Ítalo Tuler Perrone
Full Text Available The knowledge on spray drying of whey has significantly changed during the last 20 years. Industries started to apply more technical and scientific information for whey powder production. The main problems in whey powder are: sticking and caking during production and storage, which lead to decrease of the yield. These problems are based on the control of the glassy state during the dehydration process and storage. Due to the importance of the glass transition, spray drying parameters should be adjusted to improve whey powder production. This review highlights the scientific research that deal with the impact of these factors on spray drying of whey. To conclude, in order to improve the spray drying of whey the industries should: apply thermohygrometers to measure the air properties; to stablish the relation between water activity and outlet air relative humidity; and to adjust spray drying parameters based on the properties of the air and whey.
Ítalo Tuler Perrone; Arlan Caldas Pereira Silveira; Evandro Martins; Antônio Fernandes de Carvalho; Pierre Schuck,
The knowledge on spray drying of whey has significantly changed during the last 20 years. Industries started to apply more technical and scientific information for whey powder production. The main problems in whey powder are: sticking and caking during production and storage, which lead to decrease of the yield. These problems are based on the control of the glassy state during the dehydration process and storage. Due to the importance of the glass transition, spray drying parameters should b...
Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei
Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.
Koç, Banu; Sakin-Yılmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balkır, Pınar
The study is an extension of an optimization study, which was planned to determine the optimum spray drying conditions (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties. All the reconstitution properties of yoghurt powders produced under 20 different spray drying conditions according to CCRD experimental design were affected by the drying outlet temperature only. Furthermore, the bulk (bulk and tapped densities, porosity, flowability, hygroscopicity and degree of caking) and particle properties (particle size distribution, particle density and morphology) of yoghurt powder obtained from optimum spray drying conditions were also determined. The bulk, tapped and particle densities of yoghurt powder were 538, 746 and 1177 kg/m(3), respectively. The mean diameter (D4.3) and the span value of yoghurt powder were 3.053 and 2.487 μm, respectively.
Hellrup, Joel; Nordström, Josefina; Mahlin, Denny
The aim of this study was to investigate the structural impact of the nanofiller incorporation on the powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose. The lactose was co-spray-dried with three different nanofillers, that is, cellulose nanocrystals, sodium montmorillonite and fumed silica, which led to lower micron-sized nanocomposite particles with varying structure and morphology. The powder compression mechanics of the nanocomposites and physical mixtures of the neat spray-dried components were evaluated by a rational evaluation method with compression analysis as a tool, using the Kawakita equation and the Shapiro-Konopicky-Heckel equation. Particle rearrangement dominated the initial compression profiles due to the small particle size of the materials. The strong contribution of particle rearrangement in the materials with fumed silica continued throughout the whole compression profile, which prohibited an in-depth material characterization. However, the lactose/cellulose nanocrystals and the lactose/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites demonstrated high yield pressure compared with the physical mixtures indicating increased particle hardness upon composite formation. This increase has likely to do with a reinforcement of the nanocomposite particles by skeleton formation of the nanoparticles. In summary, the rational evaluation of mechanical properties done by applying powder compression analysis proved to be a valuable tool for mechanical evaluation for this type of spray-dried composite materials, unless they demonstrate particle rearrangement throughout the whole compression profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Verdurmen, Ruud E.M.; Straatsma, Han; Verschueren, Maykel; van Haren, Jan; Smit, Erik; Bargeman, Gerrald; de Jong, Peter
NIZO food research (The Netherlands) has been working for the food industry, the dairy industry in particular, for over 50 years. During the past 15 years NIZO food research has put a lot of effort into developing predictive computer models for the food industry. Nowadays the main challenges in the
Vanhoorne, V; Peeters, E; Van Snick, B; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C
A continuous crystal coating method was developed to improve both flowability and tabletability of powders. The method includes the introduction of solid, dry particles into an atomized spray during spray drying in order to coat and agglomerate individual particles. Paracetamol was used as a model drug as it exhibits poor flowability and high capping tendency upon compaction. The particle size enlargement and flowability were evaluated by the mean median particle size and flow index of the resulting powders. The crystal coating coprocessing method was successful for the production of powders containing 75% paracetamol with excellent tableting properties. However, the extent of agglomeration achieved during coprocessing was limited. Tablets compressed on a rotary tablet press in manual mode showed excellent compression properties without capping tendency. A formulation with 75% paracetamol, 5% PVP and 20% amorphous lactose yielded a tensile strength of 1.9 MPa at a compression pressure of 288 MPa. The friability of tablets compressed at 188 MPa was only 0.6%. The excellent tabletability of this formulation was attributed to the coating of paracetamol crystals with amorphous lactose and PVP through coprocessing and the presence of brittle and plastic components in the formulation. The coprocessing method was also successfully applied for the production of directly compressible lactose showing improved tensile strength and friability in comparison to a spray dried direct compression lactose grade.
Charnvanich, Dusadee; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Kulvanich, Poj
The influence of cholesterol (Chol) in the liposomal bilayer on the properties of inhalable protein-loaded liposomal powders prepared by spray-drying technique was investigated. Lysozyme (LSZ) was used as a model protein. Feed solution for spray drying was prepared by direct mixing of aqueous solution of LSZ with mannitol solution and empty liposome dispersions composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine and Chol at various molar ratios. The spray-dried powders were characterized with respec...
Alexandre Santos de Sousa
Full Text Available Powdered tomato was produced by spray drying the tomato pulp. A full 2³ factorial design with the central point was used, varying the feed flow rate (127-276 g/min, air inlet temperature (200-220ºC and the atomisation speed (25,000-35,000 rpm. The responses analysed were: moisture content, solubility, wettability consistency and colour, but the factors only significantly affected the colour parameter. All the samples became significantly darker and less red with an increase of the variables under study. A low atomisation speed (25,000 rpm and lower inlet air temperature (220ºC produced the powders with a higher colour index (a/b and less darkening.Tomate em pó foi produzido por secagem por atomização da polpa de tomate. Um planejamento 2³fatorial completo com ponto central foi conduzido variando a taxa de alimentação (127276 g/min, temperatura de entrada do ar (200-220ºC e a velocidade de atomização (25000-35000 rpm. As respostas analisadas foram: conteúdo de umidade, solubilidade, molhabilidade, consistência e cor, ma os fatores somente afetaram significativamente a cor. Todas as amostras tornaram significantemente mais escuras e menos vermelhas com o aumento das variáveis sob estudo. Baixa velocidade de atomização (25000 rpm e menor temperatura do ar de secagem (220ºC produziram pós de maior índice de cor (a/b e menor escurecimento.
Charnvanich, Dusadee; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Kulvanich, Poj
The influence of cholesterol (Chol) in the liposomal bilayer on the properties of inhalable protein-loaded liposomal powders prepared by spray-drying technique was investigated. Lysozyme (LSZ) was used as a model protein. Feed solution for spray drying was prepared by direct mixing of aqueous solution of LSZ with mannitol solution and empty liposome dispersions composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine and Chol at various molar ratios. The spray-dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, thermal property, and crystallinity using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Most formulations gave slightly aggregated, spherical particles, and percentage yields of the spray-dried powders decreased with increasing Chol content. Degree of particle aggregation depended on the powder composition. The powders spontaneously formed liposomes which efficiently entrapped LSZ after reconstitution with HEPES buffered saline (HBS) at 37 degrees C. Lysozyme entrapment efficiency and size distribution of the reconstituted liposomes were evaluated after the powders were reconstituted with HBS. Increasing Chol content resulted in a decrease in size of the reconstituted liposomes and an increase in entrapment efficiency of LSZ. These results correlated with thermal behaviors of the reconstituted liposomes. Biological activity of LSZ was not affected by the spray-drying process. It was also demonstrated that LSZ-loaded liposomal powders could be produced without the need to preload the LSZ into liposomes prior to spray-drying process.
Nishad, Jyoti; Selvan, Cynthia J; Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don
The aim of the present study was to investigate the spray drying behavior of sugarcane juice with (PSJ) and without (CSJ) citric acid the effects of different levels (10-50%) of carrier agents (maltodextrin (MD), Gum Arabic, liquid glucose and carrot fiber) at varying operating conditions of inlet and outlet temperature and feed concentration during spray drying was also studied. Spray dried powders from PSJ and CSJ were analyzed for physical properties such as wettability, cohesiveness, dispersibility, flowability, hygroscopicity, particle morphology etc. Different correlations between product recovery and operating conditions were obtained. Amongst the different carrier agents used maltodextrin (30%) proved to be the best in terms of sensory properties and product yield. Spray dried powder without citric acid (PSJ) proved to be superior in terms of porosity, flowability and other reconstitution properties with low hygroscopicity. Moreover PSJ powder revealed regular spherical shape with smooth surface and less agglomeration between particles.
Zong, Jie; Shao, Qi; Zhang, Hong-Qing; Pan, Yong-Lan; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei
To investigate moisture content and hygroscopicity of spray dry powder of Gubi compound's water extract obtained at different spray drying conditions and laying a foundation for spray drying process of Chinese herbal compound preparation. In the paper, on the basis of single-factor experiments, the author choose inlet temperature, liquid density, feed rate, air flow rate as investigated factors. The experimental absorption rate-time curve and scanning electron microscopy results showed that under different spray drying conditions the spray-dried powders have different morphology and different adsorption process. At different spray-dried conditions, the morphology and water content of the powder is different, these differences lead to differences in the adsorption process, at the appropriate inlet temperature and feed rate with a higher sample density and lower air flow rate, in the experimental system the optimum conditions is inlet temperature of 150 degrees C, feed density of 1.05 g x mL(-1), feed rate of 20 mL x min(-1) air flow rate of 30 m3 x h(-1).
Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis
remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6′-dibehenate (TDB) via...... spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol....... Trehalose and lactose were in the glassy state upon co-spray drying with the liposomes, whereas mannitol appeared crystalline, suggesting that the ability of the stabilizer to form a glassy matrix around the liposomes is one of the prerequisites for stabilization. Systematic studies on the effect of process...
Gaiani, C; Morand, M; Sanchez, C; Tehrany, E Arab; Jacquot, M; Schuck, P; Jeantet, R; Scher, J
High milk proteins powders are common ingredients in many food products. The surface composition of these powders is expected to play an essential role during their storage, handling and/or final application. Therefore, an eventual control of the surface composition by modifying the spray-drying temperature could be very useful in the improvement of powder quality and the development of new applications. For this purpose, the influence of five spray-drying temperatures upon the surface composition of the powders was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The major milk proteins were studied: native micellar casein and native whey, both more or less enriched in lactose. The results show a surface enrichment in lipids for all the powders and in proteins for many powders. Whatever the drying temperature, lipids and proteins are preferentially located near the surface whereas lactose is found in the core. This surface enrichment is also highly affected by the spray-drying temperature. More lipids, more proteins and less lactose are systematically observed at the surface of powders spray-dried at lower outlet air temperatures. The nature of proteins is also found essential; surface enrichment in lipids being much stronger for whey proteins containing powders than for casein containing powders. Additionally, we found a direct correlation between the lipids surface concentration and the wetting ability for the 25 powders studied.
pension (slurry) is transformed into a dry granule (feed- stock) by spraying the fluid feed material into a stream of heated air. Spray drying enables the fabrication of com- posite powder by aggregation of different small particles using an appropriate organic binder. The rapid heat and mass transfer occurs during the process.
Keogh, M.K.; O'Kennedy, B.T.; Kelly, J.
Microencapsulation of fish oil was achieved by spray-drying homogenized emulsions of fish oil using 3 different types of casein as emulsifier and lactose as filler. As the degree of aggregation of the casein emulsifier increased, the vacuole volume of the microencapsulated powders decreased...
Koç, Banu; Sakin-Yılmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balkır, Pınar
... (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties...
Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne
which the solutions were adjusted after spray drying. Preacidification to pH 3.5 increased recovery of D₁₂-hexanal in liquid WPC and decreased recovery of D₁₂-hexanal in the resulting powder when evaluated at pH 6.5 or 5.5. These results demonstrate that acidification of liquid WPC80 to pH 3.5 before spray drying decreases off-flavors in spray-dried WPC and suggest that the mechanism for off-flavor reduction is the decreased protein interactions with volatile compounds at low pH in liquid WPC or the increased interactions between protein and volatile compounds in the resulting powder. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tontul, Ismail; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozkan, Ceren; Karacan, Merve
In the present study, the effectiveness of different vegetable proteins (pea protein isolate, soy protein isolate and zein from maize) at two different ratios (1% and 5%) on product yield and physical properties of spray-dried pulpy tomato juice was investigated. Additionally, these proteins were compared with whey protein concentrate which has a superior effect on spray dried products at the same concentrations. Additionally, plain tomato juice was also spray dried for comparison with vegetable proteins. The product yield of the tomato powders dried with the vegetable proteins was lower than with the whey protein concentrate. Among vegetable proteins, the highest product yield was produced with 1% soy protein isolate. In all products, there was a slight colour difference between the reconstituted tomato powders and the raw tomato juice, which indicated that pulpy tomato juice can be spray dried with minor colour change. All powders had unique free-flowing properties estimated as Carr index and Hausner ratio due to their large particles. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Chutima Sinsuebpol, Jittima Chatchawalsaisin, Poj Kulvanich Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats. Methods: The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined. Results: sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders. Conclusion: The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were
Mishra, Poonam; Brahma, Anjali; Seth, Dibyakant
Hog plum juice powder was obtained from its juice under optimized condition by spray drying with juice: maltodextrin ratio at 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 (v/w) basis. The inlet temperature and feed rate were varied between 120 to 175 °C and 8 to 14 mL/min. The effect of variables i.e. maltodextrin level, temperature and feed rate on the physicochemical properties and total phenolic content were studied. Moisture content, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity and total phenolic content of the powder were significantly affected by inlet temperature and maltodextrin level. However feed rate showed no any significant effect on the bulk density of the powder. An increase in inlet temperature and maltodextrin level reduced the total phenolic content in the spray dried powder. Morphological study showed that at high inlet temperature the spray dried powder were of smooth surfaces however, at low inlet temperature majority of the particles were of shrivelled surfaces. Spray dried hog plum juice powder made with 3.9:1 juice: maltodextrin, processed at 171 °C inlet temperature and at 8 mL/min feed rate had less hygroscopicity, water activity, moisture content and potent TPC content. Storage temperature significantly affected the TPC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the powder. Refrigeration temperature was found to be more effective to reduce the losses of TPC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity during storage. Colour acceptability of the refrigerated sample was comparatively more than to the sample stored at room temperature.
Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath
The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100 g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5 °C and 25 g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature.
Rao, Ramachandra; Gupta, Pravin
International audience; The contemporary problem faced by the fruit and dairy sectors in developing countries is the lack of a basic infrastructure for handling the deluge in production. Several technologies and innovations have been devised to conserve and utilize the products individually in food formulations and to some extent in combination. Further, additional investigations are required to explore the feasibility of vitamin C enrichment of milk, which could be effectively achieved by in...
Li, Guopeng; Liu, Yangyang; Lin, Lijing; Li, Jihua
Pitaya commonly known as dragon fruit is very popular in China due to its intense color, constituent minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant properties. In the present study, physiochemical properties and antioxidant activities of fruit powder from two pitaya cultivars (namely red flesh and white flesh) and fruit peel were observed. Compared with the fruit powder of fruit flesh, the fruit powder made from fruit peel showed a higher antioxidant activity. The current study provides insights to produce spray-dried pitaya fruit powders that could potentially be used as functional food ingredients in various food fields.
Edson Francisco do Espírito Santo
Full Text Available The use of colorants in products of animal origin is justified by the improvement in the color of foods since this attribute is considered a quality criterion. These additives can be produced using industrial effluents as substrates and appropriate organisms, such as Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Oxycarotenoids represent a class of carotenes responsible for the pigmentation of animals and vegetables. R. gelatinosus grows in fish industry effluent with the resulting production of a bacterial biomass containing oxycarotenoids. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two drying processes - spray and freeze drying - to obtain powder biomass in terms of the process parameters (yield, productivity, and product recovery and the product characteristics (color, proximate composition, and oxycarotenoids. No difference was detected in the yield between these techniques, while productivity was higher using spray drying. Higher product recovery and moisture were achieved with freeze drying, while ash was higher with spray drying. The freeze dried biomass was redder, darker and less saturated than the spray dried biomass. No difference in oxycarotenoids was detected between the biomasses. Although it results in lower recovery rate, spray drying was faster and more productive, and it provided the same yield as freeze drying, which makes it the method of choice for obtaining R. gelatinosus biomass.
Lyu, Feng; Liu, Jing J.; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xue Z.
The morphology and polymorphism of mannitol particles were controlled during spray drying with the aim of improving the aerosolization properties of inhalable dry powders. The obtained microparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction and inhaler testing with a next generation impactor. Mannitol particles of varied α-mannitol content and surface roughness were prepared via spray drying by manipulating the concentration of NH4HCO3 in the feed solution. The bubbles produced by NH4HCO3 led to the formation of spheroid particles with a rough surface. Further, the fine particle fraction was increased by the rough surface of carriers and the high α-mannitol content. Inhalable dry powders with a 29.1 ± 2.4% fine particle fraction were obtained by spray-drying using 5% mannitol (w/v)/2% NH4HCO3 (w/v) as the feed solution, proving that this technique is an effective method to engineer particles for dry powder inhalation.
Sinsuebpol, Chutima; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Kulvanich, Poj
The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs) with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats. The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined. sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders. The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were prepared to have appropriate aerodynamic properties for pulmonary delivery. The developed system was able to deliver sCT via a pulmonary route into the systemic circulation.
Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath
The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moist...
Wong, Chen Wai; Tan, Hong Hock
This paper presents the enzymatic liquefaction process for honey jackfruit optimized with Pectinex ® Ultra SP-L and Celluclast ® 1.5 L individually or in combinations at different concentrations (0-2.5% v/w) and incubation time (0-2.5 h). Treatment with combinations of enzymes showed a greater effect in the reduction of viscosity (83.9-98.8%) as compared to single enzyme treatment (64.8-87.3%). The best parameter for enzymatic liquefaction was obtained with 1.0% (v/w) Pectinex ® Ultra SP-L and 0.5% (v/w) Celluclast ® 1.5 L for 1.5 h. Spray drying process was carried out using different inlet temperatures (140-180 °C) and maltodextrin concentrations (10-30% w/w). Results indicated that the spray-dried honey jackfruit powder produced at 160 °C with 30% w/w maltodextrin gave the highest product yield (66.90%) with good powder qualities in terms of water activity, solubility, moisture content, hygroscopicity, color and bulk density. The spray-dried honey jackfruit powder could potentially be incorporated into various food products.
Leung, Sharon S Y; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Gao, Fiona G; Carter, Elizabeth A; Carrigy, Nicholas B; Vehring, Reinhard; Finlay, Warren H; Morales, Sandra; Britton, Warwick J; Kutter, Elizabeth; Chan, Hak-Kim
This study aimed to develop inhalable powders containing phages active against antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa for pulmonary delivery. A Pseudomonas phage, PEV2, was spray dried into powder matrices comprising of trehalose (0-80%), mannitol (0-80%) and l-leucine (20%). The resulting powders were stored at various relative humidity (RH) conditions (0, 22 and 60% RH) at 4°C. The phage stability and in vitro aerosol performance of the phage powders were examined at the time of production and after 1, 3 and 12 months storage. After spray drying, a total of 1.3 log titer reduction in phage was observed in the formulations containing 40%, 60% and 80% trehalose, whereas 2.4 and 5.1 log reductions were noted in the formulations containing 20% and no trehalose, respectively. No further reduction in titer occurred for powders stored at 0 and 22% RH even after 12 months, except the formulation containing no trehalose. The 60% RH storage condition had a destructive effect such that no viable phages were detected after 3 and 12 months. When aerosolised, the total lung doses for formulations containing 40%, 60% and 80% trehalose were similar (in the order of 10 5 pfu). The results demonstrated that spray drying is a suitable method to produce stable phage powders for pulmonary delivery. A powder matrix containing ≥40% trehalose provided good phage preservation and aerosol performances after storage at 0 and 22% RH at 4°C for 12 months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao
This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sugarcane juice was spray-dried under various conditions to determine the most suitable drying conditions for the manufacture of sugarcane juice powder. Initially, fresh, 30°Brix and 50°Brix sugarcane juice samples were dried in a laboratory-scale spray dryer at an air-drying temperature between 130 °C and 170 °C using maltodextrin, Arabic gum and dietary fiber as drying aids. It appeared that sugarcane juice should be concentrated under vacuum to 30°Brix and added with at least 15% maltodextrin before drying at 170 °C in order to obtain dried powder product with a low drying cost. After conducting the experiments in the laboratory, sugarcane juice powders were produced in a factory using an industrial-scale spray dryer under five drying conditions. It was found that the energy cost of industrial-scale production of sugarcane juice powder ranged between 0.77 USD and 2.06 USD per kg of powder. According to the results of the industrial-scale experiments, the sugarcane juice powder should be produced using vacuum evaporation of the sugarcane juice to 30°Brix prior to adding maltodextrin at 30% by weight and then spray drying at 190 °C.
Schuck, Pierre; Dolivet, Anne; Mejean, Serge; Blanchard, E.; Jeantet, Romain
The most frequently used technique for dehydration of dairy products is spray drying. This is an effective method to preserve biological products as it does not involve prolong exposure of materials to severe heat treatment. Due to the variety and complexity of the concentrates to be dried, a more rigorous understanding of spray-drying based on physico-chemical and thermodynamic properties is necessary. At the same time, the current state of the art did not allow easy determination of the par...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of honey spray drying with addition of maltodextrin and gum Arabic as drying agents. The influence of the concentration of the solution subjected to drying, the type and content of the drying agents upon the physical properties of obtained powders was examined. An attempt was undertaken to obtain powder with a honey content of more than 50% d.b. Spray drying of multifloral honey with the addition of maltodextrin and gum Arabic was carried out at inlet air temperature of 180°C, feed rate of 1 mL/s and rotational speed of a disc atomizer of 39,000 rpm. The properties of obtained powders were quantified in terms of moisture content, bulk density, Hausner ratio, apparent density, hygroscopicity and wettability. Using gum Arabic it was possible to obtain a product with a higher content of honey (67% solids than in the case of maltodextrin (50% d.b.. However, the powders obtained with gum Arabic were characterised by worse physical properties: higher hygroscopicity and cohesion, and longer wetting time.
Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Chen, Weiwu; Lundberg, Mats
Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders were synthesized by spray drying and successive calcinations. The phase purity, BET surface area, and particle morphology of as-sprayed and calcined powders were characterized. After calcination above 300 °C, the powders were single phase and showed a BET surface area of 68...
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to develop isoniazid as dry powder aerosol for delivery to the lower airways and to study the susceptibility of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis to the formulationsstudied. Isoniazid was formulated with trehalose, mannose and lactose by physical mixing and spray drying techniques. All formulations were evaluated for delivery efficiency and stability.Susceptibility tests of Mycobacterium species to the drug formulations were carried out. Isoniazid mixed with fine trehalose, micronised mannose or fine lactose produced the formulations whichgave fine particle fraction ( 0.05.
Eedara, Basanth Babu; Tucker, Ian G; Das, Shyamal C
Sterilization of necrotic granulomas containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis is difficult by oral and parenteral drug delivery of antitubercular drugs. Pulmonary delivery of these drugs should increase the concentration of drug in the granulomas and, thereby, improve the sterilization. The current study aimed to develop spray-dried (SD) powders composed of pyrazinamide, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine N-(carbonyl-methoxy polyethylene glycol-2000) (DSPE-PEG2k) and l-leucine to improve drug delivery to the deeper lung. Pyrazinamide SD powders with varying amounts of DPPC (5, 15 and 25% w/w) were produced using a BUCHI B-290 Mini Spray-Dryer. The powders were characterized physicochemically and for their aerosol dispersion performance using a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). All the SD powders had a narrow particle size distribution (1.29-4.26μm) with low residual moisture (<2%). Solid state characterization confirmed that the α-polymorphic crystalline pyrazinamide transformed into the γ-polymorphic form during spray-drying. SD pyrazinamide (PDDL0) without excipients showed very poor aerosolization with a fine particle fraction (FPF%) of 8.5±1.0%. However, the SD powder with 25% w/w DPPC (PDDL3) exhibited the best aerosolization with a FPF of 73.2±4.0%. Incorporating high amounts of DPPC improved aerosolization of SD powders; however further evaluation of the developed inhalation powders is necessary to determine their therapeutic potential for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
French, Donna L; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Li, Tiansheng
Spray drying is a way to generate protein solids (powders), which is also true for lyophilization. Sugars are used to protect proteins from conformational changes and chemical degradations arising from drying processes and storage conditions such as the humidity. The influence of trehalose and humidity on the conformation and hydration of spray-dried recombinant human granolucyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) and recombinant consensus interferon-alpha (rConIFN) was investigated using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. The spectral analysis of spray-dried powders in the amide I region demonstrated that trehalose stabilized the alpha-helical conformation of both rhG-CSF and rConIFN proteins. Exposure of the pure protein powders to 33% relative humidity (RH) resulted in the formation of beta sheets and loss of turns but no change in alpha-helical structure. Trehalose reduced the magnitude of the changes in beta sheets and turns. Exposure of the pure protein powders to 75% RH resulted in the loss of alpha-helical conformation with a corresponding increase in beta structures (beta sheets and turns). Trehalose did not protect proteins from the loss of alpha-helical structures, but it reduced the formation of antiparallel beta sheets. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (H-D exchange) was used to further characterize these hydration-induced conformational changes. At 33% RH the percent exchange of the protein decreased with increasing trehalose content, indicating a greater protection of the protein from H-D exchange by a higher concentration of trehalose. Such protection correlates with decreased conformational changes of the protein by trehalose at this humidity. At 75% RH the degree of H-D exchange of the protein was insensitive to the powder composition in all powders. Surprisingly, the H-D exchange of trehalose was low at about 20-25%, which was nearly independent of the protein/trehalose ratio and humidity, indicating that the exchangeable protons on trehalose
Deventer, H.C. van; Houben, R.J.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.
A new atomization nozzle based on ink jet technology is introduced for spray drying. Application areas are the food and dairy industry, in the first instance, because in these industries the quality demands on the final powders are high with respect to heat load, powder shape, and size distribution.
Wilkowska, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Ambroziak, Wojciech; Adamiec, Janusz
Different fruit wines, chokeberry, blackcurrant and blueberry, were spray-dried using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and inulin (IN). The structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of the spray-dried wine powders were studied over 12months of storage in darkness at 8°C. Identification and quantification of single phenolic compounds before and after storage revealed that HP-β-CD had a positive effect on anthocyanin retention during storage for all microcapsules tested. Similar decreases in anthocyanin were found for blackcurrant and chokeberry powders, ranging from 7.3 to 8.9% with HP-β-CD and 12.3 to 12.5% with IN. Levels of anthocyanin losses in blueberry wine microcapsules were much greater: 19.9% (HP-β-CD) and 22.7% (IN). The high antiradical activities of blackcurrant and chokeberry wine microcapsules were stable and remained unchanged during storage. All wine microcapsules revealed significant activity against medically important bacterial strains. The HP-β-CD samples showed generally higher activity against the test microorganisms compared to IN microcapsules, especially at concentrations of 100mg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M
The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns.
Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don
Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451
Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.
Yu, Huaning; Zheng, Yuanrong; Li, Yunfei
Spray dried bovine colostrum (SDBC) powders were packaged in aluminium-laminated polyethylene (ALPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) pouches and then stored under different conditions (25 °C and 50 % relative humidity (RH), 4 °C and 40-70 % RH, 50 °C and 20-50 % RH). The shelf life of SDBC powder was evaluated as 425.5 and 86.5 days in ALPE and PET pouches under 25 °C and 50 % RH, respectively. The storage stability of SDBC powder in terms of quality parameters including thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), colour change, moisture content and IgG concentration was studied in both packaging materials under different storage conditions. Results showed that ALPE pouches were more suitable for packaging SDBC powder than PET pouches and storage condition of 4 °C and 40-70 % RH was relative suitable for keeping quality of SDBC powder. The glass transition concept was helpful for evaluating the chemical stability of SDBC powder during storage.
Teera-Arunsiri, Aroonrat; Suphantharika, Manop; Ketunuti, Uthai
Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide among many methods available to control insects. To make a saleable product, B. thuringiensis must be substantially concentrated by removal of water and formulated to improve longevity, efficacy, and ease of transport of the product. B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai culture broth as an active ingredient was mixed with various adjuvants and then spray dried. The optimum conditions for spray drying were found to be an outlet temperature of 60-85 degrees C and an inlet temperature of 120-180 degrees C. Various adjuvants had different effects on physical and biological properties of the dried product. Gelatinized tapioca starch and milk powder improved suspensibility but adversely affected wettability of the dried formulated product. Vegetable oil and Tween 20 enhanced wettability but resulted in poor suspensibility. Silica fume was used to enhance flowability because it reduced clumping and caking of the powder resulting from the addition of vegetable oil. Formulation containing 10% wt:wt B. thuringiensis, 10% wt:wt gelatinized tapioca starch, 10% wt:wt sucrose, 38% wt:wt tapioca starch, 20% wt:wt milk powder, 10% wt:wt silica fume, 2% wt:wt polyvinyl alcohol, 5% vol:vol Tween 20, 1% vol:vol refined rice bran oil, and 1% vol:vol antifoam solution was found to be optimum in terms of the physical and biological properties of the dried product. This formulation had 55% suspensibility, 24 s for wetting time, and 5.69 x 10(4) CFU/ml of LC50 value against Spodoptera exigua larvae.
Baklouti, S.; Coupelle, P.; Chartier, T.; Baumard, J. F.
The compaction of spray-dried alumina, containing 3 wt.% organic binders (PVA or PEG), is analyzed through the evolution of intergranular porosity. The variation of this porosity versus glass transition temperature of the binder and forming pressure is compared with the prediction of a model derived from a previous work on powder metallurgy. La compaction de poudres d'alumine atomisées, contenant 3% en masse de liants organiques (PVA ou PGE), est analysée en suivant l'évolution de la porosité intergranulaire. La variation de cette porosité, en fonction de la température de transition vitreuse du liant et de la pression de mise en forme, est comparée à un modèle élaboré à partir de travaux réalisés sur la compaction de poudres métalliques.
He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian
In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process.
Felix da Silva, Denise; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå
The present work has evaluated how raw material, addition of emulsifying salts (ES) and drying technology affect particle characteristics, structure, and hydration of cheese powders. In this context the spray drying technology induced the strongest effect on morphology and swelling of cheese powder...... particles showed enhanced swelling but unchanged hydration properties compared with non-aggregated powder. Rheological measurements indicated the presence of a stable and elastic network after hydration....
Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Yan, Hong-Mei; Hu, Shao-Ying; Jia, Xiao-Bin
To study the application characteristics of copovidone (PVP-S630) in Xinyueshu extracts during the spray drying process, and its effect on such pharmaceutical properties as micromeritics and drug release behavior. PVP-S630 was added into Xinyueshu extracts to study on the spray drying, the effect of different dosages of PVP-S630 against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying, as well as the power property of Xinyueshu spray drying power and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component of hyperoside. The results showed that PVP-S630 revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect, with no notable change in the grain size of the spray drying power, increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior of hyperoside. It was worth further studying the application of PVP-S630 in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.
Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.
The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID),
Schüle, S; Schulz-Fademrecht, T; Garidel, P; Bechtold-Peters, K; Frieb, W
The protein stabilizing capabilities of spray-dried IgG1/mannitol formulations were evaluated. The storage stability was tested at different residual moisture levels prepared by vacuum-drying or equilibration prior to storage. Vacuum-drying at 32 degrees C/0.1mbar for 24h reduced the moisture level below 1%, constituting an optimal basis for improved storage stability. The crystalline IgG1/mannitol powders with a weight ratio of 20/80 up to 40/60 failed to prevent the antibody aggregation as assessed by size exclusion chromatography during storage. Ratios of 60/40 up to 80/20 IgG1/mannitol provided superior stability of the antibody and the powders could be produced with high yields. The lower the residual moisture, the better was the stabilizing capability. An amount of 20% mannitol provided the best stabilization. Storage stability of 60/40, 70/30, and 80/20 IgG1/mannitol formulations over one year was adequate at 2-8 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Closed storage (sealed in vials) at 40 degrees C/75% RH and open storage at 25 degrees C/60% RH revealed that the stability still required optimization. The lower the protein content, the better was the powder flowability. The aerodynamic properties of powders spray-dried with 10% solids content were inadequate, as the particle size ranged between 5.1 and 7.2 microm and the fine particle fraction accounted for only 4-11%. Reduction of the solids content to 2.5% did improve the aerodynamic properties as the mass mean aerodynamic diameter was reduced to 3.6 microm and the fine particle fraction was increased to about 14%. The reduction of the solids content did not influence the storage stability significantly. Also spray-drying at higher temperatures had no significant impact on the storage stability, despite a higher tendency to form amorphous systems. In order to improve the storage stability and to maintain the good flowability of 70/30 IgG1/mannitol powder or to keep the storage stability but to improve the flowability
Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of inlet temperature (160–180°C, feed rate (0.08–0.13 ml/s, concentration of gum Arabic (35–45%, aonla extract (6–8%, and basil extract (6–8% on the product properties (bulk density, hygroscopicity, total phenolic content (TPC, antioxidant activity (AOA, and vitamin C content of spray-dried nutritionally rich honey powder using response surface methodology. Higher inlet air temperatures led to lower bulk density and hygroscopicity, whereas addition of aonla and basil extracts led to higher TPC, AOA, and vitamin C content which were encapsulated by gum Arabic. Statistical analysis showed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses (p < 0.0001. Perturbation and 3D surface plots were drawn for each of the responses from the mathematical models. Second-order polynomial models with high R2 (0.97–0.99 values were constructed for each powder physicochemical properties namely bulk density, hygroscopicity, TPC, AOA, and vitamin C content. Desirable nutritionally rich honey powder was obtained at inlet temperature of 170°C, 0.11 ml/s feed rate, 45% gum Arabic, 8% aonla extract, and 6% basil extract.
Belotti, Silvia; Rossi, Alessandra; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Politis, Stavros; Colombo, Gaia; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Buttini, Francesca
An amikacin product for convenient and compliant inhalation in cystic fibrosis patients was constructed by spray-drying in order to produce powders of pure drug having high respirability and flowability. An experimental design was applied as a statistical tool for the characterization of amikacin spray drying process, through the establishment of mathematical relationships between six Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) of the finished product and five Critical Process Parameters (CPPs). The surface-active excipient, PEG-32 stearate, studied for particle engineering, in general did not benefit the CQAs of the spray dried powders for inhalation. The spray drying feed solution required the inclusion of 10% (v/v) ethanol in order to reach the desired aerodynamic performance of powders. All desirable function solutions indicated that the favourable concentration of amikacin in the feed solution had to be kept at 1% w/v level. It was found that when the feed rate of the sprayed solution was raised, an increase in the drying temperature to the maximum value (160 °C) was required to maintain good powder respirability. Finally, the increase in drying temperature always led to an evident increase in emitted dose (ED) without affecting the desirable fine particle dose (FPD) values. The application of the experimental design enabled us to obtain amikacin powders with both ED and FPD, well above the regulatory and scientific references. The finished product contained only the active ingredient, which keeps low the mass to inhale for dose requirement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Weber, Kerry L.; Mayer, Denise A.
A mobile bioassay trailer was used to assess the efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder (SDP) formulation for controlling zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from two midwestern lakes: Lake Carlos (Alexandria, Minnesota) and Shawano Lake (Shawano, Wisconsin). The effects of SDP exposure concentration and exposure duration on zebra mussel survival were evaluated along with the evaluation of a benthic injection application technique to reduce the amount of SDP required to induce zebra mortality.
Wu, Na; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Tao; Gan, Yong; Li, Juan
Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5-15 μm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery.
Jong, Teresa; Li, Jian; Mortonx, David A.V.; Zhou, Qi (Tony); Larson, Ian
This study aimed to investigate the surface energy factors behind improved aerosolization performance of spray-dried colistin powder formulations compared to those produced by jet-milling. Inhalable colistin powder formulations were produced by jet-milling or spray-drying (with or without L-leucine). Scanning electron micrographs showed the jet-milled particles had irregularly angular shapes, while the spray-dried particles were more spherical. Significantly higher fine particle fractions (FPFs) were measured for the spray-dried (43.8-49.6%) vs. the jet-milled formulation (28.4 %) from a Rotahaler at 60L/min; albeit the size distribution of the jet-milled powder was smaller. Surprisingly, addition of L-leucine in the spray drying feed-solution gave no significant improvement in FPF. As measured by inverse gas chromatography, spray-dried formulations had significantly (pspray-dried formulation with or without L-leucine. Based upon our previous findings in the self-assembling behavior of colistin in aqueous solution and the surface energy data obtained here, we propose the self-assembly of colistin molecules during spray-drying, contributed significantly to the reduction of surface free energy and the superior aerosolization performance. PMID:26886330
Grasmeijer, Niels; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.
A protein can be stabilized by spray drying an aqueous solution of the protein and a sugar, thereby incorporating the protein into a glassy sugar matrix. For optimal stability, the protein should be homogeneously distributed inside the sugar matrix. The aim of this study was to develop a model that
Li, Liang; Sun, Siping; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Denman, John A; Gengenbach, Thomas; Tang, Patricia; Mao, Shirui; Chan, Hak-Kim
L-Leucine (LL) has been widely used to enhance the dispersion performance of powders for inhalation. LL can also protect powders against moisture, but this effect is much less studied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LL could prevent moisture-induced deterioration in in vitro aerosolization performances of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) was chosen as a model drug and different amounts of LL (2-40% w/w) were added to the formulation, with the aim to explore the relationship between powder dispersion, moisture protection and physicochemical properties of the powders. The powder formulations were prepared by spray drying of aqueous solutions containing known concentrations of DSCG and LL. The particle sizes were measured by laser diffraction. The physicochemical properties of fine particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). The surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In vitro aerosolization performances were evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI) after the powders were stored at 60% or 75% relative humidity (RH), and 25°C for 24h. Spray-dried (SD) DSCG powders were amorphous and absorbed 30-45% (w/w) water at 70-80% RH, resulting in deterioration in the aerosolization performance of the powders. LL did not decrease the water uptake of DSCG powders, but it could significantly reduce the effect of moisture on aerosolization performances. This is due to enrichment of crystalline LL on the surface of the composite particles. The effect was directly related to the percentage of LL coverage on the surface of particles. Formulations having 61-73% (molar percent) of LL on the particle surface (which correspond to 10-20% (w
Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi
The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Binsi, P K; Natasha, Nayak; Sarkar, P C; Muhamed Ashraf, P; George, Ninan; Ravishankar, C N
Fish roes are considered as nutritionally valuable for their high content of essential fatty acids and amino acids. However, roe lipids undergo considerable extent of oxidation during processing and storage, imparting objectionable bitter taste and rancid flavour to roe products. Hence, the objective of the study was to reconstitute the roe mass and microencapsulate lipid fraction, so that small oil droplets are entrapped within a dry matrix of roe proteins during spray drying. Prior to spray drying, the emulsion was stabilised with gum arabic as it also act as a co-wall polymer. The microscopic images indicated presence of larger aggregates in unstabilised powder (RC) compared to well-separated particles in stabilised powder (RG). Incorporation of gum arabic retarded rancidity development during storage. In vitro digestive pattern of roe powder indicated higher amount of oil release in RG. These observations highlight the potential of converting the soft textured carp roe mass into stable fish roe powder with superior storage stability and functionality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feguš, Urban; Žigon, Uroš; Petermann, Marcus; Knez, Željko
Aim of this experimental work was to investigate the possibility of producing fruit powders without employing drying aid and to investigate the effect of drying temperatures on the final powder characteristics. Raw fruit materials (banana puree, strawberry puree and blueberry concentrate) were processed using three different drying techniques each operating at a different temperature conditions: vacuum-drying (-27-17 °C), Spray-drying (130-160 °C) and PGSS-drying (112-152 °C). Moisture content, total colour difference, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of the processed fruit powders were analysed. The results obtained from the experimental work indicate that investigated fruit powders without or with minimal addition of maltodextrin can be produced. Additionally, it was observed that an increase in process temperature results in a higher loss of colour, antioxidant activity and intensity of the flavour profile.
Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan
A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Huang, Kai; Zhang, Ping-Jun; Hu, Biao; Yu, Shu-Juan
Caramel is used as food colorant in many parts of the world. However, there have been no studies investigating the effects of spray drying on sucrose and glycine solutions. In this study, model sucrose and glycine solutions at different pH levels (pH 4, 3, 2 and 1) were treated with different inlet air temperatures (160, 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C) for durations of 50 s in the spray drying process. With increasing inlet temperatures and decreasing pH, the morphology of the caramel agglomerates tended to be more scattered; however, the solubility of the caramel decreased. With increasing inlet temperature, the glycine and sucrose contents decreased but the fructose and glucose contents increased. The content of the intermediate products, browning intensity and amount of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) increased with increasing inlet temperature and decreasing pH. Therefore, the amount of sucrose degradation and the change in pH can be used to evaluate caramel properties in the spray drying process. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Aguiar, João P; Fernandes, Tânia A P; Nese, Carlotta; Fernandes, Ana I; Pinto, João F
This work evaluates the potential of using fresh milk to deliver theophylline to children. Theophylline-fresh milk systems were prepared using different solids ratios (0 : 1-1 : 0) and three fat contents in commercial milks (low, medium and high), which were spray-dried at different inlet air temperatures (Tinlet - 105, 130 and 150 °C). The process was evaluated for yield and the resulting powders for moisture content (MC), particle size and shape, density and wettability. Theophylline-milk potential interactions (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FT-IR) and chemical (theophylline content) and microbiological stability of powders (shelf and in-use) were also evaluated. The production yield (13.6-76.0%), MC (0.0-10.3%) and contact angles in water (77.29-93.51°) were significantly (P Theophylline content remained stable after 6 months of storage, before extemporaneous reconstitution. After reconstitution in water, low-fat milk samples (stored at 4 °C) met the microbial pharmacopoeia criteria for up to 7 days. No theophylline-milk components interaction was observed. Spray-dried milk-composed powders may be used as vehicles for theophylline delivery in paediatrics following further characterization and in-vivo evaluation. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery
Duan, Jinghua; Vogt, Frederick G; Li, Xiaojian; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M
The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI) hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX) microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water) from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was rendered noncrystalline (amorphous) following organic solution advanced spray drying. This was in contrast to spray-dried OFLX, which retained partial crystallinity, as did OFLX:DPPC powders at certain compositions. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using inertial impaction with a dry powder inhaler device approved for human use. The present study demonstrates that the use of DPPC offers improved aerosol delivery of MOXI as cospray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders, whereas residual partial crystallinity influenced aerosol dispersion of OFLX and most of the compositions of OFLX:DPPC inhalation powders. PMID:24092972
Schuck, Pierre; Méjean, Serge; Dolivet, Anne; Beaucher, Eric; Marie-Hélène Famelart,
International audience; The atomization stage in spray drying of a liquid requires a spray of droplets with a high surface-to-mass ratio. Dried products that result from moisture evaporation of atomized spray can be prepared to reach the desired particle size distribution through control of atomization variables. To meet these requirements, many atomization techniques such as pressure nozzles, two-fluid nozzles and rotary atomizers have been used in spray dryers. Many authors have proposed va...
Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Maghsoudlou, Yahya
Our main goal was to evaluate release kinetics of nano-encapsulated folic acid within a double W 1 /O/W 2 emulsion. First, W 1 /O nano-emulsions loaded with folic acid were prepared and re-emulsified into an aqueous phase (W 2 ) containing single whey protein concentrate (WPC) layer or double layer complex of WPC-pectin to form W 1 /O/W 2 emulsions. Final double emulsions were spray dried and their microstructure was analyzed in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Also the release trends of folic acid were determined and fitted with experimental models of zero and first order, Higuchi, and Hixson-Crowell. It was revealed that folic acid nano-capsules made with Span as the surfactant had the lowest release rate in acidic conditions (pH=4) and highest release in the alkaline conditions (pH=11). The best model fitting for folic acid release data was observed for single layer WPC encapsulated powders with the highest R 2 . Our FTIR data showed there was no chemical interaction between WPC and pectin in double layered capsules and based on SEM results, single WPC layered capsules resulted in smooth and uniform particles which by incorporating pectin, some wrinkles and shrinkage were found in the surface of spray dried powder particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Nokhodchi, Ali
To investigate, for the first time, the performance of a dry powder inhaler (DPI, Aerolizer(®)) in the case of a model drug (i.e. albuterol sulphate) formulated with spray dried mannitol carrier particles with homogeneous shape and solid-state form but different sizes. Spray dried mannitol (SDM) particles were characterized in terms of size, surface area, morphology, water content, solid-state, density and electrostatic charge by a novel approach. DPI formulations composed of SDM and albuterol sulphate (AS) were prepared and evaluated in terms of drug content homogeneity and in vitro aerosolization performance. All SDM particles generated similar fine particle fractions of AS. Formulations consisting of larger SDM particles demonstrated better drug content homogeneity, reduced amounts of drug loss and reduced oropharyngeal deposition. Comparing different SDM products demonstrated that SDM powders with relatively poorer flowability, wider size distributions and higher charge density generated DPI formulations with poorer drug content homogeneity and deposited higher amount of drug on the inhaler, mouthpiece adaptor and throat. DPI formulation total desirability increased linearly with the mean diameter of SDM. Particle shape and solid-state form of mannitol could dominate over carrier size, bulk density, flowability and charge in terms of determining the aerosolization behaviour of AS formulated with mannitol carrier, at least within the experimental protocols applied in the present study.
Tatar Turan, Feyza; Cengiz, Alime; Sandıkçı, Dilara; Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Kahyaoglu, Talip
Recently, ultrasonic nozzle technology has been applied in spray-drying because of its numerous advantages, including providing more uniform droplets and reducing damage observed in bioactive compounds. In this study, the production of blueberry powders and microcapsules by using an ultrasonic spray nozzle was investigated. Firstly, the important ultrasonic nozzle parameters were optimised by using response surface methodology and compared with a conventional nozzle (control). Secondly, powder and microcapsules obtained at the optimum point were stored at 22 °C and 35 °C at 0.32 water activity (aw ). The optimum conditions were estimated as 125 °C inlet air temperature, 9 W ultrasonic power and 8% feed pump rate. There was significantly difference (P food industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Manniello, Michele Dario; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Porta, Amalia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Russo, Paola
Antibiotic therapy for a direct administration to the lung in cystic fibrosis patients has to provide suitable availability, possibly in the lower respiratory tract, characterized by the presence of thick secretions. One of the crucial steps in the therapeutic management of the respiratory disease could be the drug solubilization directly in this site of action. The aim of the study was to prepare respirable powders of clarithromycin, while improving drug aqueous solubility. With this aim, several batches of micronized particles were prepared by spray drying different feed solutions, varying the solvent composition (water/isopropyl alcohol ratio), the drug concentration and pH of the liquid feeds. Particle size distribution of raw materials and engineered particles was determined using a light-scattering laser granulometer while particle morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro deposition of the micronized clarithromycin powders was evaluated by means of a Single-Stage Glass Impinger using the RS01 model7 by Plastiape® as device for the aerosolization. Solubility measurements of raw and spray-dried (SD) drug were carried out at 37°C in phosphate buffer (0.05M, pH 6.8). Results indicate that morphology and aerodynamic properties of SD particles were strongly influenced by organic solvent concentration and pH of the liquid feeds processed, both modifying drug solubility. Spherical particles and crystals were obtained at higher pH and lower organic solvent content, while wrinkled particles with very interesting aerodynamic properties and higher drug solubility were obtained at lower pH values. Thanks to a fine tuning of the process parameters and liquid feed composition, we produced SD powders with good aerodynamic properties, without using any excipients. Furthermore, SD powders of clarithromycin hydrochloric salt showed higher activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, compared to clarithromycin raw material. Copyright © 2016
Adi, Handoko; Young, Paul M; Chan, Hak-Kim; Agus, Helen; Traini, Daniela
The aim of this study was to assess the potential of delivering a combination therapy, containing mannitol (a sugar alcohol with osmotic characteristics), and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (an antibacterial fluoroquinolone), as a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for inhalation. Single and combination powders were produced by spray drying ciprofloxacin and mannitol, from aqueous solution, at different ratios and under controlled conditions, as to obtain similar particle size distributions. Each formulation was characterised using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic vapour sorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and colloidal force microscopy. The in vitro aerosol performance of each formulation was studied using an Aerolizer DPI device and a multi-stage liquid impinger (analysed using high performance liquid chromatography). In addition, a disk diffusion test was performed to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of each formulation and starting materials. All formulations had similar particle size distributions, however, the morphology, thermal properties and moisture sorption was dependent on the relative percentages of each component. In general, the combination formulation containing 50% (w/w) mannitol appeared to have the best aerosol performance, good stability and lowest particle cohesion (as measured by colloid probe microscopy). Furthermore, of the formulations tested, mannitol did not appear to alter the effectiveness of the ciprofloxacin antimicrobial activity to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. The combination of co-spray-dried mannitol and ciprofloxacin from a DPI is an attractive approach to promote mucous clearance in the respiratory tract while simultaneously treating local chronic infection, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alves, H. J.; Melchiades, F. G.; Boschi, A. O.
The low porosity of porcelain tile is the result of strict control of the materials processing conditions (milling of raw materials, compaction and sintering) and the characteristics of the raw materials used in its formulation (formation of liquid phases). Sealed pores remaining after the manufacturing process are revealed at the surface after polishing and are the main factor responsible for staining the product. The porous microstructure of the sintered material depends on the characteristics of the porous microstructure of the green compact and on how the densification process evolves during sintering. The present work evaluated how the size distribution of spray-dried granules acts upon the porous microstructure of green compacts and of polished porcelain tile. The results revealed that minor adjustments in the granulometric distribution curve can reduce the visibility of stains on the polished surface, thus improving this property. (Author) 12 refs.
Mönckedieck, M; Kamplade, J; Fakner, P; Urbanetz, N A; Walzel, P; Steckel, H; Scherließ, R
Nowadays, dry powder inhalation as applied in the therapy of pulmonary diseases is known as a very effective route of drug delivery to the lungs. Here, the system of coarse carrier and fine drug particles attached to the carrier surface has successfully been applied to overcome the cohesiveness of small drug particles. Particle properties of both carrier and drug are known to affect drug dispersion as has widely been discussed for lactose monohydrate and various drugs. This study utilises particle-engineered mannitol as an alternative carrier to discover the effect of mannitol carrier particle properties like particle shape, surface roughness, flowability or particle size on aerodynamic performance during inhalation. Spray drying as a technique to accurately control those properties was chosen for the generation of carrier sizes between 50 and 80 μm and different morphologies and therefore various carrier flowabilities. A set of these carriers has then been blended with different spray dried and jet-milled qualities of salbutamol sulphate as model drug to examine the influence of carrier particle properties on aerodynamic behaviour and at the same time to cover the effect of drug particle properties on particle-particle interactions. This experimental setup allowed a general view on how drug and carrier properties affect the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF) as indicator for inhalation performance and gave the first study to distinguish between mannitol carrier particle shape and surface roughness. Further it was possible to relate carrier particle size and shape to drug accumulation and detachment mechanisms during inhalation as size and shape had the main influence on drug detachment. The addition of jet-milled mannitol fines provided an initial insight into the improving effect of ternary powder blends as has been intensively studied for lactose monohydrate but not for mannitol yet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kalušević, Ana; Lević, Steva; Čalija, Bojan; Pantić, Milena; Belović, Miona; Pavlović, Vladimir; Bugarski, Branko; Milić, Jela; Žilić, Slađana; Nedović, Viktor
Black soybean coat is insufficiently valorised food production waste rich in anthocyanins. The goal of the study was to examine physicochemical properties of spray dried extract of black soybean coat in regard to carrier materials: maltodextrin, gum Arabic, and skimmed milk powder. Maltodextrin and gum Arabic-based microparticles were spherical and non-porous while skimmed milk powder-based were irregularly shaped. Low water activity of microparticles (0.31-0.33), good powders characteristics, high solubility (80.3-94.3%) and encapsulation yields (63.7-77.0%) were determined. All microparticles exhibited significant antioxidant capacity (243-386 μmolTE/g), good colour stability after three months of storage and antimicrobial activity. High content of total anthocyanins, with cyanidin-3-glucoside as predominant, were achieved. In vitro release of anthocyanins from microparticles was sustained, particularly from gum Arabic-based. These findings suggest that proposed simple eco-friendly extraction and microencapsulation procedures could serve as valuable tools for valorisation and conversion of black soybean coat into highly functional and stable food colourant.
Boschi, A. O.
Full Text Available The low porosity of porcelain tile is the result of strict control of the material’s processing conditions (milling of raw materials, compaction and sintering and the characteristics of the raw materials used in its formulation (formation of liquid phases. Sealed pores remaining after the manufacturing process are revealed at the surface after polishing and are the main factor responsible for staining the product. The porous microstructure of the sintered material depends on the characteristics of the porous microstructure of the green compact and on how the densification process evolves during sintering. The present work evaluated how the size distribution of spray-dried granules acts upon the porous microstructure of green compacts and of polished porcelain tile. The results revealed that minor adjustments in the granulometric distribution curve can reduce the visibility of stains on the polished surface, thus improving this property.
La baja porosidad de los revestimientos porcelánicos, es el resultado del estricto control que se ejerce sobre los distintos parámetros que condicionan el procesamiento de los materiales ( molienda de la materias primas, compactación y sinterización y de las características de las materias primas empleadas en su formulación (formación de fases líquidas. Los poros cerrados que se generan durante la fabricación, y que se abren en la superficie durante el proceso de pulido, son los principales responsables de las manchas que aparecen en la superficie del material. La porosidad microestructural de los materiales sinterizados está condicionada por la porosidad microstrucutural de la pieza en verde y por la evolución del proceso de densificación durante la sinterización. E l trabajo presente evalúa la influencia de la distribución granulométrica del granulado procedente del atomizador sobre la porosidad granulométrica de las piezas en verde y de la pieza ya pulida. Los resultados revelan como
Maa, Y F; Nguyen, P A; Andya, J D; Dasovich, N; Sweeney, T D; Shire, S J; Hsu, C C
To understand the effect of spray drying and powder processing environments on the residual moisture content and aerosol performance of inhalation protein powders. Also, the long-term effect of storage conditions on the powder's physical and biochemical stability was presented. Excipient-free as well as mannitol-formulated powders of a humanized monoclonal antibody (anti-IgE) and recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) were prepared using a Buchi 190 model spray dryer. Residual moisture content and moisture uptake behavior of the powder were measured using thermal gravimetric analysis and gravimetric moisture sorption isotherm, respectively. Protein aggregation, the primary degradation product observed upon storage, was determined by size-exclusion HPLC. Aerosol performance of the dry powders was evaluated after blending with lactose carriers using a multi-stage liquid impinger (MSLI). Spray-dried powders with a moisture level (approximately 3%) equivalent to the freeze-dried materials could only be achieved using high-temperature spray-drying conditions, which were not favorable to large-male manufacturing, or subsequent vacuum drying. These dry powders would equilibrate with the subsequent processing and storage environments regardless of the manufacturing condition. As long as the relative humidity of air during processing and storage was lower than 50%, powders maintained their aerosol performance (fine particle fraction). However, powders stored under drier conditions exhibited better long-term protein biochemical stability. Manufacturing, powder processing, and storage environments affected powder's residual moisture level in a reversible fashion. Therefore, the storage condition determined powder's overall stability, but residual moisture had a greater impact on protein chemical stability than on powder physical stability.
Darniadi, Sandi; Ho, Peter; Murray, Brent S
Blueberry juice powder was developed via foam-mat freeze-drying (FMFD) and spray-drying (SD) via addition of maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein isolate (WPI) at weight ratios of MD/WPI = 0.4 to 3.2 (with a fixed solids content of 5 wt% for FMFD and 10 wt% for SD). Feed rates of 180 and 360 mL h-1 were tested in SD. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the drying methods and carrier agents on the physical properties of the corresponding blueberry powders and reconstituted products. Ratios of MD/WPI = 0.4, 1.0 and 1.6 produced highly stable foams most suitable for FMFD. FMFD gave high yields and low bulk density powders with flake-like particles of large size that were also dark purple with high red values. SD gave low powder recoveries. The powders had higher bulk density and faster rehydration times, consisting of smooth, spherical and smaller particles than in FMFD powders. The SD powders were bright purple but less red than FMFD powders. Solubility was greater than 95% for both FMFD and SD powders. The FMFD method is a feasible method of producing blueberry juice powder and gives products retaining more characteristics of the original juice than SD. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hinrichs, Wouter Leonardus Joseph; Andersen, Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Nielsen, Hanne Morck; Yang, Mingshi; Foged, Camilla
Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties
Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael
The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF1μm/ED) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343
Son, Yoen-Ju; Worth Longest, P; Hindle, Michael
The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20%, v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1 μm/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zungur Bastıoğlu, Aslı; Tomruk, Dilara; Koç, Mehmet; Ertekin, Figen Kaymak
Melon seed milk (MSM) powder was produced by aiming to get alternative vegetable milk from crushed Kırkağaç (Cucumis melo subsp. melo cv. Kırkağaç) and Çeşme (C. melo subsp. melo cv. Çeşme) type melon seeds...
In this paper, effects of variables concerning slurry properties and drying conditions on the particle size and morphology of feedstock were discussed. The results indicated that, the increase of powder loading increased 50 and volume content but reduced recovery rate slightly. Other variables, such as inlet temperature, ...
Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik
In this paper, we present our first results from an industrial application of model predictive control (MPC) with real-time steady-state target optimization (RTO) for control of an industrial spray dryer that produces enriched milk powder. The MPC algorithm is based on a continuous-time transfer...
and the bacteria, thus producing a commercially acceptable sterile product of higher nutritive value. The relat- ive nutritive values (RNV) of ... acid content of fresh blood because the biological value of both lysine and methionine were ... powder was placed in lactose broth (Merck) for 4 h at. 30°C. 10 ml of this broth was then ...
Mali, Ashwin Jagannath; Bothiraja, Chellampillai; Purohit, Ravindra Nandlal; Pawar, Atmaram Pandurang
Current therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is unable to prevent progression of disease due to continuous infusions and multiple oral administrations. This resulted in the need of novel treatment which would target directly structural vascular changes that weaken blood flow through pulmonary circulation. The objective of present study was to develop spray dried (SD) formulation for dry powder inhaler (DPI) with enhanced aerosol performance and lung deposition by using novel bioactive, andrographolide (AGP) and carrier, scleroglucan (SCLG) with improved antihypertensive activity. The SDAGP formulation was evaluated for physicochemical properties and in vitro/in vivo lung deposition. Further, antihypertensive activity was studied by monocrotaline (MCT) induced rat model. The SDAGP exhibited mean median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction (FPF) of 3.37 ± 0.47 µm and 60.24 ± 0.98%. The in vivo absorption profile of final formulation reflected increased lung deposition of AGP at the end of 24 h with no signs of inflammation and toxicity. Moreover, SDAGP formulation confirmed enhanced antihypertensive activity. The results proved use of AGP and SCLG as a novel bioactive and carrier with enhanced lung deposition and pulmonary antihypertensive activity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Manniello, Michele Dario; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Paola
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs are usually susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and this bacterium is resistant to immune system clearance and drug control. Particularly, the biofilm mode of growth protects several microorganisms from host defenses and antibacterial drugs, mainly due to a delayed penetration of the drug through the biofilm matrix. Biofilm, together with lung mucus viscosity and tenacity, reduces, therefore, the effectiveness of conventional antibiotic therapy in CF. The aim of this research was to design and develop a stable, portable, easy to use dry powder inhaler (DPI) for CF patients, able to release directly to the lung an association of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin) and a mucolytic agent (N-Acetyl-Cysteine). Its effectiveness is based on the counteracting of the characteristics of P. aeruginosa infections in CF (lung bacterial adhesion to lung epithelium, biofilm formation and mucus viscosity) and the ability to let the antimicrobial drug exert their pharmacological action. A solution of these two drugs, without any excipients, was spray-dried to obtain respirable microparticles, characterized by aerodynamic diameters suitable for inhalation (acetylcysteine which can interact with clarithromycin dimethyl-amino group, a consistent enhancement of drug solubility was obtained, compared to raw material and to the drug sprayed alone. The mucolytic agent added in the DPI may improve the macrolide diffusion into the mucus, enabling its action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marta C. Silva
Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to develop new systems that can deliver anticancer drugs into the site of action when initiating a treatment. Recently, the use of nanotechnology and particle engineering has enabled the development of new drug delivery platforms for pulmonary delivery. In this work, POXylated strawberry-like gold-coated magnetite nanocomposites and ibuprofen (IBP were encapsulated into a chitosan matrix using Supercritical Assisted Spray Drying (SASD. The dry powder formulations showed adequate morphology and aerodynamic performances (fine particle fraction 48%–55% and aerodynamic diameter of 2.6–2.8 µm for deep lung deposition through the pulmonary route. Moreover, the release kinetics of IBP was also investigated showing a faster release of the drug at pH 6.8, the pH of lung cancer. POXylated strawberry-like gold-coated magnetite nanocomposites proved to have suitable sizes for cellular internalization and their fluorescent capabilities enable their future use in in vitro cell based assays. As a proof-of-concept, the reported results show that these nano-in-micro formulations could be potential drug vehicles for pulmonary administration.
Lao, Fei; Giusti, M Monica
Spray drying is an economic technique to produce anthocyanin-based colorants. High pigments yields with minimum color degradation are desirable to maximize quality and profits. This study evaluated the impacts of purple corncob (PCC) anthocyanin extraction matrices (hot water, 40% ethanol, C18 purified), drying inlet temperature (130, 150, 170°C) and amount of carrier (2%, 5%, 10% maltodextrin) on the yields and quality of PCC anthocyanin powders. Monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins, color properties (CIELch, haze), and pigments composition before and after spray drying were determined. The yield and final color quality of spray dried PCC anthocyanins were affected (p<0.05) by all parameters evaluated. The pigment matrix, inlet temperature, and carrier amount had biggest impacts on product water solubility, pigments degradation and yield, respectively. The optimal combination of hot water extracts spray dried with 5% maltodextrin at 150°C gave the highest pigment yield (∼90%) with good solubility with the least color loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zungur Bastıoğlu, Aslı; Tomruk, Dilara; KOÇ, Mehmet; Ertekin, Figen Kaymak
Melon seed milk (MSM) powder was produced by aiming to get alternative vegetable milk from crushed Kırkağaç (Cucumis melo subsp. melo cv. Kırkağaç) and Çeşme (C. melo subsp. melo cv. Çeşme) type melon seeds. MSM was converted to powder form via spray dryer at inlet air temperature of 150 °C, air flow rate of 473 l · h−1, aspiration ratio of 24 m3 · h−1and feed flow rate of 8 ml · min−1 in order to extend the shelf life and usage area. The moisture content and water activity of samples changed...
Alinne Alencar Costa dos Santos
Full Text Available The guava is one of the most popular tropical fruits, being highly accepted all over Brazil. Many food products can be made from the fruit, such as jams, jellies, liquors and many types of juice. Given the above, the objective of this research was to characterise atomised guava pulp as to its physicochemical composition, and assess its hygroscopic behaviour by means of adsorption isotherms employing different mathematical models. The physicochemical analyses, carried out on both the whole guava pulp and on the atomised guava powder, were: moisture; pH; acidity; soluble solids and ascorbic acid, giving the following results respectively: 88.57-5.69 %; 3.76-3.88, 0.43-0.24 mg 100 g-1; 8.43 to 93.00 ºBrix and 2.77-3.79 mg 100 g-1. The adsorption isotherms were constructed adjusting the experimental data to the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin. The Henderson model presented the best fit to the atomised guava powder for all temperatures tested, presenting an error ranging from 09.93 to 12.09% and a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9900 to 0.9934.
Singh, V K; Pandey, Sheela; Pare, Akash; Singh, R B
The study covers effect of operating variables of spray dryer i.e. inlet temperature (170, 180, 190, 200 and 210 °C,), aspirator blower capacity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 %) and feed pump capacity (9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 %) and processing parameters of feed i.e. total soluble solid (TSS) of feed (7.5 %) and encapsulating material, maltodextrin (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 %), aerosil (1.0 %), citric acid (0.25 %) upon the physical properties (colour, packed density and hygroscopicity) of powder were observed. After complete evaluation and analysis of all the attributes for physical properties i.e. colour, packed density (0.45 g/cc) and hygroscopicity (0.17 g/g dry matter), it was concluded that best quality of Ber powder were obtained at inlet air temperature 190 °C, aspirator blower capacity 60 %, feed pump capacity 15 %, encapsulating material 8 %.
Burns, P; Molinari, F; Beccaria, A; Páez, R; Meinardi, C; Reinheimer, J; Vinderola, G
To ferment buttermilk, a low-cost by-product of the manufacture of butter, with a proteolytic strain of Lactobacillus helveticus, to enhance its value by the production of a functional peptide-enriched powder. Buttermilk was fermented with Lact. helveticus 209, a strain chosen for its high proteolytic activity. To enhance the release of peptidic fractions, during fermentation pH was kept at 6 by using NaOH, Ca(CO)(3) or Ca(OH)(2). Cell-free supernatant was recovered by centrifugation, supplemented or not with maltodextrin and spray-dried. The profile of peptidic fractions released was studied by RP-HPLC. The lactose, Na and Ca content was also determined. The powder obtained was administered to BALB/c mice for 5 or 7 consecutive days, resulting in the proliferation of IgA-producing cells in the small intestine mucosa of the animals. Buttermilk is a suitable substrate for the fermentation with Lact. helveticus 209 and the release of peptide fractions able to be spray-dried and to modulate the gut mucosa in vivo. A powder enriched with peptides released from buttermilk proteins, with potential applications as a functional food additive, was obtained by spray-drying. A novel use of buttermilk as substrate for lactic fermentation is reported. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Janaina de Paula da Costa
Full Text Available This study aimed at contributing to the development of new foodstuffs made by soursop pulp powder obtained by spraydrying. Different concentrations of maltodextrin DE 20 (15, 30, and 45% were added to commercial soursop pulp, which was dehydrated afterwards. The following analyses were carried out: water activity, moisture, pH, soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, and rehydration time. The results obtained for the three powder treatments (15, 30 and 45% of maltodextrin were, respectectively: water activity (0.19a±0.00; 0.20a±0.00; 0.18a±0.01; moisture (1.17c±0.12; 1.47b±0.05; 1.82a±0.06; pH (3.75a±0.05; 3.73a±0.06; 3.70a±0.03; soluble solids (89.67a±0.00; 89.84a±0.00; 90.00a±0.06; acidity (3.01a±0.02; 1.91b±0.03; 1.24c±0.03; ascorbic acid (18.90a±0.00; 14.48b±0.00; 11.26b±0.78; hygroscopicity (5.93a±0.40; 3.82b±0.16; 3.28b±0.38; degree of caking (78.36a±2.86; 35.38b±6.07; 24.77b4.89, and rehydration time (02.03a±0.46; 01.16ab±0.50; 0.59b±0.30. The soursop powders with 30 and 45% of maltodextrin had few significant differences in terms of physicochemical and hygroscopic characteristics, which allow us to consider the percentage of 30% of maltodextrin, in this study, as the best percentage for soursop pulp atomization.
Audirene Amorim Santana
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to optimize the spray drying of jussara pulp using mixtures of modified starch (MS with whey protein concentrate (WPC or soy protein isolate (SPI as the carrier agents. Two central composite rotatable designs were used to evaluate the effect of the independent variables of inlet air temperature (140 °C to 200 °C, carrier agent concentration - CAC (0.5 to 2 g carrier agent/g jussara pulp solids and the proportions of MS:WPC or MS:SPI (5 to 30 g WPC or SPI/100 g carrier agent on the following responses for powders formulated with MS:WPC and MS:SPI, respectively: moisture content (0.3% to 1.4% and 0.6% to 1.2%, solubility (78.0% to 92.9% and 78.9% to 83.8%, retention of total anthocyanins (49.2% to 82.9% and 34.1% to 96.9%, encapsulation efficiency (98.5% to 99.7% and 98.5% to 99.5%, hue angle (9.1 to 44.0 and 3.7 to 42.6, chroma (10.0 to 15.3 and 9.2 to 14.3 and process yield (33.2% to 55.5% and 49.9% to 78.5%. The inlet air temperature 170 °C, CAC of 1.25 and 2 g/g jussara pulp solids and proportion of MS:WPC or MS:SPI of 17.5 and 30 g/100 g were recommended as the selected conditions.
Lavari, Luisina; Páez, Roxana; Cuatrin, Alejandra; Reinheimer, Jorge; Vinderola, Gabriel
The double use of cheese whey (culture medium and thermoprotectant for spray drying of lactobacilli) was explored in this study for adding value to this wastewater. In-house formulated broth (similar to MRS) and dairy media (cheese and ricotta whey and whey permeate) were assessed for their capacity to produce biomass of Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lb. rhamnosus 64 and Lb. gasseri 37. Simultaneously, spray drying of cheese whey-starch solution (without lactobacilli cells) was optimised using surface response methodology. Cell suspensions of the lactobacilli, produced in in house-formulated broth, were spray-dried in cheese whey-starch solution and viability monitored throughout the storage of powders for 2 months. Lb. rhamnosus 64 was able to grow satisfactorily in at least two of the in-house formulated culture media and in the dairy media assessed. It also performed well in spray drying. The performance of the other strains was less satisfactory. The growth capacity, the resistance to spray drying in cheese whey-starch solution and the negligible lost in viability during the storage (2 months), makes Lb. rhamnosus 64 a promising candidate for further technological studies for developing a probiotic dehydrated culture for foods, utilising wastewaters of the dairy industry (as growth substrate and protectant) and spray drying (a low-cost widely-available technology).
Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana Heldt [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610-000 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); and others
This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.
Schuck, Pierre; Dolivet, Anne; Mejean, Serge; Jeantet, Romain
The main aim of this study was to develop a method to simulate the transfer conditions (energy and water) of spray-drying. Typical curves were registered with the water activity meter on water, dairy and food concentrates (Fig 1.) . These curves showed that the relative humidity (RH) from the pressure sensor as a function of time can be represented by a sigmoid equation. Two phases can be identified on the curves obtained for pure water and milk concentrates: Initially, at the beginning of...
Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Waller, Diane L.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.
The exposure effects of a commercially prepared spray dried powder (SDP) formulation ofPseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) on the survival of seven species of unionid mussels endemic to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins was evaluated in this study. The study exposures were completed within replicated 350-liter test tanks contained within a mobile bioassay laboratory sited on the shores of the Black River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. The test tanks were supplied with flowing, filtered river water which was interrupted during the exposure period.
Full Text Available Hyo-Jung Lee,1 Ji-Hyun Kang,1 Hong-Goo Lee,1 Dong-Wook Kim,2 Yun-Seok Rhee,3 Ju-Young Kim,4 Eun-Seok Park,5 Chun-Woong Park1 1College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Cheongju University, Cheongju, 3College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 4College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju-gun, 5School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: The objectives of this study were to prepare bosentan hydrate (BST microparticles as dry powder inhalations (DPIs via spray drying and jet milling under various parameters, to comprehensively characterize the physicochemical properties of the BST hydrate microparticles, and to evaluate the aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs. The BST microparticles were successfully prepared for DPIs by spray drying from feeding solution concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v and by jet milling at grinding pressures of 2, 3, and 4 MPa. The physicochemical properties of the spray-dried (SD and jet-milled (JM microparticles were determined via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering particle size analysis, Karl Fischer titration, surface analysis, pycnometry, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and drug dissolution behavior were evaluated using an Anderson cascade impactor and a Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The JM microparticles exhibited an irregular corrugated surface and a crystalline solid state, while the SD microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and an amorphous solid state. Thus, the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs were considerably different due to the differences in the physicochemical properties of the SD and JM microparticles. In
Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hong-Goo; Kim, Dong-Wook; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Eun-Seok; Park, Chun-Woong
The objectives of this study were to prepare bosentan hydrate (BST) microparticles as dry powder inhalations (DPIs) via spray drying and jet milling under various parameters, to comprehensively characterize the physicochemical properties of the BST hydrate microparticles, and to evaluate the aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs. The BST microparticles were successfully prepared for DPIs by spray drying from feeding solution concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v) and by jet milling at grinding pressures of 2, 3, and 4 MPa. The physicochemical properties of the spray-dried (SD) and jet-milled (JM) microparticles were determined via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering particle size analysis, Karl Fischer titration, surface analysis, pycnometry, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and drug dissolution behavior were evaluated using an Anderson cascade impactor and a Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The JM microparticles exhibited an irregular corrugated surface and a crystalline solid state, while the SD microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and an amorphous solid state. Thus, the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs were considerably different due to the differences in the physicochemical properties of the SD and JM microparticles. In particular, the highest grinding pressures under jet milling exhibited excellent aerosol dispersion performance with statistically higher values of 56.8%±2.0% of respirable fraction and 33.8%±2.3% of fine particle fraction and lower mass median aerodynamic diameter of 5.0±0.3 μm than the others (Pphysicochemical properties that determine the dissolution kinetics of the SD and JM microparticles, which were well fitted into the Higuchi and zero-order models, respectively.
Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)
No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.
Physicochemical characterization and aerosol dispersion performance of organic solution advanced spray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate antibiotic dry powders of tobramycin and azithromycin for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery.
Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M
The purpose of this study was to systematically design pure antibiotic drug dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for targeted antibiotic pulmonary delivery in the treatment of pulmonary infections and comprehensively correlate the physicochemical properties in the solid-state and spray-drying conditions effects on aerosol dispersion performance as dry powder inhalers (DPIs). The two rationally chosen model antibiotic drugs, tobramycin (TOB) and azithromycin (AZI), represent two different antibiotic drug classes of aminoglycosides and macrolides, respectively. The particle size distributions were narrow, unimodal, and in the microparticulate/nanoparticulate size range. The SD particles possessed relatively spherical particle morphology, smooth surface morphology, low residual water content, and the absence of long-range molecular order. The emitted dose (ED%), fine particle fraction (FPF%) and respirable fraction (RF%) were all excellent. The MMAD values were in the inhalable range (MMAD values for SD AZI powders in contrast to SD TOB powders. Positive linear correlations were observed between the aerosol dispersion performance parameter of FPF with increasing spray-drying pump rates and also with the difference between thermal parameters expressed as Tg-To (i.e. the difference between the glass transition temperature and outlet temperature) for SD AZI powders. The aerosol dispersion performance for SD TOB appeared to be influenced by its high water vapor sorption behavior (hygroscopicity) and pump rates or To. Aerosol dispersion performance of SD powders were distinct for both antibiotic drug aerosol systems and also between different pump rates for each system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sadrzadeh, Negar; Miller, Danforth P; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Harper, Nancy J; Stevenson, Cynthia L; Bennett, David B
The effect of temperature on the chemical stability of an amorphous spray-dried insulin powder formulation (Exubera) was evaluated in the solid state at constant moisture content. The chemical stability of the powder was assessed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and high-performance-size exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC). The major degradants in spray-dried insulin produced during heat stressing were identified as A21-desamidoinsulin (A21) and high molecular weight protein (HMWP). As expected, the rates of formation of A21 and HMWP were observed to increase with temperature. A stretched-time kinetic model (degradation rate is proportional to the square root of time) was applied to the degradant profiles above and below the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and apparent reaction rate constants were determined. Below T(g), isothermal enthalpy of relaxation measurements were used to assess the effect of temperature on molecular mobility. The formation of A21 and HMWP was found to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence above and below the T(g). Comparison of reaction rate constants to those estimated from structural relaxation experiments suggests that the reaction pathways to form A21 and HMWP below the T(g) may be coupled with the molecular motions involved in structural relaxation.
Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao
We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Peng, Tingting; Zhang, Xuejuan; Huang, Ying; Zhao, Ziyu; Liao, Qiuying; Xu, Jing; Huang, Zhengwei; Zhang, Jiwen; Wu, Chuan-yu; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin
An optimum carrier rugosity is essential to achieve a satisfying drug deposition efficiency for the carrier based dry powder inhalation (DPI). Therefore, a non-organic spray drying technique was firstly used to prepare nanoporous mannitol with small asperities to enhance the DPI aerosolization performance. Ammonium carbonate was used as a pore-forming agent since it decomposed with volatile during preparation. It was found that only the porous structure, and hence the specific surface area and carrier density were changed at different ammonium carbonate concentration. Furthermore, the carrier density was used as an indication of porosity to correlate with drug aerosolization. A good correlation between the carrier density and fine particle fraction (FPF) (r2 = 0.9579) was established, suggesting that the deposition efficiency increased with the decreased carrier density. Nanoporous mannitol with a mean pore size of about 6 nm exhibited 0.24-fold carrier density while 2.16-fold FPF value of the non-porous mannitol. The enhanced deposition efficiency was further confirmed from the pharmacokinetic studies since the nanoporous mannitol exhibited a significantly higher AUC0-8h value than the non-porous mannitol and commercial product Pulmicort. Therefore, surface modification by preparing nanoporous carrier through non-organic spray drying showed to be a facile approach to enhance the DPI aerosolization performance. PMID:28462948
Yu, Jiaqi; Chan, Hak-Kim; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A
Inhalable particles containing amorphous form of drugs or excipients may absorb atmospheric moisture, causing powder aggregation and recrystallization, adversely affecting powder dispersion and lung deposition. The present study aims to explore hydrophobic amino acids for protection against moisture in spray-dried amorphous powders, using disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as a model drug. DSCG powders were produced by co-spray drying with isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and methionine (Met) in various concentrations (10, 20 and 40%w/w). Particle size distribution and morphology were measured by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physiochemical properties of the powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). Particle surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In vitro aerosolization performance was evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI) after the powders were stored at 60% or 75% relative humidity (RH) for one month and three months. Ile, Val and Met significantly reduced the deleterious effect of moisture on aerosol performance, depending on the amount of amino acids in the formulation. Formulations containing 10% or 20% of Ile, Val and Met showed notable deterioration in aerosol performance, with fine particle fraction (FPF) reduced by 6-15% after one-month storage at both 60% and 75% RH. However, 40% Ile was able to maintain the aerosol performance of DSCG stored at 75% RH for one month, while the FPF dropped by 7.5% after three months of storage. In contrast, 40% Val or Met were able to maintain the aerosol performance at 60% RH storage but not at 75% RH. At 40%w/w ratio, these formulations had particle surface coverage of 94.5% (molar percent) of Ile, 87.1% of Val and 84.6% of Met, respectively, which may explain their
Yu, Hong; Teo, Jeanette; Chew, Jia Wei; Hadinoto, Kunn
Inhaled nano-antibiotics have recently emerged as the promising bronchiectasis treatment attributed to the higher and more localized antibiotic exposure generated compared to native antibiotics. Antibiotic nanoparticle complex (or nanoplex in short) prepared by self-assembly complexation with polysaccharides addresses the major drawbacks of existing nano-antibiotics by virtue of its high payload and cost-effective preparation. Herein we developed carrier-free dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of ciprofloxacin nanoplex by spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). d-Mannitol and l-leucine were used as the drying adjuvant and aerosol dispersion enhancer, respectively. The DPI formulations were evaluated in vitro in terms of the (1) aerosolization efficiency, (2) aqueous reconstitution, (3) antibiotic release, and (4) antimicrobial activity against respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The SFD powders exhibited superior aerosolization efficiency to their SD counterparts in terms of emitted dose (92% versus 66%), fine particle fraction (29% versus 23%), and mass median aerodynamic diameter (3 μm versus 6 μm). The superior aerosolization efficiency of the SFD powders was attributed to their large and porous morphology and higher l-leucine content. While the SFD powders exhibited poorer aqueous reconstitution that might jeopardize their mucus penetrating ability, their antibiotic release profile and antimicrobial activity were not adversely affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The juices and powders were then analyzed for the nutritive composition and compared. The effects of the spray-drying on nutritional composition were evaluated. Results: The results indicated a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the spray dried powders of both Roselle and Tamarind for the values of total carbohydrates, ...
Razavi Rohani, Seyed Salman; Abnous, Khalil; Tafaghodi, Mohsen
The aim of this study was to produce microparticles with optimal aerodynamic diameter for deep lung delivery (i.e., 1-3μm) of a protein drug intended for systemic absorption, using a combination of generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipients. Based on the preliminary experiments, mannitol, l-alanine, sodium alginate, chitosan and dipalmitoylphosphatidilcholine (DPPC) were chosen as excipients and human insulin as a model protein drug. Dry powders were prepared by spray-drying. Powders with varying yields (29-80%) and low tapped densities (0.22-0.38 g/cm(3)) were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed distinctive particle morphologies among formulations from isolated spherical to highly folded particles. Aerodynamic properties were assessed by next generation impactor (NGI). Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction (FPF) ranged from 2.1 to 4.6 μm and 46 to 81%, respectively. A comparative study of protein release from microparticles was conducted in vitro using an open membrane system with more than 50% cumulative release in all formulations which followed different kinetic models. Insulin's integrity was investigated by spectrofluorimetry and electrophoresis, and no tangible changes were observed in the structure of insulin. Of the formulations studied, the third, containing mannitol/sodium alginate/insulin/sodium citrate showed promising characteristics, optimal for systemic delivery of proteins via deep lung deposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The research was aimed at determining spray drying conditions during the production of smoke particulate powder and its consequences on the physical properties of the product. The experiment was carried out using a complete randomized factorial design. Samples were three solution of chitosan (CS-maltodextrin (MD based nanoparticles i.e. CS (0.5% w/v and MD (9.5% w/v in acetic acid (1.0% v/v without liquid smoke (F1, only MD (10% w/v in liquid smoke (F2 and a mixture of CS (1.5% w/v and MD (8.5% w/v in liquid smoke (F5. Each sample solution was prepared at 10% solid contents with addition of 1.0% sodium tripolyphosphate. The experimental factors were inlet air temperatures (T of 130°C (T1 and 150°C (T2 and feed flow rate (L of 2.4 mL/minute (L1 and 5.1 mL/minute (L2. The parameters evaluated included bulk density, yield, moisture content, water activity, morphology and particle size. Results showed that the average particle sizes decreased when the inlet air temperature increased. The bulk density, moisture content and water activity of powders tended to decrease with the increase of inlet air temperature. In contrast, the powder yield increased with increasing of inlet air temperature. Furthermore, characteristics of the powder particulates were spherical with smooth surfaces for all treatments but when the inlet air temperatures was high the particles has deeper surfacial grooving and shriveled, especially for sample F1.
Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.
Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide a longer shelf life. A major hurdle when applying spray drying is the extensive optimisa tion required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain powders of acceptable quality. Therefore, a high-throughput
Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie
Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.
Wang, Yajie; Kho, Katherine; Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn
Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles - polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers - have emerged as a potent therapeutic nano-carrier alternative to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Herein we perform comparative studies of employing spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD) to produce inhalable dry-powder form of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), lecithin, and levofloxacin are employed as the polymer, lipid, and drug models, respectively. The hybrid nanoparticles are transformed into micro-scale nanoparticle aggregates (or nano-aggregates) via SD and SFD, where the effects of (1) different excipients (i.e. mannitol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and leucine), and (2) nanoparticle to excipient ratio on nano-aggregate characteristics (e.g. size, flowability, aqueous reconstitution, aerosolization efficiency) are examined. In both methods, PVA is found more effective than mannitol for aqueous reconstitution, whereas hydrophobic leucineis needed to achieve effective aerosolization as it reduces nano-aggregate agglomeration. Using PVA, both methods are equally capable of producing nano-aggregates having size, density, flowability, yield and reconstitutibility in the range ideal for inhaled delivery. Nevertheless, nano-aggregates produced by SFD are superior to SD in terms of their aerosolization efficiency manifested in the higher emitted dose and fine particle fraction with lower mass median aerodynamic diameter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Mayer, Denise A.
The efficacy of a commercially prepared spray dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) was evaluated for removing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) adhering to a population of unionid mussels in Lake Darling (Alexandria, Minnesota). Two groups of unionid mussels were used in the study. Unionid mussels were collected near the test area, weighed, photographed, individually tagged, and randomly allocated to one of nine test enclosures in equal proportions and then divided into two groups. The first group of unionid mussels (Group 1, n = 5 per test enclosure) were indiscriminately selected from each test enclosure and used to estimate the number of zebra mussels adhering to unionid mussels prior to exposure. The second group of unionid mussels (Group 2, n = 22 per test enclosure) were used to evaluate the efficacy of SDP for removal of adhering zebra mussels. Both Group 1 and Group 2 mussels were used to evaluate the effects of SDP exposure on unionid mussel survival.
Xia, Dengning; Shrestha, Neha; van de Streek, Jacco
into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose) and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content...... of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915) was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w). Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase...... in particle size of the NLCs after reconstitution in water as compared to that in the initial aqueous dispersion. The decrease in crystallinity of the dry powder by reducing the ratio of mannitol to trehalose could improve the reconstitution of the NLCs in water. However the yield and residual moisture...
Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.
Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.
Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted respiratory nanomedicine delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols
Meenach, Samantha A; Vogt, Frederick G; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach; McGarry, Ronald C; Mansour, Heidi M
Novel advanced spray-dried and co-spray-dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic phospholipid and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of biodegradable biocompatible lipopolymers were rationally formulated via an organic solution advanced spray-drying process in closed mode using various phospholipid formulations and rationally chosen spray-drying pump rates. Ratios of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine PEG (DPPE-PEG) with varying PEG lengths were mixed in a dilute methanol solution. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the smooth, spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. The size of the particles was statistically analyzed using the scanning electron micrographs and SigmaScan® software and were determined to be 600 nm to 1.2 μm in diameter, which is optimal for deep-lung alveolar penetration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were performed to analyze solid-state transitions and long-range molecular order, respectively, and allowed for the confirmation of the presence of phospholipid bilayers in the solid state of the particles. The residual water content of the particles was very low, as quantified analytically via Karl Fischer titration. The composition of the particles was confirmed using attenuated total-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and chemical imaging confirmed the chemical homogeneity of the particles. The dry powder aerosol dispersion properties were evaluated using the Next Generation Impactor™ (NGI™) coupled with the HandiHaler® dry powder inhaler device, where the mass median aerodynamic diameter from 2.6 to 4.3 μm with excellent aerosol dispersion performance, as exemplified by high values of emitted dose, fine particle fraction, and respirable fraction. Overall, it was determined that the pump rates defined in the
Anish, Chakkumkal; Upadhyay, Arun K; Sehgal, Devinder; Panda, Amulya Kumar
Particle size, antigen load and its release characteristic are the three the main attributes of polymer particles based vaccine delivery systems. The present studies focus on the formulation of spray dried polylactide microparticles entrapping pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Influence of process variables during polymer particle formation were optimized by using half-factorial design. Feed rate and atomization pressure during spray drying were found to be the most important parameters for achieving uniform size particles. Spray drying of preformed particles from different stages of solvent evaporation method resulted in formation of particle having different porosity and protein release profile. Presence of polyvinyl alcohol in the external aqueous phase not only contributed towards regulating the size of particles but also influenced the burst release of protein from particles. Polymer particles entrapping PspA elicited robust IgG responses both in mice and in rats. Antigen load in microparticles correlated with the antibody titer indicating the maintenance of protein integrity during particle formation using spray drying. Both, process engineering and formulation parameters during spray drying influenced the particles in terms of size, load and antigen release characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dengning Xia; Neha Shrestha; Jacco van de Streek; Huiling Mu; Mingshi Yang
The conversion of aqueous dispersion of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) into dry powder by spray drying could be a useful approach to render NLCs with better physical chemical stability than the aqueous dispersion. In this study, aqueous NLC dispersion containing fenofibrate was converted into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehal...
Design, characterization, and aerosol dispersion performance modeling of advanced co-spray dried antibiotics with mannitol as respirable microparticles/nanoparticles for targeted pulmonary delivery as dry powder inhalers.
Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M
Dry powder inhalation aerosols of antibiotic drugs (a first-line aminoglycoside, tobramycin, and a first-line macrolide, azithromycin) and a sugar alcohol mucolytic agent (mannitol) as co-spray dried (co-SD) particles at various molar ratios of drug:mannitol were successfully produced by organic solution advanced co-spray drying from dilute solute concentration. These microparticulate/nanoparticulate aerosols consisting of various antibiotic drug:mannitol molar ratios were rationally designed with a narrow and unimodal primary particle size distribution, spherical particle shape, relatively smooth particle surface, and very low residual water content to minimize the interparticulate interactions and enhance in vitro aerosolization. These microparticulate/nanoparticulate inhalation powders were high-performing aerosols as reflected in the aerosol dispersion performance parameters of emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), respirable fraction (RF), and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). The glass transition temperature (Tg) values were significantly above room temperature, which indicated that the co-SD powders were all in the amorphous glassy state. The Tg values for co-SD tobramycin:mannitol powders were significantly lower than those for co-SD azithromycin:mannitol powders. The interplay between aerosol dispersion performance parameters and Tg was modeled where higher Tg values (i.e., more ordered glass) were correlated with higher values in FPF and RF and lower values in MMAD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
Full Text Available The conversion of aqueous dispersion of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs into dry powder by spray drying could be a useful approach to render NLCs with better physical chemical stability than the aqueous dispersion. In this study, aqueous NLC dispersion containing fenofibrate was converted into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915 was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w. Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase in particle size of the NLCs after reconstitution in water as compared to that in the initial aqueous dispersion. The decrease in crystallinity of the dry powder by reducing the ratio of mannitol to trehalose could improve the reconstitution of the NLCs in water. However the yield and residual moisture content of dry powder decreased with an increase in the ratio of mannitol to trehalose. Lipid nanoparticles were able to retain the drug incorporation and the prolonged drug release profile after spray drying. The experimental model was robust, and suggested that spray drying is a viable technique for the conversion of NLCs into dry powder.
Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain powders of acceptable quality. This thesis reports on the development of an alternative approach to study drying behaviour involving single droplet experimentation in combination with predictive modell...
Shiga, Hirokazu; Joreau, Hiromi; Neoh, Tze Loon; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi
The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11) was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders. PMID:24662364
Full Text Available The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11 was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders.
Karadag, Ayse; Özçelik, Beraat; Sramek, Martin; Gibis, Monika; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen
Spray drying of liposomes with conventional wall materials such as maltodextrins often yields nonfunctional powders, that is, liposomes break down during drying and rehydration. Electrostatically coating the surface of liposomes with a charged polymer prior to spray drying may help solve this problem. Anionic lecithin liposomes (approximately 400 nm) were coated with lower (approximately 500 kDa, LMW-C) or higher (approximately 900 kDa, HMW-C) molecular weight cationic chitosan using the layer-by-layer depositing method. Low (DE20, LMW-MD) or high molecular weight (DE2, HMW-MD) maltodextrin was added as wall material to facilitate spray drying. If surfaces of liposomes (1%) were completely covered with chitosan (0.4%), no bridging or depletion flocculation would occur, and mean particle diameters would be approximately 500 nm. If maltodextrins (20%) were added to uncoated liposomes, extensive liposomal breakdown would occur making the system unsuitable for spray drying. No such aggregation or breakdown was observed when maltodextrin was added to chitosan-coated liposomes. Size changed little or even decreased slightly depending on the molecular weight of maltodextrin added. Scanning electron microscopy images of powders containing chitosan-coated liposomes revealed that their morphologies depended on the type of maltodextrin added. Powders prepared with LMW-MD contained mostly spherical particles while HMW-MD powders contained particles with concavities and dents. Upon redispersion, coated liposomes yielded back dispersions with particle size distributions similar to the original ones, except for LMW-C coated samples that had been spray dried with HMW-MD which yielded aggregates (approximately 30 μm). Results show that coating of liposomes with an absorbing polymer allows them to be spray dried with conventional maltodextrin wall materials. Liposomes have attracted considerable attention in the food and agricultural, biomedical industries for the delivery of
Patel, Bhavesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Chakraborty, Subhashis
Spray drying has always remained an energetic field of innovation in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry since last couple of decades. The current communication embodies an in-depth application of spray drying in pulmonary drug delivery for production of uniform and respirable size particles suitable for nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI) and pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). The review also highlights spray drying application in the manufacturing of mucoadhesive formulation suitable for nasal cavities to improve the drug absorption and bioavailability. Recent research works and patents filed by various researchers on spray drying technology for solubility enhancement have also been accentuated. Benefits of spray drying in production of dry flavorings to meet a product with maximum yield and least flavor loss are also discussed. The use of spray drying in production of various food products like milk or soymilk powder, tomato pulp, dry fruit juice etc, and in encapsulation of vegetable oil or fish oil and dry creamer has been discussed. Current review also highlights the application of spray drying in the biotechnology field like production of dry influenza or measles vaccine as well as application in ceramic industry. Spray drying based patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the area of drug delivery have also been included in the current review to emphasize importance of spray drying in the recent research scenario.
Elizabeth Hunter Lauten
Full Text Available We find that Mycobacterium smegmatis survives spray drying and retains cell viability in accelerated temperature stress (40 °C conditions with a success rate that increases with increasing thermal, osmotic, and nutrient-restriction stresses applied to the mycobacterium prior to spray drying. M.smegmatis that are spray dried during log growth phase, where they suffer little or no nutrient-reduction stress, survive for less than 7 days in the dry powder state at accelerated temperature stress conditions, whereas M. smegmatis that are spray dried during stationary phase, where cells do suffer nutrient reduction, survive for up to 14 days. M. smegmatis that are spray dried from stationary phase, subjected to accelerated temperature stress conditions, regrown to stationary phase, spray dried again, and resubmitted to this same process four consecutive times, display, on the fourth spray drying iteration, an approximate ten-fold increase in stability during accelerated temperature stress testing, surviving up to 105 days. Microarray tests revealed significant differences in genetic expression of M. smegmatis between log phase and stationary phase conditions, between naïve (non spray-dried and multiply cycled dried M. smegmatis (in log and stationary phase, and between M. smegmatis in the dry powder state following a single spray drying operation and after four consecutive spray drying operations. These differences, and other phenotypical differences, point to the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway as a probable pathway contributing to bacteria survival in the spray-dried state and suggests strategies for spray drying that may lead to significantly greater room-temperature stability of mycobacteria, including mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, the current TB vaccine.
The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.
Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...
Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik
Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...
Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Zijlstra, Mark; Broekhuis, Antonius A.
Amorphous thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were produced by compression moulding of solution spray-dried TPS powder and by direct solution casting. Oxidised potato starch was used as a feedstock for production of plasticised formulations containing glycerol or urea, or their combinations with
Lim, Kar; Ma, Mitzi; Dolan, Kirk D
The effect of spray drying on degradation of nutraceutical components in cull blueberry extract was investigated. Samples collected before and after spray drying were tested for antioxidant capacity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL) ) and total phenolics; and for individual anthocyanidins. In Study 1, four different levels of maltodextrin (blueberry solids to maltodextrin ratios of 5: 95, 10: 90, 30: 70, and 50: 50) were spray dried a pilot-scale spray dryer. There was significantly higher retention of nutraceutical components with increased levels of maltodextrin indicating a protective effect of maltodextrin on the nutraceutical components during spray drying. In Study 2, the air inlet temperature of the spray dryer was kept constant for all runs at 150 °C, with 2 different outlet temperatures of 80 and 90 °C. The degradation of nutraceutical components was not significantly different at the 2 selected outlet temperatures. ORAC(FL) reduction for blueberry samples after spray drying was 66.3% to 69.6%. After spray drying, total phenolics reduction for blueberry was 8.2% to 17.5%. Individual anthocyanidin reduction for blueberry was 50% to 70%. The experimental spray dried powders compared favorably to commercial blueberry powders. Results of the study show that use of blueberry by-products is feasible to make a value-added powder. Results can be used by producers to estimate final nutraceutical content of spray-dried blueberry by-products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Hu, Jun; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H
Utilization of sugars (e.g. lactose, sucrose) as matrix formers for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions is associated with two drawbacks: (1) sugars are incapable of preventing agglomeration of drug nanoparticles (NPs) in the suspension state; and (2) the spray-dried sugars are usually amorphous and hygroscopic. This work aimed to apply a clay, montmorillonite (MMT) as an alternative matrix former for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions with fenofibrate (feno) as a model compound. Drug nanosuspensions were synthesized by liquid antisolvent precipitation with different amount of MMT followed by spray drying. It is found that MMT is able to reduce the agglomeration of drug nanoparticles in the suspension state, as observed from the gradual alleviation of the clogging with the increased clay during the spray drying. The spray-dried feno NPs/MMT powders exhibited a much lower moisture sorption than spray-dried feno NPs/lactose powders as evidenced by the dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) analysis. The dissolution within 5 min for the spray-dried feno NPs/MMT powders at drug:MMT weight ratio of 1:3 was 81.4 ± 1.8% and the total dissolution within 60 min was 93.4 ± 0.9%. Our results demonstrate that MMT is a useful matrix former for preservation of the high dissolution rate of nanosized drug particles after drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The work presented in this thesis concerns wall deposits encountered in spray drying caused by products that exhibit so-called 'stickiness'. The thesis delves into the understanding of the phenomenon of sticky wall deposits in spray drying and proposes a simple criterion for use in industrial...... design of spray dryers. The experimental work centers around a new technique for measuring when, during drying, a particle becomes non-sticky based on a single droplet drying technique used to study drying kinetics. An acoustic levitator is used to dry a levitated droplet in conditions similar to those...... a droplet would encounter in a spray dryer. The droplet is recorded using a CCD-camera during drying and the subsequent stickiness test. After a user-specifed drying time a piston strikes the partially dried particle at a user-specifed velocity. After the impact the piston surface is inspected...
Lallbeeharry, P; Tian, Y; Fu, N; Wu, W D; Woo, M W; Selomulya, C; Chen, X D
Mixing surfactants with whole milk feed before spray drying could be a commercially favorable approach to produce instant whole milk powders in a single step. Pure whole milk powders obtained directly from spray drying often have a high surface fat coverage (up to 98%), rendering them less stable during storage and less wettable upon reconstitution. Dairy industries often coat these powders with lecithin, a food-grade surfactant, in a secondary fluidized-bed drying stage to produce instant powders. This study investigated the changes in wetting behavior on the surface of a whole milk particle caused by the addition of surfactants before drying. Fresh whole milk was mixed with 0.1% (wt/wt) Tween 80 or 1% (wt/wt) lecithin (total solids), and the wetting behavior of the shell formed by each sample was captured using a single-droplet drying device at intermediate drying stages as the shell was forming. The addition of surfactants improved shell wettability from the beginning of shell formation, producing more wettable milk particles after drying. The increase in surfactant loading by 10 times reduced the wetting time from around 30s to 30s). We proposed that Tween 80 could adsorb at the oil-water interface of fat globules, making the surface fat more wettable, whereas lecithin tends to combine with milk proteins to form a complex, which then competes for the air-water surface with fat globules. Spray-drying experiments confirmed the greatly improved wettability of whole milk powders by the addition of either 0.1% (wt/wt) Tween 80 or 1% (wt/wt) lecithin; wetting time was reduced from 35±4s to drying system has been used to elucidate the complex interactions between ionic or nonionic surfactants and milk components (both proteins and fat), as well as the resultant effect on the development of milk particle functionality during drying. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, S Y; Kao, Y H
Sodium diclofenac enteric-coated microcapsules were prepared by a spray-drying technique with Eudragit L 30D as enteric-coating material. The spray-dried powder, mixed with neocel or flo-starch, or the mixture of neocel and flo-starch (weight ratio, 1:1) was directly compressed into a tablet. The micromeritic properties of the spray-dried powder and the mixed powder for tableting were investigated. The flowability of the spray-dried powder was poor but improved after incorporating the excipients. The release rates of sodium diclofenac from the spray-dried powder, the mixed powder before tableting, and the tablets were determined in 0.1 N HCl solution, pH 6.8, phosphate buffer solution, distilled water, and pH-changed medium. The results indicated that the spray-dried powder, the mixed powder before tableting, and the tablets all exhibited enteric-coated release properties; these powders and tablets showed some resistance to stimulated gastric acid and then released drug more rapidly in pH 6.8 buffer solution. The weight ratio of neocel to flo-starch plays an important role in controlling the release of sodium diclofenac from enteric tablets. The 1:1 weight ratio of neocel to flo-starch was more suitable for designing the microdispersed sodium diclofenac enteric-coated tablets.
Walsh, David; Serrano, Dolores R; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Norris, Brid A; Healy, Anne Marie
Spray drying is a well-established scale-up technique for the production of cocrystals. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of introducing a third component into the feed solution during the spray drying process has never been investigated. Cocrystal formation in the presence of a third component by a one-step spray drying process has the potential to reduce the number of unit operations which are required to produce a final pharmaceutical product (e.g. by eliminating blending with excipient). Sulfadimidine (SDM), a poorly water soluble active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4ASA), a hydrophilic molecule, were used as model drug and coformer respectively to form cocrystals by spray drying in the presence of a third component (excipient). The solubility of the cocrystal in the excipient was measured using a thermal analysis approach. Trends in measured solubility were in agreement with those determined by calculated Hansen Solubility Parameter (HSP) values. The ratio of cocrystal components to excipient was altered and cocrystal formation at different weight ratios was assessed. Cocrystal integrity was preserved when the cocrystal components were immiscible with the excipient, based on the difference in Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP). For immiscible systems (difference in HSP > 9.6 MPa 0.5 ), cocrystal formation occurred even when the proportion of excipient was high (90% w/w). When the excipient was partly miscible with the cocrystal components, cocrystal formation was observed post spray drying, but crystalline API and coformer were also recovered in the processed powder. An amorphous dispersion was formed when the excipient was miscible with the cocrystal components even when the proportion of excipient used as low (10% w/w excipient). For selected spray dried cocrystal-excipient systems an improvement in tableting characteristics was observed, relative to equivalent physical mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier
Hulse, Wendy L; Forbes, Robert T; Bonner, Michael C; Getrost, Matthias
Following the production of spray-dried mannitol powders, it is essential that the polymorphic content of each individual product is completely characterized. The implications of the polymorphic behavior of mannitol are immense. The appearance or disappearance of a crystalline form within a dosage form can have costly repercussions and lead to a dosage form being withdrawn. In this study, commercially available and laboratory-produced spray-dried mannitol products were characterized to establish the polymorphic content of each. Their polymorphic behavior was also characterized after laboratory scale pharmaceutical processes. Thermal analysis employed differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and isothermal microcalorimetry. Structural analysis of the samples was obtained using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Structural analysis revealed that alpha- and beta- polymorphic forms were present in the commercial samples and some contained a mixture of polymorphs. Reprocessing employing spray drying indicated alpha- to beta- polymorphic transitions occurred within some of the samples. It is essential that preformulation studies where spray-dried mannitol products are to be employed must take into account its polymorphic behavior upon supply, processing, and subsequent storage.
Nirmala Efri Hasibuan; Thamrin Thamrin; Yugia Muis
.... Production of fish oil using soxhletation extraction method with n-hexane for 6 hours. Manufactured of fish oil powder made by spray drying method using a coating material maltodextrin and gum arabic with a few variations...
Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P
The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler...
Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.
Craye, Goedele; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger
-amorphous mixture upon ball milling. In addition, a spray-dried formulation of SVS without LYS was prepared. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that SLS coated the SVS and SVS-LYS particles upon spray drying. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed......In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin-lysine (SVS-LYS) at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co...... the studied formulations were able to significantly extend the stability of amorphous SVS compared to previous co-amorphous formulations of SVS. The best stability (at least 12 months in dry conditions) was observed when SLS was spray-dried with SVS (and LYS). In conclusion, spray drying of SVS and LYS from...
Park, Curtis W; Stout, Mark A; Drake, MaryAnne
Unit operations during production influence the sensory properties of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and milk protein concentrate (MPC). Off-flavors in dried dairy ingredients decrease consumer acceptance of ingredient applications. Previous work has shown that spray-drying parameters affect physical and sensory properties of whole milk powder and whey protein concentrate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inlet temperature and feed solids concentration on the flavor of NFDM and MPC 70% (MPC70). Condensed skim milk (50% solids) and condensed liquid MPC70 (32% solids) were produced using pilot-scale dairy processing equipment. The condensed products were then spray dried at either 160, 210, or 260°C inlet temperature and 30, 40, or 50% total solids for NFDM and 12, 22, or 32% for MPC70 in a randomized order. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the NFDM and MPC70 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses. Surface free fat, particle size, and furosine were also analyzed. Both main effects (30, 40, and 50% solids and 160, 210, and 260°C inlet temperature) and interactions between solids concentration and inlet temperature were investigated. Interactions were not significant. In general, results were consistent for NFDM and MPC70. Increasing inlet temperature and feed solids concentration increased sweet aromatic flavor and decreased cardboard flavor and associated lipid oxidation products. Increases in furosine with increased inlet temperature and solids concentration indicated increased Maillard reactions during drying. Particle size increased and surface free fat decreased with increasing inlet temperature and solids concentration. These results demonstrate that increasing inlet temperatures and solids concentration during spray drying decrease off-flavor intensities in NFDM and MPC70 even though the heat treatment is greater compared with low temperature and low solids. Copyright © 2016 American
Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez; Irma G. López-Muraira; Juan F. Goméz-Leyva; Guadalupe Luna-Solano; Rosa I. Ortíz-Basurto; Isaac Andrade-González
In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray dryi...
Bohr, Adam; Ruge, Christian A; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz
and can offer controlled drug release. There are numerous methods for producing therapeutic nanoparticles, each with their own advantages and suitable application. Liquid atomization techniques such as spray drying can produce nanoparticle formulations in a dry powder form suitable for pulmonary...... administration in a direct one-step process. This chapter describes the different state-of-the-art techniques used to prepare drug nanoparticles (with special emphasize on spray drying techniques) and the strategies for administering such unique formulations to the pulmonary environment.......Advances in preparation technologies for nanomedicines have provided novel formulations for pulmonary drug delivery. Application of drugs via the lungs can be considered as one of the most attractive implementations of nanoparticles for therapeutic use due to the unique anatomy and physiology...
Hogan, S; O’Callaghan, D.
International audience; The potentially negative effects of low molecular weight disaccharides, especially lactose, on spray-drying efficiency and storage stability of dairy powders are often counterbalanced by the presence of intact milk proteins. Hydrolysis of proteins, however, may impair such protective effects and contribute to a loss in production performance. Hydrolysed or non-hydrolysed whey protein/lactose (WP/L) dispersions were spray dried, in order to examine the effects of protei...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This purpose of this project is to develop a spray drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine....
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...
Maria Paula G. Peixoto
Full Text Available Aqueous extract from seeds of Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, obtained by dynamic maceration was spray-dried and characterized by its physico-chemical and antihyperglycaemic action. The extract showed to possess high amount of polyphenols, significant in vitro free radical scavenger activity using the DPPH method and an antihyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced experimental diabetes. S. cumini spray-dried extracts were obtained using silicon dioxide and cassava starch as adjuvants. The powders showed acceptable flowability, compactability, and low hygroscopicity at 43% relative humidity. Besides, the spray-dried extracts showed in vivo antihyperglycaemic and in vitro scavenger activity comparable to the lyophilized extract. Thus, experimental data indicates that the extract from S. cumini has a relevant activity and that spray-drying could be adequately used to perform the technological processing of S. cumini fluid extracts.
Maria Paula G. Peixoto
Full Text Available Aqueous extract from seeds of Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, obtained by dynamic maceration was spray-dried and characterized by its physico-chemical and antihyperglycaemic action. The extract showed to possess high amount of polyphenols, significant in vitro free radical scavenger activity using the DPPH method and an antihyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced experimental diabetes. S. cumini spray-dried extracts were obtained using silicon dioxide and cassava starch as adjuvants. The powders showed acceptable flowability, compactability, and low hygroscopicity at 43% relative humidity. Besides, the spray-dried extracts showed in vivo antihyperglycaemic and in vitro scavenger activity comparable to the lyophilized extract. Thus, experimental data indicates that the extract from S. cumini has a relevant activity and that spray-drying could be adequately used to perform the technological processing of S. cumini fluid extracts.
Pekka Pajander, Jari; Matero, Sanni Elina; Sloth, Jakob
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. METHODS: A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet....../particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X......-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. RESULTS: XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis...
Jensen, Ditte Marie Krohn; Cun, Dongmei; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Frokjaer, Sven; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla
Local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs constitutes a promising new area in drug delivery. The present study evaluated parameters of importance for spray drying of siRNA-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) into nanocomposite microparticles intended for inhalation. The spray drying process was optimised using a statistical design of experiment and by evaluating powder characteristics upon systematic variation of the formulation parameters. Concentration, carbohydrate excipient (trehalose, lactose and mannitol) and the ratio of NP to excipient were varied to monitor the effects on moisture content, particle morphology, particle size and powder yield. The identified optimum conditions were applied for spray drying of siRNA-loaded nanocomposite microparticles, resulting in a product with a low water content (0.78% w/w) and an aerodynamic particle diameter considered suitable for inhalation. The use of mannitol in the formulation allowed a significantly lower moisture content than trehalose and lactose. The inclusion of 50% (w/w) or higher amounts of NPs resulted in a marked change in the surface morphology of the spray-dried particles. Importantly, the integrity and biological activity of the siRNA were preserved during the spray drying process. In conclusion, the present results show that spray drying is a suitable technique for producing nanocomposite microparticles comprising siRNA-containing PLGA NPs for potential use in inhalation therapy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hu, Liandong; Hu, Qiaofeng; Yang, Chenchen
In this study a new soluble solid curcumin nanoemulsion powder was prepared using spray-drying technology to improve the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. The liquid nanoemulsion consisted of curcumin, Capryol 90, Transcutol P, and Cremophor RH40. The solid nanoemulsion was prepared by spray-drying the liquid nanoemulsion in laboratory spray dryer, using lactose as solid carrier. The in vitro release from powder formulation was 97.6% within 15 min while the release from the curcumin crystalline was about 10%. An oral pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats and the relative bioavailability of spray-dried curcumin powder significantly increased compared with that of curcumin crystalline. The Cmax value of solid curcumin nanoemulsion powder was 5.5-fold greater than the value of the curcumin crystalline in aqueous suspension. The absorption mechanism of the spray-dried curcumin powders was discussed. The results indicate that spray-drying in combination with nanoemulsion was a powerful methodology for improving the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of curcumin.
Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre
Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Zijlstra, Mark; Broekhuis, Antonius A.
Retrogradation of amorphous thermoplastic starch (TPS) films obtained by compression moulding of spray dried amorphous powder was investigated. The aim of the work was to study the influence of malto-oligosaccharide molecular weight, i.e. dextrose equivalents (DEs), on the performance of the powders
Tan, Sing Pei; Kha, Tuyen Chan; Parks, Sophie; Stathopoulos, Costas; Roach, Paul D
Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R² > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4%) and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4%) and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying.
Sing Pei Tan
Full Text Available Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD and gum Arabic (GA. The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > 0.87. The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1 and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4% and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4% and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying.
Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Torab, Mansour; Khattab, Mostafa; Homayouni, Alireza; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi
Objective(s): This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water) of acetaminophen (5% w/v) in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight) was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape) to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties. PMID:24379968
Full Text Available Objective(s: This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water of acetaminophen (5% w/v in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties.
Kumar, Sumit; Xu, Xiaoming; Gokhale, Rajeev; Burgess, Diane J
Nanocrystalline suspensions offer a promising approach to improve dissolution of BCS class II/IV compounds. Spray drying was utilized as a downstream process to improve the physical and chemical stability of dried nanocrystals. The effect of nanocrystalline suspension formulation variables on spray-drying processing was investigated. Naproxen and indomethacin nanocrystalline formulations were formulated with either Dowfax 2A1 (small molecule) or HPMC E15 (high molecular weight polymer) and spray drying was performed. A DoE approach was utilized to understand the effect of critical formulation variables, i.e. type of stabilizer, type of drug, ratio of drug-to-stabilizer and drug concentration. The powders were analyzed for particle size, moisture content, powder X-ray diffraction and dissolution. A dialysis sac adapter for USP apparatus II was developed which provided good discrimination between aggregated and non-aggregated formulations. Nanocrystal aggregation was dependent on the drug-to-stabilizer ratio. The glass transition temperature and the charge effect played a dominant role on spray-dried powder yield. Those formulations with low drug-to-excipient ratios were less aggregating and showed faster dissolution compared to those formulations with high drug-to-excipient ratios. All stable (less aggregated) formulations were subjected to accelerated storage stability testing. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (between drug and excipients) correlated with the spray-dried nanocrystal formulations stability. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bianco, Stefano; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Nolan, Lorraine; Hu, Yun; Healy, Anne Marie
Solid-state characterisation of a drug following pharmaceutical processing and upon storage is fundamental to successful dosage form development. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using different solvents, feed concentrations and spray drier configuration on the solid-state nature of the highly polymorphic model drug, sulfathiazole (ST) and its sodium salt (STNa). The drugs were spray-dried from ethanol, acetone and mixtures of these organic solvents with water. Additionally, STNa was spray-dried from pure water. The physicochemical properties including the physical stability of the spray-dried powders were compared to the unprocessed materials. Spray drying of ST from either acetonic or ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in a closed cycle mode yielded crystalline powders. In contrast, the powders obtained from ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in an open cycle mode were amorphous. Amorphous ST crystallised to pure form I at ≤35 % relative humidity (RH) or to polymorphic mixtures at higher RH values. The usual crystal habit of form I is needle-like, but spherical particles of this polymorph were generated by spray drying. STNa solutions resulted in an amorphous material upon processing, regardless of the solvent and the spray drier configuration employed. Moisture induced crystallisation of amorphous STNa to a sesquihydrate, whilst crystallisation upon heating gave rise to a new anhydrous polymorph. This study indicated that control of processing and storage parameters can be exploited to produce drugs with a specific/desired solid-state nature.
Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy
Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF resins can be spray dried to obtain resins in powder form and indefinite shelf-life. Application as particleboard adhesives of such resins after redissolving them in water does yield resins of excellent performance as particleboard adhesives if the natural advancement caused by the heat in the spray-drier chamber is taken into account. CP MAS 13C NMR analysis of the spray-dried resin in powder form and thermomechanical analysis has shown some difference in behaviour in relation to MUF resins of the same level of water tolerance which have not been spray-dried. These small but significant differences can be ascribed to differences in resin structure.
Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik
In 2015 the milk quota system in the European Union will be completely liberalized. As a result, analysts expect production of skimmed and whole milk powder to increase by 5-6% while its price will decline by about 6-7%. Multi-stage spray drying is the prime process for the production of food...... powders. The process is highly energy consuming and capacity depends among other factors on correct control of the dryer. Consequently efficient control and optimization of the spray drying process has become increasingly important to accommodate the future market challenges. The goal of the presentation...... is to present our results regarding modeling of the process and how the efficiency and protability can be lifted by introducing an economic optimizing MPC scheme. Firstly, we develop a first-principle engineering model that can be used to simulate spray drying processes with high accuracy. The model can...
The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, and dissolution rate as well as by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and Fourier .... Thermal analysis. The DSC thermogram of pure ABZ (Fig. 2 A) shows an endothermic peak at 218 ºC with a shoulder at 198 oC due to drug melting , while KL exhibits a ...
Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Brocchini, Steve; Buckton, Graham
The use of solid dispersions for oral dosage forms can increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Spray drying is one process that can be used to prepare solid dispersions. Spray dried solid dispersions of griseofulvin, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared from acetone and water. When methanol was substituted for water, the morphology, stability and dissolution properties of the solid dispersion changed dramatically. The glass transition temperature for the ternary solid dispersion (GF, PHPMA, and PVP) shifted from 83 degrees C (acetone/water) to 103 degrees C for the acetone/methanol system. These differences in the dispersions are thought to derive from conformational variations of the polymers in solution prior to spray drying. Both PHPMA and PVP formed globules in solution of a size range between 16 and 33 nm. The effect of drug and polymer concentration in solution (before spray drying) on the properties of the solid dispersion was studied. It was found that solid dispersions that were prepared using lower concentrations of drug and polymers in solutions resulted in the formation of particles that display a lower relaxation rate. This result supports the hypothesis that the polymer conformation may significantly change the properties of the solid dispersion. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association
Maurer, S.; Ghebremedhin, M.; Zielbauer, B. I.; Knorr, D.; Vilgis, T. A.
The food industry has discovered that oleosomes are beneficial as carriers of bioactive ingredients. Oleosomes are subcellular oil droplets typically found in plant seeds. Within seeds, they exist as pre-emulsified oil high in unsaturated fatty acids, stabilised by a monolayer of phospholipids and proteins, called oleosins. Oleosins are anchored into the oil core with a hydrophobic domain, while the hydrophilic domains remain on the oleosome surface. To preserve the nutritional value of the oil and the function of oleosomes, microencapsulation by means of spray drying is a promising technique. For the microencapsulation of oleosomes, maltodextrin was used. To achieve a high oil encapsulation efficiency, optimal process parameters needed to be established. In order to better understand the mechanisms of drying behind powder formation and the associated powder properties, the findings obtained using different microscopic and spectroscopic measurements were correlated with each other. By doing this, it was found that spray drying of pure oleosome emulsions resulted in excessive component segregation and thus in a poor encapsulation efficiency. With the addition of maltodextrin, the oil encapsulation efficiency was significantly improved.
Ganesh. M; Ramesh. K; Madhusudan Rao. Y; Chandra Shekar. B
In present study, immediate release solid dispersion formulation of Entacapone with various lipids was developed using spray drying method. Entacapone is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa therapy. Based on the process feasibility and solubility of resulting spray dried powder, formulation ENSD10 was selected for characterization and analyzed for in vitro dissolution profiles in three different pH media. The particle size of Entacapone ...
1971-01-01Many workers have observed that under standardized conditions only part of the fat present in spray-dried milk can be extracted by fat solvents. This fat is usually called 'free fat' and has been related to other powder properties which are of practical importance.Contradictory results
Patel, Bhavesh B.; Patel, Jayvadan K.; Chakraborty, Subhashis; Shukla, Dali
Poor solubility and bioavailability of an existing or newly synthesized drug always pose challenge in the development of efficient pharmaceutical formulation. Numerous technologies can be used to improve the solubility and among them amorphous solid dispersion based spray drying technology can be successfully useful for development of product from lab scale to commercial scale with a wide range of powder characteristics. Current review deals with the importance of spray drying technology in drug delivery, basically for solubility and bioavailability enhancement. Role of additives, selection of polymer, effect of process and formulation parameters, scale up optimization, and IVIVC have been covered to gain the interest of readers about the technology. Design of experiment (DoE) to optimize the spray drying process has been covered in the review. A lot more research work is required to evaluate spray drying as a technology for screening the right polymer for solid dispersion, especially to overcome the issue related to drug re-crystallization and to achieve a stable product both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the recent FDA recommendation, the need of the hour is also to adopt Quality by Design approach in the manufacturing process to carefully optimize the spray drying technology for its smooth transfer from lab scale to commercial scale. PMID:27134535
Luiza T. Chaul
Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 33 Box–Behnken design and Response Surface Methodology were performed to evaluate the influence of extract feed rate, drying air inlet temperature and spray nozzle airflow rate on the process yield, stability parameters (moisture content and water activity and on several physicomechanical properties of spray-dried rosemary extracts. Powder yield ranged from 17.1 to 74.96%. The spray-dried rosemary extracts showed moisture content and water activity below 5% and 0.5%, respectively, which indicate their chemical and microbiological stabilities. Even without using drying aids, some sets of experimental conditions rendered dried products with suitable flowability and compressibility characteristics for direct preparation of solid dosage forms. Analysis of variance and Response Surface Methodology proved that studied factors significantly affected most of the spray-dried rosemary extract quality indicators at different levels. The main processing parameter affecting the spray-dried rosemary extract characteristics was inlet temperature. The best combination of parameters used to obtain a reasonable yield of stable dry rosemary extracts with adequate technological properties for pharmaceutical purpose involves an extract feed rate of 2 ml/min, 80 °C inlet temperature and 40 l/min SA. The design of experiments approach is an interesting strategy for engineering spray-dried rosemary extracts with improved characteristics for pharmaceutical industrial purpose.
Afkhami, Sam; LeClair, Daniel A; Haddadi, Siamak; Lai, Rocky; Toniolo, Steven P; Ertl, Hildegund C; Cranston, Emily D; Thompson, Michael R; Xing, Zhou
Cold chain-free vaccine technologies are needed to ensure effective vaccine delivery and coverage, particularly in resource-poor countries. However, the immunogenicity and thermostability of spray dried live viral vector-based vaccines such as recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccines remain to be investigated. To address this issue, we have spray dried human adenoviral (AdHu5)- and chimpanzee adenoviral (AdCh68)-vectored tuberculosis vaccines in a mannitol and dextran matrix. Spray dried powders containing these two vaccines display the morphologic and chemical properties desired for long-term thermostability and vaccination. Upon reconstitution, they effectively transfected the cells in vitro with relatively small losses in viral infectivity related to the spray drying process. Following in vivo vaccination, AdHu5- and AdCh68-vectored vaccines were as immunogenic as the conventional fresh, cryopreserved liquid vaccine samples. Of importance, even after cold chain-free storage, at ambient temperatures and relatively low humidity for 30 and 90days, the vaccines retained their in vivo immunogenicity, while the liquid vaccine samples stored under the same conditions lost their immune-activating capability almost entirely. Our results support further development of our spray drying technologies for generating thermally stable adenoviral-vectored and other viral-vectored vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761
Mangal, Sharad; Nie, Haichen; Xu, Rongkun; Guo, Rui; Cavallaro, Alex; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Zhou, Qi Tony
Inhalation therapy is popular to treat lower respiratory tract infections. Azithromycin is effective against some bacteria that cause respiratory tract infections; but it has poor water solubility that may limit its efficacy when administrated as inhalation therapy. In this study, dry powder inhaler formulations were developed by co-spray drying azithromycin with L-leucine with a purpose to improve dissolution. The produced powder formulations were characterized regarding particle size, morphology, surface composition and in-vitro aerosolization performance. Effects of L-leucine on the solubility and in-vitro dissolution of azithromycin were also evaluated. The spray dried azithromycin alone formulation exhibited a satisfactory aerosol performance with a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 62.5 ± 4.1%. Addition of L-leucine in the formulation resulted in no significant change in particle morphology and FPF, which can be attributed to enrichment of azithromycin on the surfaces of composite particles. Importantly, compared with the spray-dried amorphous azithromycin alone powder, the co-spray dried powder formulations of azithromycin and L-leucine demonstrated a substantially enhanced in-vitro dissolution rate. Such enhanced dissolution of azithromycin could be attributed to the formation of composite system and the acidic microenvironment around azithromycin molecules created by the dissolution of acidic L-leucine in the co-spray dried powder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data showed intermolecular interactions between azithromycin and L-leucine in the co-spray dried formulations. We developed the dry powder formulations with satisfactory aerosol performance and enhanced dissolution for a poorly water soluble weak base, azithromycin, by co-spray drying with an amino acid, L-leucine.
Bohr, Adam; Ruge, Christian A; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz
Advances in preparation technologies for nanomedicines have provided novel formulations for pulmonary drug delivery. Application of drugs via the lungs can be considered as one of the most attractive implementations of nanoparticles for therapeutic use due to the unique anatomy and physiology of the lungs. The colloidal nature of nanoparticles provides important advantages to the formulation of drugs, which are normally difficult to administer due to poor stability or uptake, partly because nanoparticles protect the drug from the physiological milieu, facilitate transport across biological barriers and can offer controlled drug release. There are numerous methods for producing therapeutic nanoparticles, each with their own advantages and suitable application. Liquid atomization techniques such as spray drying can produce nanoparticle formulations in a dry powder form suitable for pulmonary administration in a direct one-step process. This chapter describes the different state-of-the-art techniques used to prepare drug nanoparticles (with special emphasize on spray drying techniques) and the strategies for administering such unique formulations to the pulmonary environment.
Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam
Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.
Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.
Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Bohr, Adam; Aragão-Santiago, Leticia; Klingl, Andreas; Kissel, Thomas
The current study reports the preparation and characterization of sildenafil-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microparticles (MPs) by means of vibrational spray-drying. Emphasis was placed on relevant formulation and process parameters with influence on the properties of obtained powders. Materials and methods, results and discussion: The solid state solubility of sildenafil in spray-dried PLGA-MPs amounted to 17 wt.%. Thus, a drug loading below and above the determined solubility limit resulted in solid solutions and phase separation (i.e. solid dispersions), respectively. Furthermore, interactions between sildenafil and the PLGA matrix were observed for the spray-dried MPs. Optimization of spray-drying conditions allowed for a fabrication of defined MPs (size range of ∼4-8 μm) displaying a high sildenafil encapsulation efficiency (>90%) and sustained sildenafil release (from ∼4 to >12 h). The individual drug release rates from the spray-dried formulations were mainly a function of the drug loading, applied polymer and MP size. Finally, a scale-up of the preparation process did not result in a relevant change of the physicochemical and in vitro drug release properties of the prepared powders. Identification of relevant formulation and spray-drying parameters enabled the fabrication of tailored sildenafil-loaded PLGA-based MPs, which meet the needs of the individual application (e.g. controlled drug delivery to the lungs).
Eldridge, Joshua A; Repko, Debra; Mumper, Russell J
The purpose of these studies was to determine if a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (Büchi Corporation, New Castle, DE, USA) could be used to prepare blackberry extract powders containing mannitol as a thermoprotectant without extensively degrading anthocyanins and polyphenols in the resulting powders. Three blackberry puree extract samples were each prepared by sonication of puree in 30/70% ethanol/water containing 0.003% HCl. Blackberry puree extract sample 1 (S1) contained no mannitol, while blackberry puree extract sample 2 (S2) contained 3.0:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract, and blackberry puree extract sample 3 (S3) contained 6.3:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract. The levels of anthocyanins and polyphenols in reconstituted spray-dried powders produced from S1-S3 were compared to solutions of S1-S3 that were held at 4°C as controls. All extract samples could be spray-dried using the Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290. S1, with no mannitol, showed a 30.8% decrease in anthocyanins and a 24.1% decrease in polyphenols following spray-drying. However, S2 had a reduction in anthocyanins of only 13.8%, while polyphenols were reduced by only 6.1%. S3, with a ratio of mannitol to berry extract of 6.3:1, exhibited a 12.5% decrease in anthocyanins while the decrease in polyphenols after spray-drying was not statistically significant (P=.16). Collectively, these data indicate that a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 is a suitable platform for producing stable berry extract powders, and that mannitol is a suitable thermoprotectant that facilitates retention of thermosensitive polyphenolic species in berry extracts during spray-drying.
Isela A. Flores-Belmont
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus that had been simple or double spray dried using chitosan to cause microencapsulation and which had been exposed to model gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the study also determined the physicochemical properties of the powder containing the microencapsulated probiotic.Chitosan-inulin or chitosan-maltodextrin (1:15 or 1:25 solutions were inoculated with 1012 cfu mL-1 of L. acidophilus, for simple microencapsulation. The different solutions were dried using a spray dryer with an inlet air temperature of 130°C and a solution flux of 4.8 g min-1. A two-step process was used for the double microencapsulation. In the first step, the probiotic was added to a gelatin-maltodextrin (1:25 solution and then spray dried; for the second step, the microencapsulated probiotic was added to a chitosan-inulin or chitosan-maltodextrin (1:25 solution and then it was spray dried again.With the simple microencapsulated probiotic, a microbial reduction of 7 log cycles was obtained. With the double microencapsulated probiotic only 3 log reductions were achieved. The double microencapsulated probiotic thus demonstrated greater resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The powders produced were shown to have water activity values of 0.176 - 0.261 at 25 °C and moisture content of 0.8 – 1.0%, which are characteristic of spray dried products. The bulk density was significantly (p < 0.05 lower (300 kg m-3 for simple than for double (400 kg m-3 microencapsulated probiotic powders. Solubility and dispersibility of the powder microcapsules were better at lower pH values.Double microencapsulation using a process of spray drying is therefore recommended for probiotics, thus exploiting chitosan’s insolubility in water, which can be applied for the of development food products.
Sun, Wei; Ni, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui
Spray drying experiments of an itraconazole nanosuspension were conducted to generate a dry nanocrystal powder which was subsequently formulated into a tablet formulation for direct compression. The nanosuspension was prepared by high pressure homogenization and characterized for particle-size distribution and surface morphology. A central composite statistical design approach was applied to identify the optimal drug-to-excipient ratio and spray drying temperature. It was demonstrated that the spray drying of a nanosuspension with a mannitol-to-drug mass ratio of 4.5 and at an inlet temperature of 120 °C resulted in a dry powder with the smallest increase in particle size as compared with that of the nanosuspension. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystalline structure of the drug was not altered during the spray-drying process. The tablet formulation was identified by determining the micromeritic properties such as flowability and compressibility of the powder mixtures composed of the spray dried nanocrystal powder and other commonly used direct compression excipients. The dissolution rate of the nanocrystal tablets was significantly enhanced and was found to be comparable to that of the marketed Sporanox®. No statistically significant difference in oral absorption between the nanocrystal tablets and Sporanox® capsules was found. In conclusion, the nanosuspension approach is feasible to improve the oral absorption of a BCS Class II drug in a tablet formulation and capable of achieving oral bioavailability equivalent to other well established oral absorption enhancement method.
Tran, Tuan Hiep; Poudel, Bijay K; Marasini, Nirmal; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh
The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, raloxifene by solid dispersion (SD) nanoparticles using the spray-drying technique. These spray-dried SD nanoparticles were prepared with raloxifene (RXF), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tween 20 in water. Reconstitution of optimized RXF-loaded SD nanoparticles in pH 1.2 medium showed a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that RXF existed in an amorphous form within spray-dried nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed an enhanced dissolution rate of RXF at pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and distilled water as compared to pure RXF powder. The improved dissolution of raloxifene from spray-dried SD nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced oral bioavailability of raloxifene in rats. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the spray-dried SD nanoparticles showed increased AUC(0-∞) and C(max) of RXF by approximately 3.3-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the preparation of RXF-SD nanoparticles using the spray drying technique without organic solvents might be a promising approach for improving the oral bioavailability of RXF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lintingre, E; Lequeux, F; Talini, L; Tsapis, N
Powders of nanoparticles are volatile, i.e. easily disperse in air, which makes their handling difficult. Granulation of nanoparticle powders provides a solution to that issue, and it is generally performed by spray drying the nanoparticles that have been suspended in a liquid. Spray drying of a colloidal suspension consists of atomising the suspension into droplets by a fast flowing and hot gas. Once the droplets dried, the resulting dry grains/microparticles can be used in a wide range of applications - food, pharmaceutics, fillers, ceramics, etc. It is well known that the grains resulting from spray-drying may be spherical but may also exhibit other diverse morphologies. Although different influencing parameters have been identified, no clear overview can be found in the literature for the driving mechanisms of grain shaping. In the present work, we review the assumptions made in the literature to explain the different morphologies. We analyse the orders of magnitude of the different effects at stake and show that the grain shape does not result from a hydrodynamic instability but is determined by the drying stage. However, we emphasize that neither the drying time nor the associated Péclet number are critical parameters for the determination of shape morphology. In light of those results, we also review and discuss the single droplet experiments developed to mimic spray drying. Generalising our previous works, we further analyse how the control of morphology can be achieved by tuning the colloidal interactions in the suspension. We detail the model we have developed that relates the colloidal interaction potential to a critical pressure exerted by the solvent as it flows, and we provide a quantitative prediction of the grain shape. Finally, we offer perspectives with regard to spray drying of systems such as molecular solutions, widely performed in e.g. the pharmaceutical industry.
Kalab, Miloslav; Caric, Marijana; Zaher, Mansour; Harwalkar, V. R.
Retentates containing 20, 27, and 34% total solids, obtained on commercial scale by the ultrafiltration of milk were spray-dried on laboratory scale using centrifugal atomization and single stage drying with the inlet air temperature of 220 C and the outlet air temperature of 90 C. The protein content in the powders was 31% to 35% compared to 24.8% protein in the control whole-milk powder. Lactose contents were markedly lower in the retentate powders (-10.6%) than in the milk powder (40.4...
Peralta, Guillermo H; Bergamini, Carina V; Audero, Gabriela; Páez, Roxana; Wolf, I Verónica; Perotti, M Cristina; Hynes, Erica R
Spray-drying of lactic cultures provides direct-to-vat starters, which facilitate their commercialization and use. However, this process may alter the metabolic activity and deteriorate technological features. In this work, we assessed the influence of spray-drying on the survival and aroma production of two strains of mesophilic lactobacilli: Lactobacillus paracasei 90 and Lactobacillus plantarum 91, which have already been characterized as good adjunct cultures. The spray-drying was carried out using a laboratory scale spray and the dried cultures were monitored during the storage for the survival rate. The dried cultures were applied to two cheese models: sterile cheese extract and miniature soft cheese. The influence on the carbohydrate metabolism and the production of organic acids and volatile compounds was determined. Both strains retained high levels of viable counts in the powder after drying and during the storage at 5°C for twelve months. In addition, they also remained at high level in both cheese models during incubation or ripening. Similar profiles of carbohydrate fermentation and bioformation of volatile compounds were observed in the cheese extracts for each of the strains when tested as both fresh and dried cultures. In addition, the ability of Lb. paracasei 90 to increase the production of acetoin and diacetyl remarkably in cheese models was also confirmed for the spray-dried culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Secolin, Vanessa A; Souza, Claudia R F; Oliveira, Wanderley P
In this work, spray-dried lipid systems based on soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and lauroyl polyoxylglycerides for entrapping Green tea polyphenols were produced. The aim was to study the effects of the encapsulating composition and spray drying conditions on the system performance and physicochemical product properties. The spray dryer powder production yield falls around 50.7 ± 2.8%, which is typical for lab scale spray dryers. Wrinkled and rounded particles, with low surface porosities were generated, independent of the drying carriers (trehalose or lactose) used. The product showed high encapsulation efficiency of Green tea polyphenols, which was promptly redispersible in water. It presented low density, and good compressive and flow properties. The results herein reported confirm the feasibility of the entrapment of Green tea polyphenols in lipid-based compositions by spray drying in presence of the drying carriers evaluated. The spray-dried microparticles show high potential to be used as additive in food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products.
Pajander, Jari Pekka; Matero, Sanni; Sloth, Jakob; Wan, Feng; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet/particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis, whereas Raman analysis indicated that a mixture of α-mannitol and δ-mannitol was detected in the single particles from DKA. In addition Raman mapping indicated that the presence of lysozyme seemed to favor the appearance of α-mannitol in the particles from DKA evidenced by close proximity of lysozyme and mannitol in the particles. It suggested that the presence of lysozyme tend to induce metastable solid state forms upon the drying process.
Yakes, Betsy Jean; Bergana, Marti M; Scholl, Peter F; Mossoba, Magdi M; Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Ackerman, Luke K; Holton, Jason D; Gao, Boyan; Moore, Jeffrey C
During the development of rapid screening methods to detect economic adulteration, spray-dried milk powders prepared by dissolving melamine in liquid milk exhibited an unexpected loss of characteristic melamine features in the near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectra. To further characterize this "wet-blending" phenomenon, spray-dried melamine and lactose samples were produced as a simplified model and investigated by NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and direct analysis in real time Fourier transform mass spectrometry (DART-FTMS). In contrast to dry-blended samples, characteristic melamine bands in NIR and Raman spectra disappeared or shifted in wet-blended lactose-melamine samples. Subtle shifts in melamine (1)H NMR spectra between wet- and dry-blended samples indicated differences in melamine hydrogen-bonding status. Qualitative DART-FTMS analysis of powders detected a greater relative abundance of lactose-melamine condensation product ions in the wet-blended samples, which supported a hypothesis that wet-blending facilitates early Maillard reactions in spray-dried samples. Collectively, these data indicated that the formation of weak, H bonded complexes and labile, early Maillard reaction products between lactose and melamine contribute to spectral differences observed between wet- and dry-blended milk powder samples. These results have implications for future evaluations of adulterated powders and emphasize the important role of sample preparation methods on adulterant detection.
Edson Francisco do Espírito Santo
Full Text Available The use of colorants in products of animal origin is justified by the improvement in the color of foods since this attribute is considered a quality criterion. These additives can be produced using industrial effluents as substrates and appropriate organisms, such as Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Oxycarotenoids represent a class of carotenes responsible for the pigmentation of animals and vegetables. R. gelatinosus grows in fish industry effluent with the resulting production of a bacterial biomass containing oxycarotenoids. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two drying processes - spray and freeze drying - to obtain powder biomass in terms of the process parameters (yield, productivity, and product recovery and the product characteristics (color, proximate composition, and oxycarotenoids. No difference was detected in the yield between these techniques, while productivity was higher using spray drying. Higher product recovery and moisture were achieved with freeze drying, while ash was higher with spray drying. The freeze dried biomass was redder, darker and less saturated than the spray dried biomass. No difference in oxycarotenoids was detected between the biomasses. Although it results in lower recovery rate, spray drying was faster and more productive, and it provided the same yield as freeze drying, which makes it the method of choice for obtaining R. gelatinosus biomass.O uso de corantes em produtos de origem animal justifica-se pela melhora na cor dos alimentos, uma vez que este atributo é considerado um critério de qualidade. Estes aditivos podem ser produzidos utilizando efluentes industriais como substratos e organismos adequados, como Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Oxicarotenóides representam uma classe de carotenos, responsáveis pela coloração de animais e vegetais. R. gelatinosus cresce em efluente de indústria de pescado produzindo biomassa contendo oxicarotenóides. O objetivo deste experimento foi comparar duas
Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai
The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC.
Jirousek, L.; Spicak, K.
Liquifying agents were investigated for preparation of highly concentrated steatite suspensions which are to be spray-dried. Organic additives for improving the molding properties and strength of green compacts are described. Demands on properties of the spray-dried granules are defined with regard to shrinkage of the molded compacts.
Rassu, G.; Eissens, A. C.; Bolhuis, G. K.
Spray-dried lactose is one of the most widely used filler-binders for direct compaction. The compactibility is a function of both primary particle size and the presence of amorphous lactose. Commercially available spray-dried lactose contains 15-20% amorphous lactose and 80-85% alpha-lactose
Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon
Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this
Zhang, Xinxin; Pan, Weisan; Gan, Li; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong; Nie, Shufang
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are based on mixture of solid lipids with spatially incompatible liquid lipids, which offer advantages of improving drug loading capacity and release properties. In the present study, hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) loaded polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified NLC (PEG-NLC) was prepared by high pressure homogenize and spray drying method. PEG-NLC showed spherical particle with smooth surface in scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. The crystallinity of lipid matrix within PEG-NLC was evaluated by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The less ordered crystals or amorphous state of matrix were found in nanoparticles. A small, homogeneous particle size and high drug loading with fine entrapment efficiency of HCPT was obtained in PEG-NLC system. HCPT releasing from PEG-NLC showed a sustained release trend, and no significantly difference was found between two release curves of PEG-NLC before or after spray drying. After storage for 6 months, PEG-NLC powder after spray drying showed no significantly changes in particle size, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, crystal form and in vitro release. PEG modification statistically decreased the phagocytosis of NLC by RAW 264.7 cells, and spray drying process did not influence the cellular uptake of PEG-NLC. These results suggest that PEG-NLC prepared by spray drying is a stable and high-performance delivery system for HCPT.
Tosh, Susan M.; Farnworth, Edward R; Yolanda Brummer; Duncan, Alison M.; Wright, Amanda J; Boye, Joyce I; Michèle Marcotte; Marzouk Benali
Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because ...
Villela-Castrejón, Javier; Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A
Corn lime cooking generates a large amount of wastewater known as nejayote that is composed of suspended solids and solubilized phytochemicals. Spray drying can be an alternative to recover bioactive molecules, such as ferulic acid, from nejayote. Besides the yield, the physicochemical properties (solubility, water activity, pH, moisture, hygroscopicity, total phenolic content, and distribution of free and bound hydroxycinnamic acids) of spray-dried nejayote powders were analyzed. The powders were obtained at 200 °C/100 °C or 150 °C/75 °C (inlet/outlet) air temperatures with the addition of maltodextrin (MD) or 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HBCD) as encapsulating agents. Even when no carrier agent was used, a spray-dried nejayote powder was produced. The use of MD or HBCD as carrier increased the yield from 60.26% to 68.09% or 71.83%, respectively. As expected, a high inlet temperature (200 °C) allowed a satisfactory yield (>70%) and a low powder moisture (2.5%) desired by the industry. Water activity was reduced from 0.586 to 0.307 when HBCD was used in combination with a drying inlet temperature of 150 °C; and from 0.488 to 0.280 when the inlet temperature was set at 200 °C. Around 100% bioaccessibility of the compounds was observed after in vitro digestion. The addition of HBCD increased the release time (P spray drying technology to the corn industry to minimize their residues and reuse their by-products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Makeenko, A. V.; Larionova, T. V.; Klimova-Korsmik, O. G.; Starykh, R. V.; Galkin, V. V.; Tolochko, O. V.
The use of spray drying to obtain powders of complex oxides with a garnet structure has demonstrated. The processes occurring during heating of the synthesized oxide-salt product, leading to the formation of a material with a garnet structure, have been investigated using DTA, TGA, XPS, and XRD. It has been shown that a single-phase garnet structure of system (Y x Gd(3- x))3Al5O12 can be synthesized over the entire range of compositions.
Zhou, Rong; Chen, Hui; Xie, Yuan; Chen, Peng; Wang, Luo-lin
To investigate the feasibility of spray drying technology of Auricularia auricular extract and its optimum process. On the basis of single factor test, with the yield of dry extract and the content of polysaccharide as indexes, orthogonal test method was used to optimize the spray drying technology on the inlet air temperature, injection speed and crude drug content. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography(TLC) and pharmacodynamics as indicators, extracts prepared by traditional alcohol precipitation drying process and spray drying process were compared. Compared with the traditional preparation method, the extract prepared by spray drying had little differences from the polysaccharide content, TLC and the function of reducing TG and TC, and its optimum technology condition were as follows: The inlet air temperature was 180 °C, injection speed was 10 ml/min and crude drugs content was 0. 4 g/mL. Auricularia auricular extract by spray drying technology is stable and feasible with high economic benefit.
Quigley, J D
Holstein bull calves (n = 120) were fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, or 20% of the formulation (0, 22, or 44% of crude protein) as spray-dried whole egg powder in a 56-d feeding trial. Milk replacer was medicated with oxytetracycline and neomycin and was fed from d 1 to 42 of the study in a phase-fed program. All experimental milk replacers were supplemented with B vitamins, except biotin. One half of all calves were supplemented with 1 mg/kg of supplemental biotin to determine whether avidin in the egg protein product inhibited growth. Increasing spray-dried whole egg caused a linear reduction in body weight, body weight gain at 28 and 56 d of the study, calf starter intake, and feed efficiency. Calves fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, and 20% spray-dried whole egg gained an average of 486, 369, and 302 g/d, respectively, during the 56-d trial. Efficiency of feed utilization was 446, 318, and 231 g of body weight gain per kilogram of dry matter intake. Improvement in body weight and feed efficiency occurred when calves began consuming calf starter on d 29. Digestibility of protein or fat from egg may have been reduced during the trial; however, the addition of biotin to the milk replacer did not influence animal performance, suggesting that avidin in spray-dried whole egg was not responsible for impaired performance. The spray-dried whole egg product used in this study did not provide nutrients to support adequate growth of milk-fed calves.
Can Karaca, Asli; Guzel, Onder; Ak, Mehmet M
Sour cherries are rich in phenolic compounds possessing several health-promoting effects. Processing of sour cherry juice into powder form offers additional advantages such as increased utilization, reduced volume, easier handling and transportation. However, spray drying of fruit juices is difficult owing to their low glass transition temperatures (Tg). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inlet temperature (130-150 °C), feed flow rate in terms of pump setting (30-50%), sour cherry content (25-50% of total dry matter) and carrier type (maltodextrin DE6, maltodextrin DE12, gum arabic) on yield, Tg and total phenolic content (TPC) of spray-dried sour cherry powder. Feed flow rate, sour cherry content and carrier type significantly affected yield and Tg, whereas TPC was affected by sour cherry content and carrier type. The effect of sour cherry content on yield depended on the carrier type. Although gum arabic provided better protection of phenolic content than maltodextrins, it resulted in lower average yield. Spray-dried sour cherry powder with high yield (>85%) and high Tg (60 °C) was obtained using the following conditions: 150 °C inlet temperature, 30% pump setting, 25% sour cherry content and maltodextrin DE12 as carrier. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Context: A functional extract from Lannea microcarpa (Lm, possess interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the unprocessed dried extract occurs as sticky and low-water-soluble material showing critical properties for industrial applications. The unprocessed dried extract is not always enough stable to preserve its functional properties, also giving practical difficulties for the manufacturing. Aims: This research aimed to produce Lm extract microparticles with enhanced functional stability and technological characteristics by spray-drying. Methods: Lm extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying using a sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC based matrix. Physicochemical and technological characteristics (determined by UV, HPLC, LLS, SEM, DSC, and in vitro dissolution tests, as well as antioxidant properties (DPPH-test of the resulting powder (LmC were examined. Results: The produced spray dried microparticles showed satisfying encapsulation efficiency, good functional stability and enhanced technological properties. The selected carrier and process conditions led to a stable and handling microencapsulated powder form with improved water dissolution rate. Moreover, the matrix was also able to preserve the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds-rich extract. Conclusions: The made-up powder resulted in a functional component that can be used with great potential in cosmetics, foods or nutraceutical products.
Influence of Maltodextrin and Spray Drying Process Conditions on Sugarcane Juice Powder Quality / Influencia de la Maltodextrina y Condiciones del Proceso de Secado por Aspersión en la Calidad del Polvo de Jugo de Caña Panelera
Esteban Largo Ávila
Full Text Available Abstract. Food powder liquid extracts obtained from fruits andvegetables can be manufactured using spray drying technologieswhile maintaining the quality attributes that are required by theindustrial sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectof maltodextrin and spray drying process conditions on sugarcanejuice powder. A central composite design was used with a responsesurface analysis of four factors: (A maltodextrin (10-20%, (Binlet air temperature (130-150 °C, (C outlet air temperature (75-85 °C and (D atomization speed (22,000–26,000 rpm. Moisture,hygroscopicity, solubility, effective recovery and formation ofdeposits on the walls presented significant differences (P<0.05with respect to all factors, while, for water activity, no statisticaldifferences were observed. The optimization of the factors foundfor the drying operating conditions were: (A 20%, (B 130 °C, (C75 °C and (D 22,000 rpm, respectively. / Resumen. Polvos alimentarios de extractos líquidos obtenidos apartir de frutas y vegetales pueden ser manufacturados usandotecnologías de secado por aspersión y mantener los atributosde calidad requeridos en el sector industrial. El objetivo de esteestudio fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de maltodextrina y lascondiciones de procesamiento por secado por aspersión en laobtención de polvo de jugo de caña. Un diseño central compuestoy análisis mediante superficies de respuesta con cuatro factoresestadísticos fue establecido: (A maltodextrina (10-20%, (Btemperatura del aire de secado a la entrada (130-150 °C, (Ctemperatura del aire a la salida (75-85 °C y (D velocidad deldisco atomizador (22.000–26.000 rpm. Los resultados mostraronque las variables contenido de humedad del producto, solubilidad,recuperación efectiva y formación de depósitos de sólidos en lapared del secador son estadísticamente significativos (P<0,05 conrespecto a los factores estudiados, mientras que la actividad deagua del producto
Ní Ógáin, Orla
The research, presented in this thesis, concerns the application of a spray-drying method to produce nanoporous/nano-particulate microparticles (NPMPs) of proteins, stabilising excipients and composites. The proposed method, involves spray-drying a solution or suspension of the compound(s) plus possibly a process enhancer (for example, ammonium carbonate) from a co-solvent system consisting of at least two volatile solvents. The potential of NPMPs for inclusion in dry powder formulations for ...
Lundberg, Mats; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Blennow Tullmar, Peter
Mesoporous gadolinium doped cerium dioxide with high surface area was produced by spray drying using Pluronic 123 as surfactant. The powder, when calcined at 400 °C, had a BET surface area of 136 m2 g−1 and was polycrystalline as confirmed by XRD and TEM. XEDS confirmed Ce, Gd and O, as the only ...
LeClair, Daniel A; Cranston, Emily D; Xing, Zhou; Thompson, Michael R
We have produced a thermally stable recombinant human type 5 adenoviral vector (AdHu5) through spray drying with three excipient formulations (l-leucine, lactose/trehalose and mannitol/dextran). Spray drying leads to immobilization of the viral vector which is believed to prevent viral protein unfolding, aggregation and inactivation. The spray dried powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Karl Fischer titrations, and X-ray diffraction to identify the effects of temperature and atmospheric moisture on the immobilizing matrix. Thermal stability of the viral vector was confirmed in vitro by infection of A549 lung epithelial cells. Mannitol/dextran powders showed the greatest improvement in thermal stability with almost no viral activity loss after storage at 20°C for 90days (0.7±0.3 log TCID50) which is a significant improvement over the current -80°C storage protocol. Furthermore, viral activity was retained over short term exposure (72h) to temperatures as high as 55°C. Conversely, all powders exhibited activity loss when subjected to moisture due to amplified molecular motion of the matrix. Overall, a straightforward method ideal for the production of thermally stable vaccines has been demonstrated through spray drying AdHu5 with a blend of mannitol and dextran and storing the powder under low humidity conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Itaciara Larroza Nunes
Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain encapsulated lycopene in a powder form, using either spray-drying or molecular inclusion with beta -cyclodextrin ( beta -CD followed by freeze-drying. The encapsulation efficiency using spray-drying ranged from 94 to 96%, with an average yield of 51%, with microcapsules showing superficial indentations and lack of cracks and breakages. Lycopene- beta -CD complexes were only formed at a molar ratio of 1:4, and irregular structures of different sizes that eventually formed aggregates, similar to those of beta -CD, were observed after freeze-drying. About 50% of the initial lycopene did not form complexes with beta -CD. Lycopene purity increased from 96.4 to 98.1% after spray-drying, whereas lycopene purity decreased from 97.7 to 91.3% after complex formation and freeze-drying. Both the drying processes yielded pale-pink, dry, free-flowing powders.Técnicas de encapsulamento, como "spray-drying" e formação de complexos por inclusão com ciclodextrinas, vêm sendo avaliadas para viabilizar a adição de carotenóides em sistemas hidrofílicos e aumentar a sua estabilidade durante o processamento e estocagem. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi obter licopeno encapsulado na forma de pó, utilizando processos de "spray-drying" ou de inclusão molecular com beta -ciclodextrina (CD seguido de liofilização. A eficiência do encapsulamento utilizando "spray-drying" variou de 94 a 96% e o rendimento médio foi de 51%, com as microcápsulas apresentando indentações superficiais, porém sem falhas ou aberturas na superfície. A formação de complexo licopeno- beta -CD ocorreu apenas quando utilizada razão molar de 1:4, e estruturas irregulares de diferentes tamanhos que eventualmente formaram agregados, similares às da beta -CD, foram observadas após liofilização. O licopeno não complexado neste processo ficou em torno de 50%. A pureza do licopeno (% área do all-trans-licopeno aumentou de 96,4 para 98,1% ap
Watson, Michael A; Lea, Jeanne M; Bett-Garber, Karen L
Microencapsulation protects sensitive nutrients, masks flavors, or enhances delivery. Ratios of maltodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin (20:0, 19:1, and 17:3% w/w) were dissolved in water and mixed with pomegranate juice for spray drying with inlet temperatures of 120, 140, and 160°C. The effects on physical properties (water activity, % water content, color, pH, soluble solids (Brix), and methyl cellulose precipitable tannin assay (MCPTA) were examined. Based on the principle component analysis, formulation influenced color parameters and pH accounted for 46.8% of the variation in the data. Temperature influenced Chroma and water-holding capacity with 31.8% of the variation. The pH of the reconstituted spray-dried powder significantly influenced color. Blending of γ-cyclodextrins to maltodextrins slightly increased the water-holding capacity, increased pH, slightly affected color, and preserved the color over time, slightly better. Increased inlet temperature affected color, decreased water-holding capacity, and decreased astringency index. Small additions of γ-cyclodextrin affect spray-dried powders.
Constanza, Karen E; White, Brittany L; Davis, Jack P; Sanders, Timothy H; Dean, Lisa L
To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol and filtered to remove insoluble material; the soluble extract was spray-dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of procyanidin oligomers (DP2-DP4) but low levels of monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymers. The addition of maltodextrin during spray-drying resulted in the formation of unknown polymeric compounds. Spray-drying also increased the proportion of flavan-3-ols and DP2 procyanidins in the extracts while decreasing larger procyanidins. Spray-dried powders had higher antioxidant capacity and total phenolics and increased solubility compared to milled skins. These data suggest that spray-dried peanut skin extracts may be a good source of natural antioxidants. Additionally, the insoluble material produced during the process may have increased value for use in animal feed due to enrichment of protein and removal of phenolic compounds during extraction.
Gu, Bing; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao
A central composite design approach was applied to study the effect of polymer concentration, inlet temperature and air flow rate on the spray drying process of the Büchi B-90 nano spray dryer (B-90). Hypromellose acetate succinate-LF was used for the Design of Experiment (DoE) study. Statistically significant models to predict the yield, spray rate, and drying efficiency were generated from the study. The spray drying conditions were optimized according to the models to maximize the yield and efficiency of the process. The models were further validated using a poorly water-soluble investigational compound (BI064) from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. The polymer/drug ratio ranged from 1/1 to 3/1w/w. The spray dried formulations were amorphous determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The particle size of the spray dried formulations was 2-10 μm under polarized light microscopy. All the formulations were physically stable for at least 3h when suspended in an aqueous vehicle composed of 1% methyl cellulose. This study demonstrates that DoE is a useful tool to optimize the spray drying process, and the B-90 can be used to efficiently produce amorphous solid dispersions with a limited quantity of drug substance available during drug discovery stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available HPV infections are associated with human cancers. Although three prophylactic vaccines have been approved to protect against HPV infections, the vaccines require cold-chain storage and may not be suitable for third world countries with less developed refrigeration facilities. We previously developed a bacteriophage L2 virus-like particle (VLP-based candidate vaccine, which elicited broadly protective antibodies against diverse HPV types. Spray-drying of MS2-16L2 VLPs into a dry powder enhanced the stability of these VLPs. Building on these studies, we assessed the long-term stability and immunogenicity of the spray-dried VLPs. Mice immunized with a single dose of spray-dried MS2-16L2 VLPs, which had been stored for 14 months at room temperature (RT, were partially protected from challenge with a high dose of HPV16, one year after immunization. However, immunization with two doses of MS2-16L2 VLPs stored at RT for 34 months elicited high titer anti-HPV antibodies. More importantly, this group of mice showed significant protection from HPV16, 4 months after immunization. These results suggest that spray-dried MS2-16L2 VLPs retain their effectiveness after long-term storage at RT, and may be suitable in third world countries with less developed refrigeration facilities. Keywords: HPV vaccine, Bacteriophage L2-VLPs, Longevity, Formulation, Spray-drying, Thermostability
Huang, Hui; Hao, Shuxian; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Cen, Jianwei; Lin, Wanling; Wei, Ya
The influence of processing conditions on the microencapsulation of tilapia oil by spray drying was studied. Trehalose, gelatin, sucrose and xanthan were used as emulsion composition. The experimental parameters of spray drying such as inlet air temperature, solid content, drying air flow rate and atomizing pressure were optimized using a central composite design. Encapsulation efficiency and lipid oxidation were determined. Bulk density, powder morphology and particle size were also analyzed. Trehalose improved the glass transition temperature of wall material significantly and prevented the oxidation of the fish oil. Encapsulation efficiency reached a maximum of 90 % under optimum conditions with an inlet air temperature of 121 °C, a drying air flow rate of 0.65 m(3)/min and a spray pressure of 100 kPa.
Cho, Wonkyung; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Min-Sook; Park, Junsung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P; Hwang, Sung-Joo
The overall aim of this study was to prepare a nasal powder formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) using an absorption enhancer to improve its bioavailability. In this work, powder formulations for nasal delivery of sCT were studied using various absorption enhancers and stabilizers. Powders were prepared by two different methods: conventional spray-drying (SD) and novel supercritical fluid-assisted spray-drying (SASD) to investigate the role of CO2 in the particle formation process. The prepared sCT powder formulations were characterized by several analyses; powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy method. The particle size distribution was also evaluated. In vivo absorption tests were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rat using the prepared powder formulations, and the results were compared to those of raw sCT. Quantitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that sCT was chemically stable after both the SD and SASD processes. Results of PXRD, SEM, and FT-IR did not indicate a strong interaction or defragmentation of sCT. The in vivo absorption test showed that SD- and SASD-processed sCT powders increased the bioavailability of the drug when compared to the nasal administration of raw sCT. In addition, SASD-processed sCT exhibited higher nasal absorption when compared with SD-processed sCT in all formulations due to a reduction of particle size. The results from this study illustrate that the preparation of nasal powders using the SASD process could be a promising approach to improve nasal absorption of sCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Spin-crossover (SCO triazole-based coordination polymers can be synthesized by micelle techniques, which almost always lead to rod-shaped nanoparticles. In order to notably reach new morphologies, we explore here the potentiality of the spray-drying (SD method to get SCO materials. Three SCO coordination polymers and a mononuclear complex are investigated. In all cases, the SD method obtains particles definitely showing SCO. The features of the latter are yet always different from those of the referenced materials, in the sense that SCO is more gradual and incomplete, in adequacy with the poor crystallinity of the powders obtained by SD. In the case of coordination polymers, the particles are preferentially spherical. Indications of possible polymorphism and/or new materials induced by the use of the SD method are evidenced. In the case of the mononuclear complex, the SD method has allowed reproducing, in a quick and easy way, the well-known bulk compound. This exploratory work demonstrates the relevance of the concept and opens the way to a systematic scrutiny of all the experimental parameters to tune the size, morphology, and properties of the SD-synthesized SCO particles.
Daro, Nathalie; Moulet, Lucie; Penin, Nicolas; Paradis, Nicolas; Létard, Jean-François; Lebraud, Eric; Buffière, Sonia; Chastanet, Guillaume; Guionneau, Philippe
Spin-crossover (SCO) triazole-based coordination polymers can be synthesized by micelle techniques, which almost always lead to rod-shaped nanoparticles. In order to notably reach new morphologies, we explore here the potentiality of the spray-drying (SD) method to get SCO materials. Three SCO coordination polymers and a mononuclear complex are investigated. In all cases, the SD method obtains particles definitely showing SCO. The features of the latter are yet always different from those of the referenced materials, in the sense that SCO is more gradual and incomplete, in adequacy with the poor crystallinity of the powders obtained by SD. In the case of coordination polymers, the particles are preferentially spherical. Indications of possible polymorphism and/or new materials induced by the use of the SD method are evidenced. In the case of the mononuclear complex, the SD method has allowed reproducing, in a quick and easy way, the well-known bulk compound. This exploratory work demonstrates the relevance of the concept and opens the way to a systematic scrutiny of all the experimental parameters to tune the size, morphology, and properties of the SD-synthesized SCO particles.
Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laaksonen, Timo; Putkisto, Kaisa; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of cellulose nanofibers (also referred as microfibrillated cellulose, nanocellulose, nanofibrillated, or nanofibrillar cellulose) as novel tabletting material. For this purpose, physical and mechanical properties of spray-dried cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were examined, and results were compared to those of two commercial grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Avicel PH101 and Avicel PH102, which are the most commonly and widely used direct compression excipients. Chemically, MCC and CNF are almost identical, but their physical characteristics, like mechanical properties and surface-to-volume ratio, differ remarkably. The novel material was characterized with respect to bulk and tapped as well as true density, moisture content, and flow properties. Tablets made of CNF powder and its mixtures with MCC with or without paracetamol as model compound were produced by direct compression and after wet granulation. The tensile strength of the tablets made in a series of applied pressures was determined, and yield pressure values were calculated from the measurements. With CNF, both wet granulation and direct compression were successful. During tablet compression, CNF particles were less prone to permanent deformation and had less pronounced ductile characteristics. Disintegration and dissolution studies showed slightly faster drug release from direct compression tablets with CNF, while wet granulated systems did not have any significant difference.
Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.
The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of manufacturing highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents by spray drying, suitable for bubbling (conventional) as well as transport-type fluidized-bed reactor systems.
Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir
The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.
The goals of this work were to combine crystal and particle engineering in a single step using spray drying and improve particle properties that can potentially minimize the need for coating agents. Specific aim was to prepare and characterize theophylline cocrystal particles intended for inhalation using by spray drying. Theophylline is a bronchodilator used in the treatment of asthma and is used as a model drug in this study. Theophylline cocrystals with citric acid, flufenamic acid and sac...
Wu, Xiao; Hayes, Don; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Kuhn, Robert J; Mansour, Heidi M
The aim of this study was to design, develop, and optimize respirable tacrolimus microparticles and nanoparticles and multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic particles for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced at different pump rates by advanced spray-drying particle engineering design from organic solution in closed mode. In addition, multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic dry powder particles were prepared by co-dissolving tacrolimus and lung surfactant mimic phospholipids in methanol, followed by advanced co-spray-drying particle engineering design technology in closed mode. The lung surfactant mimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-1-glycerol]. Laser diffraction particle sizing indicated that the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery, whereas scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology. Increasing the pump rate percent of tacrolimus solution resulted in a larger particle size. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry thermograms indicated that spray drying produced particles with higher amounts of amorphous phase. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry also confirmed the preservation of the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid state for all engineered respirable particles. Furthermore, it was observed in hot-stage micrographs that raw tacrolimus displayed a liquid crystal transition following the main phase transition, which is consistent with its interfacial properties. Water vapor uptake and lyotropic phase transitions in the solid state at varying levels of relative humidity were determined by gravimetric vapor sorption technique. Water content in the various powders was very low and well within the levels necessary
Tosh, Susan M; Farnworth, Edward R; Brummer, Yolanda; Duncan, Alison M; Wright, Amanda J; Boye, Joyce I; Marcotte, Michèle; Benali, Marzouk
Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%-5.2%). Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively) than lentils (21.9%), whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%). Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%-2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.
Susan M. Tosh
Full Text Available Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%. Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively than lentils (21.9%, whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%. Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.
Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin
Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duarte, Íris; Santos, José Luís; Pinto, João F; Temtem, Márcio
To present a new screening methodology intended to be used in the early development of spray-dried amorphous solid dispersions. A model that combines thermodynamic, kinetic and manufacturing considerations was implemented to obtain estimates of the miscibility and phase behavior of different itraconazole-based solid dispersions. Additionally, a small-scale solvent casting protocol was developed to enable a fast assessment on the amorphous stability of the different drug-polymer systems. Then, solid dispersions at predefined drug loads were produced in a lab-scale spray dryer for powder characterization and comparison of the results generated by the model and solvent cast samples. The results obtained with the model enabled the ranking of the polymers from a miscibility standpoint. Such ranking was consistent with the experimental data obtained by solvent casting and spray drying. Moreover, the range of optimal drug load determined by the model was as well consistent with the experimental results. The screening methodology presented in this work showed that a set of amorphous formulation candidates can be assessed in a computer model, enabling not only the determination of the most suitable polymers, but also of the optimal drug load range to be tested in laboratory experiments. The set of formulation candidates can then be further fine-tuned with solvent casting experiments using a small amount of API, which will then provide the decision for the final candidate formulations to be assessed in spray drying experiments.
Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis
In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramezani, Vahid; Vatanara, Alireza; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Nabi Meibodi, Mohsen; Fanaei, Hamed
Dry powder formulations are extensively used to improve the stability of antibodies. Spray drying is one of important methods for protein drying. This study investigated the effects of trehalose, hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and beta cyclodextrin (BCD) on the stability and particle properties of spray-dried IgG. D-optimal design was employed for both experimental design and analysis and optimization of the variables. The size and aerodynamic behavior of particles were determined using laser light scattering and glass twin impinger, respectively. In addition, stability, ratio of beta sheets and morphology of antibody were analyzed using size exclusion chromatography, IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy, respectively. Particle properties and antibody stability were significantly improved in the presence of HPBCD. In addition, particle aerodynamic behavior, in terms of fine-particle fraction (FPF), enhanced up to 52.23%. Furthermore, antibody was better preserved not only during spray drying, but also during long-term storage. In contrast, application of BCD resulted in the formation of larger particles. Although trehalose caused inappropriate aerodynamic property, it efficiently decreased antibody aggregation. HPBCD is an efficient excipient for the development of inhalable protein formulations. In this regard, optimal particle property and antibody stability was obtained with proper combination of cyclodextrins and simple sugars, such as trehalose.
Ezhilarasi, Perumal Natarajan; Indrani, Dasappa; Jena, Bhabani Sankar; Anandharamakrishnan, Chinnaswamy
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the major acid present in the fruit rinds of certain species of Garcinia. HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Hence, Garcinia cowa fruit extract was microencapsulated using three different wall materials such as whey protein isolate (WPI), maltodextrin (MD) and a combination of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin (WPI + MD) by spray drying. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention. Maltodextrin (MD) encapsulates had higher free (86%) and net HCA (90%) recovery. Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content. The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Hellrup, Joel; Alderborn, Göran; Mahlin, Denny
This study aims at investigating the recrystallization of amorphous lactose in nanocomposites. In particular, the focus is on the influence of the nano- to micrometer length scale nanofiller arrangement on the amorphous to crystalline transition. Further, the relative significance of formulation composition and manufacturing process parameters for the properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Nanocomposites of amorphous lactose and fumed silica were produced by co-spray-drying. Solid-state transformation of the lactose was studied at 43%, 84%, and 94% relative humidity using X-ray powder diffraction and microcalorimetry. Design of experiments was used to analyze spray-drying process parameters and nanocomposite composition as factors influencing the time to 50% recrystallization. The spray-drying process parameters showed no significant influence. However, the recrystallization of the lactose in the nanocomposites was affected by the composition (fraction silica). The recrystallization rate constant decreased as a function of silica content. The lowered recrystallization rate of the lactose in the nanocomposites could be explained by three mechanisms: (1) separation of the amorphous lactose into discrete compartments on a micrometer length scale (compartmentalization), (2) lowered molecular mobility caused by molecular interactions between the lactose molecules and the surface of the silica (rigidification), and/or (3) intraparticle confinement of the amorphous lactose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
Haser, Abbe; Cao, Tu; Lubach, Joe; Listro, Tony; Acquarulo, Larry; Zhang, Feng
Our hypothesis is that melt extrusion is a more suitable processing method than spray drying to prepare amorphous solid dispersions of drugs with a high crystallization tendency. Naproxen-povidone K25 was used as the model system in this study. Naproxen-povidone K25 solid dispersions at 30% and 60% drug loadings were characterized by modulated DSC, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, and solid-state 13 C NMR to identify phase separation and drug recrystallization during processing and storage. At 30% drug loading, hydrogen bond (H-bond) sites of povidone K25 were not saturated and the glass transition (T g ) temperature of the formulation was higher. As a result, both melt-extruded and spray-dried materials were amorphous initially and remained so after storage at 40°C. At 60% drug loading, H-bond sites were saturated, and T g was low. We were not able to prepare amorphous materials. The initial crystallinity of the formulations was 0.4%±0.2% and 5.6%±0.6%, and increased to 2.7%±0.3% and 21.6%±1.0% for melt-extruded and spray-dried materials, respectively. Spray-dried material was more susceptible to re-crystallization during processing, due to the high diffusivity of naproxen molecules in the formulation matrix and lack of kinetic stabilization from polymer solution. A larger number of crystalline nucleation sites and high surface area made the spray-dried material more susceptible to recrystallization during storage. This study demonstrated the unique advantages of melt extrusion over spray drying for the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions of naproxen at high drug level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Backgrond and the purpose of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solvents used in the spray drying and the aerodynamic properties of the rifampicin microparticles and pulmonary absorption of the microparticles. Methods: Different mixtures of dichloromethane and water were used as solvents for spray drying of rifampicin microparticles. The water to dichloromethane ratios were 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 80:20, 90:10 and 100:0. The solutions were dried at inlet temperature of 70 °C. The powder properties of the samples were examined by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, helium densitometer and infrared spectroscopy (IR. The aerosolization performance of these formulations was investigated using an Andersen cascade impactor. Pulmonary absorptions of formulations were examined by the in situ pulmonary absorption described by Enna and Schanker method. The plasma concentration time profiles of rifampicin were constructed 8 hours following the intravenous and the intrapulmonary administrations. The pharmacokinetics parameters, Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC, mean residence time (MRT, Ka and Ke were determined for each formulations. Results and major conclusions: The Tmax values for the samples decreased by increase in the amount of water in the initial feed. The Tmax values for the spray dried samples from the different mixtures of dichloromethane and water were 60(min and 30(min respectively. The solvent mixture as the spray drying vehicle played an important role in the in vitro and in vivo lung deposition. The type of spray drying vehicle showed significant effect on the aerodynamic behavior and pharmacokinetic parameters of the particles. The pulmonary absorption of drug revealed the possibility of achieving the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the antibiotics. The spray drying vehicle only affected absorption patterns of the formulations and it did not have any effect on the elimination rat of
Full Text Available Abstract Oyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Our pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spray drying process optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.
Agnoletti, Monica; Bohr, Adam; Thanki, Kaushik; Wan, Feng; Zeng, Xianghui; Boetker, Johan Peter; Yang, Mingshi; Foged, Camilla
Medicines based on small interfering RNA (siRNA) are promising for the treatment of a number of lung diseases. However, efficient delivery systems and design of stable dosage forms are required for inhalation therapy, as well as cost-effective methods for manufacturing of the final product. In this study, a 3D-printed micromixer was used for preparation of siRNA-dendrimer nanocomplexes, which were subsequently processed into microparticle-based dry powders for inhalation using spray drying. By applying the disposable micromixer, nanocomplexes were prepared of an average hydrodynamic diameter comparable to that of nanocomplexes prepared by manual mixing, but with narrower size distribution and low batch-to-batch variation. The nanocomplexes were processed into nanoembedded microparticles using different saccharide excipients. Data showed that siRNA integrity and bioactivity are retained after processing, and nanocomplexes could be reconstituted from the dry powders. The amorphous saccharide excipients trehalose and inulin provided better stabilization than crystalline mannitol, and they enabled full reconstitution of the nanocomplexes. In particular, a binary mixture of trehalose and inulin showed optimal stabilization, and enhanced cellular uptake and gene silencing efficiency. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and scalable micromixers can be used to optimize the production of siRNA-dendrimer nanocomplexes, and they can be applied in combination with spray drying for the engineering of dry powder formulations suitable for delivery of siRNA to the therapeutic target site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peabody, Julianne; Muttil, Pavan; Chackerian, Bryce; Tumban, Ebenezer
HPV infections are associated with human cancers. Although three prophylactic vaccines have been approved to protect against HPV infections, the vaccines require cold-chain storage and may not be suitable for third world countries with less developed refrigeration facilities. We previously developed a bacteriophage L2 virus-like particle (VLP)-based candidate vaccine, which elicited broadly protective antibodies against diverse HPV types. Spray-drying of MS2-16L2 VLPs into a dry powder enhanced the stability of these VLPs. Building on these studies, we assessed the long-term stability and immunogenicity of the spray-dried VLPs. Mice immunized with a single dose of spray-dried MS2-16L2 VLPs, which had been stored for 14 months at room temperature (RT), were partially protected from challenge with a high dose of HPV16, one year after immunization. However, immunization with two doses of MS2-16L2 VLPs stored at RT for 34 months elicited high titer anti-HPV antibodies. More importantly, this group of mice showed significant protection from HPV16, 4 months after immunization. These results suggest that spray-dried MS2-16L2 VLPs retain their effectiveness after long-term storage at RT, and may be suitable in third world countries with less developed refrigeration facilities. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Charan, R. (College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur (India). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering); Prasad, S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India))
A mathematical model for the energy consumption in spray-drying plant was developed. The model was tested using data collected from a commercial milk spray-drying plant producing 1500 kg/h baby food. The operating parameters were optimized using the gradient projection method for a multi-variable non-linear function subject to inequality constraints. The energy consumption of the milk dryer was compared using the existing and the optimized systems. It was found that there was a saving of 16.8% in the total energy consumption. (author)
Full Text Available Xiao Wu,1 Don Hayes Jr,2,3 Joseph B Zwischenberger,4 Robert J Kuhn,5 Heidi M Mansour1,61University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences-Drug Development Division, Lexington, KY, USA; 2The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; 3The Ohio State University College of Medicine, The Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Columbus, OH, USA; 4University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics, Biomedical Engineering, Diagnostic Radiology, and Surgery, Lexington, KY, USA; 5University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacy Practice and Science, Lexington, KY, USA; 6University of Kentucky, Center of Membrane Sciences, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: The aim of this study was to design, develop, and optimize respirable tacrolimus microparticles and nanoparticles and multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic particles for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced at different pump rates by advanced spray-drying particle engineering design from organic solution in closed mode. In addition, multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic dry powder particles were prepared by co-dissolving tacrolimus and lung surfactant mimic phospholipids in methanol, followed by advanced co-spray-drying particle engineering design technology in closed mode. The lung surfactant mimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-1-glycerol]. Laser diffraction particle sizing indicated that the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery, whereas scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology. Increasing the pump rate
Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 in matrices containing soluble fibre by spray drying: Technological characterization, storage stability and survival after in vitro digestion☆
Yonekura, Lina; Sun, Han; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian
We evaluated sodium alginate, chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as co-encapsulants for spray dried Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 by assessing their impact on cell viability and physicochemical properties of the dried powders, viability over 35 days of storage at 25 °C and survival after simulated digestion. Fibres were added to a control carrier medium containing whey protein concentrate, d-glucose and maltodextrin. Sodium alginate and HPMC did not affect cell viability but chitosan reduced viable counts in spray dried powders, as compared to the control. Although chitosan caused large losses of viability during spray-drying, these losses were counteracted by the excellent storage stability compared to control, sodium alginate and HPMC, and the overall effect became positive after the 35-day storage. Chitosan also improved survival rates in simulated GI conditions, however no single fibre could improve L. acidophilus NCIMB 701748 viability in all steps from production through storage and digestion. PMID:24748900
Abd Ghani, Asmaliza; Adachi, Sae; Shiga, Hirokazu; Neoh, Tze Loon; Adachi, Shuji; Yoshii, Hidefumi
Encapsulating fish oil by spray drying with an adequate wall material was investigated to determine if stable powders containing emulsified fish-oil-droplets can be formed. In particular, the dextrose equivalent (DE) of maltodextrin (MD) affects the powder structure, surface-oil ratio, and oxidative stability of fish oil. The carrier solution was prepared using MD with different DEs (DE = 11, 19, and 25) and sodium caseinate as the wall material and the emulsifier, respectively. The percentage of microcapsules having a vacuole was 73, 39, and 38% for MD with DE = 11, 19, and 25, respectively. Peroxide values (PVs) were measured for the microcapsules incubated at 60 °C. The microcapsules prepared with MD of DE = 25 and 19 had lower PVs than those prepared with MD of DE = 11. The difference in PV can be ascribed to the difference in the surface-oil ratio of the spray-dried microcapsules.
Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica
Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901
Full Text Available Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40 % of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27 % of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder.
Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.
We present a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to systematically assess
Purpose: To prepare and evaluate in vitro mucoadhesive esomeprazole magnesium microspheres for the treatment of Zollinger Ellison syndrome. Methods: The microspheres were prepared by spray drying technique using locust bean and xanthan gums as polymers. Esomeprazole magnesium was entrapped in the ...
Full Text Available In this work maltodextrins were added to commercial GOS in a 1:1 ratio and their thermophysical characteristics were analyzed. GOS:MD solutions were then used as matrices during spray-drying of L. plantarum CIDCA 83114. The obtained powders were equilibrated at different relative humidities (RH and stored at 5 and 20ºC for 12 weeks, or at 30ºC for 6 weeks.The Tgs of GOS:MD matrices were about 20-30oC higher than those of GOS at RH within 11 and 52%. A linear relation between the spin-spin relaxation time (T2 and T-Tg parameter was observed for GOS:MD matrices equilibrated at 11, 22, 33 and 44% RH at 5, 20 and 30ºC.Spray-drying of L. plantarum CIDCA 83114 in GOS:MD matrices allowed the recovery of 93% microorganisms. In contrast, only 64% microorganisms were recovered when no MD were included in the dehydration medium. Survival of L. plantarum CIDCA 83114 during storage showed the best performance for bacteria stored at 5oC. In a further step, the slopes of the linear regressions provided information about the rate of microbial inactivation for each storage condition (k values. This information can be useful to calculate the shelf-life of spray-dried starters stored at different temperatures and RH. Using GOS:MD matrices as a dehydration medium enhanced the recovery of L. plantarum CIDCA 83114 after spray-drying. This strategy allowed for the first time the spray-drying stabilization of a potentially probiotic strain in the presence of GOS.
Osorio, Coralia; Acevedo, Baudilio; Hillebrand, Silke; Carriazo, José; Winterhalter, Peter; Morales, Alicia Lucía
The anthocyanins of Bactris guineensis fruit were isolated with the aid of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. Among the identified pigments, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were characterized as major constituents (87.9%). Peonidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6-O-malonyl)glucoside, and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were present in minor amounts. Four anthocyanin ethanolic extracts (AEEs) were obtained by osmotic dehydration and Soxhlet extraction and physicochemically characterized. The composition of anthocyanins was monitored by HPLC-PDA. The extracts with the highest anthocyanin content were subjected to the spray-drying process with maltodextrin. The so-obtained spray-dried powders were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to consist of spherical particles <50 microm in size. The anthocyanin composition was similar to that of the fruit. The microencapsulated powders were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), revealing that they are quite stable until 100 degrees C. Storage stability tests of microcapsules showed that the release of anthocyanin pigments follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and that the process rate is increased by temperature and humidity. The most suitable conditions for storage were below 37 degrees C and <76% relative humidity, respectively.
Renê O. Couto
Full Text Available A 2³ full factorial design was used to assess the impact of spraying air flow rate (30-50 L/min, drying air inlet temperature (90-150 ºC and extract feed rate (4-6 g/min on the quality of Eugenia dysenterica DC., Myrtaceae, spray-dried extracts. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to analyze the significance of the effects of process factors on product quality and to obtain fitted equations to predict dry powder properties. Powder yields were satisfactory, ranging from 34.64 to 63.92%. The dried products showed moisture contents and water activities below 5% and 0.5, respectively. The recuperation ratios of total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids ranged from 88.66 to 99.07%, 70.38 to 81.87% and 74.51 to 98.68%, respectively. Additionally, in some conditions the parameters related to dry product’s flowability and compressibility varied over a range acceptable for pharmaceutical purposes. RSM proved that studied factors significantly affected most of the quality indicators at different levels. The spray drying technology is an attractive and promising alternative for the development of intermediate phytopharmaceutical products of E. dysenterica.
Renê O. Couto
Full Text Available A 2³ full factorial design was used to assess the impact of spraying air flow rate (30-50 L/min, drying air inlet temperature (90-150 ºC and extract feed rate (4-6 g/min on the quality of Eugenia dysenterica DC., Myrtaceae, spray-dried extracts. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to analyze the significance of the effects of process factors on product quality and to obtain fitted equations to predict dry powder properties. Powder yields were satisfactory, ranging from 34.64 to 63.92%. The dried products showed moisture contents and water activities below 5% and 0.5, respectively. The recuperation ratios of total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids ranged from 88.66 to 99.07%, 70.38 to 81.87% and 74.51 to 98.68%, respectively. Additionally, in some conditions the parameters related to dry product’s flowability and compressibility varied over a range acceptable for pharmaceutical purposes. RSM proved that studied factors significantly affected most of the quality indicators at different levels. The spray drying technology is an attractive and promising alternative for the development of intermediate phytopharmaceutical products of E. dysenterica.
Kumar, Sumit; Gokhale, Rajeev; Burgess, Diane J
Quality by Design (QbD) principles were explored to understand spray drying process for the conversion of liquid nanosuspensions into solid nano-crystalline dry powders using indomethacin as a model drug. The effects of critical process variables: inlet temperature, flow and aspiration rates on critical quality attributes (CQAs): particle size, moisture content, percent yield and crystallinity were investigated employing a full factorial design. A central cubic design was employed to generate the response surface for particle size and percent yield. Multiple linear regression analysis and ANOVA were employed to identify and estimate the effect of critical parameters, establish their relationship with CQAs, create design space and model the spray drying process. Inlet temperature was identified as the only significant factor (p value drug surface melting and hence aggregation of the dried nano-crystalline powders. Aspiration and flow rates were identified as significant factors affecting yield (p value dried at higher inlet temperatures had lower moisture compared to those dried at lower inlet temperatures. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Tran, Tuan Hiep; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Marasini, Nirmal; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh
The purpose of this study was to develop a raloxifene-loaded solid dispersion with enhanced dissolution rate and bioavailability via spray-drying technique. Solid dispersions of raloxifene (RXF) were prepared with PVP K30 at weight ratios of 1:4, 1:6 and 1:8 using a spray-drying method, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubility and dissolution tests. The bioavailability of the solid dispersion in rats was also evaluated compared to those of RXF powder and commercial product. Results showed that the RXF-loaded solid dispersion was in amorphous form with increased solubility and dissolution rate. The absorption of RXF from solid dispersion resulted in approximately 2.6-fold enhanced bioavailability compared to pure drug. Moreover, RXF-loaded solid dispersion gave similar AUC, C(max) and T(max) values to the commercial product, suggesting that it was bioequivalent to the commercial product in rats. These findings suggest that an amorphous solid dispersion of RXF could be a viable option for enhancing the oral bioavailability of RXF.
Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.
The inactivation of bioactive ingredients during spray drying is often matrix specific. Therefore, the design of new processes or the optimisation of existing spray drying processes is usually highly product specific and requires numerous experiments. Rapid experimentation methods that facilitate
Hong, Shiqi; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, David Cheng Thiam; Ng, Wai Kiong; Liu, Xueming; Chia, Leonard S O; Irwan, Anastasia W; Tan, Reginald; Nowak, Steven A; Marsh, Kennan; Gokhale, Rajeev
Encapsulation of drugs in mesoporous silica using co-spray drying process has been recently explored as potential industrial method. However, the impact of spray drying on manufacturability, physiochemical stability and bioavailability in relation to conventional drug load processes are yet to be fully investigated. Using a 2(3) factorial design, this study aims to investigate the effect of drug-loading process (co-spray drying and solvent impregnation), mesoporous silica pore size (SBA-15, 6.5 nm and MCM-41, 2.5 nm) and percentage drug load (30% w/w and 50% w/w) on material properties, crystallinity, physicochemical stability, release profiles and bioavailability of fenofibrate (FEN) loaded into mesoporous silica. From the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images, powder X-ray diffraction and Differential scanning calorimetry measurements, it is indicated that the co-spray drying process was able to load up to 50% (w/w) FEN in amorphous form onto the mesoporous silica as compared to the 30% (w/w) for solvent impregnation. The in vitro dissolution rate of the co-spray dried formulations was also significantly (p = 0.044) better than solvent impregnated formulations at the same drug loading. Six-month accelerated stability test at 40 °C/75 RH in open dish indicated excellent physical and chemical stability of formulations prepared by both methods. The amorphous state of FEN and the enhanced dissolution profiles were well preserved, and very low levels of degradation were detected after storage. The dog data for the three selected co-spray-dried formulations revealed multiple fold increment in FEN bioavailability compared to the reference crystalline FEN. These results validate the viability of co-spray-dried mesoporous silica formulations with high amorphous drug load as potential drug delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs.
Thybo, Pia; Pedersen, Betty L; Hovgaard, Lars
of small-sized amorphous powders dispersed in a hydrophilic polymer. SDs were prepared by spray drying solutions of probucol and different amounts of PVP-K30. The obtained SDs were characterized by dissolution rate measurements in a flow-through apparatus, X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Differential......The main purpose of this study was to obtain stable, well-characterized solid dispersions (SDs) of amorphous probucol and polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP-K30) with improved dissolution rates. A secondary aim was to investigate the flow-through dissolution method for in-vitro dissolution measurements...... weeks. The flow-through method was found suitable as dissolution method. All SDs showed improved in-vitro dissolution rates when compared to starting material and physical mixtures. The greatest improvement in the in-vitro dissolution rate was observed for the highest polymer to drug ratio. By means...
Mahmah, Osama; Tabbakh, Rami; Kelly, Adrian; Paradkar, Anant
To compare the properties of solid dispersions of felodipine for oral bioavailability enhancement using two different polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), by hot-melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying. Felodipine solid dispersions were prepared by HME and spray drying techniques. PVP and HPMCAS were used as polymer matrices at different drug : polymer ratios (1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3). Detailed characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and in-vitro dissolution testing. Dissolution profiles were evaluated in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Stability of different solid dispersions was studied under accelerated conditions (40°C/75% RH) over 8 weeks. Spray-dried formulations were found to release felodipine faster than melt extruded formulations for both polymer matrices. Solid dispersions containing HMPCAS exhibited higher drug release rates and better wettability than those produced with a PVP matrix. No significant differences in stability were observed except with HPMCAS at a 1 : 1 ratio, where crystallization was detected in spray-dried formulations. Solid dispersions of felodipine produced by spray drying exhibited more rapid drug release than corresponding melt extruded formulations, although in some cases improved stability was observed for melt extruded formulations. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
. Microencapsulation improved the technological characteristics of the powders and preserved the antioxidant properties. The study demonstrated the feasibility of producing these microparticles for a one-step process using spray drying. The composition of each formulation influenced the physical and chemical characteristics. This spray-drying technique can be used as an efficient and economical approach to produce semipurified extract of guaraná microparticles.
Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Jeyakumari, A; Muhamed Ashraf, P; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N
The synergistic efficacy of gum arabic and sage polyphenols in stabilising capsule wall and protecting fish oil encapsulates from heat induced disruption and oxidative deterioration during spray drying was assessed. The emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate as wall polymer, gum arabic as wall co-polymer and sage extract as wall stabiliser was spray dried using a single fluid nozzle. Fish oil encapsulates stabilised with gum arabic and sage extract (SOE) exhibited significantly higher encapsulation efficiency compared to encapsulates containing gum arabic alone (FOE). Scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images revealed uniform encapsulates with good sphericity and smooth surface for SOE, compared to FOE powder. In vitro oil release of microencapsulates indicated negligible oil release in buffered saline whereas more than 80% of the oil loaded in encapsulates were released in simulated GI fluids. The encapsulates containing sage extract showed a lower rate of lipid oxidation during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Torge, Afra; Grützmacher, Philipp; Mücklich, Frank; Schneider, Marc
Nano-embedded microparticles represent a promising approach to deliver nanoparticles to the lungs. Microparticles with an appropriate aerodynamic diameter enable an application by dry powder inhaler and the transport of nanoparticles into the airways. By disintegration after deposition, nanoparticles can be released to exhibit their advantages such as a sustained drug release and delivery of the drug across the mucus barrier. The use of an appropriate matrix excipient to embed the nanoparticles is essential for the necessary disintegration and release of nanoparticles. In this context we investigated the influence of mannitol on the morphology, aerodynamic properties and disintegration behavior of nano-embedded microparticles. PLGA nanoparticles and mannitol were spray dried each as sole component and in combination in three different ratios. An influence of the mannitol content on the morphology was observed. Pure mannitol microparticles were solid and spherical, while the addition of nanoparticles resulted in raisin-shaped hollow particles. The different morphologies can be explained by diffusion processes of the compounds described by the Péclet-number. All powders showed suitable aerodynamic properties. By dispersion of the powders in simulated lung fluid, initial nanoparticle sizes could be recovered for samples containing mannitol. The fraction of redispersed nanoparticles was increased with increasing mannitol content. To evaluate the disintegration under conditions with higher comparability to the in vivo situation, spray-dried powders were exposed to >90% relative humidity. The disintegration behavior was monitored by analyzing roughness values by white light interferometry and supporting SEM imaging. The exposure to high relative humidity was shown to be sufficient for disintegration of the microparticles containing mannitol, releasing morphologically unchanged nanoparticles. With increasing mannitol content, the disintegration occurred faster and to a
Park, C W; Drake, M A
Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Sander, Camilla; Madsen, Katrine Dragsbæk; Hyrup, Birgitte
delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact between the drug and the oral mucosa. In this study, bioadhesive chitosan-based microparticles of metformin hydrochloride were prepared by spray drying aqueous dispersions with different chitosan:metformin ratios...... and chitosan grades with increasing molecular weights. A recently developed ex vivo flow retention model with porcine buccal mucosa was used to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of spray dried microparticles. An important outcome of this study was that microparticles with the desired metformin content could...... and used for designing the microparticles. This way, novel microparticles with similar particle size distribution, high encapsulation efficiencies, and low moisture content were obtained independent of the chitosan:metformin ratio and the chitosan molecular weight. In conclusion, chitosan...
Muslim, Masitah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of spray drying and size reduction of edible bird's nest (EBN) on in-vitro digestibility respectively. Sample prepared were EBN microparticulates; 710 µm (EBN710), 300 µm (EBN300) and 38 µm (EBN38), EBN spray died (EBNSD) and raw EBN (EBNraw) as control. Protein content and solubility were determined before the samples being subjected to in-vitro digestibility. Protein content of EBN710 (55.37±0.269%), EBN300 (56.57±0.163%) EBN38 (56.77±0.021%) and EBNraw (55.46±0.269%) was not significantly different (p>0.05) but EBNSD (60.33b+0.346%) was the highest (pwater significantly (pDigestibility of EBN300 (88.43±0.95%) was higher (pDigestibility of EBN microparticulates and spray dried powder were all lower (pdigestibility could be due to the nature of EBN protein as glycoprotein. Proteolytic (tryptic) digestion of native glycoprotein is often incomplete due to ste aric hindrance from the presence of bulky oligosaccharides.
Full Text Available The optimal condition of spray drying purified flavonoids extract from R. tomentosa berries was studied by response surface methodology. The optimized condition for microencapsulation was of maltodextrin to gum Arabic ratio 1 : 1.3, total solid content 27.4%, glycerol monostearate content 0.25%, and core to coating material ratio 3 : 7, resulting in EE 91.75%. Prepared at the optimized condition, the flavonoids extract microcapsules (FEMs were irregularly spherical particles with low moisture content (3.27%, high solubility (92.35%, and high bulk density (0.346 g/cm3. DPPH radical scavenging activity of FEMs was not decreased after spray drying (P>0.05 and higher than those in citric acid and rutin at the same concentration. Moreover, FEMs effectively retarded the oxidation of fresh lard during the 10-day storage period compared with vitamin C, nonencapsulated flavonoids extract, and rutin. Therefore, FEMs produced at the optimized condition could be used as powder ingredients with antioxidant capacities.
Broeckx, Géraldine; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Henkens, Tim; Kiekens, Shari; van den Broek, Marianne F L; Lebeer, Sarah; Kiekens, Filip
Increasing knowledge about the human microbiome has led to a growing awareness of the potential of applying probiotics to improve our health. The pharmaceutical industry shows an emerging interest in pharmaceutical formulations containing these beneficial microbes, the so-called pharmabiotics. An important manufacturing step is the drying of the probiotics, as this can increase the stability and shelf life of the finished pharmabiotic product. Unfortunately, drying also puts stress on microbial cells, thus causing a decrease in viability. We aimed to examine the effect of different drying media and protective excipients on the viability of the prototype probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG after spray drying and during subsequent storage for 28 weeks. The presence of phosphates in the drying medium showed to have a superior protective effect, especially during long-term storage at room temperature. Addition of lactose or trehalose resulted in significantly improved survival rates after drying as well as during long-term storage for the tested excipients. Both disaccharides are characterized by a high glass transition temperature. Maltodextrin showed less protective capacities compared to lactose and trehalose in all tested conditions. The usage of mannitol or dextran resulted in sticky powders and low yields, so further testing was not possible. In addition to optimizing the viability, future research will also explore the functionality of cellular probiotic components after spray drying in order to safeguard the probiotic activity of the formulated pharmabiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Damerau, Annelie; Moisio, Timo; Partanen, Riitta; Forssell, Pirkko; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Piironen, Vieno
The aim of this work was to investigate how the oxidative stability of encapsulated oil is affected by the humidity response of a Na-caseinate-maltodextrin matrix. Furthermore, the effect of modification of the interfacial Na-caseinate layer through cross-linking was studied. For this purpose, two model spray-dried emulsions containing sunflower oil, maltodextrin, and either non-cross-linked or cross-linked Na-caseinate were stored at different relative humidities (RHs; ∼0%, 11%, 33%, 54%, and 75%). Increasing RH improved the oxidative stability of the spray-dried emulsions. This behaviour was mainly linked to the loss of individual powder particles upon caking and collapsing of the matrix at RH 75%. Oxidation of non-encapsulated surface lipids with a proportion of ca. 5% of total lipids was only twofold compared to total lipids. Excess protein on particle surfaces may have delayed oxidation, e.g., by its radical scavenging activity. Under several storage conditions, cross-linking of the protein slightly improved the oxidative stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daman, Zahra; Gilani, Kambiz; Rouholamini Najafabadi, Abdolhossein; Eftekhari, Hamid Reza; Barghi, Mohammad Ali
The aim of this work was to develop dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of salbutamol sulfate (SS) by the aid of solid lipid microparticles (SLmPs), composed of biocompatible phospholipids or cholesterol. The SLmPs were prepared by using two different solvent systems (ethanol and water-ethanol) and lipid carriers (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol) with/without L-leucine in the spray drying process. The spray-dried microparticles were physically-mixed with coarse lactose monohydrate in order to make our final DPI formulations and were investigated in terms of physical characteristics as well as in vitro drug release profile and aerosolization behavior. We observed significant differences in the sizes, morphologies, and in vitro pulmonary depositions between the formulations. In particular, the SS-containing SLmPs prepared with water-ethanol (30:70 v/v) solution of DPPC and L-leucine which had then been blended with coarse lactose (1:9 w/w) exhibited the highest emitted dose (87.9%) and fine particle fraction (42.7%) among the formulations. In vitro drug release study indicated that despite of having a significant initial burst release for both cholesterol and DPPC-based microparticles, the remained drug released more slowly than the pure drug. This study demonstrated the potential of using lipid carriers as well as L-leucine in DPI formulations of SS to improve its aerosolization behavior and retard the release profile of the drug.
Leandro Daniel De Paris
Full Text Available In the last few decades, the offer of by-products obtained from the processing of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus has increased, and the need for developing products with high biological and nutritional values for use in animal nutrition motivated this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of carcass, head and skin of tilapia was performed, as well as the separation of oil, residual solids and soluble proteins by centrifugation at high temperature and the spray drying of the protein fraction. Factorial designs were employed in the assays to evaluate the operating conditions of the spray dryer (inlet and outlet temperatures and flow rate and the inclusion of drying aid agents (maltodextrin and calcium carbonate. The spray drying showed the best results with air inlet temperature of 190ºC, outlet temperature of 90ºC, flow rate of 30 L·h-1 including 10% maltodextrin (mass in the liquid feed as a drying aid. The final powder recovery was higher than 90% and the physical, chemical and microbiological analyses met the Brazilian legal standards.
Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J
cheese cracker. We detected significantly lower yeast counts for nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) at 4mo compared with control (regular) salt (1, 1.5 and 2%). We detected no mold growth in any of the treatments at any time. At 4mo, we found no significant differences in sensory color, aroma, crunchiness, overall liking, or acceptability scores of cheese crackers using 1.5 and 1% nano spray-dried salt compared with control. Therefore, 25 to 50% less salt would be suitable for cheese crackers if the particle size of regular salt was reduced 3 log to form nano spray-dried salt. A 3-log reduction in sodium chloride particle size from regular salt to nano spray-dried salt increased saltiness, but a 1-log reduction in salt size from Microsized salt to nano spray-dried salt did not increase saltiness of surface-salted cheese crackers. The use of salt with reduced particle size by nano spray drying is recommended for use in surface-salted cheese crackers to reduce sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6% and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively. The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability.
Romano, A; Blaiotta, G; Di Cerbo, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Aponte, M
Consumers' demand for innovative probiotic products has recently increased. In previous studies, chestnuts were evaluated as substrate for the growth of lactobacilli and chestnut extract was found to enhance acid tolerance of probiotic strains. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of chestnut extract as carrier for spray drying of two probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and to develop a probiotic food chestnut based. The optimal settings for the spray-drying processes were defined and the loads of undamaged cells in the dried powders were quantified. Spray-dried cultures were incorporated into an anhydrous basis for chestnut mousse developed ad hoc. In this form, viable cells remained stable over 10(8) CFU g(-1) during a 3 months long storage at 15°C. Sensorial analysis did not highlighted significant differences (P food product naturally rich in antioxidant compounds, may represent an excellent carrier for probiotics delivering. To authors' knowledge, this is the first information on the survival of lactobacilli in an anhydrous basis for dessert. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Hoffmeister, Cristiane RD; Durli, Taís L.; Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Raffin, Renata P.; Bender, Eduardo A.; Beck, Ruy CR; Pohlmann, Adriana R.; Guterres, Sílvia S.
The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal system for controlled delivery of melatonin combining three strategies: nanoencapsulation of melatonin, drying of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules, and incorporation of nanocapsules in a hydrophilic gel. Nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of the polymer and were spray-dried using water-soluble excipients. In vitro drug release profiles were evaluated by the dialysis bag method, and skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz cells with porcine skin as the membrane. The use of 10% ( w/ v) water-soluble excipients (lactose or maltodextrin) as spray-drying adjuvants furnished redispersible powders (redispersibility index approximately 1.0) suitable for incorporation into hydrogels. All formulations showed a better controlled in vitro release of melatonin compared with the melatonin solution. The best controlled release results were achieved with hydrogels prepared with dried nanocapsules (hydrogels > redispersed dried nanocapsules > nanocapsule suspension > melatonin solution). The skin permeation studies demonstrated a significant modulation of the transdermal melatonin permeation for hydrogels prepared with redispersible nanocapsules. In this way, the additive effect of the different approaches used in this study (nanoencapsulation, spray-drying, and preparation of semisolid dosage forms) allows not only the control of melatonin release, but also transdermal permeation.
Hamin Neto, Youssef Ali Abou; Coitinho, Luciana Barbosa; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro; Cabral, Hamilton
Enzymes do not have long-term storage stability in soluble forms, thus drying methods could minimize the loss of enzymatic activity, the spray dryer removes water under high temperatures and little time. The aims of this study were to improve the stability of enzymatic extract from Myceliophthora thermophila for potential applications in industry and to evaluate the best conditions to remove the water by spray drying technique. The parameters were tested according to Box-Behnken and evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), all the parameters measured were found to influence the final enzyme activity and spray drying process yield ranged from 38.65 to 63.75%. Enzyme powders showed increased storage stability than extract and maintained about 100% of collagenolytic activity after 180 days of storage at 30°C. The results showed that the microbial enzymes maintained activity during the spray drying process and were stable during long-term storage; these are promising characteristics for industrial applications.
Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Yang, Mingshi; Mulvad, Helle; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rantanen, Jukka; Foged, Camilla
The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). A quality by design (QbD) approach was applied to identify and link critical process parameters (CPPs) of the spray drying process to critical quality attributes (CQAs) using risk assessment and design of experiments (DoE), followed by identification of an optimal operating space (OOS). A central composite face-centered design was carried out followed by multiple linear regression analysis. Four CQAs were identified; the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), the liposome stability (size) during processing, the moisture content and the yield. Five CPPs (drying airflow, feed flow rate, feedstock concentration, atomizing airflow and outlet temperature) were identified and tested in a systematic way. The MMAD and the yield were successfully modeled. For the liposome size stability, the ratio between the size after and before spray drying was modeled successfully. The model for the residual moisture content was poor, although, the moisture content was below 3% in the entire design space. Finally, the OOS was drafted from the constructed models for the spray drying of trehalose stabilized DDA/TDB liposomes. The QbD approach for the spray drying process should include a careful consideration of the quality target product profile. This approach implementing risk assessment and DoE was successfully applied to optimize the spray drying of an inhalable DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant designed for pulmonary vaccination.
Medina-Torres, L; Calderas, F; Nuñez Ramírez, D M; Herrera-Valencia, E E; Bernad Bernad, M J; Manero, O
In this work, a comparative study between spray drying (SD) of fresh egg by either maltodextrin (MD) or nopal-mucilage (MN) as stabilizing vectors was made. The powders obtained were characterized for drying performance, moisture content, chemical proximate analysis, thermal analysis (TGA), chemical composition (FTIR), microscopy (SEM) and rheology (viscoelasticity and steady state simple shear viscosity). Infrared analysis showed that MN has the effect of a thickening agent rather than an encapsulating one. Results indicated that SD egg with MN produced a high thermal and mechanical stable product and rendered the highest drying performance, producing a more uniform and defined sphere-shaped morphology in comparison to egg SD either alone and with MD.
Paredes, Alejandro Javier; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Allemandi, Daniel; Palma, Santiago Daniel
Albendazole (ABZ) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug used in the treatment of human or animal infections. Although ABZ has shown a high efficacy for repeated doses in monogastric mammals, its low aqueous solubility leads to erratic bioavailability. The aim of this work was to optimize a procedure in order to obtain ABZ self-dispersible nanocrystals (SDNC) by combining high pressure homogenization (HPH) and spray-drying (SD). The material thus obtained was characterized and the variables affecting both the HPH and SD processes were studied. As expected, the homogenizing pressure and number of cycles influenced the final particle size, while the stabilizer concentration had a strong impact on SD output and redispersion of powders upon contact with water. ABZ SDNC were successfully obtained with high process yield and redispersibility. The characteristic peaks of ABZ were clearly identified in the X-ray patterns of the processed samples. A noticeable increase in the dissolution rate was observed in the aqueous environment.
Dhumal, Ravindra S; Shimpi, Shamkant L; Paradkar, Anant R
The purpose of this study was to obtain an amorphous system with minimum unit operations that will prevent recrystallization of amorphous drugs since preparation, during processing (compression) and further storage. Amorphous celecoxib, solid dispersion (SD) of celecoxib with polyvinyl pyrrollidone (PVP) and co-precipitate with PVP and carrageenan (CAR) in different ratios were prepared by the spray drying technique and compressed into tablets. Saturation solubility and dissolution studies were performed to differentiate performance after processing. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder difraction revealed the amorphous form of celecoxib, whereas infrared spectroscopy revealed hydrogen bonding between celecoxib and PVP. The dissolution profile of the solid dispersion and co-precipitate improved compared to celecoxib and amorphous celecoxib. Amorphous celecoxib was not stable on storage whereas the solid dispersion and co-precipitate powders were stable for 3 months. Tablets of the solid dispersion of celecoxib with PVP and physical mixture with PVP and carrageenan showed better resistance to recrystallization than amorphous celecoxib during compression but recrystallized on storage. However, tablets of co-precipitate with PVP and carageenan showed no evidence of crystallinity during stability studies with comparable dissolution profiles. This extraordinary stability of spray-dried co-precipitate tablets may be attributed to the cushioning action provided by the viscoelastic polymer CAR and hydrogen bonding interaction between celecoxib and PVP. The present study demonstrates the synergistic effect of combining two types of stabilizers, PVP and CAR, on the stability of amorphous drug during compression and storage as compared to their effect when used alone.
Paramita, Vita; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi
Oil mixtures of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and D-limonene in mixing ratios from 10 to 100 wt% were encapsulated in modified starch (wall material) by spray drying to produce oil-rich powders. The oil load (mass ratio of oil mixture to wall material) of the infeed emulsion markedly influenced the properties of the infeed liquid and the characteristics of the resulting powder. The viscosity of the infeed liquid and the particle size of the powder exponentially decreased with increasing oil load, while the emulsion droplet size in the infeed liquid increased. In addition, retention of D-limonene during spray drying also decreased markedly with increasing oil load. Irrespective of the different oil loads and concentrations of the wall material, D-limonene retention was well correlated with the emulsion droplet diameter of the infeed liquid. The encapsulation efficiency of the oil mixture exhibited a maximum value (almost 100%) at an oil load between 0.5 and 1.0, before decreasing at higher oil loads. At an oil load of 2.0, the encapsulation efficiency of D-limonene was reduced to almost zero, while around 40% of the initial MCT was encapsulated in the powder. The increase in oil load also led to increased amounts of surface oil of MCT and D-limonene in the resulting powder due to the increasing emulsion droplet diameter of the infeed liquids. This study proposes the microencapsulation of medium-chain triglycerides under high-oil-load conditions by spray drying. The powders prepared by this process provide significant benefits in terms of rapid energy conversion after consumption without accumulation in the body. Important quality factors of the powder products such as the encapsulation efficiency and the amount of surface oil were examined to understand the optimum process conditions for spray drying. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Vega, Cesar; Kim, Esther-H-J; Chen, Xiao D; Roos, Yrjö H
The main physicochemical properties of spray-dried ice cream mixes (i.e. surface composition, wettability, flowability and microstructure) were analyzed. Emulsions contained 19-44% milk fat on a dry basis and included mixes with no added emulsifier and/or sucrose. The time necessary for complete wetting of the powders correlated with the amount of surface free-fat measured by means of solvent extraction. Non-micellar casein (sodium caseinate) showed to be a better co-encapsulant than micellar casein (skim milk) as demonstrated by surface fat coverage measured by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Emulsifiers influenced the fat surface composition of the powders by reducing the amount of surface protein due to their lower interfacial tension. Surface fat caused an initial overestimation of the particle size of the powders due to fat-related caking. Powders showed no flow before and after surface fat extraction which was attributed to fat-related caking and very small particle size (<80 microm), respectively.
Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Schutyser, M. A. I.; Boom, R. M.
The inactivation of bioactive ingredients during spray drying is often matrix specific. Therefore, the design of new processes or the optimisation of existing spray drying processes is usually highly product specific and requires numerous experiments. Rapid experimentation methods that facilitate fast data generation are therefore desired. A novel method for drying single droplets to mimic spray drying is proposed. The approach involves droplet deposition on a hydrophobic flat surface followe...
Carotenoids are used as natural food colourants in the food industry. As unstable natural pigments they need protection. This protection can involve the microencapsulation process. There are numerous techniques that can be used for carotenoid protection, but two of them -spray drying and supercritical micronization - are currently the most commonly used. The objective of this paper is to describe these two techniques for carotenoid microencapsulation. In this review information from articles from the last five years was taken into consideration. Pigments described in the review are all carotenoids. Short summary of carotenoids sources was presented. For the spray drying technique, a review of carrier material and process conditions was made. Moreover, a short description of some of the most suitable processes involving supercritical fluids for carotenoids (astaxanthin, β-carotene, lutein and lycopene) encapsulation was given. These include the Supercritical Antisolvent process (SAS), Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions (PGSS), Supercritical Fluid Extraction From an Emulsion (SFEE) and Solution Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical fluids (SEDS). In most cases the studies, independently of the described method, were conducted on the laboratory scale. In some a scale-up was also tested. In the review a critical assessment of the used methods was made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sosnik, Alejandro; Seremeta, Katia P
Spray-drying is a rapid, continuous, cost-effective, reproducible and scalable process for the production of dry powders from a fluid material by atomization through an atomizer into a hot drying gas medium, usually air. Often spray-drying is considered only a dehydration process, though it also can be used for the encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds within different carriers without substantial thermal degradation, even of heat-sensitive substances due to fast drying (seconds or milliseconds) and relatively short exposure time to heat. The solid particles obtained present relatively narrow size distribution at the submicron-to-micron scale. Generally, the yield% of spray-drying at laboratory scale with conventional spray-dryers is not optimal (20-70%) due to the loss of product in the walls of the drying chamber and the low capacity of the cyclone to separate fine particles (spray-drying method for the production of pure drug particles and drug-loaded polymeric particles and discusses the potential of this technique and the more advanced equipment to pave the way toward reproducible and scalable processes that are critical to the bench-to-bedside translation of innovative pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Partanen, Riitta; Raula, Janne; Seppänen, Rauni; Buchert, Johanna; Kauppinen, Esko; Forssell, Pirkko
Flaxseed oil was emulsified in whey protein isolate (WPI) and spray-dried. Powder characteristics and oxidative stability of oil at relative humidities (RH) from RH approximately 0% to RH 91% at 37 degrees C were analyzed. Oil droplets retained their forms in drying and reconstitution, but the original droplet size of the emulsion was not restored when the powder was dispersed in water. The particles seemed to be covered by a protein-rich surface layer as analyzed by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Oxidation of flaxseed oil dispersed in the WPI matrix was retarded from that of bulk oil but followed the same pattern as bulk oil with respect to humidity. A high rate of oxidation was found for both low and high humidity conditions. The lowest rate of oxidation as followed by peroxide values was found at RH 75%, a condition that is likely to diverge significantly from the monolayer moisture value. A weak baseline transition observed for the WPI matrix in a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram suggested a glassy state of the matrix at all storage conditions. This was not consistent with the observed caking of the powder at RH 91%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed a considerable structural change in the WPI matrix in these conditions, which was suggested to be linked with a higher rate of oxygen transport. Possible mechanisms for oxygen transport in the whey protein matrix under variable RHs are discussed.
Bae, E K; Lee, S J
Cold pressed avocado oil was microencapsulated by spray drying in four different wall systems consisting of whey protein isolate (WPI) alone or in combination with maltodextrin (MD) DE 5 at various ratios (90 : 10, 50 : 50 and 10 : 90). The WPI only or WPI/MD (90 : 10) powders were spherical and smooth, whereas the WPI/MD (50 : 50 and 10 : 90) powders exhibited pronounced surface collapse. Increasing the MD ratio resulted in higher bulk density and wettability, probably due to more compact physical structure and hydrophilic wall matrix. Surface free oil contents and microencapsulation efficiencies of powders were 11-16% and 45-66%, respectively, and no significant differences were observed between the samples. The crude avocado oil used in this study appeared to be stable against oxidation at cold and ambient temperatures, irrespective of microencapsulation. However, at high temperature of 60 degrees C, the oxidative stability decreased significantly in all cases but it was improved to some extent by microencapsulation.
Milk is extremely perishable, and yet it has to be preserved for later consumption. Membrane filtration, vacuum concentration lactose crystallization, homogenization and spray drying dehydration are valuable techniques to stabilize most dairy ingredients. Considering the ever increasing reach of international dairy trade, there is a need for the dairy industry to extend its ingredient process control capability through increased understanding of how these concentration and spray drying proces...
Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Zhou, Mingyong; Xia, Yan; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Luo, Yangchao
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have gained tremendous attraction as carriers for controlled drug delivery. Despite numerous advances in the field, one long-standing historical challenge for their practical applications remains unmet: redispersibility after drying. In this work, a novel design of SLNs using a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was developed and the formulations were optimized by surface response methodology (Box-Behnken design). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the fabrication of SLNs from all natural ingredients in the absence of any synthetic surfactants or coatings. The SLNs were prepared by a combined solvent-diffusion and hot homogenization method, with soy lecithin as natural emulsifier (first layer), followed by the subsequent coating with sodium caseinate (second layer) and pectin (third layer), both of which are natural food biopolymers. The adsorption of pectin coating onto caseinate was reinforced by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions induced by a pH-driven process along with thermal treatment. The innovative nano spray drying technology was further explored to obtain ultra-fine powders of SLNs. Compared to uncoated or single-layer coated SLNs powders, which showed severe aggregation after spray drying, the well-separated particles with spherical shape and smooth surface were obtained for layer-by-layer (LbL) SLNs, which were redispersible into water without variation of dimension, shape and morphology. The SLNs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and high-performance differential scanning calorimetry for their physical properties. The LbL-coated SLNs based on all natural ingredients have promising features for future applications as drug delivery systems, overcoming the major obstacles in conventional spray drying and redispersing SLNs-based formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Blueberry juice with high polyphenol concentration was spray- or freeze-dried using different coating materials: HP-β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin. The quality of the obtained powders was characterised by their anthocyanin content, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. SEM was used for monitoring structures and size (2–20 μm of the microparticles. The losses of total phenolic compounds during spray-drying reached 76–78% on average, while these of anthocyanins about 57%. Freeze-dried powders showed better retention values of anthocyanins, which was about 1.5-fold higher than for the spray-dried counterparts. All blueberry preparations studied were characterised by very high radical scavenging activity.
Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mobli, Hossien; Madadlou, Ashkan; Rafiee, Shahin
An integrated approach through coupling response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to optimize the spray dryer operational condition for production of fish oil microcapsules. The inlet drying air temperature, aspirator rate, and peristaltic pump rate were independent and encapsulation efficiency (EE) and exergy efficiency were dependent variables. RSM was applied to establish the relationship between the independent and dependent variables followed by integrating the developed models using three mathematical approaches and measure the fitness value of GA. Consequently, the optimal drying condition for microencapsulation of fish oil was: inlet drying air temperature = 177.23°C, aspirator rate = 63.93%, and peristaltic pump rate = 14.04% yielding exergy efficiency of 8.10% and EE of 79.14%. The results of confirmation experiments for selected drying condition proved the capability of utilized approach for determination of sustainable and qualified process in fish oil microencapsulation by spray drying.
Lee, Carlos; Gallo, Jenny; Arikpo, William; Bobin, Vincent
Non-traditional sample preparation/extraction techniques that utilized the Caliper Life Sciences Tablet Processing Workstation II (TPW II), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE), and Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) were evaluated for the extraction of Compound A from a 50 mgA, 15% Spray Dried Dispersion (SDD) immediate released (IR) tablet formulation. The TPW II consistently provided complete recoveries with very short preparation/extraction times (approximately 30 min). MAE also provided complete recovery of the API from the tablet formulation, but required approximately twice the extraction time, while ASE provided the lowest recovery of the three non-traditional techniques. The sample preparation/extraction efficiencies of the three non-traditional techniques were compared to that of the 5.5 h long manual method.
Full Text Available The paper presents development of valved pulse combustor designed for application in drying process and drying tests performed in a specially built installation. Laser technique was applied to investigate the flow field and structure of dispersed phase during pulse combustion spray drying process. PDA technique was used to determine initial atomization parameters as well as particle size distribution, velocity of the particles, mass concentration of liquid phase in the cross section of spray stream, etc., in the drying chamber during drying tests. Water was used to estimate the level of evaporation and 5 and 10% solutions of sodium chloride to carry out drying tests. The Computational Fluid Dynamics technique was used to perform theoretical predictions of time-dependent velocity, temperature distribution and particle trajectories in the drying chamber. Satisfactory agreement between calculations and experimental results was found in certain regions of the drying chamber.
Water soluble amylose-hexadecyl ammonium chloride complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and hexadecyl ammonium chloride by excess steam jet cooking. Amylose inclusion complexes were spray dried to determine the viability of spray drying as a production method. The variables tested in...
Wan, Feng; Yang, Mingshi
and peptide drugs with a steady pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile maintained for a long period. However, the development of PLGA-based microparticle systems is still impeded by lack of easy, fast, effective manufacturing technologies. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in spray drying...... parameters on the critical quality attributes of the spray-dried microparticles....
Chinta, Dakshinamurthy Devanga; Graves, Richard A; Pamujula, Sarala; Praetorius, Natalie; Bostanian, Levon A; Mandal, Tarun K
The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate a novel spray-dried tableting excipient using a mixture of chitosan and lactose. Three different grades of chitosan (low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight) were used for this study. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug. A specific amount of chitosan (1, 1.9, and 2.5 g, respectively) was dissolved in 50 mL of an aqueous solution of citric acid (1%) and later mixed with 50 mL of an aqueous solution containing lactose (20, 19.1, and 18.5 g, respectively) and propanolol (2.2 g). The resultant solution was sprayed through a laboratory spray drier at 1.4 mL/min. The granules were evaluated for bulk density, tap density, Carr index, particle size distribution, surface morphology, thermal properties, and tableting properties. Bulk density of the granules decreased from 0.16 to 0.13 g/mL when the granules were prepared using medium- or high-molecular-weight chitosan compared with the low-molecular-weight chitosan. The relative proportion of chitosan also showed a significant effect on the bulk density. The granules prepared with 1 g of low-molecular-weight chitosan showed the minimum Carr index (11.1%) indicating the best flow properties among all five formulations. All three granules prepared with 1 g chitosan, irrespective of their molecular weight, showed excellent flow properties. Floating tablets prepared by direct compression of these granules with sodium bicarbonate showed 50% drug release between 30 and 35 min. In conclusion, the spray-dried granules prepared with chitosan and lactose showed excellent flow properties and were suitable for tableting.
Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie
Formulations containing amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) present great potential to overcome problems of limited bioavailability of poorly soluble APIs. In this paper, we directly compare for the first time spray drying and milling as methods to produce amorphous dispersions for two binary systems (poorly soluble API)/excipient: sulfathiazole (STZ)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sulfadimidine (SDM)/PVP. The coprocessed mixtures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and intrinsic dissolution tests. PXRD and DSC confirmed that homogeneous glassy solutions (mixture with a single glass transition) of STZ/PVP were obtained for 0.05 ≤ X(PVP) (PVP weight fraction) spray drying and for 0.6 ≤ X(PVP) spray drying and for 0.7 ≤ X(PVP) drugs and PVP. The fact that amorphous SDM can be obtained on spray drying but not amorphous STZ could not be anticipated from the thermodynamic driving force of crystallization, but may be due to the lower molecular mobility of amorphous SDM compared to amorphous STZ. The solubility of the crystalline APIs in PVP was determined and the activities of the two APIs were fitted to the Flory-Huggins model. Comparable values of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) were determined for the two systems (χ = -1.8 for SDM, χ = -1.5 for STZ) indicating that the two APIs have similar miscibility with PVP. Zones of stability and instability of the amorphous dispersions as a function of composition and temperature were obtained from the Flory-Huggins theory and the Gordon-Taylor equation and were found to be comparable for the two APIs. Intrinsic dissolution studies in aqueous media revealed that dissolution rates increased in the following order: physical mix of unprocessed materials drugs to a similar magnitude as co-spray dried systems.
Pradhan, Roshan; Tran, Tuan Hiep; Kim, Sung Yub; Woo, Kyu Bong; Choi, Yong Joo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh
We aimed to develop an immediate-release flurbiprofen (FLU) and esomeprazole (ESO) combination formulation with enhanced gastric aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. Aqueous solubility can be enhanced by formulating solid dispersions (SDs) with a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-K30 hydrophilic carrier, using spray-drying technique. Aqueous and gastric pH dissolution can be achieved by macro-environmental pH modulation using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) as the alkaline buffer. FLU/ESO-loaded SDs (FLU/ESO-SDs) significantly improved aqueous solubility of both drugs, compared to each drug powder. Dissolution studies in gastric pH and water were compared with the microenvironmental pH modulated formulations. The optimized FLU/ESO-SD powder formulation consisted of FLU/ESO/PVP-K30/sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in a weight ratio 1:0.22:1.5:0.3, filled in the inner capsule. The outer capsule consisted of NaHCO3 and Mg(OH)2, which created the macro-environmental pH modulation. Increased aqueous and gastric pH dissolution of FLU and ESO from the SD was attributed to the alkaline buffer effects and most importantly, to drug transformation from crystalline to amorphous SD powder, clearly revealed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thus, the combined FLU and ESO SD powder can be effectively delivered as an immediate-release formulation using the macro-environmental pH modulation concept. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Adamczyk, Bożena; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie
High-dose API powders which are to be tableted by direct compression should have high compactibility and compressibility. This note reports on a novel approach to the manufacture of crystalline powders intended for direct compaction with improved compactibility and compressibility properties. The poorly compactable API, chlorothiazide, was spray dried from a water/acetone solvent mix producing additive-free nanocrystalline microparticles (NCMPs) of median particle size 3.5 μm. Tablets compacted from NCMPs had tensile strengths ranging from 0.5 to 4.6 MPa (compared to 0.6-0.9 MPa for tablets of micronised CTZ) at compression forces ranging from 6 kN to 13 kN. NCMP tablets also had high porosities (34-20%) and large specific surface areas (4.4-4.8m(2)/g). The time taken for tablets made of NCMPs to erode was not statistically longer (p>0.05) than for tablets made of micronised CTZ. Fragmentation of NCMPs on compression was observed. The volume fraction of particles below 1 μm present in the suspension recovered after erosion of NCMP tablets was 34.8±3.43%, while no nanosized particles were detected in the slurry after erosion of compacted micronised CTZ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shah, Dhaval A; Patel, Manan; Murdande, Sharad B; Dave, Rutesh H
The purpose for the current research is to compare and evaluate physiochemical properties of spray-dried (SD) microcrystals (MCs), nanocrystals (NCs), and nanocrystals with a dispersion agent (NCm) from a poorly soluble compound. The characterization was carried out by performing size and surface analysis, interfacial tension (at particle moisture interface), and in-vitro drug dissolution rate experiments. Nanosuspensions were prepared by media milling and were spray-dried. The SD powders that were obtained were characterized morphologically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and Flowchem. Solid-state characterization was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the identification of the crystalline nature of all the SD powders. The powders were characterized for their redispersion tendency in the water and in pH 1.2. Significant differences in redispersion were noted for both the NCs in both dissolution media. The interfacial tension for particle moisture interface was determined by applying the BET (Braunauer-Emmett-Teller) equation to the vapor sorption data. No significant reduction in the interfacial tension was observed between MCs and NCs; however, a significant reduction in the interfacial tension was observed for NCm at both 25 °C and 35 °C temperatures. The difference in interfacial tension and redispersion behavior can be attributed to a difference in the wetting tendency for all the SD powders. The dissolution studies were carried out under sink and under non-sink conditions. The non-sink dissolution approach was found suitable for quantification of the dissolution rate enhancement, and also for providing the rank order to the SD formulations.
Ishak, Rania A H; Osman, Rihab
The aim of the present work was to develop a new solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for the pulmonary delivery of the poorly water-soluble anti-cancer drug atorvastatin (AVT). Microemulsion (ME) was first developed using isopropyl myristate (IPM), a combination of 2 biocompatible surfactants: lecithin/d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) and ethanol as co-surfactant. Two types of lecithin with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) contents were compared. Phase diagram, physico-chemical characterization and stability studies were used to investigate ME region. Solid SMEDDS were then prepared by spray-drying the selected ME using a combination of carriers composed of sugars, leucine as dispersibility enhancer with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Yield, flow properties, particle size and in vitro pulmonary deposition were used to characterize the spray-dried powders. Reconstituted MEs were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size and size distribution. In vitro cytotoxicity study was undertaken on lung cancer cell line for the selected MEs and SD-SMEDDS formulae. Results showed that the most satisfactory MEs properties were obtained with 1:3 lecithin/TPGS, 1:1 lecithin/oil and 1:1 surfactant/co-surfactant ratios. A larger ME area was obtained with lecithin containing 100% PC compared to the less expensive lecithin containing 20% PC. By manipulating spray drying parameters, carrier composition and ratio of ME lipids to carrier, microparticles with more than 70% of respirable fraction could be prepared. The ME was efficiently recovered in simulated lung fluid even after removal of alcohol. The concurrent delivery of AVT with TPGS in solid SMEDDS greatly enhanced the cytotoxic activity on lung cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nichrous Mlalila,1 Hulda Swai,2 Lonji Kalombo,2 Askwar Hilonga3 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Materials Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania Abstract: The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. Keywords: double emulsions, nanoparticles, pump rate, spray-drying, testosterone
Jaywant N. Pawar
Full Text Available Artemether (ARM is a poorly water soluble and poorly permeable drug effective against acute and severe falciparum malaria, hence there is a strong need to improve its solubility. The objective of the study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of ARM by preparation of solid dispersions using spray-drying technique. Solid dispersions of ARM were prepared with Soluplus, Kollidon VA 64, HPMC and Eudragit EPO at weight ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 using spray drying technology, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, as well as effect on dissolution. The prepared solid dispersion of ARM with polymers showed reduced crystallinity as compared to neat ARM, which was confirmed by DSC and XRD. Drug/polymer interactions were studied in-silico by docking and molecular dynamics which indicated formation of van der Waals type of interactions of ARM with the polymers. Based on solubility studies, the optimum drug/Soluplus ratio was found to be 1:3. The dissolution studies of formulation SD3 showed highest drug release up to 82% compared to neat ARM giving only 20% at 60 minutes. The spray-dried products were free of crystalline ARM; possessed higher dissolution rates, and were stable over a period according to ICH guidelines. These findings suggest that an amorphous solid dispersion of ARM could be a viable option for enhancing the dissolution rate of ARM.
Tatiane Pereira de Souza
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop granules from Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract using dry and wet granulation and to assess techniques to enable the production of granules with improved technological characteristics and yields. Granules were characterized by granulometry, reological parameters, compression and hygroscopic behavior. Independent of the granulation technique, technologically developed granules presented particle diameter, bulk and tapped densities and compressibility indexes suitable for a solid dosage form. The compression behavior showed plastic and fragmentary deformation for granules produced by the dry granulation technique and predominantly plastic deformation for wet granulation. Concerning the humidity sorption, the study showed that granules absorb less humidity than the spray-dried extract. However, granules with Eudragit® E 100 were the least hygroscopic.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver grânulos de extrato Phyllantus niruri seco por aspersão e por granulação úmida e avaliar técnicas que possibilitem a produção de grânulos com características tecnológicas e rendimentos aperfeiçoados. Os grânulos foram caracterizados por granulometria, parâmetros reológicos, compressão e comportamento higroscópico. Independentemente da técnica de granulação, os grânulos tecnologicamente desenvolvidos apresentaram diâmetro de partículas, densidades aparente e compactada e índices de compressibilidade adequados para a formulação sólida. O comportamento de compressão mostrou deformação plástica e elástica para os grânulos produzidos por técnicas de granulação seca e, predominantemente, deformação plástica para a granulação úmida. Com relação à absorção da umidade, o estudo mostrou que os grânulos absorvem menos umidade do que o extrato seco por aspersão. Entretanto, os grânulos com Eudragit E 100 foram os menos higroscópicos.
Pérez-Bosque, Anna; Polo, Javier; Torrallardona, David
The use of growth promoting and therapeutic antibiotics in piglet feed has been a concerning subject over the last few decades because of the risk of generating antimicrobial resistance that could be transferred to humans. As a result, many products have been proposed as potential alternatives to the use of antibiotics, and among these, spray dried plasma is considered one of the most promising. However, there have been concerns about its biosafety, particularly during periods of emergence or re-emergence of swine diseases in different regions of the world, such as the recent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus outbreak in North America. The objectives of this paper are to review recent publications about the use of spray dried plasma as an alternative to antibiotics in weaned pig diets, the possible mechanisms of action of spray dried plasma, and the existing evidence related to the biosafety of spray dried animal plasma. Particular attention is given to studies in which spray dried plasma has been directly compared to antibiotics or other alternative antimicrobial products. Several studies on the possible modes of action for spray dried plasma, such as preservation of gut barrier function or modulation of the immune response, are also reviewed. Finally, the paper focuses on the review of the existing studies on the risks of disease transmission with the use of spray dried plasma from porcine origin. Overall, spray dried plasma is a promising alternative to in-feed antimicrobials for piglets, particularly during the early stages of the post-weaning phase. Additionally, there is enough evidence to support that commercial spray dried porcine plasma is a safe product for pigs.
Soottitantawat, Apinan; Yoshii, Hidefumi; Furuta, Takeshi; Ohgawara, Masaaki; Forssell, Pirkko; Partanen, Ritta; Poutanen, Kaisa; Linko, Pekka
The stability of encapsulated D-limonene, which was prepared by spray drying, was studied in view of the release characteristics and oxidation stability. Gum arabic, soybean water-soluble polysaccharide, or modified starch, blended with maltodextrin were used as the wall materials. The powders were stored under the conditions of 23-96% relative humidity at 50 degrees C. The release rate and the oxidation rate were closely related to the relative humidity. The relationship was not simple. Initially, the release rate and the oxidation rate increased with increasing water activity, but around the glass transition temperature, the rates decreased sharply to increase again at a further increase of water activity. The results could be explained by a change in the powder structure, where a glass capsule matrix was changed into rubbery state during storage.
Araujo-Díaz, S B; Leyva-Porras, C; Aguirre-Bañuelos, P; Álvarez-Salas, C; Saavedra-Leos, Z
In this work, two carbohydrate polymers, inulin (I) and maltodextrin (MX), were compared as carrying agents in the spray drying of blueberry juice (BJ). The physicochemical properties and the conservation of the antioxidants content were characterized. Both systems, showed non-agglomerated particles and light-purple color appearance. Powders were subjected to the adsorption of water, and the glass transition temperature (Tg) decreased with the water activity. The evolution of the microstructure in the MX-BJ remained unchanged, while the I-BJ presented an abrupt change from amorphous to crystalline. This was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), observing in the I-BJ system, the change from spherical into irregular shape particles. In the conservation of the antioxidants content, the MX-BJ showed a better performance. Anyhow, the performance of both carbohydrate polymers as carrying agents in the spray drying of BJ was effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Subramaniam, Anandaraman; Veazey, Robert L; Schober, Amanda; Rada, Alison; Rong, Yunhong; van Sleeuwen, Rutger M T; Golding, Robert; Zhang, Suying; Normand, Valery
The oxidation stability of orange oil flavours encapsulated in carbohydrate based spray dry delivery systems is assessed through accelerated shelf life testing, compatible with the physical state of the delivery system. It is demonstrated here that the oxidative shelf life stability is limited by the diffusion of oxygen through the carbohydrate matrix. Determination of the evolution of orange oil oxidation products with time and correlations with simple but accurate sensory data allows for prediction of absolute shelf life. The oxidative shelf life appears to be dependent only on the number average molecular weight of carbohydrates in the matrix and is not affected by the substitution of small sugars (e.g., maltose for sucrose). A maximum of 2 years shelf life at 25 °C is predicted if sugar dimers are the predominant species in the matrix. The drawback to extended oxidative stability is a low physical stability under humid conditions promoting local softening in the sample. Maltose, having low hygroscopicity, improves the physical stability compared to sucrose. The best compromise between physical (caking) and chemical (oxidation) stability is obtained for carbohydrate compositions with number average molecular weight of 560 g mol(-1) that do not contain sucrose (stability against oxidation: 20 months at 25 °C and stability against humidity: 50% RH at 25 °C). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Golowczyc, Marina A; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G
The injuries caused by spray drying (SD) of three potential probiotic lactobacilli isolated from kefir grains and the impact on some probiotic properties, were evaluated. Results demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 83114 and L. kefir 8321 showed a slight reduction of viability (0.11 and 0.29 log CFU/ml respectively) after SD process, and L. kefir 8348 was found to be more sensitive to the process with a reduction in viability of 0.70 log CFU/ml. Neither membrane damage, evaluated by increased sensitivity to NaCl, lysozyme, bile salt and penicillin G, nor changes in acidifying activity in MRS and milk by lactobacilli were detected after SD. L. plantarum 83114 and L. kefir 8321 after SD did not lose their capacity to adhere to intestinal cells. Nevertheless, L. kefir 8348 showed a significant loss of adhesion capacity after SD. In addition, rehydrated spray-dried L. kefir 8321 retained the ability to protect against Salmonella invasion of intestinal cells. This effect was observed when L. kefir is co-incubated with Salmonella before invasion assay. This work shows that the membrane integrity evaluated by indirect methods and some probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from kefir did not change significantly after SD, and these powders could be used in functional foods applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mlalila, Nichrous; Swai, Hulda; Kalombo, Lonji; Hilonga, Askwar
The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. PMID:25489238
Santana, Audirene A; Cano-Higuita, Diana M; de Oliveira, Rafael A; Telis, Vânia R N
The objective of this work was to study the spray drying of jussara pulp using ternary mixtures of gum Arabic (GA) and modified starch (MS) together with either whey protein concentrate (WPC) or soy protein isolate (SPI), as the carrier agents. Two experimental mixture designs and triangular response surfaces were used to evaluate the effects of the mixtures on the responses for powders formulated with GA:MS:WPC and GA:MS:SPI, respectively. The spray drying process was selected for each carrier agent mixture, aiming to maximum the process yield (PY), solubility (S), retention of total anthocyanins (RTA) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). It was shown that the ternary formulations showed higher PY, S and RTA than the pure and binary formulations, as well as good results for EE and a low moisture content, showing that the use of GA and MS together with either WPC or SPI provide better microencapsulation of the jussara pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ayadi, M A; Khemakhem, M; Belgith, H; Attia, H
Dried egg and egg-derived proteins have a range of applications in baking, dressings, and confectionery products. Egg powder was produced under high time-temperature scales (approximately 160 degrees C), which led to many changes in egg components, resulting in different functional properties of eggs after reconstitution. In this study, moderate operating conditions were selected to dry egg white and whole egg using a pilot-scale spray dryer. Functional properties changes were evaluated with an appropriate statistical technique. Major finding supports that spray drying of egg white at moderate conditions (air inlet temperature ranged from 110 to 125 degrees C) resulted in a product that enhanced considerably the water holding capacity of produced gels. Moreover, gel prepared with the dried samples was firmer than that of the fresh samples. Drying at a moderate scale allowed not only the increasing of the foaming capacity and the stability of foam but also an increase in their emulsifying capacity and stability of the emulsions.
Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.
Sóti, Péter Lajos; Bocz, Katalin; Pataki, Hajnalka; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Farkas, Attila; Verreck, Geert; Kiss, Éva; Fekete, Pál; Vigh, Tamás; Wagner, István; Nagy, Zsombor K; Marosi, György
Three solvent based methods: spray drying (SD), electrospinning (ES) and air-assisted electrospinning (electroblowing; EB) were used to prepare solid dispersions of itraconazole and Eudragit E. Samples with the same API/polymer ratios were prepared in order to make the three technologies comparable. The structure and morphology of solid dispersions were identified by scanning electron microscopy and solid phase analytical methods such as, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman chemical mapping. Moreover, the residual organic solvents of the solid products were determined by static headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy measurements and the wettability of samples was characterized by contact angle measurement. The pharmaceutical performance of the three dispersion type, evaluated by dissolution tests, proved to be very similar. According to XRPD and DSC analyses, made after the production, all the solid dispersions were free of any API crystal clusters but about 10 wt% drug crystallinity was observed after three months of storage in the case of the SD samples in contrast to the samples produced by ES and EB in which the polymer matrix preserved the API in amorphous state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Balasubramani, P; Palaniswamy, P T; Visvanathan, R; Thirupathi, V; Subbarayan, A; Prakash Maran, J
Experiments were conducted on microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin by spray drying with garlic oleoresin concentration (10%, 20% and 30%) as core material, maltodextrin concentration (40%, 50% and 60%) as wall material and inlet temperature of drying air (180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C) as process parameters. The process in-terms of encapsulation efficiency was optimised following response surface methodology and Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second order polynomial regression model showed good fit of the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) along with predicted values. The relationships between the independent and dependent parameters were represented using response surface and contour plots. The optimum levels of process parameters, viz., garlic oleoresin concentration, maltodextrin concentration and inlet temperature of air drying were found to be 10%, 60% and 200 °C, respectively with the maximum encapsulation efficiency of 81.9% and desirability of 0.998. The microencapsulated garlic oleoresin powder obtained at optimized conditions was spherical with smooth surface as analysed through scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Katrine Tarp; Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev; Lenz, Elisabeth; Bohr, Adam; Grohganz, Holger; Kleinebudde, Peter; Rades, Thomas; Löbmann, Korbinian
Recently, co-amorphous drug-amino acid mixtures were introduced as a promising alternative to other amorphous stabilization approaches such as the use of polymers to form glass solutions. So far, these co-amorphous mixtures have been mainly prepared via vibrational ball milling on a lab scale. In this study, spray-drying was investigated as a scale up preparation method for co-amorphous indomethacin (IND)-amino acid mixtures. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the different co-amorphous systems were investigated with respect to the amino acids' ability towards co-amorphous salt formation. The mixtures were characterized for their solid state properties using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze molecular interactions. Furthermore, intrinsic dissolution behaviour, and physical stability at various storage conditions, were examined. Results showed that IND could be converted into an amorphous form in combination with the amino acids arginine (ARG), histidine (HIS) and lysine (LYS) by spray-drying. Solid state characterization revealed elevated glass transition temperatures for all mixtures compared with the pure amorphous drug due to co-amorphization with the amino acids. Furthermore, strong intermolecular interactions in the form of salt/partial salt formation between the drug and amino acids were seen for all blends. All mixtures were physically stable (>10 months) at room temperature and 40°C under dry conditions. Intrinsic dissolution of the co-amorphous mixtures showed an improved dissolution behaviour under intestinal pH conditions for IND-ARG compared with the crystalline and amorphous forms of the drug. On the other hand, IND-LYS and IND-HIS revealed no significant improvement in the intrinsic dissolution rate of IND due to recrystallization of IND during dissolution. It could be shown that strong intermolecular interactions between
Yibin LI; Baosha TANG; Junchen CHEN; Pufu LAI
....), the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8...
Jacobs, C; Braun, P; Hammer, P
Several outbreaks of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) have been described as food-borne illness in neonates and infants. Powdered infant formula has been identified as a source of infection, especially in hospital nurseries, where a bulk of formula nutrient is prepared for the whole day and instructions for preparation are not always followed correctly. Neonates who are underweight or immunosuppressed are especially at risk for an E. sakazakii infection. Considering that milk powder is the main ingredient of powdered infant formula, we analyzed the incidence and distribution of E. sakazakii in a milk powder-producing plant. We looked specifically at the spray-drying towers and roller dryers. Selected isolates from samples taken from the environment and final product were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of the organism within the production area of the plant. Seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were detected in the spray-drying area, which presumably entered the plant through an aperture for process air and an improperly controlled roller shutter. Furthermore, textile filters for exhaust air of both the spray-drying towers were identified as internal reservoirs of the pathogen. For economic reasons, powder from the textile filters is reintroduced into the product flow; this can contaminate the final product. For the production of milk powder to be used as an ingredient of powdered infant formula, it was suggested to terminate the process of reintroducing the filtered powder into the product flow. A second transmission route was identified in the roller dryer section of the factory. It could be shown that contaminated milk concentrate could pass the process unheated, thus leading to a contamination of the product with E. sakazakii. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paudel, Amrit; Loyson, Yves; Van den Mooter, Guy
The present study investigates the effect of changing spray drying temperature (40°C-120°C) and/or atomizing airflow rate (AR; 5-15 L/min) on the phase structure, physical stability, and performance of spray-dried naproxen-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K 25 amorphous solid dispersions. The modulated differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total internal reflectance-Fourier transform infrared, and powder X-ray diffractometry (pXRD) studies revealed that higher inlet temperature (IT) or atomization airflow leads to the formation of amorphous-phase-separated dispersions with higher strongly H-bonded and free PVP fractions, whereas that prepared with the lowest IT was more homogeneous. The dispersion prepared with the lowest atomization AR showed trace crystallinity. Upon exposure to 75% relative humidity (RH) for 3 weeks, the phase-separated dispersions generated by spray drying at higher temperature or higher atomization airflow retained relatively higher amorphous drug fraction compared with those prepared at slow evaporation conditions. The humidity-controlled pXRD analysis at 98% RH showed that the dispersion prepared with highest atomization AR displayed the slowest kinetics of recrystallization. The molecular-level changes occurring during recrystallization at 98% RH was elucidated by spectroscopic monitoring at the same humidity. The rate and extent of the drug dissolution was the highest for dispersions prepared at the highest atomizing AR and the lowest for that prepared with the slowest atomizing condition. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
MIKROENKAPSULASI Lactobacillus plantarum DENGAN BERBAGAI ENKAPSULAN PADA PENGERINGAN SEMPROT JUS JAMBU BIJI [Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum in Guava Juice by Spray Drying Using Several Types of Encapsulant
Full Text Available Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (1% in guava juice were microencapculated by spray drying technique using several types of encapsulant, i.e. maltodextrin, maltodextrin in combination with other materials such as gum arabic, inulin, and galaktooligosakarida (GOS, with a ratio of 5:1. The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of encapsulation materials of Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL on heat resistance (50, 60 and 70°C, for 20 min, survival at low pH (2.0, bile salts (0.5%, and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. Spray drying were performed at 120°C (inlet and 70°C (outlet. The results showed that all types of encapsulated probiotics improved their resistances toward heat, low pH and bile salts as compared to free cells. The highest survival of probiotic cells was achieved by probiotic encapsulated with maltodextrin, and heated at 50°C, with a protection of 2-3 Log CFU g-1 as compared to free cells. Combination of maltodextrin and GOS (5:1 showed the highest protection toward low pH and bile salts, except for L. plantarum BSL, the best encapsulant was maltodextrin. The antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated probiotic the cells did not change after the microencapsulation process. These results indicate that the guava powder probiotic can be developped by microencapsulation technique using maltodextrin or combination of maltodextrin and GOS with spray drying method.
Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka
the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near......-infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis and further, results were verified with X-ray powder diffraction. It was seen that the prevalence of the mannitol polymorphic form shifted from ß-mannitol to d-mannitol with increasing protein concentration in freeze-dried formulations. In spray......-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from ß-mannitol to a-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying...
A. A. Shevtsov
Full Text Available Spray drying of solutions and suspensions is among the most common methods of producing a wide range of powdered products in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. For the drying of heat-sensitive materials, which is fully applicable to the distillery stillage filtrate continuous-flow type of contact of drying agent and the solution droplets is examined. Two-phase simulation method of computational hydrodynamics in a stationary state for studying the process of drying of the distillery stillage filtrate in the pilot spray dryer under the following assumptions was used. The components form an ideal mixture, the properties of which are calculated directly from the properties of the components and their proportions. The droplets were presented in spherical form. The density and specific heat of the solution and the coefficient of vapors diffusion in the gas phase remained unchanged. To solve the heat exchange equations between the drying agent and the drops by the finite volume method the software package ANSYS CFX was used. The bind between the two phases was established by Navier-Stokes equations. The continuous phase (droplets of the distillery stillage filtrate was described by the k-ε turbulence model. The results obtained showed that the interaction of "drop-wall" causes a significant change of velocity, temperature and humidity both of a drying agent and the product particles. The behavior of the particles by spraying, collision with walls and deposition of the finished product allowed to determine the dependence of physical parameters of the drying process, of the geometric dimensions of the dryer. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed satisfactory convergence of the results: for the temperature of the powder 10% its humidity of 12% and temperature of the spent drying agent at the outlet from the drier of 13%. The possibility of using the model in the spray dryers designing, and control of the drying process
Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling
In the spray drying process, organic solvents can be added to facilitate drying, accommodate certain functional excipients, and modify the final particle characteristics. In this study, lysozyme was used as a model pharmaceutical protein to study the effect of ethanol as a co...... the spray drying process. The enzymatic activities of the spray-dried lysozyme showed no significant impact of ethanol; however, the lysozyme enzymatic activity was ca. 25% lower compared to the starting material. In conclusion, the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent in the spray drying feed for lysozyme......-solvent on the stability and aerosol performance of spray-dried protein. Lysozyme was dissolved in solutions with various ratios of ethanol and water, and subsequently spray-dried. A change from spherical particles into wrinkled and folded particles was observed upon increasing the ratio of ethanol in the feed...
Ben Amara, Chedia; Kim, Lanhee; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal; Gharsallaoui, Adem
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of complexation to encapsulate nisin (5g/L concentration) using spray-drying technique and to evaluate how complexation with pectin or alginate (2g/L concentration) can preserve nisin structure and antimicrobial activity. Spray-drying of nisin-low methoxyl pectin or nisin-alginate electrostatic complexes has led to the microencapsulation of the peptide in different networks that were highly influenced by the polysaccharide type. Turbidity and particle size measurements indicated that while spray-drying promoted the aggregation of nisin-pectin complexes, it favored the dissociation of nisin-alginate aggregates to form individual complexes. Structural changes of nisin induced by complexation with pectin or alginate and spray-drying were studied by using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that complexation with pectin or alginate preserved nisin structure as well as its antimicrobial activity during spray-drying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach.
Al-Khattawi, Ali; Bayly, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew; Wilson, David
The rising demand for pharmaceutical particles with tailored physicochemical properties has opened new markets for spray drying especially for solubility enhancement, improving inhalation medicines and stabilization of biopharmaceuticals. Despite this, the spray drying literature is scattered and often does not address the principles underpinning robust development of pharmaceuticals. It is therefore necessary to present clearer picture of the field and highlight the factors influencing particle design and scale-up. Areas covered: The review presents a systematic analysis of the trends in development of particle delivery systems using spray drying. This is followed by exploring the mechanisms governing particle formation in the process stages. Particle design factors including those of equipment configurations and feed/process attributes were highlighted. Finally, the review summarises the current industrial approaches for upscaling pharmaceutical spray drying. Expert opinion: Spray drying provides the ability to design particles of the desired functionality. This greatly benefits the pharmaceutical sector especially as product specifications are becoming more encompassing and exacting. One of the biggest barriers to product translation remains one of scale-up/scale-down. A shift from trial and error approaches to model-based particle design helps to enhance control over product properties. To this end, process innovations and advanced manufacturing technologies are particularly welcomed.
Patil, Shashank P; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind K
The present study investigates the potential of spray drying as a technique for generation of pharmaceutical cocrystals. Carbamazepine-Nicotinamide cocrystal (CNC) was chosen as model cocrystal system for this study. Firstly, CNC was generated using liquid assisted grinding and used for generation of phase solubility diagram (PSD) and ternary phase diagram (TPD). Both PSD and TPD were carefully evaluated for phase behavior of CNC when equilibrated with solvent. The undersaturated region with respect to CNC, as depicted by TPD, was selected as target region to initiate cocrystallization experiments. Various points in this region, representative of different compositions of Carbamazepine, Nicotinamide and CNC, were selected and spray drying was carried out. The spray dried product was characterized for solid state properties and was compared with CNC generated by liquid assisted grinding. Spray drying successfully generated CNC of similar quality as those generated by liquid assisted grinding. Moreover, there was no significant impact of process variables on formation of CNC. Spray drying, owing to its simplicity and industrial scalability, can be a promising method for large scale cocrystal generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Al-Zoubi, Nizar; Al-Obaidi, Ghada; Tashtoush, Bassam; Malamataris, Stavros
In this work, aqueous diltiazem HCl and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) solutions were mixed with Kollicoat SR 30D and spray dried to microparticles of different drug:excipient ratio and PVP content. Co-spray dried products and physical mixtures of drug, Kollidon SR and PVP were tableted. Spray drying process, co-spray dried products and compressibility/compactability of co-spray dried and physical mixtures, as well as drug release and water uptake of matrix-tablets was evaluated. Simple power equation fitted drug release and water uptake (R(2) > 0.909 and 0.938, respectively) and correlations between them were examined. Co-spray dried products with PVP content lower than in physical mixtures result in slower release, while at equal PVP content (19 and 29% w/w of excipient) in similar release (f2 > 50). Increase of PVP content increases release rate and co-spray drying might be an alternative, when physical mixing is inadequate. Co-spray dried products show better compressibility/compatibility but higher stickiness to the die-wall compared to physical mixtures. SEM observations and comparison of release and swelling showed that distribution of tableted component affects only the swelling, while PVP content for both co-spray dried and physical mixes is major reason for release alterations and an aid for drug release control.
Ruiz Cabrera Miguel Angel
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the blends with different levels of lactose-maltodextrin (8:5, 10:5, and 12:5 % w/v during the spray-drying of the passion fruit juice. The drying was carried out in a laboratory spray dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model at two inlet air temperatures (180 and 190 ºC, and two air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa. The moisture content, hygroscopicity and vitamin C retention were evaluated in the powder obtained. Response surface plots (pO objectivo deste estudo foi a avaliação da efectividade das misturas en diferentes níveis de lactose-maltodextrina (8:5, 10:5, 12:5 % w/v durante a pulverização do sumo de maracujá. A secagem foi feita em um atomizador de laboratório de pulverização (modelo Pulvis GB 22 com 2 entradas de temperatura de ar (180 e 190 ºC, e 2 compressores de pressão de ar (0.10 e 0.20 MPa. O índice da mistura, higroscopicidade e retenção de vitamina C foram avaliados no pó obtido. As curvas de superfície de resposta (p<0.05 mostram que os valores mais baixos do índice da mistura e higroscopicidade foram alcançados no intervalo de temperatura de 188-190 ºC e com uma concentração de 12:5 % w/v de lactosemaltodextrina; o melhor nível de retenção de vitamina C ocorreu a 180 ºC e 0.2 MPa.
Tawfeek, Hesham; Khidr, Sayed; Samy, Eman; Ahmed, Sayed; Murphy, Mark; Mohammed, Afzaal; Shabir, Anjum; Hutcheon, Gillian; Saleem, Imran
The aim of this work was to optimize biodegradable polyester poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone), PGA-co-PDL, microparticles as sustained release (SR) carriers for pulmonary drug delivery. Microparticles were produced by spray drying directly from double emulsion with and without dispersibility enhancers ((L)-arginine and (L)-leucine) (0.5-1.5%w/w) using sodium fluorescein (SF) as a model hydrophilic drug. Spray-dried microparticles without dispersibility enhancers exhibited aggregated powders leading to low fine particle fraction (%FPF) (28.79 ± 3.24), fine particle dose (FPD) (14.42 ± 1.57 μg), with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.86 ± 0.24 μm. However, (L)-leucine was significantly superior in enhancing the aerosolization performance ((L-)arginine:%FPF 27.61 ± 4.49-26.57 ± 1.85; FPD 12.40 ± 0.99-19.54 ± 0.16 μg and MMAD 2.18 ± 0.35-2.98 ± 0.25 μm, (L)-leucine:%FPF 36.90 ± 3.6-43.38 ± 5.6; FPD 18.66 ± 2.90-21.58 ± 2.46 μg and MMAD 2.55 ± 0.03-3.68 ± 0.12 μm). Incorporating (L)-leucine (1.5%w/w) reduced the burst release (24.04 ± 3.87%) of SF compared to unmodified formulations (41.87 ± 2.46%), with both undergoing a square root of time (Higuchi's pattern) dependent release. Comparing the toxicity profiles of PGA-co-PDL with (L)-leucine (1.5%w/w) (5 mg/ml) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide), (5 mg/ml) spray-dried microparticles in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o- cell lines, resulted in cell viability of 85.57 ± 5.44 and 60.66 ± 6.75%, respectively, after 72 h treatment. The above data suggest that PGA-co-PDL may be a useful polymer for preparing SR microparticle carriers, together with dispersibility enhancers, for pulmonary delivery.
Nielsen, Line Hagner; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben
microcontainers intended as an oral drug delivery system. The cubosomes consisted of commercial glyceryl monooleate, Dimodan®, containing OVA and were surrounded with a dextran shell prepared by spray drying. Cryo-TEM was used to confirm that cubosomes were formed after hydration of the spray dried precursor......The purpose of this study was to prepare cubosomes encapsulating the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) via spray drying, and to characterise such cubosomes with a view for their potential application in oral vaccine delivery. Furthermore the cubosome formulation was loaded into polymeric...... the cubosomes and microcontainers occurred at pH 6.8, releasing 44.1±5.6% of the OVA in 96h. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the 'dry' particles possessed an internal ordered lipid structure (lamellar and inverse micellar phase) by virtue of a small amount of residual water, and after...
Petersen, Lars Norbert
, our first results shows that the MPC improves the profit of operation by approximately 228,000 €/year, the product rate by 322 kg/hr, the residual moisture content by 0.166 p.p. and the energy efficiency by 1% at comparable ambient air humidity conditions. The demonstrated MPC with RTO is fully...... development and comparison of control strategies; 2) Development of MPC strategies that automatically adjust the dryer to variations in the feed and the ambient air humidity, such that the energy consumption is minimized, the residual moisture content in the powder is controlled within the specifications......The main challenge in cost optimal operation of a spray dryer, is to maximize the production rate while minimizing the energy consumption, keeping the residual moisture content of the powder below a maximum limit and avoiding that the powder sticks to the chamber walls. The conventional PI control...
Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah
Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.
Fujita, Alice; Souza, Volnei Brito; Daza, Luis Daniel; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen Silvia; Granato, Daniel; Genovese, Maria Inés
Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit is a rich source of bioactive compounds but its shelf life is rather short. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of inlet air temperature (T) and concentration (C) of maltodextrin and arabic gum on the spray-drying process of commercial camu-camu pulps (São Paulo and Manaus). Moisture, solubility, total phenolics (TP), ascorbic acid (AA), and proanthocyanidins (PAC) contents, and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the powders (FRAP, DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu's reducing capacity were measured). Arabic gum resulted in better yields (22% to 30%), powder solubility (84% to 90%), and lower losses of analyzed compounds than the powders manufactured with maltodextrin. Overall, inlet air temperature had a lower impact on the responses studied than the concentration of carrier agents. Polynomial equations were generated for AA (R2 = 0.993), TP (R2 = 0.735), PAC (R2 = 0.946), and for the antioxidant capacity assays (0.867 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.963). In addition, principal component analysis showed that the lowest concentration of carrier agents (6%) in spray drying resulted in the lowest losses of bioactive compounds and, consequently, the highest antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Bonferoni, M C; Riva, F; Invernizzi, A; Dellera, E; Sandri, G; Rossi, S; Marrubini, G; Bruni, G; Vigani, B; Caramella, C; Ferrari, F
An amphiphilic chitosan salt, chitosan oleate (CS-OA), was previously proposed for the physical stabilization of lemongrass antimicrobial nanoemulsions (NE) through a mild spontaneous emulsification process. As both chitosan and oleic acid are described in the literature for their positive effects in wound healing, in the present study CS-OA has been proposed to encapsulate alpha tocopherol (αTph) in NEs aimed to skin wounds. A NE formulation was developed showing about 220 nm dimensions, 36% drug loading, and αTph concentration up to 1 mg/ml. Both CS-OA and αTph NE stimulated cell proliferation on keratinocytes and fibroblast cell cultures, and in ex vivo skin biopsies, suggesting the suitability of CS-OA and of the antioxidant agent for topical application in wound healing. αTph stability, was further improved with respect of encapsulation, by spray drying the NE into a powder (up to about 90% αTph residual after 3 months). The spray drying process was optimized, to improve powder yield and αTph recovery, by a design of experiments approach. The powder obtained was easily re-suspended to deliver the NE and resulted able to completely release αTph. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wlodarski, K; Tajber, L; Sawicki, W
The aim of this research was to develop immediate release tablets comprising solid dispersion (IRSDTs) of tadalafil (Td) in a vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate block copolymer (PVP-VA), characterized by improved dissolution profiles. The solid dispersion of Td in PVP-VA (Td/PVP-VA) in a weight ratio of 1:1 (w/w) was prepared using two different processes i.e. spray drying and ball milling. While the former process has been well established in the formulation of IRSDTs the latter has not been exploited in these systems yet. Regardless of the preparation method, both Td/PVP-VA solid dispersions were amorphous as confirmed by PXRD, DSC and FTIR. However, different morphology of particles (SEM) resulted in differences in water apparent solubility and disk intrinsic dissolution rate (DIDR). Both solid dispersions and crystalline Td were successfully made into directly compressible tablets at three doses of Td, i.e. 2.5mg, 10mgand20mg, yielding nine different formulations (D1-D9). Each of the lots met the requirements set by Ph.Eur. and was evaluated with respect to appearance, diameter, thickness, mass, hardness, friability, disintegration time and content of Td. IRSDTs performed as supersaturable formulations and had significantly improved water dissolution profiles in comparison with equivalent tablets containing crystalline Td and the marketed formulations. Tablets with both spray dried and ball milled Td/PVP-VA revealed the greatest improvement in dissolution depending on the investigated doses, i.e. 2.5mgand20mg, respectively. Also, dissolution of Td from Td/PVP-VA delivered in different forms occurred in the following order: powders>tablets>capsules. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Line Hagner; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben
The purpose of this study was to prepare cubosomes encapsulating the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) via spray drying, and to characterise such cubosomes with a view for their potential application in oral vaccine delivery. Furthermore the cubosome formulation was loaded into polymeric microcontain......The purpose of this study was to prepare cubosomes encapsulating the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) via spray drying, and to characterise such cubosomes with a view for their potential application in oral vaccine delivery. Furthermore the cubosome formulation was loaded into polymeric...
Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K
Dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders plays a critical role for achieving functional and nutritional characteristics of a finished food product. Current methods for evaluating powder dissolution properties are time consuming, difficult to reproduce, and subjective. Ultrasound spectroscopy is a rapid and precise method, but requires expensive equipment and skilled technicians to carry out the tests. In the present study, an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) was used as an economical alternative to characterize the powder dissolution properties. The objective of study was to develop a method to characterize the dissolution behavior of milk protein concentrate (MPC) using a UFD. The experimental setup included a UFD connected to a 1-MHz immersion transducer that was kept a constant distance from a reflector plate. To validate the method, 2 batches of MPC80 from a commercial manufacturer were procured and stored at 25 and 40°C for 4 wk. Focus beam reflectance measurement and solubility index were used as reference methods. Relative ultrasound velocity and ultrasound attenuation were acquired during the dissolution of MPC samples. To characterize the MPC dissolution, 4 parameters including standard deviation of relative velocity, area under the attenuation curve, and peak attenuation were extracted from ultrasound data. As the storage temperature and time increased, the area under the attenuation curve and peak height decreased, indicating a loss of solubility. The proposed UFD-based method was able to capture the changes in dissolution of MPC during storage at 25 and 40°C. It was observed that a high-quality MPC had a low standard deviation and a larger area under the attenuation curve. As the MPC aged at 40°C, the particle dispersion rate decreased and, consequently, an increase in standard deviation and reduction in area were observed. Overall, the UFD can be a low-cost method to characterize the dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders
Karam, Marie Celeste; Gaiani, Claire; Hosri, Chadi; Burgain, Jennifer; Scher, Joël
Yogurts are important dairy products that have known a rapid market growth over the past few decades. Industrial yogurt manufacture involves different processing steps. Among them, protein fortification of the milk base is elemental. It greatly enhances yogurt nutritional and functional properties and prevents syneresis, an undesirable yogurt textural defect. Protein enrichment can be achieved by either concentration process (evaporation under vacuum and membrane processing: reverse osmosis and/or ultrafiltration) or by addition of dairy ingredients. Traditionally, skim milk powder (SMP) is used to enrich the milk base before fermentation. However, increased quality and availability of other dairy ingredients such as milk protein isolates (MPI), milk protein concentrates (MPC) whey protein isolates (WPI) and concentrates (WPC), micellar casein (MC) and caseinates have promoted their use as alternatives to SMP. Substituting different dry ingredients for skim milk powder in yogurt making affects the yogurt mix protein composition and subsequent textural and sensorial properties. This review focuses on various type of milk protein used for fortification purposes and their influence on these properties.
Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.
Abstract: Individually dispensed droplets were dried on a flat surface to mimic the drying of single droplets during spray drying. A robust dispensing process is presented that generates small droplets (dp>150 µm). A predictive model based on Bernoulli’s law accurately describes droplet size with
Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas
Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying...
Perdana, J.A.; Aguirre Zubia, A.; Kutahya, O.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Fox, M.B.
Shelf life of probiotic microorganisms can be retained by drying. Spray drying is an economically interesting alternative to freeze drying with that respect. However, the viability can decrease due to the drying process and testing it is laborious and expensive. This research shows that the
Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Boom, R.M.
Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions
Hoogenband, V. van den; Maaijer, M. de; Versloot, N.H.A.
During spray drying where a solution is dispersed in small droplets through a nozzle the liquid evaporates by means of hot air. In a large number of these processes organic materials are processed so three out of four factors for dust explosions to occur are already present. The only thing missing
Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter
Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying in a larger scale. In this study, the feasibility of hot melt extrusion for continuous manufacturing of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations was examined, challenging the fact that amino acids melt with degradation at high temperatures. Furthermore, the need for an addition of a polymer in this process was evaluated. After a polymer screening via the solvent evaporation method, co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine was prepared by a melting-solvent extrusion process without and with copovidone. The obtained products were characterized with respect to their solid-state properties, non-sink dissolution behavior, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A conventional solvent extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit was spray dried using adjuvant maltodextrin (5 wt.%. Spray drying was carried out according to the D-optimal design, and the independent variables selected were temperature and Mcore/Mwall. The spray drying process was optimised by using response surface methodology (RSM for four different responses: moisture content (MC, DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC, and total flavonoid (TF. The effects of temperature and of the core to wall material ratio were found to be significant for all responses. The optimal spray drying condition for maltodextrin as binding material was found to be 1:1.5 (Mcore/Mwall, volume ratio of M. citrifolia L. extract to additive solution at 95 °C. The experimental values of the response variables correspond well to the predicted values. The microparticles obtained in this study represent an interesting food additive for incorporation into functional foods due to the presence of antioxidants.
Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Lejmi, Raja; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Dumas, Emilie; Degraeve, Pascal; Thanh, Mai Le; Oulahal, Nadia
Spray-dried redispersible transcinnamaldehyde (TC)-in-water emulsions were prepared in order to preserve its antibacterial activity; 5% (w/w) TC emulsions were first obtained with a rotor-stator homogeniser in the presence of either soybean lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers. These emulsions were mixed with a 30% (w/w) maltodextrin solution before feeding a spray-dryer. The antibacterial activity of TC alone, TC emulsions with and without maltodextrin before and after spray-drying were assayed by monitoring the growth at 30 °C of Listeria innocua in their presence and in their absence (control). Whatever the emulsifier used, antilisterial activity of TC was increased following its emulsification. However, reconstituted spray-dried emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate had a higher antibacterial activity suggesting that they better resisted to spray-drying. This was consistent with observation that microencapsulation efficiencies were 27.6% and 78.7% for emulsions stabilised by lecithin and sodium caseinate, respectively.
Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a process of entrapment, packaging or immobilizing an active (core material, which can be in the state of solid, liquid or gas, within a more stable, protective secondary (wall material that can be released at controlled rates under specific conditions. There are several microencapsulation techniques such as: spray drying, spray cooling/chilling, freeze drying, extrusion, fluidized bed coating, coacervation, liposome entrapment, coextrusion, interfacial polymerization, radical polymerization, molecular inclusion in cyclodextrins, etc. Spray drying has been commonly applied due to their simplicity process, wide availability of equipment facilities, significant merits in terms of reductions in product volume, easy of handling, etc. In the spray drying process the wall materials (shells and their properties are parameters to be considered to achieve proper encapsulation of the active ingredients (core materials. Some commonly used wall materials and their properties related to spray drying encapsulation, including proteins, carbohydrates, and other materials, or mixtures of some of them. Proper encapsulation of the active ingredient (core is essential to achieve this active material protecting the outer. The aim of this work is encapsulated an essential oil, sage oil, using two differet wall materials in order to determine which is the best wall material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM has been used in order to know the microcapsules morphology. Core, Shell, Gum Arabic, Alginate, Sage oil, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM
Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W
The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source
Lavra, Zênia Maria Maciel; Pereira de Santana, Davi; Ré, Maria Inês
Efavirenz (EFV), a first-line anti-HIV drug largely used as part of antiretroviral therapies, is practically insoluble in water and belongs to BCS class II (low solubility/high permeability). The aim of this study was to improve the solubility and dissolution performances of EFV by formulating an amorphous solid dispersion of the drug in polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus ® ) using spray-drying technique. To this purpose, spray-dried dispersions of EFV in Soluplus ® at different mass ratios (1:1.25, 1:7, 1:10) were prepared and characterized using particle size measurements, SEM, XRD, DSC, FTIR and Raman microscopy mapping. Solubility and dissolution were determined in different media. Stability was studied at accelerated conditions (40 °C/75% RH) and ambient conditions for 12 months. DSC and XRD analyses confirmed the EFV amorphous state. FTIR spectroscopy analyses revealed possible drug-polymer molecular interaction. Solubility and dissolution rate of EFV was enhanced remarkably in the developed spray-dried solid dispersions, as a function of the polymer concentration. Spray-drying was concluded to be a proper technique to formulate a physically stable dispersion of amorphous EFV in Soluplus ® , when protected from moisture.
Herbrink, Maikel; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Nuijen, Bastiaan
The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib has a very low aqueous solubility and a low and variable oral bioavailability. A pharmaceutical formulation with an improved solubility may enhance the bioavailability and reduce the variability thereof and of the pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility of nilotinib by developing a spray dried solid dispersion. A broad selection of polymer excipients were tested for solubilizing properties. The spray drying technique was used to produce solid dispersions of nilotinib hydrochloride (NH) in matrices of the best performing polymers. Both the dissolution and physicochemical characteristics of the formulations were studied using a pH-switch dissolution model and conventional microscopic, thermal and spectrometric techniques. Of the tested spray dried solid dispersions, the ones containing the co-block polymer Soluplus ® performed best in terms of in vitro dissolution properties. Further testing led to an optimized weight ratio of 1:7 (NH:Soluplus ® ) that improved the solubility up to 630-fold compared to crystalline NH (1.5μg/mL) in simulated intestinal fluid. This effect can be attributed to the amorphization of NH and the solubilization of the drug due to micelle formation. A spray dried solid dispersion formulation of NH with Soluplus ® in a ratio of 1:7 was developed that showed a significant increase in solubility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING...
Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling
-ethanol mixtures. The effect of formulation additives (trehalose, Tween 20 and phosphate-buffered saline) and processing conditions (inlet temperature and storage time of lysozyme in the feed solution before the spray drying process) on the protein bioactivity was investigated. The results showed...
Li, Liang; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Gengenbach, Thomas; Yu, Jiaqi; Gao, Ge Fiona; Tang, Patricia; Zhou, Qi Tony; Chan, Hak-Kim
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of L-leucine (LL) in preventing moisture-induced deterioration in the in vitro aerosolization performance of spray-dried (SD) salbutamol sulfate (SS). Increasing mass fraction of LL (5-80%) were co-spray dried with SS, and the physicochemical properties of the powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). Furthermore, the surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The in vitro aerosolization performance of powders stored at different relative humidity (RH) was evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI). The SD SS powders were moderately hygroscopic and amorphous, of which the uptake of moisture upon storage caused a drop in the aerosolization performance. The results showed that 40% (w/w) LL was sufficient to eliminate the effect of moisture on the aerosolization performance at 60% RH. The formulation containing 40% (w/w) LL also maximized the aerosolization performance of SD SS powders (stored in desiccator) with the emitted fraction being 90.0±1.8%, and the fine particle fraction based on the recovered dose (FPFrecovered) and emitted dose (FPFemitted) being 78.0±3.7% and 86.6±2.9%, respectively. The underlying mechanisms were that the crystalline LL increased the degree of particle surface corrugation, and reduced particle fusion and cohesiveness to facilitate dispersion. However, there is still a great challenge to prevent the moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance at 75% RH due to the recrystallization of SD SS. In conclusion, LL is a potential excipient for reducing moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance of SD amorphous powders, but still has drawbacks in preventing the recrystallization-induced deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina
Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wei, Qionghua; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H
To accelerate the determination of optimal spray drying parameters, a "Design of Experiment" (DoE) software was applied to produce well redispersible hesperidin nanocrystals. For final solid dosage forms, aqueous liquid nanosuspensions need to be solidified, whereas spray drying is a large-scale cost-effective industrial process. A nanosuspension with 18% (w/w) of hesperidin stabilized by 1% (w/w) of poloxamer 188 was produced by wet bead milling. The sizes of original and redispersed spray-dried nanosuspensions were determined by laser diffractometry (LD) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and used as effect parameters. In addition, light microscopy was performed to judge the redispersion quality. After a two-step design of MODDE 9, screening model and response surface model (RSM), the inlet temperature of spray dryer and the concentration of protectant (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP K25) were identified as the most important factors affecting the redispersion of nanocrystals. As predicted in the RSM modeling, when 5% (w/w) of PVP K25 was added in an 18% (w/w) of hesperidin nanosuspension, subsequently spray-dried at an inlet temperature of 100 °C, well redispersed solid nanocrystals with an average particle size of 276 nm were obtained. By the use of PVP K25, the saturation solubility of the redispersed nanocrystals in water was improved to 86.81 µg/ml, about 2.5-fold of the original nanosuspension. In addition, the dissolution velocity was accelerated. This was attributed to the additional effects of steric stabilization on the nanocrystals and solubilization by the PVP polymer from spray drying.
Hengsawas Surasarang, Soraya; Keen, Justin M; Huang, Siyuan; Zhang, Feng; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O
The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution properties of albendazole (ABZ) by the use of amorphous solid dispersions. Phase diagrams of ABZ-polymer binary mixtures generated from Flory-Huggins theory were used to assess miscibility and processability. Forced degradation studies showed that ABZ degraded upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide and 1 N NaOH at 80 °C for 5 min, and the degradants were albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), and ABZ impurity A, respectively. ABZ was chemically stable following exposure to 1 N HCl at 80 °C for one hour. Thermal degradation profiles show that ABZ, with and without Kollidon ® VA 64, degraded at 180 °C and 140 °C, respectively, which indicated that ABZ could likely be processed by thermal processing. Following hot melt extrusion, ABZ degraded up to 97.4%, while the amorphous ABZ solid dispersion was successfully prepared by spray drying. Spray-dried ABZ formulations using various types of acids (methanesulfonic acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid) and polymers (Kollidon ® VA 64, Soluplus ® and Eudragit ® E PO) were studied. The spray-dried ABZ with methanesulfonic acid and Kollidon ® VA 64 substantially improved non-sink dissolution in acidic media as compared to bulk ABZ (8-fold), physical mixture of ABZ:Kollidon ® VA 64 (5.6-fold) and ABZ mesylate salt (1.6-fold). No degradation was observed in the spray-dried product for up to six months and less than 5% after one-year storage. In conclusion, amorphous ABZ solid dispersions in combination with an acid and polymer can be prepared by spray drying to enhance dissolution and shelf-stability, whereas those made by melt extrusion are degraded.
Azad, Mohammad; Arteaga, Colby; Abdelmalek, Beshoy; Davé, Rajesh; Bilgili, Ecevit
Bioavailability of a poorly soluble drug can be improved by preparing a drug nanosuspension and subsequently drying it into nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs). Unfortunately, drug nanoparticles aggregate during milling and drying, causing incomplete recovery and slow dissolution. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of various classes of dispersants on drug dissolution from drug NCMPs, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs via high drug nanoparticle loaded, surfactant-free NCMPs. Precursor suspensions of griseofulvin (GF, model drug) nanoparticles in the presence of various dispersants were prepared via wet stirred media milling and spray dried to form the NCMPs. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, polymer) alone and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant) was used as a base-line stabilizer/dispersant during milling. Two swellable crosslinked polymers, croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG), and a conventional soluble matrix former, Mannitol, were used in addition to HPC. Besides being used as-received, CCS was also wet co-milled with GF for two different durations to examine the impact of CCS particle size. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV spectroscopy, NCMP redispersion and dissolution tests were used for characterization. The results show that incorporation of CCS/SSG, preferably wet-milled to a wide particle size distribution, into the spray-dried NCMPs resulted in fast release and dispersion of drug nanoparticle clusters. The swellable dispersants were superior to Mannitol in dissolution enhancement, and could achieve fast release comparable to SDS, demonstrating the feasibility of spray drying to prepare high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites.
Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei loaded chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles enriched with the prebiotic fructooligosaccharide were prepared using spray-drying method associated with the polymers complexation and cross-linking with calcium. The concentrations of the formulation factors of alginate, chitosan and CaCl2 were optimized using 23 full factorial design. Experiments showed that microparticles with favorable physicochemical properties and high probiotic viability during preparation and storage could be obtained when 40 mg/g sodium alginate, 5 mg/g chitosan and 50 mg/g CaCl2 is used. Stability of L. casei during microencapsulation was identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The viability of the probiotic in the optimal formulation of synbiotic microparticles remained above the therapeutic minimum during incubation of 24 hours in simulated gastrointestinal conditions (7.67±0.4 log cfu/g as well as after 3 months of cold storage (8.1±0.6 log cfu/g. High viability of L. casei was maintained during 6 weeks of cold storage when carrot juice was enriched with encapsulated cells. The effective preservation of L. casei into synbiotic microparticles provided production of new non-dairy functional food as an alternative of the population who is at risk of lactose intolerance.
Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev; Lenz, Elisabeth
OBJECTIVES: Recently, co-amorphous drug-amino acid mixtures were introduced as a promising alternative to other amorphous stabilization approaches such as the use of polymers to form glass solutions. So far, these co-amorphous mixtures have been mainly prepared via vibrational ball milling on a lab...... scale. In this study, spray-drying was investigated as a scale up preparation method for co-amorphous indomethacin (IND)-amino acid mixtures. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the different co-amorphous systems were investigated with respect to the amino acids' ability towards co...... dissolution behaviour, and physical stability at various storage conditions, were examined. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed that IND could be converted into an amorphous form in combination with the amino acids arginine (ARG), histidine (HIS) and lysine (LYS) by spray-drying. Solid state characterization...
Santa-Maria, Monica; Scher, Herbert; Jeoh, Tina
Microencapsulation of biomolecules, cells and chemicals is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to improve stability, delivery and to control the release of encapsulated moieties. Among encapsulation matrices, alginate is preferred due to its low cost, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Current methods for producing stable alginate gels involve dropping alginate suspensions into divalent cation solutions. This procedure is difficult to scale-up and produces undesirably large alginate beads. In our novel encapsulation method, alginate gelation occurs during spray drying upon volatilisation of a base and rapid release of otherwise unavailable calcium ions. The resulting particles, with median particle sizes in the range 15-120 µm, are insoluble in solution. Cellulase and hemicellulase activities encapsulated by this method were not compromised during spray drying and remained stable over prolonged storage. The procedure described here offers a one-step alternative to other encapsulation methods that are costly and difficult to scale-up.
Lin, J H; Weng, C N; Liao, C W; Yeh, K S; Pan, M J
The efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae oral vaccine was investigated in microsphere dosage form. A co-spray drying process was used to apply an encapsulating material, Eudragit L30 D-55, to microspheres containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens. The microspheres were generally effective (>93%) with protein release at pH 7.4, but almost none were released at pH 1.2, for 3 hr in an in vitro dissolution test. An SPF-swine model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the microspheres as an oral vaccine, and the related immune responses. The serum's systemic IgG against M. hyopneumoniae was evoked by ELISA analysis, after a 2nd immunization of all pigs. The vaccinated groups' mean lesion score was significantly lower after the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae challenge than that of the nonvaccinated/challenged groups (Poral microspheres vaccine prepared by a co-spray drying method can provide effective protection against M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.
Glavas, Lidija; Odelius, Karin; Albertsson, Ann-Christine
A method for producing polypeptide particles via in situ polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides during spray-drying has been developed. This method was enabled by the development of a fast and robust synthetic pathway to polypeptides using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides. The polymerizations finished within 5 s and proved to be very tolerant toward impurities such as amino acid salts and water. The formed particles were prepared by mixing the monomer, N-carboxyanhydride of l-glutamic acid benzyl ester (NCAGlu) and the initiator (DBU) during the atomization process in the spray-dryer and were spherical with a size of ∼1 μm. This method combines two steps; making it a straightforward process that facilitates the production of polypeptide particles. Hence, it furthers the use of spray-drying and polypeptide particles in the pharmaceutical industry.
Pringels, E; Ameye, D; Vervaet, C; Foreman, P; Remon, J P
The present study evaluated if mixtures prepared by spray-drying an aqueous dispersion of Amioca starch and Carbopol 974P could be used as matrix for oral sustained drug delivery. The influence of the Amioca/Carbopol 974P ratio (0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 60/40, 85/15, 90/10, 95/5 and 100/0) and the pH and ionic strength (mu) of the dissolution medium on the drug release was investigated. The matrices composed of the spray-dried mixtures with 10% or 15% Carbopol 974P sustained the drug release over the longest time period. At this Carbopol concentration, shear viscosity measurements indicated the formation of an optimal network between the polymer chains of Amioca starch and Carbopol 974P, forming a rigid gel layer offering resistance to erosion during the dissolution experiments.
Bohr, Adam; Boetker, Johan P; Rades, Thomas
performance due to enhancement in the pharmacokinetics and low variability in plasma concentration. Progress in processing technologies and particle engineering provides new opportunities to prepare particle-based solid dispersions with control of physical characteristics and tailored drug release kinetics....... Spray-drying and electrospraying are both technologies that allow production and continuous manufacturing of particle-based amorphous solid dispersions in a single step process and electrospinning further allows the production of fiber based systems. This review presents the use of spray drying...... and electrospraying/electrospinning as techniques for preparing particle-based solid dispersions, describes the particle formation processes via numerical and experimental models and discusses particle engineering using these techniques. Examples are given on the applications of these techniques for preparing solid...
Full Text Available Particle size and morphology are important properties of pharmaceutical particles. Preparation of microparticles with uniform particle size and morphology is necessary in order to systematically relate these properties to the release behavior and other functionalities such as drug encapsulation and dissolution. In this study, we successfully prepared monodisperse, nonagglomerated chitosan microparticles in a single step by a novel spray-drying technique. The control of particle size and morphology of spray-dried microparticles was investigated experimentally. Microparticles with larger particle size can be produced when chitosan precursor of higher concentration was used. Storage time of chitosan precursor, drying temperature, and addition of lactose were shown to be crucial parameters that affect the particle morphology. Appropriate choice of the drying temperature and precursor storage time permitted control of the particle morphology, ranging from nearly spherical to cap-shaped. Surface characteristics of the particles can be finely tuned by the amount of lactose added into the chitosan precursor.
Premi, Monica; Sharma, H K
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different combinations of carrier agents (Maltodextrin, gum arabic and whey protein concentrate) on the emulsion properties, encapsulation efficiency and oxidative stability of encapsulated drumstick oil powder (EDOP), produced by spray drying to increase its usage as an active ingredient. Feed emulsion characteristics were studied in terms of emulsion stability, droplet size, viscosity and surface charge. Obtained spray dried EDOP was characterized for physical and flow properties, microstructure and oxidative stability. EDOP obtained from the MD:GA emulsion showed higher encapsulation efficiency than MD:WPC. Higher encapsulation efficiency along with medium flow properties and better oxidative stability was observed with microcapsules obtained by MD:GA carrier agent. Microstructure of EDOP with MD:GA showed no cracks, smother appearance with continuous wall. EDOP with MD:GA had better stability and were stable at 45°C, which confirms the protective effect of this carrier agent in encapsulating the drumstick oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schutyser, Maarten A. I.; Perdana, Jimmy; Boom, Remko M.
Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions and tailored matrix formulations are required to avoid severe heat damage leading to loss in enzyme activity or reduced survival of bacteria. An overview is provided on the use of protective carbo...
Guterres, S.S.; Beck, R. C. R.; Pohlmann, A. R.
Polymeric nanoparticle systems (nanocapsules and nanospheres) present potential applications as drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, their full applications have not been exploited due to their limited shelf life when stored in aqueous medium. Drying polymeric nanoparticles using spray-drying represents a promising platform to improve the physicochemical stability of formulations and/or to control the release of hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. This article presents a brief overview of the m...
Fu, Nan; Zhou, Zihao; Jones, Tyson Byrne; Tan, Timothy T Y; Wu, Winston Duo; Lin, Sean Xuqi; Chen, Xiao Dong; Chan, Peggy P Y
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) originated from green tea is well-known for its pharmaceutical potential and antiproliferating effect on carcinoma cells. For drug delivery, EGCG in a micro-/nanoparticle form is desirable for their optimized chemopreventive effect. In this study, first time reports that EGCG microparticles produced by low temperature spray drying can maintain high antioxidant activity. A monodisperse droplet generation system was used to realize the production of EGCG microparticles. EGCG microparticles were obtained with narrow size distribution and diameter of 30.24 ± 1.88 μM and 43.39 ± 0.69 μM for pure EGCG and lactose-added EGCG, respectively. The EC50 value (the amount of EGCG necessary to scavenge 50% of free radical in the medium) of spray dried pure EGCG particles obtained from different temperature is in the range of 3.029-3.075 μM compared to untreated EGCG with EC50 value of 3.028 μM. Varying the drying temperatures from 70°C and 130°C showed little detrimental effect on EGCG antioxidant activity. NMR spectrum demonstrated the EGCG did not undergo chemical structural change after spray drying. The major protective mechanism was considered to be: (1) the use of low temperature and (2) the heat loss from water evaporation that kept the particle temperature at low level. With further drier optimization, this monodisperse spray drying technique can be used as an efficient and economic approach to produce EGCG micro-/nanoparticles. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.
Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations ...
Scala, Fabrizio; Lancia, Amedeo; Nigro, Roberto; Volpicelli, Gennaro
An experimental investigation on sulfur dioxide removal in a pilot-scale spray dryer from the flue gas generated by combustion of low-sulfur (S) heavy oil is reported. A limewater slurry was sprayed through an ultrasonic two-fluid atomizer in the spray-dry chamber, and the spent sorbent was collected downstream in a pulse-jet baghouse together with fly ash. Flue gas was sampled at different points to measure the desulfurization efficiency after both the spray-dry chamber and the baghouse. Parametric tests were performed to study the effect of the following variables: gas inlet temperature, difference between gas outlet temperature and adiabatic saturation temperature, lime-to-S ratio, and average size of lime particles in the slurry. Results indicated that spray drying is an effective technology for the desulfurization of low-S fuel oil flue gas, provided operating conditions are chosen carefully. In particular, the lowest gas inlet and outlet temperatures compatible with baghouse operation should be selected, as should a sufficiently high lime-to-S ratio. The attainment of a small lime particle size in the slurry is critical for obtaining a high desulfurization efficiency. A previously presented spray-dry flue gas desulfurization model was used to simulate the pilot-scale desulfurization tests, to check the ability of the model to predict the S capture data and its usefulness as a design tool, minimizing the need for pilot-scale experimentation. Comparison between model and experimental results was fairly good for the whole range of calcium/S ratios considered.
Caridad M. García
Full Text Available Context: Spray-drying is a technique used to produce encapsulated products, thus improving the stability of components as well as their organoleptic characteristics. Aims: To evaluate the effect of microencapsulation of shark liver oil pool by spray drying on its physical-chemical properties and antioxidant capacity. Methods: A mix design was created with a constant load of oil, made possible by controlling the proportion between chitosan acetate and maltodextrin. Loss on drying, encapsulation efficiency and yield were determined for the microcapsules. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis was used in order to determine the vitamin A content in microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated oil, as well as its delivery from the dried product. Vitamin A was the active compound used as a chemical marker. The following parameters were also evaluated: organoleptic characteristics, moisture content, particle size, surface morphology and antioxidant capacity. Results: The encapsulation efficiency of microencapsulated oil increased slightly as the concentration of chitosan acetate increased. In order to achieve a greater encapsulation efficiency and a lower moisture content in microencapsulated oil, the proportion between chitosan acetate and maltodextrin should be maintained at 35% and 35% each, according to established manufacturing conditions. Both polymers prevent oil from leaving the droplet. This is a very important factor in storage stability of vitamins and fatty acids, which are subject to oxidative deterioration. Conclusions: Spray-drying microencapsulation of pool oil does not affect vitamin A content or delivery; fatty acid content and antioxidant capacity are also not affected.
Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes
Full Text Available Spray drying is an important method used by the food industry in the production of microencapsulated flavors to improve handling and dispersion properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the process conditions on the properties of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying using gum Arabic as encapsulant. The effects of the wall material concentration (10-30%, inlet air temperature (135-195 ºC, and feed flow rate (0.5-1.0 L.h-1 on the moisture content, hygroscopicity, wettability, solubility, bulk and tapped densities, particle density, flowability, and cohesiveness were evaluated using a 2³ central composite rotational experimental design. Moisture content, hygroscopicity and wettability were significantly affected by the three factors analyzed. Bulk density was positively influenced by the wall material concentration and negatively by the inlet air temperature. Particle density was influenced by the wall material concentration and the inlet air temperature variables, both in a negative manner. As for the solubility, tapped density, flowability, and cohesiveness, the models did not fit the data well. The results indicated that moderate wall material concentration (24%, low inlet air temperature (135 ºC, and moderate feed flow rate (0.7 L.h-1 are the best spray drying conditions.
Čerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar, Alenka; Vrečer, Franc; Gašperlin, Mirjana
The purpose of this study was to prepare solid SMEDDS (sSMEDDS) particles produced by spray-drying using maltodextrin (MD), hypromellose (HPMC), and a combination of the two as a solid carrier. Naproxen (NPX) as the model drug was dissolved (at 6% concentration) or partially suspended (at 18% concentration) in a liquid SMEDDS composed of Miglyol(®) 812, Peceol™, Gelucire(®) 44/14, and Solutol(®) HS 15. Among the sSMEDDSs tested, the MD-based sSMEDDSs (with a granular, smooth-surfaced, microspherical appearance) preserved the self-microemulsifying properties of liquid SMEDDSs and exhibited dissolution profiles similar to those of liquid SMEDDSs, irrespective of the concentration of NPX. In contrast, HPMC-based sSMEDDSs (irregular-shaped microparticles) exhibited slightly prolonged release times due to the polymeric nature of the carrier. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Raman mapping analysis confirmed molecularly dissolved NPX (at 6% of drug loading), whereas at 18% NPX loading drug is partially molecularly dissolved and partially in the crystalline state. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J
Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (brazil)
The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)
Ceschan, Nazareth Eliana; Bucalá, Verónica; Ramírez-Rigo, María Verónica; Smyth, Hugh David Charles
The inhalatory route has emerged as an interesting non-invasive alternative for drug delivery. This allows both pulmonary (local) and systemic treatments (via alveolar absorption). Further advantages in terms of stability, dose and patient preference have often lead researchers to focus on dry powder inhaler delivery systems. Atenolol is an antihypertensive drug with low oral bioavailability and gastrointestinal side effects. Because atenolol possesses adequate permeation across human epithelial membranes, it has been proposed as a good candidate for inhalatory administration. In a previous work, atenolol was combined with alginic acid (AA) and microparticles were developed using spray-drying (SD) technology. Different AA/atenolol ratios, total feed solid content and operative variables were previously explored. In order to improve particle quality for inhalatory administration and the SD yield, in this work the AA acid groups not neutralized by atenolol were kept either free or neutralized to pH∼7 and two different SD cyclones were used. Particle morphology, flow properties, moisture uptake and in vitro aerosolization behavior at different pressure drops were studied. When the AA acid groups were neutralized, particle size decreased as a consequence of the lower feed viscosity. The SD yield and in vitro particle deposition significantly increased when a high performance cyclone was employed, and even when lactose carrier particles were not used. Although the in vitro particle deposition decreased when the storage relative humidity increased, the developed SD powders showed adequate characteristics to be administered by inhalatory route up to storage relative humidities of about 60%. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Juliana Siqueira Chaves
Full Text Available Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew is an herb that is commercialized worldwide as a therapeutic treatment for migraine. Its pharmacological effect is mainly due to the presence of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide as well as of flavonoids. So far, there are no studies on standardization of pre-formulations or phytomedicines containing this herb. The present study aimed at developing a pre-formulation using a standardized spray-dried extract of feverfew and further designing and standardizing enteric coated tablets. In this work, the spray-dried extract of feverfew was evaluated for its parthenolide, santin and total flavonoid content, parthenolide solubility, particle size, tapped density, hygroscopicity, angle of repose and moisture content. Tablets containing the spray-dried extract were tested for their average weight, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. The total flavonoid and parthenolide contents in the spray-dried extract were 1.31 % and 0.76% w/w, respectively. The spray-dried extract presented consistent pharmacotechnical properties and allowed its tableting by direct compression. Tablet properties were in accordance with the proposed specifications. The procedures described herein can be used to prepare and evaluate pre-formulations of feverfew with adequate properties for the development of a high-quality phytomedicine.Tanacetum parthenium (tanaceto é uma planta medicinal comercializada no mundo todo para tratamento de enxaqueca. Seu efeito farmacológico é creditado principalmente à lactona sesquiterpênica partenolídeo e flavonóides. Até o momento não existem estudos sobre a padronização de pré-formulações ou o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos com tanaceto. Logo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi obter comprimidos de revestimento entérico a partir de extrato seco e padronizado de tanaceto. Neste trabalho, o extrato seco do tanaceto obtido pelo método de spray drying foi avaliado quanto ao teor de partenol
Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica
Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization.
Lopes, Ana R; Sousa, Vera M; Estevinho, Berta N; Leite, José P; Moreira, Nuno F F; Gales, Luís; Rocha, Fernando; Nunes, Olga C
Previous studies demonstrated the capability of mixed culture DC1 to mineralize the thiocarbamate herbicide molinate through the activity of molinate hydrolase (MolA). Because liquid suspensions are not compatible with long-term storage and are not easy to handle when bioremediation strategies are envisaged, in this study spray drying was evaluated as a cost-effective method to store and transport these molinate biocatalysts. Microparticles of mixed culture DC1 (DC1) and of cell free crude extracts containing MolA (MA) were obtained without any carrier polymer, and with calcium alginate (CA) or modified chitosan (MCt) as immobilizing agents. All the DC1 microparticles showed high molinate degrading activity upon storage for 6 months, or after 9 additions of ∼0.4 mM molinate over 1 month. The DC1-MCt microparticles were those with the highest survival rate and lowest heterogeneity. For MA microparticles, only MA-MCt degraded molinate. However, its Vmax was only 1.4% of that of the fresh cell free extract (non spray dried). The feasibility of using the DC1-MCt and MA-MCt microparticles in bioaugmentation processes was assessed in river water microcosms, using mass (g):volume (L) ratios of 1:13 and 1:0.25, respectively. Both type of microparticles removed ∼65-75% of the initial 1.5 mg L(-1) molinate, after 7 days of incubation. However, only DC1-MCt microparticles were able to degrade this environmental concentration of molinate without disturbing the native bacterial community. These results suggest that spray drying can be successfully used to produce DC1-MCt microparticles to remediate molinate polluted sites through a bioaugmentation strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sloth, Jakob; Jørgensen, Kåre; Bach, Poul
An experimental investigation of the spray drying behavior of droplets containing excipients and carrier materials used in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries has been conducted. Specifically, rice starch suspensions with different amounts of TiO2, maltodextrin, dextrin, NaCl and Na2......SO4 are dried. The drying rate is measured, and the morphology formation is mapped to obtain I more fundamental understanding of the drying process, which is very useful when designing product formulations. In the pilot spray dryer, droplet generation is based on the JetCutter technology and die...
Coucke, D; Pringels, E; Foreman, P; Adriaensens, P; Carleer, R; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C
A mucoadhesive spray-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) powder underwent different heat treatments in order to induce cross-linking between the functional groups of starch (Amioca) and poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol 974P). After heat treatment the water-absorbing capacity, viscosity and elasticity of the mucoadhesive powder increased. NMR analysis in combination with FT-IR indicated that heat treatment induced a low degree of cross-linking between the polymers. Nasal administration of Amioca/Carbopol 974P powders without heat treatment resulted in an absolute bioavailability in rabbits of 8.2+/-3.0% for insulin. Due to the difference in water-absorbing capacity (which opened the tight junctions of the nasal mucosa), elasticity and plasticity (which reduced mucociliairy clearance and prolonged residence time) heat treatment at 120 degrees C improved the bioavailability: 26.4+/-21.9, 36.5+/-11.0 and 19.3+/-17.3% after heat treatment during 30 min, 1 h and 4 h, respectively. Heat treatment at 60 degrees C was less efficient. This study demonstrated that the nasal insulin absorption improved via heat treatment of the Amioca/Carbopol 974P powder (prior to the addition of insulin). The bioavailability-enhancing effect of a 1 h heat treatment at 120 degrees C was confirmed using the same polymer matrix in combination with different drugs (salmon calcitonin, human growth hormone and metoprolol tartrate).
Patel, A. S.; Soni, T.; Thakkar, V.; Gandhi, T.
The preparation of Tramadol-HCL spray-dried microspheres can be affected by the long drug recrystallization time. Polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as well as manufacturing parameters affect the preparation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possibility to obtain tramadol spray-dried microspheres using the Eudragit® RS and RL; the influence of the spray-drying parameters on morphology, dimension, and physical stability of microspheres was studied. The effects of matrix compositio...
Radulović, Zorica; Miočinović, Jelena; Mirković, Nemanja; Mirković, Milica; Paunović, Dušanka; Ivanović, Marina; Seratlić, Sanja
A high viability of probiotics in food product, with a living cells threshold of 107 /cfu/g (colony-forming units/g) is a challenge to achieve in food production. Spray drying is an efficient and economic industrial method for probiotic bacterial preservation and its application in food products. In this study, the survival of free and spray-dried cells of potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 564 after production and during 8 weeks of storage of soft acid coagulated goat cheese was investigated, as well as compositional and sensory quality of cheese. Total bacterial count of spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells were maintained at the high level of 8.82 log/cfu/g in cheese after 8 weeks of storage, while free-cell number decreased to 6.9 log/cfu/g. However, the chemical composition, pH values and sensory evaluation between control cheese (C1 sample made with commercial starter culture) and treated cheese samples (C2 and C3, made with the same starter, with the addition of free and spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells, respectively) did not significantly differ. High viability of potential probiotic bacteria and acceptable sensory properties indicate that spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 strain could be successfully used in the production of soft acid coagulated goat cheeses. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Antoniassi, Rosemar; de Faria-Machado, Adelia Ferreira; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Celia Monteiro
Evaluation of cashew gum compared to conventional materials was conducted regarding properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried fish oil. Emulsions produced with cashew gum showed lower viscosity when compared to Arabic gum. The particle size was larger (29.9μm) when cashew gum was used, and the encapsulation efficiency reached 76%, similar to that of modified starch but higher than that for Arabic gum (60%). The oxidation process for the surface oil was conducted and a relative lower formation of oxidation compounds was observed for the cashew gum treatment. GAB model was chosen to describe the moisture adsorption isotherm behaviours. Microparticles produced using Arabic and cashew gums showed greater water adsorption when exposed to higher relative humidities. Microparticles produced using cashew gum were more hygroscopic however encapsulation efficiency were higher and surface oil oxidation were less pronounced. Cashew gum can be further explored as an encapuslant material for spray drying processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goderska, Kamila; Czarnecki, Zbigniew
Improved production methods of starter cultures, which constitute the most important element of probiotic preparations, were investigated. The aim of the presented research was to analyse changes in the viability of Lactobacillus. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum after stabilization (spray drying, liophilization, fluidization drying) and storage in refrigerated conditions for 4 months. The highest numbers of live cells, up to the fourth month of storage in refrigerated conditions, of the order of 10(7) cfu/g preparation were recorded for the B. bifidum DSM 20239 bacteria in which the N-Tack starch for spray drying was applied. Fluidization drying of encapsulated bacteria allowed obtaining a preparation of the comparable number of live bacterial cells up to the fourth month of storage with those encapsulated bacteria, which were subjected to freeze-drying but the former process was much shorter. The highest survivability of the encapsulated L. acidophilus DSM 20079 and B. bifidum DSM 20239 cells subjected to freeze-drying was obtained using skimmed milk as the cryoprotective substance. Stabilization of bacteria by microencapsulation can give a product easy to store and apply to produce dried food composition.
Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues
Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid with important metabolic activities. Its conjugated double bonds make it susceptible to decomposition. Its stability may be improved through fatty acid entrapment with a spray-drying technique; however, the many parameters involved in this technique must be considered to avoid affecting the final product quality. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the entrapment conditions and yields of fish oil enriched with docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester. Microcapsules were obtained from Acacia gum using a spray-drying technique. The experimental samples were analyzed by chromatography and delineated by Statistica software, which found the following optimum entrapment conditions: an inlet temperature of 188 °C; 30% core material; an N2 flow rate of 55 mm; and a pump flow rate of 12.5 mL/minute. These conditions provided a 66% yield of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester in the oil, corresponding to 19.8% of entrapped docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (w/w. This result was considered significant since 30% corresponded to wall material.
Wang, Qiao; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song; Xia, Lin Hua
Porous microspheres of regenerated cellulose with size in range of 1-2 μm and composite microspheres of chitosan coated cellulose with size of 1-3 μm were obtained through a two-step spray-assisted approach. The spray coagulating process must combine with a spray drying step to guarantee the formation of stable microspheres of cellulose. This approach exhibits the following two main virtues. First, the preparation was performed using aqueous solution of cellulose as precursor in the absence of organic solvent and surfactant; Second, neither crosslinking agent nor separated crosslinking process was required for formation of stable microspheres. Moreover, the spray drying step also provided us with the chance to encapsulate guests into the resultant cellulose microspheres. The potential application of the cellulose microspheres acting as drug delivery vector has been studied in two PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) solution with pH values at 4.0 and 7.4 to mimic the environments of stomach and intestine, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teixeira, Maria Ines [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Alimentos, Instituto de Quimica, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), 21910-900 (Brazil); Andrade, Leonardo R. [Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, CCS, UFRJ, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), 21941-590 (Brazil); Farina, Marcos [Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, CCS, UFRJ, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), 21941-590 (Brazil); Rocha-Leao, Maria Helena M. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Alimentos, Instituto de Quimica, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), 21910-900 (Brazil) and Departamento de Engenharia Bioquimica, Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) 21910-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Microcapsules containing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were produced by spray drying technique using different proportions of gum arabic and maltodextrin as wall materials. Proportions of 5% and 10% of gum arabic and maltodextrin isolated, and a mixture of 5% of maltodextrin and 5% of gum arabic were added to samples of fermented permeate containing SCFA, and spray dried. The microstructure of microcapsules was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the size distribution was obtained by laser diffraction. SEM observations showed that the microcapsules structures were affected by type and proportion of wall material tested. Most of the microcapsules containing gum arabic as wall material had surface dents or invaginations. Microcapsules containing maltodextrin were spherical with few surface dents and some of them had pores. The larger microcapsule sizes were observed in those containing maltodextrin. Our results show that microstructure and size of microcapsules are affected by type and proportion of biomaterial used. The samples containing 5% of maltodextrin and the mixture of 5% of gum arabic with 5% of maltodextrin presented smooth surfaces and homogenous size distributions. The corresponding microcapsules are considered optimal to food industrial uses due to the flowability property. Besides, these capsules were found to present a homogenous distribution of diameters, which may give a homogenous flavor distribution to the food products.
S. S. de Jesus
Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.
Chauhan, Sohil I; Nathwani, Sandeep V; Soniwala, Moinuddin M; Chavda, Jayant R
The present investigation was carried out to develop and characterize a multifunctional co-processed excipient for improving the compressibility of poorly compressible drugs. Etodolac was used as a model drug. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose monohydrate (lactose), and StarCap 1500 (StarCap) were selected as components of the co-processed excipient. The spray drying method was used for co-processing of excipients. D-optimal mixture design was applied to optimize the proportion of component excipients. Statistical analysis of the D-optimal mixture design revealed that all response variables were significantly affected by the independent variables (p value excipient was found to be 30% MCC, 25% lactose, and 45% StarCap. This optimized batch was evaluated for flow properties, compressibility parameters such as Kawakita's and Kuno's equation and Heckel's equation, and dilution potential. Evaluation parameters for flow properties (angle of repose, Carr's index, and Hausner's ratio) suggested excellent flow character. The parameters of Kawakita's and Kuno's equation and Heckel's equation suggested improvement in the compressibility of the model drug. Dilution potential was found to be 40%, and based on that, tablets of the model drug were formulated and evaluated for general evaluation parameters of tablets. All the parameters were found to be within the acceptance criteria which concluded that the multifunctional directly compressible co-processed excipient was prepared successfully that improved the compressibility of the poorly compressible model drug etodolac along with spray drying as an efficient method for the preparation of co-processed excipient.
Yi, Cheng; Tsai, Min-Lang; Liu, Tristan
The composition, physicochemical properties and salinity of spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were tested to ensure a low-sodium and high-salinity salty agent. The spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were hollow and had a favourable hygroscopicity, and increased NaCl content and decreased organic acid content. Their size of the microparticles was 15.4-32.0μm and increased with NaCl concentration. The microparticles of acetic and lactic acid groups had a NaCl crystal size of 1-2 and 1-4μm, respectively. The NaCl crystals of acetic, lactic and citric acid group microparticles were distributed on the microparticle matrices, mostly on the microparticle surface and mainly on the inner walls of the microparticles walls, respectively. The acetic and lactic acid group microparticles were relatively smaller than general salt, with NaCl crystals distributed on the particle surfaces. Consequently, they were perceived as saltier than general salt and could potentially be regarded as a low-sodium salt for surface-salted foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mao, Yingyan; Zhang, Shubai; Zhang, Dandan; Chan, Tung W.; Liu, Li
A new strategy was developed to prepare graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with highly exfoliated GO sheets and strong interfaces. In particular, GO/SBR microparticles, in which exfoliated GO sheets (with a thickness of ˜1 nm and diameter of tens of nanometers) are trapped in a well-dispersed state throughout the SBR matrix, were made by a combined latex-compounding and spray-drying method. Subsequently, a chemical bridge between GO and rubber matrix through KH550 and Si69 was built during vulcanization, and the interfacial strength of the cured GO/SBR composite was remarkably improved. Due to the highly exfoliated structure and the strong interface, the GO/SBR composite exhibited 7.8 times higher modulus at 300% strain and 6.4 times higher tensile strength compared with cured pure SBR. The combined latex-compounding and spray-drying method presented here is feasible and water-mediated and has great potential for industrial applications.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is one of the most common patogens in the world. Although the microorganism is susceptible to many antimicrobial agents, the eradication rate is very low due to poor permeability of the antibiotics across the mucus layer, poor stability of the drug in the acidic pH of the gastric fluid, short residence time of antibiotic in the stomach and development of resistance to antimicrobial agents. The main purpose of this study was to optimize the spray drying process for the production of chitosan based microspheres loaded with clarithromycin resulting the stomach-specific delivery system to increase the gastric residence time, to allow better antibiotic penetration through the gastric mucus layer and to act locally at the infectious site. The optimum conditions and the significance of some parameters (inlet air temperature, drug concentration and feed flow rate on spray drying efficiency and properties of clarithromycin loaded microspheres in terms of the water activity and morphology were determined by Central Composite Design (CCD and Response Surface Methodology (RSM.
Full Text Available Magnetic particles of iron oxide have been increasingly used in medical diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and in cancer therapies involving targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. In this study we report the preparation and characterization of iron oxide particles coated with bioceramic hydroxyapatite by spray-drying. The iron oxide magnetic particles (IOMP were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp by spray-drying using two IOMP/HAp ratios (0.7 and 3.2. The magnetic particles were characterized by way of scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry,vibrating sample magnetometry and particle size distribution (laser diffraction. The surface morphology of the coated samples is different from that of the iron oxide due to formation of hydroxyapatite coating. From an EDX analysis, it was verified that the surface of the coated magnetic particles is composed only of HAp, while the interior containsiron oxide and a few layers of HAp as expected. The results showed that spray-drying technique is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for forming spherical particles with a core/shell structure.As partículas de óxido de ferro têm sido extensivamente usadas em diagnósticos médicos como agente de contraste para imagem por ressonância magnética e na terapia do câncer, dentre estas, liberação de fármacos em sitos alvos e hipertermia magnética. Neste estudo nós reportamos a preparação e caracterização de partículas magnéticas de óxido de ferro revestidas com a biocerâmica hidroxiapatita. As partículas magnéticasde óxido de ferro (PMOF foram revestidas com hidroxiapatita por spray-drying usando duas razões PMOF/HAp (0,7 e 3,2. As partículas magnéticas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, energia dispersiva de raios X, difração de raios X, espectroscopia de absorção no infra
Zhang, Yan-jun; Liu, Li-li; Hu, Jun-hua; Wu, Yun; Chao, En-xiang; Xiao, Wei
With inlet temperature, specific gravity, feeding speed as independent variables, the comprehensive evaluating indexes of content of schisandrin and arctiin as dependent variable, the experimental data were fitted to a second order polynomial equation. Based on establishing the mathematical relationship between the comprehensive evaluating indexes and respective variables, Box-Benhnken central composite test and response surface analysis method was employed to optimize the spray drying technology of Biqiu granules ethanol extract. The optimal drying parameter was as follows: the inlet temperature was 175 degrees C, the specific gravity was 1.10, feeding speed was 32 r x min(-1). Under these conditions, the comprehensive evaluating indexes of spraying dry processes was 92.68, which was close to the model prediction. The spraying dry technology of Biqiu granules ethanol extract optimized by response surface methodology was accurate and feasible, which provided theoretical experiment basis for the industrialization production.
Sansawat, Thanikarn; Zhang, Lei; Jeong, Jong Y; Xu, Yanyang; Hessell, Gerald W; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice B; Tempelman, Robert; Kang, Iksoon
In meat processing, powdered ingredients are preferred to liquids because of ease of handling, mixing, and storing. This study was conducted to assess Listeria monocytogenes inhibition and the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of frankfurters that were prepared with organic acid salts as spray-dried powders (sodium lactate-sodium acetate, sodium lactate-sodium acetate-sodium diacetate, and potassium acetate-potassium diacetate) or liquids (sodium lactate, sodium lactate-sodium diacetate, potassium lactate, and potassium lactate-sodium diacetate). Full-sodium (1.8% salt) and low-sodium (1.0% salt) frankfurters were prepared according to 10 and 5 different formulations (n = 3), respectively, and were dip inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (∼4 log CFU/g). Populations of Listeria and mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quantified during storage at 4, 7, and 10°C for up to 90 days. Four powder and two liquid full-sodium formulations and one powder low-sodium formulation, all of which contained diacetate except for 1% sodium lactate-sodium acetate powder, completely inhibited Listeria growth at 4°C. However, Listeria grew in full-sodium formulations at 10°C and in low-sodium formulations at 7 and 10°C except for the formulation containing 0.8% potassium acetate-0.2% potassium diacetate powder. All formulations were similar in terms of water activity, cooking yield, moisture, and protein content. Sodium content and pH were affected by the concentrations of sodium and diacetate, respectively. Frankfurter appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the formulation, except for flavor and overall acceptability of the low-sodium formulation containing potassium acetate-potassium diacetate. Based on these findings, cosprayed powders appear to be a viable alternative to current liquid inhibitors for control of Listeria in processed meats.
Przybysz Marzena Anna
Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the stability of carotenes (α- and β-carotene in oil solutions with their stability when spray-dried encapsulation is applied. The carotenes were isolated from carrot. A storage test was subsequently performed. The stability of carotenes in oil solutions was determined with the HPLC method. The color of the samples was also analyzed. The oil solutions of carotenes were microencapsulated with the spray-drying method. A mixture of gum Arabic and maltodextrin was used as a matrix.
Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Bohr, Adam; Aragão-Santiago, Leticia
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The current study reports the preparation and characterization of sildenafil-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microparticles (MPs) by means of vibrational spray-drying. Emphasis was placed on relevant formulation and process parameters with influence on the pr......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The current study reports the preparation and characterization of sildenafil-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microparticles (MPs) by means of vibrational spray-drying. Emphasis was placed on relevant formulation and process parameters with influence...
Ortiz-Basurto, R I; Rubio-Ibarra, M E; Ragazzo-Sanchez, J A; Beristain, C I; Jiménez-Fernández, M
The objective of this work was to microencapsulate pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) juice by spray drying, using High Performance Agave Fructans (HPAF) and High Degree of Polymerisation Agave Fructans (HDPAF) and maltodextrin (MD), respectively, as the wall materials. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the capsules during storage at various temperatures were evaluated. The microparticles developed using fructans HPAF and HDPAF, exhibited similar physicochemical and flow properties to those presented by the microparticles prepared with MD. The highest yield and concentration of anthocyanins after drying and during storage were found for a 1:6 core:wall material ratio. The total color change was a good indicator of the microcapsule stability. This study showed that both fructans fraction possess similar encapsulating properties to MD and that the HDPAF were more efficacious than MD at protecting the antioxidants during drying and storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leonardo C. Silva
Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the quantification of catechin in the spray-dried extract of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes Landrum, Myrtaceae, citral chemotype using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method employs a RP-18 column with acetonitrile:water-orthophosphoric acid 0.05% (gradient system and UV detection at 210 nm. The method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, specific, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The response was linear over a range of 5–200 µg/ml (r > 0.999. The range of recoveries was 92.27–102.54%. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision studies were 4.30 and 3.78%, respectively. This assay can be readily utilized as quality control method for catechin in the dried extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus.
Panchal, Rushi; Patel, Harsha; Patel, Vishnu; Joshi, Pratik; Parikh, Ankit
The objective of present work was to prepare microspheres of montelukast sodium using a natural polymer- chitosan by spray drying method by using glutaraldehyde as a cross linking agent. The microspheres were characterized for size, shape, dissolution, swelling and mucoadhesion. It was observed that, all microspheres were spherical in shape with narrow size distribution. Microspheres had mean particle size of 7-12 μm, with % encapsulation efficiency of 78-86%. The % yield was 32-49% and drug load was 48-53%. With the increase in proportion of chitosan in formulation mucoadhesive strength was increase and also increased in particle size of microspheres. As the drug:polymer ratio increase drug loading was increase and % encapsulation efficiency was also increase.
Mesquita, Philippe C.; Oliveira, Alice R.; Pedrosa, Matheus F. Fernandes; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio
Spray dried methotrexate (MTX) loaded chitosan microparticles were prepared using different drug/copolymer ratios (9%, 18%, 27% and 45% w/w). The physicochemical aspects were assessed in order to select particles that were able to induce a sustained drug release effect. Particles were successfully produced which exhibited desired physicochemical aspects such as spherical shape and high drug loading. XRD and FT-IR analysis demonstrated that drug is not bound to copolymer and is only homogeneously dispersed in an amorphous state into polymeric matrix. Even the particles with higher drug loading levels presented a sustained drug release profile, which were mathematically modeled using adjusted Higuchi model. The drug release occurred predominantly with drug dissolution and diffusion through swollen polymeric matrix, with the slowest release occurring with particles containing 9% of drug, demonstrating an interesting and promising drug delivery system for MTX.
Paudel, Amrit; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Meeus, Joke; Guns, Sandra; Van den Mooter, Guy
Spray drying is an efficient technology for solid dispersion manufacturing since it allows extreme rapid solvent evaporation leading to fast transformation of an API-carrier solution to solid API-carrier particles. Solvent evaporation kinetics certainly contribute to formation of amorphous solid dispersions, but also other factors like the interplay between the API, carrier and solvent, the solution state of the API, formulation parameters (e.g. feed concentration or solvent type) and process parameters (e.g. drying gas flow rate or solution spray rate) will influence the final physical structure of the obtained solid dispersion particles. This review presents an overview of the interplay between manufacturing process, formulation parameters, physical structure, and performance of the solid dispersions with respect to stability and drug release characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Brenner, Michael P.; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A.
Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules.
Full Text Available Venlafaxine controlled drug delivery systems using different matrixes have been tested to reduce undesirable side effects in the treatment of depression. The legal status of chitosan (Cs in Pharmacy has dramatically improved after its acceptance as excipient in several Pharmacopeias and, therefore, there is great interest in pharmaceutical formulations based on this polymer. In this paper, chitosan microcapsules cross-linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP for oral delivery of venlafaxine were formulated using the spray drying technique. The effect of chitosan physico-chemical properties, TPP concentration and TPP/Cs ratio on drug release was evaluated. The microcapsules were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential and morphology. The physical state of the drug was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and the drug release from the microcapsules was studied in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The release pattern fitted well to the Peppas-Koersmeyer model with n exponents indicating anomalous transport.
Full Text Available The objective of present work was to prepare microspheres of montelukast sodium using a natural polymer- chitosan by spray drying method by using glutaraldehyde as a cross linking agent. The microspheres were characterized for size, shape, dissolution, swelling and mucoadhesion. It was observed that, all microspheres were spherical in shape with narrow size distribution. Microspheres had mean particle size of 7-12 μm, with % encapsulation efficiency of 78-86%. The % yield was 32-49% and drug load was 48-53%. With the increase in proportion of chitosan in formulation mucoadhesive strength was increase and also increased in particle size of microspheres. As the drug:polymer ratio increase drug loading was increase and % encapsulation efficiency was also increase.
Full Text Available The present study is aimed at formulation of alginate (ALG microspheres with ranitidine (RNT by the spray drying method. Obtained microspheres were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and zeta potential. Mucoadhesive properties were examined by a texture analyser and three types of adhesive layers - gelatine discs, mucin gel and porcine stomach mucosa. Microspheres showed a smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and RNT loading of up to 70.9 %. All formulations possessed mucoadhesive properties and exhibited prolonged drug release according to the first-order kinetics. DSC reports showed that there was no interaction between RNT and ALG. Designed microspheres can be considered potential carriers of ranitidine with prolonged residence time in the stomach
Madeira, A.N.; Camargo, J.R. [University of Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Spray drying is a dehumidification process by atomization in a closed chamber that aims to remove moisture of a product by heat and mass transfer from the product's contained water to the air that, in this process is previously heated. This paper presents a case study for an industry that produces food ingredients. The current process applied in the product to heat the air can uses one of these two systems: a direct heating process that burns liquid petroleum gas in contact with the inlet air or indirect heating that uses a heat exchanger which heat the air. This heating system consumes 90% of the total process energy. However, this inlet air can reach the dehumidifier with high moisture from the atmosphere condition requesting, in this case, more energy consumption according to the year's seasons. This paper promotes a utilization study of the current process through the installation of a pre-dehumidification device of the inlet air and shows a study to three different dehumidification systems that means by refrigeration, adsorption and actual comparing their performance in an energetic and economical point of view. The goals of this study are to analyze the capacity of moisture removing of each removing device, the influence of moisture variation of the inlet air in the process as well as the economic impact of each device in the global system. It concludes that the utilization of dehumidification devices can eliminate the heating system reducing this way the energy consumption. Moreover it promotes the increasing of moisture gradient between the inlet air and the product optimizing the drying process and increasing the global energy efficiency in the global system. Choosing the most appropriate system for the pre-dehumidification device depends on the desired initial and final moisture content of the product, but applying pre-dehumidifiers at the inlet air promotes an energetic optimization in the spray drying process. (author)
Li, Jinjiang; Patel, Dhaval; Wang, George
Spray-dried dispersions (SDDs) have become an important formulation technology for the pharmaceutical product development of poorly water-soluble (PWS) compounds. Although this technology is now widely used in the industry, especially in the early-phase development, the lack of mechanistic understanding still causes difficulty in selecting excipients and predicting stability of SDD-based drug products. In this review, the authors aim to discuss several principles of polymer science pertaining to the development of SDDs, in terms of selecting polymers and solvents, optimizing drug loading, as well as assessing physical stability on storage and supersaturation maintenance after dissolution, from both thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. In order to choose compatible solvents with both polymers and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), a symmetric Flory-Huggins interaction (Δχ ∼0) approach was introduced. Regarding spray drying of polymer-API solutions, low critical solution temperature (LCST) was discussed for setting the inlet temperature for drying. In addition, after being exposed to moisture, SDDs are practically converted to ternary systems with asymmetric Flory-Huggins interactions, which are thermodynamically not favored. In this case, the kinetics of phase separation plays a significant role during the storage and dissolution of SDD-based drug products. The impact of polymers on the supersaturation maintenance of APIs in dissolution media was also discussed. Moreover, the nature of SDDs, with reference to solid solution and the notion of solid solubility, was examined in the context of pharmaceutical application. Finally, the importance of robust analytical techniques to characterize the SDD-based drug products was emphasized, considering their complexity.
Anna B.F.L. Nosari
Full Text Available AbstractThe oil extracted by cold pressing unroasted coffee beans, known as green coffee oil, has been widely used for cosmetic purposes. The objective of this work was to prepare and characterize microcapsules containing green coffee oil and to verify its antioxidant activity under the effect of light, heat and oxygen. The encapsulating material was arabic gum and the microcapsules were obtained by spray drying an oil-in-water emulsion containing green coffee oil. The characterization of the microcapsules was performed by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by a modified active oxygen method with light irradiation, heating and oxygen flux. The microparticles were effectively produced by the proposed spray drying method, which resulted in green coffee oil loads of 10 and 30%. The morphological evaluation of microcapsules showed spherical shape with smooth and non-porous surfaces, demonstrating the adequacy of arabic gum as encapsulating material. Calorimetric analysis of individual components and microcapsules with 10 and 30% green coffee oil showed diminished degradation temperatures and enthalpy, suggesting a possible interaction between arabic gum and green coffee oil. The antioxidant activities for pure green coffee oil and its microcapsules with loads of 10 and 30% showed high activity when compared to the reference antioxidant alfa-tocopherol. Microcapsules containing 10 and 30% of oil showed 7-fold and 3-fold increase in antioxidant activity when compared to pure green coffee oil. The new method for antioxidant activity determination proposed here, which applies heat, light and oxygen simultaneously, suggests a high improvement in encapsulated green coffee oil when compared to this active alone. The results showed herein indicate a promising industrial application of this microencapsulated green coffee oil.
You, Shengping; Chang, Hongxing; Yin, Qingdian; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin
Whey powder, a by-product of dairy industry, is an attractive raw material for value-added products. In this study, utilization of whey powder as substrate for low-cost preparation of β-galactosidase as main product and ethanol as by-product were investigated by a litre-scale integrated strategy, encompassing fermentation, isolation, permeabilization and spray drying. Firstly, through development of low-cost industrial culture and fed-batch strategies by Kluyveromyces lactis, 119.30U/mL β-galactosidase activity and 16.96mg/mL by-product ethanol were achieved. Afterward, an up-dated mathematic model for the recycling permeabilization was established successfully and 30.4g cells sediment isolated from 5L fermentation broth were permeabilized completely by distilled ethanol from broth supernatant. Then β-galactosidase product with 5.15U/mg from protection of gum acacia by spray drying was obtained. Furthermore, by-product ethanol with 31.08% (v/v) was achieved after permeabilization. Therefore, the integrated strategy using whey powder as substrate is a feasible candidate for industrial-scale implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palazzo, Francesco; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Schoubben, Aurelie; Blasi, Paolo; Rossi, Carlo; Ricci, Maurizio
The purpose of this study was to produce low-releasing spray-dried polymeric microparticles (MP) useful to target alveolar macrophages in tuberculosis (TB) inhalation therapy. Ofloxacin (Ofx) was encapsulated as ofloxacin-palladium (Ofx-Pd) complex into poly DL-lactide (PLA) MP by spray-drying. Ofx-Pd was prepared according to a method previously reported. A D-optimal design was employed to optimize drug content (DC), aerodynamic diameter (d(ae)) and span. d(ae) was calculated coupling tap-density to particle size analysis. The MP were characterized by SEM, UV spectrophotometry, and DSC. In vitro drug release was performed in comparison to Ofx loaded PLA MP. The Ofx-Pd complex formed spontaneously with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Inlet temperature, drug loading and polymer concentration resulted the most influential. Optimal MP had span of 0.9, a round shape, d(ae) of 2.5 μm, and DC of 30% (w/w). DSC and SEM analyses correlated with particle size. The optimized MP formulation showed a very low release at pH 7.4 compared to spray-dried Ofx loaded MP, the release increased slightly at lower pHs. Potentially inhalable MP were obtained by an optimized spray-drying process. The very low initial drug release at physiologic pH could be useful to target alveolar macrophages and to avoid systemic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hernández Sánchez, Maria Del Rayo; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Turchiuli, Christelle
Lipophilic compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants can be encapsulated by spray drying in order to protect and prolong their functionalities and get new handling properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of both the spray drying stage and storage (60°C - 50% RH) on the oxidation of lipophilic compounds encapsulated in spray dried oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w oil in dry matter) using maltodextrin as matrix and Tween® 20 as emulsifier. Emulsions were prepared with oil containing or not containing α-tocopherol (482ppm in oil) in order to also demonstrate the influence of the antioxidant. Results showed that there is a beginning of oxidation during spray drying, evidenced by a slight increase of markers of rancidity, i.e. conjugated dienes and volatile organic compounds. During storage, the oxidative degradation of PUFAs and α-tocopherol started quickly under the conditions of aging. This was shown to be due to the negative effect of the process and to the porosity of the solid matrix to oxygen, associated with the hollow structure of the particles. An inhibitory action of maltodextrin on α-tocopherol was also hypothesized, but it has to be confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available High-performance ferric phosphate (FePO4), with well-defined ellipsoid morphology and uniform particle size distribution, is successfully fabricated via a green spray drying method with formic acid as additive. It is found that the added formic acid...
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50...
Baranauskiene, R.; Bylaite, Egle; Zukauskaite, J.
The effect of different commercial modified food starch carrier materials on the flavor retention of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) during spray drying and storage was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the emulsification and encapsulation efficiencies...
Mann, Amanda K P; Schenck, Luke; Koynov, Athanas; Rumondor, Alfred C F; Jin, Xiaoling; Marota, Melanie; Dalton, Chad
Many small-molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) exhibit low aqueous solubility and benefit from generation of amorphous dispersions of the API and polymer to improve their dissolution properties. Spray drying and hot-melt extrusion are 2 common methods to produce these dispersions; however, for some systems, these approaches may not be optimal, and it would be beneficial to have an alternative route. Herein, amorphous solid dispersions of compound A, a low-solubility weak acid, and copovidone were made by conventional spray drying and co-precipitation. The physicochemical properties of the 2 materials were assessed via X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The amorphous dispersions were then formulated and tableted, and the performance was assessed in vivo and in vitro. In human dissolution studies, the co-precipitation tablets had slightly slower dissolution than the spray-dried dispersion, but both reached full release of compound A. In canine in vitro dissolution studies, the tablets showed comparable dissolution profiles. Finally, canine pharmacokinetic studies showed that the materials had comparable values for the area under the curve, bioavailability, and Cmax. Based on the summarized data, we conclude that for some APIs, co-precipitation is a viable alternative to spray drying to make solid amorphous dispersions while maintaining desirable physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characteristics. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wataha, K.; Menge, T.; Deng, X.; Shah, A.; Bode, A.; Holcomb, J.B.; Potter, D.; Kozar, R.; Spinella, P.C.; Pati, S.
BACKGROUND: After major traumatic injury, patients often require multiple transfusions of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to correct coagulopathy and to reduce bleeding. A spray-dried plasma (SDP) product has several logistical benefits over FFP use in trauma patients with coagulopathy. These benefits
Kauppinen, Ari; Broekhuis, Joep; Grasmeijer, Niels; Tonnis, Wouter; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J
To evaluate the feasibility of producing solid dispersions with 3-fluid nozzle spray drying to improve the dissolution behavior of lipophilic drugs, 60 experiments were performed based on a Design of Experiment. Solid dispersions with mannitol as a hydrophilic matrix and diazepam as a model drug
Full Text Available 4 wt% CuO–96 wt% TiO2 granules were prepared by a spray drying process. The microstructure and optical property of CuO–TiO2 granules were studied. The results indicate that copper existed in the form of CuO. The spray dried granules possess spherical geometry and smooth surface with grain size in the range of 40–80 μm. CuO–TiO2 has a relatively smaller Eg value (2.85 eV than TiO2 (3.17 eV. The photocatalytic property of CuO–TiO2 granules was investigated by degradation of a model pollutant (the azo dye methyl orange under the irradiation of the xenon lamp equipped with a band pass filter of 365 nm. The CuO–TiO2 spray-dried granules degrade about 10% more MO than TiO2 spray-dried granules under UV irradiation within the same time. The XPS spectra suggested that Cu2+ and reduced copper species were coexistent in reacted CuO–TiO2 photocatalyst. The improvement of photocatalytic activity for CuO–TiO2 was mainly attributed to effective separation of photo-generated electron–hole pairs in the presence of CuO.
Full Text Available The present study investigated a novel extended release system of promethazine hydrochloride (PHC with acrylic polymers Eudragit RL100 and Eudragit S100 in different weight ratios (1:1 and 1: 5, and in combination (0.5+1.5, using freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques. Solid dispersions were characterized by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as solubility and in vitro dissolution studies in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2, double-distilled water and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Adsorption tests from drug solution to solid polymers were also performed. A selected solid dispersion system was developed into capsule dosage form and evaluated for in vitro dissolution studies. The progressive disappearance of drug peaks in thermotropic profiles of spray-dried dispersions were related to increasing amount of polymers, while SEM studies suggested homogenous dispersion of drug in polymer. Eudragit RL100 had a greater adsorptive capacity than Eudragit S100, and thus its combination in (0.5+1.5 for S100 and RL 100 exhibited a higher dissolution rate with 97.14% drug release for twelve hours. Among different formulations, capsules prepared by combination of acrylic polymers using spray-drying (1:0.5 + 1.5 displayed extended release of drug for twelve hours with 96.87% release followed by zero order kinetics (r²= 0.9986.O presente trabalho compreendeu estudo de um novo sistema de liberação prolongada de cloridrato de prometazina (PHC com polímeros acrílicos Eudragit RL100 e Eudragit S100 em diferentes proporções em massa (1:1 e 1:5 e em combinação (0,5+1,5, utilizando técnicas de liofilização e de secagem por aspersão As dispersões sólidas foram caracterizadas por espectrofotometria no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier (FT-IR, calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC, difratometria
Chandrapala, Jayani; Martin, Gregory J O; Kentish, Sandra E; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian
The effect of shear on the solubilization of a range of dairy powders was investigated. The rate of solubilization of low solubility milk protein concentrate and micellar casein powders was examined during ultrasonication, high pressure homogenization and high-shear rotor-stator mixing and compared to low-shear overhead stirring. The high shear techniques were able to greatly accelerate the solubilization of these powders by physically breaking apart the powder agglomerates and accelerating the release of individual casein micelles into solution. This was achieved without affecting the structure of the solubilized proteins. The effect of high shear on the re-establishment of the mineral balance between the casein micelles and the serum was examined by monitoring the pH of the reconstituted skim milk powder after prior exposure to ultrasonication. Only minor differences in the re-equilibration of the pH were observed after sonication for up to 3 min, suggesting that the localized high shear forces exerted by sonication did not significantly affect the mass transfer of minerals from within the casein micelles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scheidegger, Dana; Radici, Paola M; Vergara-Roig, Víctor A; Bosio, Noelia S; Pesce, Silvia F; Pecora, Rolando P; Romano, José C P; Kivatinitz, Silvia C
The objective of the present research was to evaluate commercially available milk powders according to their protein oxidative modifications and antioxidant capacity, and to evaluate if these characteristics are related to physical quality parameters such as dispersibility or stability during storage. Fifteen commercially processed spray-dried milk powders were evaluated: 6 whole milk powders (WMP), 4 skim milk powders (SMP), and 5 infant formula powders (IFP). Protein oxidative status was measured as protein carbonyl (PC) content, dityrosine content, and extent of protein polymerization. The level of PC was slightly lower in SMP than in WMP, whereas IFP had more than twice as much PC as WMP (2.8 ± 0.4, 2.1 ± 0.2, and 6.5 ± 1.3 nmol/mg of protein for WMP, SMP, and IFP, respectively). No differences were detected in dityrosine accumulation. Although all the possible pairs of parameters were tested for correlations, we found that 4 parameters were linked: PC, whey content, protein aggregate level, and dispersibility. After 9 mo of storage at -20°C or room temperature, all milk samples were analyzed to evaluate changes in protein oxidative status (PC, dityrosine, and protein integrity) and related parameters. Compared with the initial condition, PC increased in all tested samples after 9 mo of storage at -20°C or at room temperature. Stored milk powders had increased PC and decreased dispersibility compared with prestorage levels. Our results highlight the importance of protein oxidative status in milk powder and its relationship to other related quality parameters, such as protein integrity and dispersibility. Our findings suggest that the understanding of such relationships could help in developing quality differentiation for different types of milk powders in the product market. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng
To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets.
Summary This article presents a novel formulation for preparation of Lactobacillus casei 01 encapsulated in soy protein isolate and alginate microparticles using spray drying method. A response surface methodology was used to optimise the formulation and the central composite face-centered design was applied to study the effects of critical material attributes and process parameters on viability of the probiotic after microencapsulation and in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Spherical microparticles were produced in high yield (64%), narrow size distribution (d50=9.7 µm, span=0.47) and favourable mucoadhesive properties, with viability of the probiotic of 11.67, 10.05, 9.47 and 9.20 log CFU/g after microencapsulation, 3 h in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions and four-month cold storage, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the probiotic stability after microencapsulation, while differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry pointed to high thermal stability of the soy protein isolate-alginate microparticles with encapsulated probiotic. These favourable properties of the probiotic microparticles make them suitable for incorporation into functional food or pharmaceutical products. PMID:28867947
Sapra, Mahak; Mayya, Y S; Venkataraman, Chandra
Drug-containing nanoparticles have been synthesized through the spray-drying of submicron droplet aerosols by using matrix materials such as lipids and biopolymers. Understanding layer formation in composite nanoparticles is essential for the appropriate engineering of particle substructures. The present study developed a droplet-shrinkage model for predicting the solid-phase formation of two non-volatile solutes-stearic acid lipid and a set of drugs, by considering molecular volume and solubility. Nanoparticle formation was simulated to define the parameter space of material properties and process conditions for the formation of a layered structure with the preferential accumulation of the lipid in the outer layer. Moreover, lipid-drug demarcation diagrams representing a set of critical values of ratios of solute properties at which the two solutes precipitate simultaneously were developed. The model was validated through the preparation of stearic acid-isoniazid nanoparticles under controlled processing conditions. The developed model can guide the selection of solvents, lipids, and processing conditions such that drug loading and lipid encapsulation in composite nanoparticles are optimized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ribeiro, Andreia; Ruphuy, Gabriela; Lopes, José Carlos; Dias, Madalena Maria; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
In this work, hydroalcoholic extracts of two mushrooms species, Suillus luteus (L.: Fries) (Sl) and Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) (Ca), were studied for their synergistic antioxidant effect and their viability as functional food ingredients tested by incorporation into a food matrix (cottage cheese). In a first step, the individual extracts and a combination of both, showing synergistic effects (Sl:Ca, 1:1), were microencapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrin as the encapsulating material. The incorporation of free extracts resulted in products with a higher initial antioxidant activity (t0) but declining after 7 days (t7), which was associated with their degradation. However, the cottage cheese enriched with the microencapsulated extracts, that have revealed a lower activity at the initial time, showed an increase at t7. This improvement can be explained by an effective protection provided by the microspheres together with a sustained release. Analyses performed on the studied cottage cheese samples showed the maintenance of the nutritional properties and no colour modifications were noticed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hadzieva, Jasmina; Mladenovska, Kristina; Crcarevska, Maja Simonoska; Dodov, Marija Glavaš; Dimchevska, Simona; Geškovski, Nikola; Grozdanov, Anita; Popovski, Emil; Petruševski, Gjorgji; Chachorovska, Marina; Ivanovska, Tanja Petreska; Petruševska-Tozi, Lidija; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Goracinova, Katerina
This article presents a novel formulation for preparation of Lactobacillus casei 01 encapsulated in soy protein isolate and alginate microparticles using spray drying method. A response surface methodology was used to optimise the formulation and the central composite face-centered design was applied to study the effects of critical material attributes and process parameters on viability of the probiotic after microencapsulation and in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Spherical microparticles were produced in high yield (64%), narrow size distribution (d50=9.7 µm, span=0.47) and favourable mucoadhesive properties, with viability of the probiotic of 11.67, 10.05, 9.47 and 9.20 log CFU/g after microencapsulation, 3 h in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions and four-month cold storage, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the probiotic stability after microencapsulation, while differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry pointed to high thermal stability of the soy protein isolate-alginate microparticles with encapsulated probiotic. These favourable properties of the probiotic microparticles make them suitable for incorporation into functional food or pharmaceutical products.
Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua; Mansouri, Shahnaz; May, Bee K; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Hui; Woo, Meng Wai
Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326°C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wan, Yuting; Bankston, Joseph David; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam
Emulsion (EFMO) containing purified menhaden oil (PMO) and soluble rice bran fiber (SRBF) was dried in a pilot scale spray dryer and produced microencapsulated PMO with SRBF (MFMO). EFMO had well isolated spherical droplets with the size of 1 to 10 μm and showed pseudoplastic fluid and viscoelastic characteristics. EFMO had lower lipid oxidation than the emulsion containing PMO without SRBF when both emulsions were stored at 20 and 40 °C for 88 h, which indicated that the SRBF reduced the lipid oxidation in the EFMO. The estimated MFMO production rate (3.45 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s) was higher than the actual production rate (2.31 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s). The energy required to spray dry the EFMO was 12232 kJ/kg of emulsion. EPA and DHA contents of MFMO were 11.52% and 4.51%, respectively. The particle size of 90% MFMO ranged from 8 to 62 μm, and the volume-length diameter of MFMO was 28.5 μm. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Hsieh, Daniel S; Yue, Hongfei; Nicholson, Sarah J; Roberts, Daniel; Schild, Richard; Gamble, John F; Lindrud, Mark
To understand the mechanisms of secondary drying of spray-dried dispersion (SDD) drug product and establish a model to describe the fate of organic solvents in such a product. The experimental approach includes characterization of the SDD particles, drying studies of SDD using an integrated weighing balance and mass spectrometer, and the subsequent generation of the drying curve. The theoretical approach includes the establishment of a Fickian diffusion model. The kinetics of solvent removal during secondary drying from the lab scale to a bench scale follows Fickian diffusion model. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental data and the prediction from the modeling. The diffusion process is dependent upon temperature. The key to a successful scale up of the secondary drying is to control the drying temperature. The fate of primary solvents including methanol and acetone, and their potential impurity such as benzene can be described by the Fickian diffusion model. A mathematical relationship based upon the ratio of diffusion coefficient was established to predict the benzene concentration from the fate of the primary solvent during the secondary drying process.
Lee, Jung H; Kim, Min J; Yang, Jaewon; Kim, Kyoung H; Kim, Hye M; Lee, So J; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson
Domperidone is an antidopaminergic drug that facilitates a function of the digestive smooth muscle. Depending on the Biopharmaceutical Classification System, domperidone is classified as class II with poor solubility and high permeability. Solid dispersions were prepared by spray-drying with a polymer. The characterization of prepared solid dispersions was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter. In vitro dissolution behavior was carried out in gastric juice (pH 1.2) and these results were compared with pure domperidone (active pharmaceutical ingredient). The dissolution rate was improved due to the influence of polymers. Stability assays were conducted by the same pre-experiment. Storage conditions of the solid dispersions were as follows: 25°C relative humidity 25% and 65°C relative humidity 80%. In this study, the goal is to improve the dissolution rate of domperidone by solid dispersions and to confirm stability of the prepared solid dispersions. It suggests that the content of polymers added in solid dispersions can affect the dissolution behavior and change dissolution rate of drug.
Valente, Pedro; Duarte, Íris; Porfirio, Tiago; Temtem, Márcio
Drug particles where the active pharmaceutical ingredient (APIs) is dispersed in a polymer matrix forming an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is a commonly used strategy to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble APIs. However, the formation and stability of an amorphous solid dispersion depends on the polymer/API combination and process conditions to generate it. The focus of the present work is to further develop a numerical tool to predict the formation of ASDs by spray drying solutions of different polymer/API combinations. Specifically, the evaporation of a multi-component droplet is coupled with a diffusion law within the droplet that minimizes the Gibbs free energy of the polymer/API/solvents system, following the Flory-Huggins model. Prior to the shell formation, the evaporation of the solvents is modelled following the simplified approach proposed by Abramzon & Sirignano (1989) which accounts for the varying relative velocity between the droplet and the drying gas. After shell formation, the diffusion of the solvents across the porous shell starkly modifies the evaporative dynamics.
Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina
In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis.
Kommavarapu, Pavan; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Koya, Ravi Teja
The aim of the current exertion was to prepare Solid Dispersion of Etravirine by Spray drying technique to enhance aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. Solid dispersions (SD) of Etravirine were prepared using Copovidone and Povidone-Copovidone in dichloromethane and physical properties were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffractometry (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). SD's were evaluated for equilibrium solubility and in vitro drug release profile by dissolution testing. The diffraction and thermal patterns of solid dispersions indicated the conversion of crystalline Etravirine to amorphous form. The solubility of drug in SD's was appreciably more when evaluated against physical mixtures and intact Etravirine. Drug release characteristics were evaluated in three different media at different pH and found that drug release kinetic was best described by weibull mathematical model. Mean dissolution time (MDT) and Dissolution efficiency (DE %) in different media were evaluated for SDs. Statistical evaluation of dissolution data using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) single factor and t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means was applied for better understanding and evaluation.
Stefanescu, Eduard A; Stefanescu, Cristina; Negulescu, Ioan I
The aim of this contribution is to determine the relationship existent between the chemistry and/or viscosity of some biodegradable polymer solutions and the morphology of micro- and nanospheres resulted after spray drying the solutions at room conditions either in the presence or in the absence of an encapsulated aqueous material. Using dichloromethane as solvent, the following polyesters were used to prepare 2 wt% solutions: polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), polylactic acid (PLA), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Eastar Bio GP (GP). A comprehensive thermal characterization was also performed on all polymers to verify the relationships existent between the structure of polyesters and certain important parameters, such as T(g), T(m), T(d). It was observed that a decrease in the solution viscosity triggers the formation of smoother microspheres. When the viscosity becomes low enough the sprayed solution can lead to the development of well defined nanospheres instead of microspheres. Additionally, it was found that in the presence of an aqueous core the micro- and/or nanocapsules coalesce into larger micrometric aggregates, due to the plasticizing effects of water on the polyester.
Hancock; Peck; Perry; White; Hem
The moisture sorption isotherm of amorphous spray-dried aluminum hydroxycarbonate (SDAHC) at 25°C revealed that moisture sorption increased sharply when the relative humidity exceeded 80%. The physical and chemical stability of SDAHC was studied for 1 year at 25°C and 0, 11, 54, 84, or 100% RH. The results were interpreted to reveal that two mechanisms affect the properties of SDAHC at 25°C. The sample stored at 0% RH did not exhibit any significant changes during the 1-year study period. The surface area and rate of acid neutralization decreased when samples were stored at 11 or 54% RH, but the material remained amorphous. This change is believed to be due to aggregation and cementation of particles. Much larger changes in surface area and the rate of acid neutralization occurred in the samples aged at 84 or 100% RH. Under these humidity conditions, polymorphic transformations occurred in addition to aggregation and cementation. X-ray diffraction indicated that microcrystalline boehmite was an intermediate phase. The stable polymorph was bayerite, which is believed to form due to the high surface pH produced by water sorption at 84 or 100% RH. The moisture sorption isotherm was useful in identifying the humidity conditions which resulted in high moisture sorption. Polymorphic transformations were only detected when the SDAHC was aged under these humidity conditions.
Full Text Available This article presents a novel formulation for preparation of Lactobacillus casei 01 encapsulated in soy protein isolate and alginate microparticles using spray drying method. A response surface methodology was used to optimise the formulation and the central composite face-centered design was applied to study the effects of critical material attributes and process parameters on viability of the probiotic after microencapsulation and in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Spherical microparticles were produced in high yield (64 %, narrow size distribution (d50=9.7 µm, span=0.47 and favourable mucoadhesive properties, with viability of the probiotic of 11.67, 10.05, 9.47 and 9.20 log CFU/g after microencapsulation, 3 h in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions and four-month cold storage, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the probiotic stability after microencapsulation, while differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry pointed to high thermal stability of the soy protein isolate-alginate microparticles with encapsulated probiotic. These favourable properties of the probiotic microparticles make them suitable for incorporation into functional food or pharmaceutical products.
Gupta, Naresh Vishal; Natasha, Shirodker; Getyala, Anil; Bhat, Ramnath Sudeendra
The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate novel bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing clotrimazole loaded microspheres in order to provide long-term therapeutic activity at the site of infection. Tablets were prepared by incorporating drug loaded microspheres and using bioadhesive polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and Carbopol. Microspheres were prepared by the spray drying technique using Eudragit RS-100 and Eudragit RL-100. Microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, FTIR, particle size analysis and evaluated for percentage yield, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. To achieve bioadhesion to the mucosal tissue, optimized microspheres were incorporated into bioadhesive tablets and were evaluated for in vitro drug release, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion. FTIR and DSC studies showed that no chemical interaction occurred between the drug and polymers. The sphericity factor indicated that the prepared microspheres were spherical. Formulation Mt6 indicated a controlled in vitro drug release and good bioadhesive strength. The in vivo images confirmed the bioadhesion and retention property of tablets up to 24 h. The results indicated that this drug delivery system can be explored for controlled intravaginal drug release.
Full Text Available Abstract Gastroretentive floating microparticles were developed and evaluated for the controlled metronidazole delivery for treatment of gastric disease. Floating microparticles, varying in proportions of chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or ethylcellulose, were obtained by spray drying. Floating microparticles were characterized by physicochemical and in vitro studies, according to their floating ability and drug delivery. Microparticles presented mean diameter from 1.05 to 2.20 µm. The infrared spectroscopy confirmed the drug encapsulation and showed no chemical linkage between microparticles components. X-ray diffraction showed changes in the drug`s solid state, from crystalline to amorphous, indicating partial drug encapsulation, due to the presence of some crystalline peaks of metronidazole in microparticles. All microparticles floated immediately in contact of simulated gastric fluid and both floating and drug release profiles were dependent of microparticles composition. Microparticles samples constituted by chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose revealed the best relationship between floating duration and drug release, remaining floating during the occurrence of the drug release, ideal condition for the floating gastroretentive systems.
Benedito Prado Dias Filho
Full Text Available Pomegranate has attracted interest from researchers because of its chemical composition and biological properties. It possesses strong antioxidant activity, with potential health benefits, and also antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to produce microparticles containing pomegranate extract by the spray-drying technique, utilizing alginate or chitosan as encapsulating agents. Characterization and antifungal assays were carried out. Production yields were about 40% for alginate microparticles and 41% for chitosan. Mean diameters were 2.45 µm and 2.80 µm, and encapsulation efficiencies were 81.9% and 74.7% for alginate and chitosan microparticles, respectively. The spray-drying process preserved the antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These results could be useful for developing dosage forms for treating candidiasis, and should be further investigated in in vivo models.
Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad
Microencapsulation of ω-3 fatty acids by spray drying was studied using both monolayered (lecithin) and multilayered (lecithin-chitosan) fish oil emulsions with maltodextrin as wall material. Stability of the multilayered emulsions was higher than the monolayered ones, and increased...... with the highest concentration of chitosan (1 % w/w), being related with lower detection of TBARS at high storage temperatures. Overall, this study shows the suitability of microencapsulating ω-3 fatty acids by spray drying using both monolayered and multilayered fish oil emulsions with maltodextrin as wall...... material. Multilayered microcapsules prepared with lecithin-chitosan emulsions provide a great protective effect against lipid oxidation of fish oil during storage at moderate to high temperatures (30 °C and 60 °C). These multilayered microcapsules could be therefore successfully used as a fish oil...
Tshweu, Lesego; Katata, Lebogang; Kalombo, Lonji; Chiappetta, Diego A; Hocht, Christian; Sosnik, Alejandro; Swai, Hulda
To encapsulate efavirenz (EFV) within poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) and compare the oral pharmacokinetics with that of EFV-loaded micelles and pure EFV NPs. EFV-loaded PCL NPs were produced by a double-emulsion/spray-drying method. NPs displayed a hydrodynamic diameter of 200-250 nm. The encapsulation efficiency was 86-93% and the mass recovery was above 60%. X-ray diffraction indicated that drug and PCL underwent amorphization during the spray-drying process. Encapsulation within NPs significantly increased the maximum concentration in plasma and the bioavailability. EFV-loaded PCL NPs represent a promising platform to develop scalable pharmaceuticals with improved (bio)pharmaceutic performance. Original submitted 2 May 2013; Revised submitted 4 September 2013.
Full Text Available An efficient, industry-accepted spray drying method was used to synthesize micro-spherical sulfur/graphene oxide (S/GO composites as cathode materials within lithium sulfur batteries. The as-designed wrapping of the sulfur-nanoparticles, with wrinkled GO composites, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The unique morphological design of this material enabled superior discharge capacity and cycling performance, demonstrating a high initial discharge capacity of 1400 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C. The discharge capacity remained at 828 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance indicates that the S/GO composite improves electrical conductivity and alleviates the shuttle effect. This study represents the first time such a facile spray drying method has been adopted for lithium sulfur batteries and used in the fabrication of S/GO composites.
Ha, Eun-Sol; Baek, In-hwan; Cho, Wonkyung; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Kim, Min-Soo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Soluplus® on the solubility of atorvastatin calcium and to develop a solid dispersion formulation that can improve the oral bioavailability of atorvastatin calcium. We demonstrated that Soluplus® increases the aqueous solubility of atorvastatin calcium. Several solid dispersion formulations of atorvastatin calcium with Soluplus® were prepared at various drug : carrier ratios by spray drying. Physicochemical analysis demonstrated that atorvastatin calcium is amorphous in each solid dispersion, and the 2 : 8 drug : carrier ratio provided the highest degree of sustained atorvastatin supersaturation. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats revealed that the 2 : 8 dispersion significantly improved the oral bioavailability of atorvastatin. This study demonstrates that spray-dried Soluplus® solid dispersions can be an effective method for achieving higher atorvastatin plasma levels.
Wan, Feng; Bohr, Adam; Maltesen, Morten Jonas
) microparticles prepared by spray-drying. METHODS: Binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at different molar ratios were applied to dissolve celecoxib and PLGA prior to spray-drying. The resulting microparticles were characterized with respect to morphology, texture, surface chemistry, solid state properties...... and drug release profile. The evaporation profiles of the feed solutions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). RESULTS: Spherical PLGA microparticles were obtained, irrespectively of the solvent composition. The particle size and surface chemistry were highly dependent on the solvent...... power of the feed solution. An obvious burst release was observed for the microparticles prepared by the feed solutions with the highest amount of poor solvent for PLGA. TGA analysis revealed distinct drying kinetics for the binary mixtures. CONCLUSIONS: The particle formation process is mainly governed...
Judith Elena Camacho Kurmen
Full Text Available A Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus NPV003 with high potential for the development of an efficient biopesticide was microencapsulated by spray drying with a pH dependent polymer (Eudragit® S100. Conditions for microparticles production were standardized and microencapsulation process was validated. Physical properties, insecticide activity and photo-stability of microencapsulated virus were determined. The microparticles were spherical and irregular shaped, with sizes between 17.64 and 19.47 µm. Moisture content was 10.38 ± 0.87%; encapsulation efficiency 84.61± 13.09% and process yield was 91.20 ± 6.40%. Microencapsulation process did not affect viral insecticidal activity and provided efficient protection against UVB radiation. Results demonstrated technological feasibility of spray drying process to be used in formulating a biopesticide based on NPV003.
R. C. R. Beck
Full Text Available This paper was devoted to studying the influence of coating material (nanocapsules or nanospheres, drug model (diclofenac, acid or salt and method of preparation on the morphological characteristics of nanoparticle-coated microparticles. The cores of microparticles were obtained by spray drying or evaporation and the coating was applied by spray drying. SEM analyses showed nanostructures coating the surface of nanocapsule-coated microparticles and a rugged surface for nanosphere-coated microparticles. The decrease in their surface areas was controlled by the nanoparticulated system, which was not dependent on microparticle size. Optical microscopy and X-ray analyses indicated that acid diclofenac crystals were present in formulations prepared with the acid as well as in the nanocapsule-coated microparticles prepared with the salt. The control of coating is dependent on the use of nanocapsules or nanospheres and independent of either the characteristics of the drug or the method of preparing the core.
Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Henrik Stillhof; Søgaard, Susanne Roslev
construct a more robust design space according to Quality by Design (QbD) formulation development principles. In the current study we present a case study on the development of spray dried microparticles comprising nicotine bitartrate and hypromellose or alginate polymer, for incorporation into medicated...... chewing gum. By illustration of initial studies on single droplet drying kinetics, subsequent characterization of microparticles, and final characterization of compressed chewing gum this paper summarizes the entire development process....
Jørgensen, Kåre; Jensen, Anker; Sloth, Jakob
In the study by Liang et al. [2001. Analysis of constant rate period of spray drying of slurry. Chemical Engineering Science 56, 2205-2213] the Darcy flow of liquid through a pore system of primary particles to the surface of a slurry droplet was applied for the constant rate period. Steep primary...... by Liang et al. is unable to predict the formation of hollow particles. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Jørgensen, Kåre; Jensen, Anker Degn; Sloth, Jakob
In the study by Liang et al. [2001. Analysis of constant rate period of spray drying of slurry. Chemical Engineering Science 56, 2205-2213] the Darcy flow of liquid through a pore system of primary particles to the surface of a slurry droplet was applied for the constant rate period. Steep primary...... by Liang et al. is unable to predict the formation of hollow particles....
Chen, Jie; Ormes, James D; Higgins, John D; Taylor, Lynne S
Amorphous solid dispersions are frequently prepared by spray drying. It is important that the resultant spray dried particles do not crystallize during formulation, storage, and upon administration. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the impact of surfactants on the crystallization of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersions (ASD), suspended in aqueous media. Solid dispersions of celecoxib with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate were manufactured by spray drying, and aqueous suspensions were prepared by adding the particles to acidified media containing various surfactants. Nucleation induction times were evaluated for celecoxib in the presence and absence of surfactants. The impact of the surfactants on drug and polymer leaching from the solid dispersion particles was also evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Polysorbate 80 were found to promote crystallization from the ASD suspensions, while other surfactants including sodium taurocholate and Triton X100 were found to inhibit crystallization. The promotion or inhibition of crystallization was found to be related to the impact of the surfactant on the nucleation behavior of celecoxib, as well as the tendency to promote leaching of the drug from the ASD particle into the suspending medium. It was concluded that surfactant choice is critical to avoid failure of amorphous solid dispersions through crystallization of the drug.
Gonçalves, Heloísa Bressan; Jorge, João Atílio; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira; Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza
Microbial enzymes have been used for various biotechnological applications; however, enzyme stabilization remains a challenge for industries and needs to be considered. This study describes the effects of spray-drying conditions on the activity and stability of β-fructofuranosidase from Fusarium graminearum. The extracellular enzyme β-fructofuranosidase was spray dried in the presence of stabilizers, including starch (Capsul) (SC), microcrystalline cellulose (MC), trehalose (TR), lactose (LC) and β-cyclodextrin (CD). In the presence of TR (2% w/v), the enzymatic activity was fully retained. After 1 year of storage, 74% of the enzymatic activity was maintained with the CD stabilizer (10% w/v). The residual activity was maintained as high as 80% for 1 h at 70°C when MC, SC and CD (5% w/v) stabilizers were used. Spray drying with carbohydrates was effective in stabilizing the F. graminearum β-fructofuranosidase, improved enzymatic properties compared to the soluble enzyme and demonstrated a potential use in future biotechnology applications.
Berendsen, Rikkert; Güell, Carme; Ferrando, Montserrat
Spray drying of procyanidin-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions produced by premix membrane emulsification (ME) enabled to produce microcapsules containing procyanidins. The interface of the emulsion droplets prior to spray drying was stabilized with several hydrophilic emulsifiers (whey protein (WPI), WPI-carboxylmethyl cellulose, WPI-gum Arabic, and WPI-chitosan). Their effect on procyanidin encapsulation efficiency, water activity, moisture and oil content, and microcapsule size distribution was investigated. Furthermore, the microstructure and droplet size distribution of redispersed microcapsules were analyzed. Although premix ME produced W1/O/W2 emulsions with a narrow droplet size distribution regardless the hydrophilic emulsifier (main peak of droplet size distribution around 9 μm), microcapsules after spray drying and double emulsions after redispersion showed profound differences in sizes depending on the interfacial composition. WPI-CMC stabilized microcapsules not only showed the highest procyanidin content (5.3 g kg(-1)) but also gave the narrowest particle size distribution with the lowest particle size for both microcapsules and the corresponding emulsions after rehydration (7.7 and 9.9 μm respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wan, Feng; Bohr, Adam; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bjerregaard, Simon; Foged, Camilla; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi
It is imperative to understand the particle formation mechanisms when designing advanced nano/microparticulate drug delivery systems. We investigated how the solvent power and volatility influence the texture and surface chemistry of celecoxib-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles prepared by spray-drying. Binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at different molar ratios were applied to dissolve celecoxib and PLGA prior to spray-drying. The resulting microparticles were characterized with respect to morphology, texture, surface chemistry, solid state properties and drug release profile. The evaporation profiles of the feed solutions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Spherical PLGA microparticles were obtained, irrespectively of the solvent composition. The particle size and surface chemistry were highly dependent on the solvent power of the feed solution. An obvious burst release was observed for the microparticles prepared by the feed solutions with the highest amount of poor solvent for PLGA. TGA analysis revealed distinct drying kinetics for the binary mixtures. The particle formation process is mainly governed by the PLGA precipitation rate, which is solvent-dependent, and the migration rate of celecoxib molecules during drying. The texture and surface chemistry of the spray-dried PLGA microparticles can therefore be tailored by adjusting the solvent composition.
de Oliveira, Alice R; Mesquita, Philippe C; Machado, Paula R L; Farias, Kleber J S; de Almeida, Yêda M B; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F; Cornélio, Alianda M; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates T; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio A
In this study, biodegradable and biocompatible gamma irradiated poly-(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) spray-dried microparticles were prepared aiming to improve the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX). The experimental design included three formulations of microparticles containing distinct drug amount (9%, 18%, and 27% w/w) and three distinct gamma irradiation dose (15kGy, 25kGy, and 30kGy). The physicochemical and drug release properties of the microparticles supported their biocompatibility and biological efficacy studies in different cell lines. The irradiation induced slight changes in the spherical shape of the microparticles and the formation of free radicals was dependent on the drug loading. However, the amorphous character, particle size, drug loading, and drug release rate of the microparticles were preserved. The drug release data from all microparticles formulation were evaluated by using four drug kinetic models and by comparison of their similarity factor (f 2 ). The gamma irradiation did not induce changes in the biocompatibility of PLGA microparticles and in the biological activity of the MTX-loaded microparticles. Finally, the spray-dried MTX-loaded PLGA microparticles enhanced the efficacy of the drug in the human cervical cancer cells (SiHa cell line). This study demonstrated the feasibility of the gamma irradiated spray dried PLGA microparticles for prolonged release of MTX, supporting a promising antitumor-drug delivery system for parenteral (subcutaneous) or pulmonary use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.
Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)
Zuo, Jenny Y; Paterson, Anthony H; Bronlund, John E; Chatterjee, Rajesh
... to measure powder cohesion and adhesion phenomena over the last 50 years, but most of these measure the stickiness of the powder when the particles are stationary or moving only very slowly, such as the shear cell ( Jenicke, 1964 ), the blow tester ( Brooks, 2000 ; Burr, 1999 ; Paterson, Bronlund, & Brooks, 2001 ; Foster, 2002 ; Paterson, Brooks...
Kondor, Anett; Hogan, Sean A
Surface energetics of demineralised whey (DMW), skimmed milk (SMP), phosphocasein (PCN) and infant milk formula (IMF) powders were determined by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). All four milk powders were amphoteric in nature with the dispersive (apolar) component of surface energy dominating the specific (polar) contribution. PCN and IMF had the highest and lowest extent of surface heterogeneity, respectively. PCN also demonstrated the poorest functional properties of the powders examined. In contrast, IMF had excellent flow and rehydration properties. Thermodynamic work of cohesion was highest in PCN and may have contributed to inadequate rehydration behaviour. Glass transition temperature of IMF powder, determined by IGC, suggested a surface dominated by lactose. Surface heterogeneity provided a better indicator of functional behaviour than total surface energy. IGC is a useful complementary technique for chemical and structural analysis of milk powders and allows improved insight into the contribution of surface and bulk factors to functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asensio, Claudia M; Paredes, Alejandro J; Martin, Maria P; Allemandi, Daniel A; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R
Release kinetics of the volatile compounds of oregano EO microcapsules and the relation with the antioxidant activity were studied. Different wall material (WM) to core (C) ratios (1:1 and 2:1; WM:C), addition of colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD); and different storage conditions: 23 °C (room temperature; R) and 4 °C (fridge temperature; F) were evaluated for 90 d. Volatile compounds, total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were measured. The formulas 2:1 (WM:C) (R and F) without CSD behaved differently from the rest, exhibited a higher antioxidant activity, and released less amount of volatile compounds after 90 d. These treatments grouped together in the cluster analysis, showing the highest TPC (81.54 mg gallic ac/g), FRSA (8.66%), and TEAC (12.35 μg Trolox/g). The addition of CSD facilitated the released of volatile compounds through storage time and promoted losses in the antioxidant activity. The temperature had a significant effect in most of the evaluated variables. However, this effect was more noticeable in F2 (1:1, CSD). Oregano essential oil has antioxidant, antimicrobial, and sensory preserving properties. However, it is susceptible to volatilization and is degraded by external factors. Its addition into food matrices is restricted due to low solubility and hydrophobicity. The antioxidant activity of oregano EO is preserved after the process of microencapsulation by spray-drying that extends its stability during storage. Oregano EO microcapsules are an alternative of delivery which protects and extends the shelf life of this essential oil, overcomes stability related limitations and preserves its desirable characteristics allowing these kind of microcapsules to be later incorporated into food products. These microcapsules could be used as a natural additive/flavouring with antioxidant properties. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Riley, Charles E.
Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to
Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.
Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,
Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Luz; Rusli, Jenny Kartika; Shen, Zhiping; Cheng, Li Jiang; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter
Microencapsulation provides a vehicle for the incorporation of fats and oils into powders that can be used as dry ingredients in an expanded variety of food products. Microencapsulated omega-3 oils in particular are commonly incorporated into a variety of foods and numerous in vitro studies have examined the impact of individual microencapsulation technologies on the simulated digestibility of the oil core. We have exposed twelve microencapsulated canola oil-in-water emulsions, formulated with different proteins (milk or soy) or mixtures of protein and carbohydrates (sugars, oligosaccharides, resistant starch) and processed into powders by spray drying, to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro. The extent of lipolysis of the canola oil in these products varied between 12-68% suggesting that the in vitro digestibility of the oil within the powders was dependent on both the formulation and the processing steps used in their manufacture. Five microencapsulated powders with differing extents of in vitro lipolysis were then incorporated into a dairy beverage for an in vivo human trial with neat oil incorporation in the beverage used as the control. Measurement of triglyceride levels in blood revealed both enhanced peak height and area under the curve (AUC) in vivo for the microencapsulated oil groups when compared to the neat oil control. The range of lipolysis efficiencies observed with the different formulations in vitro was not reflected in vivo. These observations suggest that care needs to be taken when extrapolating data from in vitro lipolysis to bioavailability in humans.
Kelly, Grace M.
The objectives of this thesis were to (i) study the effect of increasing protein concentration in milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders on surface composition and sorption properties; (ii) examine the effect of increasing protein content on the rehydration properties of MPC; (iii) study the physicochemical properties of spraydried emulsion-containing powders having different water and oil contents; (iv) analyse the effect of protein type on water sorption and diffusivity properties in a prot...
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of grape pomace powder (GPP, mangosteen peel powder (MPP and monensin on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, microorganisms, rumen fermentation characteristic, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in dairy steers. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial body weight (BW of 220±15 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = supplementation with monensin at 33 mg/kg diet, T3 = supplementation with GPP at 2% of dry matter intake, and T4 = supplementation with MPP at 30 g/kg diet. The steers were offered the concentrate diet at 0.2% BW and 3% urea treated rice straw (UTRS was fed ad libitum. It was found that GPP supplemented group had higher UTRS intake and nutrient digestibility in terms of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber than those in control group (p<0.05. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and blood urea-nitrogen concentration were higher in monensin, GPP and MPP supplemented groups (p<0.05. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate in the GPP group were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05 while acetate concentration, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (p<0.01 when steers were supplemented with GPP, monensin, and MPP, respectively. Moreover, protozoal populations in GPP, MPP, and monensin supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05, while cellulolytic bacterial population was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05. Nitrogen retention, microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were found significantly higher in steers that received GPP (p<0.05. Based on this study it could be concluded that the GPP has potential as an alternative feed supplement in concentrate diets which can result in improved rumen fermentation efficiency, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis
Jin, Tom H.; Tsao, Eric; Goudsmit, Jaap; Dheenadhayalan, Veerabadran; Sadoff, Jerald
A powder vaccine intended for aerosol delivery was formulated by spray drying the Ad35-vectored tuberculosis (TB) AERAS-402 vaccine with mannitol-based stabilizers. Thermodynamic properties, water absorption, particle size distribution and morphology of the powders were evaluated. Virus survival
Zijlstra, G.S.; Brandsma, C.; Harpe, M.F.H.; Van Dam, G.M.; Slebos, D.J.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, H.W.
The purpose of this study was to formulate hemin as a powder for inhalation and to show proof of concept of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the lungs of mice by inhalation of hemin. Hemin was spray dried from a neutralized sodium hydroxide solution. The particle size distribution of the powder
Frugé, E D; Roux, M L; Lirette, R D; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L; Crenshaw, J D
Seventy-two primiparous and multiparous sows (36 per dietary treatment) farrowed in 4 groups were used to evaluate the effects of spray-dried plasma protein (SDP) on sow and litter performance during lactation. Dietary lactation treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control and a corn-soybean meal diet containing 0.5% SDP. Both diets were formulated to contain 1.0% total Lys and 3.46 Mcal/kg of ME and were fed from d 107 +/- 1.2 of gestation to weaning. Sows were allotted to dietary treatment based on breed, parity, and the date of d 107 of gestation. Litters were standardized within diet, and pigs were weaned at an average age of 19 +/- 2.1 d. Sows were fed 3 times daily during lactation. After weaning, sows were fed a common gestation diet and checked twice daily for estrus. Sows were grouped by parity (young sows, sows, >3) for statistical analysis. The data were analyzed as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments; the factors were parity (3) and SDP (0 or 0.5%). Treatment differences were considered significant at P sows had a greater BW on d 107 of gestation, on d 1 postfarrowing, and at weaning; greater lactation ADFI; and greater litter BW after cross-fostering, but pig survival to weaning was decreased. Sows fed SDP had a greater gestation interval, litter BW at weaning, and litter ADG, with 1 less lactation day. The effect of SDP addition was dependent on sow parity, as noted by numerous SDP x parity interactions. The addition of SDP increased lactation ADFI in mature sows but decreased ADFI in young sows. Mature sows fed SDP had a greater number of pigs weaned per litter, litter and pig weaning weights, pig survival to weaning, and number of pigs weaned per litter weighing more than 3.6 kg, but the SDP diet had little to no effect on these responses in young sows. Subsequent farrowing data were collected, but no dietary treatment effects (P > 0.10) were observed. The results of this research indicate that SDP increased productivity of sows in
Denora, Nunzio; Lopedota, Angela; Perrone, Mara; Laquintana, Valentino; Iacobazzi, Rosa M; Milella, Antonella; Fanizza, Elisabetta; Depalo, Nicoletta; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Lopalco, Antonio; Franco, Massimo
This work describes N-acetylcysteine (NAC)- and glutathione (GSH)-glycol chitosan (GC) polymer conjugates engineered as potential platform useful to formulate micro-(MP) and nano-(NP) particles via spray-drying techniques. These conjugates are mucoadhesive over the range of urine pH, 5.0-7.0, which makes them advantageous for intravesical drug delivery and treatment of local bladder diseases. NAC- and GSH-GC conjugates were generated with a synthetic approach optimizing reaction times and purification in order to minimize the oxidation of thiol groups. In this way, the resulting amount of free thiol groups immobilized per gram of NAC- and GSH-GC conjugates was 6.3 and 3.6mmol, respectively. These polymers were completely characterized by molecular weight, surface sulfur content, solubility at different pH values, substitution and swelling degree. Mucoadhesion properties were evaluated in artificial urine by turbidimetric and zeta (ζ)-potential measurements demonstrating good mucoadhesion properties, in particular for NAC-GC at pH 5.0. Starting from the thiolated polymers, MP and NP were prepared using both the Büchi B-191 and Nano Büchi B-90 spray dryers, respectively. The resulting two formulations were evaluated for yield, size, oxidation of thiol groups and ex-vivo mucoadhesion. The new spray drying technique provided NP of suitable size (spray-drying techniques. The aim of this second step was to produce mucoadhesive drug delivery systems of adequate size for vesical administration by catheter, and comparable mucoadhesive properties with respect to the processed polymers, avoiding thiolic oxidation during the formulation. MP with acceptable size produced by spray-dryer Büchi B-191 were compared with NP made with the apparatus Nano Büchi B-90. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.
Homayouni, Alireza; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi
The present study deals with characterization of dispersions of a poorly water-soluble drug, celecoxib (CLX) in polyvinyl caprolactame–polyvinyl acetate–polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus® (SOL)) prepared by different techniques. Dispersions of CLX in SOL at different ratios (2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6) were prepared by spray drying, conventional solvent evaporation and melting methods. The solid states of samples were characterized using particle size measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy, XRPD, DSC and FT-IR. The Gordon-Taylor equation was used to predict the Tg of samples and the possibility of interaction between CLX and SOL. The solubility and dissolution rate of all samples were determined. Stability of samples was studied at ambient conditions for a period of 12 months. DSC and XRPD analyses confirmed amorphous state of drug in samples. Surprisingly dispersions of CLX:SOL with the ratio of 2:1 and 1:1 showed slower dissolution rate than CLX while other samples showed higher dissolution rate. At 1:2 ratio the spray dried samples exhibited higher dissolution rate than corresponding samples prepared by other methods. However at higher SOL content (1:4 and 1:6), samples prepared by different methods showed similar dissolution profiles. The stability studies showed that there were no remarkable changes in the dissolution profiles and solid state of the drug after 12 months storage at ambient conditions. It was concluded that SOL was a proper carrier to enhance the dissolution rate of CLX. At high SOL ratios the method of preparation of dispersed samples had no effect on dissolution rate, whilst at low SOL content spray drying was more efficient method. PMID:25561910
Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars
rate is 100,000 m3/h which yields a heat load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 XC. The implementation of an ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation......Spray drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 XC. The inlet flow...
Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Carbonell, Carlos; Naderi, Majid; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel
Many metal-organic frameworks are water labile, including the iconic Hong-Kong University of Science and Technology-1 (HKUST-1). Spray-dry encapsulation of HKUST-1 crystals into polystyrene microspheres is reported here to yield composites that are resistant to water but retain most of the excellent gas sorption capacity of HKUST-1. These composites are demonstrated to exhibit superior water adsorption/desorption cycling, maintaining the level of water uptake even after three cycles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Reslan, Mouhamad; Demir, Yusuf K; Trout, Bernhardt L; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kayser, Veysel
Improving the physical stability of spray-dried proteins is essential for enabling pulmonary delivery of biotherapeutics as a noninvasive alternative to injections. Recently, a novel combination of two amino acids - l-arginine (l-Arg) and l-glutamic acid (l-Glu), has been reported to have synergistic protein-stabilizing effects on various protein solutions. Using spray-dried bovine serum albumin (BSA) reconstituted in solution as a model protein, we investigated the synergistic effect of these amino acids on the physical stability of proteins. Five BSA solutions were prepared: (1) BSA with no amino acids (control); (2) with 50 mM l-Arg; (3) with 200 mM l-Arg, (4) with 50 mM l-Glu and (5) with 25:25 mM of Arg:Glu. All solutions were spray-dried and accelerated studies at high temperatures were performed. Following accelerated studies, monomer BSA loss was measured using SE-HPLC. We found that l-Arg significantly improved the physical stability of spray-dried BSA even at low concentrations, however, when combined with l-Glu, was ineffective at reducing monomer BSA loss. Our findings demonstrate the limitations in using Arg-Glu for the stabilization of spray-dried BSA. Furthermore, we found that a low concentration of l-Glu enhanced monomer BSA loss. These findings may have significant implications on the design of future biotherapeutic formulations.
A S Patel
Full Text Available The preparation of Tramadol-HCL spray-dried microspheres can be affected by the long drug recrystallization time. Polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as well as manufacturing parameters affect the preparation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possibility to obtain tramadol spray-dried microspheres using the Eudragit® RS and RL; the influence of the spray-drying parameters on morphology, dimension, and physical stability of microspheres was studied. The effects of matrix composition on microparticle properties were characterized by Laser Light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction study, FT-infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The spray-dried microparticles were evaluated in terms of shape (SEM, size distribution (Laser light scattering method, production yield, drug content, initial drug loding and encapsulation efficiency. The results of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveals the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR analysis confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The results indicated that the entrapment efficiency (EE, and product yield were depended on polymeric composition and polymeric ratios of the microspheres prepared. Tramadol microspheres based on Eudragit® blend can be prepared by spray-drying and the nebulization parameters do not influence significantly on particle properties.
Agnoletti, Monica; Bohr, Adam; Thanki, Kaushik
processing, and nanocomplexes could be reconstituted from the dry powders. The amorphous saccharide excipients trehalose and inulin provided better stabilization than crystalline mannitol, and they enabled full reconstitution of the nanocomplexes. In particular, a binary mixture of trehalose and inulin...
Avellone, Giuseppe; Salvo, Andrea; Costa, Rosaria; Saija, Emanuele; Bongiorno, David; Di Stefano, Vita; Calabrese, Giorgio; Dugo, Giacomo
The purpose of the present work was to find a correlation between microencapsulation technology applied to wines and the resulting quality of the wine itself in terms of volatile composition and phenolic profile. To this aim, samples of Nero d'Avola wines produced in Sicily (Italy) were investigated in order to: i) elucidate the aromatic composition by means of HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS; ii) assess the polyphenolic content by UHPLC mass spectrometry; iii) compare the results obtained from both the screenings with those relative to the same wines that had previously been subjected to spray-drying. The results showed a marked reductionThe results here obtained evidenced a marked reduction of odour active compounds in microencapsulated wines, after resolubilization in water/ethanol; when considering the total amount of volatiles, a twofold reduction was observed. Conversely, the qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanin-derived pigments showed no influence of the spray-drying process on these functional constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Imaz, Inhar; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Maspoch, Daniel
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are among the most attractive porous materials known today. Their miniaturization to the nanoscale—into nanoMOFs—is expected to serve myriad applications from drug delivery to membranes, to open up novel avenues to more traditional storage and catalysis applications, and to enable the creation of sophisticated superstructures. Here, we report the use of spray-drying as a versatile methodology to assemble nanoMOFs, yielding spherical hollow superstructures with diameters smaller than 5 µm. This strategy conceptually mimics the emulsions used by chemists to confine the synthesis of materials, but does not require secondary immiscible solvents or surfactants. We demonstrate that the resulting spherical, hollow superstructures can be processed into stable colloids, whose disassembly by sonication affords discrete, homogeneous nanoMOFs. This spray-drying strategy enables the construction of multicomponent MOF superstructures, and the encapsulation of guest species within these superstructures. We anticipate that this will provide new routes to capsules, reactors and composite materials.
Rizi, Khalida; Green, Rebecca J; Donaldson, Michael; Williams, Adrian C
During spray drying, emphasis is placed on process optimisation to generate favourable particle morphological and flow properties. The effect of the initial feed solution composition on the drug release from the prepared microparticles (MPs) is rarely considered. We investigated the effects of solvent composition, feed solution concentration and drug-loading on sodium salicylate, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone release from spray-dried Eudragit L100 MPs. Eudragit L100 is a pH-responsive polymer whose dissolution threshold is pH 6 so dissolution testing of the prepared MPs at pH 5 and 1.2 illustrated non-polymer controlled burst release. Increasing the water content of the initial ethanolic feed solution significantly reduced hydrocortisone burst release at pH 5, as did reducing the feed solution concentration. These findings caution that changes in feed solution concentration or solvent composition not only affect particles' morphological characteristics but can also negatively alter their drug release properties. This work also illustrate that drug-free MPs can have different morphological properties to drug-loaded MPs. Therefore, process optimisation needs to be carried out using drug-loaded systems. Depending on the physicochemical properties of the encapsulated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), drug-loading can affect the polymer solubility in the initial feed solution with consequent impact on MPs morphological and release properties. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Hou, Yanxian; Shao, Jingbo; Fu, Qiang; Li, Jingru; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui
For a highly hydrophobic and drug, it is difficult to formulate and solidify its nanocrystals with high drug loading and good redispersity. In this study, Allisartan Isoproxil was used as a model drug, and SDS was tested in combination with sugar alcohols to improve the drug loading and redispersity for its spray-dried nanocrystals, simultaneously. These spray-dried nanocrystals had high drug loading of 61.7% and good redispersity, which was mainly attributed to the addition of SDS. In addition, the nanocrystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray power diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that Allisartan Isoproxil was unchanged in chemical structure, but was partially amorphous. Regarding the in vitro dissolution, the optimism formulation shown an increased dissolution compared with the bulk drug and aggregated nanocrystals. Importantly, the optimum formulation increased the oral bioavailability of crude ALS-3 for 4.73 times. In conclusion, we developed a method to solidify aqueous nanocrystals with increased drug loading, good redispersity and improved bioavailability for high hydrophobic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Y; Chen, D W; Yu, B; He, J; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Wang, J X; Luo, J Q; Huang, Z Q; Cheng, G X; Zheng, P
One hundred forty-four 25-d-old weaning piglets with BW of 6.43 ± 0.39 kg were used in a 28-d trail to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of spray-dried chicken plasma (SDCP) as a replacement for spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, small intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and microflora. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) CON (control; a basal diet), 2) SDPP (containing 5% SDPP), 3) SDPP + SDCP (containing 2.5% SDPP and 2.5% SDCP), and 4) SDCP (containing 5% SDCP). Six pigs from each treatment were randomly selected to collect serum and intestinal samples. Compared with the CON group, both the SDPP and the SDPP + SDCP groups improved final BW of pigs (P digestibility (ATTD) of CP, ether extract, Ca, and ash and less (P digestive enzymes activities, enhancing ATTD of nutrients, and decreasing diarrhea incidence.
Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi
We prepared sustained-release microcapsules using a three-fluid nozzle (3N) spray drying technique. The 3N has a unique, three-layered concentric structure composed of inner and outer liquid nozzles, and an outermost gas nozzle. Composite particles were prepared by spraying a drug suspension and an ethylcellulose solution via the inner and outer nozzles, respectively, and mixed at the nozzle tip (3N-PostMix). 3N-PostMix particles exhibited a corrugated surface and similar contact angles as ethylcellulose bulk, thus suggesting encapsulation with ethylcellulose, resulting in the achievement of sustained release. To investigate the microencapsulation process via this approach and its usability, methods through which the suspension and solution were sprayed separately via two of the four-fluid nozzle (4N) (4N-PostMix) and a mixture of the suspension and solution was sprayed via 3N (3N-PreMix) were used as references. It was found that 3N can obtain smaller particles than 4N. The results for contact angle and drug release corresponded, thus suggesting that 3N-PostMix particles are more effectively coated by ethylcellulose, and can achieve higher-level controlled release than 4N-PostMix particles, while 3N-PreMix particles are not encapsulated with pure ethylcellulose, leading to rapid release. This study demonstrated that the 3N spray drying technique is useful as a novel microencapsulation method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wataha, K; Menge, T; Deng, X; Shah, A; Bode, A; Holcomb, J B; Potter, D; Kozar, R; Spinella, P C; Pati, S
After major traumatic injury, patients often require multiple transfusions of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to correct coagulopathy and to reduce bleeding. A spray-dried plasma (SDP) product has several logistical benefits over FFP use in trauma patients with coagulopathy. These benefits include ease of transport, stability at room temperature, and rapid reconstitution for infusion. Our past work suggests that FFP promotes endothelial stability by inhibiting endothelial permeability. The main goal of this project is to determine if solvent-detergent-treated SDP is equivalent to FFP in inhibiting vascular endothelial cell (EC) permeability and inflammation in vitro. Furthermore, this study aimed to determine if solvent-detergent treatment and spray drying of plasma alters the protective effects of FFP on EC function. The five groups tested in our studies are the following: 1) fresh frozen-thawed plasma (FFP); 2) solvent-detergent-treated FFP; 3) solvent-detergent-treated SDP; 4) lactated Ringer's solution; and 5) Hextend. This study demonstrates that in vitro SDP and FFP equivalently inhibit vascular EC permeability, EC adherens junction breakdown, and endothelial white blood cell binding, an effect that is independent of changes in Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1, or E-selectin expression on ECs. Solvent-detergent treatment of FFP does not alter the protective effects of FFP on endothelial cell function in vitro. These data suggest the equivalence of FFP and SDP on modulation of endothelial function and inflammation in vitro. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Full Text Available In our previous work we described the preparation and characterization of spray dried hydroxyapatite micro granules loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. These loaded particles are used as a model drug delivery system (DDS. In this study we examined the in vitro response of two cell lines derived from different tissues to 5-FU loaded granules (LG. Both cell lines, either L929 cells of a mouse fibroblast lineage or cells originating from a rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8 showed a dose dependent decrease in cell proliferation in response to 5-FU-, either dissolved in the culture medium or loaded onto particles. The response of the two cell lines to loaded and nonloaded particles was different. The effect of LG and of a corresponding concentration of free 5-FU was practically the same for the ROS 17/2.8 cells indicating that ROS 17/2.8 cells were not affected by the carrier material. In contrast, L929 cells showed a slight decrease in cell proliferation also in the presence of granules not loaded with 5-FU. This is thought to be attributed to the inhibition of mitogenesis by phosphocitrates, already demonstrated in fibroblasts. In summary, we found that the loaded 5-FU kept its effectivity after the spray drying process and that the response towards the granules varied with cell type. This is the first step towards a tissue specific DDS.
Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Kang, Sungchhang
Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian × 50 % Thai native), 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight (4 years old) and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source fed ad libitum, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate-to-milk-yield ratio at 1:2. A quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to determine the population densities of ruminal microorganisms. The results revealed that supplementation of MSP did not affect on Fibrobactor succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus (P > 0.05). However, total bacteria was linearly increased (P methane production from 27.5 to 23.7 mmol/100 ml(3). Furthermore, cows that received MSP at 300 g/head/day had the highest microbial crude protein and efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis (416.8 g/day and 16.2 g/kg organic matter truly digested in the rumen (OMDR), respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of MSP at 300 g/head/day with YEFECAP as a protein source in the concentrate mixture revealed an enhancement of rumen fermentation and methane reduction in lactating dairy cows.
Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Borsato, Débora Maria [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Almeida, Martinha Antunes [Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Zawadzki, Sônia Faria [Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Kanunfre, Carla Cristine [Postgraduate Program in Biomedical Science, Department of General Biology, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Farago, Paulo Vitor, E-mail: email@example.com [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil)
This paper aimed to obtain new spray-dried microparticles containing ferulic acid (FA) prepared by using a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit® L100). Microparticles were intended for oral use in order to provide a controlled release, and improved in vitro and in vivo biological effects. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were obtained by spray-drying. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cell-based effects, and in vivo platelet aggregation were investigated. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were successfully prepared by spray-drying. Formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency, i.e. close to 100%. Microparticles were of spherical and almost-spherical shape with a smooth surface and a mean diameter between 2 and 3 μm. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between FA and polymer. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. FA-loaded microparticles showed a slower dissolution rate than pure drug. The chosen formulation demonstrated higher in vitro cytoprotection, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential and also improved in vivo anti-platelet effect. These results support an experimental basis for the use of FA spray-dried microparticles as a feasible oral drug delivery carrier for the controlled release of FA and improved cytoprotective and anti-platelet effects. - Highlights: • Ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles with high drug-loading were obtained. • Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid showed improved in vitro cytoprotective effect. • Ferulic acid spray-dried microparticles had potential as in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. • In vivo studies demonstrated an enhanced antiplatelet effect for ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles.
Sibum, I.; Grasmeijer, F.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H. W.
The aim of this study was to develop a dry powder isoniazid formulation with no or a limited amount of excipients for pulmonary administration. Milled isoniazid showed an excellent particle size distribution for inhalation, however dispersion was poor. In 78% of the dispersion measurements the
Full Text Available Due to the widely supported theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE spread in cattle by contaminated animal feeds, screening of feed products has become essential. For many years, manufacturers have used blood and plasma proteins as high quality ingredients of foods for both pets and farm animals. However, in Europe, the Commission Regulation 1234/2003/EC temporally bans the use of processed animal proteins, including blood-derivative products, in feedstuffs for all farm animals which are fattened or bred for the production of food. This regulation has some exceptions, such as the use of non ruminant blood products into the feed of farm fish. Authorization of the re-introduction of these proteins into animal feed formulations, especially non ruminant proteins into the feed for non ruminant farm animals, is expected when adequate control methods to discriminate ruminant proteins exist. Currently, the number of validated methods to differentiate the species of origin for most of the animal by-products is limited. Here we report the development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay, which allows detection of bovine or porcine specific mitochondrial DNAfrom spray-dried blood derivate products (plasma, whole blood and red cells, as a marker for bovine contamination in porcine products. Sample extracts, suitable for PCR, were easily and quickly obtained with the commercial PrepManTM Ultra reagent (Applied Biosystems. To confirm the porcine origin of the samples, primers targeting a specific region of 134 bp of the porcine cytochrome b coding sequence were designed (cytbporc1-F and cytbporc2-R. Previously published PCR primers (L8129 and H8357, specific for a 271 bp fragment of the bovine mitochondrial ATPase 8-ATPase 6 genes, were chosen to accomplish amplification of bovine DNA. The limit of detection (LOD of the bovine PCR assay was at least of 0.05% (v/v of bovine inclusion in spray-dried porcine plasma or red
Utilização de levedura spray dried na alimentação de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. Spray-dried yeast utilization in reverted Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings diet
Claudemir Martins Soares
Full Text Available Objetivando estudar o efeito da levedura spray-dried no desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo revertidos sexualmente, foram utilizados 175 alevinos com peso inicial de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em aquários de 50L num delineamento totalmente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, onde a unidade experimental foi um aquário com sete peixes. Para determinar o consumo alimentar utilizaram-se 100 alevinos com 7,04 ± 0,84g, distribuídos num mesmo delineamento experimental mas com quatro repetições. As rações utilizadas foram isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas, com níveis crescentes de levedura (0,0%; 1,5%; 3,0%; 4,5% e 6,0%. Houve um aumento linear (P 0,05. Concluiu-se que o nível de 6,0% de levedura na ração proporcionou melhor desempenho em alevinos de tilápia do NiloAiming to evaluate spray-dried yeast on the performance of reverted Nile tilapia fingerlings, 175 fingerlings, with 0.72 ± 0.18 g, distributed in complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates, in a 50 L aquarium with 7 fingerlings, were used as the experimental unit. The consumption used 100 fingerlings, with 7.2 ± 0.84g, distributed in complete equal design with 4 replicates in an aquarium with 5 fries, was the experimental unit. Isoprotein and isoenergetics with growing levels of yeast (0.0%, 1.5%, 3.0% 4.5% and 6.0% diets was used. A linear growth (P 0.05. The best performance of reverted Nile tilapia fingerlings was provided by diet with 6.0% yeast ration level
Simon, Alice; Amaro, Maria Inês; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Healy, Anne Marie; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira
The purpose of this study was to prepare engineered particles of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate (RHT) and to characterize the physicochemical and aerodynamic properties, in comparison to a lactose carrier formulation (LCF). Microparticles were prepared from ethanol/water solutions containing RHT with and without the incorporation of L-leucine (Leu), using a spray dryer. Dry powder inhaler formulations prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction particle sizing, ATR-FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, bulk and tapped density, dynamic vapour sorption and in vitro aerosol deposition behaviour using a next generation impactor. The smooth-surfaced spherical morphology of the spray dried microparticles was altered by adding Leu, resulting in particles becoming increasingly wrinkled with increasing Leu. Powders presented low densities. The glass transition temperature was sufficiently high (>90 °C) to suggest good stability at room temperature. As Leu content increased, spray dried powders presented lower residual solvent content, lower particle size, higher fine particle fraction (FPFMMAD). The LCF showed a lower FPF and higher MMAD, relative to the spray dried formulations containing more than 10% Leu. Spray dried RHT powders presented better aerodynamic properties, constituting a potential drug delivery system for oral inhalation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Spicer, Patrick T.; Small, William B.; Small, William B.; Lynch, Matthew L.; Burns, Janet L.
Cubosomes are dispersed nanostructured particles of cubic phase liquid crystal that have stimulated significant research interest because of their potential for application in controlled-release and drug delivery. Despite the interest, cubosomes can be difficult to fabricate and stabilize with current methods. Most of the current work is limited to liquid phase processes involving high shear dispersion of bulk cubic liquid crystalline material into sub-micron particles, limiting application flexibility. In this work, two types of dry powder cubosome precursors are produced by spray-drying: (1) starch-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying a dispersion of cubic liquid crystalline particles in an aqueous starch solution and (2) dextran-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying an emulsion formed by the ethanol-dextran-monoolein-water system. The encapsulants are used to decrease powder cohesion during drying and to act as a soluble colloidal stabilizer upon hydration of the powders. Both powders are shown to form (on average) 0.6 μm colloidally-stable cubosomes upon addition to water. However, the starch powders have a broader particle size distribution than the dextran powders because of the relative ease of spraying emulsions versus dispersions. The developed processes enable the production of nanostructured cubosomes by end-users rather than just specialized researchers and allow tailoring of the surface state of the cubosomes for broader application.
Full Text Available Alginate microspheres with metformin hydrochloride were prepared by the spray drying method in order to improve residence time of drug in the stomach. Nine formulations (F1–F9 with various drug : polymer ratio (1 : 2, 1 : 1, and 2 : 1 and different sodium alginate concentration (1%, 2%, and 3% were evaluated for size, morphology, drug loading, Zeta potential, and swelling degree. In vitro drug release, mathematical release profile, and physical state of microspheres were also evaluated. Optimal formulation characterized by the highest drug loading was formulation F6 (drug : polymer ratio 2 : 1 and 2% alginate solution. Based on glucose uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and α-amylase inhibition tests, it could be concluded that alginate microspheres enhance hypoglycemic activity of metformin hydrochloride evaluated in vitro. Designed microspheres are promising as alternative, multicompartment dosage form for metformin hydrochloride delivery.
Patil-Gadhe, Arpana; Pokharkar, Varsha
Quality by Design (QbD) is a systematic approach to develop drug products which includes evaluation of formulation parameters to achieve defined final product quality. In the present study principles of QbD were extended to the preparation, in-vitro and in-vivo performance of rifapentine-loaded proliposomes for pulmonary inhalation where final product needs to comply with specific properties. The rifapentine-loaded proliposomes for the treatment of tuberculosis were prepared in single step by spray drying method and independent variables were optimized using factorial design approach. Contour plots and multiple regression analysis were used to study the effect of selected independent variables on dependent variables. The effect of presence of drug: hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and type of charged lipid in the formulation at three levels were studied on mass median diameter (MMD), liposomal vesicle size, % encapsulation efficiency (% EE), mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction (FPF) as critical quality attributes. Optimized formulation (R-LDPI-7) with drug: HSPC ratio of 1:2 and stearyl amine as charged lipid were found to give respirable proliposomes with MMAD of 1.56 ± 0.16 μm and FPF of 92.5 ± 1.5%. Sustained drug release with Higuchi diffusion kinetics was achieved from liposomally encapsulated rifapentine. Pulmonary pharmacokinetics of optimized batch R-LDPI-7 revealed longer retention of drug in lungs with 7 fold increase in both, the mean residence time and t1/2 as compared to R-DPI-0. The study results demonstrated the application of QbD principles and design of experiment (DOE) approach to develop drug encapsulated proliposomes for inhalation by spray drying in single step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Orestes Darío López Hernández
Full Text Available La industria farmacéutica moderna busca constantemente tecnologías para la obtención de transportadores de diferentes fármacos como citostáticos, antiinflamatorios, péptidos y hormonas, entre otros, que impliquen una reducción de su toxicidad y una liberación sostenida o controlada para lograr el efecto terapéutico con una sola dosis. Dentro de estas tecnologías se destaca el empleo de microesferas biodegradables de ácidos polilácticos como sistemas poliméricos matriciales de liberación controlada. En el presente trabajo se exponen aspectos relevantes relacionados con la tecnología de obtención de microesferas mediante secado por aspersión conocido también como Spray drying, el cual tiene como ventajas una alta eficiencia de encapsulación además de ser un método rápido, continuo, relativamente sencillo con respecto a otros existentes, y principalmente brinda la posibilidad de ser escalado hasta nivel de producción.The modern pharmaceutical Industry search constantly technologies for obtaining drugs targeting as antineoplasics, peptides and hormones, among other that imply a toxicity reduction, and sustained or controlled release to achieve the therapeutic effect with a single dose. These technologies employment of biodegradable microspheres of polylactic acids as matricial polymeric systems for controlled release. This work related aspects with the technology of microspheres obtaining by Spray drying which has as advantages, a high encapsulation efficiency, continuous method, relatively simple it offers the possibility of being scale up until production level.