supplementary irrigation with the objective of assessing the possibility of using 13 C discrimination Δ as a criterion to screen for wheat cultivars that produce high yields and have a better water use efficiency under water deficit conditions. In all four growing season, both treatments were subjected to some water stress which was higher under rain-fed conditions and varied according to the intensity and time of rainfall. During the first growing season, and despite small differences between the two treatments in terms of the amounts of water used, the grain and straw yields as well as Δ were significantly higher in the treatment which received an irrigation at installation than in the one without irrigation. There was substantial genotypic variation in Δ. When both treatments were considered, the total above ground dry matter yield and grain yield were positively correlated with Δ although the correlation coefficient of grain yield versus Δ was not high ( ** ). The data suggest that while a high Δ value may be used as a criterion for selection of cultivars of wheat with potential for high yield and high water use efficiency in wheat under field conditions, caution must be exercised in the selection process as the size of the canopy and the changes in environmental factors mainly soil water content, can result in changes in Δ and the yield of a cultivar. However, Δ of a genotype can also provide valuable information with respect to plant parameters responsible for the control of Δ and this information can be usefully employed in breeding programmes aimed at developing wheat cultivars high in yield and high in water use efficiency, and suitable for cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of the tropics and sub-tropics. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Carbon-13 discrimination as a criterion for identifying high water use efficiency wheat cultivars under water deficit conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazza, M [Rabat-Institus, Rabat (Morocco). Inst. Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II

    1996-07-01

    During four consecutive years, 20 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) and bread wheat (Triticum aestrivum L.) cultivars were grown under rain-fed conditions and supplementary irrigation with the objective of assessing the possibility of using {sup 13}C discrimination {Delta} as a criterion to screen for wheat cultivars that produce high yields and have a better water use efficiency under water deficit conditions. In all four growing season, both treatments were subjected to some water stress which was higher under rain-fed conditions and varied according to the intensity and time of rainfall. During the first growing season, and despite small differences between the two treatments in terms of the amounts of water used, the grain and straw yields as well as {Delta} were significantly higher in the treatment which received an irrigation at installation than in the one without irrigation. There was substantial genotypic variation in {Delta}. When both treatments were considered, the total above ground dry matter yield and grain yield were positively correlated with {Delta} although the correlation coefficient of grain yield versus {Delta} was not high (< 0.45{sup **}). The data suggest that while a high {Delta} value may be used as a criterion for selection of cultivars of wheat with potential for high yield and high water use efficiency in wheat under field conditions, caution must be exercised in the selection process as the size of the canopy and the changes in environmental factors mainly soil water content, can result in changes in {Delta} and the yield of a cultivar. But, {Delta} of a genotype can also provide valuable information with respect to plant parameters responsible for the control of {Delta} and this information can be usefully employed in breeding programmes aimed at developing wheat cultivars high in yield and high in water use efficiency, and suitable for cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of the tropics and sub-tropics. 11 refs,2figs,2tabs.

  5. Development of groundwater pesticide exposure modeling scenarios for vulnerable spring and winter wheat-growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Lauren; Winchell, Michael; Peranginangin, Natalia; Grant, Shanique

    2017-11-01

    Wheat crops and the major wheat-growing regions of the United States are not included in the 6 crop- and region-specific scenarios developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for exposure modeling with the Pesticide Root Zone Model conceptualized for groundwater (PRZM-GW). The present work augments the current scenarios by defining appropriately vulnerable PRZM-GW scenarios for high-producing spring and winter wheat-growing regions that are appropriate for use in refined pesticide exposure assessments. Initial screening-level modeling was conducted for all wheat areas across the conterminous United States as defined by multiple years of the Cropland Data Layer land-use data set. Soil, weather, groundwater temperature, evaporation depth, and crop growth and management practices were characterized for each wheat area from publicly and nationally available data sets and converted to input parameters for PRZM. Approximately 150 000 unique combinations of weather, soil, and input parameters were simulated with PRZM for an herbicide applied for postemergence weed control in wheat. The resulting postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in a theoretical shallow aquifer were ranked to identify states with the largest regions of relatively vulnerable wheat areas. For these states, input parameters resulting in near 90 th percentile postbreakthrough average concentrations corresponding to significant wheat areas with shallow depth to groundwater formed the basis for 4 new spring wheat scenarios and 4 new winter wheat scenarios to be used in PRZM-GW simulations. Spring wheat scenarios were identified in North Dakota, Montana, Washington, and Texas. Winter wheat scenarios were identified in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado. Compared to the USEPA's original 6 scenarios, postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in the new scenarios were lower than all but Florida Potato and Georgia Coastal Peanuts of the original scenarios and better

  6. Wheat cultivar-specific selection of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas species from resident soil populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, M.; Funnell, D.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence indicates a role for plant genotype as a determinant of the species and genetic composition of the saprophytic microbial community resident to the rhizosphere. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of five different wheat cultivars to

  7. Effect of wheat cultivar and enzyme addition to broiler chicken diets on nutrient digestibility, performance, and apparent metabolizable energy content.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 5,000 one-day-old male broiler chickens were assigned to 8 different treatments in a 4 x 2 factorial design. Four wheat cultivars (Amiro, Guadalupe, Isengrain, and Horzal) and 2 levels (0 or 1 kg/t of feed) of an enzyme cocktail (Avizyme 1300, xylanase, 2,500 U/kg and protease, 800 U/kg)

  8. Establishing the A. E. Watkins landrace cultivar collection as a resource for systematic gene discovery in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Luzie U; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Bilham, Lorelei; Patsiou, Theofania S; Ambrose, Mike; Dicks, Jo; Griffiths, Simon

    2014-08-01

    A high level of genetic diversity was found in the A. E. Watkins bread wheat landrace collection. Genotypic information was used to determine the population structure and to develop germplasm resources. In the 1930s A. E. Watkins acquired landrace cultivars of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from official channels of the board of Trade in London, many of which originated from local markets in 32 countries. The geographic distribution of the 826 landrace cultivars of the current collection, here called the Watkins collection, covers many Asian and European countries and some from Africa. The cultivars were genotyped with 41 microsatellite markers in order to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the collection. A high level of genetic diversity was found, higher than in a collection of modern European winter bread wheat varieties from 1945 to 2000. Furthermore, although weak, the population structure of the Watkins collection reveals nine ancestral geographical groupings. An exchange of genetic material between ancestral groups before commercial wheat-breeding started would be a possible explanation for this. The increased knowledge regarding the diversity of the Watkins collection was used to develop resources for wheat research and breeding, one of them a core set, which captures the majority of the genetic diversity detected. The understanding of genetic diversity and population structure together with the availability of breeding resources should help to accelerate the detection of new alleles in the Watkins collection.

  9. Manthar-03: a high-yielding cultivar of wheat released for general cultivation in Southern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Akhtar, L.H.; Nasim, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the release of a new wheat variety Manthar-03. 'Manthar-03' is a high yielding and rust resistant variety of bread wheat with erect growth habit. It was released in the year 2003 as a general purpose variety. Manthar-03 is a selection from CIMMYT material (Entry No. 42 of 29 International Bread Wheat Screening Nursery) made at Regional Agricultural Research Institute (RARI), Bahawalpur during 1996-97. This strain has the famous CIMMYT line 'Kauz' in its parentage (KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS). Its pedigree is CM11163-6M-20Y-10M- 0M-0B. It is a more adapted and a high yielder. Genetically, this strain differs from existing commercial cultivars of Punjab. Resistance against leaf rust (5MRMS to 10MR), RRI value of 6.7 and 7.6 for leaf rust and ACI values of 3.4 and 0.7 for leaf rust) and high yield potential (6300 kg ha-1 ) are the major attributes of Manthar-03 that make it a superior variety for its target regions. Manthar-03 is tolerant to wheat aphid and Helicoverpa armigera. The thousand seed weight of this variety is 40-44 g. Seed is amber in color and contains 12.97% protein, 8.2% dry gluten and 1.55% ash. It has good chapati making quality. Plant type of Manthar-03 is erect with plant height 94 cm and droopy flag leaves. It is lodging resistant. It completes heading in 98 days and matures in 142 days. Manthar-03 performs better when planted from 15, November to 1, December, keeping 125 kg ha/sup -1/ seed rate and 125-85-50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ are applied. (author)

  10. Effects of climate change on spring wheat phenophase and water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water sources management in Ningxia, Gansu and. Inner Mongolia. ... climate change, these studies tend to limit their ... were acquired from the China Meteorological Sci- ... (DEM) were obtained from National Topographic ... AT identified for wheat jointing stage, heading ... mended by the Food and Agriculture Organization.

  11. Selenium supplementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Jose Coutinho; Benvindo Macas; Ana Sofia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat-Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively-to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordao (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations-equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha-with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77m Se (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavem). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordao, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordao and

  12. Genetic characterization of Moroccan and the exotic bread wheat cultivars using functional and random DNA markers linked to the agronomic traits for genomics-assisted improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkrar, Fatima; El-Haddoury, Jamal; Ouabbou, Hassan; Bendaou, Najib; Udupa, Sripada M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most important traits for wheat breeding. The functional marker analysis revealed that 35, 45, and 10 % of the Moroccan cultivars, respectively have the rust resistance genes (Lr34/Yr18/Pm38), dwarfing genes (Rht1b or Rht2b alleles) and the leaf rust resistance gene (Lr68). The marker alleles for genes Lr37/Yr17/Sr38, Sr24 and Yr36 were present only in the exotic cultivars and absent in Moroccan cultivars. 25 % of cultivars had 1BL.1RS translocation. 70 % of the wheat cultivars had Ppo-D1a and Ppo-A1b associated with low polyphenol oxidase activity. 10 % of cultivars showed presence of a random DNA marker allele (175 bp) linked to Hessian fly resistance gene H22. The majority of the Moroccan cultivars were carrying alleles that impart good bread making quality. Neighbor joining (NJ) and principal coordinate analysis based on the marker data revealed a clear differentiation between elite Moroccan and exotic wheat cultivars. The results of this study are useful for selecting suitable parents for making targeted crosses in marker-assisted wheat breeding and enhancing genetic diversity in the wheat cultivars.

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR; 70,564 (23.9% were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1% were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3% amplified one locus, 8 (17.8% amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9% did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising

  14. Report of the 2016 Uniform Regional Scab Nursery for spring wheat parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uniform Regional Scab Nursery for Spring Wheat Parents (URSN) was grown for the 21st year in 2016. Five locations (Brookings, SD, St. Paul and Crookston, MN, Prosper, ND, and Morden, Canada) reported results. A total of 33 entries was included in the 2016 URSN, in addition to the resistant chec...

  15. Genetic analysis without replications: Model evaluation and application in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic data collected from plant breeding and genetic studies may not be replicated in field designs even though field variation is present. In this study, we addressed this problem using spring wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) trial data collected from two locations. There were no intra-location repl...

  16. Entomopathogens in conjunction with imidacloprid could be used to manage wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-dwelling larvae of click beetles (wireworms) (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious pests of several agricultural crops worldwide. Hypnoidus bicolor and Limonius californicus are two major wireworm species damaging to spring wheat, particularly in the Golden Triangle, an important cereal-grow...

  17. Influence of stress conditions on irradiated wheat cultivar (triticum aestivum L.). Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, T Z [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This study was carried out from 1992-1994. It aimed to study genetic improvement in yield components namely: shoot length, shoot dry weight, and leaf area at 4, 8, and 12 weeks age under salt stress condition; plant, dry weight/plant earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100 - grain weight at harvest time under drought stress in three mutagenic generations. Results of the two experiments showed that the most suitable mutagenic dose was 75 Gy gamma ray, which caused improvement in stress tolerance for SK{sub 6}9 wheat cultivar by increased growth behaviour, and/or maintaining an active metabolism in plants under salinity and drought conditions. 3 tabs.

  18. Factor Analysis and Modelling for Rapid Quality Assessment of Croatian Wheat Cultivars with Different Gluten Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želimir Kurtanjek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis and multivariate chemometric modelling for rapid assessment of baking quality of wheat cultivars from Slavonia region, Croatia, have been applied. The cultivars Žitarka, Kata, Monika, Ana, Demetra, Divana and Sana were grown under controlled conditions at the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek during three years (2000–2002. Their quality properties were evaluated by 45 different chemical, physical and biochemical variables. The measured variables were grouped as: indirect quality parameters (6, farinographic parameters (7, extensographic parameters (5, baking test parameters (2 and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC of gluten proteins (25. The aim of this study is to establish minimal number (three, i.e. principal factors, among the 45 variables and to derive multivariate linear regression models for their use in simple and fast prediction of wheat properties. Selection of the principal factors based on the principal component analysis (PCA has been applied. The first three main factors of the analysis include: total glutenins (TGT, total ω-gliadins (Tω- and the ratio of dough resistance/extensibility (R/Ext. These factors account for 76.45 % of the total variance. Linear regression models gave average regression coefficients (R evaluated for the parameter groups: indirect quality R=0.91, baking test R=0.63, farinographic R=0.78, extensographic R=0.95 and RP-HPLC of gluten data R=0.90. Errors in the model predictions were evaluated by the 95 % significance intervals of the calibration lines. Practical applications of the models for rapid quality assessment and laboratory experiment planning were emphasized.

  19. Association and Validation of Yield-Favored Alleles in Chinese Cultivars of Common Wheat (Triticumaestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    Full Text Available Common wheat is one of the most important crops in China, which is the largest producer in the world. A set of 230 cultivars was used to identify yield-related loci by association mapping. This set was tested for seven yield-related traits, viz. plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, thousand-kernel weight (TKW, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and sterile spikelet number (SSN per plant in four environments. A total of 106 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers distributed on all 21 chromosomes were used to screen the set. Twenty-one and 19 of them were associated with KNPS and TKW, respectively. Association mapping detected 73 significant associations across 50 SSRs, and the phenotypic variation explained (R2 by the associations ranged from 1.54 to 23.93%. The associated loci were distributed on all chromosomes except 4A, 7A, and 7D. Significant and potentially new alleles were present on 8 chromosomes, namely 1A, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 4B, 5B, and 6B. Further analysis showed that genetic effects of associated loci were greatly influenced by association panels, and the R2 of crucial loci were lower in modern cultivars than in the mini core collection, probably caused by strong selection in wheat breeding. In order to confirm the results of association analysis, yield-related favorable alleles Xgwm135-1A138, Xgwm337-1D186, Xgwm102-2D144, and Xgwm132-6B128 were evaluated in a double haploid (DH population derived from Hanxuan10 xLumai14.These favorable alleles that were validated in various populations might be valuable in breeding for high-yield.

  20. Simultaneous Transfer of Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes from Hexaploid Triticale Cultivar Sorento into Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Yinghui; Cao, Lirong; Liu, Peiyuan; Geng, Miaomiao; Zhang, Qiang; Qiu, Lina; Sun, Qixin; Xie, Chaojie

    2018-01-01

    Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici , and wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, are two important diseases that severely threaten wheat production. Sorento, a hexaploid triticale cultivar from Poland, shows high resistance to the wheat powdery mildew isolate E09 and the leaf rust isolate PHT in Beijing, China. To introduce resistance genes into common wheat, Sorento was crossed with wheat line Xuezao, which is susceptible to both diseases, and the F 1 hybrids were then backcrossed with Xuezao as the recurrent male parent. By marker analysis, we demonstrate that the long arm of the 2R (2RL) chromosome confers resistance to both the leaf rust and powdery mildew isolates at adult-plant and seedling stages, while the long arm of 4R (4RL) confers resistance only to powdery mildew at both stages. The chromosomal composition of BC 2 F 3 plants containing 2R or 2RL and 4R or 4RL in the form of substitution and translocation were confirmed by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Monosomic and disomic substitutions of a wheat chromosome with chromosome 2R or 4R, as well as one 4RS-4DL/4DS-4RL reciprocal translocation homozigote and one 2RL-1DL translocation hemizigote, were recovered. Such germplasms are of great value in wheat improvement.

  1. Field Screening of Waterlogging Tolerance in Spring Wheat and Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Kristina Sundgren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved waterlogging tolerance of wheat and barley varieties may alleviate yield constraints caused by heavy or long-lasting precipitation. The waterlogging tolerance of 181 wheat and 210 barley genotypes was investigated in field trials between 2013 and 2014. A subset of wheat genotypes were selected for yield trials in 2015 and 2016. Our aim was to: (1 characterize the waterlogging tolerance of genotypes with importance for Norwegian wheat and barley breeding, and (2 identify which phenotypic traits that most accurately determine the waterlogging tolerance of wheat in our field trials. Waterlogging tolerance was determined by principal component analysis (PCA where best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs of the traits chlorosis, relative plant height, heading delay, relative spike number, relative biomass and an overall condition score were used as input variables. Six wheat and five barley genotypes were identified as consistently more tolerant in 2013 and 2014. This included the waterlogging tolerant CIMMYT line CETA/Ae. tauschii (895. Chlorosis and the overall condition score were the traits that best explained the yield response of the genotypes selected for the yield trials. Our results show that early stress symptoms did not necessarily reflect the ability to recover post treatment. Thus, records from full crop cycles appear as fundamental when screening populations with unknown tolerance properties.

  2. Grain yield and competitive ability against weeds in modern and heritage common wheat cultivars are differently influenced by sowing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Lazzaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing density can have a strong impact on crop stand development during wheat growing cycle. In organic and low-input agriculture, and therefore with minimum or nil use of chemical herbicides, increased sowing density is expected to affect not only grain yield but also weed suppression. In this study we tested, under Mediterranean conditions, six common wheat cultivars (three modern and three heritage and two three-component mixtures (arranged by combining the three modern or the three heritage cultivars. The different crop stands were tested at sowing densities of 250 (low and 400 (high, similar to standard sowing density used by local farmers viable seeds m–2 for two growing seasons. We did not detect a significant effect of crop stand diversity (single cultivars vs mixtures on grain yield and weed suppression. Differences were ascribed to type of cultivars used (heritage vs modern. Compared to high sowing density, in modern cultivars grain yield did not decrease significantly with low sowing density, whereas in heritage cultivars it increased by 15.6%, possibly also because of 21.5% lower plant lodging. Weed biomass increased with low sowing density both in heritage and modern cultivar crop stand types. However, heritage crop stands had, on average, a lower weed biomass (56% than modern crop stands. Moreover, weed biomass in heritage crop stands at low density (6.82±1.50 g m–2 was lower than that of modern cultivars at the same sowing density (15.54±3.35 g m–2, confirming the higher suppressive potential of the former. We can conclude that lower sowing density can be advisable when using heritage crop stands as it keeps productivity while decreasing plant lodging and maintaining weeds under control.

  3. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Nahid; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Inada, Hidetoshi; Hoshino, Daiki; Kondo, Taisuke; Izuta, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the effects of O 3 on crop plants cultivated in Bangladesh, two Bangladeshi wheat cultivars (Sufi and Bijoy) were grown in plastic boxes filled with Andisol and exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O 3 at 60 and 100 nl l -1 (10:00-17:00) from 13 March to 4 June 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the two cultivars at the final harvest were significantly reduced by the exposure to O 3 . Although there was no significant effect of O 3 on stomatal diffusive conductance to H 2 O of flag leaf, net photosynthetic rate of the leaf was significantly reduced by the exposure to O 3. The sensitivity of growth, yield, yield components and leaf gas exchange rates to O 3 was not significantly different between the two cultivars. The results obtained in the present study suggest that ambient levels of O 3 may detrimentally affect wheat production in Bangladesh. - The exposure to ambient levels of ozone decreases growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat.

  4. Population Growth and Damage Caused by Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Different Cultivars and Phenological Stages of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, M; Lampert, S; Salvadori, J R; Lau, D; Pereira, P R V S; Smaniotto, M A

    2013-10-01

    Among the aphids associated with wheat and other winter cereals, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is currently the predominant species in the wheat growing region of southern Brazil. The damage caused by this aphid occurs by direct feeding and/or by the transmission of pathogenic viruses, such as the Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus. In order to estimate the direct damage caused by R. padi on wheat, we evaluated the population growth of this aphid during the tillering and elongation stages and its effects on grain yield components. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse with three wheat cultivars (BRS Guabiju, BRS Timbaúva, and Embrapa 16). The effect of a period of 16 days, starting from an infestation of 40 aviruliferous aphids/plant, was evaluated and compared to non-infested plants. In both stages, the population growth of R. padi was lower on the BRS Timbaúva. Although infestation caused a reduction in the grain yield of the three cultivars, this effect was lower for BRS Timbaúva. The cultivar Embrapa 16 supported higher infestations and was more tolerant to damage than the BRS Guabiju.

  5. Physiological and biochemical constituents as predictive appreciation for selection of drought tolerant cultivars in wheat (triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal-ud-Din; Khan, S.U.; Gurmani, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A pot study was undertaken to assess the effect of drought stress imposed at various growth stages on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of wheat. Five commercial wheat cultivars viz. Chakwal-97, Inqalab-91, Margalla-99, NR-234 and Wafaq-2001 were grown in pots. The plants were subjected to three consecutive drought cycles at tillering, pre-anthesis and milky growth stages. Measurements pertaining to various physiological and biochemical parameters such as relative water content (RWC), proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), membrane stability index (MSI), yield and yield components were made. Significant reduction in grain yield was observed in all the test varieties when drought was imposed at any growth stage. The reduction was highest (39-64%) when stress was imposed at pre-anthesis followed by tillering growth stage. The wheat variety Wafaq-2001 and Inqalab-91 performed better by giving higher yield and produced greater numbers of filled seeds per spike compared to other varieties. Under water stress proline contents were higher in the drought-tolerant cultivar Wafaq-2001. The same variety showed higher membrane stability index and antioxidant enzymes (SOD) activity under drought stress conditions. The results suggest that pre-anthesis growth stage is the most sensitive towards drought stress. Wheat cultivars: Wafaq-2001 and Inqalab-91 showed best tolerance response against drought stress. Higher proline, RWC and SOD activity under drought stress seems to be the most reliable parameters enabling the discrimination of varieties for drought tolerance. (author)

  6. Chemometric Analysis of High Molecular Mass Glutenin Subunits and Image Data of Bread Crumb Structure from Croatian Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Jurković

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate functional relationships among wheat properties, high molecular mass (weight (HMW glutenin subunits and bread quality produced from eleven Croatian wheat cultivars by chemometric analysis. HMW glutenin subunits were fractionated by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and subsequently analysed by scanning densitometry in order to quantify HMW glutenin fractions. Wheat properties are characterised by four variables: protein content, sedimentation value, wet gluten and gluten index. Bread quality is assessed by the standard measurement of loaf volume, and visual quality of bread slice is quantified by 8 parameters by the use of computer image analysis. The data matrix with 21 columns (measured variables and 11 rows (cultivars is analysed for determination of number of latent variables. It was found that the first two latent variables account for 92, 85 and 87 % of variance of wheat quality properties, HMW glutenin fractions, and the bread quality parameters, respectively. Classification and functional relationships are discussed from the case data (cultivars and variable projections to the planes of the first two latent variables. Between Glu-D1y proportion and the bread quality parameters (standard parameter loaf volume and bread crumb cell area fraction determined by image analysis the strongest positive correlations are found r = 0.651 and r = 0.885, respectively. Between Glu-B1x proportion and the bread quality parameters the strongest negative correlations are found r =-0.535 and r = –0.841, respectively. The results are discussed in view of possible development of new and improvement of existing wheat cultivars and optimisation of bread production.

  7. Allelic variation at the vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity loci in Chinese winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfen eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 205 wheat cultivars from the Yellow and Huai valley of China were used to identify allelic variations of vernalization and photoperiod response genes, as well as the copy number variations (CNVs of Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 genes. A novel Vrn-D1 allele with 174-bp insertion in the promoter region of the recessive allele vrn-D1 was discovered in three Chinese wheat cultivars and designated as Vrn-D1c. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that cultivars with the Vrn-D1c allele exhibited significantly higher expression of the Vrn-D1 gene than that in cultivars with the recessive allele vrn-D1, indicating that the 174-bp insertion of Vrn-D1c contributed to the increase in Vrn-D1 gene expression and caused early heading and flowering. The five new cis-elements (Box II-like, 3-AF1 binding site, TC-rich repeats, Box-W1 and CAT-box in the 174-bp insertion possibly promoted the basal activity level of Vrn-D1 gene. Two new polymorphism combinations of photoperiod genes were identified and designated as Ppd-D1_Hapl-IX and Ppd-D1_Hapl-X. Association of the CNV of Ppd-B1 gene with the heading and flowering days showed that the cultivars with Ppd-B1_Hapl-VI demonstrated the earliest heading and flowering times, and those with Ppd-B1_Hapl-IV presented the latest heading and flowering times in three cropping seasons. Distribution of the vernalization and photoperiod response genes indicated that all recessive alleles at the four vernalization response loci, Ppd-B1_Hapl-I at Ppd-B1 locus, and Ppd-D1_Hapl-I at the Ppd-D1 locus were predominant in Chinese winter wheat cultivars. This study can provide useful information for wheat breeding programs to screen wheat cultivars with relatively superior adaptability and maturity.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Calcium Accumulation in Grains of European Wheat Cultivars

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    Dalia Z. Alomari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for people who depend mainly on consuming cereal diet. In this study, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS of calcium concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains using a European wheat diversity panel of 353 varieties [339 winter wheat (WW plus 14 of spring wheat (SW] and phenotypic data based on two field seasons. High genotyping densities of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were obtained from the application of the 90k iSELECT ILLUMINA chip and a 35k Affymetrix chip. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to measure the calcium concentrations of the wheat grains. Best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs for calcium were calculated across the seasons and ranged from 288.20 to 647.50 among the varieties (μg g-1 DW with a mean equaling 438.102 (μg g-1 DW, and the heritability was 0.73. A total of 485 SNP marker–trait associations (MTAs were detected in data obtained from grains cultivated in both of the two seasons and BLUE values by considering associations with a -log10 (P-value ≥3.0. Among these SNP markers, we detected 276 markers with a positive allele effect and 209 markers with a negative allele effect. These MTAs were found on all chromosomes except chromosomes 3D, 4B, and 4D. The most significant association was located on chromosome 5A (114.5 cM and was linked to a gene encoding cation/sugar symporter activity as a potential candidate gene. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of calcium were located near significantly associated SNPs. This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally variable traits in genetically highly diverse variety panels. The research demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for illuminating the genetic architecture of

  9. Unraveling Key Metabolomic Alterations in Wheat Embryos Derived from Freshly Harvested and Water-Imbibed Seeds of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Dormancy Status

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    Aayudh Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS, which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible. Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv. Sukang, dormant and PHS-susceptible (cv. Baegjoong, non-dormant cultivars were water-imbibed, and the isolated embryos were subjected to high-throughput, global non-targeted metabolomic profiling. A careful comparison of identified metabolites between Sukang and Baegjoong embryos at 0 and 48 h after imbibition revealed that several key metabolic pathways [such as: lipids, fatty acids, oxalate, hormones, the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs, and amino acids] and phytochemicals were differentially regulated between dormant and non-dormant varieties. Most of the membrane lipids were highly reduced in Baegjoong compared to Sukang, which indicates that the cell membrane instability in response to imbibition could also be a key factor in non-dormant wheat varieties for their untimely germination. This study revealed that several key marker metabolites (e.g., RFOs: glucose, fructose, maltose, and verbascose, were highly expressed in Baegjoong after imbibition. Furthermore, the data showed that the key secondary metabolites and phytochemicals (vitexin, chrysoeriol, ferulate, salidroside and gentisic acid, with known antioxidant properties, were comparatively low at basal levels in PHS-susceptible, non-dormant cultivar, Baegjoong. In conclusion, the results of this investigation revealed that after imbibition the metabolic homeostasis of dormant wheat is significantly less affected compared to non

  10. Changes in Nutrient Content of Root and Grain of Wheat Cultivars Inoculated by Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza

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    M. Jiriaie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Providing the nutritional requirements of agricultural crops by non-chemical resources is a new approach in the organic farming that has attracted the attention of both the researchers and the consumers in recent years. Therefore, it is highly important to find new fertilizer resources that are both economically able to provide the nutritional needs of the crop plants and have no adverse effects on the consumers and the environment. Materials and Methods: With this approach, an experiment was conducted in the research station of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments including Mycorrhizal fungi in three levels (i.e. no use of strain; use of Glomus intraradices strain; and use of Glomus mosseae strain, bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum in two-levels (i.e. non-inoculated and inoculated and wheat cultivars in three levels (i.e. Chamran; Dena; and Behrang. The measured parameters include the concentration of macronutrients (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and some micronutrients (i.e. zinc, iron and manganese in two part seed and the root of wheat. Results and Discussion: Surveying the elements content in the root and the grain indicated a significant and positive effect of the use the Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza to improve the concentration of the elements in wheat cultivars. However, the simultaneous use of these microorganisms led to an increase of the effects of their application on their assessed traits.Finally the highest concentration of N (2.21 present, P (0.50 present and Fe (33.88 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain; the highest concentration of K (0.93 present and 0.54 present and Mn (43.11 and 23.63 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain and root, respectively. Moreover, the highest concentration of Zn in the root (19.70 mg.kg-1 was obtained from inoculation of C.V Dena seeds with

  11. SDS-PAGE For Glutenins Protein of Some Durum Wheat Cultivars coming from Different Agro-Ecological Areas

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    Ahmed Salih Khalaf

    Full Text Available Ten durum wheat cultivars of different agro-ecological resources were involved, and subjected to electrophoresis for their glutenin subunits. Glutenin subunits resolution and coding based on relative mobility. Cultivars shown differences in migration patterns and categorized into different groups in accordance to possessing a particular subunits. Caronia and Haurani were similar as they possess subunits 6 + 15, while ACSAD 65, Simeto, and Waha possess subunits 7 + 8; but Korifla and Gidara 2 and Creso possess subunits 6 + 8 with an additional subunit 20 for the Creso. Lastly, Cham 5 and Om rabi 5 possess subunits 20.

  12. Evaluation of growth and gas exchange rates of two local saudi wheat cultivars grown under heat stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutraa, T.; Akhkha, A.; Shoaibi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of three temperature regimes, low (20 degree C), moderate (25 degree C) and high (30 degree C), on growth and physiological parameters of two local Saudi wheat (Triticum durum) cultivars, Hab-Ahmar and Algaimi. Plants were grown under controlled environment in growth chambers. After four weeks plants were harvested and the following growth parameters were measured; plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, root length, fresh and dry weight. Physiological traits include chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rates, stomatal conductance, dark respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters; Fo, Fm and Fv/Fm. In cultivar Hab-Ahmar, moderate and high temperatures caused significant decrease in most growth and physiological parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rates, stomatal conductance, dark respiration and the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). In contrast, cv. Algaimi was shown to be more thermotolerant to moderate and high temperatures, with the exception of some growth parameters that were decreased. Unlike cultivar Hab-Ahmar, cultivar Algaimi had an increased rate of dark respiration when temperature was high (30 degree C). Stomatal behavior is shown to be positively correlated with the rates of photosynthesis in both cultivars; however, in cultivar Hab-Ahmar such correlation decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  13. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  14. Investigation of Tolerance, Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Cultivars to Salinity of Irrigation Water at Sensitive Stages of Growth

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    B Saadatian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in order to study of tolerance ability of wheat cultivates yield and yield components to salinity of irrigation water at sensitive stages of growth, was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2009. Treatments were included wheat cultivars of Alvand, Tous, Sayson and Navid and salinity of irrigation water induced by sodium chloride at five levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1. The results showed that percentage and rate of emergence, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of seed per spike, number of spike per pot, biological and grain yield reduced by increasing salinity level. At all stress levels Navid cv. had highest emergence percentage. In non-stress and 4 dS m-1, Alvand cv. and at higher levels of stress, Tous cv. had high height in reproductive phase. At control and 4 dS m-1, Sayson cv. and at 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1, Tous cv. in majority of yield and yield components traits had significant superior than other cultivars. Tolerance index of Sayson cv. at 4 and 8 dS m-1 was more than other cultivars but at 12 and 16 dS m-1, maximum value of this index was belonged to Tous cv. At all salinity levels, Alvand cv. had least tolerance index to stress. Number of spike per pot had maximum direct effect on grain yield of wheat cultivars in stress condition. Also indirect effect of biological yield via number of spike per pot than other its indirect effects, had maximum share in wheat seed yield.

  15. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.; Benc, S.

    1977-01-01

    The induction of mutations in cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been part of the breeding programme at the Plant Breeding Station at Stupice since 1960. A total of 26 cultivars or selections of winter wheat, 4 cultivars or selections of spring wheat, 2 cultivars of field beans, and 43 selections of spring barley have been treated since 1960. A total of 140 mutant lines of wheat and 37 mutant lines of barley with improved disease resistance of a race-specific type have been obtained. Several mutation programme derived cultivars have been registered in Czechoslovakia (''Diamant'', ''Ametyst'', ''Favorit'', ''Hana'', ''Rapid'', and ''Atlas'' in barley, and ''Alfa'' in field beans), but none of them is a mutation for disease resistance. A series of mutants have been used in crossing programmes. Approaches to improve the efficiency of mutation breeding for disease resistance are suggested. (author)

  16. Quantitative structure analysis of genetic diversity among spring bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Lin; Wagner, Carola; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Genetic diversity in spring bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) was studied in a total of 69 accessions. For this purpose, 52 microsatellite (SSR) markers were used and a total of 406 alleles were detected, of which 182 (44.8%) occurred at a frequency of bread wheats was H ( e ) = 0.65. A comparatively higher diversity was observed between wheat varieties from Southern European countries (Austria/Switzerland, Portugal/Spain) corresponding to those from other regions.

  17. The fatty acid profile in different wheat cultivars depending on the level of contamination with microscopic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Buśko, Maciej; Góral, Tomasz; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2014-06-15

    Analyses were conducted on 30 winter wheat samples growing under controlled conditions and following inoculation with fungi Fusarium culmorum. In inoculated samples the mean concentration of 30 analysed fatty acids was significantly higher in relation to the control and amounted to 1,396 mg/kg vs. 1,046 mg/kg in the control kernels. Recorded concentrations for individual cultivars were significantly correlated with the concentration of fungal biomass. Higher concentration in the control was recorded only for the acid trans C18:2n-6. It was also found that the acid profiles are characteristic of individual cultivars. Statistical analysis showed that trans C18:2n-6, C18:1, C18:3n-3 and C18:3n-6 were the acids with the greatest discriminatory power in distinguishing inoculated samples from the control. Discriminatory analysis separated individual cultivars into quality classes of winter wheat cultivars depending on the presence of a specific fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The 13C isotope discrimination technique for identifying durum wheat cultivars efficient in uptake and use of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechergui, M.; Snane, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The water balance model using a neutron moisture probe and the 13 C isotope discrimination method were used in this field to rank durum wheat genotypes for water use efficiency. The results presented focus on the first two years of a five-year study. Eighteen durum wheat cultivars were used in the first experiment. The 13 C/ 12 C ratio was measured to examine the correlation between this ratio and the water use efficiency. Total water consumption was calculated and the grain and straw yields and other parameters were also recorded. The results show differences between cultivars with respect to water use efficiency, 13 C discrimination and grain yield. From this experiment, four cultivars were selected for a detailed study in the second year. The data from this study show that there is a positive correlation between grain water use efficiency and Δ. Thus, it may be possible to use Δ as a tool for screening out water use efficient cultivars in semi-arid regions. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  19. The {sup 13}C isotope discrimination technique for identifying durum wheat cultivars efficient in uptake and use of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechergui, M; Snane, M H [Departement de Genie Rural et des Eaux et Forets, Tunis (Tunisia). Inst. National Agronomique de Tunisie

    1996-07-01

    The water balance model using a neutron moisture probe and the {sup 13}C isotope discrimination method were used in this field to rank durum wheat genotypes for water use efficiency. The results presented focus on the first two years of a five-year study. Eighteen durum wheat cultivars were used in the first experiment. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio was measured to examine the correlation between this ratio and the water use efficiency. Total water consumption was calculated and the grain and straw yields and other parameters were also recorded. The results show differences between cultivars with respect to water use efficiency, {sup 13}C discrimination and grain yield. From this experiment, four cultivars were selected for a detailed study in the second year. The data from this study show that there is a positive correlation between grain water use efficiency and {Delta}. Thus, it may be possible to use {Delta} as a tool for screening out water use efficient cultivars in semi-arid regions. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  20. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  1. Partner, Kristal and Dukat: A new generation of the Novi Sad spring protein pea (Pisum sativum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Vojislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the trials of the Department of Variety Protection and Registration of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia were carried out on four locations, including three new Novi Sad spring pea line, L-536, L-537 and L-538, and the control cultivar Javor. In average, the grain yield of all three lines was higher in comparison to the control cultivar, with the highest average yield in Partner (2732 kg ha-1. All three cultivars have shown that in favourable years may give grain yields higher than 3500 kg ha-1. The crude protein content ranged from 278.3 g kg-1, in Javor, to 307.0 g kg-1, in Dukat. .

  2. Yield response of winter wheat cultivars to environments modeled by different variance-covariance structures in linear mixed models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studnicki, M.; Mądry, W.; Noras, K.; Wójcik-Gront, E.; Gacek, E.

    2016-11-01

    The main objectives of multi-environmental trials (METs) are to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to investigate genotype by environment (G×E) interactions. Linear mixed models (LMMs) with more complex variance-covariance structures have become recognized and widely used for analyzing METs data. Best practice in METs analysis is to carry out a comparison of competing models with different variance-covariance structures. Improperly chosen variance-covariance structures may lead to biased estimation of means resulting in incorrect conclusions. In this work we focused on adaptive response of cultivars on the environments modeled by the LMMs with different variance-covariance structures. We identified possible limitations of inference when using an inadequate variance-covariance structure. In the presented study we used the dataset on grain yield for 63 winter wheat cultivars, evaluated across 18 locations, during three growing seasons (2008/2009-2010/2011) from the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. For the evaluation of variance-covariance structures and the description of cultivars adaptation to environments, we calculated adjusted means for the combination of cultivar and location in models with different variance-covariance structures. We concluded that in order to fully describe cultivars adaptive patterns modelers should use the unrestricted variance-covariance structure. The restricted compound symmetry structure may interfere with proper interpretation of cultivars adaptive patterns. We found, that the factor-analytic structure is also a good tool to describe cultivars reaction on environments, and it can be successfully used in METs data after determining the optimal component number for each dataset. (Author)

  3. Effect of application approaches of ammonium bicarbonate on yield of spring wheat and nitrogen balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Pan Jiarong; Zheng Xingyun

    1995-01-01

    The results from 15 N-tracing experiment showed that at the same rate of nitrogen application, the nitrogen utilization ammonium bicarbonate was 33.50%, 32.30% and 23.19% respectively and the nitrogen loss rate of ammonium bicarbonate was 22.12%, 26.93% and 45.32% respectively for fertilizer mixed thoroughly with soil before sowing, buried into soil and spread on the surface of soil at both joining stage (1/2N) and booting stage (1/2N) of spring wheat. The nitrogen utilization of ammonium bicarbonate for top-application at both joining (1/2N) and booting stage (1/2N) was significantly lower but nitrogen loss rate was significantly higher than that of either thorough incorporation with soil or deep application at joining and booting stages. Between the latter treatments there was no significantly difference observed. There was no significant difference in biomass and grain yield of spring wheat between the former treatment and either of the latter treatments, indicating that buried into soil or mixed with soil thoroughly as a basal fertilizer was an available approach to increase the nitrogen availability of ammonium bicarbonate and crop yield. It was also shown that no significant difference in biomass and grain yield of spring wheat between deep application of ammonium bicarbonate and top-application of urea at the same rate of N application

  4. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids and lipophilic (isoprenoids extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1. Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components.

  5. Distribution of photoperiod-insensitive alleles Ppd-B1a and Ppd-D1a and their effect on heading time in Japanese wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Masako; Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Fujita, Masaya; Oda, Shunsuke; Kubo, Katashi; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Kojima, Hisayo; Nishida, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The genotypes of photoperiod response genes Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1 in Japanese wheat cultivars were determined by a PCR-based method, and heading times were compared among genotypes. Most of the Japanese wheat cultivars, except those from the Hokkaido region, carried the photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-D1a, and heading was accelerated 10.3 days compared with the Ppd-D1b genotype. Early cultivars with Ppd-D1a may have been selected to avoid damage from preharvest rain. In the Hokkaido region, Pp...

  6. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  7. Effect of drought and abscisic acid application on the osmotic adjustment of four wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Bano, A.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of osmolytes in leaf tissues and the abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure are well-recognized mechanisms associated with drought tolerance in crop plants. We determine the response in terms of osmotic potential and the contents of leaf proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugar at booting and grain filling stages of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to drought and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) in a pot study. Leaf sample were collected 3, 6 and 9 days after drought induction and at 48 and 72 h of re-watering (recovery). Marked decreases in osmotic potential associated with the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars occurred under conditions of drought stress Accession 011320 was most sensitive to drought and showed the largest decrease in osmotic potential and least accumulation of proline, sugar and glycine betaine The inhibitory effects of drought stress were ameliorated by exogenous application of ABA. This ameliorating effect was more pronounced at the booting than at grain filling stage particularly in the sensitive accession 011320. Upon rewatering the recovery from drought stress was found to be greater in case of abscisic acid application. The leaf praline content is seen to be a suitable indicator for selecting drought-tolerant genotypes. (author)

  8. Laboratory, greenhouse and field methods for screening rust-resistant wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashaal, S.F.; Kiraly, Z.; Barabas, Z.; Barna, B.; Cereal Research Inst., Szeged, Hungary)

    1977-01-01

    Detached flag leaf cultures were not suitable for evaluation of stem-rust resistance in our screening programme. On the basis of yield evaluation it was possible to screen out ten stem-rust ''tolerant'' wheat lines in field experiments. Rusted and protected microplots of each line were paired within a replicate. After artificial inoculation, the protected plants were sprayed with fungicides (benomyl plus dithiocarbamate plus copper salt) at weekly intervals until maturation to keep each protected plot rust-free. The thousand-kernel weights of rusted and protected plots were compared. When the thousand-kernel weight of protected plot increased only slightly and the rust reaction type of plants was susceptible in the rusted plot, the line was screened out as putative ''tolerant''. On the basis of three-year field trial ten ''tolerant'' lines were selected. Nine out of ten lines proved to be resistant to two stem-rust races in greenhouse tests in the seedling stage, when resistance was determined on the basis of reduced spore production instead of infection types. Resistance of these seedlings related partly to the reduced number of pustules and partly to a slow rusting character of plants. It seems possible to screen resistant cultivars in the greenhouse by the method outlined in this paper, when resistance is determined on the basis of a reduced number of infection sites and/or by the slow rusting capacity. (author)

  9. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Light Interception and Light Extinction Coefficient in Different Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samadiyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum is a cereal grain, originated from the levant region of the near east and Ethiopian highlands, currently cultivated worldwide. Light extinction coefficient K is a coefficient that represents the amount of light reduced by the plant. Light or radiation extinction coefficient is a concept that expresses the light penetration decrease into the canopy in the way the upper leaves of the canopy with less angles have lower amount of K in comparison with the horizontal leaves. Green et al., (2003 stated that nitrogen fertilizer increased light absorption by plant leaves; and affects the yield. The distribution patterns of nitrogen allocation in leaves are more exposed therefore photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area and canopy were optimized. Differences in canopy structure by the light extinction coefficient (k of the Act Lambert - Beer is described, along LAI differing due to different species and genotypes which are important factors in absorption and light use efficiency. This experiment was performed to evaluate the maximum light absorption and light extinction coefficient in different levels of nitrogen usage and wheat cultivars. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted during 2011-2012 on a research farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, located in Khatoon Abad Village (northern latitude of 320 and 40´ and eastern longitude of 510 and 48´ with altitude of 1555 m above sea level. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Main plots were consisted in four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 from an urea source in main plots and different cultivars of wheat included Pishtaz, Sepahan and SW-486 in sub plots. Planting was performed on 14 November 2011 and at a density of 400 plants per square meter. In order to strengthen the land and required elements for plant regarding soil test and treatments based on the test plan, the

  10. Comparing Relationships among Yield and Its Related Traits in Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Inoculated Wheat Cultivars under Different Water Regimes Using Multivariate Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Saed-Moucheshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.

  11. Evaluation of Spring Bread Wheat Lines (Triticum aestivum L. and Their Classification by Using Some Agronomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Daryani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain superior genotypes from 30 advanced spring bread wheat cultivars a field experiment in RCBD was carried out in 1388. Traits like yield, yield components, harvest index, peduncle length, awn length, number of leaf, plant height, flag leaf area, penultimate leaf area, days to booting, days to spike emergence, days to flowering and physiological maturity were recorded. Analysis of variance showed significant difference among genotypes for the traits measured at %1 probability level. This indicates considerable genetic variations among the lines evaluated. Cluster analysis of traits measured, grouped lines into three categories. Eight lines were located in third cluster with respect to some traits including grain yield and other important traits like biological yield, number of seed per spike, spike length, peduncle length, plant height, flag leaf area, and number of spike per m² were found to be superior. By using factor analysis, five factors determined 78.99% of total variation. In this analysis, the first factor could account for 35% of total variation and nominated as effective factor on grain yield. Line with accession number of N-75-5 was found to be highest yielding (289.5 g/m2 (as compared with the other lines.

  12. Evaluation of Spring Bread Wheat Lines (Triticum aestivum L. and Their Classification by Using Some Agronomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A .R. Tarinejad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To obtain superior genotypes from 30 advanced spring bread wheat cultivars a field experiment in RCBD was carried out in 1388. Traits like yield, yield components, harvest index, peduncle length, awn length, number of leaf, plant height, flag leaf area, penultimate leaf area, days to booting, days to spike emergence, days to flowering and physiological maturity were recorded. Analysis of variance showed significant difference among genotypes for the traits measured at %1 probability level. This indicates considerable genetic variations among the lines evaluated lines. Cluster analysis through Ward method, by using all of the traits, grouped lines into three clusters. Eight lines located in third cluster with respect to some traits including grain yield and other important traits like biological yield, number of seed per spike, spike length, peduncle length, plant height, flag leaf area, and number of spike per m² were superior. Factor analysis, five factors discriminated 78.99% of total variation. In this analysis, the first factor could determine 35% of total variation and nominated as effective factor on grain yield. Line with accession number N-75-5 was found to be highest yielding (289.5 g/m2 (as compared with the other lines.

  13. A comparative ideotype, yield component and cultivation value analysis for spring wheat adaptation in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Laurila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mixed structural covariance, Path and Cultivation Value analyses and the CERES-Wheat crop model were used to evaluate vegetation and yield component variation affecting yield potential between different high-latitude (> 60° N lat. and mid-European (< 60° N lat. spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes currently cultivated in southern Finland. Path modeling results from this study suggest that especially grains/ear, harvest index (HI and maximum 1000 kernel weight were significant factors defining the highest yield potential. Mixed and Cultivation value modeling results suggest that when compared with genotypes introduced for cultivation before 1990s, modern spring wheat genotypes have a significantly higher yielding capacity, current high yielding mid-European genotypes even exceeding the 5 t ha-1 non-potential baseline yield level (yb. Because of a forthcoming climate change, the new high yielding wheat genotypes have to adapt for elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 growing conditions in northern latitudes. The optimized ideotype profiles derived from the generic high-latitude and mid-European genotypes are presented in the results. High-latitude and mid-European ideotype profiles with factors estimating the effects of concurrent elevated CO2 and temperature levels with photoperiodical daylength effects can be utilized when designing future high yielding ideotypes adapted to future growing conditions. The CERES-Wheat ideotype modeling results imply, that with new high yielding mid-European ideotypes, the non-potential baseline yield (yb would be on average 5150 kg ha-1 level (+ 108 % vs. new high-latitude ideotypes (yb 4770 kg ha-1, 100% grown under the elevated CO2(700ppm×temperature(+3ºC growing conditions projected by the year 2100 climate change scenario in southern Finland.

  14. Comparative proteome analysis of glutenin synthesis and accumulation in developing grains between superior and poor quality bread wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan; Zhang, Yanzhen; Gao, Xuan; Wang, Ke; Wang, Shunli; Zhang, Yong; He, Zhonghu; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2012-01-15

    Wheat glutenins are the major determinants of wheat quality. In this study, grains at the development stage from three wheat cultivars (Jimai 20, Jin 411 and Zhoumai 16) with different bread-making quality were harvested based on thermal times from 150 °C(d) to 750 °C(d) , and were used to investigate glutenin accumulation patterns and their relationships with wheat quality. High and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs) were synthesised concurrently. No obvious correlations between HMW/LMW glutenin ratios and dough property were observed. Accumulation levels of HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs as well as 1Bx13 + 1By16 and 1Dx4 + 1Dy12 subunits were higher in superior gluten quality cultivar Jimain 20 than in poor quality cultivar Jing 411 and Zhoumai 16. According to the results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, six types of accumulation patterns in LMW-GSs were identified and classified. The possible relationships between individual LMW-GSs and gluten quality were established. The high accumulation level of HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs as well as 1Bx13 + 1By16 and 1Dx4 + 1Dy12 subunits contributed to the superior gluten quality of Jimai 20. Two highly expressed and 16 specifically expressed LMW glutenin subunits in Jimain 20 had positive effects on dough quality, while 17 specifically expressed subunits in Zhoumai 16 and Jing 411 appeared to have negative effects on gluten quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Feng Zhaozhong; Manning, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  16. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    Full Text Available Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar, were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA. The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05. Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and abscisic acid (ABA contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05 increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05, whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  17. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  18. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON GRAIN MOISTURE, GERMINATION AND VIGOUR OF THREE WHEAT CULTIVARS DURING ONE YEAR STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grain moisture, germination and vigour of three wheat cultivars packed in paper bags and stored for one year under four different conditions of environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH were investigated. During the first ninety days of storage significant reduction in grain moisture content of 4, 2.5 and 0.9 %, respectively, under 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C and RH of 45 % occurred. Subsequently grain moisture remained constant until the end of storage. Seeds of examined cultivars lost their germination ability and vigour only under elevated storage temperatures. Germination and vigour loss after one year of storage differed between cultivars being higher for seeds kept under 40°C, RH = 45% (35-85 % and 55-94 %, respectively, than under 25°C, RH = 45 % (10-20 % and 15-22 %, respectively. Obtained data indicate significant influence of storage conditions on moisture content, germination and vigour changes during storage of wheat seeds, as well as varietal dependence of seed viability.

  19. Wheat Cultivar Performance and Stability between No-Till and Conventional Tillage Systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arron H. Carter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been established to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems receive significant soil erosion through both wind and water. As a result, no-till chemical fallow systems are being adopted to mitigate erosion concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate current Pacific Northwest cultivars under no-till chemical fallow and tilled fallow systems to identify cultivars adapted to a late-planted no-till system. Twenty-one cultivars were planted in a split-plot design with fallow type as the main plot and genotype as the sub-plot. Four replications were planted at two locations over three years. Data was collected on heading date, grain yield and grain volume weight. Analysis of variance was conducted on data from each year and location. Results were significant for all traits. Cultivars in the late-planted no-till system yielded an average of 39% less than the tilled fallow system. It is evident that cultivars vary in their adaptability and yield stability across production systems. Chukar and Eltan displayed the highest levels of yield stability, and growers who wish to plant winter wheat in a late-planted no-till system may benefit from choosing these cultivars.

  20. [The high-molecular glutenins of the soft winter wheats from European countries and their relationship to the glutenin composition of the ancient and modern wheat varieties of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, S V; Fedak, G; Lukov, O

    2000-01-01

    The sources of high-quality components of HMW glutenines determining grain quality, as initial material for breeding in the conditions of Ukraine were revealed on the base of analysis of 75 literature sources data about composition of high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin and pedigrees of 598 European wheats from 12 countries, bred in 1923-1997, including, 449 cultivars from West and 149 East Europe. Origin of these components was observed in varieties of Great Britain, France and Germany from ancient Ukrainian wheat Red Fife and it derivative spring wheats of Canada--Marquis, Garnet, Regent, Saunders, Selkirk and of USA--spring wheat Thatcher and winter wheats--Kanred and Oro--as directly as via cultivars of European countries and Australia; in wheats of East European countries from winter wheats Myronivs'ka 808 and Bezostaya 1 (derivative of Ukrainian cultivars Ukrainka and Krymka) and their descendants; in wheats of Austria and Italy--from the both genetical sources.

  1. Effect of leaf and soil contaminations on heavy metals content in spring wheat crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.; Hrynczuk, B.

    2000-01-01

    Glass house experiments were carried out in Wagner pots containing 6 kg of soil. The amounts were compared of Zn, Pb and Cd taken up by the crop of spring wheat from contamination introduced into the soil or upon leaves. The heavy metals were labelled with the radioactive isotopes 65 Zn, 210 Pb and 115 Cd. The experiment was performed as a series of independent analyses in four replications. The dynamics of the labelled heavy metals translocation from contaminations sprayed on the upper or bottom side of the flag leaf was also tested. The highest concentration of 65 Zn was found in the straw and gain of wheat. much higher amounts of the metals appeared to have been taken up by the plants from leaf contamination than from soil. The highest dynamics of translocation from leaves to other vegetative and generative organs of plants was that of zinc. (author)

  2. Dynamics of genetic variation at gliadin-coding loci in bread wheat cultivars developed in small grains research center (Kragujevac during last 35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosljska-Dragovič Aleksandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple alleles of gliadin-coding loci are well-known genetic markers of common wheat genotypes. Based on analysis of gliadin patterns in common wheat cultivars developed at the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac dynamics of genetic variability at gliadin-coding loci has been surveyed for the period of 35 years. It was shown that long-term breeding of the wheat cultivars involved gradual replacement of ancient alleles for those widely spread in some regions in the world, which belong to well-known cultivars-donor of some important traits. Developing cultivars whose pedigree involved much new foreign genetic material has increased genetic diversity as well as has changed frequency of alleles of gliadin-coding loci. So we can conclude that the genetic profile of modern Serbian cultivars has changed considerably. Genetic formula of gliadin was made for each the cultivar studied. The most frequent alleles of gliadin-coding loci among modern cultivars should be of great interest of breeders because these alleles are probably linked with genes that confer advantage to their carriers at present.

  3. Effect of phytohormones on growth and ion accumulation of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABA), benzyladenine (BA) and cycocel (CCC) on growth and ion accumulation of three spring wheat cultivars, cv. Wafaq-2001, cv. Inqulab-91, and cv. SAARC-1 under salinity stress. Seeds of all the cultivars were treated prior to sowing with ABA ...

  4. Influence of soil amendments made from digestate on soil physics and the growth of spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas; Krümmelbein, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Every year 13 million tons of organic wastes accumulate in Germany. These wastes are a potential alternative for the production of energy in biogas plants, especially because the financial subventions for the cultivation of renewable resources for energy production were omitted in 2014. The production of energy from biomass and organic wastes in biogas plants results in the accumulation of digestate and therefore causes the need for a sustainable strategy of the utilization of these residues. Within the scope of the BMBF-funded project 'VeNGA - Investigations for recovery and nutrient use as well as soil and plant-related effects of digestate from waste fermentation' the application of processed digestate as soil amendments is examined. Therefore we tested four different mechanical treatment processes (rolled pellets, pressed pellets, shredded compost and sieved compost) to produce soil amendments from digestate with regard to their impact on soil physics, soil chemistry and the interactions between plants and soil. Pot experiments with soil amendments were performed in the greenhouse experiment with spring wheat and in field trials with millet, mustard and forage rye. After the first year of the experiment, preliminary results indicate a positive effect of the sieved compost and the rolled pellets on biomass yield of spring wheat as compared to the other variations. First results from the Investigation on soil physics show that rolled pellets have a positive effect on the soil properties by influencing size and distribution of pores resulting in an increased water holding capacity. Further ongoing enhancements of the physical and chemical properties of the soil amendments indicate promising results regarding the ecological effects by increased root growth of spring wheat.

  5. Limitation of multi-elemental fingerprinting of wheat grains: Effect of cultivar, sowing date, and nutrient management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez-Tapia, Alfonso; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    Multi-element fingerprinting demonstrates some potential for tracing the origin of agricultural products but not for discriminating among crop cultivars and nutrient management (source, rate). With principal component analysis (PCA) and univariate statistics, we examined 19 elements in grains from...... two winter wheat cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) grown with different rates of animal manure (AM) or mineral fertilisers (NPK) in a long-term field experiment and two sowing dates (early, timely). Nitrogen, Cd and Mn related to NPK, and Mo and Na to AM. Barium, Fe, and P reflected nutrient rate......; these elements increased with nutrient rate regardless of source. Unmanured grains were enriched in Cu. Mariboss was characterized by higher concentrations of Sr, Ba and Sc compared to Hereford with Sr in grain as the main separator. Univariate statistics showed higher concentrations of N, P, Mg, Ba, Cu, Mo...

  6. Resistance of durum wheat cultivars to Fusarium culmorum and the difficulty or bringing greenhouse data into agreement with field results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piglionica, V.

    1977-01-01

    Foot-rot, caused by Fusarium culmorum is becoming a more and more serious problem in durum wheat. Therefore, resistance breeding has to be considered and tests were started to assess whether available durum wheat germplasm contains lines or varieties with satisfactory levels of resistance. A wide range of susceptibility was observed among 192 cultivars and lines included in this preliminary test. However, considerable experimental problems were faced, which became evident by an obvious disagreement of results obtained under greenhouse versus field conditions. The paper describes some of the problems and indicates promising approaches to overcome them. The following difficulties have been overcome: (1) Avoiding seeds latently infected; (2) Eliminating possible interference with other pathogenic organisms; (3) Handling the pathogen so that low-pathogenicity mutants do not appear; (4) Standardization of the inoculum level to enable identification of partial resistance. (author)

  7. Differentiation of organic and non-organic winter wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Busscher, Nicolaas; Mergardt, Gaby; Mäder, Paul; Torp, Torfinn; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well-documented sample origin. The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non-organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k-nearest-neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non-organic origin using cross-validation. Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non-organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The Effects of Carboxin-thiram on Associative Relationships between Azospirillum Species and Wheat (Chamran Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. rejali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biofertilizers have been identified as alternative to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming systems. One of the most useful kind of biofertilizers include plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Azospirillum is an associative rhizobacteria which can be very useful for plants such as wheat. It can help plant by fixing nitrogen through biological way, causing root development, plant strength improvement in primary phases, causing germination percent increment, improving plant tolerance in stress situations (drought, salinity, soil compaction and pathogens, secreting plant promoting hormones like cytokinin, Oxin and finally yield increment will be observable. Modern agriculture largely relies on the extensive application of agrochemicals, including inorganic fertilizers and pesticides. Although pesticides are important, their effects on nontarget organisms are of great concern because this poses a risk to the entire ecological system. The fungicides may also adversely affect the soil microflora, especially the types of microorganisms that can applied to seeds as bacterial inoculants. Considering useful effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially Azospirillum on Wheat, this study was done in order to survey interaction effects between fungicide and available biofertilizers in Iran market. Materials and Methods: Effect of carboxin tiram in 2 levels (applied, non-applied as fungicide, on efficacy of wheat plant (Chamran Cultivar and final crop yields under association conditions with 5 Azospirillum species (A.brasilense, A.lipoferum, A.halopraeferense, A.irakense, A.sp using powdery and liquid formulation were studied in a greenhouse test for four months in Soil and Water Research Institute.At first some properties of used soil, including soil texture, pH, EC,organic carbon and available soil K, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu were measured by laboratory methods.Nutrient Broth

  9. The International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment for modeling wheat response to heat: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Reynolds, Matthew; Asseng, Senthold

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains a portion of the International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment (IHSGE) data used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat crop models and quantify the impact of heat on global wheat yield productivity. It includes two spring wheat cultivars grown...... dates. Data include local daily weather data, soil characteristics and initial soil conditions, crop measurements (anthesis and maturity dates, anthesis and final total above ground biomass, final grain yields and yields components), and cultivar information. Simulations include both daily in-season...... and end-of-season results from 30 wheat models....

  10. A study on residues and degradation of 14C-phoxim in spring wheat plants and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shuxiu; Yin Lishang

    1988-01-01

    A potting experiment on residues and degradation of 14 C-phoxim in spring wheat plants and soil was conducted in 1984∼1986. Seed dressing or soil mixing and spraying with 14 C-phoxim had been done at sowing and seedling stage respectively. The radioactivities of samples were detected on the low background (3cpm) GM or Backman LS 7800 liquid scintillation counter. The transmission, dissociation and residues of 14 C-phoxim in spring wheat plants and soil were investigated. The amount of 14 C-phoxim residues in the grains was determined. The dissipation of the residues of 14 C-phoxim after the harvesting of spring wheat plants were discussed; the residues could be decomposed into 14 CO 2 , dissolved in evaporated liquid and throwed into air, or stored in soil

  11. The influence of nitrogen - urea fertilization to leaves and chloride chlorocholine on the accumulation Cs-137 in spring wheat crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynczuk, B.; Weber, R.

    1998-01-01

    In pot experiments were studied effects of using nitrogen urea solution to leaves and use chloride chlorocholine on the Cs-137 accumulation in spring wheat crops. The Cs-137 contamination was conducted from soil and through leaves. It has been found that use nitrogen fertilization as urea solution spray and in addition use chloride chlorocholine caused an increase of Cs-137 concentration in grain from the contaminated soil. Accumulation of Cs-137 in spring wheat grain is 2-4 times higher coming from the contaminated leaves in blooming phase in comparison to the grain of plants contaminated in spread phase. The urea solution fertilization used on leaves and addition chloride chlorocholine did not influence the Cs-137 accumulation in grain when the plants were contaminated in the early growing phase. The Cs-137 contamination brought on the plants after using chloride chlorocholine in subsequent growing phases passed early into spring wheat grain. (author)

  12. Effect of Planting Date on Reducing Growth Period of Spring Safflower Cultivars in Tabriz Cold and Semi-arid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pasban Eslam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower is a plant adaptable to areas with limited rainfall during winter and spring and dry air at flowering, seed filling and maturity stages, and tolerant to water deficit. The positive correlation coefficient observed between safflower seed yield with precipitation and low air temperature during seed germination to flowering and flowering to seed maturity. Furthermore, precipitation and low temperature during flowering to seed maturity significantly increased seed oil percentage. Therefore, it seems that, by adjusting the planting time can be adapted phenological stages of plant with appropriate weather conditions. The aims of this research were study the possibility reducing the growth period of safflower spring varieties with maintaining performance through delay in planting time, evaluate seed and oil yields at different planting times, and identify the best varieties for cold and semi-arid areas. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted at the East Azarbaijan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (46°2¢E, 37°58¢N, 1347 m a.s.l. during 2014-2015 growing season. According to Koppen climatic classification system, the area climate is semi-arid and cold. This study was carried out as factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were four planting dates (30 March, 9, 19 and 29 April and three safflower spring cultivars (Sina, Soffeh and Goldasht. Plant spacing between rows was 24 cm and final plant density was 70 plant per m2. Each plot consisted of 6 rows in 5 meters. Plants were harvested on the 11th and 14th of August in the first and second years of experiment, respectively. At the harvest time, in order to control boarder effects, plants from the sides of each plot were removed. Measured traits were plant height, capitulum diameter, seed yield, capitula number per plant, seed number per capitulum and 1000-seed weight. Ten plants in each plot

  13. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  14. Adaptability of Wheat Cultivars to a Late-Planted No-Till Fallow Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Arron H. Carter; Stephen S. Jones; Ryan W. Higginbotham

    2011-01-01

    In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been adopted to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems are exposed to significant soil degradation from wind and water erosion. As a result, late-planted no-till fallow systems are being evaluated to mitigate erosion concerns. The objective of this study was to ev...

  15. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Estudo comparativo de cultivares de trigo em latossolo roxo no estado de São Paulo em 1974 A comparative study on wheat cultivars on latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils in the state of São Paulo in 1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi executado com o propósito de estudar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares de trigo, em latossolo roxo na região tritícola do Vale do Paranapanema no Estado de São Paulo. Foram instalados três experimentos em 1974. Os cultivares IRN-526-63, IAS-55, Sonora-63, BH-1146, IAS-54, Londrina, LA-1434 e Pitic-62 foram os que apresentaram maior produtividade por unidade de área; os cultivares IAC-5, Sonora-63, Sonora-64 x Selkirk, Triticum agropyrum, Tobari-66, IAC-11, Sonora-64, Norteno-67 e Super X mostraram-se resistentes às raças prevalentes de ferrugem do colmo. Os cultivares Super X, Sonora-64 x Selkirk, IRN-152-63 e Triticum agropyrum mostraram-se resistentes à ferrugem da folha, e BH-1146, IAC-5, IAC-11, LA-1434, T. agropyrum e IRN-152-63 foram suscetíveis ao acamamento.Selected germplasms of wheat were tested for yield potential and resistance to rusts and cultivar trials in the State of São Paulo. Performance was evaluated in several locations in 1974 in the wheat area of the State on Latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The cultivars IRN-526-63, IAS-55, Sonora-63, BH-1146, IAS-54, Londrina, LA-1434 and Pitic-62 showed superior performance for yield. The cultivars IAC-5, Sonora-63, Sonora-64 x Selkink, Triticum agropyrum, Tobai-66, IAC-11, Sonora-64, Norteno-67, and Super X showed better resistance to stem rust. The cultivars Super X, Sonora-64 x Selkink, IRN-152,63, and Triticum agropyrum, were more resistant to leaf rust. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-5, Triticum agropyrum, IRN-152-62, LA-1434 and IAC-11 were susceptible to lay.

  17. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI and performance (PI indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves

  18. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal) and peroxidase activity in brown rust infected tissues of pakistani wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, A.; Tahir, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Besides other factors resistance and susceptibility is the outcome of biochemical processes such as activities of defense-related enzymes. So in this study, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and Peroxidase activity of resistant (Inqilab-91) and susceptible (Kirin-95) wheat cultivars were determined through spectrophotometer to address the biochemical aspect related to the disease after 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours of leaf rust inoculation. The results have shown that these enzymes were present in both the resistant and susceptible cultivars but the activity was more pronounced in the resistant one. The effect of PAL and peroxidase activity was also investigated among inoculated and uninoculated plants within the same cultivar. The activity of both PAL and peroxidase were more significant in inoculated ones. The results have shown that the after 72 hours of inoculation Inqilab-91 had more PAL activity i.e., 5.47 IU/ml/min than in Kirin-95 i.e., 2.08 IU/ml/min at 270 nm. While peroxidase activity in Inqilab-91 was 6.41 IU/ml/min and in Kirin-95, 3.66 IU/ml/min after 72 hours of inoculation, observed under 470 nm wavelength. Increase in one's activity increases the other enzyme's activity. The activity was more prominent after 72 hours of infection as pathogen had successfully established itself in the host plant tissue. The activities of these enzymes act as plants active defense mechanism against the attack of pathogen. (author)

  19. Relationships of flour solvent retention capacity, secondary structure and rheological properties with the cookie making characteristics of wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2014-09-01

    The relationships of grain, flour solvent retention capacity (SRC) and dough rheological properties with the cookie making properties of wheat cultivars were evaluated. Cultivars with higher proportion of intermolecular-β-sheets+antiparallel β sheets and lower α-helix had greater gluten strength. The grain weight and diameter positively correlated with the proportion of fine particles and the cookie spread factor (SF) and negatively to the grain hardness (GH) and Na2CO3 SRC. The SF was higher in the flour with a higher amount of fine particle and with a lower Na2CO3 SRC and dough stability (DS). The breaking strength (BS) of cookies was positively correlated to lactic acid (LA) SRC, DS, peak time, sedimentation value (SV), G' and G″. Na2CO3 SRC and GH were strongly correlated. The gluten performance index showed a strong positive correlation with SV, DS, G' and G″. The water absorption had a significant positive correlation with sucrose SRC and LASRC. Cultivars with higher GH produced higher amount of coarse particles in flours that had higher Na2CO3 SRC and lower cookie SF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zou

    Full Text Available Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1 markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, 'Attila' and 'CDC Go', and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering, flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight, 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers, we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1, maturity (2, plant height (1, grain yield (1, test weight (2, kernel weight (4, tillering (1 and grain protein content (2. Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61-66 cM, 4B (80-82 cM and 5A (296-297 cM harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75 with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval. Six of the 14

  1. [Flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, change in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and their relationships with yield of winter wheat sowed in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Gao, Zhi-qang; An, Wei; Li, Yan-liang; Jiao, Xiong-fei; Wang, Chuang-yun

    2016-01-01

    With five good winter wheat cultivars selected from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Southwest China as test materials, a field experiment in Xinding basin area of Shanxi Province was conducted to study the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf at different sowing dates, as well as the correlations between these indices and yield for two years (2013-2014). The results showed that the difference in most fluorescence parameters except chlorophyll content among cultivars was significant. The correlations between these fluorescence parameters and yield were significant. The variation coefficient of chlorophyll (Chl) content was low (0.12-0.17), and that of performance index based on absorption (PIabs) was high (0.32-0.39), with the partial correlation coefficients of them with grain yield from 2013 to 2014 ranged in 0.70-0.81. Under the early sowing condition, the grain yield positively correlated with PIabs at flowering and filling stages and chlorophyll content at grain filling stage, but negatively correlated with the relative variable fluorescence at I point (Vi) at grain filling stage. About 81.1%-82.8% of grain yield were determined by the variations of PIabs, Chl, and Vi. Wheat cultivars had various performances in the treatments with different sowing dates and a consistent trend was observed in the two experimental years. Among these 5 cultivars, Yangmai 13 was suitable for early sowing, with the flag leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), Chl, most fluorescence parame-ters, and grain yield showed obviously high levels. In conclusion, under early sowing condition chlorophyll content at grain filling stages, PIabs at flowering and filling stages, and Pn were important indices for selecting wheat cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  2. Evaluation of 10 wheat cultivars under water stress at Moghan (Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect yield and yield component of wheat planted in arid and semi-arid regions. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of water stress on wheat yield and yield component during 2008 at Moghan conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ...

  3. Growth of wheat and triticale cultivars with the use of the artificial genetic mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This document reports the use of gamma radiation to induce resistance to the fungus Puccina graminis tritici in wheat (Triticum). A resistant wheat mutant was produced, and its genetic properties are reported. The mutant was evaluated for use as a crop and for application in further crop improvement programms

  4. Studies on some ecophysiological traits associated with competitiveness of old and new Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars against wild oat ( Avena ludoviciana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eskandar zand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during 1996-1997 growing season in Mashhad, NE of Iran to evaluate the genetic improvement in ecophysiological traits that enhance the competitiveness of Iranian winter wheat (Triticum aestivuml against wild oat ( Avena ludovicianal. Six Iranian winter wheat cultivars which have been released during the past 40 years were used for this experiment. A factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each cultivar was planted at its own optimum seeding rate with and without competition with wild oat. Wild oat was planted at a constant density of 80 plants per square meter. The results showed that more recent cultivars had much higher competitive ability compared to earlier cultivars. Alvand (the most recent cultivar had higher dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and relative leaf area growth rate (RLGR compared to Bezostaya. Alvand had a higher proportion of its leaf area in higher canopy layer. Wild oat was also shorter in height when it was competing with Alvand compared to Bezostaya. It was found that following characteristics were the most important criteria in competitive ability of winter wheat against wild oats: 1 leaf area at the end of tillering stage. 2 final leaf area index. 3 relative leaf area index, and 4 the canopy layer where the higher leaf area was measured

  5. Meiosis peculiarities featured by first-generation spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under the influence of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen', L.A.; Volodin, V.G.; Elef, A.V.; Mikhalenko, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The study of meiosis of spring wheat represented by three varieties revealed intervarietal differences according to the frequency and types of disturbances. Gamma-irradiation with 10 kCi dose increased the disturbance frequency during meiosis in all varieties. However, there were substantial differences in the variety response to the irradiation. (authors)

  6. Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimization of flour yield and quality is important in the milling industry. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of kernel size and mill type on flour yield and end-use quality. A hard red spring wheat composite sample was segregated, based on kernel size, into large, medium, ...

  7. EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE, SOWING TIME AND MINERAL NUTRITION REGIME ON SPRING WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY IN THE NORTHERN STEPPE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gyrka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of seeding rate and nutrition regime on the growth and development of spring wheat plants on different seeding dates. By monitoring the growth and development of spring wheat we determined that increasing of stand density of crops up to 6 million/ha contributed to better growth, but the worst development of plants. Due to higher moisturizing, the effect of fertilizers on biometric indicators of spring wheat was stronger, than the seeding of culture in the first period. The root system and aboveground part of plants on the background of N40P20K20 was more developed than in control variants. It is established that the seeding rate of 5.0 million/ha is optimal for sowing in the first period with fertilizing by N40P20K20 the seeding rate up to 6 million/ha was optimal for the second period – with increasing seeding rate to 6 million pcs./ha. These options provide the yield of spring wheat in the Northern Steppe at 2.04 and 1.97 t/ha, respectively. The use of fertilizers has ensured the increase in all seeding rate at 0,41-0,45 t/ha at the first period and 0,44-0,52 t/ha at the second seeding time compared with the control yields

  8. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words:

    organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain;

    plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences;

    variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation;

    onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat;

  9. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage...... of abscisic acid in primed plants under drought stress could contribute to higher grain yield compared to the non-primed plants. Taken together, the results indicate that drought priming during vegetative stages improved tolerance to both drought and heat stress events occurring during grain filling in wheat....

  10. Newly registered small grains cultivars from Zaječar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principal properties of 5 new cultivars of small grains created in the Center for Agricultural and Technological Research in Zaječar. They are as follows: Arena (winter bread wheat, Premium (winter malting barley, Tango (winter triticale, Center (spring oat and Balsa (spring naked barley. In 2004 and 2005 these cultivars were registered by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia. The Arena cultivar has good indices of technological quality and high yield genetic potential which is successfully preserved even in dry years. The Premium cultivar, besides high yield capacity, has a very low protein grain content what makes it especially suitable for brewers industry. Triticale Tango is intended, in the first place, for animal feeds and like Arena cultivar. is highly tolerant to draught. Spring oat Center is Zaječar's first made oat cultivar in this group of small grains. Cultivar Balsa is the first spring six-row naked barley in Serbia and Montenegro. Creating of Balsa cultivar is the attempt to meet the future demands on the market. By the act of registering above mentioned cultivars the Center in Zajecar has completed and enlarged its already existing variety of small grains assortment.

  11. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Selection Affects Double-Crop and Relay-Intercrop Soybean (Glycine max L. Response on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research (2003–2005 evaluated the effect of wheat row spacing (19 and 38 cm and cultivar on double-cropped (DC soybean response, 38-cm wheat on relay-intercrop (RI response, and wheat cultivar selection on gross margins of these cropping systems. Narrow-row wheat increased grain yield 460 kg ha−1, light interception (LI 7%, and leaf area index (LAI 0.5 compared to wide rows, but did not affect DC soybean yield. High yielding wheat (P25R37 with greater LI and LAI produced lower (330 kg ha−1 soybean yields in an RI system than a low yielding cultivar (Ernie. Gross margins were $267 ha−1 greater when P25R37 was RI with H431 Intellicoat (ITC soybean compared to Ernie. Gross margins were similar for monocrop H431 non-coated (NC or ITC soybean, P25R37 in 19- or 38-cm rows with DC H431 NC soybean, and P25R37 in 38-cm rows with RI H431 ITC soybean in the absence of an early fall frost.

  12. The Alleviating Effect of Elevated CO2 on Heat Stress Susceptibility of Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanmugam, Sindhuja; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 μl l−1) and elevated (800 μl l−1) CO2 with a day...... in leaves were analysed before and during the stress treatments as well as after 1 day of recovery. Heat stress reduced PN and Fv/Fm in both wheat cultivars, but plants grown in elevated CO2 maintained higher PN and Fv/Fm in comparison with plants grown in ambient CO2. Heat stress reduced leaf chlorophyll...... to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence crop performance under various climatic stresses....

  13. [Identification of Azospirillum genus bacteria isolated from the spring wheat root zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Ie P; Spyrydonov, V H; Patyka, V P

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria with high N2-fixing activity were isolated from the root zone of spring wheat grown on leach chernozem and soddy podzolic soil in Ukrainian marshy woodlands. They were characterized by phenotypic signs and investigated with the help of molecular-genetic methods. On the basis of diagnostic signs the investigated strains were referred to Azospirillum brasilense from Azospirillum genus. Their 3'- and 5'-thermal 16S RNA hypervariable sites with length from 373 to 395 nucleotides were amplified and sequenced. The comparative analysis of results confirmed the 100% identity of 16S RNA sequences from investigated bacteria with the same sequences of A. brasilense from Gene Bank database. Thus the results of sequence analysis agree with results obtained during the investigation of phenotypic signs.

  14. Genetic studies for some agronomic traits in spring wheat under heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, M.; Khaliq, I.; Khan, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    F1 progenies of 7x7 diallel fashion crosses comprising four high temperatures tolerant and three susceptible spring wheat parental genotypes were evaluated under normal and heat stress conditions. The characters days to heading, spike index at anthesis, plant height, spikes per plant, spikelets per spike and grain yield per plant were studied under both conditions. Analysis of variance under both conditions indicated additive gene action with partial dominance suggesting that these traits might be useful for the development of terminal heat tolerant varieties by modified pedigree selection.. However overdominance type of gene action was recorded for spikelets per spike suggesting that further improvement in this trait may be effected by biparental mating coupled with few cycles of recurrent selection. (author)

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on productiveness of Cuba C-204 wheat variety in spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Torres, I.; Perez Talavera, S.; Diaz Esquivel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The percentage of flowers carrying seeds in spikes from seed irradiated plant with 100 to 800 Gy and non irradiated control plants was evaluated cv. Cuba C -204 wheat affectation. The results showed a significative (1 %) dose and s'pikes maturity time influence by bi factorial analysis. A significance of 1 % dose-maturity time interaction was obtained too and that bigger flowers carrying seeds percentage is obtained in 400 Gy radiated seeds plants. A delay of 5 days is present in the 500 Gy radiated plants maturity and a seed carrying flowers reduction of 35 % with reference to control. From 600 Gy up in the studied variety seeds were not obtained in the spring season

  16. Genetic studies for some agronomic traits in spring wheat under heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, M.; Khaliq, I.; Khan, A.S.; Ali, A.

    2012-01-01

    F/sub 1/ progenies of 7 X 7 diallel fashion crosses comprising four high temperatures tolerant and three susceptible spring wheat parental genotypes were evaluated under normal and heat stress conditions. The characters days to heading, spike index at anthesis, plant height, spikes per plant, spikelets per spike and grain yield per plant were studied under both conditions. Analysis of variance under both conditions indicated additive gene action with partial dominance suggesting that these traits might be useful for the development of terminal heat tolerant varieties by modified pedigree selection. However over-dominance type of gene action was recorded for spikelets per spike suggesting that further improvement in this trait may be effected by biparental mating coupled with few cycles of recurrent selection. (author)

  17. Capability of multiple selection criteria to evaluate contrasting spring wheat germplasms under arid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Suhaibani, N. A.; SALAH, E.; El-Hendawy, S. E.; Al-Gaadi, K.; Rehman, S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Selection criteria that would evaluate a large number of germplasm in a rapid and non-destructive manner would be considered advantageous in plant breeding programs. Trade-off between traditional and non-destructive screening criteria in evaluating 90 wheat accessions under water shortage was tested using multivariate statistical techniques. Only three irrigations during the growing cycle of germplasm were applied with the amount of water totalling 2550 m /sup 3/ ha /sup -1/. Sequential path analysis identified one traditional trait (grain weight per plant) and two non-destructive traits (leaf area index and stomatal conductance) as important first-order traits that influenced final grain yield. The three traits, taken together, explained 96.8 percentage of the total variation in grain yield. Total dry weight per plant, green leaf area per plant, harvest index, grain number per plant, leaf water content and canopy temperature were identified as important second-order traits that influenced grain yield. Although canopy temperature was ranked as a second-order trait, it explained 64.4 percentage of the total variation in stomatal conductance. Approximately 78.0 percentage of the total variation in grain weight or leaf area index was explained by the leaf water content (66.2 percentage) and total dry weight (11.5 percentage). The 90 examined spring wheat germplasms were grouped into five clusters based on all agro-physiological traits using the centroid linkage method. The tested wheat germplasm that produce high grain yield under water shortage were characterised by good performance of certain rapid, easy and non-destructive physiological traits such as high leaf area index, high stomatal conductance and low canopy temperature. Therefore, these three traits could be used in combination as quick and easy screening criteria to select suitable genotypes for water-limiting conditions. (author)

  18. Association Mapping and Nucleotide Sequence Variation in Five Drought Tolerance Candidate Genes in Spring Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erena A. Edae

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional markers are needed for key genes involved in drought tolerance to improve selection for crop yield under moisture stress conditions. The objectives of this study were to (i characterize five drought tolerance candidate genes, namely dehydration responsive element binding 1A (, enhanced response to abscisic acid ( and , and fructan 1-exohydrolase ( and , in wheat ( L. for nucleotide and haplotype diversity, Tajima’s D value, and linkage disequilibrium (LD and (ii associate within-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with phenotypic traits in a spring wheat association mapping panel ( = 126. Field trials were grown under contrasting moisture regimes in Greeley, CO, and Melkassa, Ethiopia, in 2010 and 2011. Genome-specific amplification and DNA sequence analysis of the genes identified SNPs and revealed differences in nucleotide and haplotype diversity, Tajima’s D, and patterns of LD. showed associations (false discovery rate adjusted probability value = 0.1 with normalized difference vegetation index, heading date, biomass, and spikelet number. Both and were associated with harvest index, flag leaf width, and leaf senescence. was associated with grain yield, and was associated with thousand kernel weight and test weight. If validated in relevant genetic backgrounds, the identified marker–trait associations may be applied to functional marker-assisted selection.

  19. Correlation Coefficient, Path Analysis and Drought Tolerance Indices for Different Wheat Cultivars under Deficit Irrigation Conditions of Isfahan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Salemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water crisis as a main factor of agronomy limitation exists in all over the arid and semiarid regions such as Isfahan province which is located in the central part of the Zayandehrud River Basin. This study aimed to use path analysis and indices of drought to evaluate the correlation coefficients between main physiological parameter (grain yield with yield components and water use efficiency of winter wheat under three water conditions. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out in Kaboutar Abad Agricultural Research Station, Isfahan in the central region of Iran (32º 31’N, 51º 51’E is located at the altitude of 1545 m above the sea level with a split plot in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in three cropping seasons on irrigated wheat cultivars. The treatments were included three levels of irrigation (60%FI, 80%FI and full irrigation as main plots and six wheat cultivars (Pishtaz, Shiraz, Sepahan, Marvdasht, Mahdavi and BC-Roshan as sub plots. Grain yield, straw and stubble, biological yield, harvest index (H.I., productivity degree (P.D., water use efficiency (WUE, plant height, grain number per spike, spike number per m2 and TGW were determined. Winter wheat cultivars were sown at the beginning of November and harvested in mid-June of the following year. The seed rate was 400 seed m-2, with a row spacing of 0.75 m. The first irrigation was by furrow method, implemented one day after seeding. Seeds emergence was observed about 5 days later. The N application was 250, 200 and 300 kgha-1 of N (urea at 46% N for each year divided into installments (10 days before planting, 30 days after planting, and every 30 days until the last irrigation. The P2O5 (phosphate ammonium and super-phosphate triple application to soil was 200, 100 and 50 kg ha-1 during the 3 years, respectively. At this stage, cultivation was done to mix the fertilizers with top soil manually. Pests and weeds were

  20. Assessment of salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, H.; Shahbaz, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate cultivars of wheat using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Ten wheat cultivars including five newly developed (S-24, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and Inqlab-91) and five candidate (P .B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10 and G.A-20) were grown in sand culture. Salt stress (150 mM NaCl in Hoagland's nutrient solution) was applied at the seedling stage. A significant reduction in plant biomass production was recorded in all wheat cultivars. Cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 showed less reduction in biomass production as compared with the other cultivars. Different gas exchange attributes such as leaf net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate ( E), and stomatal conductance (gs) were also adversely affected due to salt stress and were positively associated with the plant biomass production of the genotypes under saline stress. More negative effects in relation to these gas exchange attributes were recorded in cvs. Lasani, G.A-20 and ARRI-10 than those in the other cultivars. Leaf maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm), maximum fluorescence at steady state (Fms ), and photochemical fluorescence quenching (Qp) increased while maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (Qp), electron transport rate ( ETR ) and non-photochemical quenching (Qn) decreased due to imposition of salt stress. The adverse effects of salt stress on these chlorophyll fluorescence attributes were minimum in cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008. A significant positive correlation was recorded between biomass production, different gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Overall, cvs. S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 were ranked as salt tolerant on the basis of their performance in biomass production, gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. (author)

  1. QTL Mapping of Adult-Plant Resistance to Leaf Rust in the Wheat Cross Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring Using High-Density SNP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wheat leaf rust is an important disease worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is an effective means to control the disease. In the present study, 244 recombinant inbred lines from Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring cross were phenotyped for leaf rust severities during the 2011–2012, 2012–2013, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015 cropping seasons at Baoding, Hebei province, and 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping seasons in Zhoukou, Henan province. The population was genotyped using the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K SNP assay and SSR markers. Inclusive composite interval mapping identified eight QTL, designated as QLr.hebau-2AL, QLr.hebau-2BS, QLr.hebau-3A, QLr.hebau-3BS, QLr.hebau-4AL, QLr.hebau-4B, QLr.hebau-5BL, and QLr.hebau-7DS, respectively. QLr.hebau-2BS, QLr.hebau-3A, QLr.hebau-3BS, and QLr.hebau-5BL were derived from Zhou 8425B, whereas the other four were from Chinese Spring. Three stable QTL on chromosomes 2BS, 4B and 7DS explained 7.5–10.6%, 5.5–24.4%, and 11.2–20.9% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. QLr.hebau-2BS in Zhou 8425B might be the same as LrZH22 in Zhoumai 22; QLr.hebau-4B might be the residual resistance of Lr12, and QLr.hebau-7DS is Lr34. QLr.hebau-2AL, QLr.hebau-3BS, QLr.hebau-4AL, and QLr.hebau-5BL are likely to be novel QTL for leaf rust. These QTL and their closely linked SNP and SSR markers can be used for fine mapping, candidate gene discovery, and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding.

  2. Characterization of Novel Gene Yr79 and Four Additional Quantitative Trait Loci for All-Stage and High-Temperature Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in Spring Wheat PI 182103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junyan; Wang, Meinan; See, Deven R; Chao, Shiaoman; Zheng, Youliang; Chen, Xianming

    2018-06-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Exploring new resistance genes is essential for breeding resistant wheat cultivars. PI 182103, a spring wheat landrace originally from Pakistan, has shown a high level of resistance to stripe rust in fields for many years, but genes for resistance to stripe rust in the variety have not been studied. To map the resistance gene(s) in PI 182103, 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross with Avocet Susceptible (AvS). The RIL population was genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism markers and tested with races PST-100 and PST-114 at the seedling stage under controlled greenhouse conditions and at the adult-plant stage in fields at Pullman and Mt. Vernon, Washington under natural infection by the stripe rust pathogen in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A total of five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected. QyrPI182103.wgp-2AS and QyrPI182103.wgp-3AL were detected at the seedling stage, QyrPI182103.wgp-4DL was detected only in Mt. Vernon field tests, and QyrPI182103.wgp-5BS was detected in both seedling and field tests. QyrPI182103.wgp-7BL was identified as a high-temperature adult-plant resistance gene and detected in all field tests. Interactions among the QTL were mostly additive, but some negative interactions were detected. The 7BL QTL was mapped in chromosomal bin 7BL 0.40 to 0.45 and identified as a new gene, permanently designated as Yr79. SSR markers Xbarc72 and Xwmc335 flanking the Yr79 locus were highly polymorphic in various wheat genotypes, indicating that the molecular markers are useful for incorporating the new gene for potentially durable stripe rust resistance into new wheat cultivars.

  3. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  4. Initial studies of the populations of fungi and bacteria in the soil under the influence of the cuItivation of spring wheat and winter wheat in a growth chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Pięta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the studies was to determine the populations of fungi and bacteria after the cultivation of spring wheat and winter wheat. As a result of the studies it was found out that winter wheat had a stimulating effect on the total number of bacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp. On the other hand, spring wheat had a smaller influence on the growth of bacteria, while stimulating the growth of the number of fungi. Among the bacteria and saprophytic fungi isolated from the soil after the c...

  5. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  6. Physiology and transcriptomics of water-deficit stress responses in wheat cultivars TAM 111 and TAM 112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Srirama Krishna; Liu, Shuyu; Rudd, Jackie C; Xue, Qingwu; Payton, Paxton; Finlayson, Scott A; Mahan, James; Akhunova, Alina; Holalu, Srinidhi V; Lu, Nanyan

    2014-09-01

    Hard red winter wheat crops on the U.S. Southern Great Plains often experience moderate to severe drought stress, especially during the grain filling stage, resulting in significant yield losses. Cultivars TAM 111 and TAM 112 are widely cultivated in the region, share parentage and showed superior but distinct adaption mechanisms under water-deficit (WD) conditions. Nevertheless, the physiological and molecular basis of their adaptation remains unknown. A greenhouse study was conducted to understand the differences in the physiological and transcriptomic responses of TAM 111 and TAM 112 to WD stress. Whole-plant data indicated that TAM 112 used more water, produced more biomass and grain yield under WD compared to TAM 111. Leaf-level data at the grain filling stage indicated that TAM 112 had elevated abscisic acid (ABA) content and reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis as compared to TAM 111. Sustained WD during the grain filling stage also resulted in greater flag leaf transcriptome changes in TAM 112 than TAM 111. Transcripts associated with photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, phytohormone metabolism, and other dehydration responses were uniquely regulated between cultivars. These results suggested a differential role for ABA in regulating physiological and transcriptomic changes associated with WD stress and potential involvement in the superior adaptation and yield of TAM 112. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Accelerated Aging on Germination Characteristics, Seed Reserve Utilization and Malondialdehyde Content of Two Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Goodarzian Ghahfarokhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study experiment was conducted to evaluated the effect of accelerated aging on germination characteristics, seed reserve utilization and malondialdehyde of two wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted in factorial with a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Results of variance analysis showed that, seed aging had significant effects on germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, mean time to germination, malondialdehyde content, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve and electrical conductivity. The highest germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, seedling dry weight and weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve and the minimum mean time to germination, electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content were attained from Verinak cultivar under control conditions (0 day aging. Results indicates that germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, seedling dry weight, and weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve decreased significantly as seed aging progressed. But, mean time to germination, electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content increased significantly as seed aging progressed. Also, the decrease in seed reserve mobilization rate was the cause of decreased other traits.

  8. Effects of wheat cultivar, metabolizable energy level, and xylanase supplementation to laying hens diet on performance, egg quality traits, and selected blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirzaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME levels (2,720 and 2,580 kcal kg-1 diet and enzyme (0 and 0.3 g kg-1 diet, Grindazym® GP 15,000 with mostly xylanase activity supplementation on the performance of laying hens fed diets based on two wheat cultivars (Marvdasht and Sardari. Experimental diets were formulated to have a constant energy to protein ratio and were fed to 65-wk-old Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens for 7 wk. The lower level of AME reduced egg production and egg mass (p<0.05 and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Enzyme addition increased feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Sardari cultivar (p<0.05 but had no effect on feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Marvdasht cultivar (p>0.05. Nevertheless, birds receiving diets based on Marvdasht cultivar had higher feed intake and egg mass than that of those receiving diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The birds fed diets based on Marvdasht cultivar produced less undesired eggs and had better yolk color as compared with the birds fed diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The serum concentration of glucose increased by enzyme supplementation when birds receiving lower AME level (p<0.05. These results indicate that enzyme supplementation may have a positive effect on the feed intake of laying hens when fed on wheat-based diets; however, this effect is cultivar dependent and does not necessarily mean that enzyme supplementation always benefit production.

  9. Effect of Drought Stress on Antioxidant Enzymes and Cell Death Related Traits in Resistant and Susceptible Wheat Cultivars at Grain Filling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasheminasab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production in Iran. Twenty Iranian wheat cultivars with wide range of sensitivity to drought, including 18 varieties of bread wheat and two varieties of durum wheat were used in two separate field experiments in 2009-2010 at the Experimental Station of College of Agricultural in Shiraz University. Each experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The moisture level in one of the experiments was optimum (100% field capacity while the second experiment was conducted under drought stress (45% field capacity. Several biochemical components including antioxidant enzymes and hydrogen peroxide and some physiological traits were analyzed in the two conditions. Drought stress significantly increased antioxidant activity at the grain filling stage. Superoxide dismutase activity showed the highest increase. Lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and cell death increased significantly under drought condition, however membrane stability index decreased. Resistant cultivars showed the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and electrolyte leakage. This trend was reversed in the susceptible cultivars. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase had a significant correlation with yield stability index. Hydrogen peroxide and cell membrane stability indices showed the highest correlation with yield stability index. Also Pishtaz and Alamut were selected respectively as the most resistance and susceptible cultivars.

  10. Genetic divergence for high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in indigenous landraces and commercial cultivars of bread wheat of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmeen, F; Khurshid, H; Ghafoor, A

    2015-05-11

    Wheat flour quality is an important consideration in the breeding and development of new cultivars. A strong association between high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and bread making quality has resulted in the widespread utilization of HMW-GS in wheat breeding. In this study, we analyzed 242 lines of wheat, including landraces from the provinces of Punjab and Baluchistan, as well as the commercial varieties of Pakistan, to determine allelic variation in the Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 loci encoding HMW-GS. Higher genetic diversity was observed for HMW-GS in landraces from Baluchistan, followed by landraces collected from Punjab and then commercial varieties. Rare and uncommon subunits were observed in Glu-B1, whereas Glu-A1 was less polymorphic. However, Glu-B1 was the highest contributor to overall diversity (78%), with a total of 31 rare alleles, followed by Glu-D1 (20%) with the high quality 5+10 allele and other variants. Commercial cultivars possessed favorable alleles, potentially from indirect selection for wheat flour quality by the breeders; however, this indirect selection has decreased the pedigree base of commercial cultivars. The allelic combinations, including 2*, 5+10, and 17+18, showing high quality scores were frequent among landraces, indicating their usefulness in future crop improvement and breeding programs.

  11. Expression Level of the DREB2-Type Gene, Identified with Amplifluor SNP Markers, Correlates with Performance, and Tolerance to Dehydration in Bread Wheat Cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Zhumalin, Aibek; Serikbay, Dauren; Botayeva, Makpal; Otemisova, Ainur; Absattarova, Aiman; Sereda, Grigoriy; Sereda, Sergey; Shvidchenko, Vladimir; Turbekova, Arysgul; Jatayev, Satyvaldy; Lopato, Sergiy; Soole, Kathleen; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group), which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group. Modern high-throughput Amplifluor Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) technology was applied to study allelic variations in a series of drought-responsive genes using 19 SNP markers. Genotyping of an SNP in the TaDREB5 (DREB2-type) gene using the Amplifluor SNP marker KATU48 revealed clear allele distribution across the entire panel of wheat accessions, and distinguished between the two groups of cultivars with high and low yield under drought. Significant differences in expression levels of TaDREB5 were revealed by qRT-PCR. Most wheat plants from the first group of cultivars with high grain yield showed slight up-regulation in the TaDREB5 transcript in dehydrated leaves. In contrast, expression of TaDREB5 in plants from the second group of cultivars with low grain yield was significantly down-regulated. It was found that SNPs did not alter the amino acid sequence of TaDREB5 protein. Thus, a possible explanation is that alternative splicing and up-stream regulation of TaDREB5 may be affected by SNP, but these hypotheses require additional analysis (and will be the focus of future studies). PMID:27917186

  12. Expression level of the DREB2-type gene, identified with Amplifluor SNP markers, correlates with performance and tolerance to dehydration in bread wheat cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Shavrukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group, which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group. Modern high-throughput Amplifluor SNP technology was applied to study allelic variations in a series of drought-responsive genes using 19 SNP markers. Genotyping of an SNP in the TaDREB5 (DREB2-type gene using the Amplifluor SNP marker KATU48 revealed clear allele distribution across the entire panel of wheat accessions, and distinguished between the two groups of cultivars with high and low yield under drought. Significant differences in expression levels of TaDREB5 were revealed by qRT-PCR. Most wheat plants from the first group of cultivars with high grain yield showed strong up-regulation of TaDREB5 transcript in dehydrated leaves. In contrast, expression of TaDREB5 in plants from the second group of cultivars with low grain yield was significantly down-regulated. It was found that SNPs did not alter the amino acid sequence of TaDREB5 protein. Thus, a possible explanation is that alternative splicing and up-stream regulation of TaDREB5 may be affected by SNP, but these hypotheses require additional analysis (and will be the focus of future studies.

  13. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of

  14. Resistance to stem rust Ug99 in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vera, Eric E; Nelson, Sarah; Singh, Ravi P; Basnet, Bhoja R; Haley, Scott D; Bhavani, Sridhar; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz G; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Rouse, Matthew N; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2014-01-01

    Identified SSR markers ( Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 ) linked with stem rust resistance for efficient use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of resistance genes in wheat breeding programs. More than 80 % of the worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) area is currently sown with varieties susceptible to the Ug99 race group of stem rust fungus. However, wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk, and Ripper have demonstrated Ug99 resistance at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations derived from crosses of a susceptible parent with each of the resistant lines. The segregation of resistance in each population indicated the presence of a single gene. The resistance gene in Niini mapped to short arm of chromosome 6D and was flanked by SSR markers Xcfd49 at distances of 3.9 cM proximal and Xbarc183 8.4 cM distal, respectively. The chromosome location of this resistance was validated in three other populations: PBW343/Coni, PBW343/Tinkio, and Cacuke/Pfunye. Resistance initially postulated to be conferred by the SrTmp gene in Blouk and Ripper was also linked to Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 on 6DS, but it was mapped proximal to Xbarc183 at a similar position to previously mapped genes Sr42 and SrCad. Based on the variation in diagnostic marker alleles, it is possible that Niini and Pfunye may carry different resistance genes/alleles. Further studies are needed to determine the allelic relationships between various genes located on chromosome arm 6DS. Our results provide valuable molecular marker and genetic information for developing Ug99 resistant wheat varieties in diverse germplasm and using these markers to tag the resistance genes in wheat breeding.

  15. Comportamento de cultivares de trigo em dois solos do estado de São Paulo A Comparative study of wheat cultivars on two types of soil in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados dois ensaios de cultivares de trigo, sendo um na Estação Experimental de Tietê, e o outro, na Fazenda Santa Isabel, município de Itaberá. Os cultivares IRN-526-63, Pitic-62 e IRN-152-63, de origem mexicana, não se adaptaram às condições adversas do sul do Estado (Itaberá, entre as quais destacaram-se: baixa saturação em bases, baixíssimo teor de fósforo e principalmente a influência do Al3+ trocável ocasionando "crestamento" nas plantas. Os cultivares IAC-10, IAC-7, BH-1146, IAC-9, S-33, IAC-11 e IAC-8 apresentaram tolerância a essa condição adversa. No ensaio de Tietê, onde o solo mostrou altos teores de K+ e PO4³ , bom teor de Ca2+ 4- Mg2+ , não apresentando alumínio livre, os cultivares IRN-526-63 e Pitic-62 desenvolveram-se normalmente, apresentando produções superiores às dos demais cultivares estudados.This paper presents the results of two cultivar trials on wheat (Triticum aestivum L., carried out at the Tietê Experiment Station and at Santa Isabel Farm, Itaberá. The cultivars IRN-526-63, IRN-152-63 e Pitic-62, Mexican germoplasms, were very susceptible to "crestamento" at Itaberá soil, giving small yields. The Brazilian germoplasms showed tolerance to Al3+ , with average yields. At Tietê trial, IRN-526 and Pitic-62 cultivars showed good performance, having the most yield in this condition.

  16. Cereal cyst nematode resistance conferred by the Cre7 gene from Aegilops triuncialis and its relationship with Cre genes from Australian wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Maria Jesus; Andrés, María Fe; Sin, E.; Lopez Braña, Isidoro; Martín-Sánchez, J.A.; Romero, M.D.; Delibes Castro, Angeles

    2008-01-01

    Cereal cyst nematode (CCN; Heterodera avenae Woll.) is a root pathogen of cereal crops that can cause severe yield losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Differential host–nematode interactions occur in wheat cultivars carrying different CCN resistance (Cre) genes. The objective of this study was to determine the CCN resistance conferred by the Cre7 gene from Aegilops triuncialis in a 42-chromosome introgression line and to assess the effects of the Cre1, Cre3, Cre4, and Cre8 genes present in A...

  17. Distribution of photoperiod-insensitive alleles Ppd-B1a and Ppd-D1a and their effect on heading time in Japanese wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masako; Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Fujita, Masaya; Oda, Shunsuke; Kubo, Katashi; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Kojima, Hisayo; Nishida, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    The genotypes of photoperiod response genes Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1 in Japanese wheat cultivars were determined by a PCR-based method, and heading times were compared among genotypes. Most of the Japanese wheat cultivars, except those from the Hokkaido region, carried the photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-D1a, and heading was accelerated 10.3 days compared with the Ppd-D1b genotype. Early cultivars with Ppd-D1a may have been selected to avoid damage from preharvest rain. In the Hokkaido region, Ppd-D1a frequency was lower and heading date was late regardless of Ppd-D1 genotype, suggesting another genetic mechanism for late heading in Hokkaido cultivars. In this study, only 11 cultivars proved to carry Ppd-B1a, and all of them carried another photoperiod-insensitive allele, Ppd-D1a. The Ppd-B1a/Ppd-D1a genotype headed 6.7 days earlier than the Ppd-B1b/Ppd-D1a genotype, indicating a significant effect of Ppd-B1a in the genetic background with Ppd-D1a. Early-maturity breeding in Japan is believed to be accelerated by the introduction of the Ppd-B1a allele into medium-heading cultivars carrying Ppd-D1a. Pedigree analysis showed that Ppd-B1a in three extra-early commercial cultivars was inherited from 'Shiroboro 21' by early-heading Chugoku lines bred at the Chugoku Agriculture Experimental Station.

  18. Physiological, proteomic and transcriptional responses of wheat to combination of drought or waterlogging with late spring low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Spring low temperature events affect winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during late vegetative or reproductive development, exposing plants to a subzero low temperature stress when winter hardening is lost. The increased climatic variability results in wheat being exposed to more frequent adverse...... impacts of combined low temperature and water stress, including drought and waterlogging. The responses of potted wheat plants cultivated in climatic chambers to these environmental perturbations were investigated at physiological, proteomic and transcriptional levels. At the physiological level...... in chloroplasts and mitochondria of leaf under low temperature. Further proteomic analysis revealed that the oxidative stress defence, C metabolism and photosynthesis related proteins were modulated by the combined low temperature and water stress. Collectively, the results indicate that impairment...

  19. The prevalence of deoxynivalenol and its derivatives in the spring wheat grain from different agricultural production systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaviciene, Sigita; Mankeviciene, Audrone; Suproniene, Skaidre; Kochiieru, Yuliia; Keriene, Ilona

    2018-02-22

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) together with two acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) occurs in cereal grains and their products. Co-occurrence of DON and acetylated derivatives in cereal grain is detected worldwide. Until now, DON and its derivatives have been considered equally toxic by health authorities. In this study, we analysed 103 samples of spring wheat grain, originating from the fields of different production systems in Lithuania, for the co-occurrence of type-B trichothecenes (DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON). The samples were classified according to the production system-organic, sustainable and intensive. Mycotoxin levels in the spring wheat grain samples were determined by the HPLC method with UV detection. The type-B trichothecenes were found to be present at higher concentrations in the grain from the intensive production system. Eighty-one percent of the spring wheat grain samples from the intensive production system were co-contaminated with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON, 1% with DON+3-ADON. Additionally, DON+15-ADON and DON were found in 5% and 10% of the tested samples, respectively. Two percent of the samples were free from mycotoxins. In the grain samples from the sustainable production system, DON and a combination of DON+3-ADON showed a higher incidence - 47% and 23%, respectively. The samples with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON accounted for 18%. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of organic grain samples. A large number of the organic spring wheat grain samples were contaminated with DON+3-ADON (55%) or DON (36%). The combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON was not present, while DON+15-ADON was present in 9% of the samples tested. The production systems did not lead to significant differences in mycotoxin levels, although a trend toward higher incidence and higher contamination was observed for the samples from the intensive and sustainable production systems.

  20. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  1. Impacts of climate change on water footprint of spring wheat production: the case of an irrigation district in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S. K.; Wu, P. T.; Wang, Y. B.; Zhao, X. N.

    2012-07-01

    The potential impacts of climate change are expected to reshape the patterns of demand and supply of water for agriculture, therefore the assessment of the impacts of climate change on agricultural water consumption will be essential. The water footprint provides a new approach to the assessment of agricultural water consumption under climate change. This paper provides an analysis of the impacts of climate changes on the water footprint of spring wheat in Hetao Irrigation District, China during 1980-2009. Results indicate that: 1) crop evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements of spring wheat presented a downtrend owing to the climate factors variation in the study period; 2) under the combined influence of increasing crop yield and decreasing crop evapotranspiration, the water footprint decreased during the study period, exhibiting a trend of 0.025 m3 kg{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1; 3) the total contribution rate of the climatic factors for the decline of water footprint of spring wheat during the study period was only -10.45%. These results suggest that the water footprint of a crop, to a large extent, is determined by agricultural management rather than by the regional agro-climate and its variation. Nevertheless, we should pay attention to the adaptation of effective strategies for minimizing the agricultural production risk caused by climate change. (Author) 49 refs.

  2. Evaluation of Spring Wheat (20 Varieties Adaptation to Soil Drought during Seedlings Growth Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Biesaga-Kościelniak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil drought (10 days on the growth of plants, the accumulation of water and leakage of electrolytes, gas exchange, the contents of chl a + b and carotenoids in leaves and photochemical activity of photosystem II was studied at the seedling stage by transient fluorescent analysis in 20 of the popular varieties of polish spring wheat. Drought caused a particularly strong reduction in vigor of growth of seedlings, net photosynthesis rate and triggered an increase in electrolyte leakage from the leaves. Certain varieties during the drought demonstrated relatively intense CO2 assimilation at low water loss through transpiration. The varieties tested were significantly different in terms of tolerance to drought of the processes of gas exchange and seedlings development. Photochemical processes in PSII showed high tolerance to drought and at the same time low differentiation among varieties. The results obtained suggested that tolerance of growth parameters to drought and CO2 assimilation at the seedling stage may alleviate consequent depression of final yield of the grain.

  3. Effects of climate change on spring wheat phenophase and water requirement in Heihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Yan, Denghua; Xu, Xinyi; Gao, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has significantly altered the temperature rhythm which is a key factor for the growth and phenophase of the crop. And temperature change further affects crop water requirement and irrigation system. In the north-west of China, one of the most important crop production bases is Heihe River basin where the observed phenological data is scarce. This study thus first adopted accumulated temperature threshold (ATT) method to define the phenological stages of the crop, and analysed the effect of climate change on phenological stages and water requirement of the crop during growing season. The results indicated the ATT was available for the determination of spring wheat phenological stages. The start dates of all phenological stages became earlier and the growing season length (days) was reduced by 7 days under climate change. During the growing season, water requirement without consideration of phenophase change has been increased by 26.1 mm, while that with consideration of phenophase change was featured in the decrease of water requirement by 50 mm. When temperature increased by 1°C on average, the changes were featured in the 2 days early start date of growing season, 2 days decrease of growing season length, and the 1.4 mm increase of water requirement, respectively.

  4. Translocation, accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in spring wheat after foliage contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhongxue; Xu Shiming; Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin; Li Xia

    1995-05-01

    The foliage absorption of 137 Cs by spring wheat and the accumulation and distribution of 137 Cs in non-contaminated parts of the plant were studied. The results showed that there was a linear relationship between the content of 137 Cs and the amount of the contamination in each part of the plant. The distribution of 137 Cs in each part of the plant was related with the phyllotaxis of the contaminated leaf, but the majority of 137 Cs in the ear was distributed in the husk. The accumulation of 137 Cs in non-contaminated leaves gradually decrease with the increasing of the relative phyllotaxy distance between non-contaminated leaves and the contaminated leaf. The order of the specific activity of 137 Cs is the leaf>the stem>the ear in the tillering. The translocation rate of 137 Cs to seeds is in direct proportion to physiological metabolic activity of the treated leaf and is also related to its phyllotaxis. (11 tabs., 4 figs.)

  5. Effects of tillage system and forecrop type on frequency of Fusarium culmorum and F. avenaceum occurrence on culm base of some winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Weber; Włodzimierz Kita

    2012-01-01

    In the years 2001 - 2003, there were analyzed relations between the number of Fusarium culmorum and F. avenaceum, fungi found on culm base parts of stalks of seven winter wheat cultivars, and preceding crop type as well as the cultivation system. The research was carried out in Poland, on light soil plots of a Lower Silesia-based experimental station subordinate to the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation (IUNG). The loglinear and correspondence analyses proved varying immunity of ...

  6. Incidencia de las diferencias entre cultivares de trigo en la cantidad de fósforo exportada en los granos Incidence of the differences in the amount of P exported between wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lázaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P es uno de los macronutrientes menos disponible en el suelo. Se predijo para los próximos años un incremento en el uso de fertilizantes fosforados debido al crecimiento de la demanda de alimentos. Una de las prácticas que puede contribuir a un uso más sustentable de los fertilizantes fosforados es la selección de cultivares con baja concentración de P en los granos. Para saber si existen diferencias en la concentración de P en los cultivares de trigo utilizados actualmente en la Argentina, se compararon 66 cultivares durante las campañas 2008/09 y 2009/10, en Balcarce. Hubo diferencias entre cultivares en la concentración de P, el rendimiento y la exportación de P (los rangos fueron 0,22 - 0,38%; 5170 - 9740 kg/ha y 13 - 29 kg P/ha, para concentración de P en grano, rendimiento y P exportado respectivamente. Para el productor las implicancias económicas de utilizar cultivares con menor concentración de P no resultan relevantes, ya que sólo representan diferencias en el costo menores al 2% del rendimiento. Sin embargo, a largo plazo y en el país, estas diferencias cobran una dimensión considerable.Phosphorus (P is one of the least available macronutrients in soil and a rise in the use of phosphate fertilizers was predicted due to the growing food demand. A practice that can contribute to a more efficient use of P fertilizers and reduce soil P extraction is the selection of cultivars with low concentration of P in grains. In order to find out if there are differences in P concentration in wheat cultivars that are currently used in Argentina, 66 cultivars, grouped in two sowing dates, during 2008/09 and 2009/10, were compared in Balcarce, under potential conditions. There were differences between cultivars in P concentration, P exportation and yield (ranges were: 0.22 - 0.38%; 5170 - 9740 kg/ha and 13 - 29 kg P/ha for P concentration in grains, yield and P export, respectively. However, when considering the economic

  7. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  8. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci in Spring Wheat Landraces Conferring Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Streak and Spot Blotch

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    Tika B. Adhikari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf streak (BLS, caused by pv. (Smith et al. Bragard et al., and spot blotch (SB, caused by (S. Ito & Kurib. Drechs. ex Dastur, are two emerging diseases of wheat ( L.. To achieve sustainable disease management strategies and reduce yield losses, identifying new genes that confer quantitative resistance would benefit resistance breeding efforts. The main objective of this study was to use association mapping (AM with 832 polymorphic Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to BLS and SB in 566 spring wheat landraces. From data analysis of this diverse panel of wheat accessions, we discovered five novel genomic regions significantly associated with resistance to BLS on chromosomes 1A, 4A, 4B, 6B, and 7D. Similarly, four genomic regions were found to be associated with resistance to SB on chromosomes 1A, 3B, 7B, and 7D. A high degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD decayed over short genetic distance in the set of wheat accessions studied, and some of these genomic regions appear to be involved in multiple disease resistance (MDR. These results suggest that the AM approach provides a platform for discovery of resistance conditioned by multiple genes with quantitative effects, which could be validated and deployed in wheat breeding programs.

  9. Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Extremely-Late Sown Winter Wheat Cultivars under Two Irrigation Regimes in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available Wheat production is threatened by water shortages and groundwater over-draft in the North China Plain (NCP. In recent years, winter wheat has been increasingly sown extremely late in early to mid-November after harvesting cotton or pepper. To improve water use efficiency (WUE and guide the extremely late sowing practices, a 3-year field experiment was conducted under two irrigation regimes (W1, one-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing; W2, two-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing and 75 mm at anthesis in 3 cultivars differing in spike size (HS4399, small spike; JM22, medium spike; WM8, large spike. Wheat was sown in early to mid-November at a high seeding rate of 800-850 seeds m(-2. Average yields of 7.42 t ha(-1 and WUE of 1.84 kg m(-3 were achieved with an average seasonal evapotranspiration (ET of 404 mm. Compared with W2, wheat under W1 did not have yield penalty in 2 of 3 years, and had 7.9% lower seasonal ET and 7.5% higher WUE. The higher WUE and stable yield under W1 was associated with higher 1000-grain weight (TGW and harvest index (HI. Among the 3 cultivars, JM22 had 5.9%-8.9% higher yield and 4.2%-9.3% higher WUE than WM8 and HS4399. The higher yield in JM22 was attributed mainly to higher HI and TGW due to increased post-anthesis biomass and deeper seasonal soil water extraction. In conclusion, one-irrigation with a medium-sized spike cultivar JM22 could be a useful strategy to maintain yield and high WUE in extremely late-sown winter wheat at a high seeding rate in the NCP.

  10. Study of Sowing Date and Seed Priming Effect on Seed Yield, Its Components and Some of Agronomic and Qualitative Properties of Two Spring Canola Cultivars in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohagheghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of planting date, cultivar and seed priming on yield, yield components, oil and protein content of seeds of two spring canola cultivars a field experiment was conducted in Bu-Ali Sina University in 2012. The experiment was factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors consisted of sowing dates (14 and 24th March and 3rd April, seed priming treatments (no-primed, primed with water and zinc sulfate solution and two canola cultivars (Hayola401 and RGS003. The evaluated traits were number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000 seeds weight, plant height, oil and protein percentage, yields of seed, oil and biologic and harvest index. The results showed that delay in sowing, except of seed protein percentage, decreased all traits. Seed priming could increase traits of plant height, 1000 seed weight, number of seed per pod, oil percentage and yield and protein percentage in all sowing dates. Seed priming with zinc sulfate solution and water increased the number of pod per plant 16.1 and 10.5 percent, respectively compared to no-primed treatment. The highest seed number per pod was achieved through the priming with water and zinc sulfate solution with an average of 14.3, in the first sowing date for Hayola401 cultivar. Priming with water, especially in the third sowing date increased oil yield by 56 percent in RGS003 cultivar in comparison with its no-primed treatment. Also priming with zinc sulfate and water, increased the harvest index 5.04 and 3.7% respectively compared to no-primed treatment. In general in the case of delay in sowing date in spring rapeseed cultivars especially for RGS003, primed seed preferably with zinc sulfate improves the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the production.

  11. Comparative proteomics reveals the physiological differences between winter tender shoots and spring tender shoots of a novel tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar evergrowing in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengjie; Gao, Jiadong; Chen, Zhongjian; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Hualin; Cui, Baiyuan; Zhu, Qingfeng; Dai, Zhangyan; Wu, Hualing; Pan, Yayan; Yang, Chengwei; Liu, Jun

    2017-11-20

    A recently discovered tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] cultivar can generate tender shoots in winter. We performed comparative proteomics to analyze the differentially accumulated proteins between winter and spring tender shoots of this clonal cultivar to reveal the physiological basis of its evergrowing character during winter. We extracted proteins from the winter and spring tender shoots (newly formed two leaves and a bud) of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" respectively. Thirty-three differentially accumulated high-confidence proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF / TOF MS). Among these, 24 proteins had increased abundance while nine showed were decreased abundance in winter tender shoots as compared with the spring tender shoots. We categorized the differentially accumulated proteins into eight critical biological processes based on protein function annotation including photosynthesis, cell structure, protein synthesis & destination, transporters, metabolism of sugars and polysaccharides, secondary metabolism, disease/defense and proteins with unknown functions. Proteins with increased abundance in winter tender shoots were mainly related to the processes of photosynthesis, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis, whereas those with decreased abundance were correlated to metabolism and the secondary metabolism of polyphenolic flavonoids. Biochemical analysis showed that the total contents of soluble sugar and amino acid were higher in winter tender shoots while tea polyphenols were lower as compared with spring tender shoots. Our study suggested that the simultaneous increase in the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins rubisco, plastocyanin, and ATP synthase delta chain, metabolism-related proteins eIF4 and protease subunits, and the cytoskeleton-structure associated proteins phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and profilin may be because of the adaptation of the

  12. GWAS for plant growth stages and yield components in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harvested in three regions of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuspekov, Yerlan; Baibulatova, Aida; Yermekbayev, Kanat; Tokhetova, Laura; Chudinov, Vladimir; Sereda, Grigoriy; Ganal, Martin; Griffiths, Simon; Abugalieva, Saule

    2017-11-14

    Spring wheat is the largest agricultural crop grown in Kazakhstan with an annual sowing area of 12 million hectares in 2016. Annually, the country harvests around 15 million tons of high quality grain. Despite environmental stress factors it is predicted that the use of new technologies may lead to increases in productivity from current levels of 1.5 to up to 3 tons per hectare. One way of improving wheat productivity is by the application of new genomic oriented approaches in plant breeding projects. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) are emerging as powerful tools for the understanding of the inheritance of complex traits via utilization of high throughput genotyping technologies and phenotypic assessments of plant collections. In this study, phenotyping and genotyping data on 194 spring wheat accessions from Kazakhstan, Russia, Europe, and CIMMYT were assessed for the identification of marker-trait associations (MTA) of agronomic traits by using GWAS. Field trials in Northern, Central and Southern regions of Kazakhstan using 194 spring wheat accessions revealed strong correlations of yield with booting date, plant height, biomass, number of spikes per plant, and number of kernels per spike. The accessions from Europe and CIMMYT showed high breeding potential for Southern and Central regions of the country in comparison with the performance of the local varieties. The GGE biplot method, using average yield per plant, suggested a clear separation of accessions into their three breeding origins in relationship to the three environments in which they were evaluated. The genetic variation in the three groups of accessions was further studied using 3245 polymorphic SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers. The application of Principal Coordinate analysis clearly grouped the 194 accessions into three clades according to their breeding origins. GWAS on data from nine field trials allowed the identification of 114 MTAs for 12 different agronomic traits. Field

  13. Tolerância de cultivares de trigo a diferentes níveis de alumínio em solução nutritiva e no solo Tolerance op wheat cultivars to different levels of aluminum toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dez cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas contendo cinco diferentes níveis de alumínio tóxico. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após um período prévio de 48 horas em solução contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio. Os cultivares Siete Cerros e Tobari-66 foram sensíveis, respectivamente, a 1 e 3 ppm de alumínio. 'Alondra-S-46', 'Alondra-S-45' e 'IAC-17' foram sensíveis a 6 ppm; 'BH-1146', 'IAC-5', 'IAC-18', 'IAC-13' e 'Londrina' foram tolerantes a 10 ppm, porém 'BH-1146', 'IAC-18' e 'IAC-13' foram mais tolerantes que 'IAC-5' e 'Londrina'. Os cultivares BH-1146, IAC-17, Alondra-S-46, Tobari-66 e Siete Cerros foram cultivados em vasos contendo solo ácido mostrando a presença de alumínio. Metade do número de vasos recebeu uma aplicação de calcário. Os resultados desse experimento mostraram que o cultivar BH-1146 diferiu significativamente em produção de grãos por planta de 'Tobari-66', 'Alondra-S-46', 'IAC-17' e 'Siete Cerros'. Esse resultado confirmou a tolerância ao alumínio do cultivar BH-1146, observada quando se empregou solução nutritiva com a presença desse elemento.Ten wheat cultivars were studied to aluminum toxicity using five different levels of this element. The tolerance was measured taking into account the root growth in a aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a previous Al treatment. With toxic amounts of Al, the primary roots did not grow at all and remained thickned at the tip as a typical Al injury. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros and Tobari-66 were sensitive to 1 and 3 ppm of aluminum, respectively. The cultivars Alondra-S-46, Alondra-S-45 and IAC-17 were sensitive to 6 ppm. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-5, IAC-18, IAC-13 and Londrina showed tolerance to 10 ppm but BH-1146, IAC-18 and IAC-13 were more tolerant than IAC-5 and Londrina. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-17, Alondra-S-46

  14. Evaluation of salinity stress on morphophysiological traits of four salin tolarant wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila yadelerloo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For assessment the effects of salinity on morphophysiological traits of wheat an experiment with four caltivars (Karchia, Sorkh tokhm, Sholeh and Roshan and one line (1-66-22 in four salt concentrations(0, 60, 120, and 180 mM NaCl, were conducted by factorial analysis in a completely randomized design with three replications. The rate of leaf area were measured in four stages. In booting stage, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD meter, and in pollination phase the rate of Na+ and K+ iones in four leaves(up to down were assessed and finally stem length and total dry matter were measured. Results showed that salinity reduced leaf area, total dry matter stem length of plants and relative chlorophyll content. With increasing of salinity the rate of Na+ were increased but the rate of K+ iones were decreased. Also the salt exclusion was observed at nodes of stem that of 1-66-22 was spot form.

  15. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

    2014-11-18

    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  16. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  17. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Juan D; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Lee, HueyTyng; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Visendi, Paul; Lai, Kaitao; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2017-06-01

    There is an increasing understanding that variation in gene presence-absence plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits; however, there have been relatively few studies on variation in gene presence-absence in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars. In this study we build an improved reference for Chinese Spring and explore gene diversity across 18 wheat cultivars. We predict a pangenome size of 140 500 ± 102 genes, a core genome of 81 070 ± 1631 genes and an average of 128 656 genes in each cultivar. Functional annotation of the variable gene set suggests that it is enriched for genes that may be associated with important agronomic traits. In addition to variation in gene presence, more than 36 million intervarietal single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified across the pangenome. This study of the wheat pangenome provides insight into genome diversity in elite wheat as a basis for genomics-based improvement of this important crop. A wheat pangenome, GBrowse, is available at http://appliedbioinformatics.com.au/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/WheatPan/, and data are available to download from http://wheatgenome.info/wheat_genome_databases.php. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  19. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  20. Genealogical Analysis of the North-American Spring Wheat Varieties with Different Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Sergey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of genetic diversity of North American spring wheat varieties differing in resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was carried out. For identification of sources of resistance the genealogical profiles of 148 red-grained and 63 white-grained North-American spring wheat varieties with full pedigrees were calculated and estimates were made of pre-harvest sprouting. The cluster structure of the populations of red-grained and white-grained varieties was estimated. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the average contributions of landraces in the groups of resistant and susceptible varieties. Distribution of the putative sources of resistance in the clusters indicated that varieties having different genetic basis may have different sources of resistance. For red-grained varieties the genetic sources of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting are landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, and Iumillo, or Button, Kenya 9M-1A-3, and Kenya-U, or Red Egyptian and Kenya BF4-3B-10V1. Tracking of pedigrees showed these landraces contributed to the pedigrees, respectively, via Thatcher, Kenya-Farmer, and Kenya-58, which were likely donors of resistance for red-grained varieties. For white-grained varieties the sources of resistance were landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, Ostka Galicyjska, Iumillo, Akakomugi, Turco, Hybrid English, Rough Chaff White and Red King, and putative donors of resistance — Thatcher, RL2265, and Frontana. The genealogical profile of accession RL4137, the most important donor of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in North American spring wheat breeding programmes, contains almost all identified sources of resistance.

  1. Improved tolerance to post-anthesis drought stress by pre-drought priming at vegetative stages in drought-tolerant and -sensitive wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Liu, Yang; Cui, Yakun; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-09-01

    Wheat crop endures a considerable penalty of yield reduction to escape the drought events during post-anthesis period. Drought priming under a pre-drought stress can enhance the crop potential to tolerate the subsequent drought stress by triggering a faster and stronger defense mechanism. Towards these understandings, a set of controlled moderate drought stress at 55-60% field capacity (FC) was developed to prime the plants of two wheat cultivars namely Luhan-7 (drought tolerant) and Yangmai-16 (drought sensitive) during tillering (Feekes 2 stage) and jointing (Feekes 6 stage), respectively. The comparative response of primed and non-primed plants, cultivars and priming stages was evaluated by applying a subsequent severe drought stress at 7 days after anthesis. The results showed that primed plants of both cultivars showed higher potential to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress through improved leaf water potential, more chlorophyll, and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase contents, enhanced photosynthesis, better photoprotection and efficient enzymatic antioxidant system leading to less yield reductions. The primed plants of Luhan-7 showed higher capability to adapt the drought stress events than Yangmai-16. The positive effects of drought priming to sustain higher grain yield were pronounced in plants primed at tillering than those primed at jointing. In consequence, upregulated functioning of photosynthetic apparatus and efficient enzymatic antioxidant activities in primed plants indicated their superior potential to alleviate a subsequently occurring drought stress, which contributed to lower yield reductions than non-primed plants. However, genotypic and priming stages differences in response to drought stress also contributed to affect the capability of primed plants to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress conditions in wheat. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Response of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to longtime enforced dormancy and time of spring vegetation recommencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Хахула

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of studying the soft winter wheat response to the duration of enforced winter dormancy and the time of vegetation recommencing, their impact on growth, development and the survival of the crops. It is found that the impact of those factors in the conditions of central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine is essential, which is to be taken into consideration when scheduling the measures of spring and summer care over the cultivated crops, in particular, where the spring extra nutrition takes place, pesticides and growth regulators are applied, the spaced planting resowing or partial resowing issues are to be settled down. The ecological effect of spring vegetation recommencing dates does not expose annually, therefore it is not always possible to predict the plant development type, but it is possible, nevertheless, to influence the processes of growth, development and survival of plants throughout spring-summer period and the development of their production capacity by means of introducing the intense technologies, optimization of mineral nutrition and the use of plant growth regulators, protection from rogues, diseases, pests.

  3. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

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    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  4. Effects of tillage technologies and application of biopreparations on micromycetes in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Kozlova, L. M.; Shirokikh, A. A.; Popov, F. A.; Tovstik, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    The population density and structure of complexes of soil microscopic fungi in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), plant damage by root rot and leaf diseases, and crop yield were determined in a stationary field experiment on a silty loamy soddy-podzolic soil (Albic Retisol (Loamic, Aric)) in dependence on the soil tillage technique: (a) moldboard plowing to 20-22 cm and (b) non-inversive tillage to 14-16 cm. The results were treated with the two-way ANOVA method. It was shown that the number of fungal propagules in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants in the variant with non-inversive tillage was significantly smaller than that in the variant with plowing. Minimization of the impact on the soil during five years led to insignificant changes in the structure of micromycete complexes in the rhizosphere of wheat. The damage of the plants with root rot and leaf diseases upon non-inversive tillage did not increase in comparison with that upon plowing. Wheat yield in the variant with non-inversive tillage was insignificantly lower than that in the variant with moldboard plowing. The application of biopreparations based on the Streptomyces hygroscopicus A4 and Pseudomonas aureofaciens BS 1393 resulted in a significant decrease of plant damage with leaf rust.

  5. High temperature combined with drought affect rainfed spring wheat and barley in South-Eastern Russia: I. Phenology and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Lozovskaya, Marina Viacheslavovna; Zvolinsky, Vacheslav Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress, when combined with drought, is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide, especially in areas that use rainfed agriculture. As the world population continues to grow, and water resources for the crop production decline and temperature increases, so the development of heat- and drought-tolerant cultivars is an issue of global concern. In this context, four barley and two wheat genotypes were evaluated in south-eastern Russia to identify heat- and drought-tolerant genotypes for future breeding programmes by identifying suitable sowing times for specific genotypes. High temperature stress, when combined with drought during late sowing, decreased the days to visible awns, days to heading and days to ripe harvest, finally negatively affecting the growth and development of plants and resulting in a lower plant population m−2, tillers plant−1, plant height and dry matter production m−2. On the other hand, low temperature in combination with early sowing increased the number of days to germination, reduced seedling stand establishment and tillering capacity, finally affecting the growth and development of the crops. Compared to overall performance and optimum sowing date, barley genotypes ‘Zernograd.770’ and ‘Nutans’, and wheat genotype ‘Line4’ performed best in both late (high temperature with drought) and early (low temperature) stress conditions. PMID:23961209

  6. [The influence of combinations of alien translocations on in vitro androgenesis in near-isogenic lines of spring bread wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibikeeva, Yu E; Sibikeev, S N

    2014-07-01

    The features of in vitro androgenesis were studied in Cultured anthers of spring bread wheats L503 and Dobrynya, having 7DS-7DL-7Ae#1 L translocation with genes Lrl9/Sr25 (Lrl9 translocation) from Agropyron elongatum (Host.) P.B. and their near-isogenic lines carrying combinations of Lrl9 translocation with translocations: 1BL-IR#1S with genes Pm8/Sr31/Lr26/Yr9 (Lr26translocation) from Secale cereal L., 4BS-4BL-2R#1L with genes Lr25/Pm7 (Lr25 translocation) from Secale cereal, 3DS-3DL-3Ae#1L with genes Lr24/Sr24 (Lr24 translocation) from Agropyron elongatum and 6BS-6BL-6U#1L with gene Lr9 (Lr9 translocation) from Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk. In comparison with those varieties having received the Lrl9 translocation, the following was established: (1) the combination of translocations Lr19+26 increased embryo frequency and green plant regeneration; (2) the combination of translocations Lr19+9 decreased embryo frequency but increased green plant regeneration; (3) the combination of translocations Lr19+24 decreased embryo frequency but increased green and albino plant regeneration; (4) the combination of translocations Lr19+25 increased embryo frequency and green plant regeneration but decreased albino plant regeneration. Thus, on near-isogenic lines of spring bread wheat, the influences of genotypes of four alien translocation combinations on in vitro androgenesis were determined.

  7. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  8. Influence of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and some baking quality characteristics of spring wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Elonen

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1967—70 twelve irrigation experiments of spring wheat were carried out in southern Finland (60-62° N, 22-26° E. Sprinkler irrigation (2 X 30 mm increased the grain yields on an average by 1240±470kg/ha (from 2740 to 3980 kg or 45±17 %. The increases in yield were significant on clay soils (9 trials and loam (1 trial but insignificant on fines and (1 trial and mould (1 trial. Additional nitrogen fertilization (from 76 to 143kg/ha N increased the grain yields on an average by 350± 200 kg/ha or 11±6 %. The ripening of wheat was significantly promoted by irrigation in one year but slightly retarded in three years. Nitrogen fertilization slightly retarded ripening every year The falling number of grains tended to be slightly improved by irrigation (from 285 to 321, on an average, but in most trials irrigation and nitrogen fertilization had no significant influence on the falling number. Irrigation decreased the crude protein content of grains in all trials, on an average by 2.2 ± 0.7 %-units (from 16.3 to 14.1%. This unfavourable effect was, however, avoided with additional nitrogen which increased the protein content by 1.9±0.4%-units (from 14,3 to 16.2 %. The effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on those characteristics of wheat that are correlated with protein, were similar to the effects on the protein content. Thus, irrigation decreased the zeleny value (from 64 to 53 ml, cold viscosity (from 214 to 114 seconds, water absorption (from 66.5 to 64.9 % and the valorimeter value (from 68 to 60, while these characteristics were improved by nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation did not decrease the Pelshenke value but increased significantly the ratio of the Pelshenke value/protein content (from 5,1 to 6.1. This indicates that the quality of protein was improved by irrigation, while the effect of nitrogen fertilization was the reverse. In fact, irrigation and additional nitrogen fertilization affected the quantity and

  9. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e reprodutivo de cultivares de trigo e sua associação com a emissão de folhas Vegetative and reproductive development of wheat cultivars and its association with leaf appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Cristine Walter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a relação da duração das fases vegetativa, reprodutiva e total do ciclo de desenvolvimento com o número final de folhas e com a velocidade de aparecimento de folhas no colmo principal, em cultivares brasileiras de trigo, variando-se a data de semeadura. Um experimento de campo foi realizado em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, com 13 datas de semeadura ao longo de três anos (2005, 2006 e 2007. Foram utilizados seis genótipos de trigo com ciclos de desenvolvimento variando de precoce a tardio: 'BRS LOURO', 'CEP 52', 'BRS 177', 'CEP 51', 'NOVA ERA' e 'BRS TARUMÃ'. Para cada cultivar e data de semeadura, foi determinada a duração, em °C dia, das fases vegetativa (emergência - antese e reprodutiva (antese - maturidade fisiológica e do ciclo total (emergência - maturidade fisiológica, o número final de folhas e o filocrono (tempo para aparecimento de duas folhas sucessivas no colmo principal e a relação entre essas variáveis por meio de análise de regressão. Os resultados indicam que a duração do ciclo total das cultivares de trigo tem relação direta com a duração da fase vegetativa e não com a fase reprodutiva, a qual foi similar entre as cultivares, e que a duração da fase vegetativa tem relação direta com o número final de folhas e não com a velocidade de aparecimento dessas folhas no colmo principal.The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the duration of vegetative, reproductive and total developmental cycle with the main stem final leaf number and with the main stem leaf appearance rate in Brazilian wheat cultivars, varying the sowing date. A field experiment was carried out in Santa Maria, RS, in 13 sowing dates during three years (2005, 2006 and 2007. Six wheat genotypes with developmental cycle varying from early to late were used: BRS LOURO, CEP 52, BRS 177, CEP 51, NOVA ERA, and BRS TARUMÃ. For each cultivar and sowing date, the

  10. A genome-wide association study of field and seedling response to stem rust pathogen races reveals combinations of race-specific resistance genes in North American spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici historically caused major yield losses of wheat worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in conventional North American spring wheat, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was conducted on a...

  11. Improvement of the nutritional quality of barley and spring wheat: A review of the FAO/SIDA/SAREC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, I.D.

    1984-01-01

    The main aim of the joint FAO/SIDA/SAREC project was to develop new varieties of barley and spring wheat adapted to conditions in developing countries and with increased protein and lysine contents of the grain. Six premier research institutes in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey co-operated in the project under the technical leadership of Svaloev AB, formerly the Swedish Seed Association, during the period 1974 to 1981. Barley lines having grain with high protein and high lysine contents derived from Hiproly, Risoe 1508 and B1 were used as donors and backcrossed at Svaloev into adapted breeding material provided by breeders in the participating countries. Backcrosses and other progenies selected for homozygosity of the lysine genes on the basis of their protein content and dye-binding capacity (DBC) were distributed to the participants who continued selection in their own environments. A similar programme was initiated for wheat, based largely on Atlas 66, Nap Hal and Rageni as donors of high protein and lysine, but the expression of high lysine was very weakly inherited and selection was abandoned in 1978. It has proved extremely difficult, and so far impossible, to find high yielding lines with desirable agronomic characters combined with increased protein and lysine contents. Evidence of positive improvement in protein production per unit area was obtained in both wheat and barley in India. Under the aegis of the project over 14,000 lines of wheat and nearly 21,000 lines of barley, which included around 6,000 mutant progenies, were screened for protein content and DBC values at Svaloev, but no new prospective donors were identified that were superior to those already available. Conclusions are drawn concerning the benefit of the project and suggestions are made for further action. (author)

  12. Reação de cultivares de trigo à ferrugem da folha e mancha amarela e responsividade a fungicidas Reaction of wheat cultivars to leaf rust and yellow spot and responsiveness to fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nédio Rodrigo Tormen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de cultivares de trigo à ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, e mancha amarela, causada por Drechslera tritici-repentis, e sua responsividade ao controle químico com fungicidas, foi conduzido experimento de campo durante os invernos de 2009 e 2010, Itaara-RS. As cultivares avaliadas foram 'FCEP 51', 'FCEP 52', 'CD 114', 'FCEP Campo Real', 'FCEP Cristalino', 'FCEP Nova Era', 'OR Marfim', 'OR Abalone', 'OR Safira' e 'OR Pampeano'; na safra 2010, a cultivar 'CD 114' foi substituída pela OR Quartzo. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: P1 - testemunha sem aplicação de fungicida; P2 - fempropimorfe (560g ha-1 de i.a.; P3 - azoxistrobina + ciproconazol (60+24g ha-1 de i.a.; e P4 - piraclostrobina + metconazol (60+97,5g ha-1 de i.a.. Após a segunda aplicação, efetuaram-se avaliações semanais de severidade das doenças, cujos dados foram utilizados para o cálculo da Área Abaixo da Curva de Progresso da Doença (AACPD. Também foram determinados a produtividade e o peso do hectolitro. No que se refere à suscetibilidade às doenças, as cultivares estudadas apresentaram respostas distintas de um ano para o outro. Para ferrugem, o comportamento mostrou-se similar em ambos os anos, enquanto que, para mancha amarela, houve variação. Quanto à resposta ao controle químico, ocorreram variações de acordo com o patógeno e com o grau de suscetibilidade das cultivares. O uso integrado de resistência genética e controle químico mostrou-se mais efetivo para ferrugem da folha.Aiming to evaluate the susceptibility of wheat cultivars to leaf rust and yellow spot and their responsiveness to chemical fungicides, two field trials were carried out, during 2009 and 2010 winter's. The cultivars evaluated were: 'FCEP 51', 'FCEP 52', 'CD114', 'FCEP Campo Real', 'FCEP Cristalino', 'FCEP Nova Era', 'OR Marfim', 'OR Abalone', 'OR Safira' and 'OR Pampeano'. In 2010, the 'CD 114' cultivar was replaced by Quartzo

  13. Study of Canopy Structure and Growth Characters Role of Two Wheat Cultivars in Competition, on Economic Threshold and Yield of Rye and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saadatian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of effective factors on competition of two wheat cultivars against two species of narrow leaf and broad leaf weeds this study was conducted as two separated experiments based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2008-2009. In both Experiments, Alvand and Sayson cultivars were planted with densities of 450 plants m-2. In the 1st experiment, rye with densities of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2 were planted in inter-rows of wheat. In the 2nd experiment, wild mustard densities were 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 plants m-2. The results showed that characters such as vertical distribution of leaf area index and dry matter, height and its increase rate in interference, emergence rate, rate of canopy development and precocity led to increasing competitive ability of Alvand than Sayson in competition with two weed species. These factors were effective in reduction seed production of weeds and economic threshold in Alvand. Despite of lower height of wild mustard than rye, distribution of leaf area and canopy structure of wild mustard increased light competition ability and shadow on crop, so that harmful effects of individual plant of wild mustard in different densities was more than rye. Increasing rate of wild mustard seed bank was more than ray.

  14. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat Sourav, Pradip, Sufi, Shatabdi and Bijoy were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28C to 30C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in Sourav, 58.41% in Pradip, 73.01% in Sufi, 55.46% in Shatabdi and 53.42% in Bijoy.

  15. Responses of Seed Yield, Yield Components and Some Morpho-physiological Traits of Wheat Cultivars (Triticum aestivum to the Application Methods of Fulzyme Biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eslami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of application methods of Fulzym biofertilizer (containing Bacillus subtilis on yield, yield components and some morpho-physiological characteristics of four cultivars wheat, an experiment was conducted in field of Astan Quds Razavi in 2010- 2011. The experiment performed was in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Four wheat cultivars (Falat, Pishtaz, Bahar and Toos were assigned to main plots and four biofertilizer application methods (as seed inoculation, using in irrigation water, seed inoculation and irrigation and control to sub plots. Results indicated that Falat had the lowest plant height (61.5 cm than other varieties. Plant height of Toos and Pishtaz were about 14.5 percent higher than Falat. Application methods of Fulzym increased chlorophyll content and plant height. Highest chlorophyll contents were obtained when seeds inoculated by Fulzyme and used through irrigation. At the end of growing season, it was found that chlorophyll content of Falat and Toos flag leaves were higher than Pishtaz and Bahar. It was also revealed that Bahar when Fulzyme was used showed a better response to treatments than other varieties as for as biological and seed yields were concerned. Highest seed yield produced by irrigation and combination of seed inoculation and irrigation (9063 and 8609 kg.ha-1 and lowest seed yield (5858 kg.ha-1 to Falat in the control treatment.

  16. Genetic Progress in Winter Wheat Cultivars released in Chile from 1920 to 2000 Progreso Genético en Cultivares de Trigo de Invierno Liberados en Chile desde 1920 a 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the major crop in terms of planted area and presents the largest distribution in the country covering a wide range of climatic regions. This study assesses the changes of various agronomic traits of winter wheat cultivars released in Chile between 1920 and 2000. A total of 117 winter accessions, representing 45 old and 72 modern cultivars were tested in a humid Mediterranean-type climate, with irrigation, in 2003. Old cultivars were those released before 1960 and modern ones were those released after 1960. Principal component (PC analysis using 10 agronomic traits clearly separate modern from old cultivars of winter wheat. Comparing modern cultivars with old ones, plant height have been reduced by 25.6%, but others traits have increased, like harvest index (21.1%, number of grains per ear (42.6%, sedimentation value (103%, and grain hardness (32.0%. The variation in plant height was negatively correlated with harvest index (r = -0.30, p El trigo (Triticum aestivum L. es el cultivo más importante en Chile en términos de superficie sembrada y áreas geográficas en las cuales se siembra, cubriendo una gran diversidad de condiciones climáticas. Este estudio evaluó los cambios de varias características agronómicas de variedades de trigo de invierno liberadas en el país entre 1920 y 2000. Un total de 117 genotipos de trigos de invierno, que representa 45 cultivares antiguos y 72 cultivares modernos, se evaluaron en un clima húmedo de tipo mediterráneo, en condiciones de riego, en el año 2003. Los cultivares antiguos corresponden a aquellos liberados antes del año 1960 y los modernos a los liberados después del año 1960. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales (CP usando 10 características agronómicas, permitió separar claramente los cultivares modernos de los antiguos. Al comparar los cultivares modernos con los antiguos se determinó que la altura de la planta se ha reducido un 25,6%, pero en

  17. Effects of drought stress condition on the yield of spring wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... spikelets to booting stage affected the yield and yield components. Water deficit at this stage considerably decreased the number of spikelets per spike. The spike length reportedly showed stability under different conditions. However, the findings of Iqbal et al. (1999) on durum wheat indicated that the ...

  18. NIR calibration of soluble stem carbohydrates for predicting drought tolerance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble stem carbohydrates are a component of drought response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other grasses. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can rapidly assay for soluble carbohydrates indirectly, but this requires a statistical model for calibration. The objectives of this study were: (i) to ...

  19. Effect of bioeffectors and recycled P-fertiliser products on the growth of spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Rex, Martin; Mercl, Filip

    2016-01-01

    investigated the effect of a range of different recycled fertilisers on the growth and P uptake of wheat in pot experiments conducted at three different locations in Europe. Furthermore, investigations were undertaken as to whether the addition of a range of bioeffectors could significantly enhance P...

  20. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Anatomical features of leaves of three cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and settling the plants by cereal leaf beetles, Oulema spp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of flag leaves anatomy of three winter wheat cultivars: Almari, Gama and Weneda were carried out as it was state that there are great differences in the intensity of cereal leaf beetle feeding on the leaves. In order to determine the features conditioning the differentiated resistance of these cultivars following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the length of trichomes and their density in the adaxial epidermis, the number of silicon cells in 1 mm2 epidermis and the thickness of the external cell walls of epidermis. The observations of cross section of the leaves were made in a light microscope and that of surface of the adaxial epidermis in a scanning electron microscope. In this study it was shown that Gama cv. distinguishes of the shortest trichomes with poor density, the lowest number of the silicon cells in 1 mm2 and epidermis cells with the thinest walls. This features indicate a poor resistance of Gama cv. against feeding of the pests and give reasons for the presence a much higher number of the cereal leaf beetle larvae (about 100% than at the extant two cultivars. Dependence between the thickness of leaf blades and the number of larvae of the infesting pests has not been stated.

  2. Accumulation of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium by spring oilseed rape (Brássica napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Stefan B.; Eriksson, Jan; Gärdenäs, Annemieke I.; Vinichuk, Mykhailo; Rosén, Klas

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of 134 Cs and 85 Sr within different parts of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat plants was investigated, with a particular focus on transfer to seeds after artificial wet deposition at different growth stages during a two-year field trial. In general, the accumulation of radionuclides in plant parts increased when deposition was closer to harvest. The seed of spring oilseed rape had lower concentrations of 85 Sr than spring wheat grain. The plants accumulated more 134 Cs than 85 Sr. We conclude that radionuclides can be transferred into human food chain at all growing stages, especially at the later stages. The variation in transfer factors during the investigation, and in comparison to previous results, implies the estimation of the risk for possible transfer of radionuclides to seeds in the event of future fallout during a growing season is still subject to considerable uncertainty. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of 134 Cs and 85 Sr in plants increased the closer to harvest the nuclides were deposited. • 134 Cs and 85 Sr concentrations in seeds were highest when deposited after flowering. •Activity concentrations of 134 Cs in spring oilseed rape were higher than the activity concentrations of 85 Sr. •Oilseed rape redistributes 134 Cs and 85 Sr to seed at a lower rate than wheat redistributes 134 Cs and 85 Sr to grain. -- Intercepted radionuclides can be transferred into the food chain for humans

  3. Mapping of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes and Molecular Characterization of the 2NS/2AS Translocation in the Wheat Cultivar Jagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shulin; Kolmer, James A; Wang, Shuwen; Yan, Liuling

    2018-04-19

    Winter wheat cultivar 'Jagger' was recently found to have an alien chromosomal segment 2NS that has Lr37 , a gene conferring resistance against leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina The objective of this study was to map and characterize the gene(s) for seedling leaf rust resistance in Jagger. The recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of Jagger × '2174' was inoculated with leaf rust pathogen THBJG and BBBDB, and evaluated for infection type (IT) response. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for THBJG and BBBDB was coincidently mapped to chromosome arm 2AS, and the QTL accounted for 56.6% - 66.2% of total phenotypic variation in infection type (IT) response to THBJG, and 72.1% - 86.9% to BBBDB. The causal gene for resistance to these rust races was mapped to the 2NS segment in Jagger. The 2NS segment was located in a region of approximately 27.8 Mb starting from the telomere of chromosome arm 2AS, based on the sequences of the A genome in tetraploid wheat. The Lr17a gene on chromosome arm 2AS was delimited to 3.1 Mb in the genomic region, which was orthologous to the 2NS segment. Therefore, the Lr37 gene in the 2NS segment can be pyramided with other effective resistance genes, rather than Lr17a in wheat, to improve resistance to rust diseases. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  4. The effect of soll water conditions on carbon isotope discrimination and minerals contents in spring-planted wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lin; Liang Zongsuo; Xu Xing; Li Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (triangle open 13 C) has been proposed as indirect selection criterion for transpiration efficiency and grain yield in wheat. However, because of high cost for triangle open 13 C analysis, attempts have been made to identify alternative screening criteria. Ash content (m a ) has been proposed as an alternative criterion for triangle open 13 C in wheat and barley. A pot experiment with three water treatments (45% ± 5% FC, 55% ± 5% FC and 75% ± 5%FC) was conducted and flag leaf triangle open 13 C (triangle openL a ), contents of ash, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were measured to study the relationships between triangle open, mineral composition in spring planted bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the light of the results obtained in this research, the traits measured showed significant differences among the three water treatments. There were variations in triangle openL a between the genotypes derived from contrasting environments. The improved varieties or advanced lines bred in irrigated areas displayed higher triangle open 13 C values, while the improved and local varieties bred in rain-fed areas exhibited lower triangle open 13 C values Significant positive correlations were found between triangle open 13 C and m a in seedlings and second fully developed leaves at elongation stage and in flag leaves at anthesis stage in severe drought treatment (T 1 ) (r=0.790, P 13 C was negatively associated with potassium (K) content in flag leaves in T 2 (r=0.813, P 2 and T 3 (r=0.725, P 13 C and calcium (Ca) content in flag leaves in T 3 (r=0.708, P a is a possible alternative criterion of triangle open 13 C in vegetative organs especially in stressed environments. K, Mg and Ca contents in flag leaf under moderate water stress or feasible water conditions might be new predictive criteria of triangle openL a . (authors)

  5. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Ahmad, S.D.; Rabbani, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  6. Características e desempenho agronômico no Paraná da cultivar de trigo BRS 220 Characteristics and agronomic performance in Paraná State of wheat cultivar BRS 220

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos Bassoi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar BRS 220, indicada para todas as regiões tritícolas do Paraná, apresenta elevado potencial de rendimento, ampla adaptação e é dotada de força de glúten que a inclui na classe de trigo pão. É resistente às ferrugens e moderadamente resistente às manchas foliares, à brusone e ao vírus-do-mosaico. É moderadamente suscetível à giberela e ao oídio. Apresenta ciclo de precoce a médio, altura média de planta, boa resistência ao acamamento e moderada tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. É moderadamente tolerante à debulha e suscetível à germinação pré-colheita. Apresentou, nos cinco anos de experimentação, média de rendimento de grãos da ordem de 4.853 kg ha-1, na região 6, 3.794 kg ha-1, na região 7, e 4.039 kg ha-1, na região 8, superando a média das cultivares testemunhas em 5%, 13% e 8%, respectivamente.The cultivar BRS 220, recommended for all wheat growing regions in the Paraná State, has shown a high yield potential, wide adaptation and resistance to the main diseases, presenting a gluten suitable for baking. The cultivar belongs to medium maturity group and presents medium height, high resistance to lodging, moderate tolerance to toxic aluminium, moderate tolerance to natural dehiscence but it is susceptible to preharvest sprouting (PHS. In the experimentation over five years, BRS 220 presented a grain yield average of 4,853 kg ha-1 in the region 6, 3,794 kg ha-1 in the region 7 and 4,039 kg ha-1 in the region 8, surpassing 5%, 13% and 8% the average of the local cultivars, respectively.

  7. Response of Some Bread Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Application of Zn and Fe Different Forms in Two Locations with Different Soil Properties

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    E Arazmjoo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Zinc (Zn and iron (Fe are essential mineral nutrients for plant and human growth, and dietary Zn and Fe deficiencies are a worldwide nutritional problem. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA of Zn and Fe are 15 mg and 10 mg per day for human, respectively. However, micronutrient deficiencies affect more than half of the world’s population, especially women and preschool children. Iron is one of the most important micronutrients, and approximately two billion people suffer from iron deficiency worldwide. Zinc deficiency is also considered to be quite common and affects newborn, children, pregnant women and elderly. Micronutrient malnutrition in human in developing countries is derived from deficiencies of these elements in staple food. It is believed that increasing the micronutrient concentrations in these crops could increase the dietary intake of these elements in these regions significantly. More than 80% of arable soils in Iran are zinc-deficient with an average yield depression of around 50%. It is, therefore, highly important to develop cost-effective and quick solutions to the Zn and Fe deficiency problem. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of zinc and iron different forms on yield components, phonological and morphological traits and grain yield of some wheat cultivars in two locations with different physico-chemical soil properties, two experiments in factorial arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications conducted during 2015-16 cropping season. Experimental treatments were included: wheat cultivars Roshan, Roshan Back cross (old cultivars, Bam and Ofogh (new cultivars, zinc application in three levels of foliar application of water (control, zinc sulfate and chelated zinc and iron application in three levels of foliar application of water (control, iron sulfate and chelated iron (equivalent to 2.5 kg ha-1. The first experiment was conducted at the

  8. The International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment for Modeling Wheat Response to Heat: Field Experiments and AgMIP-Wheat Multi-Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martre, Pierre; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Alderman, Phillip D.; Cammarano, Davide; Maiorano, Andrea; Ruane, Alexander C.; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Anothai, Jakarat; hide

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains a portion of the International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment (IHSGE) data used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat crop models and quantify the impact of heat on global wheat yield productivity. It includes two spring wheat cultivars grown during two consecutive winter cropping cycles at hot, irrigated, and low latitude sites in Mexico (Ciudad Obregon and Tlaltizapan), Egypt (Aswan), India (Dharwar), the Sudan (Wad Medani), and Bangladesh (Dinajpur). Experiments in Mexico included normal (November-December) and late (January-March) sowing dates. Data include local daily weather data, soil characteristics and initial soil conditions, crop measurements (anthesis and maturity dates, anthesis and final total above ground biomass, final grain yields and yields components), and cultivar information. Simulations include both daily in-season and end-of-season results from 30 wheat models.

  9. Bayesian inference for the genetic control of water deficit tolerance in spring wheat by stochastic search variable selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Parviz; Danyali, Syyedeh Fatemeh; Rahimi, Mehdi

    2018-06-02

    Drought is the main abiotic stress seriously influencing wheat production. Information about the inheritance of drought tolerance is necessary to determine the most appropriate strategy to develop tolerant cultivars and populations. In this study, generation means analysis to identify the genetic effects controlling grain yield inheritance in water deficit and normal conditions was considered as a model selection problem in a Bayesian framework. Stochastic search variable selection (SSVS) was applied to identify the most important genetic effects and the best fitted models using different generations obtained from two crosses applying two water regimes in two growing seasons. The SSVS is used to evaluate the effect of each variable on the dependent variable via posterior variable inclusion probabilities. The model with the highest posterior probability is selected as the best model. In this study, the grain yield was controlled by the main effects (additive and non-additive effects) and epistatic. The results demonstrate that breeding methods such as recurrent selection and subsequent pedigree method and hybrid production can be useful to improve grain yield.

  10. The Effect of Nitroxin Biofertilizer and Foliar Applicatin of Micronutrients Time Consumption on Yield and Yield Components of New Wheat Cultivars under Khorramabad Climatic Conditions

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    A. Vaez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to study the effects of Nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients time consumption on yield and yield components of new wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum & T. durum under Khorramabad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm khorramabad during growing season of 2012-2013. Considering the positive effect of inoculation with bio-fertilizer and foliar Nitroxin micronutrients and reaction of cultivars to this type of fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizers and the importance of wheat as one of the main crops, this study aims to determine the most appropriate time for foliar and Nitroxin application of micronutrients at the different stages of plant growth and bio-fertilizer application on yield and yield components. Materials and Methods The first factor was considered in six levels: N0: The lack of the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and without the foliar application of micronutrients (control, N1: the seed inoculation with the nitroxin biofertilizer, N2: the foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N3: the foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage, N4: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N5: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage. The second factor was considered at two levels, consisting: V1: Parsi cultivar and V2: Dena cultivar. MSTATC Software was used for data analysis and means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion In this experiment the grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, 1000- grain weight, spike number per m-2, grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike of wheat were studied. The results of the data variance analysis has

  11. Dose response behaviour of water scarcity towards genetical and morphological traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorkha, I.R.; Tabasum, S.

    2015-01-01

    Combining ability was studied in a Line * Tester mating fashion in wheat (Tricticum aestivum L.). Significant differences were observed for all the yield and yield contributing traits. GCA and SCA components of variation were found significant for most of the traits. Under water stressed conditions among lines the genotype Kohistan-97 revealed significant GCA effects for all the traits except spike length. Among testers, the genotype V08172 showed significant effects for the traits spike length, 1000-grain weight and flag leaf area. Based on desirable SCA effects and mean performance the cross combinations Kohistan-97 * V08172, Chakwal-86 * Punjab-81, Fsd-2008 * Punjab-81, Sehar-2006 * V08172 and Chakwal-86 * V08172 behaved best combiner to tolerate the water stress. Results of genetic analysis offered over dominance type of gene action that remained unchanged with the change in water provision for the traits like 1000 grain weight and economic yield. Similarly additive gene action was observed for the trait plant height under both normal irrigation and water stress conditions. However the cumulative genetic effects to control the expression of yield and yield components was shifted due to the changed environments. The study was concluded that due to presence of additive variance, selection could be practiced in early generation whereas in the presence of recessiveness the selection may be delayed up to the later generations. Plant traits associated with water stress tolerance having high heritability and with additive gene action may be used as indirect selection criteria for early selection of water stress tolerant genotypes. The information generated as a result of this study on genetic analysis of important economic traits of wheat under contrasting water availability positions will be of great value to the wheat breeders to design future breeding programmes. (author)

  12. Structural and Temporal Variation in Genetic Diversity of European Spring Two-Row Barley Cultivars and Association Mapping of Quantitative Traits

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    Alessandro Tondelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred sixteen barley ( L. cultivars were selected to represent the diversity and history of European spring two-row barley breeding and to search for alleles controlling agronomic traits by association genetics. The germplasm was genotyped with 7864 gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers and corresponding field trial trait data relating to growth and straw strength were obtained at multiple European sites. Analysis of the marker data by statistical population genetics approaches revealed two important trends in the genetic diversity of European two-row spring barley, namely, i directional selection for approximately 14% of total genetic variation of the population in the last approximately 50 yr and ii highly uneven genomic distribution of genetic diversity. Association analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic data identified multiple loci affecting the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best” is leading towards fixation of some breeder targets. Nevertheless, modern germplasm also retains many regions of high diversity, suggesting that site-specific genetic approaches for allele identification and crop improvement such as association genetics are likely to be successful.

  13. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

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    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat �Sourav�, �Pradip�, �Sufi�, �Shatabdi� and �Bijoy� were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23�C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28�C to 30�C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in �Sourav�, 58.41% in �Pradip�, 73.01% in �Sufi�, 55.46% in �Shatabdi� and 53.42% in �Bijoy�.

  14. Variation of heavy metal and micro and macro element concentrations of bread and durum wheats and their relationship in grain of Turkish wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmankaya, Mustafa; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gezgin, Sait

    2012-09-01

    The 64 varieties displayed a large variation for all mineral elements, investigated Fe, Mn and Zn, ranging from 24.2 to 43.1 mg/kg, 27.6 to 64.8 mg/kg and 10.4 to 38.2 mg/kg, respectively. The mean Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S concentrations in wheat rain varieties amounted to 378, 4,266, 1,183, 317, 3,513 and 1,542 mg/kg, respectively. Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S contents of wheat varieties changed at the levels between 266 and 531 mg/kg, 3,029 and 5,566 mg/kg, 972 and 1,525 mg/kg, 277 and 368 mg/kg, 2,422 and 4,610 mg/kg and 1,241 to 2,052 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of durum wheat samples were found at high levels. The mean Al, Cr, Mo, Ni, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in durum wheat varieties amounted to 10.93, 0.47, 0.72, 0.72, 5.37, 34.9, 37.28 and 20.88 mg/kg, respectively.

  15. Soil compaction limits root development, radiation-use efficiency and yield of three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Anne Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    . The RUE was positively correlated with an estimated effective rooting depth across cultivars, while DM yield was not. This correlation probably was a result of restrictions on stomatal opening mediated by drought stress and abscisic acid produced in the root system in response to occasional soil drying...

  16. Identification of genomic associations for adult plant resistance in the background of popular South Asian wheat cultivar, PBW343

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    Huihui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rusts, a fungal disease as old as its host plant wheat, an enemy as old as wheat, has caused havoc for over 8,000 years. As the rust pathogens can evolve into new virulent races which quickly defeat to qualitative or vertical the resistance that primarily rely on race specificity over time, adult plant resistance (APR has often been found to be race non-specific and hence is considered have been proven to be a more to be a more reliable and durable strategy to combat this malady. Over decades sets of donor lines have been identified at International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT representing a wide range of APR sources in wheat. In this study, using nine donors and a common parent ‘PBW343’, a popular Green Revolution variety at CIMMYT, the nested association mapping (NAM population of 1122 lines was constructed to understand the APR genetics underlying these founder lines. Thirty-four QTL were associated with APR to rusts, and 20 of 34 QTL had pleiotropic effects on SR, YR and LR resistance. Three chromosomal regions, associated with known APR genes (Sr58/Yr29/Lr46, Sr2/Yr30/Lr27, and Sr57/Yr18/Lr34, were also identified, 13 previously reported QTL regions were validated. Of the 18 QTL first detected in this study, 7 were pleiotropic QTL, distributing on chromosomes 3A, 3B, 6B, 3D, and 6D. The present investigation revealed the genetic relationship of historical APR donor lines, the novel knowledge on APR, as well as the new analytical methodologies to facilitate the applications of NAM design in crop genetics. Results shown in this study will aid the parental selection for hybridization in wheat breeding, and envision the future rust management breeding for addressing potential threat to wheat production and food security.

  17. Preliminary evidence for associations between molecular markers and quantitative traits in a set of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Nasri, Shilan; Dashchi, Sahar; Arzhang, Sorour; Bernousi, Iraj; Abbasi Holasou, Hossein

    The identification of polymorphic markers associated with various quantitative traits allows us to test their performance for the exploitation of the extensive quantitative variation maintained in gene banks. In the current study, a set of 97 wheat germplasm accessions including 48 cultivars and 49 breeding lines were evaluated for 18 agronomic traits. The accessions were also genotyped with 23 ISSR, nine IRAP and 20 REMAP markers, generating a total of 658 clear and scorable bands, 86% of which were polymorphic. Both neighbor-joining dendrogram and Bayesian analysis of clustering of individuals revealed that the accessions could be divided into four genetically distinct groups, indicating the presence of a population structure in current wheat germplasm. Associations between molecular markers and 18 agronomic traits were analyzed using the mixed linear model (MLM) approach. A total of 94 loci were found to be significantly associated with agronomic traits (P≤0.01). The highest number of bands significantly associated with the 18 traits varied from 11 for number of spikelets spike -1 (NSS) to two for grain yield in row (GRY). Loci ISSR16-9 and REMAP13-10 were associated with three different traits. The results of the current study provide useful information about the performance of retrotransposon-based and ISSR molecular markers that could be helpful in selecting potentially elite gene bank samples for wheat-breeding programs. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient......A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth...... vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration...

  19. Complex phytohormone responses during the cold acclimation of two wheat cultivars differing in cold tolerance, winter Samanta and spring Sandra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Prášil, I.T.; Vítámvás, P.; Dobrev, Petre; Motyka, Václav; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Turečková, Veronika; Rolčík, Jakub; Pešek, Bedřich; Trávníčková, Alena; Gaudinová, Alena; Galiba, G.; Janda, T.; Vlasáková, E.; Prášilová, P.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 6 (2012), s. 567-576 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058; GA MŠk MEB040713; GA MŠk MEB040924 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P637 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cold stress * Dehydrin * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.699, year: 2012

  20. Improved method for reliable HMW-GS identification by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE in common wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accurate identification of alleles for high-molecular weight glutenins (HMW-GS) is critical for wheat breeding programs targeting end-use quality. RP-HPLC methods were optimized for separation of HMW-GS, resulting in enhanced resolution of 1By and 1Dx subunits. Statistically significant differe...

  1. Cultivar specific plant-soil feedback overrules soil legacy effects of elevated ozone in a rice-wheat rotation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Qi; Yang, Yue; Bao, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Wenju; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tropospheric ozone has been recognized as one of the most important air pollutants. Many studies have shown that elevated ozone negatively impacts yields of important crops such as wheat or rice, but how ozone influences soil ecosystems of these crops and plant growth in rotation systems is

  2. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TRTTF in the Canadian wheat cultivar 'Harvest'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.(Pgt), is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of Pgt in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race T...

  3. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  4. Genotype-specific SNP map based on whole chromosome 3B sequence information from wheat cultivars Arina and Forno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shatalina, M.; Wicker, T.; Buchmann, J. P.; Oberhaensli, S.; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Keller, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2013), s. 23-32 ISSN 1467-7644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : wheat * genetic mapping * single-nucleotide polymorphism Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2013

  5. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  6. Weed infestation of spring common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on the cover crop and weed control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this 3-year field study was to evaluate the effect of some stubble crops and in-crop weed control methods on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds in a wheat crop grown in short-term monoculture. The study was conducted in the period 2009-2011 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm on mixed rendzina soil classified as very good rye soil complex. It included various types of stubble crops ploughed in each year (control treatment without cover crop, white mustard, lacy phacelia, a mixture of legumes – narrow-leaf lupin + field pea and methods of weed control in spring wheat (mechanical, mechanical and chemical, chemical weed control. On average during the study period, all stubble crops used reduced the air-dry weight of weds in the treatments with mechanical weed management relative to the control treatment. Irrespective of the weed control method, the number of weeds in the wheat crop was significantly lower only after the ploughing in of white mustard. Mechanical weed management proved to be less effective in reducing the number and dry weight of weeds compared to other weed control methods. The white mustard and legume mixture cover crops had a reducing effect on the number of weed species in relation to the treatment without cover crops. The highest floristic diversity of weed communities was found in the spring wheat crop in which only mechanical weeding alone was used.

  7. Effects Of Spring Herbicide Treatments On Winter Wheat Growth And Grain Yield*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamouz P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha−1, pinoxaden (30 g ha−1, fluroxypyr (175 g ha−1, and clopyralid (120 g ha−1. Water (250 l ha−1 or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha−1 was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934.

  8. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  9. The effect of soil extracts from a monoculture of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown under different tillage systems on the germination of its seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in the period 2006-2008. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aqueous soil extracts from the soil of a spring wheat monoculture on seed germination energy and capacity, the length of the first leaf and of the longest radicle as well as the number of radicles. Moreover, the content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was compared in the last year of the study. The soil used to prepare the solutions came from a field experiment established on medium heavy mixed rendzina soil. Spring wheat, cv. Zebra, was grown using plough tillage and two conservation tillage methods in the presence of undersown crops (red clover, Westerwolds ryegrass and stubble crops (lacy phacelia, white mustard. Germination energy of the seeds watered with the soil extracts from the ploughed plots was significantly higher than this trait in the seeds watered with the extracts from the conservation tillage treatments with spring disking of the catch crops. Germination energy and capacity of spring wheat in the control treatment watered with distilled water were significantly higher compared to the other treatments under evaluation. Spring wheat watered with the aqueous extract prepared from the soil obtained from the plough tillage treatment produced a significantly longer first leaf compared to the treatments in which both conservation tillage methods had been used. The shortest leaf and the lowest number of radicles were produced by the seedlings watered with the soil extract from the treatment with the white clover stubble crop. Radicle length was not significantly differentiated by the soil extracts under consideration. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the rendzina soil determined during the spring period was higher than that determined in the autumn. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was lower in the conservation tillage treatments with autumn incorporation of the catch crops than in the plots in which

  10. Effect of differently pelletized digestate on the plant growth of spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In Germany, biowaste is used in more than 100 biogas plants and has increasing potential as a fermentation substrate. To optimise waste cycle management organic digestates should be redistributed and innovative products for soil amendment of agricultural areas could be developed. The BMBF-funded VeNGA project seeks to find answers on how to improve the properties of soil amendments produced from fermentation residues. Here, we report findings from our study that focuses on plant growth and soil development. Within a three-month rhizotron experiment, the influence of differently prepared fermentation residues on the root development of summer wheat was investigated. The four variants of the prepared digestate (rolled pellet, pressed pellet, shredded, loose) were tested under constant conditions in the greenhouse on two soils with different textures (sandy and loamy-sand). All fermentation residues originated from the same batch and were composted before the preparation to ensure adequate hygienisation. Depending on preparation type and soil substrate significant differences in root growth and root development have been observed. Plant growth was most intense in the rhizotron experiment with the loose digestate, indicating high nutrient availability due to the large surface area of the organic matter. Plant growth in the substrate with the rolled and pressed pellets was less pronounced, indicating a more persistent stability of the pellets. In rhizotrons applied with rolled and pressed pellets root growth into the mineral fabric was significantly lower in sandy substrate than in the loamy-sand. However, in the sandy substrate root growth within the rolled pellets was more intense than in the substrate with the pressed pellets. Obviously, the different production techniques of the pellets seem to have an influence on the rooting of the pellets and facilitate the long term stability of soil organic carbon. Furthermore, the comparison of the two different textures

  11. Earliness per se QTLs and their interaction with the photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a in the Cutler × AC Barrie spring wheat population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, A; Iqbal, M; Navabi, A; Randhawa, H; Pozniak, C; Spaner, D

    2013-08-01

    Earliness per se regulates flowering time independent of environmental signals and helps to fine tune the time of flowering and maturity. In this study, we aimed to map earliness per se quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting days to flowering and maturity in a population developed by crossing two spring wheat cultivars, Cutler and AC Barrie. The population of 177 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was genotyped for a total of 488 SSR and DArT polymorphic markers on all 21 chromosomes. Three QTLs of earliness per se affecting days to flowering and maturity were mapped on chromosomes 1B (QEps.dms-1B1 and QEps.dms-1B2) and 5B (QEps.dms-5B1), in individual environments and when all the environments were combined. A QTL affecting flowering time (QFlt.dms-4A1) was identified on chromosome 4A. Two grain yield QTLs were mapped on chromosome 5B, while one QTL was mapped on chromosome 1D. The population segregated for the photoperiod insensitive gene, Ppd-D1a, and it induced earlier flowering by 0.69 days and maturity by 1.28 days. The photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a interacted in an additive fashion with QTLs for flowering and maturity times. The earliness per se QTL QFlt.dms-5B.1 inducing earlier flowering could help to elongate grain filling duration for higher grain yield. Hence, chromosome 5B possesses promising genomic regions that may be introgressed for higher grain yield with earlier maturity through marker-assisted selection in bread wheat.

  12. Fundamentos para la clasificación del trigo argentino por calidad: efectos del cultivar, la localidad, el año y sus interacciones Bases for the segregation of Argentine bread wheat by quality: effects of cultivar, location, year and their interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Abbate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regularmente se analiza la producción triguera argentina para conocer su calidad industrial, pero no se comparan formalmente los efectos del cultivar, localidad, año y sus interacciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar la magnitud de los efectos de esos factores. Durante tres campañas se realizaron experimentos, en cuatro localidades con ocho cultivares. Se evaluaron peso medio del grano, peso hectolítrico, rendimiento de harina, gluten húmedo, gluten seco, gluten index, concentración de proteína, variables alveográficas, absorción de agua y volumen de pan. Se calculó un índice para definir grupos de calidad. Para comparar el efecto de cada factor, se calculó su coeficiente de variación. Para la mayoría de las variables, los factores presentaron diferencias significativas (P=0,05, los efectos de localidad y año fueron tanto o más importantes que el de cultivar, y la interacción localidad × año fue la de mayor magnitud. La clasificación en grupos de calidad fue afectada por la localidad y el efecto de la localidad cambió entre años. Los resultados justifican incluir la localidad para definir protocolos de producción y para clasificar cultivares y la producción triguera argentina.Regularly, quality analyses of Argentine wheat production are performed in order to know its industrial quality. These analyses are insufficient to compare effects of cultivar, location, year and their interactions. The aim of this work is to quantify the effects of these factors. Eight cultivars were grown in four Argentine locations during three cropping seasons. Ten quality traits were evaluated: mean weight of grain, hectolitric weight, flour yield, wet gluten, dry gluten, gluten index, protein concentration, alveographic variables, water absorption, bread volume. A wheat quality index was calculated and quality groups were established. Coefficient of variation was calculated in order to compare the effect of each factor. For most

  13. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-An Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer, N (nitrogen, P (phosphorus, and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008 on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil.

  14. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  15. Iguaçu (IAC-21 e Araguaia (IAC -22: cultivares de trigo de sequeiro para o Estado de São Paulo Iguaçu (IAC 21 and Araguaia (IAC 22: wheat cultivars for upland conditions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimentos localizados nas principais regiões tritícolas paulistas, comparou-se a produtividade e as reações aos agentes de ferrugem-do-colmo e da-folha, bem como as qualidades industriais de panificação de dois novos cultivares de trigo - Iguaçu (IAC-21 e Araguaia (IAC-22 - provenientes de cruzamentos artificiais e obtidos por seleção por método genealógico, com os cultivares BH-1146 e Maringá (IAC-5. A produção média de grãos do 'Iguaçu' foi 8% e 12% estatisticamente superior respectivamente aos cultivares testemunhas, e o 'Araguaia' superou-os em 5 e 14%. Os novos cultivares apresentaram, ao longo dos cinco anos de estudo, menores níveis de infecção de ferrugem-do-colmo (Puccinia gramínis f, sp. tritici que as testemunhas, sobressaindo-se o 'Araguaia', com baixíssimos níveis de infecção. Os novos cultivares, bem como as testemunhas, mostraram reações médias para ferrugem-da-folha. Nos ensaios de panificação a farinha do 'Araguaia', de maneira geral, exibiu melhor potencial panificável que a do Iguaçu, sendo ambas levemente superiores à farinha de trigo comercial.Two new selected germoplasms of wheat (Iguaçu and Araguaia were tested against two commercial varieties (BH-1146 and IAC-5 for yield and resistance to stem and leaf rusts in several experiments carried out in different locations of the wheat areas of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 1978-1982. Cultivar Iguaçu produced 8% and 12% more grain per hectare in comparison with respectively, cultivars BH-1146 and IAC-5; cultivar Araguaia had, respectively, 5% and 14% more grain yield than the same commercial varieties. Iguaçu and Araguaia cultivars presented less stem rust infection than BH-1146 and IAC-5 while Araguaia had a lower infection level than Iguaçu under field conditions. It was not observed differences in resistance to leaf rust among them. Araguaia exhibited better bread qualities than Iguaçu but both showed better

  16. Improved wheat for baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  17. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt

    KAUST Repository

    Mü ller, Thomas; Schierscher-Viret, Beate; Fossati, Dario; Brabant, Cé cile; Schori, Arnold; Keller, Beat; Krattinger, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  18. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-11-04

    Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  19. Photosynthesis and Rubisco kinetics in spring wheat and meadow fescue under conditions of simulated climate change with elevated CO2 and increased temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv.Polkkaand meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Hudson cv. Kalevicwere grown in ambient and elevated (700 µl l -1 carbon dioxide concentration both at present ambient temperatures and at temperatures 3°C higher than at present simulating a future climate.The CO2 concentrations were elevated in large (3 m in diameteropen top chambers and the temperatures in a greenhouse built over the experimental field.The photosynthetic rate of both wheat and meadow fescue was 31 –37%higher in elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 than in ambient CO 2 (aCO2 throughout the growing season.The enhancement in wheat photosynthesis in eCO2 declined 10 –13 days before yellow ripeness,at which point the rate of photosynthesis in both CO 2 treatments declined.The stomatal conductance of wheat and meadow fescue was 23–36% lower in eCO2 than in aCO2 .The amount and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco in wheat were lower under conditions of eCO2 ,except at elevated temperatures in 1993 when there was a clear yield increase.There was no clear change in the amount and activity of Rubisco in meadow fescue under eCO2 at either elevated or ambient temperature.This suggests that adaptation to elevated CO2 at biochemical level occurs only when there is insufficient sink for photosynthetic products.While the sink size of wheat can be increased only by introducing new,more productive genotypes,the sink size of meadow fescue can be regulated by fitting the cutting schedule to growth.;

  20. Identification and characterization of pleiotropic and co-located resistance loci to leaf rust and stripe rust in bread wheat cultivar Sujata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Caixia; Zhang, Yelun; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Basnet, Bhoja R; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Lagudah, Evans S; Singh, Ravi P

    2015-03-01

    Two new co-located resistance loci, QLr.cim - 1AS/QYr.cim - 1AS and QLr.cim - 7BL/YrSuj , in combination with Lr46 / Yr29 and Lr67/Yr46 , and a new leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci, conferred high resistance to rusts in adult plant stage. The tall Indian bread wheat cultivar Sujata displays high and low infection types to leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively, at the seedling stage in greenhouse tests. It was also highly resistant to both rusts at adult plant stage in field trials in Mexico. The genetic basis of this resistance was investigated in a population of 148 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross Avocet × Sujata. The parents and RIL population were characterized in field trials for resistance to leaf rust during 2011 at El Batán, and 2012 and 2013 at Ciudad Obregón, Mexico, and for stripe rust during 2011 and 2012 at Toluca, Mexico; they were also characterized three times for stripe rust at seedling stage in the greenhouse. The RILs were genotyped with diversity arrays technology and simple sequence repeat markers. The final genetic map was constructed with 673 polymorphic markers. Inclusive composite interval mapping analysis detected two new significant co-located resistance loci, QLr.cim-1AS/QYr.cim-1AS and QLr.cim-7BL/YrSuj, on chromosomes 1AS and 7BL, respectively. The chromosomal position of QLr.cim-7BL overlapped with the seedling stripe rust resistance gene, temporarily designated as YrSuj. Two previously reported pleiotropic adult plant resistance genes, Lr46/Yr29 and Lr67/Yr46, and a new leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci derived from Avocet were also mapped in the population. The two new co-located resistance loci are expected to contribute to breeding durable rust resistance in wheat. Closely linked molecular markers can be used to transfer all four resistance loci simultaneously to modern wheat varieties.

  1. The influence of cultivar, year and nitrogen supply on quality parameters of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments with 3 winter wheat (Triticum, aestivum. L; Lasta, Sremica and Pobeda was applied nitrogen (rate N as follows: 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg Nha-1 from 2000 to 2002. The varieties differed in their biological and production characteristics as well as in technological quality. The analyzed samples belonged to the international ISDV (Internationale Stickstoff Dauer Versuche stationary field trial established at the Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Improvement of end use quality in winter wheat depends on thorough understanding of the influences of environment, variety, and their interaction. Grain protein content (GPC, sedimentation value (SED, energy dough, Hagberg falling number (HFN and bread crumb quality number were measured. Highly significant differences were detected among the environments (A, rate N (B and varieties (C for each of the quality variables. Both variety (V and environment (E had a significant effect on quality traits. Significant Vx E interactions indicated that quality trait evaluations must be undertaken for environments. The most influence on protein content and sedimentation value have been climatitic condition. According to lot of environment influence on falling number and dow energy the main part of variance it is genotype and phenotype variability. .

  2. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  3. Super Dwarf Wheat for Growth in Confined Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    USU-Perigee is a dwarf red spring wheat that is a hybrid of a high-yield early tall wheat (USU-Apogee) and a low-yield, extremely short wheat that has poor agronomic characteristics. USU-Perigee was selected for its extremely short height (.0.3 m) and high yield . characteristics that make it suitable for growth in confined spaces in controlled environments. Other desirable characteristics include rapid development and resistance to a leaf-tip necrosis, associated with calcium deficiency, that occurs in other wheat cultivars under rapid-growth conditions (particularly, continuous light). Heads emerge after only 21 days of growth in continuous light at a constant temperature of 25 C. In tests, USU-Perigee was found to outyield other full dwarf (defined as wheat cultivars: The yield advantage at a constant temperature of 23 C was found to be about 30 percent. Originally intended as a candidate food crop to be grown aboard spacecraft on long missions, this cultivar could also be grown in terrestrial growth chambers and could be useful for plant-physiology and -pathology studies.

  4. Effect of Foliar Application of Phosphorus and Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components of Winter Wheat (Cultivar Alvand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vafapour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of foliar application of phosphorus (P and water deficit on yield and yield components of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Alvand, a split-plot experiment, with completely randomized blocks design and three replications, was carried out at the Research Farm of Boyer Ahmad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station, 13 km west of Yasouj, in 2008-2009. The main plots were irrigation at three levels (1- full irrigation (control, 2- deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage, and 3- deficit irrigation from booting stage to the end of growth period and the subplots were five levels of foliar application of P fertilizer (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/ha KH2PO4. The results showed that the effects of different irrigation regimes and foliar application of P were significant on all traits, and their interaction was significant on plant height, number of grain per spike, grain yield and biological yield. Full irrigation and foliar application of 6 kg/ha P produced the highest grain and biological yield (6000 and 14170 kg/ha, respectively and deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage without foliar application of P produced the lowest grain and biological yield (2920 and 8219 kg/ha, respectively. Foliar application of P affects significantly the evaluated traits only in drought-stress treatments and its effect was not significant in full irrigation treatment. In general, foliar application of 9 kg/ha P compensated the losses in wheat due to drought stress.

  5. Modeling of the endosperm crush response profile of hard red spring wheat using a single kernel characterization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a wheat endosperm is crushed the force profile shows viscoelastic response and the modulus of elasticity is an important parameter that might have substantial influence on wheat milling. An experiment was performed to model endosperm crush response profile (ECRP) and to determine the modulus o...

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  7. Effect of the Winter Wheat Cheyenne 5A Substituted Chromosome on Dynamics of Abscisic Acid and Cytokinins in Freezing-Sensitive Chinese Spring Genetic Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Balázs; Novák, Aliz; Dobrev, Petre; Vítámvás, Pavel; Marincs, Ferenc; Galiba, Gábor; Vanková, Radomira

    2017-01-01

    The effect of short- and long-term cold treatment on the abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (CK) metabolism, and their main biosynthesis- and signaling-related genes were investigated in freezing-sensitive and freezing-tolerant wheat genotypes. Varieties Cheyenne and Chinese Spring substituted with the 5A Cheyenne chromosome, which represented freezing-tolerant genotypes, were compared with the freezing-sensitive Chinese Spring. Hormone levels and gene expression data indicated that the short- and long-term cold treatments are associated with specific regulation of the accumulation of cold-protective proteins and phytohormone levels, as well as the expression profiles of the hormone-related genes. The significant differences were observed between the genotypes, and between their leaf and crown tissues, too. The level of dehydrins, including WCS120 protein, and expression of WCS120 gene were considerably higher in the freezing-tolerant genotypes after 21 days of cold treatment. Expression of Cor14b and CBF14, cold-responsive regulator genes, was increased by cold treatment in all genotypes, to higher extent in freezing-tolerant genotypes. Cluster analysis revealed that the tolerant genotypes had a similar response to cold treatment, regarding expression of the ABA and CK metabolic genes, as well as hormone levels in leaves. As far as hormone levels in crowns are concerned, however, the strongly freezing-tolerant Cheyenne variety clustered separately from the Chinese Spring and the substitution line, which were more similar to each other after both 1 and 21 days of cold treatment than to Cheyenne. Based on these results we concluded that the 5A chromosome of wheat might have both a direct and an indirect impact on the phytohormone-dependent cold-induced freezing tolerance. Based on the gene expression data, novel genetic markers could be developed, which may be used to determine the freezing tolerance level in a wide range of wheat varieties. PMID:29238355

  8. Application of the EPR technique to examine free radical qualities reducing infection of spring wheat grain with pathogenic fungi by He-Ne laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagoś, M.; Koper, R.; Sujak, A.; Misiak, L.E.; Kowalczuk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of spring wheat grain, Jasna cv., infected with pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Fusarium, Mucor) were examined using an EPR technique. Considering the quantity of generated free radicals the fungi belonged to most toxine generating. Their toxicity was connected with the number of free radicals generated in examined grain. Grain was irradiated with He-Ne laser at known wavelength, power density and time of exposure what gave the mycostatic effect appearing in decrease of free radicals in grain samples. However, this process was not stable as the increase of free radicals was observed again with the regrowth of fungi after some days

  9. Milling overrides cultivar, leavening agent and baking mode on chemical and rheological traits and sensory perception of durum wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Saia, Sergio; Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Giovanniello, Valentina; De Vita, Pasquale

    2017-10-19

    Smell and aroma are important determinants of consumer acceptance, so gaining deeper insight into bread smell and aroma perception is a research goal. Sixteen combinations of four variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions of bread chemical and rheological properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) towards sensory acceptability of breads: genotypes (landrace vs. modern); types of flour (wholemeal vs. semolina); leavening agents (brewing yeast vs. sourdough starter); and baking modes (gas-fired vs. wood-fired). Milling had the greatest impact over the other treatments for the rheological and chemical properties, including for VOCs, with great impact on the sensory traits of the flours and breads. The processing phases had great impact on smell and aroma, as defined through formation of alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, and other compounds (e.g., ethylbenzene, 2-pentylfuran, methoxyphenyl oxime). Leavening agent had great impact on sensory perception, although breads from the sourdough starter were perceived as with lower taste and colour than the brewing yeast. Baking mode had no relevant role on sensory perception. These data strongly undermine the belief of a 'better product' that is frequently attributed to old genotypes versus modern cultivars, and indicate that the milling and the bread-making processes determine the quality of the end product.

  10. A three-component system incorporating Ppd-D1, copy number variation at Ppd-B1, and numerous small-effect quantitative trait loci facilitates adaptation of heading time in winter wheat cultivars of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L

    2018-06-01

    The broad adaptability of heading time has contributed to the global success of wheat in a diverse array of climatic conditions. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture underlying heading time in a large panel of 1,110 winter wheat cultivars of worldwide origin. Genome-wide association mapping, in combination with the analysis of major phenology loci, revealed a three-component system that facilitates the adaptation of heading time in winter wheat. The photoperiod sensitivity locus Ppd-D1 was found to account for almost half of the genotypic variance in this panel and can advance or delay heading by many days. In addition, copy number variation at Ppd-B1 was the second most important source of variation in heading, explaining 8.3% of the genotypic variance. Results from association mapping and genomic prediction indicated that the remaining variation is attributed to numerous small-effect quantitative trait loci that facilitate fine-tuning of heading to the local climatic conditions. Collectively, our results underpin the importance of the two Ppd-1 loci for the adaptation of heading time in winter wheat and illustrate how the three components have been exploited for wheat breeding globally. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Optimising nitrogen in order to improve the efficiency, eco-physiology, yield and quality on one cultivar of durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tedone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment was carried out in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of different combinations of nitrogen (N fertilizer rates (0, 55, 90, 135 kg ha–1, time of application (sowing, tillering, stem elongation and number of nitrogen applications on durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., var. durum. A total of eight different combinations - in terms of quantity and time of application - were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil plant analysis development was analysed along with leaf area index, grain and straw yield, plant height, plant lodging, thousand-kernel weight, non-vitreous kernels, shrunken and discarded kernels, hectolitre weight, grain protein content, and sodium dodecylsulfate sedimentation. Nitrogen contents of soil, grain and straw were measured in order to assess nitrogen efficiency. The results showed the positive effect of increased nitrogen dosages of 90 and 135 kg ha–1. The optimization of nitrogen administration increased by splitting the nitrogen into three application times, as shown by the eco-physiological, productive and qualitative parameters, and the nitrogen efficiency parameters measured (N application efficiency and N recovery fraction.

  12. Putative interchromosomal rearrangements in the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype 'Chinese Spring' revealed by gene locations on homoeologous chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Stiller, J.; Zheng, Z.; Wei, Y.M.; Zheng, Y.L.; Yan, G.J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, MAR 11 2015 (2015) ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Interchromosomal rearrangements * Wheat genome * Translocation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  13. Expression of Leaf Proteins in Two Cultivars of Bread Wheat under Cadmium and Mercury Stress Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Raeesi Sadati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important source of human food. Cadmium and mercury bind to sulfhydryl groups of structural proteins and enzymes and cause inhibition in activity and decrease in protein production or interfere with the regulation of the enzymes. To study the effect of protein expression under different levels of cadmium and mercury, the experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Experimental factors consisted of two Gonbad and Tajan bread what cultivars, heavy metals in seven levels (four concentrations of mercuric chloride in 5, 10, 15 and 20 µM and cadmium chloride at two concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mM and sampling time after 8 and 16 hours of treatment. The Bradford method was used for quantitative analysis of proteins and 12% SDS-PAGE and two dimensional electrophorese techniques were hired for analysis of their expression. The results showed that under cadmium and mercury stresses, the total protein content increased compared to the control. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins under cadmium stress showed differential expression of the protein spots on the plant leaves, than the control. In general, changes in the expression of proteins under the effect of cadmium stress were divided into two main categories: Spots 9, 10, 13, 14 and 16 belonged to proteins with reduced expression and the spots 1, 2, 8, 19 and 20 belonged to proteins with increased expression, in comparison to non-stressed control. These spots of up regulated proteins were directly related to the defense system against the heavy metal stress.

  14. Effect of the urease inhibitor phosphoric acid phenyl ester diamide on the utilization of urea-N in top dressing of spring wheat and oats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzel, W; Mueller, S; Lippold, H; Heber, R [Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung

    1979-01-01

    In pot experiments with spring wheat and oats the application of the urease inhibitor phosphoric acid phenyl ester diamide (PPDA) in addition to top dressing with /sup 15/N-urea revealed a 10% better utilization of the /sup 15/N-urea by the plant (related to the N amount applied). The loss-reducing effect of PPDA was especially felt when there were favourable conditions for NH/sub 3/ volatilization such as rapid hydrolysis of urea on the wet surface of light soil during shooting of the wheat. PPDA did not have any adverse influence on the course of the nitrogen uptake by the cereals during the time of shooting from the urea applied in top dressing. The utilization of the urea-N by the wheat, being about 5 to 6% lower in comparison to ammonium nitrate, under conditions that do not allow NH/sub 3/ losses, is to be attributed to the increased immobilization of the urea-N in the soil. The processes responsible for the nitrogen losses were concluded 3 to 4 weeks after top dressing to the cereals during the shooting period.

  15. Effect of the urease inhibitor phosphoric acid phenyl ester diamide on the utilization of urea-N in top dressing of spring wheat and oats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzel, W.; Mueller, S.; Lippold, H.; Heber, R.

    1979-01-01

    In pot experiments with spring wheat and oats the application of the urease inhibitor phosphoric acid phenyl ester diamide (PPDA) in addition to top dressing with 15 N-urea revealed a 10% better utilization of the 15 N-urea by the plant (related to the N amount applied). The loss-reducing effect of PPDA was especially felt when there were favourable conditions for NH 3 volatilization such as rapid hydrolysis of urea on the wet surface of light soil during shooting of the wheat. PPDA did not have any adverse influence on the course of the nitrogen uptake by the cereals during the time of shooting from the urea applied in top dressing. The utilization of the urea-N by the wheat, being about 5 to 6% lower in comparison to ammonium nitrate, under conditions that do not allow NH 3 losses, is to be attributed to the increased immobilization of the urea-N in the soil. The processes responsible for the nitrogen losses were concluded 3 to 4 weeks after top dressing to the cereals during the shooting period. (author)

  16. Chromosomes 3B and 4D are associated with several milling and baking quality traits in a soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A H; Garland-Campbell, K; Morris, C F; Kidwell, K K

    2012-04-01

    Wheat is marketed based on end-use quality characteristics and better knowledge of the underlying genetics of specific quality parameters is essential to enhance the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a 'Louise' by 'Penawawa' mapping population was grown in two crop years at two locations in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and data were collected on 17 end-use quality traits using established quality analysis protocols. Using an established genetic linkage map, composite interval mapping was used to identify QTL associated with 16 of the 17 quality traits. QTL were found on 13 of the 21 wheat chromosomes. A large number of QTL were located on chromosomes 3B and 4D and coincided with traits for milling quality and starch functionality. Chromosome 3B contained 10 QTL, which were localized to a 26.2 cM region. Chromosome 4D contained 7 QTL, all of which were located on an 18.8 cM region of this chromosome. The majority of the alleles for superior end-use quality were associated with the cultivar Louise. The identified QTL detected remained highly significant independent of grain yield and protein quantity. The identification of these QTL for end-use quality gives key insight into the relationship and complexity of end-use quality traits. It also improves our understanding of these relationships, thereby allowing plant breeders to make valuable gains from selection for these important traits.

  17. Effects of salt stress on tillering nodes to the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiong, Y.; Yuan, G.; Zhixia, X.; Xiaojing, L.

    2016-01-01

    In monsoon climate regions, the tillering nodes of winter wheat can be stressed by high salt accumulation on the soil surface in spring, thereby leading to salt-induced damage. To understand whether tillering nodes could be stressed by salinity and to estimate its effects on the growth of winter wheat under salt stress, the tillering nodes of two wheat cultivars, H-4589 (salt-sensitive) and J-32 (salt-tolerant), were treated with salinity to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in seedling growth. The results indicated that salt stress on tillering nodes significantly reduced plant height and shoot dry weight; increased Na+ accumulation, soluble sugar and proline in both H-4589 and J-32; which demonstrated remarkable effects on the growth of winter wheat when the tillering nodes were under salt stress. Furthermore, equivalent Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress, while remarkably different Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when roots were under salt stress. Based on the results from anatomic analyses, we speculated that no anatomic differences in tillering nodes between two cultivars could give reason to the equivalent Na+ accumulations in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress; and more lignified endodermis in primary roots as well as larger reduction of lateral root number in salt-tolerant cultivars which contributed to preventing Na+ influx could explain the remarkably lower Na+ accumulation in salt-tolerant cultivar when roots were under salt stress. All of these results indicated that the tillering nodes could mediate Na+ influx from the environment leading to salt-induced damage to the growth of winter wheat. (author)

  18. Quantification of the effects of VRN1 and Ppd-D1 to predict spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) heading time across diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bangyou; Biddulph, Ben; Li, Dora; Kuchel, Haydn; Chapman, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Heading time is a major determinant of the adaptation of wheat to different environments, and is critical in minimizing risks of frost, heat, and drought on reproductive development. Given that major developmental genes are known in wheat, a process-based model, APSIM, was modified to incorporate gene effects into estimation of heading time, while minimizing degradation in the predictive capability of the model. Model parameters describing environment responses were replaced with functions of the number of winter and photoperiod (PPD)-sensitive alleles at the three VRN1 loci and the Ppd-D1 locus, respectively. Two years of vernalization and PPD trials of 210 lines (spring wheats) at a single location were used to estimate the effects of the VRN1 and Ppd-D1 alleles, with validation against 190 trials (~4400 observations) across the Australian wheatbelt. Compared with spring genotypes, winter genotypes for Vrn-A1 (i.e. with two winter alleles) had a delay of 76.8 degree days (°Cd) in time to heading, which was double the effect of the Vrn-B1 or Vrn-D1 winter genotypes. Of the three VRN1 loci, winter alleles at Vrn-B1 had the strongest interaction with PPD, delaying heading time by 99.0 °Cd under long days. The gene-based model had root mean square error of 3.2 and 4.3 d for calibration and validation datasets, respectively. Virtual genotypes were created to examine heading time in comparison with frost and heat events and showed that new longer-season varieties could be heading later (with potential increased yield) when sown early in season. This gene-based model allows breeders to consider how to target gene combinations to current and future production environments using parameters determined from a small set of phenotyping treatments.

  19. The uptake and storage of caesium and strontium by spring wheat - a modelling study based on a field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke I.; Linnea Berglund, S.; Bengtsson, Stefan B.; Rosen, Klas [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7001, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to model, quantify, and analyse the dynamics of uptake (foliar and root) and grain storage of wet-deposited radionuclides by a growing crop. The dynamic trace element model, Tracey, for terrestrial ecosystems was used after extension with descriptions for contamination by wet-deposition, interception, and foliar uptake. Tracey contains two alternative root uptake descriptions, one driven by transpiration and one by growth. Radionuclide fluxes were assumed proportional to the corresponding water or carbon fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, simulated with the CoupModel. The extended Tracey was calibrated against data from the wet-deposition experiment at Ultuna, central Sweden. {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr were deposited on spring wheat at six growth stages in 2010 and 2011. The sensitivity for different radionuclide, plant, and soil properties were assessed by Monte Carlo simulations using the sensitivity toolbox Eikos. One thousand simulations were made for each of the 48 scenarios (2 radionuclides, 2 root uptake approaches, 6 deposition treatments, 2 years). The simulated dynamics of grains' storage of radionuclides were accepted if the simulated values were within the 95% confidence interval of the measured values at all available samplings of a deposition treatment. A ten percentage of all {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr simulations were accepted. Highest percentage of accepted simulations was found for the scenarios with deposition shortly before harvest, indicating that the added model descriptions of deposition and interception performed well. The model mimicked well that the grain storage of radionuclides increased exponentially the later in the growing season the deposition took place; the storage of radionuclides when deposited at full ripening was 250 times higher than the storage when deposition took place at tillering. The model results confirmed that foliar uptake i.e. direct atmosphere-plant transfer, fully dominates total plant

  20. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus on relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers, growth parameters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19 in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Saber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR plus nitrogen and phosphorous chemical fertilizers on relative agronomic efficiency of P and N fertilizers and some agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2008-2009. Experiment was arranged in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with three levels (0, 25 and 50 kg.ha-1 and sub-plots were considered PGPR at four levels (control, inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria (PFB, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and dual inoculation with PFB and PSB with three replications. Results showed that the application of biofertilizers significantly increased relative agronomic efficiency of N and P fertilizers, spike number, plant height, flag leaf area, grain yield and grain weight of wheat. Application of biofertilizers increased wheat grain yield as much as 46.6% as compared to control. Double inoculation of biofertilizers improved relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers by 58.4 and 76.5% as compared to control, respectively. Integrated treatments showed higher performance compared to separate treatments. Generally, biofertilizers with low levels of P and N fertilizers significantly improved yield components of wheat without any reduction in yield related parameters.

  1. Invertebrate communities in spring wheat and the identification of cereal aphid predators through molecular gut content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal aphid complexes are responsible for reducing wheat production worldwide; however, management against these species is rare in North America. Generalist predators may contribute to reducing cereal aphid numbers and preventing significant damage to crops. A two-year survey identifying the arth...

  2. Influence of stripe rust infection on the photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at the adult plant stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Su, Yan-Qiu; Yuan, Shu; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst), is one of the most serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the protective mechanism against stripe rust at the adult plant stage, the differences in photosystem II and antioxidant enzymatic systems between susceptible and resistant wheat in response to stripe rust disease (P. striiformis) were investigated. We found that chlorophyll fluorescence and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were higher in resistant wheat than in susceptible wheat after stripe rust infection. Compared with the susceptible wheat, the resistant wheat accumulated a higher level of D1 protein and a lower level of reactive oxygen species after infection. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that D1 and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation are involved in the resistance to stripe rust in wheat. The CP29 protein was phosphorylated under stripe rust infection, like its phosphorylation in other monocots under environmental stresses. More extensive damages occur on the thylakoid membranes in the susceptible wheat compared with the resistant wheat. The findings provide evidence that thylakoid protein phosphorylation and antioxidant enzyme systems play important roles in plant responses and defense to biotic stress.

  3. Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin-Induced Osmotic and Antioxidant Regulation in Two Drought-Tolerant and Drought-Sensitive Cultivars of Wheat During Grain Filling Under Water Deficit in Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza SARAFRAZ-ARDAKANI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormones play critical roles in regulating plant responses to stress. The present study investigates the effect of cytokinin, abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid interaction on some osmoprotectants and antioxidant parameters induced by drought stress in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. of ‘Pishgam’ and ‘MV-17’ as tolerant and sensitive to drought during post-anthesis phase, respectively grown in field conditions. The most considerable effect of the treatments was exhibited 21 days after anthesis. Under drought conditions, the flag leaf soluble carbohydrate content increased in both cultivars while starch content was remarkably decreased in ‘Pishgam’ as compared to ‘MV-17’. Abscisic acid increased total soluble sugar and reduced starch more than other hormonal treatments, although it decreased studied monosaccharaides in ‘Pishgam’, especially. Drought stress induced high proportion of gylycinebetain and free proline in ‘Pishgam’ cultivar. Application of abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid interaction increased gylycinebetain and proline content in both cultivars under irrigation and drought conditions. The tolerant cultivar exhibited less accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in relation to significant increase of catalase and peroxidase activities and α-tocpherol content under drought conditions. All hormonal treatments increased the named enzyme activities under both irrigation and drought conditions, while higher accumulation of α-tocopherol was only showed in case of cytokinin application. Also, abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid could decrease drought-induced hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde level to some extent, although abscisic acid increased both of hydrogen peroxide andmalondialdehyde content in irrigation phase, especially.

  4. PITHOMYCES CHARTARUM AS A PATHOGEN OF WHEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, B; Csösz, M; Dijksterhuis, J; Frisvad, J C; Varga, J

    2007-01-01

    During routine surveys of wheat-growing (Triticum aestivum L.) areas of Hungary, symptomatic leaf samples were collected from different wheat cultivars. Macro- and micromorphological examinations of singlespore isolates showed some of them to belong to Pithomyces chartarum (teleomorph:

  5. Unlocking Diversity in Germplasm Collections via Genomic Selection: A Case Study Based on Quantitative Adult Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in Spring Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleta, Kebede T; Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Zhiwu; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Harnessing diversity from germplasm collections is more feasible today because of the development of lower-cost and higher-throughput genotyping methods. However, the cost of phenotyping is still generally high, so efficient methods of sampling and exploiting useful diversity are needed. Genomic selection (GS) has the potential to enhance the use of desirable genetic variation in germplasm collections through predicting the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for all traits that have been measured. Here, we evaluated the effects of various scenarios of population genetic properties and marker density on the accuracy of GEBVs in the context of applying GS for wheat ( L.) germplasm use. Empirical data for adult plant resistance to stripe rust ( f. sp. ) collected on 1163 spring wheat accessions and genotypic data based on the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay were used for various genomic prediction tests. Unsurprisingly, the results of the cross-validation tests demonstrated that prediction accuracy increased with an increase in training population size and marker density. It was evident that using all the available markers (5619) was unnecessary for capturing the trait variation in the germplasm collection, with no further gain in prediction accuracy beyond 1 SNP per 3.2 cM (∼1850 markers), which is close to the linkage disequilibrium decay rate in this population. Collectively, our results suggest that larger germplasm collections may be efficiently sampled via lower-density genotyping methods, whereas genetic relationships between the training and validation populations remain critical when exploiting GS to select from germplasm collections. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  6. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broeck, Hetty C; van Herpen, Teun W J M; Schuit, Cees; Salentijn, Elma M J; Dekking, Liesbeth; Bosch, Dirk; Hamer, Rob J; Smulders, Marinus J M; Gilissen, Ludovicus J W J; van der Meer, Ingrid M

    2009-04-07

    Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) (AABBDD). The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the alpha-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS) resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the omega-gliadin, gamma-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS) removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  7. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Dirk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  8. Genomic Prediction with Pedigree and Genotype × Environment Interaction in Spring Wheat Grown in South and West Asia, North Africa, and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Sukumaran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing genomic selection (GS models is an important step in applying GS to accelerate the rate of genetic gain in grain yield in plant breeding. In this study, seven genomic prediction models under two cross-validation (CV scenarios were tested on 287 advanced elite spring wheat lines phenotyped for grain yield (GY, thousand-grain weight (GW, grain number (GN, and thermal time for flowering (TTF in 18 international environments (year-location combinations in major wheat-producing countries in 2010 and 2011. Prediction models with genomic and pedigree information included main effects and interaction with environments. Two random CV schemes were applied to predict a subset of lines that were not observed in any of the 18 environments (CV1, and a subset of lines that were not observed in a set of the environments, but were observed in other environments (CV2. Genomic prediction models, including genotype × environment (G×E interaction, had the highest average prediction ability under the CV1 scenario for GY (0.31, GN (0.32, GW (0.45, and TTF (0.27. For CV2, the average prediction ability of the model including the interaction terms was generally high for GY (0.38, GN (0.43, GW (0.63, and TTF (0.53. Wheat lines in site-year combinations in Mexico and India had relatively high prediction ability for GY and GW. Results indicated that prediction ability of lines not observed in certain environments could be relatively high for genomic selection when predicting G×E interaction in multi-environment trials.

  9. Nitrogen uptake and balance of the fertilizers urea, urea with urease inhibitor, and ammonium nitrate applied to spring wheat at stem elongation growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzel, W.; Lippold, H.; Heber, R.

    1979-01-01

    The use of urea containing 1% of diamido phosphoric acid phenyl ester, which is a urease inhibitor, for the top dressing of spring wheat on light soil allows the loss of nitrogen due to volatilization of ammonia from urea to be prevented. The urease inhibitor has no effect whatsoever upon the uptake of urea nitrogen by spring wheat. Even in those cases where the volatilization of ammonia is prevented, plants will take up 5 to 6% less nitrogen from urea than from ammonium nitrate. This is due primarily to the higher degree of immobilization of urea nitrogen in the soil. The volatilization of ammonia from urea applied to the surface of the soil was in the region of 25% when the soil surface was moist and 10% when the soil surface was dry, the percentages given above being related to the amount of fertilizer nitrogen applied to the soil. The plant uptake of fertilizer nitrogen applied as a second dose at stem elongation will be complete after two to three weeks or after six weeks under favourable or unfavourable conditions, respectively. Proceeding immediately after application of the fertilizer nitrogen are the processes resulting in both loss of nitrogen and its immobilization. The proportion of absorbed fertilizer nitrogen recovered in the grain will be the greater the later the nitrogen is incorporated into the plant. The use in pot experiments of labelled nitrogen fertilizers enables statistically significant differences in effects to be determined even in those cases in which the differences are only relatively small in degree. (author)

  10. Loci associated with resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in a core collection of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulli, Peter; Rynearson, Sheri; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. (Pst) remains one of the most significant diseases of wheat worldwide. We investigated stripe rust resistance by genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) in 959 spring wheat accessions from the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service National Small Grains Collection, representing major global production environments. The panel was characterized for field resistance in multi-environment field trials and seedling resistance under greenhouse conditions. A genome-wide set of 5,619 informative SNP markers were used to examine the population structure, linkage disequilibrium and marker-trait associations in the germplasm panel. Based on model-based analysis of population structure and hierarchical Ward clustering algorithm, the accessions were clustered into two major subgroups. These subgroups were largely separated according to geographic origin and improvement status of the accessions. A significant correlation was observed between the population sub-clusters and response to stripe rust infection. We identified 11 and 7 genomic regions with significant associations with stripe rust resistance at adult plant and seedling stages, respectively, based on a false discovery rate multiple correction method. The regions harboring all, except three, of the QTL identified from the field and greenhouse studies overlap with positions of previously reported QTL. Further work should aim at validating the identified QTL using proper germplasm and populations to enhance their utility in marker assisted breeding. PMID:28591221

  11. Mapping resistance to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust pathogen in a spring wheat landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, E M; Gordon, T C; Chao, S; Newcomb, M; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Wanyera, R; Acevedo, M; Brown-Guedira, G; Williamson, S; Bonman, J M

    2015-04-01

    A new gene for Ug99 resistance from wheat landrace PI 374670 was detected on the long arm of chromosome 7A. Wheat landrace PI 374670 has seedling and field resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK. To elucidate the inheritance of resistance, 216 BC1F2 families, 192 double haploid (DH) lines, and 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed by crossing PI 374670 and the susceptible line LMPG-6. The parents and progeny were evaluated for seedling resistance to Pgt races TTKSK, MCCFC, and TPMKC. The DH lines were tested in field stem rust nurseries in Kenya and Ethiopia. The DH lines were genotyped with the 90K wheat iSelect SNP genotyping platform. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that a single dominant gene in PI 374670 conditioned seedling resistance to the three Pgt races. The seedling resistance locus mapped to the long arm of chromosome 7A and this result was verified in the RIL population screened with the flanking SNP markers using KASP assays. In the same region, a major QTL for field resistance was detected in a 7.7 cM interval and explained 34-54 and 29-36% of the variation in Kenya and Ethiopia, respectively. Results from tests with specific Pgt races and the csIH81 marker showed that the resistance was not due to Sr22. Thus, a new stem rust resistance gene or allele, either closely linked or allelic to Sr15, is responsible for the seedling and field resistance of PI 374670 to Ug99.

  12. Incidencia de las diferencias entre cultivares de trigo en la cantidad de fósforo exportada en los granos Incidence of the differences in the amount of P exported between wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    L. Lázaro; P.E. Abbate; V.T. Manfreda

    2012-01-01

    El fósforo (P) es uno de los macronutrientes menos disponible en el suelo. Se predijo para los próximos años un incremento en el uso de fertilizantes fosforados debido al crecimiento de la demanda de alimentos. Una de las prácticas que puede contribuir a un uso más sustentable de los fertilizantes fosforados es la selección de cultivares con baja concentración de P en los granos. Para saber si existen diferencias en la concentración de P en los cultivares de trigo utilizados actualmente en la...

  13. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population densities of Haplothrips tritici (H. tritici) Kurdjumov (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) were studied in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. In 2002, bread wheat cultivars, Bocro 4, Pehlivan and Yüreğir 89, durum wheat cultivars, Balcali 85, Ceylan 95 and Harran 95 and barley cultivars, Esterel and Pacific, were used. In 2003 ...

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  15. Elasticities for U.S. Wheat Food Use by Class

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    We conceptualize wheat for food use as an input into flour production and derive demand functions to quantify price responsiveness and economic substitutability across wheat classes. Cost, price, and substitution elasticities are estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red wheat, soft white winter, and durum wheat. In general, hard red winter and spring wheat varieties are much more responsive to their own price than are soft wheat varieties and durum wheat. Morishima elasticitie...

  16. Effect of rate, timing and placement of nitrogen on spring wheat in farmers' fields in the Yaqui Valley of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Monasterio, I.; Naylor, R.

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to validate, in farmers' fields in the Yaqui Valley, N-management practices that had resulted, under experimental conditions, in reduction of trace-gas emissions while maintaining grain yield and quality. Trials were variously established in five different farmers' fields. The local management practice was compared with a new alternative, under various rates of N. The farmers managed all aspects of the trials, except for fertilizer application. The new N-management practice resulted in higher yield, protein and fertilizer recovery. The SPAD chlorophyll meter was found to be a promising tool for predicting grain-protein concentration. The method of application, broadcast vs. banding, did not affect fertilizer-N recovery. We conclude that it is possible to improve N-uptake efficiency in wheat grown in the Valley by delaying most of the N application close to the time of the first auxiliary irrigation. (author)

  17. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) patterns and trends in winter wheat spring green-up date over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sisi; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Zhengjia; Baig, Muhammad Hasan Ali; Chi, Wenfeng

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring the spring green-up date (GUD) has grown in importance for crop management and food security. However, most satellite-based GUD models are associated with a high degree of uncertainty when applied to croplands. In this study, we introduced an improved GUD algorithm to extract GUD data for 32 years (1982-2013) for the winter wheat croplands on the North China Plain (NCP), using the third-generation normalized difference vegetation index form Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g NDVI). The spatial and temporal variations in GUD with the effects of the pre-season climate and soil moisture conditions on GUD were comprehensively investigated. Our results showed that a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.44, p the improved algorithm relative to GUD from the MCD12Q2 phenology product. In spatial terms, GUD increased from the southwest (less than day of year (DOY) 60) to the northeast (more than DOY 90) of the NCP, which corresponded to spatial reductions in temperature and precipitation. GUD advanced in most (78%) of the winter wheat area on the NCP, with significant advances in 37.8% of the area (p the interannual scale, the average GUD advanced from DOY 76.9 in the 1980s (average 1982-1989) to DOY 73.2 in the 1990s (average 1991-1999), and to DOY 70.3 after 2000 (average 2000-2013), indicating an average advance of 1.8 days/decade (r = 0.35, p the pre-season temperature, our findings underline that the effect of the pre-season soil moisture on GUD should also be considered. The improved GUD algorithm and satellite-based long-term GUD data are helpful for improving the representation of GUD in terrestrial ecosystem models and enhancing crop management efficiency.

  18. Performance analysis of spring wheat genotypes under rain-fed conditions in warm humid environment of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raj Puri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 25% of total wheat area in Terai of Nepal falls under rain-fed and partially irrigated condition. A Coordinated varietal trial (CVT was conducted during two consecutive crop cycles (2011-12 and 2012-13 under timely sown rain-fed conditions of Terai. The trial was conducted in Alpha Lattice design with two replications at Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa and Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nepalgunj. Observations were recorded for yield and yield traits and analyzed using statistical software Cropstat 7.2.The combined analysis of coordinated varietal trial showed that BL 3978 possessed the highest yield (2469.2 Kg ha-1 followed by NL 1097 (2373.2 Kg ha-1 and NL 1094 (2334.06 Kg ha-1. Genotype x Environment interaction for grain yield was significant (p<0.05 over locations and years. BL 3978 with early maturity (111 days escaped the heat stress environment. Among the top three genotypes, BL 3978 was consistently higher in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. Earliness was one of the major traits for heat tolerant genotypes. The three identified genotypes will be further evaluated in participatory varietal selection or coordinated farmers field trial followed by small plot seed multiplication (seed increase and release in the future for timely sown rain-fed conditions. These lines also appear suitable for inclusion in crossing program targeted for water stress tolerance variety development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12649 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 289-295

  19. Stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL mapping, epistatic interactions, and co-localization with stem rust resistance loci in spring wheat evaluated over three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Knox, R E; DePauw, R M; Singh, A K; Cuthbert, R D; Campbell, H L; Shorter, S; Bhavani, S

    2014-11-01

    In wheat, advantageous gene-rich or pleiotropic regions for stripe, leaf, and stem rust and epistatic interactions between rust resistance loci should be accounted for in plant breeding strategies. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks) contribute to major production losses in many regions worldwide. The objectives of this research were to identify and study epistatic interactions of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stripe and leaf rust resistance in a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from the cross of Canadian wheat cultivars, AC Cadillac and Carberry. The relationship of leaf and stripe rust resistance QTL that co-located with stem rust resistance QTL previously mapped in this population was also investigated. The Carberry/AC Cadillac population was genotyped with DArT(®) and simple sequence repeat markers. The parents and population were phenotyped for stripe rust severity and infection response in field rust nurseries in Kenya (Njoro), Canada (Swift Current), and New Zealand (Lincoln); and for leaf rust severity and infection response in field nurseries in Canada (Swift Current) and New Zealand (Lincoln). AC Cadillac was a source of stripe rust resistance QTL on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 5B, and 7B; and Carberry was a source of resistance on chromosomes 2B, 4B, and 7A. AC Cadillac contributed QTL for resistance to leaf rust on chromosome 2A and Carberry contributed QTL on chromosomes 2B and 4B. Stripe rust resistance QTL co-localized with previously reported stem rust resistance QTL on 2B, 3B, and 7B, while leaf rust resistance QTL co-localized with 4B stem rust resistance QTL. Several epistatic interactions were identified both for stripe and leaf rust resistance QTL. We have identified useful combinations of genetic loci with main and epistatic effects. Multiple disease resistance regions identified on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, and 7B are prime candidates for further investigation and

  20. Effects of Soil Aluminum on Early Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Wheat an Barley Cultivars Growing in an Andisol Efecto del Aluminio del Suelo en la Colonización Temprana por Micorrizas Arbusculares en Cultivares de Trigo y Cebada Creciendo en un Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Seguel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phytotoxicity in acid soils is an important environmental stress that negatively affects crop production, but arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi performance would allow plants to better withstand this environmental condition. This study aimed to analyze the effect of soil Al on early AM colonization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars. Near-isogenic Crac, Invento, and Porfiado wheat cultivars and Sebastián and Aurora barley cultivars were sown in pots in an acid soil at three Al saturation levels (60, 34, and 11%. At 20 d after sowing (DAS 'Crac' presented higher AM colonization (27% than other cultivars. However, 'Invento' had the fastest colonization at 41 DAS, which was inhibited in short term at lower Al-saturation. Moreover, roots of 'Aurora' were colonized 28 and 51% at 20 and 66 DAS, respectively, and also decreased at lower Al-saturation. In soil with 60% Al-saturation a great spore production was observed at 41 DAS, 'Aurora' had the highest spore density at 66 DAS. At 20 DAS a negative relationship (r = -0.37; p La fitotoxicidad por Al en suelos ácidos es un importante estrés que afecta negativamente la producción de cultivos, pero la actividad de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (MA permitiría que las plantas soporten mejor esta condición ambiental. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el efecto del Al en la colonización MA temprana de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.. Cultivares de trigo Crac, Invento, y Porfiado, y de cebada Sebastián y Aurora fueron sembrados en macetas en un suelo ácido con tres niveles de saturación de Al (60, 34, y 11%. A los 20 días después de la siembra (DDS 'Crac' presentó la mayor colonización MA (27%; sin embargo, 'Invento' tuvo la más rápida colonización a los 41 DDS, la cual fue inhibida a corto plazo a una menor saturación de Al. Por otra parte, las raíces de 'Aurora' fueron colonizadas 28 y 51% a los

  1. Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  2. Starch digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy of western Canadian wheat market classes in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, N D; Abbott, D A; Hucl, P J; Chibbar, R N; Pozniak, C J; Classen, H L

    2018-05-16

    Wheat is the primary grain fed to poultry in western Canada, but its nutritional quality, including the nature of its starch digestibility, may be affected by wheat market class. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate and extent of starch digestibility of wheat market classes in broiler chickens, and to determine the relationship between starch digestibility and wheat apparent metabolizable energy (AME). In vitro starch digestion was assessed using gastric and small intestinal phases mimicking the chicken digestive tract, while in vivo evaluation used 468 male broiler chickens randomly assigned to dietary treatments from 0 to 21 d of age. The study evaluated 2 wheat cultivars from each of 6 western Canadian wheat classes: Canadian Prairie Spring (CPS), Canadian Western Amber Durum (CWAD), CW General Purpose (CWGP), CW Hard White Spring (CWHWS), CW Red Spring (CWRS), and CW Soft White Spring (CWSWS). All samples were analyzed for relevant grain characteristics. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design and cultivars were nested within market class. Pearson correlation was used to determine relationships between measured characteristics. Significance level was P ≤ 0.05. The starch digestibility range and wheat class rankings were: proximal jejunum - 23.7 to 50.6% (CWHWSc, CPSbc, CWSWSbc, CWRSab, CWGPa, CWADa); distal jejunum - 63.5 to 76.4% (CWHWSc, CPSbc, CWSWSbc, CWRSab, CWGPa, CWADa); proximal ileum - 88.7 to 96.9% (CWSWSc, CPSbc, CWHWSbc, CWRSb, CWGPb, CWADa); distal ileum - 94.4 to 98.5% (CWSWSb, CWHWSb, CPSb, CWRSab, CWGPab, CWADa); excreta - 98.4 to 99.3% (CPSb, CWRSb, CWHWSb, CWSWSab, CWGPab, CWADa). Wheat class affected wheat AMEn with levels ranging from 3,203 to 3,411 kcal/kg at 90% DM (CWRSc, CWSWSc, CPSb, CWGPb, CWADa, CWHWSa). Significant and moderately strong positive correlations were observed between in vitro and in vivo starch digestibility, but no correlations were found between AME and starch digestibility. In

  3. Effect of external potassium (K) supply on the uptake of 137Cs by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic): a large-scale hydroponic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.-G.

    2001-01-01

    A large-scale hydroponic experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Spring wheat plants were grown to maturity at four levels of external K concentration (2, 4, 20 and 40 mg l -1 ) and one concentration of radiocaesium (8 Bq ml -1 ). Concentrations of K and radiocaesium in the growth solution were closely monitored, and replenishments were made upon depletion. K effectively competed with radiocaesium in terms of root uptake. Activity concentrations of radiocaesium in plants differed significantly between the four K treatments; the activity concentration at the lowest external K concentration being 100 times higher than that at the highest K level. The relationship between radiocaesium uptake and external K level could be described by a negative power function; this showed that when the K level reached around 12 mg l -1 , further increases in the external K level resulted only in slight changes in its inhibitory effect. As a result of this inhibitory effect of potassium supply, concentrations of radiocaesium in plant tissues, grains in particular, were greatly reduced at high external K concentration. Mechanisms involved in Cs-K interaction in root uptake are also discussed

  4. Effect of external potassium (K) supply on the uptake of {sup 137}Cs by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic): a large-scale hydroponic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Y.-G. E-mail: yongguan.zhu@adelaide.edu.au

    2001-07-01

    A large-scale hydroponic experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Spring wheat plants were grown to maturity at four levels of external K concentration (2, 4, 20 and 40 mg l{sup -1}) and one concentration of radiocaesium (8 Bq ml{sup -1}). Concentrations of K and radiocaesium in the growth solution were closely monitored, and replenishments were made upon depletion. K effectively competed with radiocaesium in terms of root uptake. Activity concentrations of radiocaesium in plants differed significantly between the four K treatments; the activity concentration at the lowest external K concentration being 100 times higher than that at the highest K level. The relationship between radiocaesium uptake and external K level could be described by a negative power function; this showed that when the K level reached around 12 mg l{sup -1}, further increases in the external K level resulted only in slight changes in its inhibitory effect. As a result of this inhibitory effect of potassium supply, concentrations of radiocaesium in plant tissues, grains in particular, were greatly reduced at high external K concentration. Mechanisms involved in Cs-K interaction in root uptake are also discussed.

  5. Evaluation of induced mutants of wheat for resistance to fungal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.; Fuentes P, R.; Andrade S, N.; Seeman F, P.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluation of induced mutants of wheat for resistance to fungal diseases. Seeds of spring wheat cultivars Austral and Huenufen were exposed to gamma radiation in doses of 0.10 and 0.25 KGy with the objective of producing genotypes resistant to the main fungal diseases, with a high protein content and grain yield, for the southern region of Chile (39 sup(o)-44 sup(o) Latitude south). The selection process and evaluation up to the generation M sub(8) has made possible to identify mutants with a higher protein content and grain yield. Progress made in improving resistance to Puccinia striiformis and tolerance to Septoria spp., has also been important. Some selected mutants, conditioned to their future performance, could be directly used as commercial varieties and other mutants, on crosses with regionally adapted cultivars. (author)

  6. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR...... markers were found to be polymorphic, whereas only 2,532 of the ~7,000 DArT markers were polymorphic. A Mantel test between the genetic distances calculated based on the SSR and DArT data showed a strong positive correlation between the two marker types, with a Pearson's value (r) of 0.66. We assessed...... the genetic diversity and allelic frequencies among the accessions based on spring- versus winter-wheat type as well as between landraces and cultivars. We also analyzed the changes in genetic diversity and allelic frequencies in these samples over time. We observed separation based on both vernalization type...

  7. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  8. Structural and temporal variation in the genetic diversity of a European collection of spring two-row barley cultivars and utility for association mapping of quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Moragues, Marc

    2013-01-01

    the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best...

  9. Características agronômicas de cultivares de trigo em resposta à época da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura Agronomic characteristics of wheat cultivars in response to the time of nitrogen fertilizer covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de trigo diferem quanto à capacidade de emissão de afilhos, à arquitetura de planta e à duração do ciclo. Estas diferenças podem interferir na determinação da época ideal de aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura para otimizar a performance agronômica da cultura. Este trabalho objetivou identificar os efeitos de época de realização da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura sobre o acúmulo de matéria seca no colmo principal e nos afilhos, o rendimento de grãos e o teor protéico dos grãos de três cultivares de trigo. O experimento foi conduzido a campo, durante o ano agrícola de 2003, no município de Lages, SC. Foram testadas quatro épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura: estádios 3,5, 5,5, 7,5 e emborrachamento da escala de Haun; e três cultivares de trigo, "BRS 179", "Fundacep 36" e "Rubi". O ensaio foi implantado sobre resteva de feijão, em 11/07/2003. A dose total de N utilizada no trabalho foi de 70kg ha-1, sendo 20kg ha-1 aplicados na semeadura e o restante em cobertura, conforme a época definida em cada tratamento. Independentemente das características da cultivar, as aplicações precoces de N, realizadas nos estádios 3,5 e 5,5 da escala de Haun, propiciaram a obtenção dos maiores valores de rendimento de grãos. Quando o nitrogênio foi aplicado nestas épocas, houve maior contribuição percentual dos afilhos ao rendimento e maior número de grãos produzidos por área. A cultivar "Fundacep 36" foi a mais produtiva e também a que externou menor teor de proteína nos grãos, na média das quatro épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura. Não houve efeito da época de aplicação do nitrogênio sobre o teor de proteína nos grãos das cultivares avaliadas.The wheat cultivars differ in terms of tiller emission, plant architecture and growing cycle duration. Such differences may interfere in the ideal period to side-dress N to optimize the crop agronomic performance. This

  10. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  11. Allele frequencies in the VRN-A1, VRN-B1 and VRN-D1 vernalization response and PPD-B1 and PPD-D1 photoperiod sensitivity genes, and their effects on heading in a diverse set of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tibor; Balla, Krisztina; Veisz, Ottó; Láng, László; Bedő, Zoltán; Griffiths, Simon; Isaac, Peter; Karsai, Ildikó

    2014-01-01

    Heading of cereals is determined by complex genetic and environmental factors in which genes responsible for vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity play a decisive role. Our aim was to use diagnostic molecular markers to determine the main allele types in VRN - A1 , VRN - B1 , VRN - D1 , PPD - B1 and PPD - D1 in a worldwide wheat collection of 683 genotypes and to investigate the effect of these alleles on heading in the field. The dominant VRN - A1 , VRN - B1 and VRN - D1 alleles were present at a low frequency. The PPD - D1a photoperiod-insensitive allele was carried by 57 % of the cultivars and was most frequent in Asian and European cultivars. The PPD - B1 photoperiod-insensitive allele was carried by 22 % of the genotypes from Asia, America and Europe. Nine versions of the PPD - B1 -insensitive allele were identified based on gene copy number and intercopy structure. The allele compositions in PPD - D1 , PPD - B1 and VRN - D1 significantly influenced heading and together explained 37.5 % of the phenotypic variance. The role of gene model increased to 39.1 % when PPD - B1 intercopy structure was taken into account instead of overall PPD - B1 type (sensitive vs. insensitive). As a single component, PPD - D1 had the most important role (28.0 % of the phenotypic variance), followed by PPD - B1 (12.3 % for PPD - B1 _overall, and 15.1 % for PPD - B1 _intercopy) and VRN - D1 (2.2 %). Significant gene interactions were identified between the marker alleles within PPD - B1 and between VRN - D1 and the two PPD1 genes. The earliest heading genotypes were those with the photoperiod-insensitive allele in PPD - D1 and PPD - B1 , and with the spring allele for VRN - D1 and the winter alleles for VRN - A1 and VRN - B1 . This combination could only be detected in genotypes from Southern Europe and Asia. Late-heading genotypes had the sensitivity alleles for both PPD1 genes, regardless of the allelic composition of the VRN1 genes. There was a 10-day difference in

  12. Mutation breeding for nutritional value in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, P.; Fuentes, R.; Manquian, N.; Mansilla, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1981 two batches of 100,000 seeds of the spring wheat cultivars Austral and Huenufen were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 and 25 Krad doses. The source of radiation was 60 Co, from the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear. Objectives of this irradiation program were to develop wheat cultivars well adapted to the Lakes Region of Chile (latitude south 39 to 40 0 ), whith higher content of protein and lysine and good yield. Generation M 1 was sown densily under field conditions and harvested by mass selection. Plant selection was set up in generation M 2 onwards. Selected mutants for protein content (DBC values) in generations M 2 (1982-83) and M 3 (1983-84) showed ranges from 18 to 22%. These contents were higher than in the controls. As regards lysine content of the proteins, the number of selected was low, however mutants with maximum lysine content overshot 4%. In M 4 generation, the better mutants, with adequate number of controls, will be analyzed in the crop season 1984-85, in preliminary trials of production. The technique of horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as an alternative technique to the identification and certification of mutants with high content of protein is examined. (Author) [pt

  13. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  14. Prehaustorial and posthaustorial resistance to wheat leaf rust in diploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    In modern wheat cultivars, resistance to wheat leaf rust, Puccinia triticina , is either based on hypersensitivity resistance or on partial resistance. Hypersensitivity resistance in wheat is monogenic, often complete and posthaustorial: it is induced after the

  15. (Lilium) cultivar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... 2National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing, China. Accepted 6 August, 2012 ... hybrids lily cultivar 'eyeliner' was selected as the materials. By using the ... of sterilization was not ideal which led to higher.

  16. A numerical study of the effect of irrigation on land-atmosphere interactions in a spring wheat cropland in India using a coupled atmosphere-crop growth dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, S.; Sharma, P.; Srivastava, A.; Rastogi, D.; Sehgal, V. K.; Dhakar, R.; Roy, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation dynamics and surface meteorology are tightly coupled through the exchange of momentum, moisture and heat between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a recently developed coupled atmosphere-crop growth dynamics model to study these exchanges and their effects in a spring wheat cropland in northern India. In particular, we investigate the role of irrigation in controlling crop growth rates, surface meteorology, and sensible and latent heat fluxes. The model is developed by implementing a crop growth module based on the Simple and Universal Crop growth Simulator (SUCROS) model in the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model. The crop module calculates photosynthesis rates, carbon assimilation, and biomass partitioning as a function of environmental factors and crop development stage. The leaf area index (LAI) and root depth calculated by the crop module is then fed to the Noah-MP land module of WRF to calculate land-atmosphere fluxes. The crop model is calibrated using data from an experimental spring wheat crop site in the Indian Agriculture Research Institute. The coupled model is capable of simulating the observed spring wheat phenology. Irrigation is simulated by changing the soil moisture levels from 50% - 100% of field capacity. Results show that the yield first increases with increasing soil moisture and then starts decreasing as we further increase the soil moisture. Yield attains its maximum value with soil moisture at the level of 60% water of FC. At this level, high LAI values lead to a decrease in the Bowen Ratio because more energy is transferred to the atmosphere as latent heat rather than sensible heat resulting in a cooling effect on near-surface air temperatures. Apart from improving simulation of land-atmosphere interactions, this coupled modeling approach can form the basis for the seamless crop yield and seasonal scale weather outlook prediction system.

  17. Contribution of genetic diversity for improvement of some abiotic stresses in wheat (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, M.; Swati, Z.A.

    2005-01-01

    Wheat improvement has predominantly been accomplished through conventional plant breeding methodologies. This approach shall continue to be the predominant procedure in the future. Genetic diversity is crucial for crop improvement and in the Triticeae family it resides in the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools. These gene pools can be utilize for wheat improvement by producing genetic stocks where the alien gene pools can be combined with durum and bread wheat cultivars via interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Adopting the interspecific route strategies has led to the production of several genetic stocks, which are elucidated here. The categories include the amphiploids of the A, B, and D genomes with durum cultivars (AAAABB, AABBBB, AABBDD) and new AADD tetraploids. Tertiary gene pool species (more complex to utilize) are a potent resource for gene pyramiding, which contribute towards stress durability and addresses sustainable agricultural aspects. The conventional classical protocols of introgressing alien genetic diversity into wheat are complex, and long-term in generating farmer usable products. The gene transfer procedures are further complicated when the stress trait has multigenic control associated with several alien chromosomes. Our current approach has incorporated a novel strategy for promoting alien chromosome introgression involving wheat/alien homeologous as well as non-homeologous chromosomes. The protocol comprises of hybridizing the Phph based amphiploid with the phph Chinese Spring wheat genetic stock to yield heterozygote Phph derivatives. From selfing of the heterozygotes or from their derived haploids via wheat/maize crosses the ph derivatives are identified by a PCR diagnostic. The ph seedlings form the reservoir of wheat/alien chromosome translocations which are identified by Giemsa C-banding / fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Plants with translocations are step-wise advanced by backcrosses to elite wheat cultivars

  18. Mapping and validation of a new QTL for adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew in Chinese elite bread wheat line Zhou8425B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Aolin; Ren, Yan; Gao, Fengmei; Yin, Guihong; Liu, Jindong; Guo, Lu; Zheng, Jizhou; He, Zhonghu; Xia, Xianchun

    2018-05-01

    Four QTLs for adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew were mapped in the Zhou8425B/Chinese Spring population, and a new QTL on chromosome 3B was validated in 103 wheat cultivars derived from Zhou8425B. Zhou8425B is an elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line widely used as a parent in Chinese wheat breeding programs. Identification of genes for adult-plant resistance (APR) to powdery mildew in Zhou8425B is of high importance for continued controlling the disease. In the current study, the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for APR to powdery mildew in 244 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Zhou8425B/Chinese Spring. Inclusive composite interval mapping identified QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3B, 4B, and 7D, designated as QPm.caas-1BL.1, QPm.caas-3BS, QPm.caas-4BL.2, and QPm.caas-7DS, respectively. Resistance alleles at the QPm.caas-1BL.1, QPm.caas-3BS, and QPm.caas-4BL.2 loci were contributed by Zhou8425B, whereas that at QPm.caas-7DS was from Chinese Spring. QPm.caas-3BS, likely to be a new APR gene for powdery mildew resistance, was detected in all four environments. One SNP marker closely linked to QPm.caas-3BS was transferred into a semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR (STARP) marker and tested on 103 commercial wheat cultivars derived from Zhou8425B. Cultivars with the resistance allele at the QPm.caas-3BS locus had averaged maximum disease severity reduced by 5.3%. This STARP marker can be used for marker-assisted selection in improvement of the level of powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding.

  19. Quantification of the effects of VRN1 and Ppd-D1 to predict spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) heading time across diverse environments

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Bangyou; Biddulph, Ben; Li, Dora; Kuchel, Haydn; Chapman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Heading time is a major determinant of the adaptation of wheat to different environments, and is critical in minimizing risks of frost, heat, and drought on reproductive development. Given that major developmental genes are known in wheat, a process-based model, APSIM, was modified to incorporate gene effects into estimation of heading time, while minimizing degradation in the predictive capability of the model. Model parameters describing environment responses were replaced with functions of...

  20. Sensitivity of European wheat to extreme weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkinen, H; Kaseva, J; Trnka, M

    2018-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather is increasing concomitant with changes in the global climate change. Although wheat is the most important food crop in Europe, there is currently no comprehensive empirical information available regarding the sensitivity of European wheat to extreme...... weather. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of European wheat yields to extreme weather related to phenology (sowing, heading) in cultivar trials across Europe (latitudes 37.21° to 61.34° and longitudes −6.02° to 26.24°) during the period 1991–2014. All the observed agro-climatic extremes (≥31 °C...... wheat cultivars that responded positively (+10%) to drought after sowing, or frost during winter (−15 °C and −20 °C). Positive responses to extremes were often shown by cultivars associated with specific regions, such as good performance under high temperatures by southern-origin cultivars. Consequently...

  1. Analysis of aneuploid lines of bread wheat to map chromosomal locations of genes controlling root hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Rathjen, Tina; Weligama, Kumara; Forrest, Kerrie; Hayden, Matthew; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    Long root hairs enable the efficient uptake of poorly mobile nutrients such as phosphorus. Mapping the chromosomal locations of genes that control root hair length can help exploit the natural variation within crops to develop improved cultivars. Genetic stocks of the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' were used to map genes that control root hair length. Aneuploid stocks of 'Chinese Spring' were screened using a rapid method based on rhizosheath size and then selected lines were assayed for root hair length to identify chromosomes harbouring genes controlling root hair length. A series of lines with various fractional deletions of candidate chromosomes were then screened to map the root hair loci more accurately. A line with a deletion in chromosome 5A was analysed with a 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The phosphorus acquisition efficiency (PAE) of one deletion line was compared with that of euploid 'Chinese Spring' by growing the seedlings in pots at low and luxury phosphorus supplies. Chromosomes 1A, 1D and 5A were found to harbour genes controlling root hair length. The 90 000 SNP array identified two candidate genes controlling root hair length located on chromosome 5A. The line with a deletion in chromosome 5A had root hairs that were approx. 20 % shorter than euploid 'Chinese Spring', but this was insufficient to reduce its PAE. A rapid screen for rhizosheath size enabled chromosomal regions controlling root hair length to be mapped in the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' and subsequent analysis with an SNP array identified candidate genes controlling root hair length. The difference in root hair length between euploid 'Chinese Spring' and a deletion line identified in the rapid screen was still apparent, albeit attenuated, when the seedlings were grown on a fully fertilized soil. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  3. Recovery of leaf elongation during short term osmotic stress correlates with osmotic adjustment and cell turgor restoration in different durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdid, M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the responses of leaf elongation rate (LER), turgor and osmotic adjustment (OA) during a short-term stress (7 hours) imposed by PEG6000 and a recovery phase, three durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties (Inrat; MBB; and OZ ) were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Turgor was estimated using a cell pressure probe; osmotic potential as well as total sugars and potassium (K+) concentrations were estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone. Growth recovered rapidly and then stabilised at a lower value. A significant difference was found in % recovery of LER between the varieties. The cessation of growth after stress coincided with a decrease in turgor followed by a recovery period reaching control values in MBB and Inrat. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.83) between the reduction in turgor (turgor) and % recovery of LER was found at 7 hours after stress. The difference in the partial recovery of LER between varieties was thus related to the capacity of partial turgor recovery. Partial turgor recovery is associated with sugar or K+ based OA which indicates its importance in maintaining high LER values under water deficit. (author)

  4. Melhoramento do trigo: XII. Comportamento de novas linhagens e cultivares no Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XII. Evaluation of new inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1985-01-01

    -18',foram tolerantes à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty one inbred lines obtained at the Instituto Agronômico from the wheat breeding program plus the cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-17, and Alondra-S-46 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Campinas Experiment Center and Capão Bonito Experiment Station, during the years of 1982 and 1983, at Tietê Experiment Station, in 1982 and at Floresta Negra Farm, Maracaí, in 1983. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering and from emergente to maturation, percentage of layed plants, head length, number of grain per spike and per spikelet, number of spikelets, weight of 100 grains, and resistance to stem and leaf rusts were evaluated under field conditions and tests of resistance to stem and leal rusts and to aluminum were also made, respectively, in greenhouse and in laboratory. Considering the trials planted under sprinkler irrigation, at Campinas, the lines IAC-60 and IAC-67 showed good performance regarding to grain yield. In Capão Bonito, represented by acid soils, the lnes IAC-66, IAC-60 and IAC-69 showed high grain yield. The lines IAC-64, IAC-68, IAC-71 and IAC-60 presented good productivity at Tietê Experiment Station and IAC-67, IAC-63 and IAC-64 were more adapted to high soil fertility showing the best grain yields at Maracaí. The lines IAC-52, IAC-53, IAC-54, IAC-55, IAC-56, IAC-57, IAC-58, IAC-60, IAC-64, IAC-65, IAC-67, IAC-71 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 exhibited semi-dwarf type when compared to the tall cultivar BH-1146. In relation to stem rust, the lines IAC-62 and IAC-65 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 showed very good resistance presenting at seedling stage, resistance to seven rates under both greenhouse and field conditions. The line IAC-64 was resistant to four and IAC-52 and IAC-55 to three races of leaf rust in the seedling stage under greenhouse condition. The lines IAC-51, IAC-56, IAC-61, IAC-62, IAC-63 and IAC-67 presented

  5. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of wheat starch. Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising from the interaction between were assessed for starch blue value, viscosity ...

  6. [Photosynthetic gas exchange and water utilization of flag leaf of spring wheat with bunch sowing and field plastic mulching below soil on semi-arid rain-fed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen Xiong; Liu, Na; Liu, Xiao Hua; Zhang, Xue Ting; Wang, Shi Hong; Yuan, Jun Xiu; Zhang, Xu Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Based on the field experiment which was conducted in Dingxi County of Gansu Province, and involved in the three treatments: (1) plastic mulching on entire land with soil coverage and bunching (PMS), (2) plastic mulching on entire land and bunching (PM), and (3) direct bunching without mulching (CK). The parameters of SPAD values, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, as well as leaf area index (LAI), yield, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency in flag leaves of spring wheat were recorded and analyzed from 2012 to 2013 continuously. The results showed that SPAD values of wheat flag leaves increased in PMS by 10.0%-21.5% and 3.2%-21.6% compared to PM and CK in post-flowering stage, respectively. The maximum photochemical efficiency (F v /F m ) , actual photochemical efficiency (Φ PS 2 ) of photosystem 2 (PS2), and photochemical quenching coefficient (q P ) of PMS were higher than those of PM and CK, the maximum increment values were 6.1%, 9.6% and 30.9% as compared with PM, and significant differences were observed in filling stage (P<0.05). The values of q N in PMS were lowest among the three treatments, and it decreased significantly by 23.8% and 15.4% in heading stage in 2012 and 2013 respectively, as compared with PM. The stoma conductance (g s ) of wheat flag leaves in PMS was higher than that of PM and CK, with significant difference being observed in filling stage, and it increased by 17.1% and 21.1% in 2012 and 2013 respectively, as compared with PM. The transpiration rate (T r ), net photosynthetic rate (P n ), and leaf instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE i ) except heading stage in 2013 of PMS increased by 5.4%-16.7%, 11.2%-23.7%, and 5.6%-7.2%, respectively, as compared with PM, and significant difference of WUE i was observed in flowering stage in 2012. The leaf area index (LAI) of PMS was higher than that of PM and CK, especially, it differed significantly in seasonal drought of 2013. Consequently

  7. Discovery of a novel stem rust resistance allele in durum wheat that exhibits differential reactions to Ug99 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses on susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Though several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effec...

  8. Genetic evolution and utilization of wheat germplasm resources in Huanghuai winter wheat region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiyong, C.; Haixia, X.U.; Feng, C.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding, 215 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from the Huanghuai Wheat Region of China were used to identify 14 agronomic traits and 7 quality traits, as well as the evolution and utilization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). From land race cultivars to current cultivars there had been significant increases in grain numbers spike/sip -1/, grain weight spike/sup -1/, 1000-kernel weight, grain weight plant/sup -1/, spikelet number spike/sup -1/, sterile spikelet numbers spike/sup -1/, flag leaf width, and flag leaf area. There had been significant decreases in spike number plant/sup -1/, plant height, the first inter node length, flag leaf length, kernel protein content and wet gluten content. Based on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results, a novel HMW-GS combination 20/8 was identified in 1B chromosome of Chinese landrace cultivar Heputou. Subunits 22, 20/8, 2.2+12, and GluB3a were only found in cultivars before the 1960s, and subunits 6+8, 13+16, 3+12, and 4+12 were only found in the cultivars after the 1980s. The average diversity index of 21 traits and allele variance of HMW-GS showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing tendency. HMW-GS and LMW-GS combination-type cultivars showed an increasing-decreasing tendency. Before the 1980s, most parental strains were from foreign cultivars and landrace cultivars, while after the 1980s, most parental strains were from released cultivars and germplasm created by distant hybridization. This study provided useful information for improvement of wheat breeding in Huanghuai winter wheat region. (author)

  9. Identification of novel QTL for sawfly resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Sherman; D. K. Weaver; M. L. Hofland; S. E. Sing; M. Buteler; S. P. Lanning; Y. Naruoka; F. Crutcher; N. K. Blake; J. M. Martin; P. F. Lamb; G. R. Carlson; L. E. Talbert

    2010-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) (Cephus cinctus Nort.) is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) in the Northern Great Plains. This paper reports the genetic analysis of antixenosis for egg-laying WSS females in recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of hard red spring wheat. Female WSS preferentially choose certain wheat genotypes for egg-laying, with the...

  10. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  11. Stimulating effect of gamma radiation on haploid wheat production through microscope over co-culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, M.; Rahimi, M.; Faramarz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Haploid production focuses on low plant regeneration in some wheat genotypes. Haploid application gamma ray as an electromagnetic ray has ionizing properties which can produce ions when passing through biological matter. It can produce genetic variation therefore, is applied in crop and ornamental improvement to enhance agronomic traits. The most important changes caused by gamma radiation is in DNA structure existing in the nucleus of cell. The desirable agronomic changes then will be passed on through generations. Another property of gamma ray can be it's stimulating effect which is the aim in this investigation. Microspore-overy co-culture of wheat along with application of low doses of gamma radiation 2,3 and 4 Gy as absorbing doses were implemented with the aim to evaluate wheat haploid production. Modified Morashig and Skoog medium was used as induction medium and 190-2 medium for regeneration. Two winter and two spring wheat cultivars were used as genetic material. Low doses of gamma radiation simulated microspore cell division and produced more calli relative to non-irradiated microspores only in winter type wheats. In microspore overy co-culture, filtered microspores were centrifuged and then plated in Petri dishes containing MMS+500 mg/I glutamine with 25 overies

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular markers for detecting Aegilops uniaristata chromosomes in a wheat background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Li, Guangrong; Zhou, Jianping; Li, Genying; Liu, Cheng; Huang, Chengyan; Zhao, Zhendong; Yang, Zujun

    2014-09-01

    Aegilops uniaristata has many agronomically useful traits that can be used for wheat breeding. So far, a Triticum turgidum - Ae. uniaristata amphiploid and one set of Chinese Spring (CS) - Ae. uniaristata addition lines have been produced. To guide Ae. uniaristata chromatin transformation from these lines into cultivated wheat through chromosome engineering, reliable cytogenetic and molecular markers specific for Ae. uniaristata chromosomes need to be developed. Standard C-banding shows that C-bands mainly exist in the centromeric regions of Ae. uniaristata but rarely at the distal ends. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using (GAA)8 as a probe showed that the hybridization signal of chromosomes 1N-7N are different, thus (GAA)8 can be used to identify all Ae. uniaristata chromosomes in wheat background simultaneously. Moreover, a total of 42 molecular markers specific for Ae. uniaristata chromosomes were developed by screening expressed sequence tag - sequence tagged site (EST-STS), expressed sequence tag - simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR), and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) primers. The markers were subsequently localized using the CS - Ae. uniaristata addition lines and different wheat cultivars as controls. The cytogenetic and molecular markers developed herein will be helpful for screening and identifying wheat - Ae. uniaristata progeny.

  13. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  14. The Effect of High Concentrations of Glufosinate Ammonium on the Yield Components of Transgenic Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Constitutively Expressing the bar Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Áy, Zoltán; Mihály, Róbert; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kótai, Éva; Pauk, János

    2012-01-01

    We present an experiment done on a bar + wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium—an effective component of nonselective herbicides—during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose w...

  15. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... cytogenetic methods for the chromosomal localization of major genes in wheat including Chinese spring (CS) monosomics (Triticum aestivum, ...

  16. Salt tolerance and regulation of gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis by auxin-priming in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the regulatory effects of auxin-priming on gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis in spring wheat subjected to saline conditions. Seeds of MH-97 (salt-intolerant and Inqlab-91 (salt-tolerant cultivars were subjected to 11 priming treatments (three hormones x three concentrations + two controls and evaluated under saline (15 dS m-1 and nonsaline (2.84 dS m-1 conditions. The priming treatments consisted of: 5.71, 8.56, and 11.42 × 10-4 mol L-1 indoleacetic acid; 4.92, 7.38, and 9.84 × 10-4 mol L-1 indolebutyric acid; 4.89, 7.34, and 9.79 × 10-4 mol L-1 tryptophan; and a control with hydroprimed seeds. A negative control with nonprimed seeds was also evaluated. All priming agents diminished the effects of salinity on endogenous abscisic acid concentration in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Grain yield was positively correlated with net CO2 assimilation rate and endogenous indoleacetic acid concentration, and it was negatively correlated with abscisic acid and free polyamine concentrations. In general, the priming treatment with tryptophan at 4.89 × 10-4 mol L-1 was the most effective in minimizing yield losses and reductions in net CO2 assimilation rate, under salt stress conditions. Hormonal homeostasis increases net CO2 assimilation rate and confers tolerance to salinity on spring wheat.

  17. Proteome Analysis of Cold Response in Spring and Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Crowns Reveals Similarities in Stress Adaptation and Differences in Regulatory Processes between the Growth Habits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Vítámvás, P.; Planchon, S.; Renaut, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Prášil, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2013), s. 4830-4845 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 2D-DIGE analysis * cold stress * spring and winter growth habit Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.001, year: 2013

  18. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  19. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  20. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Jia, Juqing; Yang, Huizhen; Zhan, Haixian; Qiao, Linyi; Guo, Huijuan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-07-28

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68-0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  1. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt, is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68–0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  2. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited--tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W; Leigh, Fiona J; Lister, Diane L; Penã-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K

    2014-05-08

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat.

  3. WHITE WHEAT MARKET AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are...

  4. The effect of high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium on the yield components of transgenic spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) constitutively expressing the bar gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Áy, Zoltán; Mihály, Róbert; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kótai, Éva; Pauk, János

    2012-01-01

    We present an experiment done on a bar(+) wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium-an effective component of nonselective herbicides-during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches.

  5. The Effect of High Concentrations of Glufosinate Ammonium on the Yield Components of Transgenic Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Constitutively Expressing the bar Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Áy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experiment done on a bar+ wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium—an effective component of nonselective herbicides—during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches.

  6. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  7. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  8. Induced mutations in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., for high protein and lysine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, P.; Fuentes, R.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of producing cultivars adapted to the Lakes Region of Chile (latitude 39-44 deg. South) with better protein content and high grain yield, in 1975 spring wheat seeds of genotypes Express and UACH-2-75 were irradiated with gamma rays in doses of 15, 25 and 35 Krad. The M 1 generation was field sown and harvested individually, initiating plant selection in the M 2 generation. The selection process, through six generations, has permitted to identify some mutants of high protein content. Two mutants UACH-2-I and UACH-3-I have been included in the National Co-operative Wheat Program for yield. A second experiment was initiated in 1981 with the objective of obtaining mutants not only for high protein content but also for high lysine content. For this purpose seeds of the spring wheat genotypes Huenufen and Austral were irradiated with gamma rays in doses of 10 and 25 Krad. The M 1 generation was sown at a high density and harvested in bulk. Selection per plant will start in the M 2 generation, continuing in the following. (author)

  9. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  10. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  11. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  12. Estimation of N2 fixation in winter and spring sown chickpea and in lentil grown under rainfed conditions using 15 N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Asfari, F.

    1996-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions to asses N 2 fixation in one cultivar of lentil and in two cultivars of chickpea (Gab 1 for winter and spring sowing, and Baladi for spring sowing). Moreover, the effect of P fertilizer on dry matter production, percentages and amounts of different N sources was studied using 15 N isotope dilution method. Wheat was used as a reference crop. The rate of N 2 fixation affected by several factors such as plant species, cultivar, date of sowing, P-fertilizer and the growing season. The highest amount of N 2 fixation obtained in winter sown chickpea was 126 Kg N ha -1 . Whereas, that of spring sowing for the same cultivar was 30 Kg N ha -1 . For Baladi cultivar, the highest amount of N-fixed was 55 Kg N ha -1 . While it was 104 Kg N ha -1 in lentil. Generally, N 2 -fixation affected positively by P-application. In the first growing season, N 2 -fixation increased from 33 to %58 by P application in spring sown chickpea (Baladi), and from 20 to %35 in spring sown chickpea (Gab 1). Whereas, no significant differences were observed upon P application in winter sown chickpea and in lentil. In the second growing season, P-fertilizer increased the percentage of N 2 fixation from 54 to %64 in winter sown chickpea, and from 45 to %64 in spring sown chickpea (Gab 1), and from 49 to %60 in spring sown chickpea (Baladi). While, in lentil it was from 66 to %72. The rate of N 2 fixation in winter sown chickpea was clearly higher than that of spring sowings. Moreover, this last one absorbed more N from the soil. Our results indicate the importance of winter sown chickpea in terms of N 2 fixation, seed yield and the reduction of soil N-uptake, besides a positive P-fertilizer response, especially when suitable rain fall occurs during the season. Moreover, the importance of these results from agronomical point of view was discussed. (author). 24 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Haderlein

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yields and increase grain N and N use efficiency when compared to the practice of side-banding of urea N fertilizer. CRU was designed to release timely and adequate, but not excessive, amounts of N to the crop. Crop uptake of N from seed-placed CRU was sufficient to provide yields similar to those of side-banded urea N. Grain N concentrations of the CRU treatments were higher, on average, than those from side-banded urea, resulting in 4.2% higher N use efficiency across the entire N application range from 25 to 100 kg ha-1. Higher levels of removal of N in grain from CRU compared to side-banded urea can result in less residual N remaining in the soil, and limit the possibility of N losses due to denitrification and leaching.

  14. RADISH CULTIVARS BRED AT VNIISSOK AND THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the base of comparative assessment and average data estimation from 2010 to 2015, the characteristics of 11 cultivars bred at VNIISSOK were described regarding yield capacity and its components, variation, interdependencies at two sowing terms winter,spring time, direction of selection and cultivar uses at cultivar maintaining breeding program. Cultivar 'Koroleva Margo' is rather used in breeding program for yield capacity and taste qualities. Cultivar 'Sonata' is a source of such features as early maturity, valuable biochemical content and low nitrate accumulation. Cultivar 'Sofit' is known to bear early maturity and simultaneous seed maturation. 'Ariya' is a source of cylindrical root shape and early maturation. Cultivar 'Teplichnyi Gribovskyi' is used in breeding program for early maturation and simultaneous seed maturation. Cultivar 'Feya' bearsresistance to bolting and valuable biochemical substances. Cultivar 'Variant' has such features as root density, ability to grow under low lighting, short-term storability.  Purple-red with white tips is a newmade cultivar 'Mavr' suitable for breeding program for valuable biochemical content, unusual root color, also bearing male sterile forms (MS for heterosis hybrid breeding. Out of all cultivars regarded, 'Mokhovskiy' is only a genetic source to breed radish forms with edible leaves. The positive weak dependence was revealed between cultivar biochemical characteristics, root weight, dry matter  content, and nitrate content; whereas the positive middle dependence is revealed with sugar contents and negative dependence with ascorbic acid content. According to  iochemical characteristics, the best cultivar population as 'Ariya', 'Sonata' (ascorbic acid; Mavr, Sonata, Variant (dry matter, sugars have been chosen. Cultivars 'Koroleva Margo', Pheya, Sonata, Sophit, Mokhovskiy are the initial breeding accessions for selection of new cultivar population, MS and MF lines needed for heterosis.

  15. Association analysis of resistance to cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera avenae) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei) in CIMMYT advanced spring wheat lines for semi-arid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dababat, Abdelfattah A; Ferney, Gomez-Becerra Hugo; Erginbas-Orakci, Gul; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Imren, Mustafa; Toktay, Halil; Elekcioglu, Halil I; Mekete, Tesfamariam; Nicol, Julie M; Ansari, Omid; Ogbonnaya, Francis

    2016-12-01

    To identify loci linked to nematode resistance genes, a total of 126 of CIMMYT advanced spring wheat lines adapted to semi-arid conditions were screened for resistance to Heterodera avenae , Pratylenchus neglectus , and P. thornei , of which 107 lines were genotyped with 1,310 DArT. Association of DArT markers with nematode response was analyzed using the general linear model. Results showed that 11 markers were associated with resistance to H. avenae (pathotype Ha21), 25 markers with resistance to P. neglectus , and 9 significant markers were identified to be linked with resistance to P. thornei . In this work we confirmed that chromosome 4A (~90-105 cM) can be a source of resistance to P. thornei as has been recently reported. Other significant markers were also identified on chromosomal regions where no resistant genes have been reported for both nematodes species. These novel QTL were mapped to chromosomes 5A, 6A, and 7A for H. avenae ; on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 3A, 3B, 6B, 7AS, and 7D for P. neglectus ; and on chromosomes 1D, 2A, and 5B for P. thornei and represent potentially new loci linked to resistance that may be useful for selecting parents and deploying resistance into elite germplasm adapted to regions where nematodes are causing problem.

  16. Genetic variation of gliadin composition of wheat varieties in shanxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daizhen; Wang Shuguang; Yang Wude; Cao Yaping; Yang Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    In order to discover genetic variation of gliadin composition of wheat varieties in Shanxi, A-PAGE method was used to analyze difference of gliadin composition and genetic diversity of 214 varieties including local bred, introduced and landraces wheat in recent 40 years. The results were as follows: number of gliadin band increased by 2.1 and 1.5 in bred and introduced wheat varieties compared to Shanxi landraces. In total 70 bands,the frequency of 26 bands detected from bred and introduced cultivars was up, 23 down, 21 no regular pattern compared to Shanxi landraces. In 4 gliadin zones, variation of types and frequency of gliadin band in ω zone was largest, γ was the second, β and α was smallest. Two band block of 16.5 and 19.1, and three band block of 12.9, 15.7 and 17.8 were tested in ω zone, but they do not express in the same variety. Mean of genetic distance in Shanxi wheat landraces was larger than those in other two type wheat cultivars. The cluster analysis found that cultivars of landraces, bred or introduced were divided into the same group, which showed genetic difference of loci encoded gliadin in Shanxi wheat landraces was larger than the other two type wheat cultivars, namely, the level of genetic variation of gliadin in bred or introduced cultivars was not high in the last 40 years. (authors)

  17. Molecular and genetic study of wheat rusts | Le Maitre | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puccinia triticina, Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis cause leaf, stem and yellow rust, respectively. Wheat rusts can cause losses as high as 70%. The rusts ability to evolve fungicide resistance has resulted in the use of resistant cultivars as the primary method of control. Breeding resistant cultivars is a long process ...

  18. Relationship between QTL for grain shape, grain weight, test weight, milling yield, and plant height in the spring wheat cross RL4452/'AC Domain'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Adrian L; Jordan, Mark C; Larson, Gary; Somers, Daryl J; Humphreys, D Gavin; McCartney, Curt A

    2018-01-01

    Kernel morphology characteristics of wheat are complex and quantitatively inherited. A doubled haploid (DH) population of the cross RL4452/'AC Domain' was used to study the genetic basis of seed shape. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses were conducted on a total of 18 traits: 14 grain shape traits, flour yield (Fyd), and three agronomic traits (Plant height [Plht], 1000 Grain weight [Gwt], Test weight [Twt]), using data from trial locations at Glenlea, Brandon, and Morden in Manitoba, Canada, between 1999 and 2004. Kernel shape was studied through digital image analysis with an Acurum® grain analyzer. Plht, Gwt, Twt, Fyd, and grain shape QTL were correlated with each other and QTL analysis revealed that QTL for these traits often mapped to the same genetic locations. The most significant QTL for the grain shape traits were located on chromosomes 4B and 4D, each accounting for up to 24.4% and 53.3% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. In addition, the most significant QTL for Plht, Gwt, and Twt were all detected on chromosome 4D at the Rht-D1 locus. Rht-D1b decreased Plht, Gwt, Twt, and kernel width relative to the Rht-D1a allele. A narrow genetic interval on chromosome 4B contained significant QTL for grain shape, Gwt, and Plht. The 'AC Domain' allele reduced Plht, Gwt, kernel length and width traits, but had no detectable effect on Twt. The data indicated that this variation was inconsistent with segregation at Rht-B1. Numerous QTL were identified that control these traits in this population.

  19. Relationship between QTL for grain shape, grain weight, test weight, milling yield, and plant height in the spring wheat cross RL4452/‘AC Domain’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Adrian L.; Jordan, Mark C.; Larson, Gary; Somers, Daryl J.; Humphreys, D. Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Kernel morphology characteristics of wheat are complex and quantitatively inherited. A doubled haploid (DH) population of the cross RL4452/‘AC Domain’ was used to study the genetic basis of seed shape. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses were conducted on a total of 18 traits: 14 grain shape traits, flour yield (Fyd), and three agronomic traits (Plant height [Plht], 1000 Grain weight [Gwt], Test weight [Twt]), using data from trial locations at Glenlea, Brandon, and Morden in Manitoba, Canada, between 1999 and 2004. Kernel shape was studied through digital image analysis with an Acurum® grain analyzer. Plht, Gwt, Twt, Fyd, and grain shape QTL were correlated with each other and QTL analysis revealed that QTL for these traits often mapped to the same genetic locations. The most significant QTL for the grain shape traits were located on chromosomes 4B and 4D, each accounting for up to 24.4% and 53.3% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. In addition, the most significant QTL for Plht, Gwt, and Twt were all detected on chromosome 4D at the Rht-D1 locus. Rht-D1b decreased Plht, Gwt, Twt, and kernel width relative to the Rht-D1a allele. A narrow genetic interval on chromosome 4B contained significant QTL for grain shape, Gwt, and Plht. The ‘AC Domain’ allele reduced Plht, Gwt, kernel length and width traits, but had no detectable effect on Twt. The data indicated that this variation was inconsistent with segregation at Rht-B1. Numerous QTL were identified that control these traits in this population. PMID:29357369

  20. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  1. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Key words: Thysanoptera, Haplothrips tritici, population density, bread wheat, durum wheat, barley, cultivars. INTRODUCTION. Some thrips types of the order Thysanoptera constitute one of the harmful groups found on grains (Minaei and. Mound, 2008). The most common species observed on grains in ...

  2. Silicon mediated biochemical changes in wheat under salinized and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silicon (Si) can alleviate salinity damage, a major threat to agriculture that causes instability in wheat production. We report on the effects of silicon (150 mg L-1) on the morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) differing ...

  3. Genetic analyses using GGE model and a mixed linear model approach, and stability analyses using AMMI bi-plot for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in bread wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2017-06-01

    Low falling number and discounting grain when it is downgraded in class are the consequences of excessive late-maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Grain expressing high LMAA produces poorer quality bread products. To effectively breed for low LMAA, it is necessary to understand what genes control it and how they are expressed, particularly when genotypes are grown in different environments. In this study, an International Collection (IC) of 18 spring wheat genotypes and another set of 15 spring wheat cultivars adapted to South Dakota (SD), USA were assessed to characterize the genetic component of LMAA over 5 and 13 environments, respectively. The data were analysed using a GGE model with a mixed linear model approach and stability analysis was presented using an AMMI bi-plot on R software. All estimated variance components and their proportions to the total phenotypic variance were highly significant for both sets of genotypes, which were validated by the AMMI model analysis. Broad-sense heritability for LMAA was higher in SD adapted cultivars (53%) compared to that in IC (49%). Significant genetic effects and stability analyses showed some genotypes, e.g. 'Lancer', 'Chester' and 'LoSprout' from IC, and 'Alsen', 'Traverse' and 'Forefront' from SD cultivars could be used as parents to develop new cultivars expressing low levels of LMAA. Stability analysis using an AMMI bi-plot revealed that 'Chester', 'Lancer' and 'Advance' were the most stable across environments, while in contrast, 'Kinsman', 'Lerma52' and 'Traverse' exhibited the lowest stability for LMAA across environments.

  4. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  5. CD 121 - cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    OpenAIRE

    Marchioro, Volmir Sergio; Franco, Francisco de Assis; Dalla Nora, Tatiane; Schuster, Ivan; Evangelista, Adriel; Lima, Fábio Junior Alcântara de; Polo, Mateus

    2013-01-01

    CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR, SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yield of 3.622 kg ha-1.

  6. CD 121 - Cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR,SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yieldof 3.622 kg ha-1.

  7. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  8. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  9. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify wheat on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  10. The effect of feeding wheat varieties with different grain pigmentation on growth performance, texture, colour and meat sensory traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šťastník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding effect of of three spring wheat genotypes (Vánek, Konini and UC66049 with different grain colour on growth performance, body composition and meat quality parameters of broiler chickens was tested. Ninety chickens were divided into three groups (control, Konini and UC with 30 chickens in each. The tested genotypes were compares with standard variety Vánek (control with common (red grain colour. The two experimental groups received feed mixtures containing 38.2% of wheats with different grain colour: groups Konini (n = 30 and UC (n = 30 with. The third group (n = 30 had 38.2% of common wheat Vánek cultivar (Control group. The live weight of chickens between the experimental groups and control group was not significant different, as well as body composition and chemical analysis of breast and thigh meat of chickens. The feeding of wheat with different grain colour had no effect on performance parameters of broiler chickens. Breast meat tenderness according to the Razor Blade Shear Force was higher in control group against experimental groups. The colour change was not significantly different in all coordinates. pH values (measured after 1-hour post mortem were found significantly higher in the group fattening with Konini wheat than control and UC groups. Chickens meat from the experimental group was characterised by steady overall quality. The effect of various feeding had no effect on meat quality in terms of relevance to consumers.

  11. Exploiting a wheat EST database to assess genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Gurel, Filiz; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2010-10-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) markers have been used to assess variety and genetic diversity in wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, 1549 ESTs from wheat infested with yellow rust were used to examine the genetic diversity of six susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. The aim of using these cultivars was to improve the competitiveness of public wheat breeding programs through the intensive use of modern, particularly marker-assisted, selection technologies. The F(2) individuals derived from cultivar crosses were screened for resistance to yellow rust at the seedling stage in greenhouses and adult stage in the field to identify DNA markers genetically linked to resistance. Five hundred and sixty ESTs were assembled into 136 contigs and 989 singletons. BlastX search results showed that 39 (29%) contigs and 96 (10%) singletons were homologous to wheat genes. The database-matched contigs and singletons were assigned to eight functional groups related to protein synthesis, photosynthesis, metabolism and energy, stress proteins, transporter proteins, protein breakdown and recycling, cell growth and division and reactive oxygen scavengers. PCR analyses with primers based on the contigs and singletons showed that the most polymorphic functional categories were photosynthesis (contigs) and metabolism and energy (singletons). EST analysis revealed considerable genetic variability among the Turkish wheat cultivars resistant and susceptible to yellow rust disease and allowed calculation of the mean genetic distance between cultivars, with the greatest similarity (0.725) being between Harmankaya99 and Sönmez2001, and the lowest (0.622) between Aytin98 and Izgi01.

  12. Influence of nitrogen source and concentrations on wheat growth and production inside "Lunar Palace-1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Chu, Zhengpei; Wang, Minjuan; Qin, Youcai; Yi, Zhihao; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

    2018-03-01

    Minimizing nitrogen (N) consumption and maximizing crop productivity are major challenges to growing plants in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) for future long-term space mission. Plants cultivated in the controlled environments are sensitive to the low recyclable N (such as from the urine). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer (NH4+-N and NO3--N) disturbance on growth, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidant defence systems and biomass yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars during ontogenesis. Experiments were divided into 4 controlled groups,Ⅰ: NO3--N: NH4+-N = 7:1 mmol L-1; Ⅱ: NO3--N: NH4+-N = 14:0.5 mmol L-1; Ⅲ: NO3--N: NH4+-N = 7:0.5 mmol L-1 and CK: NO3--N: NH4+-N = 14:1 mmol L-1, and other salt concentrations were the same. The results showed that heading and flowering stages in spring wheat are sensitive to low N concentration, especially NO3--N in group Ⅰ and Ⅲ. NO3- is better to root growth than to shoot growth. The plants were spindling and the output was lower 21.3% when spring wheat was in low N concentration solution. Meanwhile, photosynthetic rate of low N concentrations is worse than that of CK. The soluble sugar content of the edible part of wheat plants is influenced with NO3-: NH4+ ratio. In addition, when N concentration was lowest in group Ⅲ, the lignin content decreased to 2.58%, which was more beneficial to recycle substances in the processes of the environment regeneration.

  13. Evolutionary agroecology: individual fitness and population yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jacob; Du, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Cong; Qin, Xiao-Liang; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-09-01

    Although the importance of group selection in nature is highly controversial, several researchers have argued that plant breeding for agriculture should be based on group selection, because the goal in agriculture is to optimize population production, not individual fitness. A core hypothesis behind this claim is that crop genotypes with the highest individual fitness in a mixture of genotypes will not produce the highest population yield, because fitness is often increased by "selfish" behaviors, which reduce population performance. We tested this hypothesis by growing 35 cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in mixtures and monocultures, and analyzing the relationship between population yield in monoculture and individual yield in mixture. The relationship was unimodal, as predicted. The highest-yielding populations were from cultivars that had intermediate fitness, and these produced, on average, 35% higher yields than cultivars with the highest fitness. It is unlikely that plant breeding or genetic engineering can improve traits that natural selection has been optimizing for millions of years, but there is unutilized potential in traits that increase crop yield by decreasing individual fitness. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M [Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt). Soil and Water Dept.

    1996-07-01

    Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m{sup 2}, and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs.

  15. Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1996-01-01

    Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m 2 , and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  17. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  18. Sensitivity of European wheat to extreme weather

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mäkinen, H.; Kaseva, J.; Trnka, Miroslav; Balek, Jan; Kersebaum, K. C.; Nendel, C.; Gobin, A.; Olesen, J. E.; Bindi, M.; Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Takáč, J.; Bezák, P.; Ventrella, D.; Ruget, F.; Capellades, G.; Kahiluoto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 222, jun (2018), s. 209-217 ISSN 0378-4290 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe(CZ) QJ1610072 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Climate change * Cultivar * European wheat * Extreme * Weather * Yield response Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2016

  19. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  20. Effect of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and the yield components in Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yankov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute on slightly leached chernozem soil. In order to clarify the effect of some types of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and certain yield components, the following variants of a stationary field experiment were analyzed: double disking at depth 10-12 cm (check variant; ploughing at 14-16 cm + disking; no-tillage (direct sowing – pre-sowing treatment of the area with total herbicides. Wheat was sown after previous crop grain maize and was fertilized with N P K . Wheat cultivar Enola was planted at norm 550 germinating 140 120 80 2 seeds/m . The number of emerging wheat plants was read using square sampling frames sized 50 cm x 50 cm. Using the same sampling frames, the tillering in autumn prior to the wintering of the crops was followed, and in spring – prior to booting stage. The number of productive tillers was also read using these sampling frames. To determine the length of spike, the number of grains in it, and their weight, 30 spikes from 8 replications of each variant were analyzed. The emerging of the wheat plants, under the conditions of slightly leached chernozem soil in Dobrudzha region, was more uniform after sowing following disking, and after direct sowing. The minimal pre-sowing tillage and no-tillage for wheat ensured better autumn development of the crop and the plants. In these variants, higher number of overwintering plants and productive tillers per unit area were registered. Spike length was the highest after ploughing as pre-sowing tillage. Significant variations in the number of grains per spike of the investigated variants were not found. Grain weight per spike was the lowest under direct sowing.

  1. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  2. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  3. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Budak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum and durum wheat (Triticum durum and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides, which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  4. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses cau