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Sample records for sprayable low-density foams

  1. Molded ultra-low density microcellular foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

    1986-07-01

    Ultra-low density (< 0.01 g/cc) microcellular foams were required for the NARYA pulsed-power-driven x-ray laser development program. Because of their extreme fragility, molded pieces would be necessary to successfully field these foams in the pulsed power accelerator. All of the foams evaluated were made by the thermally induced phase separation technique from solutions of water soluble polymers. The process involved rapidly freezing the solution to induce the phase separation, and then freeze drying to remove the water without destroying the foam's structure. More than sixty water soluble polymers were evaluated by attempting to make their solutions into foams. The foams were evaluated for shrinkage, density, and microstructure to determine their suitability for molding and meeting the required density and cell size requirements of 5.0 mg/cc and less than twenty μmeters. Several promising water soluble polymers were identified including the polyactylic acids, guar gums, polyactylamide, and polyethylene oxide. Because of thier purity, structure, and low shrinkage, the polyacrylic acids were chosen to develop molding processes. The initial requirements were for 2.0 cm. long molded rods with diameters of 1.0, 2.0. and 3.0 mm. These rods were made by freezing the solution in thin walled silicon rubber molds, extracting the frozen preform from the mold, and then freeze drying. Requirements for half rods and half annuli necessitated using aluminum molds. Again we successfully molded these shapes. Our best efforts to date involve molding annuli with 3.0 mm outside diameters and 2.0 mm inside diameters

  2. Low-density carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, F.M.; Buckley, S.R.; Giles, C.L. Jr.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Letts, S.A.; Overturf, G.E. III; Price, C.W.; Cook, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents research and development on resorcinol- formaldehyde-based foam materials conducted between 1986 and June 1990, when the effort was discontinued. The foams discussed are resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) foam, carbonized RF (CRF) foam, and two composite foams, a polystyrene/RF (PS/RF) foam and its carbonized derivative (CPR). The RF foams are synthesized by the polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde in a slightly basic solution. Their structure and density depend strongly on the concentration of the sodium carbonate catalyst. The have an interconnected bead structure similar to that of silica aerogels; bead sizes range from 30 to 130 Angstrom, and cell sizes are less than 0.1 μm. We have achieved densities of 16 to 200 mg/cm 3 . The RF foams can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a vitreous carbon foam (CRF), which has a similar microstructure but much higher mechanical strength. The PS/RF foams are obtained by filling the 2- to 3-μm cells of PS foam (a low-density hydrocarbon foam we have developed) with RF. The resultant foams have the outstanding handling and machinability of the PS foam matrix and the small cell size of RF. Pyrolyzing PS/RF foams causes depolymerization and loss of the PS; the resulting CPR foams have a structure similar to the PS foams in which CRF both replicates and fills the PS cells

  3. Simulated Tip Rub Testing of Low-Density Metal Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jones, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary acoustic studies have indicated that low-density, open-cell, metal foams may be suitable acoustic liner material for noise suppression in high by-pass engines. Metal foam response under simulated tip rub conditions was studied to assess whether its durability would be sufficient for the foam to serve both as a rub strip above the rotor as well as an acoustic treatment. Samples represented four metal alloys, nominal cell dimensions ranging from 60 to 120 cells per inch (cpi), and relative densities ranging from 3.4 to 10 percent. The resulting rubbed surfaces were relatively smooth and the open cell structure of the foam was not adversely affected. Sample relative density appeared to have significant influence on the forces induced by the rub event. Acoustic responses of various surface preparations were measured using a normal incidence tube. The results of this study indicate that the foam s open-cell structure was retained after rubbing and that the acoustic absorption spectra variation was minimal.

  4. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  5. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Fracture behavior of low-density replicated aluminum alloy foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, E.; Goodall, R.; Mortensen, A.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on replicated aluminum alloy foams of relative density between 4.5% and 8%. During the test the electrical resistance was measured with a four-point set-up and the displacements along the gage section were measured using a digital image correlation (DIC) technique.

  7. Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

  8. Low-density carbonized composite foams for direct-drive laser ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Fung-Ming.

    1989-03-01

    The design for a direct-drive, high-gain laser inertial confinement fusion target calls for the use of a low-density, low-atomic-number foam to confine and stabilize liquid deuterium-tritium (DT) in a spherical-shell configuration. Over the past two years, we have successfully developed polystyrene foams (PS) and carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams (CRF) for that purpose. Both candidates are promising materials with unique characteristics. PS has superior mechanical strength and machinability, but its relatively large thermal contraction is a significant disadvantage. CRF has outstanding wettability and dimensional stability in liquid DT; yet it is much more fragile than PS. To combine the strengths of both materials, we have recently developed a polymer composite foam which exceeds PS in mechanical strength, but retains the wettability and dimension stability of CRF. This paper will discuss the preparation, structure, and properties of the polymer composite foams. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Reversed preparation of low-density poly(divinylbenzene/styrene) foam columns coated with gold films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yinhai; Wang, Ni; Li, Yaling; Yao, Mengqi; Gan, Haibo; Hu, Wencheng, E-mail: huwc@uestc.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A reversed fabrication of low density foam columns coated with gold films was proposed. • The uniformity in thickness and purity of gold film are easy to be controlled. • A compact layer is prepared through an electrophoretic deposition method. • A low density (12 mg/cc) foam column coated with gold film is obtained. - Abstract: This work aims to fabricate low-density, porous, non-conductive, structural poly(divinylbenzene/styrene) foam columns by high-internal-phase emulsion templating. We prepare these non-conductive foam columns coated with a thin gold layer by electrochemical deposition and the reversed preparation technique. As expected, the density of the foam obtained through this novel method was about 12 mg cm{sup −3}, and the thickness of the gold coating was about 3 μm. We performed field emission scanning electron microscopy to morphologically and microstructurally characterize the products and X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy to determine the composition of the gold coating.

  10. Ultra low density biodegradable shape memory polymer foams with tunable physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Pooja; Wilson, Thomas S.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2017-12-12

    Compositions and/or structures of degradable shape memory polymers (SMPs) ranging in form from neat/unfoamed to ultra low density materials of down to 0.005 g/cc density. These materials show controllable degradation rate, actuation temperature and breadth of transitions along with high modulus and excellent shape memory behavior. A method of m ly low density foams (up to 0.005 g/cc) via use of combined chemical and physical aking extreme blowing agents, where the physical blowing agents may be a single compound or mixtures of two or more compounds, and other related methods, including of using multiple co-blowing agents of successively higher boiling points in order to achieve a large range of densities for a fixed net chemical composition. Methods of optimization of the physical properties of the foams such as porosity, cell size and distribution, cell openness etc. of these materials, to further expand their uses and improve their performance.

  11. Thermo-mechanical characterisation of low density carbon foams and composite materials for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Isaac, Bonad

    As a result of the need to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN-Geneva by 2020, the ATLAS detector requires an upgraded inner tracker. Up- grading the ATLAS experiment is essential due to higher radiation levels and high particle occupancies. The design of this improved inner tracker detector involves development of silicon sensors and their support structures. These support structures need to have well un- derstood thermal properties and be dimensionally stable in order to allow efficient cooling of the silicon and accurate track reconstruction. The work presented in this thesis is an in- vestigation which aims to qualitatively characterise the thermal and mechanical properties of the materials involved in the design of the inner tracker of the ATLAS upgrade. These materials are silicon carbide foam (SiC foam), low density carbon foams such as PocoFoam and Allcomp foam, Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite (TPG), carbon/carbon and Carbon Fibre Re- inforced Polymer (CFRP). The work involve...

  12. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, Pooja [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a rapidly emerging class of smart materials that can be stored in a deformed temporary shape, and can actively return to their original shape upon application of an external stimulus such as heat, pH or light. This behavior is particularly advantageous for minimally invasive biomedical applications comprising embolic/regenerative scaffolds, as it enables a transcatheter delivery of the device to the target site. The focus of this work was to exploit this shape memory behavior of polyurethanes, and develop an efficient embolic SMP foam device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.In summary, this work reports a novel family of ultra low density polymer foams which can be delivered via a minimally invasive surgery to the aneurysm site, actuated in a controlled manner to efficiently embolize the aneurysm while promoting physiological fluid/blood flow through the reticulated/open porous structure, and eventually biodegrade leading to complete healing of the vasculature.

  13. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis

  14. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: hayoung@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Doo [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Suk-Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Hyuk [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Hyun [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Zabel, Brian A. [Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bae, Yoe-Sik, E-mail: yoesik@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  15. Fabrication of a Low Density Carbon Fiber Foam and Its Characterization as a Strain Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia C. Luhrs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of carbon nano-fiber foam (CFF, essentially a 3D solid mat of intertwined nanofibers of pure carbon, were grown using the Constrained Formation of Fibrous Nanostructures (CoFFiN process in a steel mold at 550 °C from a palladium particle catalysts exposed to fuel rich mixtures of ethylene and oxygen. The resulting material was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX, Surface area analysis (BET, and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. Transient and dynamic mechanical tests clearly demonstrated that the material is viscoelastic. Concomitant mechanical and electrical testing of samples revealed the material to have electrical properties appropriate for application as the sensing element of a strain gauge. The sample resistance versus strain values stabilize after a few compression cycles to show a perfectly linear relationship. Study of microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of the low density samples confirm the uniqueness of the material: It is formed entirely of independent fibers of diverse diameters that interlock forming a tridimensional body that can be grown into different shapes and sizes at moderate temperatures. It regains its shape after loads are removed, is light weight, presents viscoelastic behavior, thermal stability up to 550 °C, hydrophobicity, and is electrically conductive.

  16. Fabrication of a Low Density Carbon Fiber Foam and Its Characterization as a Strain Gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhrs, Claudia C; Daskam, Chris D; Gonzalez, Edwin; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-05-08

    Samples of carbon nano-fiber foam (CFF), essentially a 3D solid mat of intertwined nanofibers of pure carbon, were grown using the Constrained Formation of Fibrous Nanostructures (CoFFiN) process in a steel mold at 550 °C from a palladium particle catalysts exposed to fuel rich mixtures of ethylene and oxygen. The resulting material was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Surface area analysis (BET), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Transient and dynamic mechanical tests clearly demonstrated that the material is viscoelastic. Concomitant mechanical and electrical testing of samples revealed the material to have electrical properties appropriate for application as the sensing element of a strain gauge. The sample resistance v ers us strain values stabilize after a few compression cycles to show a perfectly linear relationship. Study of microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of the low density samples confirm the uniqueness of the material: It is formed entirely of independent fibers of diverse diameters that interlock forming a tridimensional body that can be grown into different shapes and sizes at moderate temperatures. It regains its shape after loads are removed, is light weight, presents viscoelastic behavior, thermal stability up to 550 °C, hydrophobicity, and is electrically conductive.

  17. Encapsulation of low density plastic foam materials for the fast ignition realization experiment (FIREX). Control of microstructure and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Keiji; Yang, H.; Iwamoto, A.

    2008-10-01

    Development of foam capsule fabrication for cryogenically cooled fuel targets is overviewed in the present paper. The fabrication development was initiated as a part of the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) Project at the ILE, Osaka University in the way of bilateral collaboration between Osaka University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). A foam cryogenic target was designed where low-density foam shells with a conical light guide will be cooled down to the cryogenic temperature and will be fueled through a narrow pipe. The required diameter and thickness of the capsule are 500 μm and 20 μm, respectively. The material should be low-density plastics foam. We have prepared such capsules using 1) mixtureing a new material of (phloroglucinolcarboxylic acid)/formalin (PF) linear polymer to control kinematic viscosity of the precursor, 2) phase-transfer-catalyzed gelation process to keep density matching of three phases of the emulsion. 3) non-volatile silicone oil as outer oil of emulsion in order to prevent hazard halogenated hydrocarbon and flammable mineral oil. The obtained foam capsule had fine structure of 180 nm (outer surface) to 220 nm (inner surface) and uniform thickness reaching to resolution limit of optical analysis (∼0.5 μm). A small hole was made before the solvent exchange and the drying process to prevent distortion due to volume changes. The density of dried foam was 0.29 g/cm 3 . After attaching the petawatt laser guiding cone and fueling glass tube, poly([2,2]paracyclophane) was coated on the foam surface and supplied for a fueling test of cryogenic hydrogen. Generally, lower density is from larger pore, then precise control of thickness and its encapsulation becomes more difficult. We have clarified the relation between pore size and preparation conditions using several precursor materials, and revealed how to control pore size of low density foams, where the solvent affinity for the polymer chain plays fundamental

  18. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Cook, R.C.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Kong, F.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    We describe progress made during 1986 in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser fusion. The foam materials are polystyrene and resorcinolformaldehyde. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationships of their properties to target specifications are presented. In the final section, we discuss statistical experimental design techniques that are being used to optimize the foams. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Characterization of low density carbon foams by x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ion microtomography (IMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moddeman, W.E.; Kramer, D.P.; Firsich, D.W.; Trainer, P.D.; Yancy, R.N.; Weirup, D.L.; Logan, C.M.; Pontau, A.E.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Two NDT techniques were used to characterize low-density, microcellular, carbon foams fabricated from a salt replica process. In this paper the two techniques are x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ion microtomography (IMT); data are presented on carbon foams that contain high-density regions. The data show that densities which differ by 3 ) materials. The data reveal that the carbon foams produced by this replica process have small density variations; the density being ∼30% greater at the outer edges than when compared to the interior of the foam. In addition, the density gradient is found to be rather sharp, that is the density drops-off rapidly from the outer edges to a uniform one in the interior of the foam. This edge build-up in carbon density was explained in terms of polymer concentrating on the foam exterior during drying which immediately followed a polymer infusion processing step. Supporting analytical data from other techniques show the foam material to be >88.8% carbon

  20. Direct Laser Writing of Low-Density Interdigitated Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping [Direct Laser Writing of Low Density Nanostitched Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakdale, James S.; Smith, Raymond F.; Forien, Jean-Baptiste; Smith, William L.; Ali, Suzanne J.

    2017-01-01

    Monolithic porous bulk materials have many promising applications ranging from energy storage and catalysis to high energy density physics. High resolution additive manufacturing techniques, such as direct laser writing via two photon polymerization (DLW-TPP), now enable the fabrication of highly porous microlattices with deterministic morphology control. In this work, DLW-TPP is used to print millimeter-sized foam reservoirs (down to 0.06 g cm –3 ) with tailored density-gradient profiles, where density is varied by over an order of magnitude (for instance from 0.6 to 0.06 g cm –3 ) along a length of <100 µm. Taking full advantage of this technology, however, is a multiscale materials design problem that requires detailed understanding of how the different length scales, from the molecular level to the macroscopic dimensions, affect each other. The design of these 3D-printed foams is based on the brickwork arrangement of 100 × 100 × 16 µm 3 log-pile blocks constructed from sub-micrometer scale features. A block-to-block interdigitated stitching strategy is introduced for obtaining high density uniformity at all length scales. Lastly, these materials are used to shape plasma-piston drives during ramp-compression of targets under high energy density conditions created at the OMEGA Laser Facility.

  1. Synthesis of low density foam shells for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattaud, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the fabrication process of low density foam shells and the sharp control of their shape (diameter, thickness, density, sphericity, non-concentricity). During this PhD we focused on the non-concentricity criterion which has to be lower than 1%. The shells are synthesized using a microencapsulation process leading to a double emulsion and followed by a thermal polymerization at 60 C. According to the literature, three major parameters, the density of the three phases, the deformations of the shells along the process and the kinetics of the polymerization have a direct influence on the shells non-concentricity. The results obtained showed that when the density gap between the internal water phase and the organic phase increases, the TMPTMA shells non-concentricity improves. A density gap of 0.078 g.cm -3 at 60 C, leads to an average non-concentricity of 2.4% with a yield of shells of 58%. It was also shown that the synthesis process can be considered as reproducible. While using the same internal water phase, equivalent non-concentricity results are obtained using either a straight tube, a tube with areas of constriction or a short wound tube. The time required to fix the shell's shape is at least 20 minutes with thermal polymerization. So, it seems that the time spent by the shells inside the rotating flask allows the centering of the internal water phase inside the organic phase, whatever the circulation process used. In order to get higher polymerization rates and to avoid destabilization phenomena, we then focused our study on photo polymerization. When the synthesis is performed using a UV lamp with an efficient light intensity, the shells have a slightly higher thickness than the shells synthesized by thermal polymerization. Moreover, a really higher yield, around 80%, is achieved with UV polymerization. However, the average non-concentricity of the shells synthesized lays around 20%, which is really high compared to the 2.4% average

  2. Floating matrix tablets based on low density foam powder: effects of formulation and processing parameters on drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, A; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and physicochemically characterize single unit, floating controlled drug delivery systems consisting of (i). polypropylene foam powder, (ii). matrix-forming polymer(s), (iii). drug, and (iv). filler (optional). The highly porous foam powder provided low density and, thus, excellent in vitro floating behavior of the tablets. All foam powder-containing tablets remained floating for at least 8 h in 0.1 N HCl at 37 degrees C. Different types of matrix-forming polymers were studied: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), polyacrylates, sodium alginate, corn starch, carrageenan, gum guar and gum arabic. The tablets eroded upon contact with the release medium, and the relative importance of drug diffusion, polymer swelling and tablet erosion for the resulting release patterns varied significantly with the type of matrix former. The release rate could effectively be modified by varying the "matrix-forming polymer/foam powder" ratio, the initial drug loading, the tablet geometry (radius and height), the type of matrix-forming polymer, the use of polymer blends and the addition of water-soluble or water-insoluble fillers (such as lactose or microcrystalline cellulose). The floating behavior of the low density drug delivery systems could successfully be combined with accurate control of the drug release patterns.

  3. On the Feasibility of Very-Low-Density Pure Metal Foams as Bright High-Energy X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jeffrey; Felter, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    We have used the Busquet approximation (M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5(11), 4191 (1993)) to explore calculationally what the possible x-ray conversion efficiencies into the K-band would be from irradiating very-low-density pure metal foams with tens of kilojoules of 1/3-micron laser light. We will discuss the advantages of pure metal foams as bright high-energy x-ray sources, and some results of this calculational study. We will also present our ideas for how to fabricate pure metal foams with densities of a few milligrams per cubic centimeter. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  4. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendler, B.L.; Buckley, S.R.; Chen, C.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes progress made in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser inertial confinement fusion during 1987. The foam materials are polystyrene, resorcinol-formaldehyde, carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationship of their properties to target specifications are presented. Progress in the creation and testing of prototype targets is also described

  5. Heating of low-density CHO-foam layers by means of soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, O.N., E-mail: o.rosmej@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 164291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V.; Eisenbarth, U. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 164291 Darmstadt (Germany); Vatulin, V.; Zhidkov, N.; Suslov, N.; Kunin, A.; Pinegin, A. [All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, RFNC-VNIIEF, Mira St. 37, Sarov (Russian Federation); Schaefer, D.; Nisius, Th.; Wilhein, Th. [RheinAhrCampus Remagen, Institute for X-optics, Suedallee 2, 53424 Remagen (Germany); Rienecker, T.; Wiechula, J.; Jacoby, J. [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Zhao, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Nanchang Road 509, 730000 Lanzhou (China); Vergunova, G.; Borisenko, N. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospekt, 65 Moscow (Russian Federation); Orlov, N. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Institute for High Energy Density, Izhorskaya. 13, building 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-11

    Interaction of soft X-ray thermal radiation with polymer foam layers has been studied experimentally. Indirectly heated CHO-foams were used to create a plasma target for applications in combined heavy ion beam-laser experiments that are aimed at investigation of the heavy ion energy loss in ionized matter. In this work, we report experimental results on heating of low Z foams by means of the Planckian radiation generated in gold hohlraums. The experimental goal was to study the hohlraum radiation field, duration of the soft X-ray pulse, the conversion efficiency of the laser energy into soft X-rays, measurements of the absorption properties of foam layers and parameters of the foam targets heated by the Plankian radiation.

  6. Heating of low-density CHO-foam layers by means of soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, O.N.; Bagnoud, V.; Eisenbarth, U.; Vatulin, V.; Zhidkov, N.; Suslov, N.; Kunin, A.; Pinegin, A.; Schaefer, D.; Nisius, Th.; Wilhein, Th.; Rienecker, T.; Wiechula, J.; Jacoby, J.; Zhao, Y.; Vergunova, G.; Borisenko, N.; Orlov, N.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of soft X-ray thermal radiation with polymer foam layers has been studied experimentally. Indirectly heated CHO-foams were used to create a plasma target for applications in combined heavy ion beam-laser experiments that are aimed at investigation of the heavy ion energy loss in ionized matter. In this work, we report experimental results on heating of low Z foams by means of the Planckian radiation generated in gold hohlraums. The experimental goal was to study the hohlraum radiation field, duration of the soft X-ray pulse, the conversion efficiency of the laser energy into soft X-rays, measurements of the absorption properties of foam layers and parameters of the foam targets heated by the Plankian radiation.

  7. A multi-wavelength, high-contrast contact radiography system for the study of low-density aerogel foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Koch, J. A.; Haugh, M. J.; Romano, E.; Lee, J. J.; Huffman, E.; Weber, F. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bowers, J. W. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Benedetti, L. R.; Wilson, M.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Baumann, T. F.; Lenhardt, J. M.; Cook, A.; Arsenlis, A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    A multi-wavelength, high contrast contact radiography system has been developed to characterize density variations in ultra-low density aerogel foams. These foams are used to generate a ramped pressure drive in materials strength experiments at the National Ignition Facility and require precision characterization in order to reduce errors in measurements. The system was used to characterize density variations in carbon and silicon based aerogels to ∼10.3% accuracy with ∼30 μm spatial resolution. The system description, performance, and measurement results collected using a 17.8 mg/cc carbon based JX–6 (C{sub 20}H{sub 30}) aerogel are discussed in this manuscript.

  8. Progress in development of low density polymer foams for the ICF Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Lucht, L.M.; Morgan, R.J.; Cook, R.C.; Tillotson, T.M.; Mercer, M.B.; Miller, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the status of CH foam development with densities of 50 mg/ccs and cell sizes of 1 μm for the ICF Program. Two approaches that both involve polymer phase separation are being investigated. The first involves a gelation-crystallization of high molecular weight polyethylene from solution, whereas the second approach involves the modification of the phase separation morphology of water-styrene emulsions by molecularly-tailored surfactants followed by polymerization of the continuous styrene phase

  9. The hydrodynamic and radiative properties of low-density foams heated by x-rays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosmej, O. N.; Suslov, N.; Martsovenko, D.; Vergunova, G.; Borisenko, N.; Orlov, N.; Rienecker, T.; Klír, Daniel; Řezáč, Karel; Orekhov, A.; Borisenko, L.; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Dudžák, Roman; Maeder, R.; Schaechinger, M.; Schoenlein, A.; Zaehter, S.; Jacoby, J.; Limpouch, J.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Zhidkov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2015), č. článku 094001. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029; GA MŠk LM2010014 Grant - others:FP7(XE) 284464 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : hohlraum * low density polymer aerogel * opacity * Planckian radiation * plasma * x-rays Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/57/9/094001;jsessionid=E4079D2364DFCC5CA64FBF3B9F73D180.c2.iopscience.cld.iop.org

  10. Fluid-Phase Pinocytosis of Native Low Density Lipoprotein Promotes Murine M-CSF Differentiated Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P.; Kruth, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR−/− macrophages with increasing concentrations of 125I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on 125I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect 125I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR−/− mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  11. Development of the fabrication of ultra-low density ploy (4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams by thermal induced phase-inversion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Wang Chaoyang; Luo Xuan; Du Kai; Tu Haiyan; Fan Hong; Luo Qing; Yuan Guanghui; Huang Lizhen

    2003-01-01

    By thermally induced phase-inversion technique, ploy (4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams are successfully prepared; the density and pore size are 3-80 mg/cm 3 and 1-20 μm respectively. Durene/naphthalene (60/40) is confirmed as the suitable solvent/nonsolvent binary system. The PMP's thermal properties are characterized by TG-DSC system. It is found that the foams thermal properties depend on the density. The thermal analysis method is utilized to measure the gelation of PMP in the binary solvent/nonsolvent system. The range of gelation temperature is preliminarily determined. The influence of mixture system composition and the cooling rate during the making of foams is discussed. TG-DSC is applied to determine the thermal properties of low-density PMP foams prepared in the laboratory. And the effect of density change on the thermal stability of foams are studied. The thermal analysis data play a great role in improving the foam quality. (authors)

  12. Low density lipoprotein labelling characterizes experimentally induced atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits in vivo as to presence of foam cells and endothelial coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgolini, I.; Sinzinger, H.; Angelberger, P.; O'Grady, J.

    1991-01-01

    The entry of autologous iodine 125 low density lipoprotein ( 125 I-LDL) into the aortic wall in rabbits was measured. After abdominal endothelium abrasion with a Fogarthy catheter the animals were fed at 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. The animals were killed 1-48 h after administration of 25 μCi 125 I-LDL. Local entry of radiolabelled LDL was estimated and correlated to endothelial surface lining and foam cell content, both controlled morphologically. Endothelialized segments showed the lowest entry of 125 I-LDL, the maximum uptake was reached at around 8 h. In de-endothelialized segments the entry was higher and the peak later (12 h), while in re-endothelialized segments a continuous increase in 125 I-LDL entry up to 48 h was measured. Number and extent of foam cells correlated with the entry of LDL. The data indicate the usefulnes of LDL radiolabelling for qualitative in vivo information on surface lining and foam cell content. (orig.)

  13. Sprayable Aerogel Bead Compositions With High Shear Flow Resistance and High Thermal Insulation Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Danny; Trifu, Roxana; Caggiano, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    A sprayable aerogel insulation has been developed that has good mechanical integrity and lower thermal conductivity than incumbent polyurethane spray-on foam insulation, at similar or lower areal densities, to prevent insulation cracking and debonding in an effort to eliminate the generation of inflight debris. This new, lightweight aerogel under bead form can be used as insulation in various thermal management systems that require low mass and volume, such as cryogenic storage tanks, pipelines, space platforms, and launch vehicles.

  14. Continued Optimization of Low-Density Foam-Reinforced Ablatives for High-Velocity, High Heat Flux Earth Return Missions,, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In previous work for NASA, Ultramet and ARA Ablatives Laboratory developed and demonstrated advanced foam-reinforced carbon/phenolic ablators that offer...

  15. Implosion dynamics of a megampere wire-array Z-pinch with an inner low-density foam shell at the Angara-5-1 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Bolkhovitinov, E. A.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Oleinik, G. M.; Rupasov, A. A.; Frolov, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The implosion dynamics of a pinch with a highly inhomogeneous initial axial distribution of the load mass was studied experimentally. A cascade array consisting of a double nested tungsten wire array and a coaxial inner cylindrical shell located symmetrically with respect to the high-voltage electrodes was used as a load of the Angara-5-1 high-current generator. The cylindrical foam shell was half as long as the cathode− anode gap, and its diameter was equal to the diameter of the inner wire array. It is shown experimentally that two stages are typical of the implosion dynamics of such a load: the formation of two separate pinches formed as a result of implosion of the wire array near the cathode and anode and the subsequent implosion of the central part of the load containing the cylindrical foam shell. The conditions are determined at which the implosion of the central part of the pinch with the foam cylinder is preceded by intense irradiation of the foam with the soft X-ray (SXR) emission generated by the near-electrode pinches and converting it into the plasma state. Using such a load, which models the main elements of the scheme of a dynamic hohlraum for inertial confinement fusion, it is possible to increase the efficiency of interaction between the outer accelerated plasma sheath and the inner foam shell by preionizing the foam with the SXR emission of the near-electrode pinches.

  16. Low Density Supersonic Decelerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...

  17. Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks (STICT) is a thermal management system applied by either an automated or manual spraying process with less...

  18. Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation addressed in this proposal is Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks, or STICT. This novel system could be applied in either an automated or...

  19. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  20. Sprayable Phase Change Coating Thermal Protection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rod W.; Hayes, Paul W.; Kaul, Raj

    2005-01-01

    NASA has expressed a need for reusable, environmentally friendly, phase change coating that is capable of withstanding the heat loads that have historically required an ablative thermal insulation. The Space Shuttle Program currently relies on ablative materials for thermal protection. The problem with an ablative insulation is that, by design, the material ablates away, in fulfilling its function of cooling the underlying substrate, thus preventing the insulation from being reused from flight to flight. The present generation of environmentally friendly, sprayable, ablative thermal insulation (MCC-l); currently use on the Space Shuttle SRBs, is very close to being a reusable insulation system. In actual flight conditions, as confirmed by the post-flight inspections of the SRBs, very little of the material ablates. Multi-flight thermal insulation use has not been qualified for the Space Shuttle. The gap that would have to be overcome in order to implement a reusable Phase Change Coating (PCC) is not unmanageable. PCC could be applied robotically with a spray process utilizing phase change material as filler to yield material of even higher strength and reliability as compared to MCC-1. The PCC filled coatings have also demonstrated potential as cryogenic thermal coatings. In experimental thermal tests, a thin application of PCC has provided the same thermal protection as a much thicker and heavier application of a traditional ablative thermal insulation. In addition, tests have shown that the structural integrity of the coating has been maintained and phase change performance after several aero-thermal cycles was not affected. Experimental tests have also shown that, unlike traditional ablative thermal insulations, PCC would not require an environmental seal coat, which has historically been required to prevent moisture absorption by the thermal insulation, prevent environmental degradation, and to improve the optical and aerodynamic properties. In order to reduce

  1. Foam Glass for Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund

    2016-01-01

    Foaming is commonly achieved by adding foaming agents such as metal oxides or metal carbonates to glass powder. At elevated temperature, the glass melt becomes viscous and the foaming agents decompose or react to form gas, causing a foamy glass melt. Subsequent cooling to room temperature, result...... in a solid foam glass. The foam glass industry employs a range of different melt precursors and foaming agents. Recycle glass is key melt precursors. Many parameters influence the foaming process and optimising the foaming conditions is very time consuming. The most challenging and attractive goal is to make...... low density foam glass for thermal insulation applications. In this thesis, it is argued that the use of metal carbonates as foaming agents is not suitable for low density foam glass. A reaction mechanism is proposed to justify this result. Furthermore, an in situ method is developed to optimise...

  2. Production of lightweight foam glass (invited talk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass production allows low cost recycling of postconsumer glass and industrial waste materials as foaming agent or as melt resource. Foam glass is commonly produced by utilising milled glass mixed with a foaming agent. The powder mixture is heat-treated to around 10^3.7 – 10^6 Pa s, which...... result in viscous sintering and subsequent foaming of the glass melt. The porous glass melt is cooled down to room temperature to freeze-in the foam structure. The resulting foam glass is applied in constructions as a light weight material to reduce load bearing capacity and as heat insulating material...... in buildings and industry. We foam panel glass from old televisions with different foaming agents. We discuss the foaming ability and the foaming mechanism of different foaming systems. We compare several studies to define a viscous window for preparing low density foam glass. However, preparing foam glass...

  3. Influence of the glass particle size on the foaming process and physical characteristics of foam glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared low-density foam glasses from cathode-ray-tube panel glass using carbon and MnO2 as the foaming agents. The effect of the glass particle size on the foaming process, the apparent density and the pore morphology is revealed. The results show that the foaming is mainly caused...... by the reduction of manganese. Foam glasses with a density of

  4. Identification of the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Scavenger Receptor CD36 in Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Aase; Levin, Klaus; Højlund, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophage CD36 scavenges oxidized low-density lipoprotein, leading to foam cell formation, and appears to be a key proatherogenic molecule. Increased expression of CD36 has been attributed to hyperglycemia and to defective macrophage insulin signaling in insulin resistance. Premature...

  5. Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...

  6. Amorphous microcellular polytetrafluoroethylene foam film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chongzheng

    1991-11-01

    We report herein the preparation of novel low-density ultramicrocellular fluorocarbon foams and their application. These fluorocarbon foams are of interest for the biochemistry arena in numerous applications including foodstuff, pharmacy, wine making, beer brewery, fermentation medical laboratory, and other processing factories. All of those require good quality processing programs in which, after eliminating bacterium and virus, compressed air is needed. Ordinarily, compressed air contains bacterium and virus, its size is 0.01 - 2 micrometers fluorocarbon foam films. Having average porous diameter 0.04 - 0.1 micrometers , these are stable to high temperature (280 degree(s)C) and chemical environments, and generally have good engineering and mechanical properties (e.g., low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus, and good dimensional stability). Our new process for preparing low density fluorocarbon foams provides materials with unique properties. As such, they offer the possibility for being superior to earlier materials for a number of the filter applications mentioned.

  7. A review of low density porous materials used in laser plasma experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Keiji; Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Nazarov, Wigen

    2018-03-01

    This review describes and categorizes the synthesis and properties of low density porous materials, which are commonly referred to as foams and are utilized for laser plasma experiments. By focusing a high-power laser on a small target composed of these materials, high energy and density states can be produced. In the past decade or so, various new target fabrication techniques have been developed by many laboratories that use high energy lasers and consequently, many publications and reviews followed these developments. However, the emphasis so far has been on targets that did not utilize low density porous materials. This review therefore, attempts to redress this balance and endeavors to review low density materials used in laser plasma experiments in recent years. The emphasis of this review will be on aspects of low density materials that are of relevance to high energy laser plasma experiments. Aspects of low density materials such as densities, elemental compositions, macroscopic structures, nanostructures, and characterization of these materials will be covered. Also, there will be a brief mention of how these aspects affect the results in laser plasma experiments and the constrictions that these requirements put on the fabrication of low density materials relevant to this field. This review is written from the chemists' point of view to aid physicists and the new comers to this field.

  8. Gamma irradiation effects in low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Lilian S.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth E.L.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is obtained from ethylene gas polymerization, being one of the most commercialized polymers due to its versatility and low cost. It's a semi-crystalline polymer, usually inactive at room temperature, capable to attain temperatures within a 80 deg C - 100 deg C range, without changing its physical-chemical properties. LDPE has more resistance when compared to its equivalent High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). LDPE most common applications consist in manufacturing of laboratory materials, general containers, pipes, plastic bags, etc. Gamma radiation is used on polymers in order to modify mechanical and physical-chemical features according to utility purposes. This work aims to the study of gamma (γ) radiation interaction with low density polyethylene to evaluate changes in its physical-chemical properties. Polymer samples were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30kGy doses, at room temperature. Samples characterization employed Thermal Analysis, Melt Flow Index, Infrared Spectroscopy and Swelling tests. (author)

  9. The melt/shrink effect of low density thermoplastics insulates: Cone calorimeter tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The melt/shrink effects on the fire behavior of low density thermoplastic foam have been studied in a cone calorimeter. The experiments have been performed with four samples of expanded polystyrene foams having different thicknesses and two extruded polystyrene foams. Decrease in surface area and increase in density, characterizing the melt/shrink effect have been measured at different incident heat fluxes. Three of these foams tested have been also examined by burning tests at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2. It was assessed that the fire behavior predictions based the current literature models provided incorrect results if the cone test results were applied directly. However, the correct models provided adequate results when the initial burning area and the density of the molten foam were used to correct the initial cone calorimeter data. This communication refers to the fact that both the effective burning area and the density of the molten foam affect the cone calorimeter data, which requires consequent corrections to attain adequate predictions of models about the materials fire behavior.

  10. Effect of Pelletized Coconut Fibre on the Compressive Strength of Foamed Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Jaini Zainorizuan; Mokhatar Shahrul Niza; Mohd Yusof Ammar Saifuddin; Zulkiply Syurafarina; Abd Rahman Mohd Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Foamed concrete is a controlled low density ranging from 400kg/m3 to 1800kg/m3, and hence suitable for the construction of buildings and infrastructures. The uniqueness of foamed concrete is does not use aggregates in order to retain low density. Foamed concrete contains only cement, sand, water and foam agent. Therefore, the consumption of cement is higher in producing a good quality and strength of foamed concrete. Without the present of aggregates, the compressive strength of foamed concre...

  11. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a sin...

  12. Coherence resonance in low-density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanhang; Gupta, Vikrant; Li, Larry K. B.

    2017-11-01

    Coherence resonance is a phenomenon in which the response of a stable nonlinear system to noise exhibits a peak in coherence at an intermediate noise amplitude. We report the first experimental evidence of coherence resonance in a purely hydrodynamic system, a low-density jet whose variants can be found in many natural and engineering systems. This evidence comprises four parts: (i) the jet's response amplitude increases as the Reynolds number approaches the instability boundary under a constant noise amplitude; (ii) as the noise amplitude increases, the amplitude distribution of the jet response first becomes unimodal, then bimodal, and finally unimodal again; (iii) a distinct peak emerges in the coherence factor at an intermediate noise amplitude; and (iv) for a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate of the autocorrelation function exhibits a maximum at an intermediate noise amplitude, but for a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate decreases monotonically with increasing noise amplitude. It is clear that coherence resonance can provide valuable information about a system's nonlinearity even in the unconditionally stable regime, opening up new possibilities for its use in system identification and flow control. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).

  13. Low-Density Lipoproteins Oxidation and Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Polak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiopathogenesis of endometriosis still remains unknown. Recent data provide new valuable information concerning the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of the disease. It has been proved that levels of different lipid peroxidation end products are increased in both peritoneal fluid (PF and serum of endometriotic patients. We assessed the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL in PF of 110 women with different stages of endometriosis and 119 women with serous ( or dermoid ( ovarian cysts, as the reference groups. PF oxLDL levels were evaluated by ELISA. We found that concentrations of oxLDL in PF of endometriotic women were significantly higher compared to women with serous but not dermoid ovarian cysts. Interestingly, by analyzing concentrations of oxLDL in women with different stages of the disease, it was noted that they are significantly higher only in the subgroup of patients with stage IV endometriosis as compared to women with ovarian serous cysts. In case of minimal, mild, and moderate disease, PF oxLDL levels were similar to those noted in reference groups. Our results indicate that disrupted oxidative status in the peritoneal cavity of women with endometriosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of advanced stages of the disease.

  14. Low density in liver of idiopathic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishito, Hiroyuki

    1988-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of low density in liver on computed tomography (CT), CT scans of 11 patients with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) were compared with those from 22 cirrhotic patients, two patients with scarred liver and 16 normal subjects. Low densities on plain CT scans in patients with IPH were distinctly different from those observed in normal liver. Some of the low densities had irregular shape with unclear margin and were scattered near the liver surface, and others had vessel-like structures with unclear margin and extended as far as near the liver surface. Ten of the 11 patients with IPH had low densities mentioned above, while none of the 22 cirrhotic patients had such low densities. The present results suggest that the presence of low densities in liver on plain CT scan is clinically beneficial in diagnosis of IPH. (author)

  15. Refractory Coated/Lined Low Density Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the development of refractory coated or lined low density structures applicable for advanced future propulsion system technologies. The...

  16. Optimized Synthesis of Foam Glass from Recycled CRT Panel Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Most of the panel glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is landfilled today. Instead of landfilling, the panel glass can be turned into new environment-friendly foam glass. Low density foam glass is an effective heat insulating material and can be produced just by using recycle glass and foaming...... additives. In this work we recycle the CRT panel glass to synthesize the foam glass as a crucial component of building and insulating materials. The synthesis conditions such as foaming temperature, duration, glass particle size, type and concentrations of foaming agents, and so on are optimized...... by performing systematic experiments. In particular, the concentration of foaming agents is an important parameter that influences the size of bubbles and the distribution of bubbles throughout the sample. The foam glasses are characterised regarding density and open/closed porosity. Differential scanning...

  17. Modification of low-density lipoprotein by different radioiodination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobal, G.; Resch, U.; Sinzinger, H.

    2004-01-01

    Scintigraphic imaging of radiolabeled low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is an interesting tool for the understanding of its role in pathomechanism of atherosclerosis. Metabolism of native LDL shows quite different pattern and kinetics as compared to that of modified LDL which is not mediated by classical LDL-receptor and accumulates in atherosclerotic lesions to form lipid-laden foam cells. Therefore we were interested whether radiolabelling of LDL induces structural modifications. We performed the iodine labeling of LDL for scintigraphic imaging of atherosclerosis by three different methods: chloramine-T (A), iodine monochloride (B) and iodogen (C). The highest radiolabelling yield of 125 I was obtained by the iodogen method (75.44±13.52%) and the lowest (49.01±12.74%) by iodine monochloride. Chloramine T showed a labeling yield of 62.82±6.17%. The stability of the tracer was very high with all the methods, persisting up to 6 h (98.83±1.2% - 91.38±4.7%, 15 min vs 6 h after labeling). For the first time we not only investigated the influence of radiolabelling on relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), but also various oxidation parameters such as baseline dienes (BD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), endogenous peroxides (POX) and oxidation resistance in the copper-mediated oxidation system (expressed as lag-time) were measured. Furthermore, oxidation- derived fragmentation of the lipoproteins was examined with SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Data are expressed as % change compared to native LDL before radiolabeling. BD were reduced by 32% using the method (A), but increased by 33% and 47% with the monochloride (B) and iodogen method (C), respectively. The effect on lag-time was comparable for all the three methods, ranging from 25 to 36% reduction in lag-time. TBARS were strongly increased 5-7 fold by all the methods. REM was changed by all three methods. While by methods A and C we have found a moderate increase in REM by 1.75 and 2.0 fold

  18. Thermal plasma spheroidization and spray deposition of barium titanate powder and characterization of the plasma sprayable powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakseresht, A.H., E-mail: amirh_pak@yahoo.com [Department of Ceramics, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimipour, M.R. [Department of Ceramics, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezi, M.R. [Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, P.O. Box 84156-83111, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, atmospheric plasma spray method was used to produce dense plasma sprayable powder and thick barium titanate film. In this regard, the commercially feedstock powders were granulated and spheroidized by the organic binder and the thermal spray process, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the produced powders and the final deposits. X-ray diffraction was also implemented to characterize phase of the sprayed powder. The results indicated that spheroidized powder had suitable flowability as well as high density. The micro-hardness of the film produced by the sprayed powders was higher than that of the film deposited by the irregular granules. Additionally, relative permittivity of the films was increased by decreasing the defects from 160 to 293 for film deposited using spheroidized powder. The reduction in the relative permittivity of deposits, in comparison with the bulk material, was due to the existence of common defects in the thermal spray process. - Highlights: • We prepare sprayable BaTiO{sub 3} powder with no or less inside voids for plasma spray application for first time. • The sprayable powder has good flow characteristics and high density. • Powder spheroidization via plasma spray improves the hardness and dielectric properties of the deposited film.

  19. Thermal plasma spheroidization and spray deposition of barium titanate powder and characterization of the plasma sprayable powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakseresht, A.H.; Rahimipour, M.R.; Vaezi, M.R.; Salehi, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, atmospheric plasma spray method was used to produce dense plasma sprayable powder and thick barium titanate film. In this regard, the commercially feedstock powders were granulated and spheroidized by the organic binder and the thermal spray process, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the produced powders and the final deposits. X-ray diffraction was also implemented to characterize phase of the sprayed powder. The results indicated that spheroidized powder had suitable flowability as well as high density. The micro-hardness of the film produced by the sprayed powders was higher than that of the film deposited by the irregular granules. Additionally, relative permittivity of the films was increased by decreasing the defects from 160 to 293 for film deposited using spheroidized powder. The reduction in the relative permittivity of deposits, in comparison with the bulk material, was due to the existence of common defects in the thermal spray process. - Highlights: • We prepare sprayable BaTiO_3 powder with no or less inside voids for plasma spray application for first time. • The sprayable powder has good flow characteristics and high density. • Powder spheroidization via plasma spray improves the hardness and dielectric properties of the deposited film.

  20. Foam shell project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  1. TPX foams for inertial fusion laser experiments: foam preparation, machining, characterization, and discussion of density issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, M.; Guillot, L.; Reneaume, B.; Fleury, E.; Hermerel, C.; Choux, A.; Jeannot, L.; Geoffray, I.; Faivre, A.; Breton, O.; Andre, J.; Collier, R.; Legaie, O.

    2011-01-01

    Low density foams (in this work, foam density refers to apparent density) are materials of interest for fusion experiments. Low density poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)(commercial name TPX) foams have been produced for 30 years. TPX foams have been shown to have densities as low as 3 mg.cm -3 , which is very close to air density (1.2 mg.cm -3 ). Around this density foams are very light and highly fragile. Their fabrication is thus a real technological challenge. However, shrinking always appears in ranges ranking from 25% to almost 200%. As a result, the apparent density of the final foam never matches the expected value given by the precursor solution concentration. Besides, even if the mold dimensions are precisely known, shrinkage is never linear, and foams have to be machined for precise density measurement. In our work we present a fabrication process for TPX foams and discuss machining and density measuring issues. Particularly, we have found that there are volume and weight limits for a determination of density within the range of 3% uncertainty. This raises the question whether density should rather be determined directly on millimeter-sized targets or should be performed on a bigger scale sample prepared from the same batch. (authors)

  2. Controlling of density uniformity of polyacrylate foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Wenwen; Yuan Baohe; Wang Yanhong; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Lin

    2010-01-01

    The density non-uniformity existing in most low-density foams will affect performance of the foams. The trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTA) foam targets were prepared and controlling methods of the foams, density uniformity were explored together with its forming mechanism. It has been found that the UV-light with high intensity can improve the distribution uniformity of the free radicals induced by UV photons in the solvents, thus improve the density uniformity of the foams. In addition, container wall would influence the concentration distribution of the solution, which affects the density uniformity of the foams. Thus, the UV-light with high intensity was chosen together with polytetrafluoroethylene molds instead of glass molds to prepare the foams with the density non-uniformity less than 10%. β-ray detection technology was used to measure the density uniformity of the TMPTA foams with the density in the range of 10 to 100 mg · cm -3 , and the results show that the lower the foam density is, the worse the density uniformity is. (authors)

  3. Microbial biodegradable potato starch based low density polyethylene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Key words: Low density polyethylene, fungi, biodegradable polymer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ... particle such as CO2 or water by microorganism's activities. ... package and production of bags, composites and agricultural.

  4. Clustering and Symmetry Energy in a Low Density Nuclear Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, S.; Natowitz, J.B.; Shlomo, S.; Wada, R.; Hagel, K.; Wang, J.; Materna, T.; Chen, Z.; Ma, Y.G.; Qin, L.; Botvina, A.S.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Rizzi, V.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Prete, G.; Keutgen, T.; El Masri, Y.; Majka, Z.; Ono, A.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and density dependent symmetry energy coefficients have been derived from isoscaling analyses of the yields of nuclei with A= 64 Zn projectiles with 92 Mo and 197 Au target nuclei. The symmetry energies at low density are larger than those obtained in mean field calculations, reflecting the clustering of low density nuclear matter. They are in quite good agreement with results of a recently proposed Virial Equation of State calculation

  5. A sprayable luminescent pH sensor and its use for wound imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreml, Stephan; Meier, Robert J; Weiß, Katharina T; Cattani, Julia; Flittner, Dagmar; Gehmert, Sebastian; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Landthaler, Michael; Babilas, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive luminescence imaging is of great interest for studying biological parameters in wound healing, tumors and other biomedical fields. Recently, we developed the first method for 2D luminescence imaging of pH in vivo on humans, and a novel method for one-stop-shop visualization of oxygen and pH using the RGB read-out of digital cameras. Both methods make use of semitransparent sensor foils. Here, we describe a sprayable ratiometric luminescent pH sensor, which combines properties of both these methods. Additionally, a major advantage is that the sensor spray is applicable to very uneven tissue surfaces due to its consistency. A digital RGB image of the spray on tissue is taken. The signal of the pH indicator (fluorescein isothiocyanate) is stored in the green channel (G), while that of the reference dye [ruthenium(II)-tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)] is stored in the red channel (R). Images are processed by rationing luminescence intensities (G/R) to result in pseudocolor pH maps of tissues, e.g. wounds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Evaluation of sprayable fixatives on a sandy soil for potential use in a dirty bomb response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G; Whitaker, John D

    2008-06-01

    After the events of 11 September 2001, the possibility of a dirty bomb being detonated within the United States seems more realistic. Development of tools for use in response to a dirty bomb detonation has become a topic of both discussion and research. While it has been reported that the health risk to the public from such an event would likely be small, it is thought that the psychological impact could be considerable. One response option that has been considered is adapting sprayable solutions for the purpose of fixing contamination in place, thereby limiting the spread of contamination by wind and rain and facilitating subsequent cleanup. This work evaluated two commercially available particle fixatives (IsoFIX-HT and IsoFIX-RC) for their effectiveness in preventing dispersal of simulated contamination. Nonradioactive cesium chloride and cobalt oxide particles were selected as the simulated contamination and applied to the surface of three outdoor test plots. Two test plots were treated with fixatives; the third plot provided a control. Samples were collected over 95 days to observe changes in tracer concentration on the surface of the test plots. One fixative (IsoFIX-RC) effectively held the tracer in place with no net loss of tracer, while the other fixative (IsoFIX-HT) had no impact on the loss of tracer relative to the control. Under the conditions tested, IsoFIX-RC appears capable of fixing surface contamination in place for at least several months.

  7. Hemodynamics alter arterial low-density lipoprotein metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warty, V.S.; Calvo, W.J.; Berceli, S.A.; Pham, S.M.; Durham, S.J.; Tanksale, S.K.; Klein, E.C.; Herman, I.M.; Borovetz, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the role of hemodynamic factors on low-density lipoprotein transport and metabolism in the intact arterial wall. Freshly excised canine carotid blood vessels were exposed to well-defined pulsatile flow in vitro for continuous periods up to 20 hours. We chose to impose the following hemodynamic conditions on our test carotid arteries: normotension, hypertension (at physiologic flow conditions), and hypertension coupled with elevated flow of canine serum perfusate. In several experiments the effect of endothelial denudation was examined in carotid arteries exposed to normotensive pulsatile flow. A trapped ligand method was used for quantitating low-density lipoprotein uptake and metabolism in the arterial wall. The distribution of both intact and degraded low-density lipoprotein fractions was determined from measurements of radiolabelled low-density lipoprotein activity within thin radial sections of perfused arteries. Our results suggest that both hypertensive hemodynamic simulations exacerbate the uptake of low-density lipoprotein within the arterial wall (by a factor of three to nine). The percentage of low-density lipoprotein that undergoes irreversible degradation falls from 41% under normotensive conditions to below 30% when hypertensive conditions are imposed, indicating that degradative processes are not proportionally elevated with the accelerated influx. A similar pattern is observed for deendothelialized vessels

  8. Metabolism of cholesteryl esters of rat very low density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faergeman, O; Havel, R J

    1975-06-01

    Rat very low density lipoproteins (d smaller than 1.006), biologically labeled in esterified and free cholesterol, were obtained form serum 6 h after intravenous injection of particulate (3-H) cholesterol. When injected into recipient animals, the esterified cholesterol was cleared form plasma with a half-life of 5 min. After 15 min, 71% of the injected esterified (3-H) cholesterol had been taken up by the liver, where it was rapidly hydrolyzed. After 60 min only 3.3% of the amount injected had been transferred, via lipoproteins of intermediate density, to the low density lipoproteins of plasma (d 1.019-1.063). Both uptake in the liver and transfer to low density lipoproteins occurred without change of distribution of 3-H in the various cholesteryl esters. 3-H appearing in esterified cholesterol of high density lipoproteins (d greater than 1.063) was derived from esterification, presumably by lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, of simultaneously injected free (3-H) cholesterol. Content of free (3-H) cholesterol in the very low density lipoproteins used for injection could be reduced substantially by incubation with erythrocytes. This procedure, however, increased the rate of clearance of the lipoproteins after injection into recipient rats. These studies show that hepatic removal is the major catabolic pathway for cholesteryl esters of rat very low density lipoproteins and that transfer to low density lipoproteins occurs to only a minor extent.

  9. Applications of low-density foams for x-ray source studies and laser beam smoothing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Limpouch, J.; Renner, Oldřich; Borisenko, N.G.; Klír, D.; Kmetík, Viliam; Krouský, Eduard; Liska, R.; Mašek, Karel; Nazarov, W.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 112, 042056 (2008), s. 1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [The Fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2007). Kobe, 09.09.2007-14.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA ČR GA202/06/0801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma * x-ray generation * energy transport in plasma * bremsstrahlung * laser-light transmission through inhomogeneous plasma * laser-propagation in undercritical plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1742-6596/112/4/042056/jpconf8_112_042056.pdf

  10. Low Cost P/M Aluminum Syntactic Foam for Blade Containment in Turbine Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I SBIR proposes a low density (0.75-1.2g/cc)syntactic aluminum foam energy absorber co-manufactured inside a composite fan case for turbine...

  11. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  12. Bilateral anterior thalamic low densities in descending transtentorial herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Chikao; Watanabe, Takao

    1985-02-01

    Round, well-demarcated, symmetrical low densities in a bilateral thalamus in a case of descending transtentorial herniation due secondarily to acute traumatic left subdural hematoma are reported. An 8-year-old boy, on whom emergency surgery was refused by his parents, showed a marked shift due to the hematoma on admission; this was followed by a low density in the left PCA territory and round, equivocal hypodensities in the anterior thalamus 44 hours post-trauma. The equivocal hypodensities became definite, well-demarcated, round low densities situated symmetrically in the anterior thalamus on the 39th day post-trauma. Akinetic mutism was noted at this time. The symmetrical low densities and the PCA-territory low density persisted as late as the 39th day post-trauma, suggesting infarcts. The downward stretch of the bilateral thalamoperforators, which was effected by a narrowing of the interpeduncular fossa with an approximation of the bilateral perforators, plus a downward shift of the PCA due to descending transtentorial herniation, was assumed to be the mechanism involved. (author).

  13. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2012-11-06

    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  14. Foam Microrheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRAYNIK, ANDREW M.; LOEWENBERG, MICHAEL; REINELT, DOUGLAS A.

    1999-01-01

    The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams

  15. Clathrates and beyond: Low-density allotropy in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beekman, Matt [Department of Physics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California 93407 (United States); Wei, Kaya; Nolas, George S., E-mail: gnolas@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    In its common, thermodynamically stable state, silicon adopts the same crystal structure as diamond. Although only a few alternative allotropic structures have been discovered and studied over the past six decades, advanced methods for structure prediction have recently suggested a remarkably rich low-density phase space that has only begun to be explored. The electronic properties of these low-density allotropes of silicon, predicted by first-principles calculations, indicate that these materials could offer a pathway to improving performance and reducing cost in a variety of electronic and energy-related applications. In this focus review, we provide an introduction and overview of recent theoretical and experimental results related to low-density allotropes of silicon, highlighting the significant potential these materials may have for technological applications, provided substantial challenges to their experimental preparation can be overcome.

  16. Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ihara, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    We reported a case with dysarthria and gait disturbance, in which CT revealed symmetrical well-demarcated low density areas in the basal ganglia. The patient was a 43-year-old woman. Her family history and past history were not contributory. She had a little difficulty in speaking at the age of 17. Gait disturbance and micrographia appeared later. Although her expressionless face resembles to that seen in Parkinsonism, rigidity, akinesia and small-stepped gait were not present. The unclassified types of dysarthria and gait disturbance, which characterize the present case, were considered to be a kind of extrapyramidal symptoms, which were distinct from those of Parkinsonism. CT showed well demarcated low density areas predominantly in bilateral putamen. Metrizamide CT failed to show any communication between low density areas and subarachnoid spaces. To date, six cases, which presented similar clinical features and almost same CT findings as our case, were reported. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional printing and deformation behavior of low-density target structures by two-photon polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Stein, Ori; Campbell, John H.; Jiang, Lijia; Petta, Nicole; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP), a 3D nano to microscale additive manufacturing process, is being used for the first time to fabricate small custom experimental packages ("targets") to support laser-driven high-energy-density (HED) physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print low-density, low atomic-number (CHO) polymer matrices ("foams") at millimeter scale with sub-micrometer resolution. Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial photo-resins; here we compare use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. The mechanical strength of polymeric beam and foam structures is examined particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage in the two resins in quantified by printing sample structures and by use of FEA to simulate the deformation. Capillary drying forces are shown to be small and likely below the elastic limit of the core foam structure. In contrast the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip ( 5-10%) cause large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation particularly near constrained boundaries such as the substrate and locations with sharp density variation. The inherent weakness of stitching boundaries is also evident and in certain cases can lead to delamination. Use of IP-S shows marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of print resolution

  18. Experimental demonstration of laser imprint reduction using underdense foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, B.; Casner, A.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Breil, J.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Michel, D. T.; Seka, W.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V.; Riazuelo, G.; Borisenko, N.; Orekhov, A.; Fujioka, S.; Sunahara, A.; Grech, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the detrimental effect of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability on the target performance is a critical challenge. In this purpose, the use of targets coated with low density foams is a promising approach to reduce the laser imprint. This article presents results of ablative RT instability growth measurements, performed on the OMEGA laser facility in direct-drive for plastic foils coated with underdense foams. The laser beam smoothing is explained by the parametric instabilities developing in the foam and reducing the laser imprint on the plastic (CH) foil. The initial perturbation pre-imposed by the means of a specific phase plate was shown to be smoothed using different foam characteristics. Numerical simulations of the laser beam smoothing in the foam and of the RT growth are performed with a suite of paraxial electromagnetic and radiation hydrodynamic codes. They confirmed the foam smoothing effect in the experimental conditions.

  19. Experimental demonstration of laser imprint reduction using underdense foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, B.; Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); CELIA, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, F-33400 Talence (France); Olazabal-Loumé, M. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablières, F-33114 Le Barp (France); CELIA, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, F-33400 Talence (France); Nicolaï, Ph.; Breil, J.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [CELIA, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, F-33400 Talence (France); Michel, D. T.; Seka, W.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Riazuelo, G. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Borisenko, N.; Orekhov, A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Fujioka, S.; Sunahara, A. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Grech, M. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-04-15

    Reducing the detrimental effect of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability on the target performance is a critical challenge. In this purpose, the use of targets coated with low density foams is a promising approach to reduce the laser imprint. This article presents results of ablative RT instability growth measurements, performed on the OMEGA laser facility in direct-drive for plastic foils coated with underdense foams. The laser beam smoothing is explained by the parametric instabilities developing in the foam and reducing the laser imprint on the plastic (CH) foil. The initial perturbation pre-imposed by the means of a specific phase plate was shown to be smoothed using different foam characteristics. Numerical simulations of the laser beam smoothing in the foam and of the RT growth are performed with a suite of paraxial electromagnetic and radiation hydrodynamic codes. They confirmed the foam smoothing effect in the experimental conditions.

  20. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...

  1. Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points. Fi...

  2. Increased oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins in hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, T.; Demacker, P. N.; Kastelein, J. J.; Stalenhoef, A. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    Hypothyroidism leads to an increase of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Oxidation of LDL particles changes their intrinsic properties, thereby enhancing the development of atherosclerosis. T4 has three specific binding sites on apolipoprotein B; furthermore it inhibits LDL

  3. Role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; Tervaert, JWC

    Accelerated atherosclerosis is often observed in patients with chronic renal failure. In the present review we summarize and discuss the recent literature on the pathogenic role of low-density lipoproteins modified by oxidative processes in atherosclerosis and the possible role in renal diseases.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.

  5. Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Minoru, E-mail: okamoto@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Maruyama, Toshiki, E-mail: maruyama.toshiki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Yabana, Kazuhiro, E-mail: yabana@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Center of Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Tatsumi, Toshitaka, E-mail: tatsumi@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2012-07-09

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.

  6. Thermal Cracking of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Waste into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste low density polyethylene film (table water sachets) was converted into solid, liquid oil and gaseous products by thermal process in a self- designed stainless steel laboratory reactor. The waste polymer was completely pyrolized within the temperature range of 474 – 520°C and 2hours reaction time. The solid residue ...

  7. Plasma probe characteristics in low density hydrogen pulsed plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, D I; Lee, C J; Bijkerk, F; Goedheer, W J; Ivanov, V V; Krivtsun, V M; Zotovich, A I; Zyryanov, S M; Lopaev, D V

    2015-01-01

    Probe theories are only applicable in the regime where the probe’s perturbation of the plasma can be neglected. However, it is not always possible to know, a priori, that a particular probe theory can be successfully applied, especially in low density plasmas. This is especially difficult in the case of transient, low density plasmas. Here, we applied probe diagnostics in combination with a 2D particle-in-cell model, to an experiment with a pulsed low density hydrogen plasma. The calculations took into account the full chamber geometry, including the plasma probe as an electrode in the chamber. It was found that the simulations reproduce the time evolution of the probe IV characteristics with good accuracy. The disagreement between the simulated and probe measured plasma density is attributed to the limited applicability of probe theory to measurements of low density pulsed plasmas on a similarly short time scale as investigated here. Indeed, in the case studied here, probe measurements would lead to, either a large overestimate, or underestimate of the plasma density, depending on the chosen probe theory. In contrast, the simulations of the plasma evolution and the probe characteristics do not suffer from such strict applicability limits. These studies show that probe theory cannot be justified through probe measurements. However, limiting cases of probe theories can be used to estimate upper and lower bounds on plasma densities. These theories include and neglect orbital motion, respectively, with different collisional terms leading to intermediate estimates. (paper)

  8. Human Low Density Lipoprotein as a Vehicle of Atherosclerosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-density lipoproteins have been sufficiently established as an important precursor of atherosclerosis. The actual mechanism is still unclear, and the current technique of using radioisotopes has clinical limitation. However, the current study techniques or methods excellently elucidate the functional aspects of ...

  9. On the mechanism of charge transport in low density polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Avnish K.; Reddy, C. C.

    2017-08-01

    Polyethylene based polymeric insulators, are being increasingly used in the power industry for their inherent advantages over conventional insulation materials. Specifically, modern power cables are almost made with these materials, replacing the mass-impregnated oil-paper cable technology. However, for ultra-high dc voltage applications, the use of these polymeric cables is hindered by ununderstood charge transport and accumulation. The conventional conduction mechanisms (Pool-Frenkel, Schottky, etc.) fail to track high-field charge transport in low density polyethylene, which is semi-crystalline in nature. Until now, attention was devoted mainly to the amorphous region of the material. In this paper, authors propose a novel mechanism for conduction in low density polyethylene, which could successfully track experimental results. As an implication, a novel, substantial relationship is established for electrical conductivity that could be effectively used for understanding conduction and breakdown in polyethylene, which is vital for successful development of ultra-high voltage dc cables.

  10. CFC alternatives for thermal insulation foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankland, I.R. (Allied-Signal Inc., Buffalo, NY (US))

    1990-03-01

    Low density polymeric foam materials expanded with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blowing agents have found widespread use as highly efficient thermal insulation materials in the construction, refrigeration appliance and transportation industries. The advent of regulations which are reducing the production and consumption of the fully halogenated CFCs for environmental reasons has prompted the development of environmentally acceptable substitutes for the CFC blowing agents. This paper summarizes the physical properties and performance of the leading alternatives for CFC-11, which is used to expand rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams, and the leading alternatives for CFC-12 which is used to expand extruded polystyrene board foam. Although the alternatives, HCFC-123 and HCFC-14lb for CFC-11 and HCFC142b and HCFC-124 for CFC-12, are not perfect matches from the performance viewpoint, they represent the optimum choice given the constraints on environmental acceptability, toxicity, flammability and performance. (author).

  11. Preparation and properties of polymer foams for ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Lucht, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    Low density small cell sized foams were developed to localize the liquid DT layer in a direct drive wetted foam laser fusion target. We have developed foams made from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene gels and polystyrene inverse emulsions. Materials in the density range of from 0.020 to 0.300 g/cc were prepared and characterized for cell size, mechanical properties, machinability, specific surface area, and wetting. Foams with a density of 0.05 g/cc were made with a cell size of less than 5 μm. A cell structure model was developed which relates the density and specific surface area to cell size and cell wall thickness. Wetting tests in organic solvents and in liquid hydrogen were used to characterize the capillary pressure, pore structure and uniformity of the foams. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Elaboration of recycled polyethylene foams reticulated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia M, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work some obtained results are presented to make irradiation tests on recycled polymeric material (polyethylene) as well as mixtures of this with certain additive classes (foaming and reticulating agents) which will be used for the foams elaboration, objective of this work. Two types of foaming basically exist which are elaborated with low density polyethylene base. They are: a) the extruded and, b) the reticulated through ionizing radiation and chemically. Some of the properties that the expanded or foamed polyethylene are: flexibility, resistance, thermal stability, inter medium mechanical properties between the highly flexible foams and rigid among others. All of them determined by the cell type which conform them. Also was carried out the characterization of the obtained material contributing of this manner to diminish the quantity of solid wastes generated. (Author)

  13. Development of Low Density, Flexible Carbon Phenolic Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Covington, Alan; Doxtad, Evan; Beck, Robin; Gasch, Matt; Arnold, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was the enabling TPS material for the Stardust mission where it was used as a single piece heatshield. PICA has the advantages of low density (approximately 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter) coupled with efficient ablative capability at high heat fluxes. Due to its brittle nature and low strain to failure recent efforts at NASA ARC have focused on alternative architectures to yield flexible and more conformal carbon phenolic materials with comparable densities to PICA. This presentation will discuss flexible alternatives to PICA and include preliminary mechanical and thermal properties as well as recent arc jet and LHMEL screening test results.

  14. Performance of Low-Density Parity-Check Coded Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the simulated performance of each of the nine accumulate-repeat-4-jagged-accumulate (AR4JA) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes [3] when used in conjunction with binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK), quadrature PSK (QPSK), 8-PSK, 16-ary amplitude PSK (16- APSK), and 32-APSK.We also report the performance under various mappings of bits to modulation symbols, 16-APSK and 32-APSK ring scalings, log-likelihood ratio (LLR) approximations, and decoder variations. One of the simple and well-performing LLR approximations can be expressed in a general equation that applies to all of the modulation types.

  15. Low density lipoprotein sensor based on surface plasmon resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matharu, Zimple; Sumana, G.; Pandey, M.K.; Gupta, Vinay; Malhotra, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Biotinylated heparin has been immobilized onto self-assembled monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol using avidin-biotin specific binding. The modified electrodes have been characterized using surface plasmon resonance technique (SPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The interaction of immobilized biotinylated heparin with low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been studied using surface plasmon resonance technique. The biotinylated heparin modified electrode can be used to detect LDL in the range of 20 to 100 mg/dl with the sensitivity of 513.3 m o /μM.

  16. Low density lipoprotein sensor based on surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matharu, Zimple [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110007 (India); Sumana, G.; Pandey, M.K. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110007 (India); Malhotra, B.D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.co [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2009-11-30

    Biotinylated heparin has been immobilized onto self-assembled monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol using avidin-biotin specific binding. The modified electrodes have been characterized using surface plasmon resonance technique (SPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The interaction of immobilized biotinylated heparin with low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been studied using surface plasmon resonance technique. The biotinylated heparin modified electrode can be used to detect LDL in the range of 20 to 100 mg/dl with the sensitivity of 513.3 m{sup o}/{mu}M.

  17. Flow visualization of a low density hypersonic flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, B.S.; Jumper, E.J.; Walters, E.; Segalman, T.Y.; Founds, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of laser induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) in low density hypersonic flows are being investigated for use as a diagnostic technique. At low pressures, doppler broadening dominates the iodine absorption profile producing a fluorescence signal that is primarily temperature and velocity dependent. From this dependency, a low pressure flow field has the potential to be mapped for its velocity and temperature fields. The theory for relating iodine emission to the velocity and temperature fields of a hypersonic flow is discussed in this paper. Experimental observations are made of a fluorescencing free expansion and qualitatively related to the theory. 7 refs

  18. Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from...... proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C and the cumulative duration of exposure to lower LDL-C, provided that the achieved reduction in LDL-C is concordant with the reduction in LDL particle number and that there are no competing deleterious off-target effects. Conclusion Consistent evidence from...

  19. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  20. Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body’s defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature’s method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL–drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier

  1. Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant, E-mail: prashant_pharmacy04@rediffmail.com; Jain, Narendra K., E-mail: jnarendr@yahoo.co.in [Dr. H. S. Gour University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-09-15

    Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL-drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier.

  2. Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K.

    2013-09-01

    Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL-drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier.

  3. Low-Density Lipoprotein Modified by Myeloperoxidase in Inflammatory Pathways and Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Delporte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL has a key role in atherogenesis. Among the different models of oxidation that have been studied, the one using myeloperoxidase (MPO is thought to be more physiopathologically relevant. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the unique protein of LDL and is the major target of MPO. Furthermore, MPO rapidly adsorbs at the surface of LDL, promoting oxidation of amino acid residues and formation of oxidized lipoproteins that are commonly named Mox-LDL. The latter is not recognized by the LDL receptor and is accumulated by macrophages. In the context of atherogenesis, Mox-LDL accumulates in macrophages leading to foam cell formation. Furthermore, Mox-LDL seems to have specific effects and triggers inflammation. Indeed, those oxidized lipoproteins activate endothelial cells and monocytes/macrophages and induce proinflammatory molecules such as TNFα and IL-8. Mox-LDL may also inhibit fibrinolysis mediated via endothelial cells and consecutively increase the risk of thrombus formation. Finally, Mox-LDL has been involved in the physiopathology of several diseases linked to atherosclerosis such as kidney failure and consequent hemodialysis therapy, erectile dysfunction, and sleep restriction. All these issues show that the investigations of MPO-dependent LDL oxidation are of importance to better understand the inflammatory context of atherosclerosis.

  4. Effect of Pelletized Coconut Fibre on the Compressive Strength of Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Jaini Zainorizuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed concrete is a controlled low density ranging from 400kg/m3 to 1800kg/m3, and hence suitable for the construction of buildings and infrastructures. The uniqueness of foamed concrete is does not use aggregates in order to retain low density. Foamed concrete contains only cement, sand, water and foam agent. Therefore, the consumption of cement is higher in producing a good quality and strength of foamed concrete. Without the present of aggregates, the compressive strength of foamed concrete can only achieve as high as 15MPa. Therefore, this study aims to introduce the pelletized coconut fibre aggregate to reduce the consumption of cement but able to enhance the compressive strength. In the experimental study, forty-five (45 cube samples of foamed concrete with density 1600kg/m3 were prepared with different volume fractions of pelletized coconut fibre aggregate. All cube samples were tested using the compression test to obtain compressive strength. The results showed that the compressive strength of foamed concrete containing 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pelletized coconut fibre aggregate are 9.6MPa, 11.4MPa, 14.6MPa and 13.4MPa respectively. It is in fact higher than the controlled foamed concrete that only achieves 9MPa. It is found that the pelletized coconut fibre aggregate indicates a good potential to enhance the compressive strength of foamed concrete.

  5. Experimental Evidence of Low Density Liquid Water under Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G.; Lin, C.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Smith, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water is not only the most important substance for life, but also plays important roles in liquid science for its anomalous properties. It has been widely accepted that water's anomalies are not a result of simple thermal fluctuation, but are connected to the formation of various structural aggregates in the hydrogen bonding network. Among several proposed scenarios, one model of fluctuations between two different liquids has gradually gained traction. These two liquids are referred to as a low-density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL) with a coexistence line in the deeply supercooled regime at elevated pressure. The LDL-HDL transition ends with decreasing pressure at a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) with its Widom line extending to low pressures. Above the Widom line lies mostly HDL which is favored by entropy, while LDL, mostly lying below the Widom line, is favored by enthalpy in the tetrahedral hydrogen bonding network. The origin of water's anomalies can then be explained by the increase in structural fluctuations, as water is cooled down to deeply supercooled temperatures approaching the Widom line. Because both the LLCP and the LDL-HDL transition line lie in water's "no man's land" between the homogeneous nucleation temperature (TH, 232 K) and the crystallization temperature (TX, 150 K), the success of experiments exploring this region has been limited thus far. Using a rapid decompression technique integrated with in situ x-ray diffraction, we observe that a high-pressure ice phase transforms to a low-density noncrystalline (LDN) form upon rapid release of pressure at temperatures of 140-165K. The LDN subsequently crystallizes into ice-Ic through a diffusion-controlled process. The change in crystallization rate with temperature indicates that the LDN is a LDL with its tetrahedrally-coordinated network fully developed and clearly linked to low-density amorphous ices. The observation of the tetrahedral LDL supports the two-liquid model for

  6. Mechanical Properties of Low Density Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Li, L. F.; Yang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Low-density alloys include aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and magnesium alloys. Aluminum alloys and titanium alloys have been widely investigated and used as structural materials for cryogenic applications because of their light weight and good low-temperature mechanical properties.For aerospace applications, persistent efforts are being devoted to reducing weight and improving performance. Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural alloys among those mentioned above. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to magnesium alloys and to investigate their behaviors at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, we have investigated the mechanical properties and microstructures of some magnesium alloys at cryogenic temperatures. Experimental results on both titanium and magnesium alloys are taken into account in considering these materials for space application

  7. Elliptic flow from Coulomb interaction and low density elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Fuqiang

    2018-04-01

    In high energy heavy ion collisions and interacting cold atom systems, large elliptic flow anisotropies have been observed. For the large opacity (ρ σ L ˜103 ) of the latter hydrodynamics is a natural consequence, but for the small opacity (ρ σ L ˜1 ) of the former the hydrodynamic description is questionable. To shed light onto the situation, we simulate the expansion of a low density argon ion (or atom) system, initially trapped in an elliptical region, under the Coulomb interaction (or elastic scattering). Significant elliptic anisotropy is found in both cases, and the anisotropy depends on the initial spatial eccentricity and the density of the system. The results may provide insights into the physics of anisotropic flow in high energy heavy ion collisions and its role in the study of quantum chromodynamics.

  8. Flow and breakup in extension of low-density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Fasano, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The breakup during the extension of a low-density polyethylene Lupolen 1840D, as observed experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011), was investigated. This was observed during the extension of an circular cylinder with radius R0 = 4 mm and length L0 = 5mm....... The sample was attached to two flat end plates, separated exponentially in time to extend the samples. A numerical method based on a Lagrangian kinematics description in a continuum mechanical framework was used to calculate the extension of an initially cylindrically shaped sample with and without small...... the error bars as reported experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011). At low extensional rates, the measurements were considerably above the calculated ones. A very small relative suppression in the surface (0.1%) was required to achieve an agreement with all measurements...

  9. Low density lipoprotein receptors: preliminary results on 'in vivo' study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupattelli, G.; Virgolini, I.; Li, S.R.; Sinzinger, H.

    1991-01-01

    Plasmatic levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are regulated by the receptor pathway and most LDL receptor are located in the liver. A receptor defect due to genetic mutations of the LDL receptor gene is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (F.H.), a disease characterized by high cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerosis. Injections of autologous radiolabelled LDL, followed by hepatic scintiscanning, can be used to obtain 'in vivo' quantification of hepatic receptor activity, both in normal and hypercholesterolemic patients. In this study we observe no hepatic increase of radioactivity in patients affected by F.H., confirming the liver receptor defect. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive technique which can be used to diagnose this disease and to monitor the efficiacy of hypolipidemic therapy. (Authors)

  10. Statistical mechanics of low-density parity-check codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabashima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 2268502 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-13

    We review recent theoretical progress on the statistical mechanics of error correcting codes, focusing on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in general, and on Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes in particular. By exploiting the relation between LDPC codes and Ising spin systems with multi-spin interactions, one can carry out a statistical mechanics based analysis that determines the practical and theoretical limitations of various code constructions, corresponding to dynamical and thermodynamical transitions, respectively, as well as the behaviour of error-exponents averaged over the corresponding code ensemble as a function of channel noise. We also contrast the results obtained using methods of statistical mechanics with those derived in the information theory literature, and show how these methods can be generalized to include other channel types and related communication problems. (topical review)

  11. Ballistics considerations for small-caliber, low-density projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    One major application for single- and two-stage light gas guns is for fueling magnetic fusion confinement devices. Powder guns are not a feasible alternative due to possible plasma contamination by residual powder gases and the eventual requirement of steady-state operation at ∼ 1 Hz, which will dictate a closed gas handling system where propellant gases are recovered, processed and recompressed. Interior ballistic calculations for single-stage light gas guns, both analytical and numerical, are compared to an extensive data base for low density hydrogenic projectiles (pellets). Some innovative range diagnostics are described for determining the size and velocity of these small (several mm) size projectiles. A conceptual design of a closed cycle propellant gas system is presented including tradeoffs between different light propellant gases

  12. Physical properties of drawn very low density polyethylene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.Y. [Korea Institute of Footwear and Leather Technology, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE) films were prepared by quenching the pressed melt in ice water. The films were drawn with universal testing machine under constant temperature at four different temperatures, 30, 60, 80, and 110 {sup o} C. Thermal, mechanical properties, grossity, and gas permeability of the drawn VLDPE films as a function of draw ratio were investigated to examine their applicability to packaging. The films showed tow melting peaks, i.e., low temperature endotherm (LTE) and high temperature endotherm (HTE). The melting temperatures were increased with the draw ratio and the drawing temperature. The mechanical properties of the VLDPE film drawn at 80 {sup o} C were superior to those drawn at 110 {sup o} C. The grossity and gas permeability of the VLDPE film drawn at 110 {sup o} C were found to be best among the drawn films.

  13. Statistical mechanics of low-density parity-check codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Saad, David

    2004-01-01

    We review recent theoretical progress on the statistical mechanics of error correcting codes, focusing on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in general, and on Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes in particular. By exploiting the relation between LDPC codes and Ising spin systems with multi-spin interactions, one can carry out a statistical mechanics based analysis that determines the practical and theoretical limitations of various code constructions, corresponding to dynamical and thermodynamical transitions, respectively, as well as the behaviour of error-exponents averaged over the corresponding code ensemble as a function of channel noise. We also contrast the results obtained using methods of statistical mechanics with those derived in the information theory literature, and show how these methods can be generalized to include other channel types and related communication problems. (topical review)

  14. KEPLER-7b: A TRANSITING PLANET WITH UNUSUALLY LOW DENSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, David W.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Brown, Timothy M.; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Howell, Steve B.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Monet, David G.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery and confirmation of Kepler-7b, a transiting planet with unusually low density. The mass is less than half that of Jupiter, M P = 0.43 M J , but the radius is 50% larger, R P = 1.48 R J . The resulting density, ρ P = 0.17 g cm -3 , is the second lowest reported so far for an extrasolar planet. The orbital period is fairly long, P = 4.886 days, and the host star is not much hotter than the Sun, T eff = 6000 K. However, it is more massive and considerably larger than the Sun, M * = 1.35 M sun and R * = 1.84 R sun , and must be near the end of its life on the main sequence.

  15. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Vera; Just, Alexander R; Pfeilschifter, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the most frequent causes of death worldwide. After menopause, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism changes and women are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared to fertile women. The aim.......10-0.43). Although intima-media thickness did not differ, postmenopausal women with serous oxLDL had more often atherosclerotic plaques compared to women without oxLDL (6/66 vs. 0/467; P lipoprotein, impaired glucose intolerance, and DBP were independently associated...... with the occurrence of oxLDL. If oxLDL was present, higher high-density lipoprotein and glucose intolerance were associated with higher concentrations of oxLDL. In contrast, higher blood urea concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of oxLDL. CONCLUSION: This study presents the prevalence...

  16. Thermoluminescence glow curves of irradiated PMMA and low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Koji; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Kumakiri, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Yoshio.

    1985-03-01

    Light emission from polymers is observed when polymers preirradiated with ionizing radiation at low temperature are heated gradually. The light emission is supposedly resulted from recombination of electrons with active centers produced in polymers or from some other processes involving charge transfer, but no definite explanation has been given at present on the thermoluminescent centers. This report describes our studies on the effects of impurities contained in polymers and pressure of ambient gases on the thermoluminescent glow curve of PMMA and low density polyethylene, which are often used for plastic film dosimeters. In the glow curve of PMMA, only one peak was observed at 110 K in an H 2 or He atmosphere at 760 Torr, but the intensity of the peak decreased with decreasing the H 2 or He gas pressure. At 10 -5 Torr H 2 or He atmosphere the peak disappered, and two sharp peaks appeared in the temperature range from 200 to 250 K. On the other hand, in the glow curve of low density polyethylene, three peaks were observed at 120 K, 180 K and 250 K in the presence of H 2 or He gas at 760 Torr. The effects of pressure of ambient gases and impurities in the polyethylene on these peaks indicate that the peak at 120 K is due to luminescent center produced on the surface or just below the surface of the matrix by collision of excited atoms or molecules of gases with polymer molecules, the peak at 120 K is originated from impurities in the matrix, and the peak at 250 0 K corresponds to luminescent center produced in polyethylene matrix. (author)

  17. An empirical probability model of detecting species at low densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, David G; Leung, Brian

    2010-06-01

    False negatives, not detecting things that are actually present, are an important but understudied problem. False negatives are the result of our inability to perfectly detect species, especially those at low density such as endangered species or newly arriving introduced species. They reduce our ability to interpret presence-absence survey data and make sound management decisions (e.g., rapid response). To reduce the probability of false negatives, we need to compare the efficacy and sensitivity of different sampling approaches and quantify an unbiased estimate of the probability of detection. We conducted field experiments in the intertidal zone of New England and New York to test the sensitivity of two sampling approaches (quadrat vs. total area search, TAS), given different target characteristics (mobile vs. sessile). Using logistic regression we built detection curves for each sampling approach that related the sampling intensity and the density of targets to the probability of detection. The TAS approach reduced the probability of false negatives and detected targets faster than the quadrat approach. Mobility of targets increased the time to detection but did not affect detection success. Finally, we interpreted two years of presence-absence data on the distribution of the Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus) in New England and New York, using our probability model for false negatives. The type of experimental approach in this paper can help to reduce false negatives and increase our ability to detect species at low densities by refining sampling approaches, which can guide conservation strategies and management decisions in various areas of ecology such as conservation biology and invasion ecology.

  18. CARBONIZED STARCH MICROCELLULAR FOAM-CELLULOSE FIBER COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Rutledge

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of microporous carbon foams from renewable starch microcellular foam-fiber (SMCF-Fiber composites is described. Carbon foams are used in applications such as thermal insulation, battery electrodes, filters, fuel cells, and medical devices. SMCF-Fiber compos-ites were created from an aquagel. The water in the aquagel was exchanged with ethanol and then dried and carbonized. Higher amylose content starches and fiber contents of up to 4% improved the processability of the foam. The SMCF structure revealed agglomerates of swollen starch granules connected by a web of starch with pores in the 50-200 nanometer range. Heating the SMCF-fiber in a nitrogen atmosphere to temperatures between 350-700˚C produced carbon foams with a three-dimensional closed cell foam structure with cell diameters around 50 microns and pore walls around 1-3 microns. The stress versus strain compression data for carbonized samples displayed a linear elastic region and a plateau indicative of brittle crushing, typical of an elastic-brittle foam. The carbon foam products from these renew-able precursors are promising carbon structures with moderate strength and low density.

  19. Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Ichiro; Shimoizumi, Hideo; Miyao, Masutomo; Kamoshita, Shigehiko

    1986-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy, who showed low density areas at bilateral striatal portion on brain CT, was reported. Characteristic clinical features were summarized as follows: 1. Onset in childhood (3 years old), 2. gait disturbance, dysarthria, involuntaly movement such as choreoathetosis and dystonia, 3. mild mental retardation (IQ 70), and 4. slowly progressive course over several years. Family history was unremarkable. His parents were not consanguineous. He was well until 3 years old, when he developed gait disturbance. At the age of 4, CT showed hypodensity lesions in the bilateral putamens, and right caudate was involved at 7, followed by bilateral caudate involvements at 10. Laboratory findings including blood lactate, pyruvate, serum copper, ceruloplasmin, aminoacids, urine and CSF catecholamines were within normal limits. TRH and thiamine therapies were ineffective L-dopa was slightly effective in movements, but symptoms were slowly progressive. We reviewed fourteen reported cases which were similar to our case in their onset, symptoms, clinical course and CT findings. Although the etiology was unknown, this case is possibly a new disease entity. (author)

  20. Morphology of Burned Ultra-low Density Fiberboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Niu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of two fire retardants, a Si-Al compound and chlorinated paraffin, was tested on ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs. To further understand the mechanism of fire retardancy, morphologies of unburned and burned ULDFs were studied using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that as the volume of the burned ULDFs shrank, some crevices appeared. In addition, less fly ash formed on the top of specimens, and more bottom ashes remained in the original framework, with a clear network of structure built by the fibers. Carbon was almost absent in the fly ash; however, the weight ratio of C in the bottom ashes reached the maximum (> 43% of the composition. Oxygen, Al, and Si appeared to have varying weight ratios for different ashes. Oxygen content increased with increasing Si and Al contents. Furthermore, Cl sharply decreased to less than 1% after combustion. Therefore, upon combustion, it was found that almost all of the substances in ULDFs, except for the Si-Al compound, were pyrolyzed to volatile carbon oxides and Cl compounds, especially the fly ash and lightweight C compounds.

  1. DAQ system for low density plasma parameters measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Rashmi S.; Gupta, Suryakant B.

    2015-01-01

    In various cases where low density plasmas (number density ranges from 1E4 to 1E6 cm -3 ) exist for example, basic plasma studies or LEO space environment measurement of plasma parameters becomes very critical. Conventional tip (cylindrical) Langmuir probes often result into unstable measurements in such lower density plasma. Due to larger surface area, a spherical Langmuir probe is used to measure such lower plasma densities. Applying a sweep voltage signal to the probe and measuring current values corresponding to these voltages gives V-I characteristics of plasma which can be plotted on a digital storage oscilloscope. This plot is analyzed for calculating various plasma parameters. The aim of this paper is to measure plasma parameters using a spherical Langmuir probe and indigenously developed DAQ system. DAQ system consists of Keithley source-meter and a host system connected by a GPIB interface. An online plasma parameter diagnostic system is developed for measuring plasma properties for non-thermal plasma in vacuum. An algorithm is developed using LabVIEW platform. V-I characteristics of plasma are plotted with respect to different filament current values and different locations of Langmuir probe with reference to plasma source. V-I characteristics is also plotted for forward and reverse voltage sweep generated programmatically from the source meter. (author)

  2. Microwave characteristics of low density flaky magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenqiang, Zhang; Deyuan, Zhang; Jun, Cai

    2013-01-01

    Diatomite coated with thin Fe films were obtained by the Chemical Vapor Deposition process. The resultant Fe-coated flaky diatomite particles had low densities (2.7–4.0 g/cm 3 ) and high saturation magnetization (93–157 emu/g). Annealing treatment led to grain growth and an increased saturation magnetization. The high frequency properties of the composites consisting of Fe-coated flaky diatomite particles and wax were investigated. The permittivity and permeability increased with increasing flaky magnetic particles content in the composite and increasing the Fe weight percentage of the particles. The reflection loss of the composite was found dependent on the absorber material thickness, wax:flaky magnetic particles ratios, the Fe content, as well as the annealing treatment. At a thickness of 1 mm, the composite records a minimum reflection loss of −18 dB at 6 GHz. - Highlights: ► We synthesize the flaky magnetic particles with the diatomite as template. ► The flaky magnetic particles coating layers are constituted by α-Fe. ► The flaky magnetic particles have good static magnetic properties. ► The flaky magnetic particles are a kind light weight high performance microwave absorber

  3. Ultralow energy ion beam surface modification of low density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Martyn J; Bradley, James W; van den Berg, Jaap A; Armour, David G; Stevens, Gary C

    2005-12-01

    Ultralow energy Ar+ and O+ ion beam irradiation of low density polyethylene has been carried out under controlled dose and monoenergetic conditions. XPS of Ar+-treated surfaces exposed to ambient atmosphere show that the bombardment of 50 eV Ar+ ions at a total dose of 10(16) cm(-2) gives rise to very reactive surfaces with oxygen incorporation at about 50% of the species present in the upper surface layer. Using pure O+ beam irradiation, comparatively low O incorporation is achieved without exposure to atmosphere (approximately 13% O in the upper surface). However, if the surface is activated by Ar+ pretreatment, then large oxygen contents can be achieved under subsequent O+ irradiation (up to 48% O). The results show that for very low energy (20 eV) oxygen ions there is a dose threshold of about 5 x 10(15) cm(-2) before surface oxygen incorporation is observed. It appears that, for both Ar+ and O+ ions in this regime, the degree of surface modification is only very weakly dependent on the ion energy. The results suggest that in the nonequilibrium plasma treatment of polymers, where the ion flux is typically 10(18) m(-2) s(-1), low energy ions (<50 eV) may be responsible for surface chemical modification.

  4. Surface determinants of low density lipoprotein uptake by endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeroeg, P.; Pearson, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The surface sialic acid content of aortic endothelial cells in vitro was substantially lower in sparse cultures than at confluence. Binding of LDL to endothelial cells did not change at different culture densities and was unaffected by brief pretreatment with neuraminidase to partially remove surface sialic acid residues. In contrast, internalisation of LDL declined by a factor of 3 between low density cell cultures and confluent monolayers; neuraminidase pretreatment increased LDL uptake and the effect was most marked (>10-fold) at confluence. Pretreatment with cationised ferritin, which removed most of the surface sialic acid residues as well as glycosaminoglycans, increased LDL internalisation by up to 20-fold, again with most effect on confluent monolayers. Thus LDL uptake is inversely correlated with sialic acid content. We conclude that changes in the surface density of sialic acid (and possibly other charged) residues significantly modulate endothelial LDL uptake, and suggest that focal increases in LDL accumulation during atherogenesis may be related to alterations in endothelial endocytic properties at sites of increased cell turnover or damage. (author)

  5. Direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric laminar low-density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lendinez, Daniel; Coenen, Wilfried; Sevilla, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    The stability of submerged laminar axisymmetric low-density jets has been investigated experimentally (Kyle & Sreenivasan 1993, Hallberg & Strykowski 2006) and with linear analysis (Jendoubi & Strykowski 1994, Coenen & Sevilla 2012, Coenen et al. 2017). These jets become globally unstable when the Reynolds number is larger than a certain critical value which depends on the density ratio and on the velocity profile at the injector outlet. In this work, Direct Numerical Simulations using FreeFEM + + (Hecht 2012) with P1 elements for pressure and P2 for velocity and density are performed to complement the above mentioned studies. Density and velocity fields are analyzed at long time showing the unforced space-time evolution of nonlinear disturbances propagating along the jet. Using the Stuart-Landau model to fit the numerical results for the self-excited oscillations we have computed a neutral stability curve that shows good agreement with experiments and stability theory. Thanks to Spanish MINECO under projects DPI2014-59292-C3-1-P and DPI2015-71901-REDT for financial support.

  6. Low density molecular cloud in the vicinity of the Pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federman, S.R.; Wilson, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The central region of a small, low density molecular cloud, which lies to the south of the Pleiades cluster, has been studied through the use of molecular line observations. Column densities for CH, OH, 12 CO, and 13 CO are derived from the radio data. The CH and OH data yield a visual extinction through the center of the cloud of about 3 mag. The ratio of the antenna temperatures for the OH main lines is consistent with optically thin emission; therefore, the OH results are a good indication of the total extinction through the optically thin emission; therefore, the OH results are a good indication of the total extinction through the cloud. The analysis of the carbon monoxide data produces a relatively high kinetic temperature of at least 20 K, a low total gas density of approx.300-500 cm -3 , and a column density of approx.4 x 10 17 cm -2 for 12 CO. Thus this small molecular cloud is not typical of the molecular material generally studied in Taurus

  7. Microwave characteristics of low density flaky magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqiang, Zhang, E-mail: zwqzwqzwqzwq@126.com [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Deyuan, Zhang [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Jun, Cai, E-mail: jun_cai@buaa.edu.cn [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Diatomite coated with thin Fe films were obtained by the Chemical Vapor Deposition process. The resultant Fe-coated flaky diatomite particles had low densities (2.7–4.0 g/cm{sup 3}) and high saturation magnetization (93–157 emu/g). Annealing treatment led to grain growth and an increased saturation magnetization. The high frequency properties of the composites consisting of Fe-coated flaky diatomite particles and wax were investigated. The permittivity and permeability increased with increasing flaky magnetic particles content in the composite and increasing the Fe weight percentage of the particles. The reflection loss of the composite was found dependent on the absorber material thickness, wax:flaky magnetic particles ratios, the Fe content, as well as the annealing treatment. At a thickness of 1 mm, the composite records a minimum reflection loss of −18 dB at 6 GHz. - Highlights: ► We synthesize the flaky magnetic particles with the diatomite as template. ► The flaky magnetic particles coating layers are constituted by α-Fe. ► The flaky magnetic particles have good static magnetic properties. ► The flaky magnetic particles are a kind light weight high performance microwave absorber.

  8. Preparation of microcellular foam in cylindrical metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apen, P.G.; Armstrong, S.V.; Moore, J.E.; Espinoza, B.F.; Gurule, V.; Gobby, P.L.; Williams, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation of microcellular foam in cylindrical gold targets is described. The goal cylinders were fabricated by electroplating gold onto a silicon bronze mandrel and leaching the mandrel with concentrated nitric acid. After several rinsing and cleaning steps, the cylinders were filled with a solution containing trimethylolpropanetriacrylate (TMPTA). Low density, microcellular polymeric foam was prepared by in situ photopolymerization of the TMPTA solution. Foam preparation was extremely sensitive to metal ion contaminants. In particular, copper ions left behind from the leaching process inhibit polymerization and must be removed in order to obtain uniform, non-shrinking foams. A study on the effects of potential contaminants and polymerization inhibitors on TMPTA photopolymerization is presented. In addition, a procedure for the effective leaching and cleaning of gold cylinders is described

  9. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen; Yang, Jiamin; Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Lin, Zhiwei; Jing, Longfei; Li, Liling; Deng, Bo; Yuan, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Guanghui; Tan, Xiulan; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum

  10. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu; Ding, Yongkun, E-mail: ding-yk@vip.sina.com; Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: jiangshn@vip.sina.com; Yang, Jiamin; Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Lin, Zhiwei; Jing, Longfei; Li, Liling; Deng, Bo; Yuan, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Guanghui; Tan, Xiulan; Li, Ping [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum.

  11. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  12. Imaging human atherosclerosis with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Schoen, F.J.; Isaacsohn, J.L.; Fischman, A.J.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of localizing human atherosclerotic plaques by gamma scintillation camera external imaging with technetium-99m-labeled low density lipoproteins (99mTc-LDL) was tested in 17 patients who had atherosclerosis. Imaging demonstrated focal accumulation of radiolabel consistent with 99mTc-LDL sequestration by plaques in the carotid, iliac, or femoral vessels of four patients 8 to 21 hours after intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Focal accumulation of 99mTc-LDL also appeared in the location of coronary lesions in four patients, but this accumulation could not be distinguished with certainty from residual blood pool radioactivity. When carotid endarterectomy specimens from six patients who received 99mTc-LDL 1 day before endarterectomy were examined, the specimens had focal accumulations of radiolabel, with two to four times greater radioactivity in some regions of each specimen than in others; this occurred whether or not the lesions were detected on the gamma camera images. Lesion composition may have determined whether accumulation was quantitatively sufficient to produce an external image. Histologically, the imaged carotid specimen had abundant foam cells and macrophages and poorly organized intramural blood consistent with a plaque hemorrhage; in contrast, nonimaged endarterectomy specimens were mature, fibrocalcific plaques. We conclude that: 1) 99mTc-LDL did accumulate in human atherosclerotic plaques; 2) in some patients, the accumulation of 99mTc-LDL was sufficient for detection by gamma camera imaging; 3) the amount of LDL that accumulated appeared to depend on lesion composition; and 4) the design of new radiopharmaceuticals with reduced residual blood pool activity relative to plaque accumulation should lead to improved external imaging of atherosclerosis

  13. Aggregation and fusion of modified low density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikäinen, M O; Lehtonen, E M; Kovanen, P T

    1996-12-01

    In atherogenesis, low density lipoprotein (LDL, diameter 22 nm) accumulates in the extracellular space of the arterial intima in the form of aggregates of lipid droplets (droplet diameter up to 400 nm). Here we studied the effects of various established in vitro LDL modifications on LDL aggregation and fusion. LDL was subjected to vortexing, oxidation by copper ions, proteolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin, lipolysis by sphingomyelinase, and nonenzymatic glycosylation, and was induced to form adducts with malondialdehyde or complexes with anti-apoB-100 antibodies. To assess the amount of enlarged LDL-derived structures formed (due to aggregation or fusion), we measured the turbidity of solutions containing modified LDL, and quantified the proportion of modified LDL that 1) sedimented at low-speed centrifugation (14,000 g), 2) floated at an increased rate at high-speed centrifugation (rate zonal flotation at 285,000 gmax), 3) were excluded in size-exclusion column chromatography (exclusion limit 40 MDa), or 4) failed to enter into 0.5%. Fast Lane agarose gel during electrophoresis. To detect whether particle fusion had contributed to the formation of the enlarged LDL-derived structures, particle morphology was examined using negative staining and thin-section transmission electron microscopy. We found that 1) aggregation was induced by the formation of LDL-antibody complexes, malondialdehyde treatment, and glycosylation of LDL; 2) fusion of LDL was induced by proteolysis of LDL by alpha-chymotrypsin; and 3) aggregation and fusion of LDL were induced by vortexing, oxidation by copper ions, and lipolysis by sphingomyclinase of LDL. The various modifications of LDL differed in their ability to induce aggregation and fusion.

  14. Foams theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Saad A

    1996-01-01

    This volume discusses the physics and physical processes of foam and foaming. It delineates various measurement techniques for characterizing foams and foam properties as well as the chemistry and application of foams. The use of foams in the textile industry, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, firefighting and mineral floatation are highlighted, and the connection between the microstructure and physical properties of foam are detailed. Coverage includes nonaqueous foams and silicone antifoams, and more.

  15. Model fire tests on polyphosphazene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenor, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A video tape record of model room fire tests was shown, comparing polyphosphazene (P-N) rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber closed-cell foams as interior finish thermal insulation under conditions directly translatable to an actual fire situation. Flashover did not occur with the P-N foam and only moderate amounts of low density smoke were formed, whereas with the PVC/nitrile foam, flashover occurred quickly and large volumes of high density smoke were emitted. The P-N foam was produced in a pilot plant under carefully controlled conditions. The PVC/nitrile foam was a commercial product. A major phase of the overall program involved fire tests on P-N open-cell foam cushioning.

  16. Polystyrene Foam EOS as a Function of Porosity and Fill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Roberta; Swift, Damian

    2009-06-01

    An accurate EOS for polystyrene foam is necessary for analysis of numerous experiments in shock compression, inertial confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Plastic to gas ratios vary between various samples of foam, according to the density and cell-size of the foam. A matrix of compositions has been investigated, allowing prediction of foam response as a function of the plastic-to-air ratio. The EOS code CHEETAH allows participation of the air in the decomposition reaction of the foam, Differences between air-filled, nitrogen-blown, and CO2-blown foams are investigated, to estimate the importance of allowing air to react with plastic products during decomposition. Results differ somewhat from the conventional EOS, which are generated from values for plastic extrapolated to low densities.

  17. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  18. Combining Ratio Estimation for Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Saad; Hi, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Code decoding algorithm make use of a scaled receive signal derived from maximizing the log-likelihood ratio of the received signal. The scaling factor (often called the combining ratio) in an AWGN channel is a ratio between signal amplitude and noise variance. Accurately estimating this ratio has shown as much as 0.6 dB decoding performance gain. This presentation briefly describes three methods for estimating the combining ratio: a Pilot-Guided estimation method, a Blind estimation method, and a Simulation-Based Look-Up table. The Pilot Guided Estimation method has shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of signal amplitude is the mean inner product of the received sequence and the known sequence, the attached synchronization marker (ASM) , and signal variance is the difference of the mean of the squared received sequence and the square of the signal amplitude. This method has the advantage of simplicity at the expense of latency since several frames worth of ASMs. The Blind estimation method s maximum likelihood estimator is the average of the product of the received signal with the hyperbolic tangent of the product combining ratio and the received signal. The root of this equation can be determined by an iterative binary search between 0 and 1 after normalizing the received sequence. This method has the benefit of requiring one frame of data to estimate the combining ratio which is good for faster changing channels compared to the previous method, however it is computationally expensive. The final method uses a look-up table based on prior simulated results to determine signal amplitude and noise variance. In this method the received mean signal strength is controlled to a constant soft decision value. The magnitude of the deviation is averaged over a predetermined number of samples. This value is referenced in a look up table to determine the combining ratio that prior simulation associated with the average magnitude of

  19. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  20. Low density in liver of idiopathic portal hypertension. A computed tomographic observation with possible diagnostic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishito, Hiroyuki

    1988-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of low density in liver on computed tomography (CT), CT scans of 11 patients with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) were compared with those from 22 cirrhotic patients, two patients with scarred liver and 16 normal subjects. Low densities on plain CT scans in patients with IPH were distinctly different from those observed in normal liver. Some of the low densities had irregular shape with unclear margin and were scattered near the liver surface, and others had vessel-like structures with unclear margin and extended as far as near the liver surface. Ten of the 11 patients with IPH had low densities mentioned above, while none of the 22 cirrhotic patients had such low densities. The present results suggest that the presence of low densities in liver on plain CT scan is clinically beneficial in diagnosis of IPH.

  1. Low-density moderation in the storage of PWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety of PWR fuel storage arrays requires that the potential of low-density moderation within the array be considered. The calculated criticality effect of low-density moderation in a typical PWR fuel assembly array is described in this paper. Calculated reactivity due to low-density moderation can vary significantly between physics codes that have been validated for well moderated systems. The availability of appropriate benchmark experiments for low-density moderation is quite limited; attempts to validate against the one set of suitable experiments at low density have been disappointing. Calculations indicate that a typical array may be unacceptable should the array be subjected to interstitial moderation equivalent to 5 % of full density water. Array parameters (such as spacing and size) will dramatically affect the calculated maximum K-eff at low-density moderation. Administrative and engineered control may be necessary to assure maintenance of safety at low-density moderation. Potential sources for low-density moderation are discussed; in general, accidentally achieving degrees of low-density moderation which might lead to a compromise of safety are not credible. (author)

  2. Cholesterol transfer from normal and atherogenic low density lipoproteins to Mycoplasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitschelen, J.J.; St Clair, R.W.; Hester, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the free cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein from cholesterol-fed nonhuman primates has a greater potential for surface transfer to cell membranes than does the free cholesterol of normal low density lipoprotein. The low density lipoproteins were isolated from normal and hypercholesterolemic rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, incubated with membranes from Acholeplasma laidlawii, a mycoplasma species devoid of cholesterol in its membranes, and the mass transfer of free cholesterol determined by measuring membrane cholesterol content. Since these membranes neither synthesize nor esterify cholesterol, nor degrade the protein or cholesterol ester moieties of low density lipoprotein, they are an ideal model with which to study differences in the cholesterol transfer potential of low density lipoprotein independent of the uptake of the intact low density lipoprotein particle. These studies indicate that, even though there are marked differences in the cholesterol composition of normal and hypercholesterolemic low density lipoproteins, this does not result in a greater chemical potential for surface transfer of free cholesterol. Consequently, if a difference in the surface transfer of free cholesterol is responsible for the enhanced ability of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein to promote cellular cholesterol accumulation and, perhaps, also atherosclerosis, it must be the result of differences in the interaction to the hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein with the more complicated mammalian cell membranes, rather than differences in the chemical potential for cholesterol transfer

  3. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). BACKGROUND ON FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death. Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms. Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario. In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death. In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL-C levels (range 15-25mmol

  4. Fabrication of highly insulating foam glass made from CRT panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    We prepared low-density foam glasses from cathode-ray-tube panel glass using carbon and MnO2 as the foaming agents. We investigated the influence of the carbon and MnO2 concentrations, the glass-powder preparation and the foaming conditions on the density and homogeneity of the pore structure...... and the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the foam density. The results show that the moderate foaming effect of the carbon is greatly improved by the addition of MnO2. A density as low as 131 kg m-3 can be achieved with fine glass powder. The foam density has a slight dependence on the carbon and MnO2...... concentrations, but it is mainly affected by the foaming temperature and the time. The thermal conductivity of the foam-glass samples is lower than that of commercial foam glasses with the same density. The lowest value was determined to be 42 mW m-1 K-1 for a foam glass with a density of 131 kg m-3. A further...

  5. Detection and Characterization of Flaws in Sprayed on Foam Insulation with Pulsed Terahertz Frequency Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and repair of flaws such as voids and delaminations in the sprayed on foam insulation of the external tank reduces the probability of foam debris during shuttle ascent. The low density of sprayed on foam insulation along with it other physical properties makes detection of flaws difficult with conventional techniques. An emerging technology that has application for quantitative evaluation of flaws in the foam is pulsed electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. The short wavelengths of these terahertz pulses make them ideal for imaging flaws in the foam. This paper examines the application of terahertz pulses for flaw detection in foam characteristic of the foam insulation of the external tank. Of particular interest is the detection of voids and delaminations, encapsulated in the foam or at the interface between the foam and a metal backing. The technique is shown to be capable of imaging small voids and delaminations through as much as 20 cm of foam. Methods for reducing the temporal responses of the terahertz pulses to improve flaw detection and yield quantitative characterizations of the size and location of the flaws are discussed.

  6. Pengaruh Penambahan Kitosan dalam Pembuatan Biodegradable Foam Berbahan Baku Pati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Hendrawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable foam is an alternative packaging to replace the expanded polystyrene foam packaging currently in use.   Starch has been used to produce foam because of  its low cost, low density, low toxicity, and  biodegradability. Chitosan has been added to improve mechanical properties of product . The   effect of  variation on chitosan amount  and  starch types  was investigated in this study.  The amount of  chitosan  was varied as 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; and  30 % w/w and starch types were used in this research were cassava, Corn and sago starch. Biodegradable  foam was produced by using baking process method, all of material (Starch, Chitosan solution,  Magnesium Stearate, Carrageenan, Glyserol, Protein Isolates  dan polyvinil alcohol (PVOH  were mixed with kitchen aid mixer. The mixture was poured  into mold and heated in an oven at 125 oC for 1 hour. Then, foam was tested for its mechanical properties, water absorption  and biodegradability and  morphology (SEM.  The results show that  foam made from sago starch had lower water absortion than those made from cassava and corn starch.   While, foam made from cassava starch  was more biodegradable than the other foam.  Biodegradable foam based sago starch and 30 % w/w of Chitosan adition  gave the  best performence in tensile stress that  is 20 Mpa

  7. Operator spin foam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kaminski, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  8. Laser Smoothing and Imprint Reduction with a Foam Layer in the Multikilojoule Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depierreux, S.; Michel, D. T.; Riazuelo, G.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.; Wrobel, R.; Alozy, E.; Soullie, G.; Reverdin, C.; Villette, B.; Labaune, C.; Riconda, C.; Stenz, C.; Nicolaie, P.; Weber, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Grech, M.; Borisenko, N. G.; Nazarov, W.; Hueller, S.

    2009-01-01

    This Letter presents first experimental results of the laser imprint reduction in fusion scale plasmas using a low-density foam layer. The experiments were conducted on the LIL facility at the energy level of 12 kJ with millimeter-size plasmas, reproducing the conditions of the initial interaction phase in the direct-drive scheme. The results include the generation of a supersonic ionization wave in the foam and the reduction of the initial laser fluctuations after propagation through 500 μm of foam with limited levels of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering. The smoothing mechanisms are analyzed and explained.

  9. Evaluation of recycled bioplastic pellets and a sprayable formulation for application of an Aspergillus flavus biocontrol strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocontrol of Aspergillus flavus using inoculated bioplastic granules has been proven to be effective under laboratory and field conditions. In the present study, the use of low-density pellets from recycled bioplastic as a biocontrol strain carrier was evaluated. Applying recycled bioplastic pell...

  10. Do Low-Density Diets Improve Broiler Breeder Welfare During Rearing and Laying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced.

  11. Scat-detection dogs survey low density moose in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Kretser; Michale Glennon; Alice Whitelaw; Aimee Hurt; Kristine Pilgrim; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty of collecting occurrence and population dynamics data in mammalian populations of low density poses challenges for making informed management decisions. We assessed the use of scat-detection dogs to search for fecal pellets in a low density moose (Alces alces) population in the Adirondack Park in New York State, and the success rate of DNA...

  12. Modification of low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Rosa, D. dos

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the gamma radiation (of a 60 Co source), over low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends of low density polyethylene / polypropylene were studied. The structures modifications were attended by infrared spectrometry (IV), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), strain-strain measurement, density measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM). (author)

  13. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOOLSBY, TOMMY D.; SCOTT, STEVEN H.

    1999-01-01

    seriously injured during violent confrontations. The very low density of the high expansion foam also makes it more suitable for indoor use. This paper summarizes the results of the project

  14. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOOLSBY,TOMMY D.; SCOTT,STEVEN H.

    1999-09-15

    be seriously injured during violent confrontations. The very low density of the high expansion foam also makes it more suitable for indoor use. This paper summarizes the results of the project.

  15. Mechanical properties of tannin-based rigid foams undergoing compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celzard, A., E-mail: Alain.Celzard@enstib.uhp-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Zhao, W. [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Pizzi, A. [ENSTIB-LERMAB, Nancy-University, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Fierro, V. [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France)

    2010-06-25

    The mechanical properties of a new class of extremely lightweight tannin-based materials, namely organic foams and their carbonaceous counterparts are detailed. Scaling laws are shown to describe correctly the observed behaviour. Information about the mechanical characteristics of the elementary forces acting within these solids is derived. It is suggested that organic materials present a rather bending-dominated behaviour and are partly plastic. On the contrary, carbon foams obtained by pyrolysis of the former present a fracture-dominated behaviour and are purely brittle. These conclusions are supported by the differences in the exponent describing the change of Young's modulus as a function of relative density, while that describing compressive strength is unchanged. Features of the densification strain also support such conclusions. Carbon foams of very low density may absorb high energy when compressed, making them valuable materials for crash protection.

  16. Amalgamation of Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets in foam cells in human atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Tran, Dihn; Lord, Reginald

    2008-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infect macrophages and accelerates foam cell formation in in vitro experiments, but whether this might occur in human atherosclerosis is unknown. In the present study, we examined 17 carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae in the cytoplasm of macrophage foam cells. The volume of the cytoplasm that was free from vacuoles and lipid droplets in C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells was dramatically reduced, and a phenomenon of the amalgamation of C. pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets was detected. Double immunohistochemistry showed that C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells contained a large number of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. The observations provide support to the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae could affect foam cell formation in human atherosclerosis.

  17. Effect of PVA and PDE on selected structural characteristics of extrusion-cooked starch foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Combrzyński

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to determine selected physical properties of biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS filling foams manufactured by extrusion-cooking technique from different combinations of potato starch and two additives: poly(vinyl alcohol PVA and Plastronfoam PDE. Foams were processed with seven starch/additives combinations at two different extruder-cooker’s screw rotational speeds. The densities of starch foams depended significantly on the additive type and content. The linear relationship between the Young modulus and the ultimate compression force and apparent density was found. The foams processed with the addition of PVA had low density, porosity and lower values of the Young modulus than the foams prepared with PDE.

  18. Salidroside protects against foam cell formation and apoptosis, possibly via the MAPK and AKT signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jing; Li, Yuanmin; Li, Weiming; Guo, Rong

    2017-10-10

    Foam cell formation and apoptosis are closely associated with atherosclerosis pathogenesis. We determined the effect of salidroside on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation and apoptosis in THP1 human acute monocytic leukemia cells and investigated the associated molecular mechanisms. THP1-derived macrophages were incubated with salidroside for 5 h and then exposed to ox-LDL for 24 h to induce foam cell formation. Cytotoxicity, lipid deposition, apoptosis, and the expression of various proteins were tested using the CCK8 kit, Oil Red O staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting, respectively. Ox-LDL treatment alone promoted macrophage-derived foam cell formation, while salidroside treatment alone inhibited it (p foam cell formation and apoptosis, partly by regulating the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  20. Thermosetting Fluoropolymer Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1987-01-01

    New process makes fluoropolymer foams with controllable amounts of inert-gas fillings in foam cells. Thermosetting fluoropolymers do not require foaming additives leaving undesirable residues and do not have to be molded and sintered at temperatures of about 240 to 400 degree C. Consequently, better for use with electronic or other parts sensitive to high temperatures or residues. Uses include coatings, electrical insulation, and structural parts.

  1. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  2. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  3. Flexible Foam Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.; Scherzinger, William M.; Lo, Chi S.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.

  4. Mechanisms of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Grechko, Andrey V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2017-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol homeostasis in the peripheral blood is maintained by specialized cells, such as macrophages. Macrophages express a variety of scavenger receptors (SR) that interact with lipoproteins, including SR-A1, CD36, and lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). These cells also have several cholesterol transporters, including ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI, that are involved in reverse cholesterol transport. Lipids internalized by phagocytosis are transported to late endosomes/lysosomes, where lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) digests cholesteryl esters releasing free cholesterol. Free cholesterol in turn is processed by acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (ACAT1), an enzyme that transforms cholesterol to cholesteryl esters. The endoplasmic reticulum serves as a depot for maintaining newly synthesized cholesteryl esters that can be processed by neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH), which generates free cholesterol that can exit via cholesterol transporters. In atherosclerosis, pro-inflammatory stimuli upregulate expression of scavenger receptors, especially LOX-1, and downregulate expression of cholesterol transporters. ACAT1 is also increased, while NCEH expression is reduced. This results in deposition of free and esterified cholesterol in macrophages and generation of foam cells. Moreover, other cell types, such as endothelial (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), can also become foam cells. In this review, we discuss known pathways of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

  5. Deformation and energy absorption properties of powder-metallurgy produced Al foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailidis, N.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Porous Al fabricated via a dissolution and sintering method using raw cane sugar. → Different deformation mode depending on the relative density of the foams. → Enhanced energy absorption by reducing pore size and relative density of the foam. → Pore size uniformity and sintering temperature affect energy absorption. - Abstract: Al-foams with relative densities ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 and mean pore sizes of 0.35, 0.70 and 1.35 mm were manufactured by a powder metallurgy technology, based on raw cane sugar as a space-holder material. Compressive tests were carried out to investigate the deformation and energy absorbing characteristics and mechanisms of the produced Al-foams. The deformation mode of low density Al-foams is dominated by the bending and buckling of cell walls and the formation of macroscopic deformation bands whereas that of high density Al-foams is predominantly attributed to plastic yielding. The energy absorbing capacity of Al-foams rises for increased relative density and compressive strength. The sintering temperature of Al-foams having similar relative densities has a marked influence on both, energy absorbing efficiency and capacity. Pore size has a marginal effect on energy efficiency aside from Al-foams with mean pore size of 0.35 which exhibit enhanced energy absorption as a result of increased friction during deformation at lower strain levels.

  6. Scaling up the Fabrication of Mechanically-Robust Carbon Nanofiber Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Curtin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to identify and address the main challenges associated with fabricating large samples of carbon foams composed of interwoven networks of carbon nanofibers. Solutions to two difficulties related with the process of fabricating carbon foams, maximum foam size and catalyst cost, were developed. First, a simple physical method was invented to scale-up the constrained formation of fibrous nanostructures process (CoFFiN to fabricate relatively large foams. Specifically, a gas deflector system capable of maintaining conditions supportive of carbon nanofiber foam growth throughout a relatively large mold was developed. ANSYS CFX models were used to simulate the gas flow paths with and without deflectors; the data generated proved to be a very useful tool for the deflector design. Second, a simple method for selectively leaching the Pd catalyst material trapped in the foam during growth was successfully tested. Multiple techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurements, and mechanical testing, were employed to characterize the foams generated in this study. All results confirmed that the larger foam samples preserve the basic characteristics: their interwoven nanofiber microstructure forms a low-density tridimensional solid with viscoelastic behavior. Fiber growth mechanisms are also discussed. Larger samples of mechanically-robust carbon nanofiber foams will enable the use of these materials as strain sensors, shock absorbers, selective absorbents for environmental remediation and electrodes for energy storage devices, among other applications.

  7. Kinetic modeling of low density lipoprotein oxidation in arterial wall and its application in atherosclerotic lesions prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Safoora; Dadvar, Mitra; Modarress, Hamid; Dabir, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the major factors in atherogenic process. Trapped oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) in the subendothelial matrix is taken up by macrophage and leads to foam cell generation creating the first step in atherosclerosis development. Many researchers have studied LDL oxidation using in vitro cell-induced LDL oxidation model. The present study provides a kinetic model for LDL oxidation in intima layer that can be used in modeling of atherosclerotic lesions development. This is accomplished by considering lipid peroxidation kinetic in LDL through a system of elementary reactions. In comparison, characteristics of our proposed kinetic model are consistent with the results of previous experimental models from other researches. Furthermore, our proposed LDL oxidation model is added to the mass transfer equation in order to predict the LDL concentration distribution in intima layer which is usually difficult to measure experimentally. According to the results, LDL oxidation kinetic constant is an important parameter that affects LDL concentration in intima layer so that existence of antioxidants that is responsible for the reduction of initiating rates and prevention of radical formations, have increased the concentration of LDL in intima by reducing the LDL oxidation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of multishell ICF target plastic-foam cushion materials by thermally induced phase-inversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.; Moreno, D.K.; Marsters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Homogenous, low-density plastic foams for ICF targets have been prepared by thermally induced phase inversion processes. Uniform, open cell foams have been obtained by the rapid freezing of water solutions of modified cellulose polymers with densities in the range of 5 mg/cm 3 to 0.7 mg/cm 3 and respective average cell sizes of 2 to 40 micrometers. In addition, low-density, microcellular foams have been prepared from the hydrocarbon polymer poly(4-methyl-l-pentene) via a similar phase inversion process using homogenous solutions in organic solvents. These foams have densities from 2 to 5 mg/cm 3 and average cell sizes of 20 micrometers. The physical-chemical aspects of the thermally induced phase inversion process is presented

  9. Regions of low density in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland: normal and pathologic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.F.; Turski, P.A.; LaMasters, D.; Newton, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of low-density regions in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland and the possible causes of these regions were investigated by a retrospective review of computed tomographic (CT) scans of the head in 50 patients and autopsy specimens of the pituitary in 100 other patients. It was found that focal areas of low density within the contrast enhanced pituitary gland can be caused by various normal and pathologic conditions such as pituitary microadenomas, pars intermedia cysts, foci of metastasis, infarcts, epidermoid cysts, and abscesses. Although most focal low-density regions probably represent pituitary microadenomas, careful clinical correlation is needed to establish a diagnosis

  10. Beer foam physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and

  11. Synthesis and characterization of titanium and yttrium precursors with unsaturated ligands: application to the doping of low-density micro-molecular materials oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamet-Cauro, L.-C.

    2001-01-01

    The laser-matter interaction experiments for high-power pulsed lasers require doped micro-targets. The ablator is a Low-Density Microcellular Material,foam namely a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer obtained by a HIPE process (High Internal Polymerisation Emulsion). The spectroscopic tracers selected for doping are titanium, yttrium and aluminium as oxides. For obtaining these hybrid organic-inorganic materials, precursors with polymerizable ligands were introduced during the emulsification step since the unsaturation of the ligands could participate in the copolymerization reaction. We report here in the synthesis and characterization of titanium and yttrium precursors with polymerizable ligands. The structures of [Ti(O i Pr) 3 (AMP)] 2 (HAMP allyl-methylphenol), [Ti(OEt) 3 (AAA)] 2 (HAAA allylacetoacetate), Y 8 O 2 (OH) 4 (OEt) 6 (AAA) 10 were established by X-ray diffraction. Ti 4 O 3 (OR) 8 (AAA) 2 (R Et, i Pr).[TiO(O i Pr)(oleate)] m , Y 4 (OH) 2 (AAA) 5 , Y 4 O(O i Pr) 5 (AAA) 5 , Y 4 (OH) 4 Cl 5 (AAA) 3 (THF) 3 have been prepared as well and characterized by FT-IR, 1 HNMR and elemental analysis. Micro-hydrolysis reactions of titanium derivatives were investigated. The rates of polymerisation and copolymerization with styrene were evaluated for the titanium precursors with polymerizable ligands. The parameters of the HIPE process were adapted to the fabrication of doped foams, only the dopant and initiator change. We discuss incorporation mechanisms of titanium oxide and yttrium oxo-hydroxides: precursor-surfactant interaction, copolymerization of precursors with unsaturated ligands and physical or chemical retention. The foams have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (morphology), elemental analysis and fluorescence X cartography (amount, distribution of metal oxide), adsorption isotherms (BET, texture), compression tests (mechanical strength). Due to this systematic study, a good control of doping has become possible and allowed us to develop

  12. Fluorocarbon seal replaces metal piston ring in low density gas environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morath, W. D.; Morgan, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    Reinforced fluorocarbon cupseal, which provides an integral lip-type seal, replaces the metal piston rings in piston-cylinder configurations used in the compression of low density gases. The fluorocarbon seal may be used as cryogenic compressor piston seals.

  13. Development of Low Density CaMg-A1-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senkov, O. N; Scott, J. M; Miracle, D. B

    2006-01-01

    Low density Ca-Mg-Al-based bulk metallic glasses containing additionally Cu and Zn, were produced by a copper mold casting method as wedge-shaped samples with thicknesses varying from 0.5 mm to 10 rom...

  14. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Benjamin; J. Ryan Bellmore; Grace A. Watson

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to salmon runs. We explored whether low densities...

  15. Development of antifungal films based on low-density polyethylene and thyme oil for avocado packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Trilayer low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of thyme oil, as the antifungal active additive for avocado packaging. A comprehensive thermal, structural, mechanical, and functional...

  16. Obtention of scintillography images by low density lipoproteins labelled with technetium 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.; Coelho, I.; Zanardo, E.; Pileggi, F.; Meneguethi, C.; Maranhao, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The low density lipoproteins carry the most part of the cholesterol in the blood plasma. These lipoproteins are labelled with technetium-99-m and have been used for obtaining images in nuclear medicine. The introduction of this technique is presented, aiming futures clinical uses. Scintillographic images are obtained 25 minutes and 24 hours after the injection of 3 m Ci of low density lipoproteins - technetium-99 m in rabbits. (C.G.C.)

  17. IMPROVING GLOBALlAND30 ARTIFICIAL TYPE EXTRACTION ACCURACY IN LOW-DENSITY RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available GlobalLand 30 is the first 30m resolution land cover product in the world. It covers the area within 80°N and 80°S. There are ten classes including artificial cover, water bodies, woodland, lawn, bare land, cultivated land, wetland, sea area, shrub and snow,. The TM imagery from Landsat is the main data source of GlobalLand 30. In the artificial surface type, one of the omission error happened on low-density residents’ part. In TM images, hash distribution is one of the typical characteristics of the low-density residents, and another one is there are a lot of cultivated lands surrounded the low-density residents. Thus made the low-density residents part being blurred with cultivated land. In order to solve this problem, nighttime light remote sensing image is used as a referenced data, and on the basis of NDBI, we add TM6 to calculate the amount of surface thermal radiation index TR-NDBI (Thermal Radiation Normalized Difference Building Index to achieve the purpose of extracting low-density residents. The result shows that using TR-NDBI and the nighttime light remote sensing image are a feasible and effective method for extracting low-density residents’ areas.

  18. Impact of foamed matrix components on foamed concrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the matrix foam structure by means of foam stabilizing additives is aimed at solving the technology-oriented problems as well as at the further improvement of physical and mechanical properties of cellular-concrete composites. The dry foam mineralization is the mainstream of this research. Adding the concrete densifiers, foam stabilizers and mineral powders reduces the drying shrinkage, which makes the foam concrete products technologically effective.

  19. Metal-doped organic foam and method of making same. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, J.A.

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for producing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  20. Structure and Compressive Properties of Invar-Cenosphere Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Luong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36 matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.% of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately 41.6 and 60.0 vol.% in relation to the metal content and at 0.6 g/cm3 hollow particle density. The synthesis process results in survival of cenospheres and provides low density syntactic foams. The microstructure of the materials is investigated as well as the mechanical performance under quasi-static and high strain rate compressive loads. The compressive stress-strain curves of syntactic foams reveal a continuous strain hardening behavior in the plastic region, followed by a densification region. The results reveal a strain rate sensitivity in cenosphere-based Invar matrix syntactic foams. Differences in properties between cenosphere- and glass microsphere-based materials are discussed in relation to the findings of microstructural investigations. Cenospheres present a viable choice as filler material in iron-based syntactic foams due to their higher thermal stability compared to glass microspheres.

  1. Technology of foamed propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnlein-Mauss, Jutta; Kroeber, Hartmut [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Foamed propellants are based on crystalline explosives bonded in energetic reaction polymers. Due to their porous structures they are distinguished by high burning rates. Energy content and material characteristics can be varied by using different energetic fillers, energetic polymers and porous structures. Foamed charges can be produced easily by the reaction injection moulding process. For the manufacturing of foamed propellants a semi-continuous remote controlled production plant in pilot scale was set up and a modified reaction injection moulding process was applied. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Dynamics of poroelastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Yoel; Sobac, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    Soft poroelastic structures are widespread in biological tissues such as cartilaginous joints in bones, blood-filled placentae or plant organs. Here we investigate the dynamics of open elastic foams immersed in viscous fluids, as model soft poroelastic materials. The experiment consists in slowly compacting blocs of polyurethane solid foam embedded in silicon oil-tanks and studying their relaxation to equilibrium when the confining stress is suddenly released. Measurements of the local fluid pressure and foam velocity field are compared with a simple two-phase flow approach. For small initial compactions, the results show quantitative agreement with the classical diffusion theory of soil consolidation (Terzaghi, Biot). On the other hand, for large initial compactions, the dynamics exhibits long relaxation times and decompaction fronts, which are mainly controlled by the highly non-linear mechanical response of the foam. The analogy between this process and the evaporation of a polymer melt close to the glass transition will be briefly discussed.

  3. Low density lesion in solid mass on CT: Pathologic change and housfield number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Il; Lim, Joo Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Ko, Young Tae; Song, Mi Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie

    1994-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic changes and housfield unit of the low density lesion in solid mass on CT. Pathologically proved solid mass was evaluated in regard to the shape and margin of the low density in the mass on the CT scans of 23 patient. The CT number of the low density lesion was correlated with the pathologic changes. Pathologic changes of the low density lesions were; necrosis (n=17), hemorrhage (n=13), cyst (n=4), myxoid degeneration (n=2), hyaline degeneration (n=1), fibrosis (n=1), and mixed cellularity (n=1). In 14 cases, more than 2 pathologic changes were seen. In 11 cases, necrosis was associated with hemorrhage. The CT number ranged from 11.5 to 44.9 Housfield unit(HU) (mean, 25.2 HU). The average CT number was 26.9 HU in hemorrhage and necrosis, 17.2 HU in cystic change, 20.9 HU in myxoid degeneration, 35.7 HU in hyaline de generation, 22.3 HU in fibrosis, and 21.4 HU in mixed cellularity. The hemorrhage and necrosis in 17 cases showed irregular margin, amorphous shape, and showed centrifugal distribution. The cystic change in 4 cases showed well defined margin, round shape, and peripheral location in solid mass. The low density lesions in solid mass on CT represented variable pathologic changes; necrosis, hemorrhage, cyst, myxoid degeneration, hyaline degeneration, fibrosis, and mixed cellularity. Pathologic changes would not be differentiated on the basis of CT number

  4. 1-D Van der Waals Foams Heated by Ion Beam Energy Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylstra, A.B.; Barnard, J.J.; More, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    One dimensional simulations of various initial average density aluminum foams (modeled as slabs of solid metal separated by low density regions) heated by volumetric energy deposition are conducted with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code using a van der Waals equation of tate (EOS). The resulting behavior is studied to facilitate the design of future warm dense matter (WDM) experiments at LBNL. In the simulations the energy deposition ranges from 10 to 30 kJ/g and from 0.075 to 4.0 ns total pulse length, resulting in temperatures from approximately 1 o 4 eV. We study peak pressures and temperatures in the foams, expansion velocity, and the phase evolution. Five relevant time scales in the problem are identified. Additionally, we present a method for characterizing the level of inhomogeneity in a foam target as it is heated and the time it takes for a foam to homogenize.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  6. Three cases of acute encephalopathy with low density areas in the occipital lobes on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Masako; Nakano, Chizuko; Takakura, Hiroki; Otani, Kyoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Three female infants with acute encephalopathy (aged from 5 months to 1 year and 8 months) are presented in whom peculiar features were obtained on cranial CT. Disturbances of consciousness and spasm were seen in all patients. Although two patients had been in good health until the onset, the other patient had had nodular sclerosis. Laboratory data showed no evidence of inflammation in the spinal fluid, but increased levels of transaminase and LDH. CT around 7 days after the onset revealed diffuse low density areas. This was noted in the temporal and occipital lobes, mainly resulting from edema. Follow-up CT examinations revealed localized low density areas corresponding to the surface area, being probably attributable to disturbances of the arterial and venous circulations. In two patients with severe disturbances of consciousness, low density areas became more marked with time. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Analysis of compaction shock interactions during DDT of low density HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in confined, low density granular HMX occurs by a complex mechanism that involves compaction shock interactions within the material. Piston driven DDT experiments indicate that detonation is abruptly triggered by the interaction of a strong combustion-supported secondary shock and a piston-supported primary (input) shock, where the nature of the interaction depends on initial packing density and primary shock strength. These interactions influence transition by affecting dissipative heating within the microstructure during pore collapse. Inert meso-scale simulations of successive shock loading of low density HMX are performed to examine how dissipation and hot-spot formation are affected by the initial density, and the primary and secondary shock strengths. This information is used to formulate an ignition and burn model for low density HMX that accounts for the effect of shock densensitization on burn. Preliminary DDT predictions are presented that illustrate how primary shock strength affects the transition mechanism.

  8. Experimental hypothyroidism modulates the expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor by the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabottolo, Lia; Trezzi, Ermanno; Roma, Paola; Catapano, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of exprimental hypothyroidism of the catabolism of plasma lipoproteins and on the expression of low density lipoprotein receptors by the liver was investigated in rats made hypothyroid by surgery. The animals developed mild hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to an increase of plasma low density lipoprotein, while other lipoprotein classes were only marginally affected. Kinetic studies using ( 125 I)LDL indicated that a decreased fractional catabolic rate of the lipoprotein was responsible for this finding in agreement with the in vitro observation of a reduced binding of lipoproteins to liver membranes from hyperthyroid rats and with the demonstrations, by ligand blotting analysis, of a decreasd expression of lipoprotein receptors in liver membranes. These data suggest that hypothyroidism affects lipoprotein distribution also by decreasing the catabolism of low density lipoproteins by the liver (author)

  9. mdFoam+: Advanced molecular dynamics in OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshaw, S. M.; Borg, M. K.; Ramisetti, S. B.; Zhang, J.; Lockerby, D. A.; Emerson, D. R.; Reese, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces mdFoam+, which is an MPI parallelised molecular dynamics (MD) solver implemented entirely within the OpenFOAM software framework. It is open-source and released under the same GNU General Public License (GPL) as OpenFOAM. The source code is released as a publicly open software repository that includes detailed documentation and tutorial cases. Since mdFoam+ is designed entirely within the OpenFOAM C++ object-oriented framework, it inherits a number of key features. The code is designed for extensibility and flexibility, so it is aimed first and foremost as an MD research tool, in which new models and test cases can be developed and tested rapidly. Implementing mdFoam+ in OpenFOAM also enables easier development of hybrid methods that couple MD with continuum-based solvers. Setting up MD cases follows the standard OpenFOAM format, as mdFoam+ also relies upon the OpenFOAM dictionary-based directory structure. This ensures that useful pre- and post-processing capabilities provided by OpenFOAM remain available even though the fully Lagrangian nature of an MD simulation is not typical of most OpenFOAM applications. Results show that mdFoam+ compares well to another well-known MD code (e.g. LAMMPS) in terms of benchmark problems, although it also has additional functionality that does not exist in other open-source MD codes.

  10. Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Fivos; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Lehmkühler, Felix; Sprung, Michael; Mariedahl, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Pathak, Harshad; Späh, Alexander; Cavalca, Filippo; Schlesinger, Daniel; Ricci, Alessandro; Jain, Avni; Massani, Bernhard; Aubree, Flora; Benmore, Chris J.; Loerting, Thomas; Grübel, Gerhard; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Water exists in high- and low-density amorphous ice forms (HDA and LDA), which could correspond to the glassy states of high- (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) in the metastable part of the phase diagram. However, the nature of both the glass transition and the high-to-low-density transition are debated and new experimental evidence is needed. Here we combine wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) with X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry to probe both the structural and dynamical properties during the high-to-low-density transition in amorphous ice at 1 bar. By analyzing the structure factor and the radial distribution function, the coexistence of two structurally distinct domains is observed at T = 125 K. XPCS probes the dynamics in momentum space, which in the SAXS geometry reflects structural relaxation on the nanometer length scale. The dynamics of HDA are characterized by a slow component with a large time constant, arising from viscoelastic relaxation and stress release from nanometer-sized heterogeneities. Above 110 K a faster, strongly temperature-dependent component appears, with momentum transfer dependence pointing toward nanoscale diffusion. This dynamical component slows down after transition into the low-density form at 130 K, but remains diffusive. The diffusive character of both the high- and low-density forms is discussed among different interpretations and the results are most consistent with the hypothesis of a liquid-liquid transition in the ultraviscous regime.

  11. Low Density Symmetry Energy Effects and the Neutron Star Crust Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, S.; Alvarez-Castillo, D.E.; Porebska, J.

    2010-01-01

    The form of the nuclear symmetry energy E s around saturation point density leads to a different crust-core transition point in the neutron star and affects the crust properties. We show that the knowledge of E s close to the saturation point is not sufficient to determine the position of the transition point and the very low density behaviour is required. We also claim that crust properties are strongly influenced by the very high density behaviour of E s , so in order to conclude about the form of low density part of the symmetry energy from astrophysical data one must isolate properly the high density part. (authors)

  12. Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru

    1981-01-01

    A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)

  13. Supercritical CO2 Foaming of Thermoplastic Materials Derived from Maize: Proof-of-Concept Use in Mammalian Cell Culture Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Portales-Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Del Barone, Maria Cristina; García-López, Erika; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; de los Angeles De Santiago-Miramontes, María; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Rodríguez-González, Ciro Ángel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Background Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds. Methodology/Principal Findings We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively) and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively). Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145) attached to and proliferated on zein foams. Conclusions/Significance We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves). Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity) for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein

  14. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Portales-Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Del Barone, Maria Cristina; García-López, Erika; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; de Los Angeles De Santiago-Miramontes, María; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Rodríguez-González, Ciro Ángel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds. We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively) and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively). Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145) attached to and proliferated on zein foams. We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves). Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity) for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  15. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

    Full Text Available Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds.We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively. Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145 attached to and proliferated on zein foams.We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves. Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  16. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  17. Manufacturing of Cast Metal Foams with Irregular Cell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupová I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic foams are materials of which the research is still on-going, with the broad applicability in many different areas (e.g. automotive industry, building industry, medicine, etc.. These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, high thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting technology (infiltration method, which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with open pores and irregular cell structure made of ferrous and nonferrous alloys by use of various types of filler material (precursors.

  18. Study on the technique for precision measurement of density of SiO_2 foam shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaojun; Gao Dangzhong; Meng Jie

    2013-01-01

    The measuring method based on vertical scanning interference and combined with the relation between refraction index and density of SiO_2 foam shells is introduced, and the relation is analyzed according to formulas of Lorentz-Lorenz and Gladstone-Dale. The experimental result and measuring uncertainty evaluation indicate that the precision measurement of density of low density SiO_2 foam shells can be realized by using the vertical scanning interference technique and combining with Gladstone and Dale analysis method, and the measuring uncertainty is about 5%. (authors)

  19. Low density lipoprotein induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin type B receptor expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...

  20. Effect of methylglyoxal on the physico-chemical and biological properties of low-density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, C.G.; Vermeer, M.A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Koppele, J. te; Princen, H.M.G.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van

    1998-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, non-enzymatic glycation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been suggested to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. α-Dicarbonyl compounds were identified as intermediates in the non-enzymatic glycation and increased levels were reported in patients with

  1. Genetics, Lifestyle, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Young and Apparently Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, Jan-Willem; Rimbert, Antoine; Zhang, Xiang; Viel, Martijn; Kanninga, Roan; van Dijk, Freerk; Lansberg, Peter; Sinke, Richard; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a causal risk factor, is mostly studied and dealt with when clinical events have occurred. Women are usually affected later in life than men and are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied in

  2. Mechanical and electrical properties of low density polyethylene filled with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabet, Maziyar; Soleimani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reveal outstanding electrical and mechanical properties in addition to nanometer scale diameter and high aspect ratio, consequently, making it an ideal reinforcing agent for high strength polymer composites. Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/CNT composites were prepared via melt compounding. Mechanical and electrical properties of (LDPE)/CNT composites with different CNT contents were studied in this research

  3. THE HI INFRARED LINE SPECTRUM FOR BE STARS WITH LOW-DENSITY DISCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZAAL, PA; WATERS, LBFM; MARLBOROUGH, JM

    We present theoretical H alpha and HI infrared recombination line calculations for low-density discs around B stars. Such a disc shows no visible emission in H alpha, while the HI IR recombination lines are in emission. This phenomenon has been found in the spectrum of the B0.2V star, tau Sco and

  4. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to runs. We explored whether low densities (how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  5. A note on asymptotic normality in the thermodynamic limit at low densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    We consider a continuous statistical mechanical system with a pair interaction in a region λ tending to infinity. For low densities asymptotic normality of the canonical statistic is proved, both in the grand canonical ensemble and in the canonical ensemble. The results are illustrated through...

  6. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties

  7. A new look at extensional rheology of low-density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Mangnus, Marc; Alvarez, Nicolas J.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear rheology of three selected commercial low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) is measured in uniaxial extensional flow. The measurements are performed using three different devices including an extensional viscosity fixture (EVF), a homemade filament stretching rheometer (DTU-FSR) and a co...

  8. Covalent Coupling of Nanoparticles with Low-Density Functional Ligands to Surfaces via Click Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rianasari, I.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Huskens, Jurriaan; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (“click‿ reaction) to couple gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with low densities of functional ligands. The ligand coverage on the citrate-stabilized Au NPs was adjusted by the ligand:Au surface atom ratio, while maintaining

  9. Gold nanocrystal labeling allows low-density lipoprotein imaging from the subcellular to macroscopic level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris E.; Leong, Wei; Tang, Jun; Gianella, Anita; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fay, Francois; Ma, Ge; Russell, Stewart; Callo, Catherine B.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Korkmaz, Emine; Post, Jan Andries; Zhao, Yiming; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Thran, Axel; Proksa, Roland; Daerr, Heiner; Storm, Gert; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Cormode, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport and is closely linked to the progression of several diseases. This motivates the development of methods to study LDL behavior from the microscopic to whole-body level. We have developed an approach to efficiently load LDL

  10. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in children with familial hypercholesterolemia and unaffected siblings: effect of pravastatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Jessica; Vissers, Maud N.; Wiegman, Albert; Miller, Elizabeth R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and the effect of pravastatin. BACKGROUND: Oxidized phospholipids are a major component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and are bound to lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. The

  11. Identifying low density lipoprotein cholesterol associated variants in the Annexin A2 (ANXA2) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairoozy, Roaa Hani; Cooper, Jackie; White, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Annexin-A2 (AnxA2) is an endogenous inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9). The repeat-one (R1) domain of AnxA2 binds to PCSK9, blocking its ability to promote degradation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-receptors (LDL-R) and thereby regulat...

  12. Determination of charge carrier mobility in doped low density polyethylene using DC transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M.Salah; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1989-01-01

    Charge carrier mobility was determined for plain and doped low-density polyethylene (LDPE) using DC transient currents. Barium titanate was used as a strongly polar dopant and titanium dioxide as a semiconductor dopant. The values of the mobility obtained were on the order of 10-10 cm2 v-1 s-1...

  13. Low density lipoprotein : structure, dynamics, and interactions of apoB-100 with lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murtola, T.; Vuorela, T.A.; Hyvönen, M.T.; Marrink, S.J.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Vattulainen, I.

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transports cholesterol in the bloodstream and plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, in particular atherosclerosis. Despite its importance to health, the structure of LDL is not known in detail. This is worrying since the lack of LDL's

  14. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  15. Interaction of laser radiation with a low-density structured absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozanov, V. B.; Barishpol’tsev, D.V.; Vergunova, G.A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ivanov, E.M.; Aristova, E.N.; Zmitrenko, N.V.; Limpouch, I.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2016), s. 256-276 ISSN 1063-7761 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser radiation interaction * laser with low-density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016

  16. Highly Shocked Low Density Sedimentary Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a detailed investigation of the shock effects in highly shocked, low density sedimentary rocks from the Haughton impact structure. We suggest that some textural features can be explained by carbonate-silicate immiscibility. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Use of Low-Density DNA Microarrays and Photopolymerization for Genotyping Foodborne-Associated Noroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjunct...

  18. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, F., E-mail: perez75@llnl.gov; Patterson, J. R.; May, M.; Colvin, J. D.; Biener, M. M.; Wittstock, A.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Satcher, J. H.; Gammon, S. A.; Poco, J. F.; Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fujioka, S.; Zhang, Z.; Ishihara, K.; Tanaka, N.; Ikenouchi, T.; Nishimura, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Low-density foams irradiated by a 20 kJ laser at the Omega laser facility (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY, USA) are shown to convert more than 5% of the laser energy into 4.6 to 6.0 keV x rays. This record efficiency with foam targets is due to novel fabrication techniques based on atomic-layer-deposition of Ti atoms on an aerogel scaffold. A Ti concentration of 33 at. % was obtained in a foam with a total density of 5 mg/cm{sup 3}. The dynamics of the ionization front through these foams were investigated at the 1 kJ laser of the Gekko XII facility (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan). Hydrodynamic simulations can reproduce the average electron temperature but fail to predict accurately the heat front velocity in the foam. This discrepancy is shown to be unrelated to the possible water adsorbed in the foam but could be attributed to effects of the foam micro-structure.

  19. Applications of Foamed Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sari Kamarul Aini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of foamed concrete is increasing at present due to high demand on foamed concrete structures with good mechanical and physical properties. This paper discusses on the use of basic raw materials, their characteristics, production process, and their application in foamed lightweight concrete with densities between 300 kg/m3 and 1800 kg/m3. It also discusses the factors that influence the strengths and weaknesses of foamed concrete based on studies that were conducted previously.

  20. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W. Gaiser; Magdalena D. Anguelova

    2012-01-01

    Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam ...

  1. Foams in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, S.S.

    1986-07-01

    In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

  2. A study of low-density areas, clinical findings, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Iwao; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Oikawa, Tadato; Koide, Kohji; Kanaya, Haruyuki.

    1978-01-01

    55 out of 62 patients with cerebral infarction were investigated in terms of CT scan findings, angiographic findings, and clinical symptoms. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The low-density areas of the CT scan findings were classified into the following four types: large hemispheric or lobular --Type I; wedge-shaped --Type II; small --Type III; and lacunar low-density area. --Type IV. 2) Almost all patients with angiographically occlusive findings showed low-density areas of Type I; however, one patient with ICA occlusion revealed only a lacunar low-density area. 3) The patients with lacunar low-density areas showed an angiographically delayed filling of the angular artery and posterior parietal artery of the middle cerebral artery. 4) The relationship between the types of low-density areas and the clinical conscious disorders was not clear. On the other hand, the patients with Type I low-density areas almost all had motor disturbances, while patients with other types of low-density areas showed only 60 - 70% motor disturbances. 5) In patients with speech disorders, total aphasia cases were found in patients with large hemispheric low-density areas on the left side. Although, motor aphasia cases were seen in patients with various low-density areas on the left inferior frontal and precentral gyri, dysarthria cases were found in the patients with several low-density areas on both sides. 6) The localization of lacunar low-density areas seemed to be near the caudate nucleus on the right side and in the putaminal regions on the left side. The mean and the standard deviation of CT numbers in the lacunar low-density areas showed higher values on the right side than on the left side. (author)

  3. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  4. Fluorine-18 radiolabeling of low-density lipoproteins: a potential approach for characterization and differentiation of metabolism of native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Rode, Katrin; Hultsch, Christina; Pawelke, Beate; Wuest, Frank; Hoff, Joerg van den

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ( 18 F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate ([ 18 F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [ 18 F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [ 18 F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo

  5. Fluorine-18 radiolabeling of low-density lipoproteins: a potential approach for characterization and differentiation of metabolism of native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Rode, Katrin; Hultsch, Christina; Pawelke, Beate; Wuest, Frank; van den Hoff, Joerg

    2004-11-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ((18)F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [(18)F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [(18)F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo.

  6. Flexible polyurethane foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide for a method of preparing a polyurethane foam, including reacting least one initiator comprising at least two hydroxyl groups with at least one 12-hydroxystearic acid to form at least one polyester polyol, reacting the at least one polyester polyol with at least

  7. Study on intense relativistic electron beam propagation in a low density collisionless plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.; Khodataev, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of investigations into the increase in effectivity of transport of an intensive relativistic electron beam (IREB) in a collisionless plasma of low density are presented. The electron beam with the current of 1.5 kA, energy of 300 keV, radius of 1.5 cm is in ected into a plasma channel 180 cm long which is a metallic cylinder covered with a biniplast layer from inside 0.5 cm thickness on which there is a metallic net from the vacuum side. Plasma production is carried out during the supply of voltage pulse to the net. A condition of the optimum IREB distribution is found. It is sohwn that self-focusing IREB transport in plasma of low density can be effective if equilibrium conditions are carried out in plasma with the concentration of electrons less (or equal) to the concentration of electrons in a beam

  8. Competing Quantum Hall Phases in the Second Landau Level in Low Density Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Serafin, A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Xia, J. S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Liang, Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Sullivan, N. S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Baldwin, K. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); West, K. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Tsui, D. C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Up to date, studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) states in the second Landau level have mainly been carried out in the high electron density regime, where the electron mobility is the highest. Only recently, with the advance of high quality low density MBE growth, experiments have been pushed to the low density regime [1], where the electron-electron interactions are strong and the Landau level mixing parameter, defined by κ = e2/εIB/ℏωe, is large. Here, lB = (ℏe/B)1/2 is the magnetic length and ωc = eB/m the cyclotron frequency. All other parameters have their normal meanings. It has been shown that a large Landau level mixing effect strongly affects the electron physics in the second Landau level [2].

  9. Breakdown of quasiparticle picture in the low-density limit of the 1D Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Shaojin; Qian Tiezheng; Su Zhaobin

    1995-03-01

    Using the finite-size scaling of results obtained by exact diagonalization, we study the low-density limit of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. Calculating the quasiparticle weight, we demonstrate that for a given particle number N and system size L, there always exists a crossover point U c separating the Fermi-liquid (U c ) and non-Fermi-liquid (U > U c ) regimes (U is the Hubbard repulsion). We find that for a fixed N, U c is inversely proportional to L, keeping U c L/t constant (with t as the hopping integral), as L is large enough. It follows that in the low-density (in fact vanishing density) limit L → ∞, U c → 0, so the system is always in non-Fermi-liquid regime as long as U > 0. We show that our numerical results are consistent with the Bethe ansatz solution. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs

  10. Role of strangeness and isospin in low density expansions of hadronic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thamirys; Menezes, Débora P.; Pinto, Marcus B.; Gulminelli, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    We compare relativistic mean-field models with their low density expansion counterparts used to mimic nonrelativistic models by consistently expanding the baryonic scalar density in powers of the baryonic number density up to O (13 /3 ) , which goes two orders beyond the order considered in previous works. We show that, due to the nontrivial density dependence of the Dirac mass, the convergence of the expansion is very slow, and the validity of the nonrelativistic approximation is questionable even at subsaturation densities. In order to analyze the roles played by strangeness and isospin we consider n -Λ and n -p matter separately. Our results indicate that these degrees of freedom play quite different roles in the expansion mechanism and n -Λ matter can be better described by low density expansions than n -p matter in general.

  11. Quasi Cyclic Low Density Parity Check Code for High SNR Data Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Islam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An improved Quasi Cyclic Low Density Parity Check code (QC-LDPC is proposed to reduce the complexity of the Low Density Parity Check code (LDPC while obtaining the similar performance. The proposed QC-LDPC presents an improved construction at high SNR with circulant sub-matrices. The proposed construction yields a performance gain of about 1 dB at a 0.0003 bit error rate (BER and it is tested on 4 different decoding algorithms. Proposed QC-LDPC is compared with the existing QC-LDPC and the simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing one at high SNR. Simulations are also performed varying the number of horizontal sub matrices and the results show that the parity check matrix with smaller horizontal concatenation shows better performance.

  12. Kinetics of the high- to low-density amorphous water transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koza, M M; Schober, H; Fischer, H E; Hansen, T; Fujara, F

    2003-01-01

    In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the kinetics of the transformation of high-density amorphous (HDA) water into its low-density amorphous state at temperatures 87 K ≤ T ≤ 110 K. It is found that three different stages are comprised in this transformation, namely an annealing process of the high-density matrix followed by a first-order-like transition into a low-density state, which can be further annealed at higher temperatures T ≤ 127 K. The annealing kinetics of the HDA state follows the logarithm of time as found in other systems showing polyamorphism. According to the theory of transformation by nucleation and growth the apparent first-order transition follows an Avrami-Kolmogorov behaviour. An energy barrier ΔE ∼ 33 k Jmol -1 is estimated from the temperature dependence of this transition

  13. Nonfasting Triglycerides, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Heart Failure Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of heart failure is increasing in the aging population, and heart failure is a disease with large morbidity and mortality. There is, therefore, a need for identifying modifiable risk factors for prevention. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of nonfasting...... triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with higher risk of heart failure in the general population. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included 103 860 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study and 9694 from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 2 prospective observational...... association studies. Nonfasting triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline. Individuals were followed for ≤23 years, during which time 3593 were diagnosed with heart failure. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In the Copenhagen...

  14. Growth-interruption-induced low-density InAs quantum dots on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. H.; Alloing, B.; Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the use of growth interruption to obtain low-density InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs. The process was realized by Ostwald-type ripening of a thin InAs layer. It was found that the optical properties of the QDs as a function of growth interruption strongly depend on InAs growth rate. By using this approach, a low density of QDs (4 dots/μm 2 ) with uniform size distribution was achieved. As compared to QDs grown without growth interruption, a larger energy separation between the QD confined levels was observed, suggesting a situation closer to the ideal zero-dimensional system. Combining with an InGaAs capping layer such as In-rich QDs enable 1.3 μm emission at 4 K

  15. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  16. Simulasi Low Density Parity Check (Ldpc) dengan Standar Dvb-t2

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Yusuf; Hafizh, Idham

    2014-01-01

    Artikel ini berisi implementasi simulasi encoding-decoding yang dilakukanpada suatu sampel data biner acak sesuai dengan standar yang digunakanpada Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial 2nd Generation (DVB-T2),dengan menggunakan MATLAB. Low Density Parity Check (LDPC)digunakan dalam proses encoding-decoding sebagai fitur untuk melakukankoreksi kesalahan pada saat pengiriman data. Modulasi yang digunakandalam simulasi adalah BPSK dengan model kanal AWGN. Dalam simulasitersebut, diperbanding...

  17. Stark broadening of the Hα line of hydrogen at low densities: quantal and semiclassical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, C.; Feautrier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Stark profiles of the Hα lines of hydrogen are computed at low densities in the 'impact' theory. By a comparison with quantal results, it is shown that a simple semiclassical perturbational approach with appropriate cutoffs is sufficient to give accurate profiles in the line centre. Neglecting the natural broadening and the fine-structure effects, the authors prove that the electronic broadening is negligible and that the profile has a Lorentzian shape. An analytical expression of the half width is given. (author)

  18. Dynamics of low density coronal plasma in low current x-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D; Bott, S C; Vikhrev, V; Eshaq, Y; Ueda, U; Zhang, T; Baranova, E; Krasheninnikov, S I; Beg, F N

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed on an x-pinch using a pulsed power current generator capable of producing an 80 kA current with a rise time of 50 ns. Molybdenum wires with and without gold coating were employed to study the effect of high z coating on the low-density ( 18 cm -3 ) coronal plasma dynamics. A comparison of images from XUV frames and optical probing shows that the low density coronal plasma from the wires initially converges at the mid-plane immediately above and below the cross-point. A central jet is formed which moves with a velocity of 6 x 10 4 ms -1 towards both electrodes forming a z-pinch column before the current maximum. A marked change in the low density coronal plasma dynamics was observed when molybdenum wires coated with ∼ 0.09 μm of gold were used. The processes forming the jet structure were delayed relative to bare Mo x-pinches, and the time-resolved x-ray emission also showed differences. An m = 0 instability was observed in the coronal plasma along the x-pinch legs, which were consistent with x-ray PIN diode signals in which x-ray pulses were observed before x-ray spot formation. These early time x-ray pulses were not observed with pure molybdenum x-pinches. These observations indicate that a thin layer of gold coating significantly changes the coronal plasma behaviour. Two dimensional MHD simulations were performed and qualitatively agree with experimental observations of low density coronal plasma

  19. Electrons of high perpendicular energy in the low-density regime of Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornatici, M.; Engelmann, F.

    1978-01-01

    Effects due to instabilities excited in the low-density regime of tokamaks by runaway electrons via the cyclotron resonance ω+Ω=kV along with the formation of a positive slope in the runaway distribution are considered. Conditions for the production of electrons of high perpendicular energy and their trapping in toroidal field ripples, leading to liner damage, are discussed and found to be rather stringent. Fairly good agreement with the experiments is found

  20. Effect of low-density polyethylene on smoke emissions from burning of simulated debris piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedehsan Hosseini; Qi Li; Manish Shrivastava; David R. Weise; David R. Cocker; J. Wayne Miller; Heejung S Jung

    2014-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic is used to keep piled debris from silvicultural activities—activities associated with development and care of forests—dry to enable efficient disposal by burning. The effects of inclusion of LDPE in this manner on smoke emissions are not well known. In a combustion laboratory experiment, 2-kg mixtures of LDPE and manzanita (

  1. Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs

  2. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    N. Prapaiwan; T. Tharasanit; S. Punjachaipornpol; D. Yamtang; A. Roongsitthichai; W. Moonarmart; K. Kaeoket; S. Manee-in

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. Howeve...

  3. Quantum quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check error-correcting codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Li; Gui-Hua, Zeng; Lee, Moon Ho

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the approach of employing circulant permutation matrices to construct quantum quasicyclic (QC) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Using the proposed approach one may construct some new quantum codes with various lengths and rates of no cycles-length 4 in their Tanner graphs. In addition, these constructed codes have the advantages of simple implementation and low-complexity encoding. Finally, the decoding approach for the proposed quantum QC LDPC is investigated. (general)

  4. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible ...

  5. Convective cell excitation by inertial Alfven waves in a low density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhotelov, O.A.; Onishchenko, O.G.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Srenflo, L.; Balikhin, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The parametric interaction of inertial Alfven waves with large-scale convective cells in a low-density plasma is investigated. It is shown that, in plasmas where the Alfven velocity is comparable to or exceeds the speed of light, the parametric interaction is substantially suppressed. A compact expression for the optimal scale and instability growth rate of the fastest growing mode is obtained [ru

  6. Low density lipoprotein uptake by an endothelial-smooth muscle cell bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.J.; Miguel, R.; Graham, D.

    1991-01-01

    To study the interaction of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and the means by which such interaction may affect lipid permeability of the arterial wall, cell bilayers were established by use of a transwell culture system. After confluent growth of both cell types had been achieved, iodine 125 bound to low-density lipoprotein (10 ng protein/ml) was added to the media of the upper well. After a 3-hour incubation period, the iodine 125-bound low-density lipoprotein content of the upper and lower media demonstrated an impedance to lipoprotein movement across the endothelial cell monolayer as compared to the bare porous polycarbonate filter of the transwell (p less than 10(-6)). The presence of smooth muscle cells in the bottom well significantly enhanced the permeability of the endothelial cell layer (p less than 10(-60)). This effect remained unchanged over a 9-day time course. Membrane binding and cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein by endothelial cells was not altered by smooth muscle cells, indicating that this change in permeability could not be easily attributed to changes in receptor-mediated transport or transcytosis. Membrane binding (p less than 0.02) and cellular uptake (p less than 10(-6)) of low-density lipoprotein by smooth muscle cells in the bilayer, when adjusted for counts available in the smooth muscle cell media, were both reduced in the early incubation period as compared to isolated smooth muscle cells. The disproportionate reduction in uptake as compared to binding would suggest that this was not entirely a receptor-dependent process

  7. INHIBITION OF HUMAN LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS OXIDATION BY Hibiscus radiatus CUV. CALYCES EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawan Hernawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and  butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was  demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control.   Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol

  8. Effect of phospholipase A treatment of low density lipoproteins on the dextran sulfate--lipoprotein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, T

    1968-09-01

    The effect of phospholipase A on the interaction of low density lipoproteins of the S(f) 0-10 class with dextran sulfate was studied in phosphate buffer of pH 7.4, ionic strength 0.1, by chemical, spectrophotometric, and centrifugal methods. When low density lipoproteins that had been treated with phospholipase A were substituted for untreated lipoproteins, the amount of insoluble dextran sulfate-lipoprotein complex formed was greatly reduced. Hydrolysis of over 20% of the lecithin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine constituents of the lipoproteins prevented the formation of insoluble complex. However, even the lipoproteins in which almost all the phosphoglycerides were hydrolyzed produced soluble complex, which was converted to insoluble complex upon addition of magnesium sulfate. It is apparent that the lipoproteins altered extensively by treatment with phospholipase A retain many characteristic properties of native low density lipoproteins. Fatty acids, but not lysolecithin, released by the action of phospholipase A interfered with the formation of insoluble complex; this interference was due to association of the fatty acids with the lipoproteins. With increases in the concentration of the associated fatty acids, the amounts of magnesium ion required for the conversion of soluble complex to insoluble complex increased progressively. Charge interaction is evidently of paramount importance in the formation of sulfated polysaccharide-lipoprotein complexes.

  9. Membrane receptors for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, P.I.; Beck, G.; Zucker, S.

    1981-01-01

    Physiologic concentrations of human plasma very low density lipoproteins inhibit the DNA synthesis of lymphocytes stimulated by allogeneic cells or lectins. In this report reachers have compared the effects of isolated lipoproteins [very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL)] and lipoprotein-depleted plasma (LDP) on DNA synthesis by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes. The relative potency for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation was VLDL greater than LDL greater than HDL greater than LDP. Fifty percent inhibition of DNA synthesis was observed at a VLDL protein concentration of 1.5--2.0 microgram/ml. Researchers have further demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for VLDL on human lymphocytes. Native VLDL was more effective than LDL in competing for 125I-VLDL binding sites. Subsequent to binding to lymphocytes, 125I-VLDL was internalized and degraded to acid-soluble products. Based on a Scatchard analysis of VLDL binding at 4 degrees C, the number of VLDL receptors per lymphocyte was estimated at 28,000 +/- 1300. Based on an estimated mean binding affinity for the VLDL receptor complex at half saturation of approximately 8.8 X 10(7) liter/mole, it is estimated that 91% of lymphocyte VLDL receptors are occupied at physiologic VLDL concentrations in blood. Although the immune regulatory role of plasma lipoproteins is uncertain, researchers suggest tha VLDL and LDL-In may maintain circulating blood lymphocytes in a nonproliferative state via their respective cell receptor mechanisms

  10. Macrophage Liver Kinase B1 Inhibits Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyu; Zhu, Huaiping; Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Cheng; Ding, Ye; Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2017-10-13

    LKB1 (liver kinase B1) is a serine/threonine kinase and tumor suppressor, which regulates the homeostasis of hematopoietic cells and immune responses. Macrophages transform into foam cells upon taking-in lipids. No role for LKB1 in foam cell formation has previously been reported. We sought to establish the role of LKB1 in atherosclerotic foam cell formation. LKB1 expression was examined in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques and in western diet-fed atherosclerosis-prone Ldlr -/- and ApoE -/- mice. LKB1 expression was markedly reduced in human plaques when compared with nonatherosclerotic vessels. Consistently, time-dependent reduction of LKB1 levels occurred in atherosclerotic lesions in western diet-fed Ldlr -/- and ApoE -/- mice. Exposure of macrophages to oxidized low-density lipoprotein downregulated LKB1 in vitro. Furthermore, LKB1 deficiency in macrophages significantly increased the expression of SRA (scavenger receptor A), modified low-density lipoprotein uptake and foam cell formation, all of which were abolished by blocking SRA. Further, we found LKB1 phosphorylates SRA resulting in its lysosome degradation. To further investigate the role of macrophage LKB1 in vivo, ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl LysM cre and ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl mice were fed with western diet for 16 weeks. Compared with ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl wild-type control, ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl LysM cre mice developed more atherosclerotic lesions in whole aorta and aortic root area, with markedly increased SRA expression in aortic root lesions. We conclude that macrophage LKB1 reduction caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes foam cell formation and the progression of atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Generalization of the memory integer model for the analysis of the quasi-static behaviour of polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jmal, Hamdi; Ju, Ming Lei; Dupuis, Raphael; Aubry, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    Polyurethane foam is a cellular material characterized by an interesting mechanical spectrum of properties: low density, capacity to absorb the deformation energy and low stiffness. This spectrum of properties makes polyurethane foam commonly used in many thermal, acoustic and comfort applications. Several models, such as memory, hyper-elastic and pseudo-elastic models have been developed in the literature to describe the mechanical response of polyurethane foam under quasi-static and dynamic test conditions. The main disadvantage of these models is the dependence of their parameters against the test conditions (strain rate, maximum compression level, etc). This affects the general character of their representativeness to the quasi-static and dynamic behaviours of polyurethane foam. The main goal of this article is to implement reliable mechanical model which is able to provide the quasi-static response of the polyurethane foam under different strain rates and large compressive deformation. The dimensional parameters of our model can be expressed by the product of two independent parts; the first contain only the test conditions and the second define the dimensionless and invariant parameters that characterize the foam material. The developed model has been proposed after several experimental studies allowing the apprehension of the quasi-static behaviour (through unidirectional compression tests). The polyurethane foam, under large deformations, exhibits a nonlinear elastic behaviour and viscoelastic behaviour. To assess the ability of our model to be a general representation, three industrial polyurethane foams have been considered.

  12. A novel application of ADC/K-foaming agent-loaded NBR rubber composites as pressure sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, W E [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Eraki, M H I [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Lawindy, A M Y [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Hassan, H H [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2006-02-07

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) structure foam of different apparent densities was obtained by using different concentrations of foaming agent, azodicarbonamide, ADC/K. The true stress-strain characteristics, in case of compression, of foamed samples were measured. It was found that the theoretical values predicted from the simple blending model are in more agreement with the experimental results than those from the square-relationship model. The effect of cyclic loading-unloading and dissipation energy of rubber foams was studied. The results also indicated that foams with low density exhibited a small hysteresis. The electrical properties were found dependent on the foaming agent concentration. This study was assisted by Mott and Gurney equation. The effect of compressive strain on the electrical conductivity of rubber foams was studied. The free current carrier mobility and the equilibrium concentration of charge carrier in the conduction band were produced as functions of compressive strain. The results also indicate that there is a linear variation between pressure and conductivity for all samples, which means that these samples can be used as a pressure sensor. At a certain concentration of foaming agent (5 phr) a change of electrical conductivity by more than three orders is observed at 20% compression strain.

  13. A novel application of ADC/K-foaming agent-loaded NBR rubber composites as pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, W E; El-Eraki, M H I; El-Lawindy, A M Y; Hassan, H H

    2006-01-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) structure foam of different apparent densities was obtained by using different concentrations of foaming agent, azodicarbonamide, ADC/K. The true stress-strain characteristics, in case of compression, of foamed samples were measured. It was found that the theoretical values predicted from the simple blending model are in more agreement with the experimental results than those from the square-relationship model. The effect of cyclic loading-unloading and dissipation energy of rubber foams was studied. The results also indicated that foams with low density exhibited a small hysteresis. The electrical properties were found dependent on the foaming agent concentration. This study was assisted by Mott and Gurney equation. The effect of compressive strain on the electrical conductivity of rubber foams was studied. The free current carrier mobility and the equilibrium concentration of charge carrier in the conduction band were produced as functions of compressive strain. The results also indicate that there is a linear variation between pressure and conductivity for all samples, which means that these samples can be used as a pressure sensor. At a certain concentration of foaming agent (5 phr) a change of electrical conductivity by more than three orders is observed at 20% compression strain

  14. A novel application of ADC/K-foaming agent-loaded NBR rubber composites as pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, W. E.; El-Eraki, M. H. I.; El-Lawindy, A. M. Y.; Hassan, H. H.

    2006-02-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) structure foam of different apparent densities was obtained by using different concentrations of foaming agent, azodicarbonamide, ADC/K. The true stress-strain characteristics, in case of compression, of foamed samples were measured. It was found that the theoretical values predicted from the simple blending model are in more agreement with the experimental results than those from the square-relationship model. The effect of cyclic loading-unloading and dissipation energy of rubber foams was studied. The results also indicated that foams with low density exhibited a small hysteresis. The electrical properties were found dependent on the foaming agent concentration. This study was assisted by Mott and Gurney equation. The effect of compressive strain on the electrical conductivity of rubber foams was studied. The free current carrier mobility and the equilibrium concentration of charge carrier in the conduction band were produced as functions of compressive strain. The results also indicate that there is a linear variation between pressure and conductivity for all samples, which means that these samples can be used as a pressure sensor. At a certain concentration of foaming agent (5 phr) a change of electrical conductivity by more than three orders is observed at 20% compression strain.

  15. Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Care for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2004-01-01

    The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. Traditionally, these components have been fabricated using expensive materials such as light weight titanium alloys, polymeric composite materials and carbon-carbon composites. The present study investigates the use of P sandwich foam fan blade made up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by a foam core. The resulting structure possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. Since the face sheets carry the applied bending loads, the sandwich architecture is a viable engineering concept. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of the sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and P detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of skin thickness and core volume %re presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

  16. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  17. Foamed concrete containing rice husk ash as sand replacement: an experimental study on compressive strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rum, R. H. M.; Jaini, Z. M.; Boon, K. H.; Khairaddin, S. A. A.; Rahman, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the utilization of rice husk ash (RHA) as sand replacement in foamed concrete. The study focuses on the effect of RHA on the compressive strength of foamed concrete. RHA contains high pozzolanic material that reacts with cementitious to enhance the strength and durability of foamed concrete. RHA also acts as filler causing the foamed concrete to become denser while retaining its unique low density. A total 243 cube specimens was prepared for the compression test. Two sets of mix design were employed at water-cement (W/C) ratio of 0.55, 0.60 and cement-sand ratio of 0.50, 0.33. The results revealed that the presence of RHA as sand replacement resulted in an increase in the compressive strength of foamed concrete. Moreover, 30% to 40% RHA was the optimum content level, contributing to the compressive strength of 18.1 MPa to 22.4 MPa. The W/C ratio and superplasticiser dosage play small roles in improving workability. In contrast, density governs the compressive strength of foamed concrete.

  18. Wire-Array Precursor Plasma Interactions With On-Axis Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J. B. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2005-10-01

    The Dynamic Hohlraum (DH) Z-pinch on Z at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) has been used to drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) relevant experiments. The power pulse from the DH cannot yet be reproduced using codes that can reproduce the performance of a Vacuum Hohlraum (VH) configuration on Z. Unlike the VH the DH has a low-density CH foam cylinder placed on the array axis. Production of precursor plasma, prior to the main implosion, is not included in the codes. This plasma is accelerated towards the array axis by the global J x B force and impacts onto the on-axis target. This bombardment alters the foam in various ways. Experiments have been performed on the 1 MA MAGPIE generator at Imperial College, London, to investigate the effect of this precursor bombardment. Diagnostics used were point-projection radiography with x-pinches, x-ray emission framing cameras, shadowgraphy and photoconduction diodes. Results show ablation of low-density plasma from the foam surface and compression of the foam by precursor pressure. Research sponsored by AWE, SNL, the SSAA program of NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  19. Fluorine-18 radiolabeling of low-density lipoproteins: a potential approach for characterization and differentiation of metabolism of native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Jens [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Bergmann, Ralf [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Rode, Katrin [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hultsch, Christina [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Beate [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Wuest, Frank [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hoff, Joerg van den [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ({sup 18}F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate ([{sup 18}F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [{sup 18}F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [{sup 18}F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo.

  20. Common low-density lipoprotein receptor p.G116S variant has a large effect on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in circumpolar inuit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Joseph B; Wang, Jian; Cao, Henian; McIntyre, Adam D; Johansen, Christopher T; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Stringer, Randa; Hosseinzadeh, Siyavash; Kennedy, Brooke A; Ban, Matthew R; Young, T Kue; Connelly, Philip W; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter; Boyer, Bert B; Hegele, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Inuit are considered to be vulnerable to cardiovascular disease because their lifestyles are becoming more Westernized. During sequence analysis of Inuit individuals at extremes of lipid traits, we identified 2 nonsynonymous variants in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), namely p.G116S and p.R730W. Genotyping these variants in 3324 Inuit from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland showed they were common, with allele frequencies 10% to 15%. Only p.G116S was associated with dyslipidemia: the increase in LDL cholesterol was 0.54 mmol/L (20.9 mg/dL) per allele (P=5.6×10(-49)), which was >3× larger than the largest effect sizes seen with other common variants in other populations. Carriers of p.G116S had a 3.02-fold increased risk of hypercholesterolemia (95% confidence interval, 2.34-3.90; P=1.7×10(-17)), but did not have classical familial hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, p.G116S showed 60% reduced ligand-binding activity compared with wild-type receptor. In contrast, p.R730W was associated with neither LDL cholesterol level nor altered in vitro activity. LDLR p.G116S is thus unique: a common dysfunctional variant in Inuit whose large effect on LDL cholesterol may have public health implications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Investigation on the effect of formulation and process variables of Polyethylene Foams Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barikani, H.; Sarai, M.

    2001-01-01

    Polyolefin foams such as polyethylene, polypropylene and their copolymers have been extensively used in packaging, automotive, military, marine, cable industries and sports, due to their unique properties namely: light weight, chemical resistance, thermal insulation, inertness, abrasion resistance, buoyancy and low cost. With regards to domestic mass production of polyethylene, replacement of polyurethane with polyethylene foam is very important in some applications from economical point of view. In this research preparation of high density and low density polyethylene foams were studied and the effect of formulation factors such as blowing agent, cross-linker, calcium carbonate, zinc oxide and processing factors such as heat, pressure and reaction time on density and cell size were investigated

  2. Aerosol-foam interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, M.H.E.; Luscombe, C.DeM.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1990-03-01

    Foam treatment offers the potential to clean gas streams containing radioactive particles. A large decontamination factor has been claimed for the removal of airborne plutonium dust when spraying a commercially available foam on the walls and horizontal surfaces of an alpha-active room. Experiments have been designed and undertaken to reproduce these conditions with a non-radioactive simulant aerosol. Careful measurements of aerosol concentrations with and without foam treatment failed to provide convincing evidence to support the earlier observation. The foam may not have been as well mixed with the aerosol in the present studies. Further work is required to explore more efficient mixing methods, including systems in which the aerosol steam is passed through the foam, rather than merely spraying foam into the path of the aerosol. (author)

  3. Chaotic bubbling and nonstagnant foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos; Jeandet, Philippe; Liger-Belair, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the agglomeration of bubbles obtained from a nozzle working in different bubbling regimes. This experiment consists of a continuous production of bubbles from a nozzle at the bottom of a liquid column, and these bubbles create a two-dimensional (2D) foam (or a bubble raft) at the top of this column. The bubbles can assemble in various dynamically stable arrangement, forming different kinds of foams in a liquid mixture of water and glycerol, with the effect that the bubble formation regimes influence the foam obtained from this agglomeration of bubbles. The average number of bubbles in the foam is related to the bubble formation frequency and the bubble mean lifetime. The periodic bubbling can generate regular or irregular foam, while a chaotic bubbling only generates irregular foam.

  4. Foams structure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat, Isabelle; Graner, François; Pitois, Olivier; Höhler, Reinard; Elias, Florence; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Rouyer, Florence

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first to provide a thorough description of all aspects of the physico-chemical properties of foams. It sets out what is known about their structure, their stability, and their rheology. Engineers, researchers and students will find descriptions of all the key concepts, illustrated by numerous applications, as well as experiments and exercises for the reader. A solutions manual for lecturers is available via the publisher's web site.

  5. Pourable Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes search for polyisocyanurate/polyurethane foam insulation with superior characteristics. Discusses chemistry of current formulations. Tests of formulations, of individual ingredients and or alternative new formulations described. Search revealed commercially available formulations exhibiting increased thermal stability at temperatures up to 600 degree C, pours readily before curing, presents good appearance after curing, and remains securely bonded to aluminum at cryogenic temperatures. Total of 42 different formulations investigated, 10 found to meet requirements.

  6. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  7. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  8. Traumatic interhemispheric subdural hematoma extending above the tentorium demonstrated as a low-density mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kunihiko; Takaki, Tadahiro; Fukushima, Takeo; Tomonaga, Masamichi

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a case of traumatic interhemispheric subdural hematoma extending above the right tentorium, which showed a low-density mass in the CT scan and which brought up a problem of differential diagnosis from subdural empyema because the patient had a long history of bilateral chronic otitis media. The 47-year-old man fell downstairs while drunk; this accident was followed by an increasing member of incidents of headache and vomiting, and he was admitted on the 15th day after the episode. Upon admission, his mental state was slightly dull; a neurologic examination revealed a mild choked disc and increased DTRs on the left. There was otorrhea and hearing difficulty on the left side, and his blood pressure was slightly elevated (170/110 mmHg). The laboratory data were negative except for an increased blood-sedimentation ratio (50/80 mm) and 1 + CRP. The precontrast CT scan demonstrated a lentiform low-density mass in the posterior part of the interhemispheric fissure extending above the right tentorium, with an unusual mass effect for the volume and a location of this mass. The postcontrast CT scan showed a marked enhancement of the falx and the tentorium around the mass. Furthermore, the pneumatization of the mastoid cells was markedly decreased. An operation was performed following the day of admission; when subdural hematoma was confirmed, it was evacuated and irrigated. The postoperative course was excellent, and the low-density mass had disappeared by the time of a follow-up CT scan 19 days after the operation. (J.P.N.)

  9. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  10. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  11. Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug DeliveryVehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2006-06-14

    This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.

  12. Crosstalk eliminating and low-density parity-check codes for photochromic dual-wavelength storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meicong; Xiong, Jianping; Jian, Jiqi; Jia, Huibo

    2005-01-01

    Multi-wavelength storage is an approach to increase the memory density with the problem of crosstalk to be deal with. We apply Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes as error-correcting codes in photochromic dual-wavelength optical storage based on the investigation of LDPC codes in optical data storage. A proper method is applied to reduce the crosstalk and simulation results show that this operation is useful to improve Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. At the same time we can conclude that LDPC codes outperform RS codes in crosstalk channel.

  13. Degradation of low-density polyethylene in the presence of water and deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, R.D.; Al-Sultan, Y.Y.; Abushihada, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The degradation of low-density polyethylene in the presence of water as the degradative agent was studied at a temperature of 450 0 C and a pressure greater than 160 atm. The experimental work was conducted in an autoclave of 333-mL capacity. The results indicate the presence of paraffins, olefines, dienes, and aromatics in the degradation products. The occurrence of aromatics in the products demonstrates the importance of this degradation procedure for obtaining these valuable materials. The present work (Part 1) is believed to be the first publication to discuss the production of aromatics from polyethylenes degradation

  14. Preliminary characterization in the development of the nano composite low density polyethylene with attapulgite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, Luanda G.; Rego, Jose K.M.A. do; Ito, Edson N.; Acchar, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)

  15. Transvascular low-density lipoprotein transport in patients with diabetes mellitus (type 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Karen; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    accumulation and, thus, atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an in vivo method for measurement of transvascular transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and applied it in 16 patients with maturity-onset diabetes (type 2) and 29 healthy control subjects. Autologous 131I-labeled LDL...... plasma insulin levels in diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transvascular LDL transport may be increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that lipoprotein flux into the arterial wall is increased in people with diabetes, possibly explaining the accelerated development of atherosclerosis....... in patients with diabetes and control subjects, respectively (P2.5%/h and 5.3+/-1.6%/h (P

  16. Low-density silicon thin films for lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkan, M.T., E-mail: tmdemirkan@ualr.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Trahey, L. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Density of sputter deposited silicon (Si) thin films was changed by a simple working gas pressure control process, and its effects on the cycling performance of Si films in Li-ion batteries as anodes was investigated. Higher gas pressure results in reduced film densities due to a shadowing effect originating from lower mean free path of sputter atoms, which leads to a wider angular distribution of the incoming flux and formation of a porous film microstructure. Si thin film anodes of different densities ranging from 2.27 g/cm{sup 3} (film porosity ~ 3%) down to 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 30% porosity) were fabricated by magnetron sputtering at argon pressures varying from 0.2 Pa to 2.6 Pa, respectively. High density Si thin film anodes of 2.27 g/cm{sup 3} suffered from an unstable cycling behavior during charging/discharging depicted by a continuous reduction in specific down to ~ 830 mAh/g at the 100th cycle. Electrochemical properties of lower density films with 1.99 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 15% porosity) and 1.77 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 24% porosity) got worse resulting in only ~ 100 mAh/g capacity at 100th cycle. On the other hand, as the density of anode was further reduced down to about 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 30% porosity), cycling stability and capacity retention significantly improved resulting in specific capacity values ~ 650 mAh/g at 100th cycle with coulombic efficiencies of > 98%. Enhancement in our low density Si film anodes are believed to mainly originate from the availability of voids for volumetric expansion during lithiation and resulting compliant behavior that provides superior mechanical and electrochemical stability. - Highlights: • Low density Si thin films were studied as Li-ion battery anodes. • Low density Si films were fabricated by magnetron sputter deposition. • Density of Si films reduced down to as low as ~ 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} with a porosity of ~ 30% • Low density Si films presented superior mechanical properties during cycling.

  17. Enzymatic Modification of Plasma Low Density Lipoproteins in Rabbits: A Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeque, Regine; Mullon, Claudy J. P.; Ferreira, Joao Paulo M.; Lees, Robert S.; Langer, Robert

    1993-04-01

    Phospholipase A_2 (EC 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes certain phospholipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Plasma clearance of phospholipase A_2-modified human LDL is up to 17 times faster than that of native human LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Modification of blood lipoproteins of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was performed by using an extracorporeal circuit containing immobilized phospholipase A_2. After 90-min treatments, nearly 30% decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations were observed. Erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts showed no net change after treatment. This technique does not require any fluid replacement or sorbent regeneration and offers a potential approach for lowering serum cholesterol and LDL levels.

  18. Structured Low-Density Parity-Check Codes with Bandwidth Efficient Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Divsalar, Dariush; Duy, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study the performance of structured Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Codes together with bandwidth efficient modulations. We consider protograph-based LDPC codes that facilitate high-speed hardware implementations and have minimum distances that grow linearly with block sizes. We cover various higher- order modulations such as 8-PSK, 16-APSK, and 16-QAM. During demodulation, a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples into reliability information that feeds the binary LDPC decoder. We will compare various low-complexity demappers and provide simulation results for assorted coded-modulation combinations on the additive white Gaussian noise and independent Rayleigh fading channels.

  19. Photonic entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check encoders and decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2010-05-01

    I propose encoder and decoder architectures for entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes suitable for all-optical implementation. I show that two basic gates needed for EA quantum error correction, namely, controlled-NOT (CNOT) and Hadamard gates can be implemented based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition, I show that EA quantum LDPC codes from balanced incomplete block designs of unitary index require only one entanglement qubit to be shared between source and destination.

  20. Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyaniline for low density lipoprotein detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matharu, Zimple [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Sumana, G. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Malhotra, B.D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.co [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2010-11-30

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) were utilized for the fabrication of impedimetric immunosensor for detection of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) by immobilizing anti-apolipoprotein B (AAB) via EDC-NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy. AAB/PANI-SA LB immunoelectrodes studied by EIS spectroscopy revealed detection of LDL in the wide range of 0.018 {mu}M (6 mg/dl) to 0.39 {mu}M (130 mg/dl), covering the physiological range in blood, with a sensitivity of 11.25 k{Omega} {mu}M{sup -1}.

  1. Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyaniline for low density lipoprotein detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matharu, Zimple; Sumana, G.; Gupta, Vinay; Malhotra, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) were utilized for the fabrication of impedimetric immunosensor for detection of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) by immobilizing anti-apolipoprotein B (AAB) via EDC-NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy. AAB/PANI-SA LB immunoelectrodes studied by EIS spectroscopy revealed detection of LDL in the wide range of 0.018 μM (6 mg/dl) to 0.39 μM (130 mg/dl), covering the physiological range in blood, with a sensitivity of 11.25 kΩ μM -1 .

  2. Zinc layered hydroxide salts: intercalation and incorporation into low-density polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Jaerger,Silvia; Zimmermann,Ademir; Zawadzki,Sonia Faria; Wypych,Fernando; Amico,Sandro Campos

    2014-01-01

    In this study, polymer composites using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and layered hydroxide salts (LHS) were synthesized. The following compositions of LHS were obtained Zn5(OH)8(An-)2/n.yH2O, where A was varied in order to obtain hydrophilic (A = NO3 -) or hydrophobic (A = DDS- – dodecyl sulfate or DBS- – dodecyl benzene sulfonate). Synthesis was carried out by co-precipitation in alkaline medium and drying, being followed by characterization via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, th...

  3. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on carbon black loaded low-density polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.A.; Hussein, A.; El-Ahdal, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the tensile and physico-chemical properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films loaded with different concentrations of carbon black (C.B) has been studied. The results showed that the behavior of the samples during gamma irradiation is complicated and this may be due to scission and the interaction between oxidation and crosslinking processes. The tensile properties are modified by the presence of carbon black. Film sample containing 7% C.B was found to exhibit a nearly stabilized tensile behavior with radiation dose, which allows to use this formulation in packaging for food sterilization and in preservation of weak cobalt-gamma sources. (author)

  4. Optimized Min-Sum Decoding Algorithm for Low Density Parity Check Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rakibul Islam; Dewan Siam Shafiullah; Muhammad Mostafa Amir Faisal; Imran Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) code approaches Shannon–limit performance for binary field and long code lengths. However, performance of binary LDPC code is degraded when the code word length is small. An optimized min-sum algorithm for LDPC code is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm unlike other decoding methods, an optimization factor has been introduced in both check node and bit node of the Min-sum algorithm. The optimization factor is obtained before decoding program, and the sam...

  5. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  6. Assessment of the Resistance to External Factors of Low-Density Polyethylene Modified with Natural Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Głogowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the results of investigation of basic processing and thermal properties of low-density polyethylene modified with two types of natural filler: wheat bran and pumpkin seed hulls, their content ranging from 5% to 15% relative to the matrix. In addition, the physical properties of the produced granulates are determined, i.e. the relationship between their density and the applied contents of the tested fillers. Furthermore, the study reports the results concerning the longitudinal shrinkage, abrasion resistance and cold water absorption of injection molded tensile specimens.

  7. Mechanical properties of low-density polyethylene filled by graphite nanoplatelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carotenuto, G.; De Nicola, S.; Palomba, M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of GNP/LDPE nanocomposites (graphite nanoplatelets/low density polyethylene) have been investigated, in order to establish the effect of nanoscale reinforcement within the polymer matrix. Results show that the presence of the filler does not involve a change...... in the microscopic structure of the polymer. However, on a macroscopic scale, GNPs limit the mobility of the polymer chains, resulting in an increase in stiffness for the final composite. Orientation of GNPs within the LDPE matrix is also an important issue that affects mechanical properties and it has been...

  8. Ion cyclotron modes in a low density plasma cavity. Part I: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawley, M.L.

    1990-12-01

    Ion cyclotron modes excited in a low density, cylindrical plasma cavity using an external inductive antenna are investigated theoretically. These modes, which have a long parallel wavelength, exhibit a strong electrostatic character and are only weakly coupled to the antenna fields. It is shown that, despite the low frequency considered, electron dynamics play a dominant role via the effects of both Landau damping and electron inertia. The characteristics of the wavefields associated with these modes, relevant to an experimental investigation, are described. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  9. A study on bifrontal extracerebral low density areas of CT in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaura, Tomoaki; Sumi, Kiyoomi

    1983-01-01

    Bifrontal extracerebral low density area (BELD) was observed in 38 (39.6 %) of 96 infants aged 1 to 22 months (a mean of 6.2 months) at a particulary high rate in 2- -- 6-mos.-olds. They consisted of 15/19 cases of infantile spasm/epilepsy, 0/5 of simple febrile convulsion, 7/9 of psychomotor retardation and 0/5 simple premature babies. BELD disappeared by a mean age of 14 months in cases without psychomotor retardation, but its disappearance tended to be delayed in retarded infants. BELD seemed to indicate a type of brain injury, rather than a simple physiologic phenomenon. (Chiba, N)

  10. Bi-liquid foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneville, Odile

    1997-01-01

    Concentrated emulsions have structures similar to foams; for this reason they are also called 'bi-liquid foams'. For oil in water emulsions, they are made of polyhedral oil cells separated by aqueous surfactant films. The limited stability of these Systems is a major nuisance in their applications. In this work, we tried to understand and to control the mechanisms through which bi-liquid foams can loose their stability. In a first stage, we characterized the states of surfactant films in bi-liquid foams submitted to different pressures. We determined their hydration, the surfactant density at interfaces as well as their thicknesses. The bi-liquid foams were made by concentrating hexadecane-in-water emulsions through centrifugation. The initial emulsions contained submicron oil droplets that were completely covered with surfactant. We measured the resistance of the films to dehydration, and we represented it by pressure-film thickness curves or pressure-film hydration curves. We also obtained evidence that the interfacial surfactant density increases when the film thickness is decreased (SDS case). The Newton Black Film state is the most dehydrated metastable state that can be reached. In this state, the films can be described as surfactant bilayers that only contain the hydration water of the surfactant polar heads. Two different processes are involved the destabilization of bi-liquid foams: Ostwald ripening (oil transfer from small cells to large cells) and coalescence (films rupture). The first mechanism can be controlled by choosing oils that are very insoluble in water, avoiding ethoxylated nonionic surfactants of low molecular weight, and making emulsions that are not too fine. The second mechanism is responsible for the catastrophic destabilization of bi-liquid foams made of droplets above one micron or with a low coverage in surfactant. In these cases, destabilization occurs in the early stages of concentration, when the films are still thick. It is caused

  11. THIRD-GENERATION FOAM BLOWING AGENTS FOR FOAM INSULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of third-generation blowing agents for foam insulation. (NOTE: the search for third-generation foam blowing agents has led to the realization that, as the number of potential substitutes increases, new concerns, such as their potential to act a...

  12. Mass transfer measurements in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, J.G.; Fournel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:This study participates to the elaboration of a method for decontamination of the inside surfaces of steel structures (pipes, tanks,...). The solution which has been chosen is to attack the surface of the structure by a dipping solution. In order to reduce the quantity of product to be recovered and treated at the end of the cleaning process, the active solution will be introduced as a foam. During its free or forced drainage the foam supplies an active liquid film along the structure surfaces. It was important to know if the transfers of the dipping liquid inside the foam and between foam and wall film are sufficient to allow a correct supplying of the active liquid at the wall and a correct dragging of the dipped products. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical model which simulates the various transfers. However such a modeling cannot be performed without a thorough knowledge of the different transfer parameters in the foam and in the film. The following study has been performed on a model foam (foaming water + air) held in a smooth vertical glass pipe and submitted to a forced drainage by the foaming water (water + surfactants). The liquid transfer involves the dispersion of the drainage liquid inside the foam and the transfer between the foam and the liquid film flowing down at the wall. The different transfers has been analyzed by NMR using a PFGSE-NMR sequence, which allows to determine the propagator, i.e., the probability density of the liquid particle displacements during a given time interval Δt, along a selected direction. This study allowed to measure, firstly, the mean liquid and the liquid dispersion in the foam along the vertical and horizontal direction, and secondly, the vertical mean velocity in the parietal liquid film. (authors)

  13. Laser reflection method for determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith P.; Kurian, Job

    2006-03-01

    The details of laser reflection method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows are presented. The method is employed to determine the shear stress due to impingement of a low density supersonic free jet issuing out from a convergent divergent nozzle on a flat plate. The plate is smeared with a thin oil film and kept parallel to the nozzle axis. For a thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer, the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope generated by the shear force is done using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of the oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM. From the oil film slope history, calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. The range of Knudsen numbers investigated is from 0.028 to 0.516. Pressure ratio across the nozzle varied from 3,500 to 8,500 giving highly under expanded free jets. The measured values of shear, in the overlapping region of experimental parameters, show fair agreement with those obtained by force balance method and laser interferometric method.

  14. Dose response evaluation of a low-density normoxic polymer gel dosimeter using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, P [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Finsen Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Karlsson, A [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Wieslander, E [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Gustavsson, H [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Baeck, S A J [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

    2006-02-21

    A low-density ({approx}0.6 g cm{sup -3}) normoxic polymer gel, containing the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosponium (THP), has been investigated with respect to basic absorbed dose response characteristics. The low density was obtained by mixing the gel with expanded polystyrene spheres. The depth dose data for 6 and 18 MV photons were compared with Monte Carlo calculations. A large volume phantom was irradiated in order to study the 3D dose distribution from a 6 MV field. Evaluation of the gel was carried out using magnetic resonance imaging. An approximately linear response was obtained for 1/T2 versus dose in the dose range of 2 to 8 Gy. A small decrease in the dose response was observed for increasing concentrations of THP. A good agreement between measured and Monte Carlo calculated data was obained, both for test tubes and the larger 3D phantom. It was shown that a normoxic polymer gel with a reduced density could be obtained by adding expanded polystyrene spheres. In order to get reliable results, it is very important to have a uniform distribution of the gel and expanded polystyrene spheres in the phantom volume.

  15. Dose response evaluation of a low-density normoxic polymer gel dosimeter using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, P.; Karlsson, A.; Wieslander, E.; Gustavsson, H.; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2006-02-01

    A low-density (~0.6 g cm-3) normoxic polymer gel, containing the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosponium (THP), has been investigated with respect to basic absorbed dose response characteristics. The low density was obtained by mixing the gel with expanded polystyrene spheres. The depth dose data for 6 and 18 MV photons were compared with Monte Carlo calculations. A large volume phantom was irradiated in order to study the 3D dose distribution from a 6 MV field. Evaluation of the gel was carried out using magnetic resonance imaging. An approximately linear response was obtained for 1/T2 versus dose in the dose range of 2 to 8 Gy. A small decrease in the dose response was observed for increasing concentrations of THP. A good agreement between measured and Monte Carlo calculated data was obained, both for test tubes and the larger 3D phantom. It was shown that a normoxic polymer gel with a reduced density could be obtained by adding expanded polystyrene spheres. In order to get reliable results, it is very important to have a uniform distribution of the gel and expanded polystyrene spheres in the phantom volume.

  16. Uniform electron gases. III. Low-density gases on three-dimensional spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agboola, Davids; Knol, Anneke L.; Gill, Peter M. W., E-mail: peter.gill@anu.edu.au; Loos, Pierre-François, E-mail: pf.loos@anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-08-28

    By combining variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and complete-basis-set limit Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations, we have obtained near-exact correlation energies for low-density same-spin electrons on a three-dimensional sphere (3-sphere), i.e., the surface of a four-dimensional ball. In the VMC calculations, we compare the efficacies of two types of one-electron basis functions for these strongly correlated systems and analyze the energy convergence with respect to the quality of the Jastrow factor. The HF calculations employ spherical Gaussian functions (SGFs) which are the curved-space analogs of Cartesian Gaussian functions. At low densities, the electrons become relatively localized into Wigner crystals, and the natural SGF centers are found by solving the Thomson problem (i.e., the minimum-energy arrangement of n point charges) on the 3-sphere for various values of n. We have found 11 special values of n whose Thomson sites are equivalent. Three of these are the vertices of four-dimensional Platonic solids — the hyper-tetrahedron (n = 5), the hyper-octahedron (n = 8), and the 24-cell (n = 24) — and a fourth is a highly symmetric structure (n = 13) which has not previously been reported. By calculating the harmonic frequencies of the electrons around their equilibrium positions, we also find the first-order vibrational corrections to the Thomson energy.

  17. Effects of low-density feeding on elk–fetus contact rates on Wyoming feedgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Tyler G.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Maichak, Eric J.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Henningsen, John C.; Creel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    High seroprevalance for Brucella abortus among elk on Wyoming feedgrounds suggests that supplemental feeding may influence parasite transmission and disease dynamics by altering the rate at which elk contact infectious materials in their environment. We used proximity loggers and video cameras to estimate rates of elk-to-fetus contact (the primary source of brucellosis transmission) during winter supplemental feeding. We compared contact rates during high-density and low-density (LD) feeding treatments that provided the same total amount of food distributed over different areas. Low-density feeding led to >70% reductions in total number of contacts and number of individuals contacting a fetus. Proximity loggers and video cameras provided similar estimates of elk–fetus contact rates. Elk contacted fetuses and random control points equally, suggesting that elk were not attracted to fetuses but encountered them incidentally while feeding. The modeled relationship between contact rate and disease prevalence is nonlinear and LD feeding may result in large reductions in brucellosis prevalence, but this depends on the amount of transmission that occurs on and off feedgrounds.

  18. An intermittency route to global instability in low-density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Meenatchidevi; Zhu, Yuanhang; Li, Larry K. B.

    2017-11-01

    Above a critical Reynolds number (Re), a low-density jet can become globally unstable, transitioning from a steady state (i.e. a fixed point) to a self-excited oscillatory state (i.e. a limit cycle) via a Hopf bifurcation. In this experimental study, we show that this transition can sometimes involve intermittency. When Re is just slightly above the critical point, intermittent bursts of high-amplitude periodic oscillations emerge amidst a background of low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. As Re increases further, these intermittent bursts persist longer in time until they dominate the overall dynamics, causing the jet to transition fully to a periodic limit cycle. We identify this as Type-II Pomeau-Manneville intermittency by quantifying the statistical distribution of the duration of the aperiodic fluctuations at the onset of intermittency. This study shows that the transition to global instability in low-density jets is not always abrupt but can involve an intermediate state with characteristics of both the initial fixed point and the final limit cycle. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).

  19. Electron beam cross-linking of natural rubber/linear-low density polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Mohd, D. H.; Abdullah, I.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties and morphological structure of natural rubber/linear-low density polyethylene blend was investigated The natural rubber/linear-low density polyethylene blend was prepared by melt blending in a Haake internal mixer at 140 d ig C , rotor speed of 50 rpm, and in 15 min Liquid natural rubber was incorporated into the blend as a compatibilizer Samples in the form of 1 mm sheets were exposed to 50-300 kGy of electron beam irradiation and analyzed for swelling index and gel content, tensile strength, and surface morphology. The result Indicated that gel content and mechanical properties of the samples increased with radiation dosage. The honey-comb structure of the surface morphology in low dosage irradiated samples slowly transformed into a continuous matrix on increasing radiation dose The variation of mechanical and physical properties was due to Increase in cross-linking density in the rubber and plastic phases and rubber-plastic Interaction on irradiation

  20. Protocol for culturing low density pure rat hippocampal neurons supported by mature mixed neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Ke, Yini; Luo, Jianhong; Tang, Yang

    2017-02-01

    primary hippocampal neuron cultures allow for subcellular morphological dissection, easy access to drug treatment and electrophysiology analysis of individual neurons, and is therefore an ideal model for the study of neuron physiology. While neuron and glia mixed cultures are relatively easy to prepare, pure neurons are particular hard to culture at low densities which are suitable for morphology studies. This may be due to a lack of neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In this study we used a two step protocol in which neuron-glia mixed cultures were initially prepared for maturation to support the growth of young neurons plated at very low densities. Our protocol showed that neurotrophic support resulted in physiologically functional hippocampal neurons with larger cell body, increased neurite length and decreased branching and complexity compared to cultures prepared using a conventional method. Our protocol provides a novel way to culture highly uniformed hippocampal neurons for acquiring high quality, neuron based data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preferential enrichment of large-sized very low density lipoprotein populations with transferred cholesteryl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lipid transfer proteins on the exchange and transfer of cholesteryl esters from rat plasma HDL2 to human very low (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein populations was studied. The use of a combination of radiochemical and chemical methods allowed separate assessment of [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester exchange and of cholesteryl ester transfer. VLDL-I was the preferred acceptor for transferred cholesteryl esters, followed by VLDL-II and VLDL-III. LDL did not acquire cholesteryl esters. The contribution of exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters to total transfer was highest for LDL and decreased in reverse order along the VLDL density range. Inactivation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and heating the HDL2 for 60 min at 56 degrees C accelerated transfer and exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters. Addition of lipid transfer proteins increased cholesterol esterification in all systems. The data demonstrate that large-sized, triglyceride-rich VLDL particles are preferred acceptors for transferred cholesteryl esters. It is suggested that enrichment of very low density lipoproteins with cholesteryl esters reflects the triglyceride content of the particles

  2. DSMC simulation and experimental validation of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Shang, Yuhe; Wu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow is developed. Three collision molecular models, including hard sphere (HS), variable hard sphere (VHS), and variable soft sphere (VSS), are employed in the DSMC study. The simulations of double-cone and Edney's type IV hypersonic shock interactions in low density flow are performed. Comparisons between DSMC and experimental data are conducted. Investigation of the double-cone hypersonic flow shows that three collision molecular models can predict the trend of pressure coefficient and the Stanton number. HS model shows the best agreement between DSMC simulation and experiment among three collision molecular models. Also, it shows that the agreement between DSMC and experiment is generally good for HS and VHS models in Edney's type IV shock interaction. However, it fails in the VSS model. Both double-cone and Edney's type IV shock interaction simulations show that the DSMC errors depend on the Knudsen number and the models employed for intermolecular interaction. With the increase in the Knudsen number, the DSMC error is decreased. The error is the smallest in HS compared with those in the VHS and VSS models. When the Knudsen number is in the level of 10(-4), the DSMC errors, for pressure coefficient, the Stanton number, and the scale of interaction region, are controlled within 10%.

  3. Hydrophobic and low density silica aerogels dried at ambient pressure using TEOS precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurav, Jyoti L.; Rao, A. Venkateswara; Bangi, Uzma K.H.

    2009-01-01

    In the conventional ambient pressure drying of silica aerogels, tedious repetitive gel washing and solvent exchange steps (∼6 days) are involved. Therefore, in the present studies, we intended to reduce the processing time of TEOS based ambient pressure dried silica aerogels. Solvents such as methanol, hexane and Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ) as surface chemical modification agents have been used. To get good quality aerogels in terms of low density, high porosity, high contact angle and low volume shrinkage in less processing time, we varied MeOH/TEOS, HMDZ/TEOS molar ratios, oxalic acid (A) and NH 4 OH (B) concentrations and stirring time from 1 to 27.7, 0.34 to 2.1, 0 to 0.1 M, 0 to 2 M and 15 to 90 min respectively. The transparent and low-density aerogels were obtained for TEOS:MeOH:acidic H 2 O:basic H 2 O:HMDZ molar ratio of 1:16.5:0.81:0.50:0.681 respectively. The thermal stability and hydrophobicity have been confirmed with Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal (TG-DT) analyses and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Microstructural study was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

  4. DC Thermal Plasma Design and Utilization for the Low Density Polyethylene to Diesel Oil Pyrolysis Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC thermal plasma circuit is designed and used for conversion of low density polyethylene (LDPE into diesel oil in a laboratory scale pyrolysis reactor. The experimental setup uses a 270 W DC thermal plasma at operating temperatures in the range of 625 °C to 860 °C for a low density polyethylene (LDPE pyrolysis reaction at pressure = −0.95, temperature = 550 °C with τ = 30 min at a constant heating rate of 7.8 °C/min. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum pump, closed system vessel, direct current (DC plasma circuit, and a k-type thermocouple placed a few millimeters from the reactant sample. The hydrocarbon products are condensed to diesel oil and analyzed using flame ionization detector (FID gas chromatography. The analysis shows 87.5% diesel oil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (Surr, benzene, ethylbenzene and traces of toluene and xylene. The direct current (DC thermal plasma achieves 56.9 wt. % of diesel range oil (DRO, 37.8 wt. % gaseous products and minimal tar production. The direct current (DC thermal plasma shows reliability, better temperature control, and high thermal performance as well as the ability to work for long operation periods.

  5. Power-Production Diagnostic Tools for Low-Density Wind Farms with Applications to Wake Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Herzmann, D.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hansen (2011) provided guidelines for wind farm wake analysis with applications to "high density" wind farms (where average distance between turbines is less than ten times rotor diameter). For "low-density" (average distance greater than fifteen times rotor diameter) wind farms, or sections of wind farms we demonstrate simpler sorting and visualization tools that reveal wake interactions and opportunities for wind farm power prediction and wake steering. SCADA data from a segment of a large mid-continent wind farm, together with surface flux measurements and lidar data are subjected to analysis and visualization of wake interactions. A time-history animated visualization of a plan view of power level of individual turbines provides a quick analysis of wake interaction dynamics. Yaw-based sectoral histograms of enhancement/decline of wind speed and power from wind farm reference levels reveals angular width of wake interactions and identifies the turbine(s) responsible for the power reduction. Concurrent surface flux measurements within the wind farm allowed us to evaluate stability influence on wake loss. A one-season climatology is used to identify high-priority candidates for wake steering based on estimated power recovery. Typical clearing prices on the day-ahead market are used to estimate the added value of wake steering. Current research is exploring options for identifying candidate locations for wind farm "build-in" in existing low-density wind farms.

  6. Acetaldehyde binding increases the catabolism of rat serum low-density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Acetaldehyde was found to form adducts with rat serum lipoproteins. The binding of [ 14 C]acetaldehyde to lipoproteins was studied at low concentrations which are known to exist during ethanol oxidation. The amount of lipoprotein adducts was a linear function of acetaldehyde concentration up to 250 μM. Incubation of rat plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) with 200 μM acetaldehyde increased the disappearance rate of the 3 H-label from the cholesterol ester moiety of LDL injected into normal rats. The data show that even low concentrations of acetaldehyde are capable of affecting LDL metabolism. These findings may provide an explanation for the low concentrations of serum LDL in alcoholics. The alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia includes either a lack of increase or a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration, but the underlying mechanism is not known. It has been shown previously, that the acetylation of lysine residues of LDL apoprotein (apoB) by acetanhydride leads to rapid uptake of LDL particles by macrophages through a non-LDL receptor pathway. Since acetaldehyde, the first toxic metabolite of ethanol, is a chemically reactive compound capable of binding to proteins, they tested whether acetaldehyde forms adducts with serum lipoproteins and subsequently alters the catabolism of LDL. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  7. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipsa, Dan; Roberts, Richard; Laramee, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design ...

  8. Study of the characterization of crosslinking polyethylene foam by irradiation process with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Djalma Batista

    2007-01-01

    The polyethylene foams are widely used. Their main applications are used for both home appliances to medical equipment. Beside that, they have applications in building and automotive industries. The foam properties depend on the density and its cellular structure, that is, the amount of open and closed cells, of the distribution and size of them. The methods of the crosslinking polyethylene foam production are classified in two types, according to the crosslinking method. One method is based on the chemical crosslinking, which utilizes peroxide as crosslinking agent. In the other method, the crosslinking is induced by electron beam radiation. The foams obtained from the crosslinking polyethylene by irradiation process presented a smooth and the homogeneous surface, and are formed basically by closed cells. The aim of this study was to apply the ionizing radiation from electron beam to crosslink low density polyethylene (LDPE), to obtain foams. Their morphological, thermal and mechanical properties were studied to evaluate the obtained samples. The samples of low density polyethylene (0,946 g/cm 3 ), containing 5% of azodicarbonamide (ADCA), as expander agent, were irradiated with electron beam with doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 kGy. After the irradiation, these LDPE samples were put into an oven to obtain the foams. It was determined the crosslinking degree of the foams. Some samples were also thermally aged. The mechanical performance of the foams samples was evaluated by means of the tensile strength, compression, hardness, permanent deformation by compression and resilience. It was also carried out thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results have shown that, in the interval of radiation doses studied, that the tensile strength increases with the increase of the crosslinking degree. The compression resistance results obtained from with samples with to radiation dose of 40 kGy showed significant decreasing. The resilience

  9. Three-Dimensional Printed Graphene Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Li, Yilun; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Wang, Tuo; Dong, Pei; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Smith, Robert H; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-07-25

    An automated metal powder three-dimensional (3D) printing method for in situ synthesis of free-standing 3D graphene foams (GFs) was successfully modeled by manually placing a mixture of Ni and sucrose onto a platform and then using a commercial CO 2 laser to convert the Ni/sucrose mixture into 3D GFs. The sucrose acted as the solid carbon source for graphene, and the sintered Ni metal acted as the catalyst and template for graphene growth. This simple and efficient method combines powder metallurgy templating with 3D printing techniques and enables direct in situ 3D printing of GFs with no high-temperature furnace or lengthy growth process required. The 3D printed GFs show high-porosity (∼99.3%), low-density (∼0.015g cm -3 ), high-quality, and multilayered graphene features. The GFs have an electrical conductivity of ∼8.7 S cm -1 , a remarkable storage modulus of ∼11 kPa, and a high damping capacity of ∼0.06. These excellent physical properties of 3D printed GFs indicate potential applications in fields requiring rapid design and manufacturing of 3D carbon materials, for example, energy storage devices, damping materials, and sound absorption.

  10. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  11. Experimental atheromatous plaque imaging with 99mTc labelled low density lipoproteins in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanshi; Chen Yu; Wu Chunshan; Zhang Yijin; Liu Dexuan

    1996-01-01

    Atheromatous plaque imaging with 99m Tc labeled low density lipoproteins ( 99m Tc-LDL) were evaluated in rabbits for its clinical prospect. The 99m Tc-LDL atheromatous plaque imaging were performed in 9 rabbit models of atherosclerosis and 4 controls. The imagings were compared with autoradiographic and pathological results. The rabbit models of atherosclerosis by high cholesterol and high fat diet were successful in 100%. The atheromatous plaques well visualized in 8 of 9 rabbit models 24 hours after injection. The site and density of radioactive accumulation was closely correlated in autoradiography also. There was no radioactive spot in 4 controls. 99m Tc-LDL imaging may have a significant value for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis

  12. Fullerene-based low-density superhard materials with tunable bandgaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ai-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Gan, Li-Hua

    2018-06-01

    Four carbon allotropes built from tetrahedral symmetrical fullerenes C28 and C40 are predicted to be superhard materials with mass density around that of water, and all of them are porous semiconductors. Both the bandgaps and hardness decrease with increasing ratio of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. The mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities of C28- and C40-based allotropes at zero pressure are confirmed by a variety of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The evolution trend of bandgap found here suggests that one can obtain low-density hard materials with tunable bandgaps by substituting the carbon atom in diamond with different Td-symmetrical non-IPR fullerene Cn.

  13. Hyperbranched polyester polyol plasticized tapioca starch/low density polyethylene blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, Manuel; Giraldo, Diego; Murillo, Edwin, E-mail: edwinalbertomurillo@gmail.com [Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, San Jose de Cucuta (Colombia)

    2017-01-15

    n this work, low density polyethylene (LDPE)/plasticised starch (TPS) blends were prepared. The TPS employed in this study was obtained by plasticization of tapioca starch with a hyperbranched polyester polyol. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melting temperature increased with the TPS content. The opposite effect was exhibited in the crystallization temperature and additional changes were not observed during the heating. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a reduction in intensity of the peak at Bragg’s angle 17.5°, proving a diminution on A type crystallinity with the increasing amount of LDPE. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy exhibited starch granules without destructure. TPS acted as a filler to LDPE, since the mechanical properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength) improved ostensibly. The Young' modulus and tensile strength decreased with the amount of LDPE, however, the elongation at break exhibited an opposite behavior. (author)

  14. An FPGA Implementation of (3,6-Regular Low-Density Parity-Check Code Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of their excellent error-correcting performance, low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this paper, we are interested in the practical LDPC code decoder hardware implementations. The direct fully parallel decoder implementation usually incurs too high hardware complexity for many real applications, thus partly parallel decoder design approaches that can achieve appropriate trade-offs between hardware complexity and decoding throughput are highly desirable. Applying a joint code and decoder design methodology, we develop a high-speed (3,k-regular LDPC code partly parallel decoder architecture based on which we implement a 9216-bit, rate-1/2(3,6-regular LDPC code decoder on Xilinx FPGA device. This partly parallel decoder supports a maximum symbol throughput of 54 Mbps and achieves BER 10−6 at 2 dB over AWGN channel while performing maximum 18 decoding iterations.

  15. Biodistribution parameters and radiation absorbed dose estimates for radiolabeled human low density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.V.; Ryan, J.W.; Williams, K.A.; Atcher, R.W.; Brechbiel, M.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Fleming, R.M.; Stark, V.J.; Lathrop, K.A.; Harper, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    The authors propose a model to generate radiation absorbed dose estimates for radiolabeled low density lipoprotein (LDL), based upon eight studies of LDL biodistribution in three adult human subjects. Autologous plasma LDL was labeled with Tc-99m, I-123, or In-111 and injected intravenously. Biodistribution of each LDL derivative was monitored by quantitative analysis of scintigrams and direct counting of excreta and of serial blood samples. Assuming that transhepatic flux accounts for the majority of LDL clearance from the bloodstream, they obtained values of cumulated activity (A) and of mean dose per unit administered activity (D) for each study. In each case highest D values were calculated for liver, with mean doses of 5 rads estimated at injected activities of 27 mCi, 9 mCi, and 0.9 mCi for Tc-99m-LDL, I-123-LDL, and In-111-LDL, respectively

  16. Effect of fiber geometry on macroscale friction of ordered low-density polyethylene nanofiber arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Ho; Kim, Yongkwan; Fearing, Ronald S; Maboudian, Roya

    2011-09-06

    Ordered low-density polyethylene (LDPE) nanofiber arrays are fabricated from silicon nanowire (SiNW) templates synthesized by a simple wet-chemical process based on metal-assisted electroless etching combined with colloidal lithography. The geometrical effect of nanofibrillar structures on their macroscale friction is investigated over a wide range of diameters and lengths under the same fiber density. The optimum geometry for contacting a smooth glass surface is presented with discussions on the compromise between fiber tip-contact area and fiber compliance. A friction design map is developed, which shows that the theoretical optimum design condition agrees well with the LDPE nanofiber geometries exhibiting high measured friction. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Exposure to long wavelength ultraviolet radiation decreases processing of low density lipoprotein by cultured human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djavaheri-Mergny, M.; Santus, R.; Mora, L.; Maziere, J.C.; Faculte de Medecine Saint-Antoine, 75 -Paris; Maziere, C.; Auclair, M.; Dubertret, L.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of MRC5 human fibroblasts to UVA radiation (365 nm) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and degradation by cells. Following a 25 J/cm 2 irradiation dose, about 45% and 70% reduction in 125 I-LDL uptake and degradation were observed, respectively. Under the same conditions, the 14 C-sucrose uptake was also decreased to about the same extent as LDL uptake. Cell pretreatment with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C did not prevent the UVA-induced fall in LDL degradation. These results point to the possible effects of UVA radiation on receptor-mediated and nonspecific uptake of exogenous molecules. With special regard to the alterations in receptor-mediated processing of exogenous ligands, such a phenomenon could be of importance in UVA-induced skin degenerative processes. (Author)

  18. Degradation assessment of natural weathering on low density polyethylene/thermoplastic soya spent powder blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Ragunathan, S.; Ismail, H.

    2015-07-01

    Soya spent powder was blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE) ranging from 5-25 wt%. Glycerol was added to soya spent powder (SSP) for preparation of thermoplastic soya spent powder (TSSP). Then, the blends were exposed to natural weathering for 6 months. The susceptibility of the LDPE/soya spent powder blends based on its tensile, morphological properties and structural changes was measured every three months. The tensile strength of LDPE/TSSP blends after 6 months of weathering was the lowest compared to the other blends whereas LDPE/SSP blends after 6 months of weathering demonstrated the lowest elongation at break (Eb). Large pore can be seen on the surface of 25 wt% of LDPE/SSP blends.

  19. Hyperbranched polyester polyol plasticized tapioca starch/low density polyethylene blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Guzmán

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, low density polyethylene (LDPE/plasticized starch (TPS blends were prepared. The TPS employed in this study was obtained by plasticization of tapioca starch with a hyperbranched polyester polyol. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melting temperature increased with the TPS content. The opposite effect was exhibited in the crystallization temperature and additional changes were not observed during the heating. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a reduction in intensity of the peak at Bragg’s angle 17.5°, proving a diminution on A type crystallinity with the increasing amount of LDPE. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy exhibited starch granules without destructure. TPS acted as a filler to LDPE, since the mechanical properties (Young’s modulus and tensile strength improved ostensibly. The Young’ modulus and tensile strength decreased with the amount of LDPE, however, the elongation at break exhibited an opposite behavior.

  20. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) in sickle cell disease vasculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingyi; Qiu, Hong; Lin, Xin; Nam, David; Ogbu-Nwobodo, Lucy; Archibald, Hannah; Joslin, Amelia; Wun, Ted; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Green, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an endothelial receptor for oxidized LDL. Increased expression of LOX-1 has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions and diabetic vasculopathy. In this study, we investigate the expression of LOX-1 receptor in sickle cell disease (SCD) vasculopathy. Expression of LOX-1 in brain vascular endothelium is markedly increased and LOX-1 gene expression is upregulated in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells by incubation with SCD erythrocytes. Also, the level of circulating soluble LOX-1 concentration is elevated in the plasma of SCD patients. Increased LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of SCD vasculopathy. Soluble LOX-1 concentration in SCD may provide a novel biomarker for risk stratification of sickle cell vascular complications. PMID:27519944

  1. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein induced by metmyoglobin/H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, P K; Willhite, C A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H(2)O(2) can oxidize low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro, and oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases such as metMb is unclear. Herein, we show that during metMb/H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation of native LDL...... of CE-O(O)H is dependent on, and correlates with, LDL's alpha-TOH content, yet does not require preformed lipid hydroperoxides or H(2)O(2). This indicates that in native LDL alpha-TOH can act as a phase-transfer agent and alpha-TO(*) as a chain-transfer agent propagating LDL lipid peroxidation via...

  3. Low-density lipoprotein modified by myeloperoxidase oxidants induces endothelial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdo, Adrian; Rayner, B.S.; van Reyk, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in atherosclerotic lesions, where it is implicated in the propagation of inflammation and acceleration of lesion development by multiple pathways, including the induction of endothelial......, although emerging evidence suggests that these particles have distinct biological properties. This is important because elevated plasma SCN- is linked with both the propagation and prevention of atherosclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that both HOSCN- and HOCl-modified LDL inhibit endothelium......-mediated vasorelaxation ex vivo in rat aortic ring segments. In vitro experiments with human coronary artery endothelial cells show that HOSCN-modified LDL decreases in the production of nitric oxide (NO•) and induces the loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. This occurs to a similar extent...

  4. Accumulation and interaction of hypericin in low-density lipoprotein--a photophysical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun; Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Halder, Mintu; Petrich, Jacob W; Miskovsky, Pavol

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation and interaction of hypericin with the biologically important macromolecule, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is investigated using various steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. It is concluded that multiple hypericins can penetrate considerably deeply into the LDL molecule. Up to approximately 20 nonaggregated hypericin molecules can enter LDL; but upon increasing the hypericin concentration, the fluorescence lifetime of hypericin decreases drastically, suggesting most likely the self-quenching of aggregated hypericin. There is also evidence of energy transfer from tryptophans of the constituent protein, apoB-100, to hypericin in LDL. The results demonstrate the ability of LDL to solubilize hypericin (a known photosensitizer) in nonaggregated form, which has implications for the construction of drug delivery systems.

  5. Transport tensors in perfectly aligned low-density fluids: Self-diffusion and thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G. S.; Kumar, B.

    2001-01-01

    The modified Taxman equation for the kinetic theory of low-density fluids composed of rigid aspherical molecules possessing internal degrees of freedom is generalized to obtain the transport tensors in a fluid of aligned molecules. The theory takes care of the shape of the particles exactly but the solution has been obtained only for the case of perfectly aligned hard spheroids within the framework of the first Sonine polynomial approximation. The expressions for the thermal-conductivity components have been obtained for the first time whereas the self-diffusion components obtained here turn out to be exactly the same as those derived by Kumar and Masters [Mol. Phys. >81, 491 (1994)] through the solution of the Lorentz-Boltzmann equation. All our expressions yield correct results in the hard-sphere limit

  6. Direct effects of fatty meals and adiposity on oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Alonso-Barreto, Arely S; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    High-fat intake and high adiposity contribute to hyperlipaemia. In a hyperlipaemic state, lipoproteins infiltrate arterial wall where they are modified and cause an immune response characteristic of atherosclerosis. A small fraction of modified lipoproteins including oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) returns to circulation. The present study tracked high-fat meals during four weeks as to find effects of sustained frequency change on adiposity and ox-LDL. The findings indicated that changes in frequency of consumption of high-fat eating episodes correlated directly with changes in adiposity and ox-LDL. Hence the number of fatty meals consumed by people with overweight or obesity in few weeks could affect the atherogenic process. Copyright © 2015 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative orientational characterization if low - density polyethylene blow films by x-ray and birefringence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri Qazvini, N.; Mohammadi, N.; Ghaffarian, R.; Assempour, H.; Haghighatkish, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two important parameters of film blowing processes, i.e., take-up ration and blow-up ratio, on the overall orientation of low-density blown films have been investigated using birefringence measurements. Furthermore, by combining x-ray diffraction pole figure analysis and birefringence, the White and Spruiell biaxial orientation functions have been determined for aforementioned sample. Within the range of processing condition studied, increasing take-up ratio, increases orientation in both machine and transverse direction. Upon increasing blow-up ratio, orientation in the transverse direction increases and the overall orientation state approaches to equal biaxial one. Characterization of the crystalline regions by pole figure analysis reveals that a and b crystallographic axes preferentially orientate in the film plane and the direction normal to it, respectively. The amorphous regions do not have any preferential orientation

  8. Mechanical and morphological study of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/cyperus odoratus (CY) biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, N. A.; Noriman, N. Z.; Haron, Adli; Sam, S. T.; Hamzah, R.; Shayfull, Z.; Ghazali, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    The potential of Cyperus Odoratus (CY) as a filler was studied. The CY, in a powder form, was mixed with Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE), prior to being fed into a twin screw extruder and subsequently into an injection moulding machine to produce LLDPY/CY biocomposites. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized and tensile tests were performed on the test specimens to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The integration of CY powder and LLDPE resulted in an increment of the modulus of elasticity, but a reduction in tensile strength and elongation at break. The morphology characterization of these composites, determined through the SEM, showed poor interfacial adhesion between the filler and the thermoplastic LLDPE matrix.

  9. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Saad, David

    2003-01-01

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models

  10. Effect of high density lipoproteins on permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, A.N.; Popov, V.A.; Nagornev, V.A.; Pleskov, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of high density lipoproteins (HDL) on the permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins (LDL) after intravenous administration of human HDL and human ( 125 I)LDL to normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Evaluation of radioactivity in plasma and aorta has shown that the administration of a large dose of HDL decreased the aorta permeability rate for ( 125 I)LDL on an average by 19% in normal rabbits, and by 45% in rabbits with moderate hypercholesterolemia. A historadiographic study showed that HDL also decreased the vessel wall permeability to ( 125 I)LDL in normal and particularly in hypercholesterolemic animals. The suggestion was made that HDL at very high molar concentration can hamper LDL transportation through the intact endothelial layer into the intima due to the ability of HDL to compete with LDL in sites of low affinity on the surface of endothelial cells. (author)

  11. Characterization of injected linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) irradiated by gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana C.F.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Ferreto, Helio F.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate of gamma irradiation effects on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) injected. Polymers processed by gamma radiation have new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. The ionizing radiation promotes chain scission and creates free radicals which can recombine, providing their annihilation, for crosslinking or branching. The polymer was irradiated with a source of 60 Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at about 5 kGy s -1 rate, at room temperature. The changes in molecular structure of LLDPE were evaluated using melt flow index, gel fraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The results showed that the properties depend on dose irradiation. (author)

  12. Thermal, tensile and rheological properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) processed irradiated by gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreto, Helio F.R.; Oliveira, Ana C.F. de; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of low density polyethylene (LDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays). The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. The samples were prepare in hydraulic press in temperature 180 deg C after was irradiated with gamma source of 60 Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h in inert atmosphere. The changes in molecular structure of LDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere. (author)

  13. Field emission properties of low-density carbon nanotubes prepared on anodic aluminum-oxide template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Soo-Hwan [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Hong [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-15

    Anodic aluminum-oxide (AAO) templates were fabricated by two-step anodizing an Al film. After the Co catalyst had been electrochemically deposited onto the bottom of the AAO template, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by using catalytic pyrolysis of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at 650 .deg. C. Overgrowth of CNTs with low density on the AAO templates was observed. The field-emission measurements on the samples showed a turn-on field of 2.17 V/mum and a field enhancement factor of 5700. The emission pattern on a phosphor screen was quite homogeneous over the area at a relatively low electric field.

  14. Spatially coupled low-density parity-check error correction for holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Norihiko; Katano, Yutaro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Kinoshita, Nobuhiro

    2017-09-01

    The spatially coupled low-density parity-check (SC-LDPC) was considered for holographic data storage. The superiority of SC-LDPC was studied by simulation. The simulations show that the performance of SC-LDPC depends on the lifting number, and when the lifting number is over 100, SC-LDPC shows better error correctability compared with irregular LDPC. SC-LDPC is applied to the 5:9 modulation code, which is one of the differential codes. The error-free point is near 2.8 dB and over 10-1 can be corrected in simulation. From these simulation results, this error correction code can be applied to actual holographic data storage test equipment. Results showed that 8 × 10-2 can be corrected, furthermore it works effectively and shows good error correctability.

  15. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-31

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models.

  16. Entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Clark, David; Tonchev, Vladimir D.; Vandendriessche, Peter; De Boeck, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a general method for constructing entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, which is based on combinatorial design theory. Explicit constructions are given for entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes with many desirable properties. These properties include the requirement of only one initial entanglement bit, high error-correction performance, high rates, and low decoding complexity. The proposed method produces several infinite families of codes with a wide variety of parameters and entanglement requirements. Our framework encompasses the previously known entanglement-assisted quantum LDPC codes having the best error-correction performance and many other codes with better block error rates in simulations over the depolarizing channel. We also determine important parameters of several well-known classes of quantum and classical LDPC codes for previously unsettled cases.

  17. Entanglement-assisted quantum quasicyclic low-density parity-check codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Brun, Todd A.; Devetak, Igor

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the construction of quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes from classical quasicyclic (QC) LDPC codes with girth greater than or equal to 6. We have shown that the classical codes in the generalized Calderbank-Skor-Steane construction do not need to satisfy the dual-containing property as long as preshared entanglement is available to both sender and receiver. We can use this to avoid the many four cycles which typically arise in dual-containing LDPC codes. The advantage of such quantum codes comes from the use of efficient decoding algorithms such as sum-product algorithm (SPA). It is well known that in the SPA, cycles of length 4 make successive decoding iterations highly correlated and hence limit the decoding performance. We show the principle of constructing quantum QC-LDPC codes which require only small amounts of initial shared entanglement.

  18. Quantum Kronecker sum-product low-density parity-check codes with finite rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce an ansatz for quantum codes which gives the hypergraph-product (generalized toric) codes by Tillich and Zémor and generalized bicycle codes by MacKay as limiting cases. The construction allows for both the lower and the upper bounds on the minimum distance; they scale as a square root of the block length. Many thus defined codes have a finite rate and limited-weight stabilizer generators, an analog of classical low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Compared to the hypergraph-product codes, hyperbicycle codes generally have a wider range of parameters; in particular, they can have a higher rate while preserving the estimated error threshold.

  19. An Investigation on Rheology of Peroxide Cross-linking of Low Density Polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Szabo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross-linking on th......One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross......-linking on the rheological behaviour of low density polyethylene was investigated by using a combination of creep test and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in isotherm condition. The used peroxide was di-cumyl peroxide and its concentration was 2 wt%. The experiments were carried out at 150,160, and 170 degrees C...

  20. Gamma radiation effects on the rheological properties of high and low density polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel-Nafaile, C.; Garcia-Rejon, A.; Garcia Leon, A.

    1986-01-01

    High energy radiation of polymeric materials is a topic of considerable interest from commercial and scientific points of view. Within an inert atmosphere, irradiation of polyethylene yields a crosslinking effect with a consequent improvement in its mechanical properties in comparison to the virgin materials. Additionally, if irradiated specimens are melted and recrystallized, the radiation-induced crosslinking hinders their crystalline growth altering dramatically their flow properties such as the elasticity. This work portrays the effects of the gamma radiation on the rheological properties of high and low density polyethylenes manufactured by PEMEX and analyzes the implications of theoretical results derived from the Acierno's model when it is implemented with the rheological properties of high energy irradiated polyethylenes. (author)

  1. Hypochlorous acid-mediated oxidation of lipid components and antioxidants present in low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare Louise; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is believed to contribute to the increased uptake of LDL by macrophages, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been implicated as one of the major oxidants involved in these processes. In a previous study, the rates...... of reaction of HOCl with the reactive sites in proteins were investigated (Pattison, D. I., and Davies, M. J. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1453-1464). The work presented here expands on those studies to determine absolute second-order rate constants for the reactions of HOCl with various lipid components...... nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals. Subsequent reactions of these species may induce oxidation of the LDL lipid component. In contrast, phosphoryl-choline reacted much more slowly (k Reaction of HOCl with 3-pentenoic acid was used as a model of lipid double bonds...

  2. Pregnancy in a Woman with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Not on Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl C. Fahed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in women with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH has been rarely reported and might pose risks on the mother and her fetus. Although most reported cases remained on low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis, there are no clear guidelines regarding the management of this entity. We report the first case of an uncomplicated pregnancy in a 24-year-old homozygous FH woman who was not maintained on LDL apheresis. FH expresses a wide variability in the phenotype, and management of homozygous FH cases who desire to become pregnant should be individualized based on preconceptional assessment with frequent antenatal follow-up. Decisions on management should be made after weighing the risks versus benefits of LDL apheresis.

  3. In vitro biological efficacy of boronated low density lipoproteins for NCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, S.B.; Pate, D.; Laster, B.H.; Popenoe, E.A.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) are known to be internalized within the cell by receptor-mediated mechanisms. There is evidence that LDLs may be taken up avidly by tumor cells to provide cholesterol for the synthesis of cell membrane. Thus, the possibility exists that LDLs may provide an ideal vehicle for the transport of boron to tumor cells for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). A boronated analog of LDL has recently been synthesized for possible application in NCT. The analog was tested in cell culture for uptake and biological efficacy in the thermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). It was found that boron concentrations ten times higher than that required for NCT were easily obtained, and that uptake data were constant with a receptor mediated binding mechanism. The measured intracellular concentration of ∼240 μg 10 B/g cells is significantly higher than that obtained with any other boron compound previously evaluated for possible clinical application

  4. Tapanuli Organoclay Addition Into Linear Low Density Polyethylene-Pineapple Fiber Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adawiyah, Robiatul; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Roseno, Seto

    2010-01-01

    Linear low density polyethylene-Tapanuli organoclay-pineapple fiber composites were succesfully synthesized by a melt intercalation method. The clay was modified as an organoclay by a cation exchange reaction using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) surfactant. The X-ray diffraction results of the organoclay exhibited a higher basal spacing of 1.87 nm compared to the unmodified clay of 1.46 nm. The composite tensile strength was enhanced up to 46.4% with the 1 wt% organoclay addition. Both tensile and flexural moduli increased up to 150.6% and 43% with the 3 wt% organoclay addition to the composites. However, the flexural strength of the composites was not improved with the organoclay addition. The addition of organoclay has also decreased the heat deflection temperature of the composites.

  5. Low-density, one-dimensional quantum gases in the presence of a localized attractive potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goold, J; O'Donoghue, D; Busch, Th

    2008-01-01

    We investigate low-density, quantum-degenerate gases in the presence of a localized attractive potential in the centre of a one-dimensional harmonic trap. The attractive potential is modelled using a parameterized δ-function, allowing us to determine all single-particle eigenfunctions analytically. From these we calculate the ground-state many-body properties for a system of spin-polarized fermions and, using the Bose-Fermi mapping theorem, extend the results to strongly interacting bosonic systems. We discuss the single-particle densities, the pair-correlation functions, the reduced single-particle density matrices and the momentum distributions as a function of the particle number and strength of the attractive point potential. As an important experimental observable, we place special emphasis on spatial coherence properties of such samples.

  6. Low-density, high-strength intermetallic matrix composites by XD (trademark) synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. S.; Dipietro, M. S.; Brown, S. A.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the potential of particulate composites based on low-density, L1(sub 2) trialuminide matrices for high-temperature applications. The compounds evaluated included Al22Fe3Ti8 (as a multiphase matrix), Al67Ti25Cr8, and Al66Ti25Mn9. The reinforcement consisted of TiB2 particulates. The TiB2 composites were processed by ingot and powder metallurgy techniques. Microstructural characterization and mechanical testing were performed in the hot-pressed and hot-isostatic-pressed condition. The casting were sectioned and isothermally forged into pancakes. All the materials were tested in compression as a function of temperature, and at high temperatures as a function of strain rate. The test results are discussed.

  7. The Positronium Radiative Combination Spectrum: Calculation in the Limit of Thermal Positrons and Low Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallyn, P.; Mahoney, W. A.; Durouchoux, Ph.; Chapuis, C.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the intensities of the positronium de-excitation lines for two processes: (1) the radiative combination of free thermal electrons and positrons for transitions with principal quantum number n less than 20, and (2) charge exchange between free positrons and hydrogen and helium atoms, restricting our evaluation to the Lyman-alpha line. We consider a low-density medium modeled by the case A assumption of Baker & Menzel and use the "nL method" of Pengelly to calculate the absolute intensities. We also evaluate the positronium fine and hyperfine intensities and show that these transitions are in all cases much weaker than positronium de-excitation lines in the same wavelength range. We also extrapolate our positronium de-excitation intensities to the submillimeter, millimeter, and centimeter wavelengths. Our results favor the search of infrared transitions of positronium lines for point sources when the visual extinction A, is greater than approx. 5.

  8. Mechanical properties of low-density polyethylene filled by graphite nanoplatelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, G; Palomba, M; De Nicola, S; Pullini, D; Horsewell, A; Hansen, T W; Nicolais, L

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of GNP/LDPE nanocomposites (graphite nanoplatelets/low density polyethylene) have been investigated, in order to establish the effect of nanoscale reinforcement within the polymer matrix. Results show that the presence of the filler does not involve a change in the microscopic structure of the polymer. However, on a macroscopic scale, GNPs limit the mobility of the polymer chains, resulting in an increase in stiffness for the final composite. Orientation of GNPs within the LDPE matrix is also an important issue that affects mechanical properties and it has been evaluated by testing nanocomposites made by different manufacturing techniques (compression moulding and blown extrusion). The comparison between the experimental data and the Halpin–Tsai model shows that the orientation of GNPs due to the extrusion process leads to values of tensile modulus higher than that obtained with the randomly oriented disposition resulting from the compression moulding technique. (paper)

  9. Effect of degrading yellow oxo-biodegradable low-density polyethylene films to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, B. A.; Pajarito, B. B.

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) contributes largely to plastic wastes that are disposed in aquatic environment as a consequence of its widespread use. In this study, yellow oxo-biodegradable low-density PE films were immersed in deionized water at 50°C for 49 days. Indicators of water quality: pH, oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, and total dissolved solids (TDS), were monitored at regular intervals. It was observed that pH initially rises and then slowly decreases with time, oxidation-reduction potential decreases then slowly increases with time, turbidity rises above the control at varied rates, and TDS increases abruptly and rises at a hindered rate. Moreover, the films potentially leach out lead chromate. The results imply that degrading oxo-biodegradable LDPE films results to significant reduction of water quality.

  10. Tapanuli Organoclay Addition Into Linear Low Density Polyethylene-Pineapple Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawiyah, Robiatul; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Roseno, Seto

    2010-12-01

    Linear low density polyethylene-Tapanuli organoclay-pineapple fiber composites were succesfully synthesized by a melt intercalation method. The clay was modified as an organoclay by a cation exchange reaction using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) surfactant. The X-ray diffraction results of the organoclay exhibited a higher basal spacing of 1.87 nm compared to the unmodified clay of 1.46 nm. The composite tensile strength was enhanced up to 46.4% with the 1 wt% organoclay addition. Both tensile and flexural moduli increased up to 150.6% and 43% with the 3 wt% organoclay addition to the composites. However, the flexural strength of the composites was not improved with the organoclay addition. The addition of organoclay has also decreased the heat deflection temperature of the composites.

  11. Theoretical prediction of low-density hexagonal ZnO hollow structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc, E-mail: tuoc.vungoc@hust.edu.vn [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huan, Tran Doan [Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Thao, Nguyen Thi [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hong Duc University, 307 Le Lai, Thanh Hoa City (Viet Nam); Tuan, Le Manh [Hong Duc University, 307 Le Lai, Thanh Hoa City (Viet Nam)

    2016-10-14

    Along with wurtzite and zinc blende, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been found in a large number of polymorphs with substantially different properties and, hence, applications. Therefore, predicting and synthesizing new classes of ZnO polymorphs are of great significance and have been gaining considerable interest. Herein, we perform a density functional theory based tight-binding study, predicting several new series of ZnO hollow structures using the bottom-up approach. The geometry of the building blocks allows for obtaining a variety of hexagonal, low-density nanoporous, and flexible ZnO hollow structures. Their stability is discussed by means of the free energy computed within the lattice-dynamics approach. Our calculations also indicate that all the reported hollow structures are wide band gap semiconductors in the same fashion with bulk ZnO. The electronic band structures of the ZnO hollow structures are finally examined in detail.

  12. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  13. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  14. Effect of low density H-mode operation on edge and divertor plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Cuthbertson, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    We present a study of the impact of H-mode operation at low density on divertor plasma parameters on the DIII-D tokamak. The line-average density in H-mode was scanned by variation of the particle exhaust rate, using the recently installed divertor cryo-condensation pump. The maximum decrease (50%) in line-average electron density was accompanied by a factor of 2 increase in the edge electron temperature, and 10% and 20% reductions in the measured core and divertor radiated power, respectively. The measured total power to the inboard divertor target increased by a factor of 3, with the major contribution coming from a factor of 5 increase in the peak heat flux very close to the inner strike point. The measured increase in power at the inboard divertor target was approximately equal to the measured decrease in core and divertor radiation

  15. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.

    2012-01-01

    ) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface....... Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence......Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively...

  16. Low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B.N.; Anuradha, M.; Nageshwara Rao, P.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Ganguly, C.

    2000-01-01

    Low sintered density and density variation in sintered UO 2 were found to have been caused by non uniformity in the granule feed characteristics to the compacting press. The nitrogen impurity content of sintered UO 2 was found to be sintering furnace related and associated with low sintered density pellets. The problems of low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen could be solved by the replacement of the prevailing four punch precompaction by a single punch process; by the introduction of a vibro-sieve for the separation of fine particles from the press feed granules; by innovation in the powder feed shoe design for simultaneous and uniform dispensing of powder in all the die holes; by increasing the final compaction pressure and by modifying the gas flows and preheat temperature in the sintering furnace. (author)

  17. Hyperbranched polyester polyol plasticized tapioca starch/low density polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, Manuel; Giraldo, Diego; Murillo, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    n this work, low density polyethylene (LDPE)/plasticised starch (TPS) blends were prepared. The TPS employed in this study was obtained by plasticization of tapioca starch with a hyperbranched polyester polyol. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melting temperature increased with the TPS content. The opposite effect was exhibited in the crystallization temperature and additional changes were not observed during the heating. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a reduction in intensity of the peak at Bragg’s angle 17.5°, proving a diminution on A type crystallinity with the increasing amount of LDPE. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy exhibited starch granules without destructure. TPS acted as a filler to LDPE, since the mechanical properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength) improved ostensibly. The Young' modulus and tensile strength decreased with the amount of LDPE, however, the elongation at break exhibited an opposite behavior. (author)

  18. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  19. Tourism territories in low density areas: The case of Naturtejo geopark in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Manuel de Almeida Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to supply some elements regarding tourism territories’ building in low density areas, and to corroborate the creation of a specific tourism territory (the Naturtejo Geopark by the role carried out by a new territorial actor – Naturtejo, EIM (a Portuguese geopark´s management firm - allowing tourism activities within a territorial scope different from the traditional territorial units’ partition. The methodology applied is based on literature review and a specific case study used to show the creation of a new tourism territory. The results achieved suggest that concerted action in this new tourism territory has been producing positive effects from the supply-side point of view.

  20. Low density lipoprotein: structure, dynamics, and interactions of apoB-100 with lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murtola, T.; Vuorela, T. A.; Hyvonen, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    's structural information makes it more difficult to understand its function. In this work, we have combined experimental and theoretical data to construct LDL models comprised of the apoB-100 protein wrapped around a lipid droplet of about 20 nm in size. The models are considered by near-atomistic multi......-microsecond simulations to unravel structural as well as dynamical properties of LDL, with particular attention paid to lipids and their interactions with the protein. We find that the distribution and the ordering of the lipids in the LDL particle are rather complex. The previously proposed 2- and 3- layer models turn......Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transports cholesterol in the bloodstream and plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, in particular atherosclerosis. Despite its importance to health, the structure of LDL is not known in detail. This is worrying since the lack of LDL...

  1. Effect of Aspergillus versicolor strain JASS1 on low density polyethylene degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendiran, A.; Subramani, S.; Abraham, J.

    2017-11-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) waste disposal remains one of the major environmental concerns faced by the world today. In past decades, major focus has been given to enhance the biodegradation of LDPE by microbial species. In this present study, Aspergillus versicolor with the ability to degrade LDPE was isolated from municipal landfill area using enrichment technique. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed its identity as Aspergillus versicolor. The biodegradation study was carried out for 90 d in M1 medium. The degradation behaviour of LDPE films by Aspergillus versicolor strain JASS1 were confirmed by weight loss, CO2 evolution, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique. From current investigation, it can be concluded that our isolated strain JASS1 had the potential to degrade LDPE films and it can be useful in solving the problem caused by polyethylene in the environment.

  2. Cryogenic mechanical properties of low density superplastically formable Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzasconi, S. L.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The aerospace industry is considering the use of low density, superplastically formable (SPF) materials, such as Al-Li alloys in cryogenic tankage. SPF modifications of alloys 8090, 2090, and 2090+In were tested for strength and Kahn tear toughness. The results were compared to those of similar tests of 2219-T87, an alloy currently used in cryogenic tankage, and 2090-T81, a recently studied Al-Li alloy with exceptional cryogenic properties (1-9). With decreasing temperature, all materials showed an increase in strength, while most materials showed an increase in elongation and decrease in Kahn toughness. The indium addition to 2090 increased alloy strength, but did not improve the strength-toughness combination. The fracture mode was predominantly intergranular along small, recrystallized grains, with some transgranular fracture, some ductile rupture, and some delamination on large, unrecrystallized grains.

  3. Radiochemical and immunohistochemical detection of low density lipoprotein surface binding by lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melzner, I.; Hambitzer, R.; Haferkamp, O.

    1983-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes bind and take up low density lipoprotein (LDL) by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of LDL was determiend by incubation with 125 I-LDL and an immunohistochemical assay. By both techniques a diminished rate of binding was found when cells were freshly isolated from the blood, but increased 5 to 10 fold when lymphocytes were incubated in lipoprotein-deficient medium for 72 hours. In addition, it was shown immunohistochemically that only few ceels showed an LDL-dependent fluorescent labelling: approximately 5 to 10 % of the freshly isolated lymphocytes and 40 to 50 % of the cells incubated for 72 hours under lipoprotein-free conditions. The present data indicate that not only the high affinity LDL receptor described by Goldstein and Braun may be involved in the uptake of cholesterol by lymphocytes, but also other binding sites, which may have immunological function in some lymphocyte subpopulations. (author)

  4. Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and lamellar zirconium phosphate (Zr P) composites: morphology and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Daniela F.; Mandes, Luis C.; Lino, Adan S.

    2011-01-01

    Composites of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) were prepared by extrusion in the molten state, containing 2 (w%) of the lamellar filler. The filler was previously synthesized by direct precipitation method and characterized. After processing, the composite and the pure virgin polymer were molded by compression in order to obtain films of 1 mm thick which were characterized by X-ray diffraction at high angle (WAXD), stress-strain mechanical analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The WAXD and SEM analysis showed that there was no intercalation of LLDPE in zirconium phosphate, possibly due to the fact that the layers do not have spacing enough to allow the intercalation of polymer chains in the galleries of the filler and thus allow the exfoliation. (author)

  5. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  6. Effect of bicarbonate on iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hirofumi; Berlett, Barbara S.; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2005-07-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate/CO2 compared with phosphate buffer. However, when copper was substituted for iron in these mixtures, the rate of LDL oxidation in both buffers was similar. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL was highly sensitive to inhibition by phosphate. Presence of 0.3-0.5 mM phosphate, characteristic of human serum, led to 30-40% inhibition of LDL oxidation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to MDA in phosphate buffer was inhibited by increasing concentrations of albumin (10-200 μM), whereas MDA formation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was stimulated by 10-50 μM albumin but inhibited by higher concentrations. However, albumin stimulated the oxidation of LDL proteins to carbonyl derivatives at all concentrations examined in both buffers. Conversion of LDL to MDA in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was greatly stimulated by ADP, ATP, and EDTA but only when EDTA was added at a concentration equal to that of iron. At higher than stoichiometric concentrations, EDTA prevented oxidation of LDL. Results of these studies suggest that interactions between bicarbonate and iron or heme derivatives leads to complexes with redox potentials that favor the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or to the generation of highly reactive CO2 anion or bicarbonate radical that facilitates LDL oxidation. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.Abbreviations: LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MDA, malondialdehyde; MetO, methionine sulfoxide.

  7. Serum oxidized low density lipoprotein levels in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, A; Yildirmak, S Turkmen; Mihmanli, V; Ayabakan, H; Cicek, Y G; Kalaslioglu, V; Doean, S; Cebeci, H Cerci

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/AIM: The aim of the study was to determine serum lipids and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels in preeclamptic pregnants and compare with those of normotensives. Ox-LDL levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); total cholesterol, hight density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assay in 26 normotensive and 27 preeclamptic pregnants. LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol was calculated by Friedwald formula. Serum levels of Ox-LDL (U/L), total-cholesterol (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), triglyceride (mg/dL), and VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnants were found as 130±60 and 133±69; 248±49 and 248±81; 67±14 and 61±16; 147±61 and 135±59; 207±76 and 256±87; 41±15 and 50±17, respectively. Mean values of Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters were higher than the upper limits of their reference ranges in both of groups. However no significant differences were found in Ox-LDL, total, HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels between two groups. However, the levels of triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in preeclampsia group. The present results suggest that the levels of serum Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters rise as a result of pregnancy rather than as a result of preeclampsia.

  8. Homocomposites of chopped fluorinated polyethylene fiber with low-density polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, J.; Jacob, C.; Das, C.K.; Alam, S.; Singh, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional composites are generally prepared by adding reinforcing agent to a matrix and the matrix wherein the reinforcing agents are different in chemical composition with the later having superior mechanical properties. This work presents the preparation and properties of homocomposites consisting of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix and an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber reinforcing phase. Direct fluorination is an important surface modification process by which only a thin upper layer is modified, the bulk properties of the polymer remaining unchanged. In this work, surface fluorination of UHMWPE fiber was done and then fiber characterization was performed. It was observed that after fluorination the fiber surface became rough. Composites were then prepared using both fluorinated and non-fluorinated polyethylene fiber with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix to prepare single polymer composites. It was found that the thermal stability and mechanical properties were improved for fluorinated fiber composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the crystallinity of the composites increased and it is maximum for fluorinated fiber composites. Tensile strength (TS) and modulus also increased while elongation at break (EB) decreased for fiber composites and was a maximum for fluorinated fiber composites. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates that that the distribution of fiber into the matrix is homogeneous. It also indicates the better adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing agent for modified fiber composites. We also did surface fluorination of the prepared composites and base polymer for knowing its application to different fields such as printability wettability, etc. To determine the various properties such as printability, wettability and adhesion properties, contact angle measurement was done. It was observed that the surface energies of surface modified composites and base polymer increases

  9. Effect of low-density polyethylene on smoke emissions from burning of simulated debris piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan; Shrivastava, Manish; Qi, Li; Weise, David R; Cocker, David R; Miller, John W; Jung, Heejung S

    2014-06-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic is used to keep piled debris from silvicultural activities--activities associated with development and care of forests--dry to enable efficient disposal by burning. The effects of inclusion of LDPE in this manner on smoke emissions are not well known. In a combustion laboratory experiment, 2-kg mixtures of LDPE and manzanita (Arctostaphylos sp.) wood containing 0, 0.25, and 2.5% LDPE by mass were burned. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled in real time during the entire flaming, mixed combustion phase--when the flaming and smoldering phases are present at the same time--and during a portion of the smoldering phase. Analysis of variance was used to test significance of modified combustion efficiency (MCE)--the ratio of concentrations of fire-integrated excess CO2 to CO2 plus CO--and LDPE content on measured individual compounds. MCE ranged between 0.983 and 0.993, indicating that combustion was primarily flaming; MCE was seldom significant as a covariate. Of the 195 compounds identified in the smoke emissions, only the emission factor (EF) of 3M-octane showed an increase with increasing LDPE content. Inclusion of LDPE had an effect on EFs of pyrene and fluoranthene, but no statistical evidence of a linear trend was found. Particulate emission factors showed a marginally significant linear relationship with MCE (0.05 burned. In general, combustion of wet piles results in lower MCEs and consequently higher levels of emissions. Current air quality regulations permit the use of burning to dispose of silvicultural piles; however, inclusion of low-density polyethyelene (LDPE) plastic in silvicultural piles can result in a designation of the pile as waste. Waste burning is not permitted in many areas, and there is also concern that inclusion of LDPE leads to toxic air emissions.

  10. Nutritional Correlates of Koala Persistence in a Low-Density Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenberg, Eleanor; Wallis, Ian R.; Cunningham, Ross B.; Allen, Chris; Foley, William J.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely postulated that nutritional factors drive bottom-up, resource-based patterns in herbivore ecology and distribution. There is, however, much controversy over the roles of different plant constituents and how these influence individual herbivores and herbivore populations. The density of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations varies widely and many attribute population trends to variation in the nutritional quality of the eucalypt leaves of their diet, but there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. We used a nested design that involved sampling of trees at two spatial scales to investigate how leaf chemistry influences free-living koalas from a low-density population in south east New South Wales, Australia. Using koala faecal pellets as a proxy for koala visitation to trees, we found an interaction between toxins and nutrients in leaves at a small spatial scale, whereby koalas preferred trees with leaves of higher concentrations of available nitrogen but lower concentrations of sideroxylonals (secondary metabolites found exclusively in eucalypts) compared to neighbouring trees of the same species. We argue that taxonomic and phenotypic diversity is likely to be important when foraging in habitats of low nutritional quality in providing diet choice to tradeoff nutrients and toxins and minimise movement costs. Our findings suggest that immediate nutritional concerns are an important priority of folivores in low-quality habitats and imply that nutritional limitations play an important role in constraining folivore populations. We show that, with a careful experimental design, it is possible to make inferences about populations of herbivores that exist at extremely low densities and thus achieve a better understanding about how plant composition influences herbivore ecology and persistence. PMID:25470599

  11. Nutritional correlates of koala persistence in a low-density population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Stalenberg

    Full Text Available It is widely postulated that nutritional factors drive bottom-up, resource-based patterns in herbivore ecology and distribution. There is, however, much controversy over the roles of different plant constituents and how these influence individual herbivores and herbivore populations. The density of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus populations varies widely and many attribute population trends to variation in the nutritional quality of the eucalypt leaves of their diet, but there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. We used a nested design that involved sampling of trees at two spatial scales to investigate how leaf chemistry influences free-living koalas from a low-density population in south east New South Wales, Australia. Using koala faecal pellets as a proxy for koala visitation to trees, we found an interaction between toxins and nutrients in leaves at a small spatial scale, whereby koalas preferred trees with leaves of higher concentrations of available nitrogen but lower concentrations of sideroxylonals (secondary metabolites found exclusively in eucalypts compared to neighbouring trees of the same species. We argue that taxonomic and phenotypic diversity is likely to be important when foraging in habitats of low nutritional quality in providing diet choice to tradeoff nutrients and toxins and minimise movement costs. Our findings suggest that immediate nutritional concerns are an important priority of folivores in low-quality habitats and imply that nutritional limitations play an important role in constraining folivore populations. We show that, with a careful experimental design, it is possible to make inferences about populations of herbivores that exist at extremely low densities and thus achieve a better understanding about how plant composition influences herbivore ecology and persistence.

  12. Accumulation of native and methylated low density lipoproteins by healing rabbit arterial wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischman, A.J.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Strauss, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether healing arterial wall accumulation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) is mediated by the high affinity LDL receptor, normocholesterolemic rabbits were injected with 125 I-LDL, /sup 99m/Tc-LDL, or the reductively methylated analogs of these compounds ( 125 I-MeLDL, /sup 99m/Tc-MeLDL), 1 month after balloon catheter deendothelialization of the abdominal aorta. If the mechanism of accumulation requires interaction with the LDL receptor, reductively methylated lipoproteins which do not bind to the receptor should not accumulate in healing arterial wall. Twenty-four hours after injection of labelled lipoproteins, each animal was injected with Evans blue dye, in order to distinguish reendothelialized from deendothelialized aorta. One hour after dye injection, the aorta was fixed, removed, divided into abdominal (ballooned) and thoracic (unballooned) regions and counted. For all lipoprotein preparations, there were three to four times as many counts in the abdominal as in the thoracic aorta. En face autoradiographs were made of the aortas that had been exposed to 125 I-labelled lipoproteins. In the autoradiographs, the areas of the lowest activity corresponded to the centers of healing endothelial islands. The most intense radioactivity for both lipoproteins occurred in the region of the leading edge of the endothelial islands where active endothelial regeneration was in progress. The overall distribution of native and MeLDL accumulation was the same. The results suggest that low density lipoproteins are accumulated in areas of active endothelial regeneration by a mechanism that does not involve the high affinity LDL receptor

  13. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  14. PUR-PIR foam produced based on poly(hydroxybutyl citrate foamed founded with different factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liszkowska Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A poly(hydroxybutyl citrate p(HBC was obtained. The product compound produced in the solution during esterification, was added to rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR. The amount of petrochemical polyol in the foams was decreased in favor of the p(HBC from 0.1 to 0.5 equivalent. The foams were foamed in two ways: with distilled water (W foams and with Solkane 365/227 (S foams. The examination results of both foam series were compared. They showed that the foams foamed with water have higher softening temperature than the foams foamed with solkane. The retention values for both foam series are around 91–95%, and water absorption in the range of 0.7–3.2%. The anisotropy coefficient did not exceed 1.08 (the lowest value being 1.01.

  15. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  16. Relationship between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and severe acute pancreatitis (“the lipid paradox”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong W

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wandong Hong,1,* Vincent Zimmer,2,3,* Simon Stock,4,* Maddalena Zippi,5 Jones AQ Omoshoro-Jones,6 Mengtao Zhou71Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany; 3Department of Medicine, Marienhausklinik St Josef Kohlhof, Neunkirchen, Germany; 4Department of Surgery, World Mate Emergency Hospital, Battambang, Cambodia; 5Unit of Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome, Italy; 6Department of Surgery, Chris Hani-Baragwanath Academic Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 7Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground and aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP.Patients and methods: A total of 674 patients with acute pancreatitis were enrolled. Nonlinearity in the relationship between LDL-C and SAP was assessed by restricted cubic spline analysis. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors of SAP.Results: The restricted cubic spline analysis suggested a nonlinear association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride levels and incidence of SAP. The incidence of SAP in patients with low LDL-C (<90 mg/dL, moderate LDL-C (90–150 mg/dL and high LDL-C (>150 mg/dL levels was 15.1%, 3.7% and 9.8%, respectively. Multivariable analysis confirmed that low LDL-C levels (odds ratio [OR] 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35–6.90, high LDL-C levels (OR 4.42; 95% CI 1.41–13.87 and low HDL-C levels (OR 6.90; 95% CI 2.61–18.23 but

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in children with familial hypercholesterolemia and unaffected siblings: effect of pravastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Jessica; Vissers, Maud N; Wiegman, Albert; Miller, Elizabeth R; Ridker, Paul M; Witztum, Joseph L; Kastelein, John J P; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2006-05-02

    To assess the role of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and the effect of pravastatin. Oxidized phospholipids are a major component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and are bound to lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. The significance of OxPL markers in children is unknown. Children with FH were randomized to placebo (n = 88) or pravastatin (n = 90) after instruction on American Heart Association step II diet. Unaffected siblings (n = 78) served as controls. The OxPL content on apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) detected by antibody E06 (OxPL/apoB ratio), immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM immune complexes per apoB (IC/apoB) and on all apoB particles (total apoB-IC = IC/apoB multiplied by plasma apoB levels), autoantibodies to malondialdehyde (MDA)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL), Lp(a), and apoB levels were measured at baseline and after two years of treatment. Compared with unaffected siblings, children with FH had significantly lower levels of OxPL/apoB but higher levels of IgG and IgM total apoB-IC and IgM MDA-LDL autoantibodies. From baseline to two-year follow-up, compared with placebo pravastatin treatment resulted in a greater mean percentage change in apoB (-18.7% vs. 0.3%; p = 0.001), total IgG apoB-IC (-31.9% vs. -12.2%; p vs. 13.2%; p = 0.001). Interestingly, pravastatin also resulted in higher OxPL/apoB (48.7% vs. 29.3%; p = 0.028) and Lp(a) levels (21.9% vs. 10.7%; p = 0.044). Compared with unaffected siblings, children with FH are characterized by elevated levels of apoB-IC and IgM MDA-LDL autoantibodies. Compared with placebo, pravastatin led to a greater reduction in apoB-IC but also to a greater increase in OxPL/apoB and Lp(a), which may represent a novel mechanism of mobilization and clearance of OxPL.

  18. Terrestrial gamma radiation baseline mapping using ultra low density sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, R.; Watson, D.

    2016-01-01

    Baseline terrestrial gamma radiation maps are indispensable for providing basic reference information that may be used in assessing the impact of a radiation related incident, performing epidemiological studies, remediating land contaminated with radioactive materials, assessment of land use applications and resource prospectivity. For a large land mass, such as Queensland, Australia (over 1.7 million km 2 ), it is prohibitively expensive and practically difficult to undertake detailed in-situ radiometric surveys of this scale. It is proposed that an existing, ultra-low density sampling program already undertaken for the purpose of a nationwide soil survey project be utilised to develop a baseline terrestrial gamma radiation map. Geoelement data derived from the National Geochemistry Survey of Australia (NGSA) was used to construct a baseline terrestrial gamma air kerma rate map, delineated by major drainage catchments, for Queensland. Three drainage catchments (sampled at the catchment outlet) spanning low, medium and high radioelement concentrations were selected for validation of the methodology using radiometric techniques including in-situ measurements and soil sampling for high resolution gamma spectrometry, and comparative non-radiometric analysis. A Queensland mean terrestrial air kerma rate, as calculated from the NGSA outlet sediment uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations, of 49 ± 69 nGy h −1 (n = 311, 3σ 99% confidence level) is proposed as being suitable for use as a generic terrestrial air kerma rate background range. Validation results indicate that catchment outlet measurements are representative of the range of results obtained across the catchment and that the NGSA geoelement data is suitable for calculation and mapping of terrestrial air kerma rate. - Highlights: • A baseline terrestrial air kerma map of Queensland, Australia was developed using geochemical data from a major drainage catchment ultra-low density sampling program

  19. RF compensation of single Langmuir probe in low density helicon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumen, E-mail: soumen@ipr.res.in; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Bora, Dhiraj

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Appropriate density and temperature measurement with Langmuir probe in RF Eenvironment. • Necessity of large auxiliary electrode for RF compensation at low densities (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}). • Measured two temperature electrons in low pressure helicon antenna produced RF plasma. • Tail electrons are localized only at off-axis in our cylindrical plasma system. - Abstract: Interpretations of Single Langmuir probe measurements in electrode-less radio frequency (RF) plasmas are noteworthy tricky and require adequate compensation of RF. Conventional RF compensation technique is limited only at high density (>10{sup 17} m{sup −3}) RF plasmas. RF compensation of single Langmuir probe at low density RF plasmas (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}) is presented in this paper. In RF driven plasmas, where the RF voltage is high (∼50 V) and density is in the range (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}), the primary RF compensation condition (Z{sub ck} > >Z{sub sh}) is very difficult to fulfill, because of high sheath impedance (Z{sub sh}) at 13.56 MHz and the construction limitation of a self-resonant tiny chock (Z{sub ck}) with very high impedance. Introducing a large auxiliary electrode (A{sub x}), (A{sub x} >>> A{sub p}), close to the small Langmuir probe (A{sub p}) tip, connected in parallel with probe via a coupling capacitor (C{sub cp}), significantly reduces the effective sheath impedance (Z{sub sh}) and allows probe bias to follow the RF oscillation. Dimensional requirements of the auxiliary electrode and the role of suitable coupling capacitor are discussed in this paper. Observations show proper compensation leads to estimation of more positive floating potentials and lower electron temperatures compared to uncompensated probe. The electron energy probability function (EEPF) is also obtained by double differentiating the collected current with respect to the applied bias voltage using an active analog circuit.

  20. Microcellular foams via phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A study of wide variety of processes for making plastic foams shows that phase separation processes for polymers from solutions offers the most viable methods for obtaining rigid plastic foams which met the physical requirements for fusion target designs. Four general phase separation methods have been shown to give polymer foams with densities less than 0.1 g/cm 3 and cell sizes of 30μm or less. These methods involve the utilization of non-solvent, chemical or thermal cooling processes to achieve a controlled phase separation wherein either two distinct phases are obtained where the polymer phase is a continuous phase or two bicontinuous phases are obtained where both the polymer and solvent are interpenetrating, continuous, labyrinthine phases. Subsequent removal of the solvent gives the final foam structure

  1. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse......, moderate for fluoride gel and very low for acidulated fluoride foam. No conclusions could be drawn on the cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review, covering the recent decade, has further substantiated the evidence for a caries-preventive effect of fluoride mouth rinse, fluoride gel and foam...

  2. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs...... was increased by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. During the 2nd and 4th period the organic loading rate was maintained constant, but instead of glucose, higher concentration of Na-oleate or gelatine was added in the feeding substrate. The results obtained from the above experiment showed...

  3. Photoactivity of Titanium Dioxide Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 foams have been prepared by a simple mechanical stirring method. Short-chain amphiphilic molecules have been used to stabilize colloidal suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 foams were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The photoassisted oxidation of NO in the gas phase according to ISO 22197-1 has been used to compare the photoactivity of the newly prepared TiO2 foams to that of the original powders. The results showed that the photoactivity is increased up to about 135%. Foam structures seem to be a good means of improving the photoactivity of semiconductor materials and can readily be used for applications such as air purification devices.

  4. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  5. A cement based syntactic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoqiang; Muthyala, Venkata D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a cement based syntactic foam core was proposed and experimentally investigated for composite sandwich structures. This was a multi-phase composite material with microballoon dispersed in a rubber latex toughened cement paste matrix. A trace amount of microfiber was also incorporated to increase the number of mechanisms for energy absorption and a small amount of nanoclay was added to improve the crystal structure of the hydrates. Three groups of cement based syntactic foams with varying cement content were investigated. A fourth group of specimens containing pure cement paste were also prepared as control. Each group contained 24 beam specimens. The total number of beam specimens was 96. The dimension of each beam was 30.5 cm x 5.1 cm x 1.5 cm. Twelve foam specimens from each group were wrapped with plain woven 7715 style glass fabric reinforced epoxy to prepare sandwich beams. Twelve cubic foam specimens, three from each group, with a side length of 5.1 cm, were also prepared. Three types of testing, low velocity impact test and four-point bending test on the beam specimens and compression test on the cubic specimens, were conducted to evaluate the impact energy dissipation, stress-strain behavior, and residual strength. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to examine the energy dissipation mechanisms in the micro-length scale. It was found that the cement based syntactic foam has a higher capacity for dissipating impact energy with an insignificant reduction in strength as compared to the control cement paste core. When compared to a polymer based foam core having similar compositions, it was found that the cement based foam has a comparable energy dissipation capacity. The developed cement based syntactic foam would be a viable alternative for core materials in impact-tolerant composite sandwich structures

  6. The creation of a new tourist destination in low density areas: the Boticas case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélder Lopes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to contribute to identify a set of resources and tourism products, which can enhance the development and sustainability of tourism in the low density municipality of Boticas, located in the north-east of Portugal. Therefore, this paper tries to: i produce a first analysis of the tourism potential of the municipality of Boticas; and ii identify different perceptions of different stakeholders regarding the tourism potential of Boticas. To this end, the content analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted in 2014 to local and regional social and political stakeholders were used. Likewise, in 2015 two focus groups were conducted with main local stakeholders. The results highlight three main facts: first, there are unexplored tourism resources with potential to attract certain niches of tourist demand; second, the region has been investing in the diversification of its supply of leisure and recreational activities, as well as available tourism equipment; and third, the region is facing serious difficulties in creating a local and regional stakeholder network in order to provide an integrated promotion of tourism. We conclude by identifying few policyrecommendations on development issues for the municipality of Boticas or other rural areas presenting similar constraints.

  7. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Nakanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more “green” transportation: public transportation, walking and cycling. Little consideration has been given as to how sustainable transportation policies and programmess might impact on different age groups in society, including those retired or semi-retired, despite the fact that an unprecedented number of older drivers will be on the highways in the next few decades. There is limited literature on the contextual factors behind their continued reliance on automobiles, their actual driving behavior (e.g., route choice and time of day to drive framed within the context of social sustainability. This paper introduces the elements of transportation and social sustainability then conducts a comprehensive international literature review focusing on older drivers, their travel choices and associated social sustainability issues. It describes a case study, low-density city and presents empirical evidence, from two surveys conducted in Canberra, Australia. The paper concludes with future research directions that address these issues associated with sustainable transportation.

  8. Cryoprotection effectiveness of low concentrations of natural and lyophilized LDL (low density lipoproteins on canine spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of low concentrations of natural and lyophilized low density lipoprotein (LDL from hen's egg yolk for cryopreservation of canine semen. Different ammonium sulphate concentrations were tested to extract LDL from egg yolk. The yolk was centrifuged, and LDL was isolated using 10, 20, 40, 45, or 50% ammonium sulphate solution (ASS. The LDL-rich floating fraction was collected for chemical characterization. Dry matter content was lowest (P<0.05 in the LDL extracted with the 50% ASS. The purification of LDL increased in association with increasing ammonium sulphate concentrations. SDS-PAGE showed that the 50% ASS solution yielded a purer fraction of LDL from egg yolk. For semen cryopreservation, TRIS extender was used replacing 20% egg yolk (control by natural or lyophilized LDL using 1, 2, and 3% (w/v. Semen was centrifuged (755Xg for 7 min, diluted with one of the extenders, packed into 0.5mL straws (100x106 sperm/mL, and placed in a programmable cryopreservation machine. Thawed semen (37°C/ 30s was analyzed for sperm motility, morphology, and by the hypoosmotic and epifluorescence tests (CFDA/ PI. Natural LDL extracted with 50% ASS was as effective as whole egg yolk to preserve canine frozen sperm when using low concentrations. The lyophilized LDL, mainly in the two higher concentrations tested (2 and 3%, was unsuitable to maintain the effectiveness of the LDL cryoprotective effect on dog sperm.

  9. Targeting low-density lipoprotein receptors with protein-only nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhikun [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (Spain); Céspedes, María Virtudes [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Unzueta, Ugutz [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (Spain); Álamo, Patricia [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Pesarrodona, Mireia [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (Spain); Mangues, Ramón [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio, E-mail: antoni.villaverde@uab.cat; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus, E-mail: neus.ferrer@uab.cat [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) are appealing cell surface targets in drug delivery, as they are expressed in the blood–brain barrier (BBB) endothelium and are able to mediate transcytosis of functionalized drugs for molecular therapies of the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand, brain-targeted drug delivery is currently limited, among others, by the poor availability of biocompatible vehicles, as most of the nanoparticles under development as drug carriers pose severe toxicity issues. In this context, protein nanoparticles offer functional versatility, easy and cost-effective bioproduction, and full biocompatibility. In this study, we have designed and characterized several chimerical proteins containing different LDLR ligands, regarding their ability to bind and internalize target cells and to self-organize as viral mimetic nanoparticles of about 18 nm in diameter. While the self-assembling of LDLR-binding proteins as nanoparticles positively influences cell penetration in vitro, the nanoparticulate architecture might be not favoring BBB crossing in vivo. These findings are discussed in the context of the use of nanostructured materials as vehicles for the systemic treatment of CNS diseases.

  10. High hydrostatic pressure specifically affects molecular dynamics and shape of low-density lipoprotein particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure.

  11. Increased serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ghaneei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated serum levels of oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (oxLDL have been found in type 2 and in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has common features with type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxLDL in women with GDM compared to normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ninety-two subjects were randomly allocated to either GDM (n=46 or control (n=46 groups matched for age, body mass index and parity from March 2013 to March 2014. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria at 24-26 weeks of gestation. OxLDL was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were applied for analyzing the data by using SPSS version 17. Results: Compared to the controls, significantly higher oxLDL levels were found in the GDM group (17.16 ± 3.71 U/L vs. 8.77 ± 1.84 U/L, respectively, p < 0.001. No significant correlations were found between oxLDL and age and BMI of the patients in the groups. Conclusion: Our study found significant increase of oxLDL in GDM emphasizing the role of short-term hyperglycemia in the formation of oxLDL during GDM. The importance of aptly diagnosis of GDM in maternal health may also be concluded.

  12. Studies of improved electron confinement in low density L-mode National Spherical Torus Experiment discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Tritz, K.; Redi, M. H.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Hill, K. W.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J. E.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W. X.; Synakowski, E. J.; Levinton, F.; Kubota, S.; Bourdelle, C.; Dorland, W.; The NSTX Team

    2006-01-01

    Electron transport is rapid in most National Spherical Torus Experiment, M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000) beam heated plasmas. A regime of improved electron confinement is nevertheless observed in low density L-mode (''low-confinement'') discharges heated by early beam injection. Experiments were performed in this regime to study the role of the current profile on thermal transport. Variations in the magnetic shear profile were produced by changing the current ramp rate and onset of neutral beam heating. An increased electron temperature gradient and local minimum in the electron thermal diffusivity were observed at early times in plasmas with the fastest current ramp and earliest beam injection. In addition, an increased ion temperature gradient associated with a region of reduced ion transport is observed at slightly larger radii. Ultrasoft x-ray measurements of double-tearing magnetohydrodynamic activity, together with current diffusion calculations, point to the existence of negative magnetic shear in the core of these plasmas. Discharges with slower current ramp and delayed beam onset, which are estimated to have more monotonic q-profiles, do not exhibit regions of reduced transport. The results are discussed in the light of the initial linear microstability assessment of these plasmas, which suggests that the growth rate of all instabilities, including microtearing modes, can be reduced by negative or low magnetic shear in the temperature gradient region. Several puzzles arising from the present experiments are also highlighted

  13. Electron acceleration by a radially polarized laser pulse during ionization of low density gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwar Pal Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of electrons by a radially polarized intense laser pulse has been studied. The axial electric field of the laser is responsible for electron acceleration. The axial electric field increases with decreasing laser spot size; however, the laser pulse gets defocused sooner for smaller values and the electrons do not experience high electric field for long, reducing the energy they can reach. The electron remains confined in the electric field of the laser for longer and the electron energy peaks for the normalized laser spot size nearly equal to the normalized laser intensity parameter. Electron energy peaks for initial laser phase ϕ_{0}=π due to accelerating laser phase and decreases with transverse initial position of the electrons. The energy and angle of the emittance spectrum of the electrons generated during ionization of krypton and argon at low densities have been obtained and a right choice of laser parameters has been suggested to obtain high energy quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams. It has been found that argon is more suitable than krypton to obtain high energy electron beams due to higher ionization potential of inner shells for the former.

  14. Potential of Using Recycled Low-Density Polyethylene in Wood Composites Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Igboanugo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE in wood board manufacturing. The composite board was produced by compressive moulding by increasing the percentage LDPE from 30 to 50wt% with interval of 10wt% at a temperatures of 140 and 180oC, pressure of 30-40 Kg/cm2 and pressing time 7-13minutes. The microstructure and mechanical properties: modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, Tensile strength, impact strength properties of boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 20.31N/mm2and MOE of 1363N/mm2 were obtained from board produced at 140oC, 60/40wt% wood particles/LDPE content. The uniform distribution of the particles and the recycled LDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR meets the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose. The boards produced had tensile strength that is within the requirement. Hence this LDPE can be used in board production for general purpose applications.

  15. Dietary fish oil stimulates hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M A; Woollett, L A; Spady, D K

    1989-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to examine the effect of fish oil, safflower oil, and hydrogenated coconut oil on the major processes that determine the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, i.e., the rate of LDL production and the rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL uptake in the various organs of the body. When fed at the 20% level, fish oil reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol levels by 38% primarily by increasing LDL receptor activity in the liver. Dietary safflower oil also increased hepatic LDL receptor activity; however, since the rate of LDL production also increased, plasma LDL-cholesterol levels remained essentially unchanged. Hydrogenated coconut oil had no effect on LDL receptor activity but increased the rate of LDL-cholesterol production causing plasma LDL-cholesterol levels to increase 46%. Dietary fish oil had no effect on the receptor-dependent transport of asialofetuin by the liver, suggesting that the effect of fish oil on hepatic LDL receptor activity was specific and not due to a generalized alteration in the physical properties of hepatic membranes. Finally, dietary fish oil increased hepatic cholesteryl ester levels and suppressed hepatic cholesterol synthesis rates, suggesting that the up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptor activity in these animals was not simply a response to diminished cholesterol availability in the liver. PMID:2760200

  16. Gamma irradiation effects on the grafting of low-density polyethylene with diethyl maleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Y.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Perera, R.; Silva, P.; Gonzalez, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was grafted with diethyl maleate (DEM) using gamma-rays from a Cobalt-60 source at different absorbed doses and monomer concentrations between 5 and 30 wt.%. This process was carried out in a decalin solution at 10 w/v% to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. It was found that the grafting degree increases with the absorbed doses, as a consequence of the increased amount of energy given to the system, which made the grafting process more favorable. The grafting degree also increases with the concentration of DEM, because a higher concentration makes the insertion easier due to the increased availability of the free monomer. The highest grafting degree was obtained at 200 kGy of absorbed dose and with 30 wt.% of DEM. The melt flow index (MFI) values showed a decreasing trend as the absorbed dose was increased. This fact reveals that crosslinking and grafting are taking place simultaneously, this behavior being remarkable at higher irradiation doses. The results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the initial degradation temperatures remained almost unchanged with the absorbed dose

  17. Impaired low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in chronic B-lymphocytic leukaemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliusson, G.; Vitols, S.

    1988-01-01

    Cellular degradation of /sup 125/I-labelled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was analysed in freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells from 26 patients with chronic B-lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 8 healthy subjects, and in cells following 1,2 and 3 d of culture in medium containing 10% human lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS). Fresh CLL cells had lower LDL degradation rates than mononuclear cells from healthy subjects (p < 0.01). The LDL degradation rates increased during culture (p < 0.001), but to a lesser degree in CLL cells than in normal blood mononuclear cells (p < 0.001). The cellular degradation rate of /sup 125/I-LDL was markedly inhibited by an excess of unlabelled LDL, indicating that most of the /sup 125/I-LDL that was degraded had been internalized following binding to the LPDS-induced LDL degradation of CLL cells and the thymidine uptake in CLL cell cultures with (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) and without (r = 0.59, p < 0.01) the B cell mitogen, Epstein-Barr virus. The results indicate that LDL receptors might be involved in the regulation of CLL cell proliferation.

  18. Correlation between serum anyloid a low density lipoprotein and genotoxicity in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, A.; Rashid, A.; Majeed, A.; Naveed, A.K.

    2018-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relation between serum amyloid A-low density lipoprotein (SAA-LDL) and genotoxicity in smokers. Study Design:An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study:Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from June 2014 to February 2015. Methodology:Seventy healthy Sprague Dawley rats were purchased from NIH and exposed to cigarette smoke in smoke chamber for three months. Blood samples were drawn from each rat at the end of the study period. SAA-LDL was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Genotoxicity was assessed by cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Pearson correlation was used to find correlation between SAA-LDL and genotoxicity. Results:Strong positive correlation was found between SAA-LDL and micronuclei frequency in smoke-exposed rats (r=0.799, N=70, p <0.01). Conclusion:Statistically significant strong positive correlation between SAA-LDL and genotoxicity in smoke-exposed rats shows that changes in one is associated with changes in other and vice versa. (author)

  19. The influence of oxidation on space charge formation in gamma-irradiated low-density polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, G; Xie, H K; Banford, H M; Davies, A E

    2003-01-01

    The research presented in this paper investigates the role of oxidation in the formation of space charge in gamma-irradiated low-density polyethylene after being electrically stressed under dc voltage. Polyethylene plaques both with and without antioxidant were irradiated up to 500 kGy using a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma source and space charge distributions were measured using the piezoelectric induced pressure wave propagation method. It has been found that a large amount of positive charge evolved adjacent to the cathode in the sample without antioxidant and was clearly associated with oxidation of the surface. The amount of charge formed for a given applied stress increased with the dose absorbed by the material. A model has been proposed to explain the formation of space charge and its profile. The charge decay after the removal of the external applied stress is dominated by a process being controlled by the cathode interfacial stress (charge injection) rather than a conventional RC circuit model. On the other ...

  20. Joint nonbinary low-density parity-check codes and modulation diversity over fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiping; Li, Tiffany Jing; Zhang, Zhongpei

    2010-09-01

    A joint exploitation of coding and diversity techniques to achieve efficient, reliable wireless transmission is considered. The system comprises a powerful non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) code that will be soft-decoded to supply strong error protection, a quadratic amplitude modulator (QAM) that directly takes in the non-binary LDPC symbols and a modulation diversity operator that will provide power- and bandwidth-efficient diversity gain. By relaxing the rate of the modulation diversity rotation matrices to below 1, we show that a better rate allocation can be arranged between the LDPC codes and the modulation diversity, which brings significant performance gain over previous systems. To facilitate the design and evaluation of the relaxed modulation diversity rotation matrices, based on a set of criteria, three practical design methods are given and their point pairwise error rate are analyzed. With EXIT chart, we investigate the convergence between demodulator and decoder.A rate match method is presented based on EXIT analysis. Through analysis and simulations, we show that our strategies are very effective in combating random fading and strong noise on fading channels.

  1. Tunable non-interacting free-energy functionals: development and applications to low-density aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickey, Samuel; Karasiev, Valentin

    We introduce the concept of tunable orbital-free non-interacting free-energy density functionals and present a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with a subset of parameters defined from constraints and a few free parameters. Those free parameters are tuned to reproduce reference Kohn-Sham (KS) static-lattice pressures for Al at T=8 kK for bulk densities between 0.6 and 2 g/cm3. The tuned functional then is used in OF molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for Al with densities between 0.1 and 2 g/cm3 and T between 6 and 50 kK to calculate the equation of state and generate configurations for electrical conductivity calculations. The tunable functional produces accurate results. Computationally it is very effective especially at elevated temperature. Kohn-Shiam calculations for such low densities are affordable only up to T=10 kK, while other OF approximations, including two-point functionals, fail badly in that regime. Work supported by US DoE Grant DE-SC0002139.

  2. Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Marshall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trace organic compounds associated with human activity are now ubiquitous in the environment. As the population becomes more urbanised and the use of pesticides and person care products continues to increase, urban waterways are likely to receive higher loads of trace organic contaminants with unknown ecological consequences. To establish the extent of trace organic contamination in urban runoff, concentrations of emerging chemicals of concern were determined in sediments from 99 urban wetlands in and around Melbourne, Australia between February and April, 2015. As a preliminary estimation of potential risks to aquatic biota, we compared measured concentrations with thresholds for acute and chronic toxicity, and modelled toxic units as a function of demographic and land use trends. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was common and widespread, and frequently occurred at concentrations likely to cause toxicity to aquatic life. Personal care products DEET and triclosan were common and widely distributed, while the herbicides diuron and prometryn, and the fungicides pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin occurred less frequently. Toxic unit modelling using random forests found complex and unexpected associations between urban land uses and trace organic concentrations. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides were identified as emerging compounds of concern, particularly bifenthrin. In contrast with previous surveys, the highest bifenthrin concentrations were associated with lower housing and population density, implicating low-density residential land use in bifenthrin contamination. We discuss the implications for pesticide regulation and urban wetland management in a global context.

  3. Properties of concrete modified with waste Low Density Polyethylene and saw dust ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimanikandan, P.; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The increase in industrialization creates need for disposal of large quantity of by-products. To overcome the difficulty of disposal, these by-products can be used as a replacement for raw material. In this concern, non-conventional industrial wastes such as plastic bags, PET bottles, pulverized waste Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and biological waste such as saw-dust ash, coconut coir were used as a replacement in concrete. In this project, saw-dust ash and pulverized waste LDPE were introduced as the partial replacement for cement and fine aggregates respectively. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sand by volume was replaced with LDPE and 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement by volume was replaced with saw dust ash. Standard cube, cylinder and prism specimens were cast to assess the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of modified concrete after 28 days of curing. Optimum percentage of replacement was found by comparing the test results. The mix with 5% of LDPE and 3% of saw dust ash showed a better result among the other mixes.

  4. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; 甘菊花 gān jú huā, Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; 山楂 shān zhā, and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; 洛神 luò shén showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  5. Isolation of low density lipoprotein (LDL with its modification by Copper ion and Malondialdehyde (MDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doosty M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs is belived to be an important step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. During oxidation, LDL particle undergoes a large number of structural changes that alters its biological properties, so it becomes atherogenic. To study atherogenic proteins, usually two forms of modified LDLs, including Cu2+-oxidized LDL (ox-LDL and malondialdehyde (MDA modified LDL (mal-LDL are used. In this study, LDL was isolated from 72 ml freshly prepared plasma by sequential Floatation Ultracentrifugation (SFU, which resulted in separation of 12.5 mg LDL protein. LDL oxidation was accomplished in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS with 2µM cupric sulfate, and mal-LDL was prepared by incubating LDL in PBS with 0.5 M solution of freshly prepared MDA. These modifications were evaluated by measuring optical density at 234 nm, Thiobarbitoric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, and electrophoretic mobility at pH 8.6. The increase of 234 nm absorption reflected initiation of LDL oxidation. TBARS of ox-LDL and mal-LDL was 80 Nm MAD/mg LDL protein and 400 nm MDA/mg LDL protein, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility of ox-LDL and mal-LDL, in respect to native LDL (n-LDL, were increased.

  6. Technology of preparation for low density 6Li(H,D) solid micro-target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xisheng; Zeng Jiaquan; Li Qiang

    2002-01-01

    Low density 6 Li(H,D) micro-targets are prepared by loose sintering 6 LiH or 6 LiD powder in a tiny gold cylinder and soaking for 30 min up to 430 degree C at the rate of 10 degree C/h in argon. The dimension of the micro-targets is as tiny as 0.6-1.0 mm for diameter and 1-2 mm for length. Densities of 6 LiH and 6 LiD without Parylene C is (0.283 +- 0.009) g/cm 3 and (0.369 +- 0.009) g/cm 3 , respectively while 6 LiD targets with Parylene C is only (0.301 +- 0.010) g/cm 3 . The Parylene C has no effect on purity, deuterium abundance and 6 Li abundance of the sintered micro-targets. It's effective to keep 6 Li(H,D) purity by strict control of argon atmosphere

  7. A study of perifocal low-density area in metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryuta; Okada, Kodai; Hiratsuka, Hideo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tsuyumu, Matsutaira.

    1980-01-01

    It is well known that vasogenic brain edema often develops in brain tumors, head injuries, and inflammatory brain lesions. In order to investigate the development and resolution of vasogenic brain edema, some CT findings of metastatic brain tumors were studied in detail. 20 cases of metastatic brain tumors of the past three years were examined by means of a CT scan. In almost all the cases there was a perifocal low-density area (PFL) in the CT findings. In the tumors which were cystic and/or located in the infratentorial space, PFL was not present or, if present, only slightly so. On the contrary, in the tumors which were nodular and/or in the supratentorial space, PFL was present extensively. In the supratentorial metastasis, PFL seemed to be restricted within the white matter and not to involve the gray matter nor such midline structures as basal ganglia and corpus callosum. Besides, PFL was always in contact with the lateral ventricular wall. These results show that PFL in the metastatic tumors resembles in shape the experimental cold-induced brain edema in cats. PFL is presumed to represent vasogenic brain edema; these findings support the hypothesis that the main mechanism of the resolution of vasogenic brain edema is the drainage of the edema fluid into the ventricular CSF. (author)

  8. Effects of estrogen on very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in fed and fasted chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A single injection of estrogen into growing chicks resulted in a marked elevation in plasma triglyceride (TG) followed by phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CH) in both fed and fasted chicks. Estrogen caused a development of massive fatty liver in fed chicks. Hepatic malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities also increased significantly in fed chicks and, to a small extent, in fasted chicks. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were barely detectable in the fasted control plasma. However, the VLDL concentration increased markedly upon estrogen injection, becoming the most prevalent lipoprotein in the plasma. The administration of estrogen resulted in an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid content except in the cholesteryl ester of VLDL and LDL. VLDL of estrogenized birds had β-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis, and they eluted in two peaks on agarose gel filtration chromatography. Both peaks on gel filtration exhibited the same β-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. Nevertheless, the apoprotein composition of these two peaks were substantially different from each other; apo B was not present in the first peak VLDL. VLDL-TG kinetic studies conducted in vivo, using 14 C-TG-VLDL prepared endogenously from control and estrogenized chicks revealed that VLDL-TG produced from the former had a higher fractional catabolic rate (FCR) than VLDL-TG from the latter

  9. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.

  10. Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: low density lipoproteins with abnormal receptor binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innerarity, T.L.; Weisgraber, K.H.; Arnold, K.S.; Mahley, R.W.; Krauss, R.M.; Vega, G.L.; Grundy, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Previous in vivo turnover studies suggested that retarded clearance of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from the plasma of some hypercholesterolemic patients is due to LDL with defective receptor binding. The present study examined this postulate directly by receptor binding experiments. The LDL from a hypercholesterolemic patient (G.R.) displayed a reduced ability to bind to the LDL receptors on normal human fibroblasts. The G.R. LDL possessed 32% of normal receptor binding activity. Likewise, the G.R. LDL were much less effective than normal LDL in competing with 125 I-labeled normal LDL for cellular uptake and degradation and in stimulating intracellular cholesteryl ester synthesis. The defect in LDL binding appears to be due to a genetic abnormality of apolipoprotein B-100: two brothers of the proband possess LDL defective in receptor binding, whereas a third brother and the proband's son have normally binding LDL. Further, the defect in receptor binding does not appear to be associated wit an abnormal lipid composition or structure of the LDL. Normal and abnormal LDL subpopulations were partially separated from plasma of two subjects by density-gradient ultracentrifugation, a finding consistent with the presence of a normal and a mutant allele. The affected family members appear to be heterozygous for this disorder, which has been designated familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. These studies indicate that the defective receptor binding results in inefficient clearance of LDL and the hypercholesterolemia observed in these patients

  11. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapaiwan, N; Tharasanit, T; Punjachaipornpol, S; Yamtang, D; Roongsitthichai, A; Moonarmart, W; Kaeoket, K; Manee-In, S

    2016-05-01

    Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05) than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.

  12. Applications of Low Density Flow Techniques and Catalytic Recombination at the Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.

    2000-01-01

    The talk presents a brief background on defInitions of catalysis and effects associated with chemically nonequilibrium and low-density flows of aerospace interest. Applications of catalytic recombination on surfaces in dissociated flow are given, including aero heating on reentry spacecraft thermal protection surfaces and reflection of plume flow on pressure distributions associated with the space station. Examples include aero heating predictions for the X-38 test vehicle, the inlet of a proposed gas-sampling probe used in high enthalpy test facilities, and a parabolic body at angle of attack. The effect of accommodation coefficients on thruster induced pressure distributions is also included. Examples of tools used include simple aero heating formulas based on boundary layer solutions, an engineering approximation that uses axisymmetric viscous shock layer flow to simulate full three dimensional flow, full computational fluid dynamics, and direct simulation Monte-Carlo calculations. Methods of determining catalytic recombination rates in arc jet flow are discus ed. An area of catalysis not fully understood is the formation of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with gas phase or nano-size metal particles. The Johnson Space Center is making SWNTs using both a laser ablation technique and an electric arc vaporization technique.

  13. Effect of PVDC on the Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboards (ULDFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzeng Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride emulsions (PVDC were added as a substitute for chlorinated paraffin (CP in the preparation of ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs. The micromorphology and fire performance of ULDFs were investigated using a scanning electron microscope, limiting oxygen index instrument, and cone calorimeter. The results showed that PVDC specimens were coated with a regularly smooth film, while the distribution of CP inside CP specimens was uneven. The limiting oxygen index increased with the dosage of PVDC, then reached a plateau at 50 mL and 28%, slightly higher than CP specimens (27.3%. The peak of heat release rate, mean heat release rate, mean CO, and total smoke release of PVDC specimens was reduced 43.3%, 13.5%, 38.5%, and 51.5% lower than respective CP specimens, and with nearly the same total heat release (only 0.04 MJ/m2 higher. Thus, PVDC exhibited excellent heat-reducing and smoke-suppressing properties and could replace CP in ULDFs.

  14. Error Correction using Quantum Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check(LDPC) Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lin; Brun, Todd; Quantum Research Team

    Quasi-cyclic LDPC codes can approach the Shannon capacity and have efficient decoders. Manabu Hagiwara et al., 2007 presented a method to calculate parity check matrices with high girth. Two distinct, orthogonal matrices Hc and Hd are used. Using submatrices obtained from Hc and Hd by deleting rows, we can alter the code rate. The submatrix of Hc is used to correct Pauli X errors, and the submatrix of Hd to correct Pauli Z errors. We simulated this system for depolarizing noise on USC's High Performance Computing Cluster, and obtained the block error rate (BER) as a function of the error weight and code rate. From the rates of uncorrectable errors under different error weights we can extrapolate the BER to any small error probability. Our results show that this code family can perform reasonably well even at high code rates, thus considerably reducing the overhead compared to concatenated and surface codes. This makes these codes promising as storage blocks in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Error Correction using Quantum Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check(LDPC) Codes.

  15. Comparing the Impact of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Randall P; Gales, Barry J; Sirajuddin, Riaz

    2018-04-01

    Elevated levels of triglycerides are associated with pancreatitis and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Numerous pharmacologic therapies are available to treat hypertriglyceridemia, including prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce triglyceride levels by 20-50%. Available data indicate the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be beneficial for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Products containing DHA may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and, subsequently, coronary heart disease risk. We reviewed prescription omega-3 fatty acid products, of which two-omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM3EE) and omega-3 carboxylic acid (OM3CA)-contain both DHA and EPA, whereas the other-icosapent ethyl (IPE)-contains EPA only. We identified three retrospective chart reviews and three case reports comparing IPE with OM3EE, whereas two studies compared IPE with placebo. We also reviewed the major studies of OM3EE versus placebo used to gain US FDA approval. LDL-C levels decreased or did not increase significantly in all available studies and case reports in patients receiving the IPE product, with the best data supporting a dose of 4 g per day. The majority of studies only included patients taking IPE concomitantly with statins, but limited data from one study using IPE monotherapy showed a small reduction in LDL-C. Many questions remain regarding IPE, including whether the product reduces cardiovascular events and mortality.

  16. Post radiation grafting of vinyl acetate onto low density polyethylene films: preparation and properties of membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by the post radiation grafting of vinyl acetate onto low density polyethylene films. The factors affecting the grafting process such as radiation dose, monomer concentration and temperature on the grafting yield were studied. It was found that the dependence of the grafting rate on radiation intensity and monomer concentration was found to be of 0.64 and 1.4 order, respectively. The activation energy for this grafting system was calculated and found to be 4.45 kcal/mol above 30 0 C. Some properties of the grafted films such as specific electric resistance, water uptake, mechanical properties and thermal and chemical stability were investigated. An improvement in these properties was observed which makes possible the use of these membranes in some practical applications. The use of such membranes for reverse osmosis desalination of saline water was tested. The effect of operating time, degree of grafting and applied pressure on the water flux and salt rejection were determined. The results showed salt rejection percent over 90% and a reasonable water flux. A suitable degree of grafting of the membrane was determined as well as the optimum applied pressure. (author)

  17. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging

  18. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppresses oxidized low density lipoprotein induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the suppression of Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA on the oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and the mRNA and protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phospholipase-1 (MAKP-1, VSMCs were treated with HSYA at 10 ?mol/L and/or ox-LDL at 35 mg/L for 48 h. MTT assay was done to measure cell survival rate, flow cytometry to detect cell cycle, reverse transcription PCR and Western blot to detect the expression of ERK1/2 and MAKP-1. When compared to cells treated with ox-LDL alone, the survival rate of cells treated with two reagents was reduced and the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase significantly increased, with increased MKP-1 expression. The study suggests HSYA can inhibit VSMC proliferation via increasing MKP-1 expression, reducing p-ERK1/2 activity and suppressing cell cycle.

  19. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible for the latter. To elucidate the role of POX in oxLDL-mediated cytotoxicity, we knocked down POX via small interfering RNA and found that this (i) further reduced viability of cancer cells treated with oxLDL; (ii) decreased oxLDL-associated reactive oxygen species generation; (iii) decreased autophagy measured via beclin-1 protein level and light-chain 3 protein (LC3)-I into LC3-II conversion. Using POX-expressing cell model, we established that single POX overexpression was sufficient to activate autophagy. Thus, it led to autophagosomes accumulation and increased conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. Moreover, beclin-1 gene expression was directly dependent on POX catalytic activity, namely the generation of POX-dependent superoxide. We conclude that POX is critical in the cellular response to the noxious effects of oxLDL by activating protective autophagy.

  20. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins may induce expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 in atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Moon Kyoo; Kim, Ji Young; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Kang, Mi Ae; Choi, Myung-Sook; Oh, Goo Taeg; Nam, Kyung Tak; Lee, Won-Ha; Park, Yong Bok

    2004-01-01

    Genes induced or suppressed by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in human monocytic THP-1 cells were searched using the differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. One of the differentially expressed (up-regulated) cDNA fragments was found to contain sequences corresponding to monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3). The stimulatory effect of the oxLDL on the expression of MCP-3 mRNA was both time- and dose-dependent. Treatment with GF109203X and genistein, inhibitors of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase, respectively, had no effect on the induction of MCP-3 mRNA by oxLDL, while treatment with cycloheximide inhibited the induction. The induction was reproduced by the lipid components in oxLDL such as 9-HODE and 13-HODE, which are known to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Introduction of an endogenous PPARγ ligand, 15d-PGJ2, in the culture of THP-1 cells resulted in the induction of MCP-3 gene expression. Furthermore, analyses of human atherosclerotic plaques revealed that the expressional pattern of MCP-3 in the regions of neointimal and necrotic core overlapped with that of PPARγ. These results suggest that oxLDL delivers its signal for MCP-3 expression via PPARγ, which may be further related to the atherogenesis

  1. Nonlinear error-field penetration in low density ohmically heated tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R

    2012-01-01

    A theory is developed to predict the error-field penetration threshold in low density, ohmically heated, tokamak plasmas. The novel feature of the theory is that the response of the plasma in the vicinity of the resonant surface to the applied error-field is calculated from nonlinear drift-MHD (magnetohydrodynamical) magnetic island theory, rather than linear layer theory. Error-field penetration, and subsequent locked mode formation, is triggered once the destabilizing effect of the resonant harmonic of the error-field overcomes the stabilizing effect of the ion polarization current (caused by the propagation of the error-field-induced island chain in the local ion fluid frame). The predicted scaling of the error-field penetration threshold with engineering parameters is (b r /B T ) crit ∼n e B T -1.8 R 0 -0.25 , where b r is the resonant harmonic of the vacuum radial error-field at the resonant surface, B T the toroidal magnetic field-strength, n e the electron number density at the resonant surface and R 0 the major radius of the plasma. This scaling—in particular, the linear dependence of the threshold with density—is consistent with experimental observations. When the scaling is used to extrapolate from JET to ITER, the predicted ITER error-field penetration threshold is (b r /B T ) crit ∼ 5 × 10 −5 , which just lies within the expected capabilities of the ITER error-field correction system. (paper)

  2. A new structural relaxation pathway of low-density amorphous ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shephard, Jacob J.; Vickers, Martin; Salzmann, Christoph G., E-mail: c.salzmann@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Klotz, Stefan [IMPMC, CNRS UMR7590, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2016-05-28

    Low-density amorphous (LDA) ice is involved in critical cosmological processes and has gained prominence as one of the at least two distinct amorphous forms of ice. Despite these accolades, we still have an incomplete understanding of the structural diversity that is encompassed within the LDA state and the dynamic processes that take place upon heating LDA. Heating the high-pressure ice VIII phase at ambient pressure is a remarkable example of temperature-induced amorphisation yielding LDA. We investigate this process in detail using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy and show that the LDA obtained from ice VIII is structurally different from the more “traditional” states of LDA which are approached upon thermal annealing. This new structural relaxation pathway involves an increase of structural order on the intermediate range length scale. In contrast with other LDA materials the local structure is more ordered initially and becomes slightly more disordered upon annealing. We also show that the cascade of phase transitions upon heating ice VIII at ambient pressure includes the formation of ice IX which may be connected with the structural peculiarities of LDA from ice VIII. Overall, this study shows that LDA is a structurally more diverse material than previously appreciated.

  3. Investigation of the mechanism for penetration of low density lipoprotein into the arterial wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Zyktin, A. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the pathology of the cardiovascular system is an extremely urgent problem of fundamental and clinical medicine. These diseases are caused, mainly, by atherosclerotic changes in the wall of blood vessels. The predominant role in the development of atherosclerosis is attributed to the penetration of various kinds of lipoproteins into the arterial intima. In this paper, we in silico investigated the dynamics of the penetration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) through the intercellular gap using molecular modeling methods. The simulation was carried out in the GROMACS software package using a coarse-grained MARTINI model. During investigation we carried out the LDL self-assembly for the first time. The coarse-grained model of LDL was collected from the following molecules: POPC (phosphatidylcholine) - 630 molecules, LPC (lysophosphatidylcholine) - 80 molecules CHOL (cholesterol) - 600 molecules CHYO (cholesteryl oleate) - 1600 molecules TOG (glycerol trioleate) 180 Molecules. The coarse-grained model of the intercellular endothelial gap was based on a model of lipid bilayer consisting of DPPC phospholipids and cholesterol in a percentage ratio of 70% and 30%, respectively. Based on the obtained results, we can predict the mechanism of LDL diffusion. Lipoproteins can be deformed so as to pass through narrow gaps. Our investigations open the way for the research of the behavior dynamics of LDL moving with the blood flow rate when interacting with the intercellular gaps of the endothelial layer of the vessel inner wall.

  4. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhijuan, E-mail: zjlee038@163.com; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.

  5. Zinc layered hydroxide salts: intercalation and incorporation into low-density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Jaerger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymer composites using low-density polyethylene (LDPE and layered hydroxide salts (LHS were synthesized. The following compositions of LHS were obtained Zn5(OH8(An-2/n.yH2O, where A was varied in order to obtain hydrophilic (A = NO3- or hydrophobic (A = DDS- - dodecyl sulfate or DBS- - dodecyl benzene sulfonate. Synthesis was carried out by co-precipitation in alkaline medium and drying, being followed by characterization via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. A variable amount of filler was then incorporated into the LDPE via extrusion, which was then injection molded to obtain specimens for evaluating tensile properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength, strain at break and toughness. For comparison, the sodium salts of the surfactants (NaDDS and NaDBS were also used as fillers in LDPE. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that the hydrophobic LHS were exfoliated in the polymer matrix, whereas the hydrophilic LHS was only delaminated. In the LDPE composites, melting and crystallization temperatures were nearly constant, along with the crystallinity indexes. The mechanical properties were mainly varied when the organophilic LHS was used. Overall, fillers based on LHS, especially those containing hydrophobic anions, may be interesting alternatives in the production of reinforced thermoplastics.

  6. Biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) by isolated fungi in solid waste medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, Sahebnazar; Abbas, Shojaosadati Seyed; Mahsa, Mohammad-Taheri; Mohsen, Nosrati

    2010-01-01

    In this study, biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) by isolated landfill-source fungi was evaluated in a controlled solid waste medium. The fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus and Fusarium solani, were isolated from samples taken from an aerobic aged municipal landfill in Tehran. These fungi could degrade LDPE via the formation of a biofilm in a submerged medium. In the sterilized solid waste medium, LPDE films were buried for 100 days in a 1-L flask containing 400 g sterile solid waste raw materials at 28 deg. C. Each fungus was added to a separate flask. The moisture content and pH of the media were maintained at the optimal levels for each fungus. Photo-oxidation (25 days under UV-irradiation) was used as a pretreatment of the LDPE samples. The progress of the process was monitored by measurement of total organic carbon (TOC), pH, temperature and moisture. The results obtained from monitoring the process using isolated fungi under sterile conditions indicate that these fungi are able to grow in solid waste medium. The results of FT-IR and SEM analyses show that A. terreus and A. fumigatus, despite the availability of other organic carbon of materials, could utilize LDPE as carbon source. While there has been much research in the field of LDPE biodegradation under solid conditions, this is the first report of degradation of LDPE by A. fumigatus.

  7. Theory of a spheroidal probe in low-density continuum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuma, M.; Teii, S.

    1982-01-01

    A spheroidal probe theory for a low-density continuum plasma, i.e., one where the electron density is N/sub e/ 8 cm -3 and the gas pressure is P> or approx. =1 Torr has been developed using a spheroidal coordinate system in order to properly take into account the effect of the finite length of the probe. The numerical results of both the electron- and the ion-current characteristics are obtained for various values of R/sub p//lambda/sub D/ ranging from 0 to 1, epsilon = T/sub i//T/sub e/ from 0.1 to 1, and C/sub p/ = L/sub p//2R/sub p/ from 1 to 100, where lambda/sub D/ is the Debye length, R/sub p/ and L/sub p/ are the probe radius and the probe length, T/sub i/ and T/sub e/ are the ion and the electron temperature, respectively. Using these results, new methods to determine the electron temperature and the plasma space potential (consequently, the electron density) by practical measurements are also proposed and discussed

  8. Study of effects gamma radiation linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) injected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Feitoza de

    2014-01-01

    The use of package sterilization through gamma radiation aim to reduce the microbiological contamination. The linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) can be obtained by a process in solution, suspension or gaseous phase, depending on the type of the catalyzer used, that can be heterogeneous, or homogeneous, or metallocenes Ziegler-Natta. According to the literature, the gamma radiation presents a high penetration at polymeric materials causing the appearing of scissions, reticulation, and degradation when oxygen presence. This paper were irradiated with 60 Co with 2000 kCi of activity, in presence of air, samples of LLDPE injected. Utilized doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy, and about 5 kGy.h -1 dose rates, at room temperature. After irradiation, the samples were heated for 60 min at 100 deg C to promote recombination and annihilation of residual radicals. For characterization of PEBLD were used methods; Melt flow index, swelling, gel fraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (DRX), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), rheological measurements, Scanning Electronic Microscopy and mechanical tests to identify the effects or gamma radiation in polyethylene. (author)

  9. Photonic circuits for iterative decoding of a class of low-density parity-check codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Photonic circuits in which stateful components are coupled via guided electromagnetic fields are natural candidates for resource-efficient implementation of iterative stochastic algorithms based on propagation of information around a graph. Conversely, such message=passing algorithms suggest novel circuit architectures for signal processing and computation that are well matched to nanophotonic device physics. Here, we construct and analyze a quantum optical model of a photonic circuit for iterative decoding of a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes called expander codes. Our circuit can be understood as an open quantum system whose autonomous dynamics map straightforwardly onto the subroutines of an LDPC decoding scheme, with several attractive features: it can operate in the ultra-low power regime of photonics in which quantum fluctuations become significant, it is robust to noise and component imperfections, it achieves comparable performance to known iterative algorithms for this class of codes, and it provides an instructive example of how nanophotonic cavity quantum electrodynamic components can enable useful new information technology even if the solid-state qubits on which they are based are heavily dephased and cannot support large-scale entanglement. (paper)

  10. Long-time evolution of a low-density ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, A.L.; Cohen, B.I.; Max, C.E.; Arons, J.

    1989-01-01

    With a new, orbit-averaged hybrid computer simulation code, we study a cold, fast low-density ion beam which propagates along the ambient magnetic field as it interacts with a much denser fluid background. We examine the character of the interactions as we vary the ion beam density relative to the background density over the range 1 x 10/sup -5/ to 3 x 10/sup -3/. The low beam density simulations may not be directly observable upstream of the Earth's bow shock, but they are included to help develop an understanding of the results seen in the simulations with high-beam density. However, our highest density simulation falls within the range of solar wind data. All the simulations, regardless of the relative beam density, show three distinct phases: (1) an early or ''linear'' phase; (2) an intermediate or ''trapping'' phase; and (3) a late or ''decorrelation'' phase. In the early phase, the beam excites a nearly monochromatic Alfven wave whose amplitude grows exponentially at a rate given by linear perturbation theory. The wave amplitude saturates when the linear growth rate is of the order of the trapping frequency

  11. Pyrolysis of olive residue/low density polyethylene mixture:Part I Thermogravimetric kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the thermal pyrolysis of olive residue, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and olive residue/LDPE mixture in an inert atmosphere of N2 using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Measurements were carried out in the temperature range 300K~973K at heating rates of 2K/min, 10K/min, 20K/min and 50K/min. Based on the results obtained, three temperature regimes were selected for studying the non-isothermal kinetics of olive residue/LDPE mixture. The first two were dominated by the olive residue pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the LDPE pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on co-pyrolysis. The maximum degradation temperatures of each component in the mixture were higher than those the individual components;thus an increase in thermal stability was expected. The kinetic parameters associated with thermal degradation were determined using Friedman isoconversional method.

  12. Evaluation of corn husk fibers reinforced recycled low density polyethylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed; Kamel, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the community demand for disposal of environmental problematic agricultural and polymer waste, composite sheets using recycled low-density polyethylene (R-LDPE) and corn husk fibers were prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. These composites were prepared in different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of powder corn husk with 125 μ particle size based on R-LDPE matrix. Beside the importance of property improvement, an additional incentive was responding to the social demand for the disposal of environmental problematic agricultural waste. The influence of loading rate on R-LDPE crystallization behavior, mechanical, and swilling properties were investigated. Increasing in fiber loading led to increased moduli and tensile strength while hardness was decreased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations indicated that introducing fiber to R-LDPE matrix did not change characteristic peak position. The thermal stability of the prepared composites was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which displayed that the R-LDPE had significantly larger peak heat flow during cooling run than the blank R-LDPE, indicating higher crystallization rates for R-LDPE. The prepared composites materials can be used in packaging applications. - Highlights: • New composite based on recycled LDPE and corn husk fibers has been prepared. • The prepared composite has a benefit of minimizing solid waste problem. • The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR and DSC. • Crystallization behaviors, mechanical and swilling properties of the prepared composites were investigated

  13. Uptake of low density lipoproteins by the hamster lung. Interactions with capillary endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, A.; Simionescu, M.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism by which the circulating low density lipoproteins (LDL) contribute to the lung surfactant cholesterol was investigated by perfusing the hamster lung in situ with LDL either radiolabeled or coupled to gold, or both. Part of [ 125 I]-LDL and [ 3 H]-cholesterol LDL were taken up by a specific process which was time- and concentration-dependent and reached saturation within 20 to 30 min of perfusion. Competition experiments and removal of receptor-bound LDL by heparin suggested that about 50% of LDL uptake is receptor-independent. Experiments using double labeled LDL showed a preferential uptake of 3 H-cholesterol versus 125 I by the lung both in situ and in vivo. LDL-gold particles (LDL-Au), recirculated through the isolated lung, bound to the endothelial luminal plasma membrane and to features potentially involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis (coated pits, coated vesicles, lysosomelike structures) and in transcytosis (plasmalemmal vesicles). The results suggest that LDL uptake by the lung takes place by both receptor-mediated and receptor-independent mechanisms. Cholesterol may be in part transferred to the lung without the apoprotein moiety; the alveolar capillary endothelium appears to be the first monitor of this complex process

  14. Regulation of low density lipoprotein receptor function in a human hepatoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leichtner, A.M.; Krieger, M.; Schwartz, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) processing was investigated in a human hepatoma-derived cell line, Hep G2. Hep G2 cells bound, internalized and degraded LDL via a saturable, high affinity pathway similar to that present in other mammalian cells. Although 80% of the uptake and degradation of 125 I-LDL was inhibited by 40-fold excess native LDL, the same concentration of methylated LDL, which cannot bind to LDL receptors, had virtually no effect on processing. When added at low concentrations, the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, inhibited degradation without affecting the rate of lipoprotein internalization. Receptor activity was decreased 60% by preincubation of the cells in medium containing a source of cholesterol (LDL or unesterified cholesterol) and increased 1.7-fold by preincubation with compactin, a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. The Hep G2 cell line may prove a useful system both for the further study of hepatic lipoprotein metabolism and for the evaluation of new antihypercholesterolemic agents

  15. Evaluation of corn husk fibers reinforced recycled low density polyethylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Ahmed M., E-mail: amyoussef27@yahoo.com [Packing and Packaging Materials Department, National Research Center, Dokki, P.C. 12622, Cairo (Egypt); El-Gendy, Ahmed; Kamel, Samir [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-02-15

    Responding to the community demand for disposal of environmental problematic agricultural and polymer waste, composite sheets using recycled low-density polyethylene (R-LDPE) and corn husk fibers were prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. These composites were prepared in different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of powder corn husk with 125 μ particle size based on R-LDPE matrix. Beside the importance of property improvement, an additional incentive was responding to the social demand for the disposal of environmental problematic agricultural waste. The influence of loading rate on R-LDPE crystallization behavior, mechanical, and swilling properties were investigated. Increasing in fiber loading led to increased moduli and tensile strength while hardness was decreased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations indicated that introducing fiber to R-LDPE matrix did not change characteristic peak position. The thermal stability of the prepared composites was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which displayed that the R-LDPE had significantly larger peak heat flow during cooling run than the blank R-LDPE, indicating higher crystallization rates for R-LDPE. The prepared composites materials can be used in packaging applications. - Highlights: • New composite based on recycled LDPE and corn husk fibers has been prepared. • The prepared composite has a benefit of minimizing solid waste problem. • The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR and DSC. • Crystallization behaviors, mechanical and swilling properties of the prepared composites were investigated.

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis decreases very low density lipoprotein secretion in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeeny, C M; Meyers, D S; Bergquist, K E; Gregg, R E

    1992-06-01

    The hamster was developed as a model to study very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism, since, as is the case in humans, the hamster liver was found to synthesize apoB-100 and not apoB-48. The effect of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis on the hepatic secretion of VLDL triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in this model was then investigated. In an in vivo study, hamsters were fed a chow diet containing 0.15% TOFA (5-tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. After 6 days of treatment, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased by 30.2% and 11.6%, respectively. When the secretion of VLDL-TG by the liver was measured in vivo after injection of Triton WR 1339, TOFA treatment was found to decrease VLDL-TG secretion by 40%. In subsequent in vitro studies utilizing cultured primary hamster hepatocytes, incubation with 20 microM TOFA for 4 h resulted in 98% and 76% inhibition in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, respectively; VLDL-TG secretion was decreased by 90%. When hepatocytes were pulsed with [3H]leucine, incubation with TOFA resulted in a 50% decrease in the incorporation of radiolabel into secreted VLDL apoB-100. The results of this study indicate that inhibition of intracellular triglyceride synthesis decreases the secretion of VLDL-TG and apoB-100, and does not result in the secretion of a dense, triglyceride-depleted lipoprotein.

  17. Phase behaviour of disordered proteins underlying low density and high permeability of liquid organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Tzo; Elbaum-Garfinkle, Shana; Holehouse, Alex S.; Chen, Carlos Chih-Hsiung; Feric, Marina; Arnold, Craig B.; Priestley, Rodney D.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    2017-11-01

    Many intracellular membraneless organelles form via phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or regions (IDRs). These include the Caenorhabditis elegans protein LAF-1, which forms P granule-like droplets in vitro. However, the role of protein disorder in phase separation and the macromolecular organization within droplets remain elusive. Here, we utilize a novel technique, ultrafast-scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, to measure the molecular interactions and full coexistence curves (binodals), which quantify the protein concentration within LAF-1 droplets. The binodals of LAF-1 and its IDR display a number of unusual features, including 'high concentration' binodal arms that correspond to remarkably dilute droplets. We find that LAF-1 and other in vitro and intracellular droplets are characterized by an effective mesh size of ∼3-8 nm, which determines the size scale at which droplet properties impact molecular diffusion and permeability. These findings reveal how specific IDPs can phase separate to form permeable, low-density (semi-dilute) liquids, whose structural features are likely to strongly impact biological function.

  18. Reorganizing Neural Network System for Two Spirals and Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Copolymer Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Behery

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic system of neural networks (NNs that has the ability to simulate and predict many of applied problems. The system architectures are automatically reorganized and the experimental process starts again, if the required performance is not reached. This processing is continued until the performance obtained. This system is first applied and tested on the two spiral problem; it shows that excellent generalization performance obtained by classifying all points of the two-spirals correctly. After that, it is applied and tested on the shear stress and the pressure drop problem across the short orifice die as a function of shear rate at different mean pressures for linear low-density polyethylene copolymer (LLDPE at 190∘C. The system shows a better agreement with an experimental data of the two cases: shear stress and pressure drop. The proposed system has been also designed to simulate other distributions not presented in the training set (predicted and matched them effectively.

  19. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prapaiwan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05 than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05. In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.

  20. Role of low density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol esters in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, J.L.; Madden, E.A.; Melnykovych, G.

    1986-01-01

    The glucocorticoid sensitive CEM-C7 T-cell line was derived from human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by Norman and Thompson. Madden et al. have demonstrated that this growth inhibitory effect is due in part to a glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and can be partially reversed by cholesterol dispersions. To further delineate the role of cholesterol in this growth inhibition, they have examined the ability of low density lipoprotein (LDL)-bound [ 3 H]cholesterol linoleate to reverse the growth inhibitory effect of 1 μM dexamethasone (Dex) on the CEM-C7 cells. LDL-bound cholesterol linoleate was unable to reverse the Dex-mediated growth inhibition, although incorporation of [ 14 C] acetate into free cholesterol was inhibited by 29%, following the Brown and Goldstein model. The presence of Dex further inhibited acetate incorporation into free cholesterol in the LDL-treated cells. Under all conditions, more than 99% of the acetate incorporated into cholesterol was present as free cholesterol, while over 87% of the LDL-bound cholesterol linoleate taken up remained in the ester compartment. These results indicate that CEM-C7 cells are unable to utilize LDL-bound cholesterol esters as a source of free cholesterol and rely on endogenous synthesis for their free cholesterol requirements

  1. Preparation and Characterisation of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene / Thermoplastic Starch Blends Filled with Banana Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar, A. W. M.; Ann, L. Ju

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the influence of banana fibre (BF) loading using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pre-treated and succinic anhydride-treated (SA) BF on the mechanical properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrix is investigated. LLDPE/TPS/BF composites were developed under different BF conditions, with and without chemical modifications with the BF content ranging from 5% to 30% based on the total composite. The tensile strength showed an increase with an increase of fibre content up to 10%, thereby decreasing gradually beyond this level. NaOH pre-treated and SA treated BF added with LLDPE/TPS composite displays a higher tensile strength as compared to untreated BF in LLDPE/TPS composites. Thermal behaviour of the BF incorporated in LLDPE/TPS composite was characterised using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). This showed that SA treated BF exhibits better thermal stability, compared to other composites. This is because of the improvement in interfacial adhesion existing between both the fibre and matrix. In addition, a morphology study confirmed that pre-treated and treated BF had excellent interfacial adhesion with LLDPE/TPS matrix, leading to better mechanical properties of resultant composites.

  2. Targeting low-density lipoprotein receptors with protein-only nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhikun; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Unzueta, Ugutz; Álamo, Patricia; Pesarrodona, Mireia; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) are appealing cell surface targets in drug delivery, as they are expressed in the blood–brain barrier (BBB) endothelium and are able to mediate transcytosis of functionalized drugs for molecular therapies of the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand, brain-targeted drug delivery is currently limited, among others, by the poor availability of biocompatible vehicles, as most of the nanoparticles under development as drug carriers pose severe toxicity issues. In this context, protein nanoparticles offer functional versatility, easy and cost-effective bioproduction, and full biocompatibility. In this study, we have designed and characterized several chimerical proteins containing different LDLR ligands, regarding their ability to bind and internalize target cells and to self-organize as viral mimetic nanoparticles of about 18 nm in diameter. While the self-assembling of LDLR-binding proteins as nanoparticles positively influences cell penetration in vitro, the nanoparticulate architecture might be not favoring BBB crossing in vivo. These findings are discussed in the context of the use of nanostructured materials as vehicles for the systemic treatment of CNS diseases

  3. Very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride kinetics in acute and chronic carbohydrate-fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, T.; Mamo, J.; Poapst, M.; Steiner, G.

    1988-01-01

    Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) kinetics were examined in rats maintained on either chow and water (control) or chow and a 10% carbohydrate drinking solution (fructose or glucose). The hexose solutions were available for an acute (16 h) or chronic (14 day) period. The acute fructose (AF), acute glucose (AG), and chronic fructose (CF) groups were hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) compared with control. Plasma TG concentration in chronic glucose (CG)-fed rats was similar to control. VLDL-TG was endogenously radiolabeled in donor rats with [2-3H]-glycerol. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was then determined by monitoring the clearance of plasma [3H]VLDL-TG in recipient animals. Donors and recipients were treated in an identical manner. AF and CF groups had an FCR significantly lower than rats given glucose for comparable periods. Both fructose groups and the AG group also had a lower FCR than control. In contrast, FCR in the CG group was significantly higher than controls. TG production rate (TGPR) in both AF and CF fed rats did not significantly differ from controls, suggesting that the HTG observed in these animals was solely from a catabolic defect. AG- and CG-treated glucose animals both had TGPR significantly higher than controls. Therefore, overproduction of VLDL-TG contributed to the HTG associated with this carbohydrate

  4. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induced inflammatory process during atherogenesis with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbi, Anis; Khalil, Abdelouahed; Douziech, Nadine; Guerard, Karl-Philippe; Fueloep, Tamas

    2005-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease developing through decades with two life-threatening complications: myocardial infarction and stroke. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) produced by oxidative modifications of LDL in the subendothelial space have been demonstrated to be critically involved in atherogenesis through their intensive pro-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was shown that oxLDL have an apoptosis-inducing effect in T cells depending on time and degree of oxidation. The goal of the current study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptotic-inducing effects of oxLDL on T lymphocytes. T cells of young and elderly subjects were incubated for various periods of time with LDL oxidized to various degrees. The proliferation, the apoptosis, the MAPK ERK1/2 activation and the expression of the Bcl-2 protein family members were measured upon different LDL treatments. Thus, more the LDL are oxidized more they induce apoptosis and this effect is highly accentuated with aging. The oxLDL decrease the activation of the surviving molecule ERK1/2 and modulate the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 towards a pro-apoptotic profile, which is also accentuated with aging. These results partly explain why atherosclerosis is increasing with aging concomitantly to its complications

  5. Potential of bacteria isolated from landfill soil in degrading low density polyethylene plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, E.; Sipayung, F. C.; Priyani, N.; Suryanto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is an important material and used for many purposes. It is returned to the environment as a waste which is recently considered as the second largest solid waste. The persistency of plastic in the environment has been attracted researchers from a different point of view. The study of the degradation of plastic using bacteria isolated from local landfill soil was conducted. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic was used as tested material. Potential isolates were obtained by culturing the candidates in mineral salt medium broth containing LDPE powder. Two of ten exhibited better growth response in the selection media and were used in degradation study. Results showed that isolate SP2 and SP4 reduced the weight of LDPE film significantly to a weight loss of 10.16% and 12.06%, respectively after four weeks of incubation. Scanning electron micrograph analyses showed the surface of LDPE changed compared to the untreated film. It looked rough and cracked, and bacteria cells attached to the surface was also noticed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses confirmed the degradation of LDPE film. These results indicated that bacteria isolated from landfill might play an important role in degrading plastic material in the landfill.

  6. Association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein and cognitive impairment in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A; Liu, J; Meng, X; Li, J; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Su, Z; Zhang, N; Dai, L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y

    2018-01-01

    The association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and cognitive impairment is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between oxLDL and cognitive impairment among patients with acute ischemic stroke. We measured the levels of oxLDL and recorded the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score in patients with acute ischemic stroke who were recruited from the Study of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE score of impairment was assessed by multivariate logistic or linear regression analysis. Other clinical variables of interest were also studied. A total of 3726 patients [1287 (34.54%) female] were included in this study, with a mean age of 63.62 ± 11.96 years. After adjusting for potential confounders in our logistic regression model, each SD increase in oxLDL was associated with a 26% increase in the prevalence of cognitive impairment (odds radio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.39; P impairment (all interactions, P > 0.05). Elevated levels of oxLDL were associated with a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in patients with ischemic stroke. © 2017 EAN.

  7. Self-sensing performance of MWCNT-low density polyethylene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tejendra K.; Kumar, S.; Khan, Amal Z.; Varadarajan, Kartik M.; Cantwell, Wesley J.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based polymer nanocomposites offer a range of remarkable properties. Here, we demonstrate self-sensing performance of low density polyethylene (LDPE)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites for the first time. The dispersion of the CNTs and the morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The thermal properties were measured using thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry and were found to increase with increasing wt% of MWCNTs in LDPE matrix. An overall improvement in ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and Young’s modulus was found to be 59.6%, 48.5% and 129.3%, respectively for 5.0 wt% loading of MWCNTs. The electrical percolation threshold was observed at 1.0 wt% of MWCNTs and the highest electrical conductivity of 2.8 × 10-2 Scm-1 was observed at 5.0 wt% loading of MWCNTs. These piezo-resistive nanocomposites offer tunable self-sensing capabilities with gauge factors in the ranges of 17-52 and 42-530 in linear elastic (strain ˜3%) and inelastic regimes (strain ˜15%) respectively. Our demonstration would provide guidelines for the fabrication of low cost, self-sensing MWCNT-LDPE nanocomposites for potential use as civil water pipelines and landfill membranes.

  8. Synthesis of Polyimides in Molecular-Scale Confinement for Low-Density Hybrid Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Scott G; Fostvedt, Jade I; Koerner, Hilmar; Baur, Jeffery W; Lionti, Krystelle; Volksen, Willi; Dubois, Geraud; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2017-11-08

    In this work, we exploit a confinement-induced molecular synthesis and a resulting bridging mechanism to create confined polyimide thermoset nanocomposites that couple molecular confinement-enhanced toughening with an unprecedented combination of high-temperature properties at low density. We describe a synthesis strategy that involves the infiltration of individual polymer chains through a nanoscale porous network while simultaneous imidization reactions increase the molecular backbone stiffness. In the extreme limit where the confinement length scale is much smaller than the polymer's molecular size, confinement-induced molecular mechanisms give rise to exceptional mechanical properties. We find that polyimide oligomers can undergo cross-linking reactions even in such molecular-scale confinement, increasing the molecular weight of the organic phase and toughening the nanocomposite through a confinement-induced energy dissipation mechanism. This work demonstrates that the confinement-induced molecular bridging mechanism can be extended to thermoset polymers with multifunctional properties, such as excellent thermo-oxidative stability and high service temperatures (>350 °C).

  9. Aggregation and fusion of low-density lipoproteins in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, also known as ‘bad cholesterol’) are the major carriers of circulating cholesterol and the main causative risk factor of atherosclerosis. Plasma LDLs are 20- to 25-nm nanoparticles containing a core of cholesterol esters surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer and a single copy of apolipoprotein B (550 kDa). An early sign of atherosclerosis is the accumulation of LDL-derived lipid droplets in the arterial wall. According to the widely accepted ‘response-to-retention hypothesis’, LDL binding to the extracellular matrix proteoglycans in the arterial intima induces hydrolytic and oxidative modifications that promote LDL aggregation and fusion. This enhances LDL uptake by the arterial macrophages and triggers a cascade of pathogenic responses that culminate in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Hence, LDL aggregation, fusion, and lipid droplet formation are important early steps in atherogenesis. In vitro, a variety of enzymatic and nonenzymatic modifications of LDL can induce these reactions and thereby provide useful models for their detailed analysis. Here, we summarize current knowledge of the in vivo and in vitro modifications of LDLs leading to their aggregation, fusion, and lipid droplet formation; outline the techniques used to study these reactions; and propose a molecular mechanism that underlies these pro-atherogenic processes. Such knowledge is essential in identifying endogenous and exogenous factors that can promote or prevent LDL aggregation and fusion in vivo and to help establish new potential therapeutic targets to decelerate or even block these pathogenic reactions. PMID:25197325

  10. In vitro incorporation of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters into high and low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpstra, A.H.; Nicolosi, R.J.; Herbert, P.N.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for in vitro incorporation of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters into low density (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Radiolabeled cholesteryl esters dissolved in absolute ethanol were mixed with LDL or HDL in the presence of lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) as a source of core lipid transfer activity. The efficiency of incorporation was dependent on: (a) the core lipid transfer activity and quantity of LPDS, (b) the mass of added radiolabeled cholesteryl esters, (c) the length of incubation, and (d) the amount of acceptor lipoprotein cholesterol. The tracer incorporation was documented by repeat density gradient ultracentrifugation, agarose gel electrophoresis, and precipitation with heparin-MnCl2. The radiolabeling conditions did not affect the following properties of the lipoproteins: (1) chemical composition, (2) electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels, (3) hydrated density, (4) distribution of apoproteins on SDS gels, (5) plasma clearance rates, and (6) immunoprecipitability of HDL apoproteins A-I and A-II. Rat HDL containing radiolabeled cholesteryl esters incorporated in vitro had plasma disappearance rates identical to HDL radiolabeled in vivo

  11. Ordering and stability in lipid droplets with applications to low-density lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jarrett L.; Antonijevic, Todor; Starobin, Joseph M.

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we present a framework for investigating the order-disorder transition in lipid droplets using the standard Ising model. While a single lipid droplet is itself a complex system whose constituent cholesteryl esters each possesses many degrees of freedom, we present justification for using this effective approach to isolate the underlying physics. It is argued that the behavior of the esters confined within lipid droplets is significantly different from that of a bulk system of similar esters, which is adequately described by continuum mean-field theory in the thermodynamic limit. When the droplet's shell is modeled as an elastic membrane, a simple picture emerges for a transition between two ordered phases within the core which is tuned by the strength of interactions between the esters. Triglyceride concentration is proposed as a variable which strongly influences the strength of interactions between cholesteryl esters within droplets. The possible relevance of this mechanism to the well known atherogenic nature of small low-density lipoprotein particles is discussed in detail.

  12. Study of perifocal low-density area in metastatic brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, R; Okada, K; Hiratsuka, H; Inaba, Y [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tsuyumu, M

    1980-04-01

    It is well known that vasogenic brain edema often develops in brain tumors, head injuries, and inflammatory brain lesions. In order to investigate the development and resolution of vasogenic brain edema, some CT findings of metastatic brain tumors were studied in detail. 20 cases of metastatic brain tumors of the past three years were examined by means of a CT scan. In almost all the cases there was a perifocal low-density area (PFL) in the CT findings. In the tumors which were cystic and/or located in the infratentorial space, PFL was not present or, if present, only slightly so. On the contrary, in the tumors which were nodular and/or in the supratentorial space, PFL was present extensively. In the supratentorial metastasis, PFL seemed to be restricted within the white matter and not to involve the gray matter nor such midline structures as basal ganglia and corpus callosum. Besides, PFL was always in contact with the lateral ventricular wall. These results show that PFL in the metastatic tumors resembles in shape the experimental cold-induced brain edema in cats. PFL is presumed to represent vasogenic brain edema; these findings support the hypothesis that the main mechanism of the resolution of vasogenic brain edema is the drainage of the edema fluid into the ventricular CSF.

  13. Stability of metallic foams studied under microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Wuebben, T; Banhart, J; Odenbach, S

    2003-01-01

    Metal foams are prepared by mixing a metal powder and a gas-releasing blowing agent, by densifying the mix to a dense precursor and finally foaming by melting the powder compact. The foaming process of aluminium foams is monitored in situ by x-ray radioscopy. One observes that foam evolution is accompanied by film rupture processes which lead to foam coalescence. In order to elucidate the importance of oxides for foam stability, lead foams were manufactured from lead powders having two different oxide contents. The two foam types were generated on Earth and under weightlessness during parabolic flights. The measurements show that the main function of oxide particles is to prevent coalescence, while their influence on bulk viscosity of the melt is of secondary importance.

  14. Study of two-phase foam flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G

    1970-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.

  15. A review of aqueous foam in microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazadehsayed, Abdolhamid; Rezaee, Nastaran; Naser, Jamal; Nguyen, Anh V

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in the study of aqueous foams. Having said this, a better understanding of foam physics requires a deeper and profound study of foam elements. This paper reviews the studies in the microscale of aqueous foams. The elements of aqueous foams are interior Plateau borders, exterior Plateau borders, nodes, and films. Furthermore, these elements' contribution to the drainage of foam and hydraulic resistance are studied. The Marangoni phenomena that can happen in aqueous foams are listed as Marangoni recirculation in the transition region, Marangoni-driven flow from Plateau border towards the film in the foam fractionation process, and Marangoni flow caused by exposure of foam containing photosurfactants under UV. Then, the flow analysis of combined elements of foam such as PB-film along with Marangoni flow and PB-node are studied. Next, we contrast the behavior of foams in different conditions. These various conditions can be perturbation in the foam structure caused by injected water droplets or waves or using a non-Newtonian fluid to make the foam. Further review is about the effect of oil droplets and particles on the characteristics of foam such as drainage, stability and interfacial mobility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  17. MDCT appearance of the appendix: how does the low-density barium sulfate oral contrast agent affect it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmai, Vahid; Aghaei-Lasboo, Anahita; Brandwein, Warren M; Tochetto, Sandra; Mafi, John N; Miller, Frank H; Nikolaidis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effect of low-density barium sulfate neutral oral contrast agent on the diameter of normal appendix and its luminal content versus that of water on multidetector-row CT. CT scans of 24 patients who had been imaged on two separate occasions for the evaluation of pancreatic pathology, once with water and subsequently with low-density barium sulfate as the neutral oral contrast agent were evaluated (total of 48 scans). Studies were randomized and reviewed in consensus on a workstation in the stack mode by two radiologists blinded to the type of oral contrast. The appendix was measured at baseline and 10 days later to obtain an average diameter. Results of the water and low-density barium sulfate groups were compared using paired t test. Contents of the appendiceal lumen were also noted (gas, fluid, mixed, and collapsed appendix). The average diameter of the appendix for scans obtained with water and low-density barium sulfate was 4.09 ± 0.87 mm (median, 4.22 mm; range, 2.50-5.65 mm) and 4.13 ± 0.93 mm (median, 4 mm, range, 2.2-5.65 mm), respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.69). There was no statistically significant difference in the appendiceal content when water or low-density barium sulfate were used as oral contrast (χ (2) = 4.25, P = 0.89). Low-density barium sulfate does not affect appendiceal content or diameter and, therefore, should not adversely affect evaluation of the appendix on multidetector row CT.

  18. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO 2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  19. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  20. Relationship between oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies and obesity in different glycemic situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babakr AT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullatif Taha Babakr,1 Osman Mohamed Elsheikh,2 Abdullah A Almarzouki,3 Adel Mohamed Assiri,1 Badr Eldin Elsonni Abdalla,4 Hani Yousif Zaki,5 Samir H Fatani,1 EssamEldin Mohamed NourEldin11Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 4Department of Biochemistry, Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Sudan Background: Autoantibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL are a heterogeneous group of antibodies that are controversially discussed to be either pathogenic or protective. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements correlated with increased levels of these antibodies are also controversial, especially in conditions of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate levels of oxLDL antibodies and their correlation with obesity in different glycemic situations. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-four adult males were classified into three subgroups: group 1 (n=125, comprising a control group of nondiabetic subjects; group 2 (n=77, comprising subjects with impaired glucose tolerance; and group 3 (n=72, comprising patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index was calculated, and measurement of oxLDL and oxLDL antibodies was performed. Results: Higher mean concentrations of oxLDL were found in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance groups (143.5±21.9 U/L and 108.7±23.7 U/L, respectively. The mean value for the control group was 73.5±27.5 U/L (P<0.001. Higher mean concentrations of anti-oxLDL antibodies were observed in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired

  1. Effect of low-density lateral interfaces on soft-tissue doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Desobry, Gregory E.; Fowble, Barbara; Coia, Lawrence R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Doses at the interface between tissue and low-density inhomogeneities with the interface positioned perpendicular to the beam direction have been well studied. When the inhomogeneity lies parallel to the beam direction (i.e., a lateral interface), the resulting dose distribution is not as well known. Lateral lung--soft-tissue interfaces are common in many fields used to treat malignancies in the thorax region including tangential breast fields and anteroposterior fields for lung and esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose distribution along lateral interfaces and to determine the implications for treatment. Methods and Materials: A polystyrene and cork slab phantom was irradiated from the side to simulate treatment fields with lateral lung--soft-tissue interfaces. The beam was positioned with the isocenter in polystyrene and the field edge in cork. Cork slabs (0.6-2.5 cm) were used to simulate different thicknesses of lung between the field edge and the target volume. Measurements were made using a parallel plate ionization chamber. With the chamber position held constant, polystyrene slabs were added between the cork and the chamber to study the dose distribution in the interface region. Interface doses were studied as a function of the amount of cork in the field, field size, beam energy (6-18 MV), and depth. Results: Doses in the interface region were lower by as much as 10% compared to doses in a homogeneous phantom. For a given cork width and field size, the magnitude of the underdose increased by several percent as the x-ray energy increased from 6 to 18 MV. The underdose at the interface was 5% for 6 MV and 8% for 18 MV X-rays with a 1-cm cork width. For a 2.5-cm cork width, underdoses of 2.5% and 3% at distances up to 2.5 and 4 mm lateral to the interface were observed for 6- and 18-MV X-rays, respectively. However, doses right at the interface were 1% greater for 6 MV and 3% less for 18 MV than doses in a homogeneous

  2. Genetic spectrum of low density lipoprotein receptor gene variations in South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ArulJothi, K N; Suruthi Abirami, B; Devi, Arikketh

    2018-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a membrane bound receptor maintaining cholesterol homeostasis along with Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and other genes of lipid metabolism. Any pathogenic variation in these genes alters the function of the receptor and leads to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at screening the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in Hypercholesterolemic patients to define the genetic spectrum of FH in Indian population. Familial Hypercholesterolemia patients (n=78) of South Indian Tamil population with LDL cholesterol and Total cholesterol levels above 4.9mmol/l and 7.5mmol/l with family history of Myocardial infarction were involved. DNA was isolated by organic extraction method from blood samples and LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 gene exons were amplified using primers that cover exon-intron boundaries. The amplicons were screened using High Resolution Melt (HRM) Analysis and the screened samples were sequenced after purification. This study reports 20 variations in South Indian population for the first time. In this set of variations 9 are novel variations which are reported for the first time, 11 were reported in other studies also. The in silico analysis for all the variations detected in this study were done to predict the probabilistic effect in pathogenicity of FH. This study adds 9 novel variations and 11 recurrent variations to the spectrum of LDLR gene mutations in Indian population. All these variations are reported for the first time in Indian population. This spectrum of variations was different from the variations of previous Indian reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. α-Tocopherol modulates the low density lipoprotein receptor of human HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottema Cynthia DK

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin E (α-tocopherol on the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor, a cell surface protein which plays an important role in controlling blood cholesterol. Human HepG2 hepatoma cells were incubated for 24 hours with increasing amounts of α, δ, or γ-tocopherol. The LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase mRNA, cell cholesterol and cell lathosterol were measured. The effect of α-tocopherol was biphasic. Up to a concentration of 50 μM, α-tocopherol progressively increased LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA to maximum levels 2, 4 and 6-fold higher than control, respectively. The HMG-CoA reductase mRNA and the cell lathosterol concentration, indices of cholesterol synthesis, were also increased by 40% over control by treatment with 50 μM α-tocopherol. The cell cholesterol concentration was decreased by 20% compared to control at 50 μM α-tocopherol. However, at α-tocopherol concentrations higher than 50 μM, the LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA, the HMG-CoA reductase mRNA and the cell lathosterol and cholesterol concentrations all returned to control levels. The biphasic effect on the LDL receptor was specific for α-tocopherol in that δ and γ-tocopherol suppressed LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA at all concentrations tested despite the cells incorporating similar amounts of the three homologues. In conclusion, α-tocopherol, exhibits a specific, concentration-dependent and biphasic "up then down" effect on the LDL receptor of HepG2 cells which appears to be at the level of gene transcription. Cholesterol synthesis appears to be similarly affected and the cell cholesterol concentration may mediate these effects.

  4. Effect of Ar ion on the surface properties of low density polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was irradiated by argon ion with different fluences up to 1015ions/cm2. The optical, chemical and hardness properties have been investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-indentation tester, respectively. The results showed the ion beam bombardment induced decreases in the transmittance of the irradiated polymer samples. This change in transmittance can be attributed to the formation of conjugated bonds i.e. possible formation of defects and/or carbon clusters. The indirect optical band gap decreased from 3.0 eV for the pristine sample to 2.3 eV for that sample irradiated with the highest fluence of the Ar ion beam. Furthermore, the number of carbon atoms and clusters increased with increasing Ar ion fluences. FTIR spectra showed the formation of new bands of the bombarded polymer samples. Furthermore, polar groups were created on the surface of the irradiated samples which refer to the increase of the hydrophilic nature of the surface of the irradiated samples. The Vicker's hardness increased from 4.9 MPa for the pristine sample to 17.9 MPa for those bombarded at the highest fluence. This increase is attributed to the increase in the crosslinking and alterations of the bombarded surface into hydrogenated amorphous carbon, which improves the hardness of the irradiated samples. The bombarded LDPE surfaces may be used in special applications to the field of the micro-electronic devices and shock absorbers.

  5. Effect of cocoa bran on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and fecal bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Vuksan, V; Vidgen, E; Wong, E; Augustin, L S; Fulgoni, V

    Legumes have reported benefits in terms of reduced risk for coronary heart disease and of colonic health. A novel legume fiber, cocoa bran, also may have favorable health effects on serum lipid levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, and fecal bulk. Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic subjects (13 men and 12 women) (mean +/- SEM age, 37 +/- 2 years; mean +/- SEM body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 24.6 +/- 0.7) ate cocoa-bran and chocolate-flavored low-fiber breakfast cereals for 2-week periods, with 2-week washout, in a double-blind crossover study. The cocoa-bran cereal provided 25.0 g/d of total dietary fiber (TDF). The low-fiber cereal (5.6 g/d TDF) was of similar appearance and energy value. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start and end of each period, and 4-day fecal collections were made from days 11 through 14. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was higher (7.6% +/- 2.9%; P =.02) and the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was lower (6.7% +/- 2.3%; P =.007) for cocoa-bran compared with low-fiber cereal at 2 weeks. No effect was seen on LDL cholesterol oxidation. Mean fecal output was significantly higher for cocoa-bran than for low-fiber cereal (56 +/- 14 g/d; Pchocolate-flavored cocoa-bran cereal increased fecal bulk similarly to wheat bran and was associated with a reduction in the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. In view of the low-fat, high-fiber nature of the material, these results suggest a possible role for this novel fiber source in the diets of normal, hyperlipidemic, and constipated subjects.

  6. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon, E-mail: jkkim@kau.ac.kr

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  7. Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, W.I.; Faucette, A.M.; Jantzen, R.C.; Logsdon, B.W.; Oldham, J.H.; Saiki, D.M.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews, industry surveys, and lab-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate several options for encapsulating nitrate salts with LDPE. Most of the effort has focused on identifying compatible drying and extrusion technologies. Other processing options, specifically meltration and non-heated compounding machines, were also investigated. The best approach appears to be pretreatment of the nitrate salt waste brine in either a vertical or horizontal thin film evaporator followed by compounding of the dried waste with LDPE in an intermeshing, co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. Additional pilot-scale tests planned for the fall of 1993 should further support this recommendation. Preliminary evaluation work indicates that meltration is not possible at atmospheric pressure with the LDPE (Chevron PE-1409) provided by RFP. However, meltration should be possible at atmospheric pressure using another LDPE formulation with altered physical and rheological properties: Lower molecular weight and lower viscosity (Epoline C-15). Contract modifications are now in process to allow a follow-on pilot scale demonstration. Questions regarding changed safety and physical properties of the resultant LDPE waste form due to use of the Epoline C-15 will be addressed. No additional work with non-heated mixer compounder machines is planned at this time

  8. Histological consideration of low-density lesions by means of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Shoji; Odake, Genya; Fujimoto, Masahito; Yamaki, Tarumi; Tohyama, Mitsuo

    1979-01-01

    The present authors attempt to correlate the tissue density as shown by the CT scan with the microscopic findings of brain edema. Two clinical cases are selected, which were autopsied without a long delay after the CT examinations. Case 1: The CT scan showed a low-density mass in the right temporo-parietal lobe, with marked focal edema. The mass was strongly enhanced by the contrast medium. The total extirpation of this tumor was performed; the histological findings was metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma. At autopsy, the brain showed a metastatic tumor, just as had the CT scan. An histological examination of the perifocal edema surrounding the tumor revealed distended interstitial spaces and the destruction of the myelin sheaths. Case 2: The CT scan performed ten days before death showed a strongly contrast-enhanced mass in the right cerebellum and marked hydrocephalus, with a porencephalic cyst in the left frontal lobe. Autopsy revealed a malignant lymphoma in the right cerebellum and marked hydrocephalus, with long-standing edema. The microscopic finding on the white matter showed a wide separation of neuropils and a greater destruction of the myelinated sheaths than in Case 1. From these cases, the following findings are obtained: (1) The main reason for a decrease in CT units in brain edema is the widening of the interstitial spaces, which contain edema fluid. (2) In chronic edema, CT units are less decreased, despite the widening of the interstitial spaces and the marked destruction of the myelin sheaths. It is known that lipid is the main component of the myelin sheath and that it is represented by approximately -50 -- -70 Hounsefield units. A correlation of those facts and our findings suggest that the reduction of tissue lipid in brain edema may blunt the decrease in CT units caused by water uptake. (author)

  9. Safety and durability of low-density polyethylene bags in solar water disinfection applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danwittayakul, Supamas; Songngam, Supachai; Fhulua, Tipawan; Muangkasem, Panida; Sukkasi, Sittha

    2017-08-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings. This work investigated the degradation of LDPE bags used in the new design in actual SODIS conditions over a period of 12 weeks. The degradation of the LDPE bags was investigated weekly using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and tensile strength tester. It was found that the LDPE bags gradually degraded under the sunlight due to photo-oxidation reactions, especially in the outer bags, which were directly exposed to the sun and surroundings, leading to the reduction of light transmittance (by 11% at 300 nm) and tensile strength (by 33%). In addition, possible leaching of organic compounds into the water contained in the inner bags was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was found in some SODIS water samples as well as the as-received water samples, in the concentration range of 1-4 μg/L, which passes the Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Guidance on Disinfection By-Products.

  10. Impact of Hypertriglyceridemia on Carotid Stenosis Progression under Normal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagami, Masayuki; Yasuda, Ryuta; Toma, Naoki; Shiba, Masato; Nampei, Mai; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2017-08-01

    Dyslipidemia is a well-known risk factor for carotid stenosis progression, but triglycerides have attracted little attention. The aim of this study was to assess if serum triglycerides affect progression of carotid stenosis in patients with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This is a retrospective study in a single hospital consisting of 71 Japanese patients with internal carotid artery stenosis greater than or equal to 50% and normal serum LDL-C levels who underwent angiographic examination with or without the resultant carotid artery stenting or endarterectomy from 2007 to 2011, and were subsequently followed up for 4 years. Clinical factors including fasting serum triglyceride values were compared between the progression (≥10% increase in degree of carotid stenosis on ultrasonography) and the nonprogression groups. During 4 years, 15 patients (21.1%) had carotid stenosis progression on either side. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that symptomatic cases (hazard ratio [HR], 4.327; P = .019), coexisting intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis (HR, 5.341; P = .005), and hypertriglyceridemia (HR, 6.228; P = .011) were associated with subsequent progression of carotid stenosis. Kaplan-Meier plots demonstrated that the progression-free survival rate was significantly higher in patients without hypertriglyceridemia and intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis at baseline. Among patients with moderate to severe carotid stenosis and well-controlled LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia was an important risk factor for progression of carotid stenosis irrespective of surgical treatments. It would be worthwhile to test if triglyceride-lowering medications suppress carotid stenosis progression. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow on to a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf

    2018-05-01

    We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows on to black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disc within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ ∝ (1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disc at the centrifugal radius RC(

  12. Receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein stimulates bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, L.H.; Davis, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of [14C]cholesterol from [2-14C]acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of [14C]cholesterol from [2-14C]acetate. Reductive methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis

  13. Metabolism of (125I)tyramine cellobiose-labeled low density lipoproteins in squirrel monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, O.W.; Alexander, Manfred

    1985-01-01

    Low density lipoproteins labeled with ( 125 I)tyramine cellobiose (( 125 I)TC-LDL) were removed from the circulation of squirrel monkeys at a similar but slightly slower rate than LDLs labeled with 125 I, ( 125 I)hydroxypenyl propionic acid, or ( 3 H)leucine. After the simultaneous injection of (( 125 I)TC-LDL) and ( 131 I)LDL labeled with 131 ICI, the 125 I was also removed at a slightly slower rate than 131 I. Most of the radioactivity was retained in tissues and not excreted during the 24 h after injection of ( 125 I)TC-LDL. This finding supports the claim of Pittman et al. (18) that ( 125 I)TC-LDL can be used to determine the irreversible uptake of LDL by different tissues. The liver cleared more LDL than any other organ, but the adrenals and ovaries were more active per gram. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitated more than 80% of the radioactivity in the tissues that had low 125 I uptake, but only about 50% of the 125 I in more active tissues (liver, adrenals, ovaries and spleen). Only a small percentage of 125 I in urine and bile was TCA-precipitable. In the dual label experiment with ( 125 I)TC-LDL and ( 131 I)LDL there was a selective retention of 125 I in samples from liver, spleen, adrenals, and perhaps testes, and an almost complete selectivity for 125 I in bile and feces. The aortic intima plus inner media (AIM) cleared much less LDL than other tissues, but the uptake by the entire AIM was proportional to the cholesterol concentration and weight of the total AIM. There was, however, no correlation between either of the latter two measurements and the uptake of LDL per pram of AIM. (author)

  14. Polymorphisms of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in Brazilian individuals with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Salazar

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a metabolic disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait characterized by an increased plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL level. The disease is caused by several different mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Although early identification of individuals carrying the defective gene could be useful in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the techniques available for determining the number of the functional LDL receptor molecules are difficult to carry out and expensive. Polymorphisms associated with this gene may be used for unequivocal diagnosis of FH in several populations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the genotype distribution and relative allele frequencies of three polymorphisms of the LDL receptor gene, HincII1773 (exon 12, AvaII (exon 13 and PvuII (intron 15, in 50 unrelated Brazilian individuals with a diagnosis of heterozygous FH and in 130 normolipidemic controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes by a modified salting-out method. The polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP. The FH subjects showed a higher frequency of A+A+ (AvaII, H+H+ (HincII1773 and P1P1 (PvuII homozygous genotypes when compared to the control group (P<0.05. In addition, FH probands presented a high frequency of A+ (0.58, H+ (0.61 and P1 (0.78 alleles when compared to normolipidemic individuals (0.45, 0.45 and 0.64, respectively. The strong association observed between these alleles and FH suggests that AvaII, HincII1773 and PvuII polymorphisms could be useful to monitor the inheritance of FH in Brazilian families.

  15. Terrestrial gamma radiation baseline mapping using ultra low density sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, R; Watson, D

    2016-01-01

    Baseline terrestrial gamma radiation maps are indispensable for providing basic reference information that may be used in assessing the impact of a radiation related incident, performing epidemiological studies, remediating land contaminated with radioactive materials, assessment of land use applications and resource prospectivity. For a large land mass, such as Queensland, Australia (over 1.7 million km(2)), it is prohibitively expensive and practically difficult to undertake detailed in-situ radiometric surveys of this scale. It is proposed that an existing, ultra-low density sampling program already undertaken for the purpose of a nationwide soil survey project be utilised to develop a baseline terrestrial gamma radiation map. Geoelement data derived from the National Geochemistry Survey of Australia (NGSA) was used to construct a baseline terrestrial gamma air kerma rate map, delineated by major drainage catchments, for Queensland. Three drainage catchments (sampled at the catchment outlet) spanning low, medium and high radioelement concentrations were selected for validation of the methodology using radiometric techniques including in-situ measurements and soil sampling for high resolution gamma spectrometry, and comparative non-radiometric analysis. A Queensland mean terrestrial air kerma rate, as calculated from the NGSA outlet sediment uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations, of 49 ± 69 nGy h(-1) (n = 311, 3σ 99% confidence level) is proposed as being suitable for use as a generic terrestrial air kerma rate background range. Validation results indicate that catchment outlet measurements are representative of the range of results obtained across the catchment and that the NGSA geoelement data is suitable for calculation and mapping of terrestrial air kerma rate. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation behavior of linear low density polyethylene by ultraviolet radiation exposition for agricultural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Patricia N.S.; Silva, Leonardo G.A., E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.br, E-mail: patricianegrini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ciro, Rosemeire, E-mail: rosemeireciro@msn.com [Faculdades Oswaldo Cruz (FOC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, Hamilton M., E-mail: hmviana@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Fundacao de Santo Andre (FSA/FAENG), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene is the most important polymer used in agricultural applications. Polymers are susceptible to changes in their chemical structures that affect their mechanical properties under weather condition. In Polyethylene, photo-oxidation can occur because of impurities or chromophore groups (catalytic residue, mineral fillers, some commercial additives as stabilizers, lubricants, plasticizers, etc.). The critical ageing factors for greenhouse built with LDPE film are: total solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, mechanical stress, agrochemicals, air pollution, and combinations of these factors. Exposure of plastics to UV radiation causes a loss in their mechanical properties and/or change in appearance, including reduced ductility, color changes, yellowing and cracking. Additives are added to plastics to enhance the durability of the final product. Today, there are several additive systems (light stabilizers) developed to work according to resin, final application, type of cultivation, and other characteristics. The main types of light stabilizers are: UV absorbers, quenchers and free radicals scavengers. In addition to the conventional organic additives, some inorganic additives were obtained recently with the development of nanotechnology. This study evaluates the different additive systems (HALS, NPCC, nZnO and nTiO{sub 2}), applied 0.25% (in weight) in LLDPE. The samples were mixed by high rotation homogenizer and extrusion. Later, the samples were molded by injection and aged in QUV-B simulating 6 months of exposure to weather. Tests of FT-IR and tensile strength comparing to the non-aged samples were carried out in order to evaluate the performance of several additive systems concerning the degradation behavior of linear low density polyethylene. (author)

  17. Low Density Lipoprotein and Non-Newtonian Oscillating Flow Biomechanical Parameters for Normal Human Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D

    2016-04-01

    The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.

  18. Comparison of low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingkui; Jiang, Honghui; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Wang, Lulu; Xia, Lei

    2017-08-02

    The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS. We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups. Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.

  19. [Detection of herpes virus and human enterovirus in pathology samples using low-density arrays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Martínez, Sofía; Gervás Ríos, Ruth; Franco Rodríguez, Yoana; González Velasco, Cristina; Cruz Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Abad Hernández, María Del Mar

    Despite the frequency of infections with herpesviridae family, only eight subtypes affect humans (Herpex Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Varicella Zoster Virus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Citomegalovirus and Human Herpes Virus types 6, 7 and 8). Amongst enteroviruses infections, the most important are Poliovirus, Coxackievirus and Echovirus. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe and early diagnosis is of upmost importance. Nowadays, low-density arrays can detect different types of viruses in a single assay using DNA extracted from biological samples. We analyzed 70 samples of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, searching for viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV, EBV, HHV-6, HHV-7 y HHV-8, Poliovirus, Echovirus and Coxsackievirus) using the kit CLART ® ENTHERPEX. Out of the total of 70 samples, 29 were positive for viral infection (41.43%), and only 4 of them showed cytopathic effect (100% correlation between histology and the test). 47.6% of GVHD samples were positive for virus; 68.75% of IBD analyzed showed positivity for viral infection; in colitis with ulcers (neither GVHD nor IBD), the test was positive in 50% of the samples and was also positive in 50% of ischemic lesions. The high sensitivity of the technique makes it a useful tool for the pathologist in addition to conventional histology-based diagnosis, as a viral infection may affect treatment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. High-density amorphous ice: nucleation of nanosized low-density amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonauer, Christina M.; Seidl-Nigsch, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the crystallization temperature of different forms of expanded high-density amorphous ice (eHDA) was scrutinized. Crystallization at pressures 0.05-0.30 GPa was followed using volumetry and powder x-ray diffraction. eHDA samples were prepared via isothermal decompression of very high-density amorphous ice at 140 K to different end pressures between 0.07-0.30 GPa (eHDA0.07-0.3). At 0.05-0.17 GPa the crystallization line T x (p) of all eHDA variants is the same. At pressures  >0.17 GPa, all eHDA samples decompressed to pressures  <0.20 GPa exhibit significantly lower T x values than eHDA0.2 and eHDA0.3. We rationalize our findings with the presence of nanoscaled low-density amorphous ice (LDA) seeds that nucleate in eHDA when it is decompressed to pressures  <0.20 GPa at 140 K. Below ~0.17 GPa, these nanosized LDA domains are latent within the HDA matrix, exhibiting no effect on T x of eHDA<0.2. Upon heating at pressures  ⩾0.17 GPa, these nanosized LDA nuclei transform to ice IX nuclei. They are favored sites for crystallization and, hence, lower T x . By comparing crystallization experiments of bulk LDA with the ones involving nanosized LDA we are able to estimate the Laplace pressure and radius of ~0.3-0.8 nm for the nanodomains of LDA. The nucleation of LDA in eHDA revealed here is evidence for the first-order-like nature of the HDA  →  LDA transition, supporting water’s liquid-liquid transition scenarios.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on linear low density polyethylene/magnesium hydroxide/sepiolite composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Muhammad; Yasin, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking is generally used to improve the thermo-mechanical properties of the composites. A study has been carried out to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the thermo-mechanical properties of linear low density polyethylene containing magnesium hydroxide (MH) and sepiolite (SP) as non-halogenated flame retardant additives. The developed composites are irradiated at different doses upto maximum of 150 kGy. Infrared spectra of the irradiated composites reveal the reduction in the intensity of O-H band with increase in the absorbed doses, thus indicates a distinct structural change in MH at higher doses. The thermogravimetric analysis results of unirradiated and composites irradiated at low doses (≤75 kGy) show two steps weight loss, which is changed to single step at higher doses with lower thermal stability. The melting temperature (T m ) and crystallization temperature (T c ) of irradiated composites are lowered with irradiation whereas Vicat softening temperature (VST) is increased. The increasing trend in gel content with increase in the absorbed dose confirms the presence of crosslinked network. The mechanical properties, results show significant improvement in the modulus of irradiated composites. The results also confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation. - Highlights: → We have studied the effect of γ radiation on LLDPE containing Mg(OH) 2 and sepiolite. → IR spectra of the irradiated composites show reduction in the intensity of O-H band. → Reduction in OH band show a distinct structural change in Mg(OH) 2 at higher doses. → TGA results show two steps weight loss at low doses and one step at higher doses. → These results confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation.

  2. Low-density lipoprotein electronegativity is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fang Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. METHODS: In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. RESULTS: L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01. The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5% and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001. L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index.

  3. Degradation behavior of linear low density polyethylene by ultraviolet radiation exposition for agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Patricia N.S.; Silva, Leonardo G.A.; Ciro, Rosemeire; Viana, Hamilton M.

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene is the most important polymer used in agricultural applications. Polymers are susceptible to changes in their chemical structures that affect their mechanical properties under weather condition. In Polyethylene, photo-oxidation can occur because of impurities or chromophore groups (catalytic residue, mineral fillers, some commercial additives as stabilizers, lubricants, plasticizers, etc.). The critical ageing factors for greenhouse built with LDPE film are: total solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, mechanical stress, agrochemicals, air pollution, and combinations of these factors. Exposure of plastics to UV radiation causes a loss in their mechanical properties and/or change in appearance, including reduced ductility, color changes, yellowing and cracking. Additives are added to plastics to enhance the durability of the final product. Today, there are several additive systems (light stabilizers) developed to work according to resin, final application, type of cultivation, and other characteristics. The main types of light stabilizers are: UV absorbers, quenchers and free radicals scavengers. In addition to the conventional organic additives, some inorganic additives were obtained recently with the development of nanotechnology. This study evaluates the different additive systems (HALS, NPCC, nZnO and nTiO 2 ), applied 0.25% (in weight) in LLDPE. The samples were mixed by high rotation homogenizer and extrusion. Later, the samples were molded by injection and aged in QUV-B simulating 6 months of exposure to weather. Tests of FT-IR and tensile strength comparing to the non-aged samples were carried out in order to evaluate the performance of several additive systems concerning the degradation behavior of linear low density polyethylene. (author)

  4. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  5. Liquid versus foam sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel-Desnos, C; Allaert, F-A

    2009-12-01

    A systematic review to compare efficacy and safety of foam (F) sclerotherapy versus liquid (L) sclerotherapy for primary varicose veins of the lower limbs. Systematic searches of electronic databases were conducted in April 2009 to identify relevant published studies. Database searches were augmented with abstracts from conference proceedings and electronic and hand searching of journals not consistently indexed in the major databases. For treatment of saphenous veins, six trials (four randomized controlled trials) were considered. Despite containing much less sclerosing agent, F was markedly more effective compared with L, the difference being put at between 20% and 50%. Four studies were included in a meta-analysis showing efficacy of F at 76.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 71-82) versus L at 39.5% (95% CI 33-46), chi(2) = 60.9740; P reticular veins and telangiectases, only two comparative trials were found and do not at present provide any conclusive evidence to support the superiority of efficacy of one form over the other. Statistically, the side-effects reported in all the available comparative trials do not differ between F and L forms, even if visual disturbances seem to be more common with F. In the treatment of varices of the lower limbs, F shows much greater efficacy compared to L. Concerning the side effects, no statistical significant differences were found between L and F.

  6. Comparison of gemfibrozil versus simvastatin in familial combined hyperlipidemia and effects on apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein subfraction profile, and low-density lipoprotein oxidizability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S. J.; de Bruin, T. W.; Demacker, P. N.; Kastelein, J. J.; Stalenhoef, A. F.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 45 well-defined patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia, the effect of gemfibrozil (1,200 mg/day) or simvastatin (20 mg/day) on apolipoprotein-B (apo-B)-containing lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction

  7. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  8. Investigation of compression behavior of PE/EVA foam injection molded parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the presented work is to evaluate the compression behavior of a polymeric foam blend by using a robust framework for the testing sequence of foaming injection molded parts, with the aim of establishing a standard testing cycle for the evaluation of new matrix material. The research purpose is to assess parameters influencing compression behavior and give useful suggestions for the implementation of a finite element analysis. The polymeric blend consisted of a mixture of low density polyethylenes (LDPEs), a high-density polyethylene (HDPE), an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and an azodicarbonamide (ADC). The thermal, rheological and compression properties of the blend are fully described, as well as the injection molding process for two specimen types.

  9. Objectification of Modulus Elasticity of Foam Concrete Poroflow 17-5 on the Subbase Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hájek Matej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Principles of sustainable development create the need to develop new building materials. Foam concrete is a type of lightweight concrete that has many advantages compared to conventional building materials, for example low density and thermal insulation characteristics. With current development level, any negatively influencing material features are constantly eliminated as well. This paper is dealing with substitution of hydraulically bound mixtures by cement foam concrete Poroflow 17-5. The executed assessment is according to the methodology of assessing the existing asphalt pavements in Slovak Republic. The ex post calculation was used to estimate modulus range for Poroflow 17-5 based on the results of static load tests conducted using the Testing Experiment Equipment.

  10. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  11. Stability analysis of uniform equilibrium foam states for EOR processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.; Marchesin, D.; Rossen, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of foam for mobility control is a promising mean to improve sweep efficiency in EOR. Experimental studies discovered that foam exhibits three different states (weak foam, intermediate foam, and strong foam). The intermediate-foam state is found to be unstable in the lab whereas the weak- and

  12. mTOR signaling promotes foam cell formation and inhibits foam cell egress through suppressing the SIRT1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixiang; Fu, Yucai; Huang, Yusheng; Zheng, Xinde; Yu, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic immuno‑inflammatory disease accompanied by dyslipidemia. The authors previously demonstrated that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) may prevent atherogenesis through influencing the liver X receptor/C‑C chemokine receptor type 7/nuclear factor‑κB (LXR‑CCR7/NF‑κB) signaling pathway. Previous studies have suggested a role for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the potential association between mTOR signaling and SIRT1‑LXR‑CCR7/NF‑κB signaling (SIRT1 signaling) in AS pathogenesis. To induce foam cell formation, U937 cells were differentiated into macrophages by exposure to phorbol 12‑myristate 13‑acetate (PMA) for 24 h, followed by treatment with palmitate and oxidized low density lipoprotein for a further 24 h. Oil red O staining revealed a large accumulation of lipid droplets present in foam cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased protein levels of phosphorylated (p)‑mTOR and its downstream factor p‑ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses additionally revealed decreased expression of SIRT1, LXRα and CCR7 and increased expression of NF‑κB and its downstream factor tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) in an atherogenetic condition induced by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In addition, abundant lipid droplets accumulated in U937‑LPA‑treated foam cells. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, suppressed the expression and activity of mTOR and p70S6K, however enhanced expression of SIRT1, LXRα, and CCR7. Conversely, rapamycin deceased TNF‑α and NF‑κB activity, the latter of which was further confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis demonstrating increased levels of NF‑κB present in the cytoplasm compared with the nucleus. The findings of the present study suggest that mTOR signaling promotes foam cell formation and inhibits foam

  13. Foam for combating mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The application of foam in dealing with underground fire is well known due to its smothering action by cutting off air feed to burning fuel as well as acting as coolant. Besides plugging air feed to fire, water could be virtually reached to the fire affected areas much beyond the jet range as underground galleries with low roof restrict jet range of water. This method also enables a closer approach of a fire fighting team by isolating the toxic gases and smoke with a foam plug. The paper describes the development of high expansion foam composition and its application technology in order that foam plug method can be suitably utilized for combating mine fires in India. Three compositions were recommended for generation of high expansion foam: (a) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulphate, 0.15 to 0.2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, 0.1% booster; (b) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.12 to 0.15% alkaline solution of gum arabic, 0.1 to 0.2% ferrous gluconate; and (c) 0.35% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.20% booster, 0.2% xylene sulfonate.

  14. Numerical modeling of foam flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheddadi, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Liquid foam flows are involved in numerous applications, e.g. food and cosmetics industries, oil extraction, nuclear decontamination. Moreover, their study leads to fundamental knowledge: as it is easier to manipulate and analyse, foam is used as a model material to understand the flow of emulsions, polymers, pastes, or cell aggregates, all of which display both solid and liquid behaviour. Systematic experiments performed by Francois Graner et al. provide precise data that emphasize the non Newtonian properties of the foam. Meanwhile, Pierre Saramito proposed a visco-elasto-plastic continuous tensorial model, akin to predict the behaviour of the foam. The goal of this thesis is to understand this complex behaviour, using these two elements. We have built and validated a resolution algorithm based on a bidimensional finite elements methods. The numerical solutions are in excellent agreement with the spatial distribution of all measured quantities, and confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. The dominant parameters have been identified and we evidenced the fact that the viscous, elastic, and plastic contributions to the flow have to be treated simultaneously in a tensorial formalism. We provide a substantial contribution to the understanding of foams and open the path to realistic simulations of complex VEP flows for industrial applications. (author)

  15. A graphite foam reinforced by graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.J.; Wang, X.Y.; Guo, L.F.; Wang, Y.M.; Wang, Y.P.; Yu, M.F.; Lau, K.T.T. [DongHua University, Shanghai (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Graphite foam was obtained after carbonization and graphitization of a pitch foam formed by the pyrolysis of coal tar based mesophase pitch mixed with graphite particles in a high pressure and temperature chamber. The graphite foam possessed high mechanical strength and exceptional thermal conductivity after adding the graphite particles. Experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of modified graphite foam reached 110W/m K, and its compressive strength increased from 3.7 MPa to 12.5 MPa with the addition of 5 wt% graphite particles. Through the microscopic observation, it was also found that fewer micro-cracks were formed in the cell wall of the modified foam as compared with pure graphite foam. The graphitization degree of modified foam reached 84.9% and the ligament of graphite foam exhibited high alignment after carbonization at 1200{sup o}C for 3 h and graphitization at 3000{sup o}C for 10 min.

  16. Some aspects of image processing using foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, A.; Freire, M.V.; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have explored some concepts of chaotic dynamics and wave light transport in foams. Using some experiments, we have obtained the main features of light intensity distribution through foams. We are proposing a model for this phenomenon, based on the combination of two processes: a diffusive process and another one derived from chaotic dynamics. We have presented a short outline of the chaotic dynamics involving light scattering in foams. We also have studied the existence of caustics from scattering of light from foams, with typical patterns observed in the light diffraction in transparent films. The nonlinear geometry of the foam structure was explored in order to create optical elements, such as hyperbolic prisms and filters. - Highlights: • We have obtained the light scattering in foams using experiments. • We model the light transport in foams using a chaotic dynamics and a diffusive process. • An optical filter based on foam is proposed

  17. NF-κB inhibitors that prevent foam cell formation and atherosclerotic plaque accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Jesse D; Elias, Michael G; Dellinger, Anthony L; Kepley, Christopher L

    2017-08-01

    The transformation of monocyte-derived macrophages into lipid-laden foam cells is one inflammatory process underlying atherosclerotic disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that fullerene derivatives (FDs) have inflammation-blunting properties. Thus, it was hypothesized that FD could inhibit the transformation process underlying foam cell formation. Fullerene derivatives inhibited the phorbol myristic acid/oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced differentiation of macrophages into foam cells as determined by lipid staining and morphology.Lipoprotein-induced generation of TNF-α, C5a-induced MC activation, ICAM-1 driven adhesion, and CD36 expression were significantly inhibited in FD treated cells compared to non-treated cells. Inhibition appeared to be mediated through the NF-κB pathway as FD reduced expression of NF-κB and atherosclerosis-associated genes. Compared to controls, FD dramatically inhibited plaque formation in arteries of apolipoprotein E null mice. Thus, FD may be an unrecognized therapy to prevent atherosclerotic lesions via inhibition of foam cell formation and MC stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: proteins and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food

  19. THE EFFECT OF DIAMETER ON THE MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF AMORPHOUS-CARBON FIBERS FROM LINEAR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENNING, JP; LAGCHER, R; PENNINGS, AJ

    The mechanical properties of amorphous carbon fibers, derived from linear low density polyethylene strongly depend on the fibre diameter, which may be attributed to the presence of a skin/core structure in these fibres. High strength carbon fibres could thus be prepared by using thin precursor

  20. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...