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Sample records for spray characterization tests

  1. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  2. Development of test systems for characterizing emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...

  3. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  4. Development & characterization of alumina coating by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jobin; Scaria, Abyson; Kurian, Don George

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on metals to prevent them from oxidation and corrosion at room as well as elevated temperatures. The service environment, mechanisms of protection, chemical and mechanical compatibility, application method, control of coating quality and ability of the coating to be repaired are the factors that need to be considered while selecting the required coating. The coatings based on oxide materials provides high degree of thermal insulation and protection against oxidation at high temperatures for the underlying substrate materials. These coatings are usually applied by the flame or plasma spraying methods. The surface cleanliness needs to be ensured before spraying. Abrasive blasting can be used to provide the required surface roughness for good adhesion between the substrate and the coating. A pre bond coat like Nickel Chromium can be applied on to the substrate material before spraying the oxide coating to avoid chances of poor adhesion between the oxide coating and the metallic substrate. Plasma spraying produces oxide coatings of greater density, higher hardness, and smooth surface finish than that of the flame spraying process Inert gas is often used for generation of plasma gas so as to avoid the oxidation of the substrate material. The work focuses to develop, characterize and optimize the parameters used in Al2O3 coating on transition stainless steel substrate material for minimizing the wear rate and maximizing the leak tightness using plasma spray process. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The parameters that are to be optimized are plasma voltage, spraying distance and the cooling jet pressure. The characterization techniques includes micro-hardness and porosity tests followed by Grey relational analysis of the results.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  6. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.

    1998-01-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  7. Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

    1997-10-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface

  8. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  9. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  10. Spray Drift Reduction Evaluations of Spray Nozzles Using a Standardized Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 14-02, ASTM...Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Non- imaging Light-Scattering Instruments 22. AGDISP Model

  11. Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized. Methods and tools for controlling the spray process are presented as well as their use in optimizing the coating process. It will be shown how the differences from the starting powder to the final coating formation affect the coating microstructure and performance. Typical properties of HVOF sprayed coatings and coating performance is described. Also development of testing methods used for the evaluation of coating properties and current status of standardization is presented. Short discussion of typical applications is done.

  12. Characterization of the full cone pressure swirl spray nozzles for the nuclear reactor containment spray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Manish [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); John, Benny [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Prabhu, S.V., E-mail: svprabhu@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Full cone spray pressure swirl nozzle with X-Vane is studied. • Laser illuminated imaging technique is used. • Correlations for coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle and SMD are suggested. • Droplet size and mass fraction distribution is measured. • Inviscid theory predicts the coefficient of discharge. - Abstract: The objective of the present study is to characterize a full cone pressure swirl nozzle for the Containment Spray System (CSS) of Indian Pressurized heavy Water reactors (IPHWR). The influence of Reynolds number and geometric parameters on the coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle, mass flux density distribution, droplet size distribution, Sauter mean diameter (SMD is studied for full cone pressure swirl full cone nozzles. The nozzles of orifice diameter range from 1.3 to 7.2 mm are studied. Experiments are conducted with water at room temperature as the working medium. The nozzles are operated with the pressure ranging from 1 to 8 bar. The measurements of the drop size distributions are performed with laser illuminated imaging technique. The spray cone-angle of the full cone nozzles is measured by the evaluation of images recorded with a camera using IMAGE J software. Correlations for coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle and Sauter mean diameter are suggested on the basis of the experimental results. Rosin–Rammler model and Nukiyama–Tanasawa distributions predict the mass fraction distribution reasonably well. However, the droplet size distribution is predicted by Nukiyama-Tanasawa model only.

  13. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: comparison of heat and mass transfer modelling with the TOSQAN spray tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Lemaitre, P.; Porcheron, E.; Vendel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and water steam wall condensation. In order to mitigate the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, spray systems are used in the containment. The TOSQAN programme has been created to simulate separate-effect tests representative of typical accidental thermal-hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work concerns the interaction of a water spray, used at the top of the containment in order to reduce the steam partial pressure, with air-steam mixtures. The main phenomena occurring when water spray is used are the mixing induced by spray entrainment and the condensation on droplets. In order to improve the latter phenomena, different levels of modelling can be used. The objective of this paper is to analyze experimental results obtained for water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures using different heat and mass transfer modelling. For this purpose, two modelling issues have been used: the first one is devoted for the determination of the gas thermodynamical properties, and the second one concerns the droplets characterization. In the first one, the gas thermodynamical analysis is performed using depressurization, gas temperature variation and humidity decrease during the spray injection. In this modelling, heat and mass transfer between the spray and the surrounding gas is treated in a global way by energy balance between the total amount of water and the gas. In the second one, droplets characterization is obtained by means of droplet size, temperature and velocities evolutions. In this modelling, the spray is considered as a single droplet falling with an initial velocity. Droplet interactions are neglected. Assessment of these two modelling is performed

  14. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 °C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization.

  15. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D. [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization. (author)

  16. Characterization of spray dried bioadhesive metformin microparticles for oromucosal administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Madsen, Katrine Dragsbæk; Hyrup, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact between the drug and the oral mucosa. In this study, bioadhesive chitosan-based microparticles of metformin hydrochloride were prepared by spray drying aqueous dispersions with different chitosan:metformin ratios...... be prepared and analyzed using the ex vivo retention model. We observed an increase in metformin retention on porcine mucosa with increasing chitosan:metformin ratios, while no effect of increasing the chitosan molecular weight was found. Rheological characterization of feeds for spray drying was performed...... and chitosan grades with increasing molecular weights. A recently developed ex vivo flow retention model with porcine buccal mucosa was used to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of spray dried microparticles. An important outcome of this study was that microparticles with the desired metformin content could...

  17. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da; Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  18. Standard practice for modified salt spray (fog) testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and sets forth conditions for five modifications in salt spray (fog) testing for specification purposes. These are in chronological order of their development: 1.1.1 Annex A1, acetic acid-salt spray test, continuous. 1.1.2 Annex A2, cyclic acidified salt spray test. 1.1.3 Annex A3, seawater acidified test, cyclic (SWAAT). 1.1.4 Annex A4, SO2 salt spray test, cyclic. 1.1.5 Annex A5, dilute electrolyte cyclic fog dry test. 1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of modification, test specimen or exposure periods to be used for a specific product, nor the interpretation to be given to the results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabilit...

  19. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  20. Testing of Flame Sprayed Al2O3 Matrix Coatings Containing TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czupryński A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the properties of flame sprayed ceramic coatings using oxide ceramic materials coating of a powdered aluminium oxide (Al2O3 matrix with 3% titanium oxide (TiO2 applied to unalloyed S235JR grade structural steel. A primer consisting of a metallic Ni-Al-Mo based powder has been applied to plates with dimensions of 5×200×300 mm and front surfaces of Ø40×50 mm cylinders. Flame spraying of primer coating was made using a RotoTec 80 torch, and an external coating was made with a CastoDyn DS 8000 torch. Evaluation of the coating properties was conducted using metallographic testing, phase composition research, measurement of microhardness, substrate coating adhesion (acc. to EN 582:1996 standard, erosion wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G76-95 standard, and abrasive wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G65 standard and thermal impact. The testing performed has demonstrated that flame spraying with 97% Al2O3 powder containing 3% TiO2 performed in a range of parameters allows for obtaining high-quality ceramic coatings with thickness up to ca. 500 µm on a steel base. Spray coating possesses a structure consisting mainly of aluminium oxide and a small amount of NiAl10O16 and NiAl32O49 phases. The bonding primer coat sprayed with the Ni-Al-Mo powder to the steel substrate and external coating sprayed with the 97% Al2O3 powder with 3% TiO2 addition demonstrates mechanical bonding characteristics. The coating is characterized by a high adhesion to the base amounting to 6.5 MPa. Average hardness of the external coating is ca. 780 HV. The obtained coatings are characterized by high erosion and abrasive wear resistance and the resistance to effects of cyclic thermal shock.

  1. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  2. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  3. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  4. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  5. Spray drying test of simulated borated waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Zhou Lianquan; Fan Zhiwen; Sun Qi; Lin Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    Performance and the effecting factors of spray drying of simulated borated waste solutions is studied for three contaeting methods between the atomized beads and the heated air, in which boron concentration is around 21000 ppm. The contacting modes are centrifugal atomizing co-current flow, pneumatic atomizing co-current flow and mixed flow. The results show that a free-flowing product in all these tests when the temperature of the solutions is between 62 degree C and 64 degree C, the inlet temperature of the spray drying chamber is between 210 degree C and 220 degree C, the temperature of the outlet of the spray drying chamber is between 110 and 120 degree C, the flow rate of the pressure air is 8.0 m 3 /h, the rotational speed of the centrifugal atomizer is 73.0 m/s. The diameters of the powder product which account for 95% of the feed range from 0.356 mm to 0.061 mm. The production capacity and water content in the powder increase in the order of pneumatic atomizing co-current flow, mixed flow and centrifugal atomizing co-current flow. The volume reduction coeffecient of spray drying is in the ranged of 0.22 and 0.27. (authors)

  6. Further Evaluation of Spray Characterization of Sprayers Typically Used in Vector Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    E1260. Standard test method for determining liquid drop size characteristics in a spray using optical nonimaging light-scattering instru- ments...The time that the spray cloud was directed through the optical path of the laser varied between sprayers depending on the width of the spray plume

  7. Characterization and spray drying of lipase produced by the endophytic fungus Cercospora kikuchii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Costa-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A lipase from the endophytic fungus Cercospora kikuchii was purified, biochemically characterized and the effects of spray drying on stabilization of the purified enzyme were studied. The lipase was purified 9.31-fold with recovery of 26.6% and specific activity of 223.6 U/mg. The optimum pH and temperature were 4.6 and 35 ºC, respectively, while the Vmax was 10.28 µmol/min.mg-1 protein and Km 0.0324 mM. All the metal ions tested enhanced the enzyme activity. The lipase retained almost 100% activity in the presence of strong oxidants and was also resistant to Triton X, Tween 80 and 20 and SDS, as well as to proteases. The purified lipase was spray dried and kept until 85.2% of enzymatic activity. At least 70% of the enzymatic activity was maintained for spray dried purified lipase during the storage period. The lipase produced by Cercospora kikuchii has properties useful for industrial application and showed adequate stabilization and retention of its enzymatic activity after spray drying.

  8. A real-time assessment of measurement uncertainty in the experimental characterization of sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panão, M R O; Moreira, A L N

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the estimation of the measurement uncertainty of discrete probability distributions used in the characterization of sprays. A real-time assessment of this measurement uncertainty is further investigated, particularly concerning the informative quality of the measured distribution and the influence of acquiring additional information on the knowledge retrieved from statistical analysis. The informative quality is associated with the entropy concept as understood in information theory (Shannon entropy), normalized by the entropy of the most informative experiment. A new empirical correlation is derived between the error accuracy of a discrete cumulative probability distribution and the normalized Shannon entropy. The results include case studies using: (i) spray impingement measurements to study the applicability of the real-time assessment of measurement uncertainty, and (ii) the simulation of discrete probability distributions of unknown shape or function to test the applicability of the new correlation

  9. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  10. Validity of in vitro tests on aqueous spray pumps as surrogates for nasal deposition, absorption, and biologic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Julie D; Laube, Beth L; Dalby, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the impact of the full range of in vitro spray characterization tests described in the FDA Draft Bioequivalence Guidance on nasal deposition pattern, pharmacokinetics, and biological response to nicotine administered by two aqueous nasal spray pumps in human volunteers. Nicotine was selected as a model drug (even though it is not locally acting) based on its ability to alter cardiac function and available plasma assay. Significant differences in pump performance-including mean volume diameters, spray angle, spray width, and ovality ratios-were observed between the two pumps. There were no significant differences in deposition pattern, or pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic response to the nasally administered nicotine. Although there were statistical differences in the in vitro tests between the two pumps, these differences did not result in significant alterations in the site of droplet deposition within the nose, the rate and extent of nicotine absorption, or the physiologic response it induced. These results suggest that current measures of in vitro performance, particularly spray angle and spray pattern (ovality), may not be clinically relevant. Additional research is needed to define what spray pump characteristics are likely to produce differences in deposition pattern and drug response.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Powders for Biomedical Applications by Plasma Spray Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Sasidharan Pillai, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This PhD work mainly focus on the synthesis and characterization of calcium phosphate powders for plasma spray coating. The preparation of high temperature phase stabilized βTCP and HA/βTCP powders for plasma spray coating applications has been the topic of investigation. Nowadays plasma sprayed coatings are widely used for biomedical applications especially in the dental and orthopaedic implantation field. Previously Ti based alloys were widely used for the orthopaedic and dental implant ap...

  12. Automatic macroscopic characterization of diesel sprays by means of a new image processing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Gómez, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Rua-Mojica, Luis F.; Gómez-Gordo, Pablo; de la Garza, Oscar A.

    2018-05-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for the automatic segmentation of diesel spray images and the calculation of their macroscopic parameters. The algorithm automatically detects each spray present in an image, and therefore it is able to work with diesel injectors with a different number of nozzle holes without any modification. The main characteristic of the algorithm is that it splits each spray into three different regions and then segments each one with an individually calculated binarization threshold. Each threshold level is calculated from the analysis of a representative luminosity profile of each region. This approach makes it robust to irregular light distribution along a single spray and between different sprays of an image. Once the sprays are segmented, the macroscopic parameters of each one are calculated. The algorithm is tested with two sets of diesel spray images taken under normal and irregular illumination setups.

  13. Thermal spraying of polyethylene-based polymers: Processing and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterson, David Mark

    This research explores the development of a flame-spray process map as it relates to polymers. This work provides a more complete understanding of the thermal history of the coating material from injection, to deposition and finally to cooling. This was accomplished through precise control of the processing conditions during deposition. Mass flow meters were used to monitor air and fuel flows as they were systematically changed, while temperatures were simultaneously monitored along the length of the flame. A process model was then implemented that incorporated this information along with measured particle velocities, particle size distribution, the polymer's melting temperature and its enthalpy of melting. This computational model was then used to develop a process map that described particle softening, melting and decomposition phenomena as a function of particle size and standoff distance. It demonstrated that changes in particle size caused significant variations in particle states achieved in-flight. A series of experiments were used to determine the range of spray parameters within which a cohesive coating without visible signs of degradation could be sprayed. These results provided additional information that complimented the computational processing map. The boundaries established by these results were the basis for a Statistical Design of Experiments that tested the effects that subtle processing changes had on coating properties. A series of processing maps were developed that combined the computational and the experimental results to describe the manner in which processing parameters interact to determine the degree of melting, polymer degradation and coating porosity. Strong interactions between standoff distance and traverse rate can cause the polymer to degrade and form pores in the coating. A clear picture of the manner in which particle size and standoff distance interact to determine particle melting was provided by combining the computational

  14. Corrosion resistance and characterization of metallic coatings deposited by thermal spray on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá Brito, V.R.S.; Bastos, I.N.; Costa, H.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Five combinations of metallic coatings and intermediate bonds were deposited on carbon steels. ► High strength was reached in adhesion tests. ► Epoxy sealing of coatings improves corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: Carbon steels are not resistant to corrosion and several methods are used in surface engineering to protect them from aggressive environments such as marine. The main objective of this work is the evaluation of mechanical and metallurgical properties of five metallic coatings produced by thermal spray on carbon steel. Five chemical compositions were tested in order to give a large panel of possibility. Coatings were characterized by several methods to result in a screening of their performance. At first, the assessment of microstructural morphology by optical microscopy (OM) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was made. OM and SEM results showed uniformity of deposited layer, low amount of oxides and porosity. The physical properties of coatings were also evaluated by microhardness measurement, adhesion and porosity quantification. The corrosion resistance was analyzed in salt spray and electrochemical polarization tests. In the polarization test, as well as in the salt spray, all sealed conditions presented low corrosion. A new intermediate 78.3Ni20Cr1.4Si0.3Fe alloy was studied in order to reduce pores and microcracks that are frequently found in ordinary 95Ni5Al alloy. Based on the performed characterizations, the findings suggested that the FeCrCo deposition, with an epoxy sealing, is suitable to be used as an efficient coating of carbon steel in aggressive marine environments.

  15. Preliminary calculation with code CONTEMPT-LT for spray cooling tests with JAERI model containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mitsugu

    1978-01-01

    LWR plants have a containment spray system to reduce the escape of radioactive material to the environment in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) by washing out fission products, especially radioiodine, and condensing the steam to lower the pressure. For carrying out the containment spray tests, pressure and temperature behaviour of the JAERI Model Containment Vessel in spray cooling has been calculated with computer program CONTEMPT-LT. The following could be studied quantitatively: (1) pressure and temperature raise rates for steam addition rate and (2) pressure fall rate for spray flow rate and spray heat transfer efficiency. (auth.)

  16. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  17. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  18. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  19. Online characterization of nano-aerosols released by commercial spray products using SMPS–ICPMS coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losert, Sabrina; Hess, Adrian [Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry (Switzerland); Ilari, Gabriele [Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Electron Microscopy Center (Switzerland); Goetz, Natalie von, E-mail: natalie.von.goetz@chem.ethz.ch; Hungerbuehler, Konrad [ETH Zürich Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Nanoparticle-containing sprays are a critical class of consumer products, since human exposure may occur by inhalation of nanoparticles (NP) in the generated aerosols. In this work, the suspension and the released aerosol of six different commercially available consumer spray products were analyzed. Next to a broad spectrum of analytical methods for the characterization of the suspension, a standardized setup for the analysis of aerosol has been used. In addition, a new online coupling technique (SMPS–ICPMS) for the simultaneous analysis of particle size and elemental composition of aerosol particles has been applied. Results obtained with this new method were confirmed by other well-established techniques. Comparison of particles in the original suspensions and in the generated aerosol showed that during spraying single particles of size less than 20 nm had been formed, even though in none of the suspensions particles of size less than 280 nm were present (Aerosol size range scanned: 7–300 nm). Both pump sprays and propellant gas sprays were analyzed and both released particles in the nm size range. Also, both water-based and organic solvent-based sprays released NP. However, a trend was observed that spraying an aqueous suspension contained in a pump spray dispenser after drying resulted in bigger agglomerates than spraying organic suspensions in propellant gas dispensers.

  20. Characterization of engineered nanoparticles in commercially available spray disinfectant products advertised to contain colloidal silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the potential for human exposure to silver nanoparticles from spray disinfectants and dietary supplements, we characterized the silver-containing nanoparticles in 22 commercial products that advertised the use of silver or colloidal silver as the active ingredient. Characte...

  1. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Jhon [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-5250 (United States); Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V. [Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-7115 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: schlaf@eng.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-5101 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin–avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin–biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin–biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  2. Spray Characterization of Ultra-Low-Volume Sprayers Typically Used in Vector Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Standard test method for determining liquid drop size characteristics in a spray using optical nonimaging light-scattering instruments. An- nual book of...cloud was directed through the optical path of the laser varied between sprayers, depending on the width of the spray 1 Mention of a trademark

  3. Modification of Bonding Strength Test of WC HVOF Thermal Spray Coating on Rocket Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondan Sofyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to reduce structural weight of RX-100 rocket is by modifying the nozzle material and processing. Nozzle is the main target in weight reduction due to the fact that it contributes 30 % to the total weight of the structur. An alternative for this is by substitution of massive graphite, which is currently used as thermal protector in the nozzle, with thin layer of HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel thermal spray layer. This paper presents the characterization of nozzle base material as well as the modification of bonding strength test, by designing additional jig to facilitate testing processes while maintaining level of test accuracy. The results showed that the material used for  RX-100 rocket nozzle is confirmed to be S45C steel. Modification of the bonding strength test was conducted by utilizing chains, which improve test flexibility and maintains level of accuracy of the test.

  4. Characterization of Liquid Fuel Evaporation of a Lifted Methanol Spray Flame in a Vitiated Coflow Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra, Ricardo; Dibble, Robert W.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation of lifted spray flames in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases is presented. The vitiated coflow burner is a spray flame that issues into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean, premixed H2/Air flame. The spray flame in a vitiated coflow emulates the combustion that occurs in many advanced combustors without the detailed fluid mechanics. Two commercially available laser diagnostic systems are used to characterize the spray flame and to demonstrate the vitiated coflow burner's amenability to optical investigation. The Ensemble Particle Concentration and Size (EPCS) system is used to measure the path-average droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction at several axial locations while an extractive probe instrument named the Real-time Fuel-air Analyzer (RFA) is used to measure the air to fuel ratio downstream of the spray nozzle with high temporal and spatial resolution. The effect of coflow conditions (stoichiometry) and dilution of the fuel with water was studied with the EPCS optical system. As expected, results show that water retards the evaporation and combustion of fuels. Measurements obtained by the RFA extractive probe show that while the Delavan manufactured nozzle does distribute the fuel over the manufacturer specified spray angle, it unfortunately does not distribute the fuel uniformly, providing conditions that may result in the production of unwanted NOx. Despite some limitations due to the inherent nature of the experimental techniques, the two diagnostics can be readily applied to spray flames in the vitiated coflow environment.

  5. HERCULES Advanced Combustion Concepts Test Facility: Spray/Combustion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, presents a review of work being done within the framework of HERCULES (High Efficiency R and D on Combustion with Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) - the international R and D project concerning new technologies for ships' diesels. The work involves the use and augmentation of simulation models. These are to be validated using experimental data. The report deals with the development of an experimental set-up that will simulate combustion in large two-stroke diesel engines and allow the generation of reference data. The main element of the test apparatus is a spray / combustion chamber with extensive possibilities for optical observation under variable flow conditions. The results of first simulations confirm concepts and shall help in further work on the project. The potential offered by high-speed camera systems was tested using the institute's existing HTDZ combustion chamber. Further work to be done is reviewed.

  6. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  7. Heat removal tests for pressurized water reactor containment spray by largescale facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoki, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Kitani, S.; Naritomi, M.; Nishio, G.; Tanaka, M.

    1983-01-01

    Heat removal tests for pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment spray were carried out to investigate effectiveness of the depressurization by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute model containment (7-m diameter, 20 m high, and 708-m 3 volume) with PWR spray nozzles. The depressurization rate is influenced by the spray heat transfer efficiency and the containment wall surface heat transfer coefficient. The overall spray heat transfer efficiency was investigated with respect to spray flow rate, weight ratio of steam/air, and spray height. The spray droplet heat transfer efficiency was investigated whether the overlapping of spray patterns gives effect or not. The effect was not detectable in the range of large value of steam/air, however, it was better in the range of small value of it. The experimental results were compared with the calculated results by computer code CONTEMPT-LT/022. The overall spray heat transfer efficiency was almost 100% in the containment pressure, ranging from 2.5 to 0.9 kg/cm 2 X G, so that the code was useful on the prediction of the thermal hydraulic behavior of containment atmosphere in a PWR accident condition

  8. Elastic response of thermal spray deposits under indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, S.H.; Lin, C.K.; Berndt, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The elastic response behavior of thermal spray deposits at Knoop indentations has been investigated using indentation techniques. The ration of hardness to elastic modulus, which is an important prerequisite for the evaluation of indentation fracture toughness, is determined by measuring the elastic recovery of the in-surface dimensions of Knoop indentations. The elastic moduli of thermal spray deposits are in the range of 12%--78% of the comparable bulk materials and reveal the anisotropic behavior of thermal spray deposits. A variety of thermal spray deposits has been examined, including Al 2 O 3 , yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ), and NiAl. Statistical tools have been used to evaluate the error estimates of the data

  9. Characterization of sprayed CuInS2 films by XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Yeup; Kim, JunHo

    2010-01-01

    We studied CuInS 2 (CIS) film growth using two deposition methods, which were high electrostatic field assisted ultrasonic spray (HEFAUS) deposition and sulfurization of Cu-In metallic film. The sprayed-films were grown with chalcopyrite ordering and Cu-Au ordering mixed. In order to obtain higher quality CIS films, post-sulfurization was carried out for sprayed-films. The post-sulfurization induced improvement of crystallinity and enhancement of chalcopyrite ordering. However, it was observed that Cu-Au ordering still coexisted in the CIS film after post-sulfurization. With the same sulfurization condition, sulfurization was done to transform Cu-In metallic film into CIS film. The sulfurized metallic film was turned out to be formed as CIS film with higher crystallinity and better chalcopyrite ordering than sulfurized sprayed-films. All fabricated films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis measurements.

  10. Characterization of commercially cold sprayed copper coatings and determination of the effects of impacting copper powder velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakupi, P. [Western University, Dept. of Chemistry, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Keech, P.G. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Ave. E., Toronto Ontario, M4T 2S3 (Canada); Barker, I. [Western University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ramamurthy, S.; Jacklin, R.L. [Western University, Surface Science Western, 999 Collip Circle, LL31 (Lower), London, Ontario, N6G OJ3 (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W., E-mail: dwshoesm@uwo.ca [Western University, Surface Science Western, 999 Collip Circle, LL31 (Lower), London, Ontario, N6G OJ3 (Canada); Moser, D.E. [Western University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Copper coated steel containers are being developed for the disposal of high level nuclear waste using processes such as cold spray and electrodeposition. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction has been used to determine the microstructural properties and the quality of the steel-copper coating interface. The influence of the nature of the cold-spray carrier gas as well as its temperature and pressure (velocity) on the coating's plastic strain and recrystallization behaviour have been investigated, and one commercially-produced electrodeposited coating characterized. The quality of the coatings was assessed using the coincident site lattice model to analyse the properties of the grain boundaries. For cold spray coatings the grain size and number of coincident site lattice grain boundaries increased, and plastic strain decreased, with carrier gas velocity. In all cases annealing improved the quality of the coatings by increasing texture and coincidence site-lattices, but also increased the number of physical voids, especially when a low temperature cold spray carrier gas was used. Comparatively, the average grain size and number of coincident site-lattices was considerably larger for the strongly textured electrodeposited coating. Tensile testing showed the electrodeposited coating was much more strongly adherent to the steel substrate.

  11. Characterization of commercially cold sprayed copper coatings and determination of the effects of impacting copper powder velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupi, P.; Keech, P. G.; Barker, I.; Ramamurthy, S.; Jacklin, R. L.; Shoesmith, D. W.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    Copper coated steel containers are being developed for the disposal of high level nuclear waste using processes such as cold spray and electrodeposition. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction has been used to determine the microstructural properties and the quality of the steel-copper coating interface. The influence of the nature of the cold-spray carrier gas as well as its temperature and pressure (velocity) on the coating's plastic strain and recrystallization behaviour have been investigated, and one commercially-produced electrodeposited coating characterized. The quality of the coatings was assessed using the coincident site lattice model to analyse the properties of the grain boundaries. For cold spray coatings the grain size and number of coincident site lattice grain boundaries increased, and plastic strain decreased, with carrier gas velocity. In all cases annealing improved the quality of the coatings by increasing texture and coincidence site-lattices, but also increased the number of physical voids, especially when a low temperature cold spray carrier gas was used. Comparatively, the average grain size and number of coincident site-lattices was considerably larger for the strongly textured electrodeposited coating. Tensile testing showed the electrodeposited coating was much more strongly adherent to the steel substrate.

  12. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch Solutions and Their Sprays for High Temperature Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature. PMID:24592165

  13. Characterization of ultrasonic spray pyrolysed ruthenium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.S.; Ennaoui, E.A.; Lokhande, C.D.; Mueller, M.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1997-11-21

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique was employed to deposit ruthenium oxide thin films. The films were prepared at 190 C substrate temperature and further annealed at 350 C for 30 min in air. The films were 0.22 {mu} thick and black grey in color. The structural, compositional and optical properties of ruthenium oxide thin films are reported. Contactless transient photoconductivity measurement was carried out to calculate the decay time of excess charge carriers in ruthenium oxide thin films. (orig.) 28 refs.

  14. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  15. Characterization of plasma sprayed NiCrAlY-Yttria stabilized zirconia coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhave, V.S.; Rakhasia, R.H.; Tripathy, P.K.; Hubli, R.C.; Sengupta, P.; Bhanumurthy; Satpute, R.U.; Sreekumar, K.P.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma sprayed coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia are used in many advanced technologies for thermal and chemical barrier applications. Development and characterization of NiCrAlY-yttria stabilized zirconia duplex coatings on Inconel substrates is reported in this paper. Plasma spraying was carried out using the 40 kW atmospheric plasma spray facility at the Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC. A bond coat of NiCrAlY was deposited on Inconel substrates and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was deposited over the bond coat. The coatings have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and EPMA. It is observed that the coating characteristics are affected by the input power to the torch. (author)

  16. Comparison of performance coatings thermally sprayed subject to testing adhesive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, G.F.; Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R. da

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microstructural changes and wear resistance adhesive coatings obtained from powders thermally sprayed by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) were evaluated. Based coatings chrome-nickel and tungsten-cobalt are applied in conditions subject to intense wear especially abrasive. With the aim of evaluate the performance of these coatings under conditions of adhesive wear, these coatings samples were tested by the standard ASTM G99. As test parameters were used: Tungsten carbide pin (SAE 52100) with 6 mm diameter, normal load of 50N and a tangential velocity of 0.5 m / s. The worn surfaces of the coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the performance front wear is related to the conditions of adhesion and uniformity of the coating applied. (author)

  17. Preparation and characterization of sprayed FTO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Lefdil, M.; Diaz, R.; Bihri, H.; Aouaj, M. Ait; Rueda, F.

    2007-06-01

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique with no further annealing. Films with 2.5% of fluorine grown at 400 °C present a single phase and exhibit a tetragonal structure with lattice parameters a = 4.687 Å and c = 3.160 Å. Scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous surfaces with average grain size around 190 nm. The films are transparent in the visible zone and exhibit a high reflectance in the near infrared region. The best electrical resistivity was 6.3 × 10-4 Ω cm for FTO with 2.5% of fluorine. The ratio of transmittance in the visible to the sheet resistance are in the 0.57 × 10-2 1.96 × 10-2 {Ω }-1 range.

  18. Planning calculations of spray tests for the ERCOSAM-SAMARA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Andreani, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of the ERCOSAM-SAMARA project, co-funded by the European Union and the Russian State Atomic Energy Corporation, planning and pre-test calculations are performed to examine sensitivity parameters that can affect the break-up (erosion) of a helium (substitute for hydrogen) layer by mitigation devices (i.e., cooler, spray, or Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner - PAR). This paper reports the GOTHIC analysis results for the spray tests to be performed in the PANDA facility. The effects of spray flow rate, temperature and injection height on depressurization, erosion of helium cloud and gas transport behavior are studied. This analysis is valuable because only a limited number of conditions will be examined in the planned experiments. The study provides a useful understanding of the interaction of spray with a stratified atmosphere. (author)

  19. Characterization of silica and titania nanoparticles synthesized in a spray flame reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cignoli, F.; Maffi, S.; Bellomunno, C.; De Iuliis, S.; Zizak, G. [CNR-IENI, Milano (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Nanostructured materials represent nowadays a wide and largely unexplored field of potential applications. This is a research topic in high and rapid development, both at a basic level and under the point of view of potential practical applications, leaving large space for a thorough scientific analysis, which requires a significant amount of time for ultimate conclusions. This paper dealt with the preliminary work performed in the field of frame spray pyrolysis synthesis for nanoparticles, using an external mixing gas assisted nozzle. An experimental apparatus was designed, realized, and characterized for the synthesis of nanoparticles by the flame spray pyrolysis method. The presentation discussed the advantages of the flame spray pyrolysis technique and the experimental set-up including an image of the water spray and discussion of phase doppler anemometry and visualizations to investigate the flow field and the dimensional distribution of the droplets generated by the atomizer. The presentation also discussed the selection of precursor and dispersion fuel for nanoparticles synthesis through flame spray pyrolysis and transmission electron microscopy for dimensional analysis of nanoparticles. It was concluded that the apparatus demonstrated good stability and reproducibility of the reaction flame and, therefore, of the material produced. figs.

  20. Microstructural characterization of spray formed Fe-based amorfizable alloy; Caracterizacao microestrutural de ligas ferrosas amorfizaveis processadas por conformacao por spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, A.H.G.; Ananias, M.Jr. da S.; Lucena, F.A.; Santos, L.S. dos; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S.; Afonso, C.R.M., E-mail: guimaraes.andreh@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys show outstanding characteristics such as high hardness and wear resistance, with microstructure partially amorphous, making them favorable to spray forming process (SF), which has cooling rates between 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} K/s. Thus, this work aims to use the SF in one of the alloy cast iron present in this project, being chosen the alloy with a better set of results, through the performed characterizations. The alloys studied in this project were: (Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 17}Mo{sub 2}C{sub 14}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}){sub 100-x}B{sub x} (x = 5, 8 and 12% at) and (Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 17}Mo{sub 2}C{sub 14}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}){sub 88}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 8} (at.%), being all processed through Discovery® Plasma and 'melt- spinning' and characterized using: TEM, SEM, DSC, XRD and microhardness test. The cast iron alloy selected were (Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 17}Mo{sub 2}C{sub 14}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}){sub 88}Nb{sub 4}B+8, getting by the spray forming process, deposit and overspray powder. With them, were realized almost the same characterizations, except for the TEM. The results showed 1044±102 (HV1) in Vickers microhardness and nanocrystalline overspray powder from 20-45 μm to > 180 μm. (author)

  1. Characterization of viscous biofuel sprays using digital imaging in the near field region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, A.K.; Brem, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin sprays have been studied using PDIA. • The study is focused on the effect of fuel viscosity on the spray characteristics. • Viscosity has a strong effect on the breakup length in pressure-swirl atomization. • The results are compared to combustion experiments with a micro gas turbine. • The penetration depth of ligaments can be a critical factor in burning viscous fuel. - Abstract: The atomization of biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin has been studied in an atmospheric spray rig by using digital imaging (PDIA). Images of the spray were captured in the near field, just 18 mm downstream of the atomizer, and processed to automatically determine the size of both ligaments and droplets. The effect of the spray structure in this region is of major interest for the combustion of biofuels in gas turbines. The sprays were produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer that originates from the multifuel micro gas turbine (MMGT) setup. Various injection conditions have been tested to investigate the influence of viscosity on the spray characteristics and to assess the overall performance of the atomizer. The spray measurements have been compared to combustion experiments with biodiesel and vegetable oil in the micro gas turbine at similar injection conditions. The results show that the primary breakup process rapidly deteriorates when the viscosity is increased. A higher viscosity increases the breakup length, which becomes visible at the measurement location in the form of ligaments. This effect leads to an unacceptable spray quality once the viscosity slightly exceeds the typical range for conventional gas turbine fuels. The SMD in the investigated spray region was not significantly affected by viscosity, but mainly influenced by injection pressure. The data furthermore indicate an increase in SMD with surface tension. It was found that the penetration depth of ligaments can have major impact on the combustion process

  2. Characterization of fan spray atomizers through numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altimira, Mireia; Rivas, Alejandro; Larraona, Gorka S.; Anton, Raul; Ramos, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the mathematical modeling of industrial fan spray atomizers. The two-phase flow taking place inside the nozzle's tip and the exterior region near the outlet of three different industrial nozzle designs has been modeled and simulated. As a result, valuable information has been obtained regarding the influence of the inner geometry on the flow and also the formation and development of the liquid sheet. Characteristic magnitudes such as the discharge coefficient and the liquid sheet thickness factor have been obtained and validated through experimental measurements. The accumulation of liquid at the border of fan-shaped liquid sheets, also known as rim, has been studied in the analyzed designs, revealing the presence of a tangential velocity component in the liquid sheet and a relationship between the incoming flow rate of the rim and the angle of the liquid sheet. The dependence of the results on turbulence modeling has also been analyzed, drawing interesting conclusions regarding their influence on the liquid sheet mean flow characteristics and on the surrounding gas. Thus, the mathematical model developed has been proved to be a useful tool for nozzle manufacturers; it provides the most important characteristic parameters of the liquid sheet formed given certain nozzle geometry and, additionally, those data necessary to carry out studies of instability, breakup and atomization of the liquid sheet.

  3. Characterization of a spray torch and analysis of process parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, R.; Selvarajan, V.

    1999-07-01

    Anode for a non-transferred DC plasma spray torch was designed to improve electrothermal efficiency. A theoretical calculation was made for the electrothermal efficiency in a DC plasma torch operating with argon at atmospheric pressure with power level in the range of 5.2 20 kW using energy balance equations. ANOVA for the two level factorial design was done. Plasma gas flow rate, current intensity, nozzle diameter and length were found to influence the efficiency. The efficiency was found to decrease with increase in current intensity and nozzle length and to increase with increase in nozzle diameter and gas flow rate. The overall energy balance calculations showed that the heat transfer to the plasma-forming gas decreases with increase in arc current and the same was more significant at higher flow rates. Plasma jet velocity for different flow rates, input to the torch and nozzle dimensions was calculated from the gas enthalpy. It was found that the velocity increased with increase in the power input to the torch and gas flow rate and decreased with increase in nozzle length and diameter. The current voltage characteristics of the torch operating with argon gas were studied for different gas flow rates. The Nottingham coefficients were calculated using least square method.

  4. Air plasma spray processing and electrochemical characterization of SOFC composite cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B. D.; Kesler, O.; Rose, Lars

    Air plasma spraying has been used to produce porous composite cathodes containing (La 0.8Sr 0.2) 0.98MnO 3- y (LSM) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Preliminary investigations focused on determining the range of plasma conditions under which each of the individual materials could be successfully deposited. A range of conditions was thereby determined that was suitable for the deposition of a composite cathode from pre-mixed LSM and YSZ powders. A number of composite cathodes were produced using different combinations of parameter values within the identified range according to a Uniform Design experimental grid. Coatings were then characterized for composition and microstructure using EDX and SEM. As a result of these tests, combinations of input parameter values were identified that are best suited to the production of coatings with microstructures appropriate for use in SOFC composite cathodes. A selection of coatings representative of the types of observed microstructures were then subjected to electrochemical testing to evaluate the performance of these cathodes. From these tests, it was found that, in general, the coatings that appeared to have the most suitable microstructures also had the highest electrochemical performances, provided that the deposition efficiency of both phases was sufficiently high.

  5. Air plasma spray processing and electrochemical characterization of SOFC composite cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Sciences Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rose, Lars [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); National Research Council (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    Air plasma spraying has been used to produce porous composite cathodes containing (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}){sub 0.98}MnO{sub 3-y} (LSM) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Preliminary investigations focused on determining the range of plasma conditions under which each of the individual materials could be successfully deposited. A range of conditions was thereby determined that was suitable for the deposition of a composite cathode from pre-mixed LSM and YSZ powders. A number of composite cathodes were produced using different combinations of parameter values within the identified range according to a Uniform Design experimental grid. Coatings were then characterized for composition and microstructure using EDX and SEM. As a result of these tests, combinations of input parameter values were identified that are best suited to the production of coatings with microstructures appropriate for use in SOFC composite cathodes. A selection of coatings representative of the types of observed microstructures were then subjected to electrochemical testing to evaluate the performance of these cathodes. From these tests, it was found that, in general, the coatings that appeared to have the most suitable microstructures also had the highest electrochemical performances, provided that the deposition efficiency of both phases was sufficiently high. (author)

  6. Fission product aerosol removal test by containment spray under accident management conditions (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Hideo; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the effective FP aerosol removal by containment spray under Japanese AM conditions, two system integral tests and two separate effect tests were carried out using a full-height simulation test facility. In case of PWR LOCA, aerosol concentration in the upper containment vessel decreased even under low spray flow rate. In case of BWR LOCA with water injection into RPV, the aerosol concentration in the entire vessel also decreased rapidly after aerosol supply stopping. In both cases, the removal rate estimated from the NUREG-1465 was coincided with test results. The aerosol washing effect by spray was confirmed to be predominant by conducting suppression chamber isolation test. It turned out that the effect of aerosol solubility and density on aerosol removal by spray was quite small by conducting insoluble aerosol injection test. After the modification of aerosol removal model by the spray and hygroscopic aerosol model in original MELCOR 1.8.4, calculated aerosol concentration transient in the containment vessel agreed well with the test data. (author)

  7. Testing of a Spray-bar Thermodynamic Vent System in Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hastings, L. J.; Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    To support development of a microgravity pressure control capability for liquid oxygen, thermodynamic vent system (TVS) testing was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a LOX simulant. The spray bar TVS hardware used was originally designed by the Boeing Company for testing in liquid hydrogen (LH2). With this concept, a small portion of the tank fluid is passed through a Joule-Thomson (J-T) device, and then through a longitudinal spray bar mixed-heat exchanger in order to cool the bulk fluid. To accommodate the larger mass flow rates associated with LN2, the TVS hardware was modified by replacing the recirculation pump with an LN2 compatible pump and replacing the J-T valve. The primary advantage of the spray-bar configuration is that tank pressure control can be achieved independent of liquid and vapor location, enhancing the applicability of ground test data to microgravity conditions. Performance testing revealed that the spray-bar TVS was effective in controlling tank pressure within a 6.89 kPa band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Tests were also conducted with gaseous helium (GHe) in the ullage. The TVS operated nominally with GHe in the ullage, with performance similar to the tests with gaseous nitrogen (GN2). Testing demonstrated that the spray-bar TVS design was flexible enough for use in two different propellants with minimal hardware modifications.

  8. The Development of Testing Methods for Characterizing Emissions and Sources of Exposures from Polyurethane Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures is not well understood. Currently, no comprehensive standard test methods exist for characterizing and quantifying product emissions. Exposures to diisocyanate compoun...

  9. Characterization of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders synthesized by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Chen, Weiwu; Lundberg, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders were synthesized by spray drying and successive calcinations. The phase purity, BET surface area, and particle morphology of as-sprayed and calcined powders were characterized. After calcination above 300 °C, the powders were single phase and showed a BET surface area of 68...

  10. Spray Drying of Spinach Juice: Characterization, Chemical Composition, and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan Koç, Gülşah; Nur Dirim, Safiye

    2017-12-01

    The 1st aim of this study is to determine the influence of inlet and outlet air temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of obtained powders from spinach juice (SJ) with 3.2 ± 0.2 °Brix (°Bx). Second, the effect of 3 different drying agents (maltodextrin, whey powder, and gum Arabic) on the same properties was investigated for the selected inlet/outlet temperatures (160/100 °C) which gives the minimum moisture content and water activity values. For this purpose, the total soluble solid content of SJ was adjusted to 5.0 ± 0.2 °Bx with different drying agents. Finally, the effects of different storage conditions (4, 20, and 30 °C) on the physical and chemical properties of spinach powders (SPs) produced at selected conditions were examined. A pilot scale spray dryer was used at 3 different inlet/outlet air temperatures (160 to 200 °C/80 to 100 °C) where the outlet air temperature was controlled by regulating the feed flow rate. Results showed that the moisture content, water activity, browning index, total chlorophyll, and total phenolic contents of the SP significantly decreased and pH and total color change of the SP significantly increased by the addition of different drying agents (P < 0.05). In addition, the changes in the above-mentioned properties were determined during the storage period, at 3 different temperatures. It was also observed that the vitamin C, β-carotene, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds retention showed first-order degradation kinetic with activation energy of 32.6840, 10.2736, 27.7031, and 28.2634 kJ/K.mol, respectively. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. CMFD simulation of ERCOSAM PANDA spray tests PE1 and PE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A., E-mail: phil@ibrae.ac.ru [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Grigoryev, S. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Drobyshevsky, N.; Kiselev, A.; Shyukin, A.; Yudina, T. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • Successful modeling of gas mixtures and droplet flows in multicompartment system. • For pressure, modeling of gas-wall heat transfer (and heat radiation) is important. • Dependence of gas mixing time in spray vessel on the used nozzle may be essential. • Penetration of helium-enriched mixture into another vessel due to spray operation. • Effect on pressure of sump re-evaporation and gas heating (by walls) during spray. - Abstract: The ERCOSAM project (together with the SAMARA project) includes a set of multi-stage experiments carried out at different thermal-hydraulics facilities (TOSQAN, MISTRA, PANDA, SPOT) and their numerical simulation. The test sequences aim to investigate hydrogen concentration build-up and stratification during a postulated severe accident as well as the effect of activation of Severe Accident Management systems (SAMs) on stratification. At the initial Phases I–III of the tests stratification of the injected light gases (steam, helium) is established, pressure increases. The models of SAMs are activated at the final Phase IV. In the paper, two spray tests PE1 and PE2 performed at PANDA facility are numerically investigated aiming for code validation (FLUENT) and better understanding of physical processes. Phases I–IV of the tests were simulated. A satisfactory agreement with the experimental results on gas component mole fractions was obtained. The reasons of obtained some discrepancies in pressure and temperature were studied in multivariate calculations and discussed in the paper. The tests PE1 and PE2 were performed with different spray nozzles and initial conditions. In simulation that resulted in different flow patterns during spray operation. The sensitivity to nozzle angle and some other input parameters was investigated. Possible factors of depressurization rate caused by spray operation were also studied. The key features observed in the experiments and obtained numerically being of interest in terms of

  12. Characterization of anti-theft devices directly from the surface of banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Cuelbas, Claudio José; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Using Brazilian banknotes as a test case, forensic examination and identification of Rhodamine B dye anti-theft device (ATD) staining on banknotes were performed. Easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used since it allows fast and simple analysis with no sample preparation providing molecular screening of the surface with direct desorption and ionization of the security dye. For a more accurate molecular characterization of the ATD dye, Q Exactive Orbitrap™ Fourier transform (tandem) mass spectrometry using eletrospray ionization (ESI-HRMS/MS) was also applied. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Manufacturing of Electrolyte and Cathode Layers SOFC Using Atmospheric Spraying Method and Its Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sulistyo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC has created various interest in many parties, due to its capability to convert gases into electricity. The main requirement of SOFC cell components is to be produced as thin as possible to minimize the losses of electrical resistance, as well as able to support internal and external loads. This paper discusses the procedure of making a thin electrolyte layer, as well as a porous thin layer cathode using atmospheric spraying technique. The procedure of spraying was in room temperature with the process of sintering at temperature of 13500 C held for 3 hours. The SOFC characterization of electrolyte and cathode microstructure was determined by using the SEM, FESEM, XRD and impedance spectroscopy, to measure the impedance of SOFC cells. The results show that the thickness of thin layer electrolyte and porous cathode obtained of about 20 µm and 4 µm, respectively. Also the SOFC cell impedance was measured of 2.3726 x 106 Ω at room temperature. The finding also demonstrated that although the materials (anode, cathode and electrolyte possess different coefficient thermal expansion, there was no evidence of flaking layers which seen the materials remain intact. Thus, the atmospheric spraying method can offer an alternative method to manufacturing of SOFC thin layer electrolyte and cathode. [Key words: SOFC; spraying method; electrolyte; cathode

  14. In vitro characterization of hydroxyapatite layers deposited by APS and HVOF thermal spraying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Alexandru Roşu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are successfully used in medicine as implants due to their high mechanical properties and good biocompatibility. To improve implant osseointegration of titanium alloys, they are covered with hydroxyapatite because of its bioactive properties. Coating the implants with hydroxyapatite by thermal spraying, due to the temperatures developed during the deposition process, the structure can be degraded, leading to formation of secondary phases, such as TCP, TT CP, CaO. The paper presents the experimental results of hydroxyapatite layers deposition by two thermal spraying methods: Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF. The microstructure of the deposited layers is characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and electronic microscopy. The bioactivity of the hydroxyapatite layers was investigated in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF by immersing the covered samples deposited by the two thermal spraying methods. In both cases the coatings did not present defects as cracks or microcracks. X-ray diffraction performed on hydroxyapatite deposited layers shows that the structure was strongly influenced by plasma jet temperature, the structure consisting mainly of TCP (Ca3PO42. The samples deposited by HVO F after immersing in SBF lead to formation of biological hydroxyapatite, certifying the good bioactivity of the coatings.

  15. Preparation and characterization of etoricoxib solid dispersions using lipid carriers by spray drying technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Bhaskar; Shimpi, Shyam; Paradkar, Anant

    2005-01-01

    The basic objectives of this study were to prepare and characterize solid dispersions of poorly water-soluble drug etoricoxib using lipid carriers by spray drying technique. The properties of solid dispersions were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hotstage microscopy (HSM), radiograph powder diffraction (XRPD), and dissolution studies. The absence of etoricoxib peaks in XRPD profiles of solid dispersions ...

  16. Characterization of spray deposition and drift from a low drift nozzle for aerial application at different application altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  17. Characterization of boride-based powders and detonation gun sprayed cermet coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keraenen, J.; Stenberg, T.; Maentylae, T.

    1995-01-01

    Detonation gun sprayed (DGS) cermet coatings containing complex ternary transition metal boride as hard particles dispersed in a stainless steel or nickel based superalloy matrix have been characterized. Microstructure of the coatings, as well as powders, were studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM). X-ray microanalysis of the coatings were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) attached to the SEM and AEM. Moreover, abrasion wear resistance of the coatings was evaluated with a rubber wheel abrasion test equipment. The general microstructure of studied coatings appeared to be heterogeneous in the terms of the distribution, size and crystallographic nature of the phases. Nonetheless, very low porosities were obtained and in the coatings the oxide phase as well as the unmelted particles and the formation of oxide phase were avoided by optimization of DGS parameters. So far the abrasive wear resistance of boride-based cermet coatings is not so good as that of the WC-12Co coatings

  18. Combining spray nozzle simulators with meshes: characterization of rainfall intensity and drop properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sílvia C. P.; de Lima, João L. M. P.; de Lima, M. Isabel P.

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall simulators can be a powerful tool to increase our understanding of hydrological and geomorphological processes. Nevertheless, rainfall simulators' design and operation might be rather demanding, for achieving specific rainfall intensity distributions and drop characteristics. The pressurized simulators have some advantages over the non-pressurized simulators: drops do not rely on gravity to reach terminal velocity, but are sprayed out under pressure; pressurized simulators also yield a broad range of drop sizes in comparison with drop-formers simulators. The main purpose of this study was to explore in the laboratory the potential of combining spray nozzle simulators with meshes in order to change rainfall characteristics (rainfall intensity and diameters and fall speed of drops). Different types of spray nozzles were tested, such as single full-cone and multiple full-cone nozzles. The impact of the meshes on the simulated rain was studied by testing different materials (i.e. plastic and steel meshes), square apertures and wire thicknesses, and different vertical distances between the nozzle and the meshes underneath. The diameter and fall speed of the rain drops were measured using a Laser Precipitation Monitor (Thies Clima). The rainfall intensity range and coefficients of uniformity of the sprays and the drop size distribution, fall speed and kinetic energy were analysed. Results show that when meshes intercept drop trajectories the spatial distribution of rainfall intensity and the drop size distribution are affected. As the spray nozzles generate typically small drop sizes and narrow drop size distributions, meshes can be used to promote the formation of bigger drops and random their landing positions.

  19. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagendorfer, Harald, E-mail: Harald.Hagendorfer@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland); Lorenz, Christiane, E-mail: Christiane.Lorenz@chem.ethz.c [ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: Ralf.Kaegi@eawag.ch; Sinnet, Brian, E-mail: Brian.Sinnet@eawag.c [EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Switzerland); Gehrig, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Gehrig@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland); Goetz, Natalie V., E-mail: Natalie.vonGoetz@chem.ethz.ch; Scheringer, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Scheringer@chem.ethz.c [ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Ludwig, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Ludwig@psi.c [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institue (Switzerland); Ulrich, Andrea, E-mail: Andrea.Ulrich@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  20. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagendorfer, Harald; Lorenz, Christiane; Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Gehrig, Robert; Goetz, Natalie V.; Scheringer, Martin; Ludwig, Christian; Ulrich, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  1. Preparation and characterization of spray-dried co-amorphous drug-amino acid salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev; Lenz, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    scale. In this study, spray-drying was investigated as a scale up preparation method for co-amorphous indomethacin (IND)-amino acid mixtures. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the different co-amorphous systems were investigated with respect to the amino acids' ability towards co...... dissolution behaviour, and physical stability at various storage conditions, were examined. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed that IND could be converted into an amorphous form in combination with the amino acids arginine (ARG), histidine (HIS) and lysine (LYS) by spray-drying. Solid state characterization...... mixtures were physically stable (>10 months) at room temperature and 40°C under dry conditions. Intrinsic dissolution of the co-amorphous mixtures showed an improved dissolution behaviour under intestinal pH conditions for IND-ARG compared with the crystalline and amorphous forms of the drug. On the other...

  2. Advances in developing a new test method to assess spray drift potential from air blast sprayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grella, M.; Gil, E.; Balsari, P.; Marucco, P.; Gallart, M.

    2017-07-01

    Drift is one of the most important issues to consider for realising sustainable pesticide sprays. This study proposes and tests an alternative methodology for quantifying the drift potential (DP) of air blast sprayers, trying to avoid the difficulties faced in conducting field trials according to the standard protocol (ISO 22866:2005). For this purpose, an ad hoc test bench designed for DP comparative measurements was used. The proposed methodology was evaluated in terms of robustness, repetitiveness and coherence by arranging a series of trials at two laboratories. Representative orchard and vineyard air blast sprayers in eight configurations (combination of two forward speeds, two air fan flow rates, and two nozzle types) were tested. The test bench was placed perpendicular to the spray track to collect the fraction of spray liquid remaining in the air after the spray process and potentially susceptible to drift out of the treated area. Downwind spray deposition curves were obtained and a new approach was proposed to calculate an index value of the DP estimation that could allow the differences among the tested configurations to be described. Results indicated that forward speed of 1.67 m/s allows better discrimination among configurations tested. Highest DP reduction, over 87.5%, was achieved using the TVI nozzles in combination with low air fan flow rate in both laboratories; conversely, the highest DP value was obtained with the ATR nozzles in combination with high air fan flow rate. Although the proposed method shows a promising potential to evaluate drift potential of different sprayer types and nozzles types used for bush and tree crops further research and tests are necessary to improve and validate this method.

  3. Theoretical Design and First Test in Laboratory of a Composite Visual Servo-Based Target Spray Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to spray onto the canopy of interval planting crop, an approach of using a target spray robot with a composite vision servo system based on monocular scene vision and monocular eye-in-hand vision was proposed. Scene camera was used to roughly locate target crop, and then the image-processing methods for background segmentation, crop canopy centroid extraction, and 3D positioning were studied. Eye-in-hand camera was used to precisely determine spray position of each crop. Based on the center and area of 2D minimum-enclosing-circle (MEC of crop canopy, a method to calculate spray position and spray time was determined. In addition, locating algorithm for the MEC center in nozzle reference frame and the hand-eye calibration matrix were studied. The processing of a mechanical arm guiding nozzle to spray was divided into three stages: reset, alignment, and hovering spray, and servo method of each stage was investigated. For preliminary verification of the theoretical studies on the approach, a simplified experimental prototype containing one spray mechanical arm was built and some performance tests were carried out under controlled environment in laboratory. The results showed that the prototype could achieve the effect of “spraying while moving and accurately spraying on target.”

  4. Plasma Spraying and Characterization of Chromium Carbide-Nickel Chromium Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Prantnerová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 281-290, č. článku PCCC-2016-09-16-339. ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Chromium carbide * Slurry abrasion * Dry rubber wheel test * Friction * Microhardness Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.pccc.icrc.ac.ir/?xid=0113010121000001804&id=976

  5. Characterization of Fe-based alloy coating deposited by supersonic plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Zhong-yu; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wen, Dong-hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-based coating exhibited few oxides, high density and bond strength. • Amorphous/nanocrystalline phases were found in the coating. • Formation mechanism of excellent coating was investigated. -- Abstract: The objective of the present study is to characterize the Fe-based alloy coating deposited by the supersonic plasma spraying process. The condition of the melting particles was in situ monitored. The microstructure of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscope and high resolution transmission electron microscope. The phase composition was examined by X-ray diffraction. The microhardness and porosity were also measured, respectively. Results show the prepared coatings have excellent properties, such as few oxides, high microhardness and a low porosity amount. At the same time, a mass of amorphous/nanocrystalline phases was found in the coating. The mechanism of the formation of amorphous/nanocrystalline phases was investigated. The appropriate material composition of spraying material and flash set process of plasma spraying are the key factors. Moreover, the mechanism for oxidation resistance is also investigated, where the separation between melting metal and oxygen by the formation of SiO 2 films is the key factor

  6. Optimization and characterization of spray-dried IgG formulations: a design of experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Homa; Najafabadi, Abdolhosein Rouholamini; Vatanara, Alireza

    2017-10-24

    The purpose of the present study is to optimize a spray-dried formulation as a model antibody regarding stability and aerodynamic property for further aerosol therapy of this group of macromolecules. A three-factor, three-level, Box-Behnken design was employed milligrams of Cysteine (X 1 ), Trehalose (X 2 ), and Tween 20 (X 3 ) as independent variables. The dependent variables were quantified and the optimized formulation was prepared accordingly. SEC-HPLC and FTIR-spectroscopy were conducted to evaluate the molecular and structural status of spray-dried preparations. Particle characterization of optimized sample was performed with the aid of DSC, SEM, and TSI examinations. Experimental responses of a total of 17 formulations resulted in yield values, (Y 1 ), ranging from 21.1 ± 0.2 to 40.2 ± 0.1 (%); beta-sheet content, (Y 2 ), from 66.22 ± 0.19 to 73.78 ± 0.26 (%); amount of aggregation following process, (Y 3 ), ranging from 0.11 ± 0.03 to 0.95 ± 0.03 (%); and amount of aggregation upon storage, (Y 4 ), from 0.81 ± 0.01 to 3.13 ± 0.64 (%) as dependent variables. Results-except for those of the beta sheet content-were fitted to quadratic models describing the inherent relationship between main factors. Co-application of Cysteine and Tween 20 preserved antibody molecules from molecular degradation and improved immediate and accelerated stability of spry-dried antibodies. Validation of the optimization study indicated high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology in preparation of stable spray-dried IgG. Graphical abstract Spray drying of IgG in the presence of Trehalose, Cysteine and Tween 20.

  7. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying; Obtencao e caracterizacao de microparticulas de quitosana / propranolol por spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da, E-mail: ednaldogn@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  8. Air plasma spray processing and electrochemical characterization of Cu-SDC coatings for use in solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoved, Nir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Sciences Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-09-05

    Air plasma spraying has been used to produce porous composite anodes based on Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} (SDC) and Cu for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Preliminarily, a range of plasma conditions has been examined for the production of composite coatings from pre-mixed SDC and CuO powders. Plasma gas compositions were varied to obtain a range of plasma temperatures. After reduction in H{sub 2}, coatings were characterized for composition and microstructure using EDX and SEM. As a result of these tests, symmetrical sintered electrolyte-supported anode-anode cells were fabricated by air plasma spraying of the anodes, followed by in situ reduction of the CuO to Cu. Full cells deposited on SS430 porous substrates were then produced in one integrated process. Fine CuO and SDC powders have been used to produce homogeneously mixed anode coatings with higher surface area microstructures, resulting in area-specific polarization resistances of 4.8 {omega} cm{sup 2} in impedance tests in hydrogen at 712 C. (author)

  9. Air plasma spray processing and electrochemical characterization of Cu-SDC coatings for use in solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoved, Nir; Kesler, O.

    Air plasma spraying has been used to produce porous composite anodes based on Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 1.9 (SDC) and Cu for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Preliminarily, a range of plasma conditions has been examined for the production of composite coatings from pre-mixed SDC and CuO powders. Plasma gas compositions were varied to obtain a range of plasma temperatures. After reduction in H 2, coatings were characterized for composition and microstructure using EDX and SEM. As a result of these tests, symmetrical sintered electrolyte-supported anode-anode cells were fabricated by air plasma spraying of the anodes, followed by in situ reduction of the CuO to Cu. Full cells deposited on SS430 porous substrates were then produced in one integrated process. Fine CuO and SDC powders have been used to produce homogeneously mixed anode coatings with higher surface area microstructures, resulting in area-specific polarization resistances of 4.8 Ω cm 2 in impedance tests in hydrogen at 712 °C.

  10. Preparation and characterization of molybdenum disilicide coating on molybdenum substrate by air plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Metallurgy and Material Processing of Rare Metals, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Dezhi, E-mail: dzwang68@163.com [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Metallurgy and Material Processing of Rare Metals, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yan, Jianhui [Advanced Materials Synthesis and Application Technology Laboratory, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Sun, Aokui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Metallurgy and Material Processing of Rare Metals, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2013-11-01

    MoSi{sub 2} oxidation protective coatings on molybdenum substrate were prepared by air plasma spraying technique (APS). Microstructure, phase composition, porosity, microhardness and bonding strength of the coatings were investigated and determined. Oxidation behavior of the coating at high temperature was also examined. Results show that composition of the coatings is constituted with MoSi{sub 2} and Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, the surface morphology is described as flattened lamellar features, insufficiently flattened protuberance with some degree of surface roughness, a certain quantity of spherical particles, microcracks and pores. Testing results reveal that microhardness and bonding strength of the coatings increase, and porosity decreases with increasing power or decreasing Ar gas flow rate. Moreover, with decreasing the porosity, the microhardness of the coatings increases. The bonding strength of the coatings also increases with increasing spray distance. The MoSi{sub 2} coated Mo substrate exhibited a good oxidation resistance at 1200 °C.

  11. Preparation and characterization of molybdenum disilicide coating on molybdenum substrate by air plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Dezhi; Yan, Jianhui; Sun, Aokui

    2013-01-01

    MoSi 2 oxidation protective coatings on molybdenum substrate were prepared by air plasma spraying technique (APS). Microstructure, phase composition, porosity, microhardness and bonding strength of the coatings were investigated and determined. Oxidation behavior of the coating at high temperature was also examined. Results show that composition of the coatings is constituted with MoSi 2 and Mo 5 Si 3 , the surface morphology is described as flattened lamellar features, insufficiently flattened protuberance with some degree of surface roughness, a certain quantity of spherical particles, microcracks and pores. Testing results reveal that microhardness and bonding strength of the coatings increase, and porosity decreases with increasing power or decreasing Ar gas flow rate. Moreover, with decreasing the porosity, the microhardness of the coatings increases. The bonding strength of the coatings also increases with increasing spray distance. The MoSi 2 coated Mo substrate exhibited a good oxidation resistance at 1200 °C.

  12. Thermal plasma spheroidization and spray deposition of barium titanate powder and characterization of the plasma sprayable powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakseresht, A.H., E-mail: amirh_pak@yahoo.com [Department of Ceramics, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimipour, M.R. [Department of Ceramics, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezi, M.R. [Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, P.O. Box 84156-83111, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, atmospheric plasma spray method was used to produce dense plasma sprayable powder and thick barium titanate film. In this regard, the commercially feedstock powders were granulated and spheroidized by the organic binder and the thermal spray process, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the produced powders and the final deposits. X-ray diffraction was also implemented to characterize phase of the sprayed powder. The results indicated that spheroidized powder had suitable flowability as well as high density. The micro-hardness of the film produced by the sprayed powders was higher than that of the film deposited by the irregular granules. Additionally, relative permittivity of the films was increased by decreasing the defects from 160 to 293 for film deposited using spheroidized powder. The reduction in the relative permittivity of deposits, in comparison with the bulk material, was due to the existence of common defects in the thermal spray process. - Highlights: • We prepare sprayable BaTiO{sub 3} powder with no or less inside voids for plasma spray application for first time. • The sprayable powder has good flow characteristics and high density. • Powder spheroidization via plasma spray improves the hardness and dielectric properties of the deposited film.

  13. Thermal plasma spheroidization and spray deposition of barium titanate powder and characterization of the plasma sprayable powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakseresht, A.H.; Rahimipour, M.R.; Vaezi, M.R.; Salehi, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, atmospheric plasma spray method was used to produce dense plasma sprayable powder and thick barium titanate film. In this regard, the commercially feedstock powders were granulated and spheroidized by the organic binder and the thermal spray process, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the produced powders and the final deposits. X-ray diffraction was also implemented to characterize phase of the sprayed powder. The results indicated that spheroidized powder had suitable flowability as well as high density. The micro-hardness of the film produced by the sprayed powders was higher than that of the film deposited by the irregular granules. Additionally, relative permittivity of the films was increased by decreasing the defects from 160 to 293 for film deposited using spheroidized powder. The reduction in the relative permittivity of deposits, in comparison with the bulk material, was due to the existence of common defects in the thermal spray process. - Highlights: • We prepare sprayable BaTiO_3 powder with no or less inside voids for plasma spray application for first time. • The sprayable powder has good flow characteristics and high density. • Powder spheroidization via plasma spray improves the hardness and dielectric properties of the deposited film.

  14. Development and Characterization of Sodium Hyaluronate Microparticle-Based Sustained Release Formulation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Prepared by Spray-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun J; Kim, Chan W

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a sodium hyaluronate microparticle-based sustained release formulation of recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH) prepared by spray-drying. Compared to freeze-drying, spray-dried SR-rhGH showed not only prolonged release profiles but also better particle property and injectability. The results of size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography showed that no aggregate was detected, and dimer was just about 2% and also did not increase with increase of inlet temperature up to 150 °C. Meanwhile, the results of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that related proteins increased slightly from 4.6% at 100 °C to 6.3% at 150 °C. Thermal mapping test proved that product temperature did not become high to cause protein degradation during spray-drying because thermal energy was used for the evaporation of surface moisture of droplets. The structural characterization by peptide mapping, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and circular dichroism revealed that the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of rhGH in SR-rhGH were highly comparable to those of reference somatropin materials. The biological characterization by rat weight gain and cell proliferation assays provided that bioactivity of SR-rhGH was equivalent to that of native hGH. These data establish that spray-dried SR-rhGH is highly stable by preserving intact rhGH and hyaluronate microparticle-based formulation by spray-drying can be an alternative delivery system for proteins. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of alumina scales formed during isothermal and cyclic oxidation of plasma-sprayed TBC systems at 1150 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D.; Rigney, E.D.

    1999-01-01

    The isothermal- and cyclic-oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consisting of vacuum plasma-sprayed (VPS) Ni-22Cr-10Al/Y (wt%) bond coatings and air plasma-sprayed (APS) Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ) top coatings (on single-crystal superalloys) was investigated. The microstructures, flaw contents, and fracture behavior of the Al 2 O 3 scales formed during oxidation testing at 1150 C were characterized (by analysis of coating and scale fracture surfaces and metallographic cross sections). Significant localized fracture and buckling of the Al 2 O 3 scales that formed along the bond-coat--top-coat interfaces were observed after cyclic oxidation of TBCs. However, substantial amounts of localized scale damage did not induce rapid TBC failure. Decohesion of the columnar alumina scales on the rough bond-coat surfaces occurred by both internal Al 2 O 3 fracture (parallel to the metal surface) and oxide-metal delamination. There were microstructural indications of Al 2 O 3 scale crack healing by sintering into planar arrays of voids. Alumina scales that formed on convex NiCrAlY surfaces (with radii of 50 microm or less) after cyclic oxidation, whereas scales formed by isothermal oxidation contained few visible voids. Accelerated void growth in Al 2 O 3 scales on the irregular NiCrAlY surfaces appeared to be creep-related and was attributed to the synergistic effects of geometric and thermal stresses

  16. Data report on spray cooling test by ROSA-III, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Murata, Hideo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-03-01

    A separate effect test on spray cooling was carried out using one core channel of ROSA-III BWR LOCA test facility. This report describes a heating experiment in the series of runs. (1) The cooling from top of the core by spray easily causes countercurrent flow limit due to the vaparization of falling water itself, so it becomes in effective. (2) The cooling by falling water is irregular and unstable. Therefore, the cooling by the falling water is not to be relied on. (3) CCFL at porous plate is hard to occur, compared with single pipe. A quantitative study of this is desired to evaluate reflooding rate. Some suggestions for ROSA-III design are also made. (author)

  17. Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L.; Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F.; Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

  18. Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L. [RSE - Nuclear and Industrial Plant Safety Team, Power Generation System Dept., via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Dept., via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N. [Universita di Pisa-Facolta d' Ingegneria DIMNP-Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Dep., Largo L. Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

  19. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  20. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  1. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.; Hyde, R.; Allen, S.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements

  2. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  3. Detection and Characterization of Flaws in Sprayed on Foam Insulation with Pulsed Terahertz Frequency Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and repair of flaws such as voids and delaminations in the sprayed on foam insulation of the external tank reduces the probability of foam debris during shuttle ascent. The low density of sprayed on foam insulation along with it other physical properties makes detection of flaws difficult with conventional techniques. An emerging technology that has application for quantitative evaluation of flaws in the foam is pulsed electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. The short wavelengths of these terahertz pulses make them ideal for imaging flaws in the foam. This paper examines the application of terahertz pulses for flaw detection in foam characteristic of the foam insulation of the external tank. Of particular interest is the detection of voids and delaminations, encapsulated in the foam or at the interface between the foam and a metal backing. The technique is shown to be capable of imaging small voids and delaminations through as much as 20 cm of foam. Methods for reducing the temporal responses of the terahertz pulses to improve flaw detection and yield quantitative characterizations of the size and location of the flaws are discussed.

  4. Sodium fire test at broad ranges of temperature and oxygen concentration. 4. Low temperature sodium spray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2005-08-01

    Sodium spray fire tests at the initial sodium temperature of 250degC were conducted under the atmospheric conditions of air and 3% oxygen containing nitrogen to determine the sodium burning rate and the aerosol release fraction and compare them with the test results at the initial sodium temperature of 500degC in air atmosphere. In the tests, sodium was supplied using a commercial spray nozzle into a stainless steel vessel of 100 m 3 volume (SOLFA-2). The sodium burning rate was calculated from two independent methods: the consumption rate of oxygen in the vessel and the enthalpy change of vessel components during the test. The aerosol release fraction was determined from the comparison between the measured aerosol concentrations and the calculated ones by the ABC-INTG code. The main conclusions were as follows, (1) In air atmosphere, a) sodium droplets ignited instantaneously and the spray fire was observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 440 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was about 70%. (2) In 3% oxygen containing nitrogen, a) ignition of sodium droplets was not observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 44 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was less than 10%. (author)

  5. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated iron oxide particles by spray-drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karina Donadel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particles of iron oxide have been increasingly used in medical diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and in cancer therapies involving targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. In this study we report the preparation and characterization of iron oxide particles coated with bioceramic hydroxyapatite by spray-drying. The iron oxide magnetic particles (IOMP were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp by spray-drying using two IOMP/HAp ratios (0.7 and 3.2. The magnetic particles were characterized by way of scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry,vibrating sample magnetometry and particle size distribution (laser diffraction. The surface morphology of the coated samples is different from that of the iron oxide due to formation of hydroxyapatite coating. From an EDX analysis, it was verified that the surface of the coated magnetic particles is composed only of HAp, while the interior containsiron oxide and a few layers of HAp as expected. The results showed that spray-drying technique is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for forming spherical particles with a core/shell structure.As partículas de óxido de ferro têm sido extensivamente usadas em diagnósticos médicos como agente de contraste para imagem por ressonância magnética e na terapia do câncer, dentre estas, liberação de fármacos em sitos alvos e hipertermia magnética. Neste estudo nós reportamos a preparação e caracterização de partículas magnéticas de óxido de ferro revestidas com a biocerâmica hidroxiapatita. As partículas magnéticasde óxido de ferro (PMOF foram revestidas com hidroxiapatita por spray-drying usando duas razões PMOF/HAp (0,7 e 3,2. As partículas magnéticas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, energia dispersiva de raios X, difração de raios X, espectroscopia de absorção no infra

  6. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped nickel oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathisha, D.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of about 400 °C by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of Co doping concentration on structural, optical and compositional properties of NiO thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction result shows that the deposited thin films are polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphologies of the deposited thin films were observed by FESEM and AFM. EDS spectra showed the incorporation of Co dopants in NiO thin films. Optical properties of the grown thin films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap energy and transmittance of the films decrease with increasing Co doping concentration.

  7. Characterization of cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia obtained by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmenschlager, Cibele M.; Nunes, Marilia; Vieira, Ramaugusto; Bergmann, Carlos Perez; Falcade, Tiago; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga

    2009-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) has been the object of many studies as a SOFC electrolyte. The aim of this work is to produce, by spray pyrolysis process, thin and dense films of YSZ. A disk of steel 316L, previously heated, was used as substrate. The film was obtained with zirconium acetylacetonate (Zr(C 6 H 7 O 2 ) 4 ) and yttrium chloride (YCl 3.6 H 2 O), dissolved in a mixture of ethanol + butyl carbitol with volume ratio (1:1). ZrO 2 amorphous films were deposited in the substrate heated at many temperatures. After thermal treatment at 700 deg C the films were changed into cubic yttria-stabilized-zirconia structure. The thin films obtained were characterized by thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  8. Interface characterization of plasma sprayed hydroxy apatite coat on Ti-6 Al-4 V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani, M.; Afshar, A.; Ehsani, N.; Saeri, R.; Sorrell, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite, a material proven to be biocompatible within the human body, has been produced to a high level of purity. This material has been applied as a coating on Ti-6 Al-4 V alloy by using the air plasma spraying technique.The coat was characterized with SEM, XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy methods to consist of a mixture of calcium phosphates including H A mainly and traces of tricalcium phosphate, tetra calcium phosphate and calcium oxide phases. This H A phase was dehydrated and partially decomposed to oxy apatite and amorphous H A. EPMA method was used cross-sectionally on the interface in order to determine the depth profiles and elemental maps of Calcium, Phosphorous, Oxygen, Titanium, Vanadium and Aluminum elements.The results clearly showed to evidence of interdiffusion at the interface. Ultimately, the diffusion depth of each element was studied and compared with each other

  9. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF YTTRIA AND MAGNESIA PARTIALLY STABILIZED ZIRCONIA BIOCOMPATIBLE COATINGS DEPOSITED BY PLASMA SPRAYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roşu R. A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia (ZrO2 is a biocompatible ceramic material which is successfully used in medicine to cover the metallic implants by various methods. In order to avoid the inconvenients related to structural changes which may appear because of the temperature treatment while depositing the zirconia layer over the metallic implant, certain oxides are added, the most used being Y2O3, MgO and CaO. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the deposition of yttria (Y2O3 and magnesia (MgO partially stabilized zirconia layers onto titanium alloy substrate by plasma spraying method. X ray diffraction investigations carried out both on the initial powders and the coatings evidenced the fact that during the thermal spraying process the structure has not been significantly modified, consisting primarily of zirconium oxide with tetragonal structure. Electronic microscopy analyses show that the coatings are dense, uniform and cracks-free. Adherence tests performed on samples whose thickness ranges between 160 and 220 μm showed that the highest value (23.5 MPa was obtained for the coating of ZrO2 - 8 wt. % Y2O3 with 160 μm thickness. The roughness values present an increasing tendency with increasing the coatings thickness.

  11. Characterization of short chain fatty acid microcapsules produced by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Maria Ines; Andrade, Leonardo R.; Farina, Marcos; Rocha-Leao, Maria Helena M.

    2004-01-01

    Microcapsules containing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were produced by spray drying technique using different proportions of gum arabic and maltodextrin as wall materials. Proportions of 5% and 10% of gum arabic and maltodextrin isolated, and a mixture of 5% of maltodextrin and 5% of gum arabic were added to samples of fermented permeate containing SCFA, and spray dried. The microstructure of microcapsules was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the size distribution was obtained by laser diffraction. SEM observations showed that the microcapsules structures were affected by type and proportion of wall material tested. Most of the microcapsules containing gum arabic as wall material had surface dents or invaginations. Microcapsules containing maltodextrin were spherical with few surface dents and some of them had pores. The larger microcapsule sizes were observed in those containing maltodextrin. Our results show that microstructure and size of microcapsules are affected by type and proportion of biomaterial used. The samples containing 5% of maltodextrin and the mixture of 5% of gum arabic with 5% of maltodextrin presented smooth surfaces and homogenous size distributions. The corresponding microcapsules are considered optimal to food industrial uses due to the flowability property. Besides, these capsules were found to present a homogenous distribution of diameters, which may give a homogenous flavor distribution to the food products

  12. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  13. Characterization of an evaporating direct-injected gasoline spray using laser-induced exciplex fluorescence and particle image velocimetry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong-Seok Choi; Choongsik Bae [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Duck-Jool Kim [Pusan National University (Korea). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize an evaporating direct-injected (DI) gasoline spray from a high-pressure swirl injector using the laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique and particle image velocimetry (PIV). A fluorobenzene/diethylmethylamine (DEMA) system was used as the exciplex-forming dopants. The behaviour of the liquid and vapour phases was analysed by image processing. For the analysis of vorticity inside the spray, droplet velocity data obtained by PIV were used. The experiments were performed at two ambient temperatures (293 and 473 K) and three different ambient pressures (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 MPa). It was found that ambient temperature had a significant effect on the axial and radial growth of the liquid phase of the evaporating spray at atmospheric pressure while it had little effect under elevated pressures. Radial growth of the vapour phase of the evaporating spray was more dominant than axial growth under high temperature and pressure conditions. As the ambient pressure was elevated, the liquid phase of the spray transformed from a hollow cone to a solid cone of bell shape, while the vapour phase varied from a widespread distribution to a compact shape with a locally richer mixture. The evaporating spray could be divided into two spray regions from the analysis of vorticity and the distributions of liquid and vapour phases. The cone region (penetrations of 0.3-0.5) was mainly liquid phase and disappeared rapidly at the end of injection. The mixing region contained the active interaction between entrained air and fuel vapour. (author)

  14. Preparation and Characterization of the Solid Spherical HMX/F2602 by the Suspension Spray-Drying Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Jingyu; Ye, Baoyun; Wang, Cailing

    2016-10-01

    Solid spherical octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine/fluororubber2602 (HMX/F2602) was prepared by the suspension spray-drying method as follows: firstly, thinning octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was obtained by a solvent-anti-solvent method. Secondly, thinning HMX suspended in ethyl acetate solvent in a solution of a binder-F2602-was made into a suspension. Finally, the samples were prepared by spray drying. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and its thermal stability as well as mechanical and spark sensitivities were measured. The results of SEM showed that the grain of HMX/F2602 was solid spherical and the particle distribution was homogeneous. The results of XPS indicated that F2602 can be successfully coated on the surface of HMX crystals. Compared to raw HMX, th characteristic drop height was increased from 19.60 to 40.37 cm, an increase of 79.10%. The friction sensitivities of HMX reduced from 100 to 28% and the spark sensitivity of HMX/F2602 increased. The critical explosion temperatures of raw HMX and HMX/F2602 were 275.43 and 274.30°C, respectively. The amount of gas evolution of raw HMX and HMX/F2602 was 0.15 and 0.12 ml.(5 g)-1, respectively. The results of DSC and vacuum stability tests (VSTs) indicate that the thermal stability of HMX/F2602 was equal to that of raw HMX and HMX and F2602 had good compatibility.

  15. Development of construction methods for high-density bentonite barriers using premixed spraying. Part 1. Laboratory tests on methods of spraying roughly crushed bentonite and investigation of mixing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ichizo; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Toida, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    According to the present concept of geological disposal of radioactive waste, a disposal facility should consist of a bentonite-engineered barrier, a cementitious-engineered barrier, and natural barriers. To guarantee the validity of the geological disposal concept, the bentonite-engineered barrier must have high impermeability. However, an effective construction method for high-density bentonite-engineered barriers in narrow spaces such as those in radioactive waste geological disposal sites has not been developed. Therefore, the authors have developed a spraying method that has high workability in narrow spaces as a method of constructing bentonite-engineered barriers in narrow spaces. This paper describes the production method for a spraying material and an examination through spraying tests of the spraying distance, the shapes of the spray nozzles, and the ratio of spraying material to air. The test results confirmed that a bentonite-engineered barrier of dry density 1.6 Mg/m 3 could be constructed using the spraying method developed and that the appropriate spraying conditions for the construction of high-density bentonite barriers were obtained. Moreover, the authors developed a construction quality management method using the silicon oil specific-gravity method that can clearly and promptly indicate the dry density of the sprayed bentonite. (author)

  16. Direct characterization of commercial lecithins by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gabriel D; Alberici, Rosana M; Pereira, Gustavo G; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Commercial lecithins are composed mainly of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. The analysis of the commercial lecithins, including their fraction of phospholipids, normally involves laborious and expensive protocols. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to be an efficient technique for the analysis of lipids. Samples of commercial lecithins including standards, refined, deoiled and modified soy lecithin were tested. Characteristic profiles of phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols are detected by EASI(+)-MS, whereas EASI(-)-MS provided phosphatidylethanolamines, glycophospholipids and free fatty acids profiles. Acetylated lecithins also displayed characteristic acetylated derivatives. EASI-MS data was also compared to MALDI-MS, and found to display richer compositional information. The industrial process applied to lecithin fabrication was also characterised via typical EASI-MS profiles. EASI-MS both in its positive and negative ion modes offers a direct, fast and efficient technique able to characterise commercial lecithin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings for high-temperature wear-protection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.

    1980-03-01

    Under normal high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions, faying surfaces of metallic components under high contact pressure are prone to friction, wear, and self-welding damage. Component design calls for coatings for the protection of the mating surfaces. Anticipated operating temperatures up to 850 to 950 0 C (1562 to 1742 0 F) and a 40-y design life require coatings with excellent thermal stability and adequate wear and spallation resistance, and they must be compatible with the HTGR coolant helium environment. Plasma and detonation-gun (D-gun) deposited chromium carbide-base and stabilized zirconia coatings are under consideration for wear protection of reactor components such as the thermal barrier, heat exchangers, control rods, and turbomachinery. Programs are under way to address the structural integrity, helium compatibility, and tribological behavior of relevant sprayed coatings. In this paper, the need for protection of critical metallic components and the criteria for selection of coatings are discussed. The technical background to coating development and the experience with the steam cycle HTGR (HTGR-SC) are commented upon. Coating characterization techniques employed at General Atomic Company (GA) are presented, and the progress of the experimental programs is briefly reviewed. In characterizing the coatings for HTGR applications, it is concluded that a systems approach to establish correlation between coating process parameters and coating microstructural and tribological properties for design consideration is required

  18. Salt Spray Test to Determine Galvanic Corrosion Levels of Electroless Nickel Connectors Mounted on an Aluminum Bracket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.; Torres, P. D.; Jones, D. D.; Laird, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    During preliminary vehicle design reviews, requests were made to change flight termination systems from an electroless nickel (EN) connector coating to a zinc-nickel (ZN) plating. The reason for these changes was due to a new NASA-STD-6012 corrosion requirement where connectors must meet the performance requirement of 168 hr of exposure to salt spray. The specification for class F connectors, MIL-DTL-38999, certifies the EN coating will meet a 48-hr salt spray test, whereas the ZN is certified to meet a 168-hr salt spray test. The ZN finish is a concern because Marshall Space Flight Center has no flight experience with ZN-finished connectors, and MSFC-STD-3012 indicates that zinc and zinc alloys should not be used. The purpose of this test was to run a 168-hr salt spray test to verify the electrical and mechanical integrity of the EN connectors and officially document the results. The salt spray test was conducted per ASTM B117 on several MIL-DTL-38999 flight-like connectors mounted to an aluminum 6061-T6 bracket that was alodined. The configuration, mounting techniques, electrical checks, and materials used were typical of flight and ground support equipment.

  19. Characterization of viscous biofuel sprays using digital imaging in the near field region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The atomization of biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin has been studied in an atmospheric spray rig by using digital imaging (PDIA). Images of the spray were captured in the near field, just 18 mm downstream of the atomizer, and processed to automatically determine the size of both ligaments and

  20. Liquid Methane Testing With a Large-Scale Spray Bar Thermodynamic Vent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Flachbart, R. H.; Sisco, J. D.; Schnell. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted liquid methane testing in November 2006 using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed outfitted with a spray bar thermodynamic vent system (TVS). The basic objective was to identify any unusual or unique thermodynamic characteristics associated with densified methane that should be considered in the design of space-based TVSs. Thirteen days of testing were performed with total tank heat loads ranging from 720 to 420 W at a fill level of approximately 90%. It was noted that as the fluid passed through the Joule-Thompson expansion, thermodynamic conditions consistent with the pervasive presence of metastability were indicated. This Technical Publication describes conditions that correspond with metastability and its detrimental effects on TVS performance. The observed conditions were primarily functions of methane densification and helium pressurization; therefore, assurance must be provided that metastable conditions have been circumvented in future applications of thermodynamic venting to in-space methane storage.

  1. A novel preparation method for drug nanocrystals and characterization by ultrasonic spray assisted electrostatic adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao B

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bing Gao,1–3 Jun Wang,2 Dunju Wang,1,2 Ziqiang Zhu,1,2 Zhiqiang Qiao,2 Guangcheng Yang,2 Fude Nie21School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, People's Republic of China, 2Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, People's Republic of China, 3Si Chuan Research Center of New Materials, Mianyang, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel and continuous method for preparing a nanosized particle of drug crystals and to characterize its properties.Materials and methods: A new apparatus was introduced to crystallize nanosized drug crystals of amitriptyline hydrochloride as a model drug. The samples were prepared in the pure state by ultrasonic spray, and elaborated deposition was completed via electrostatic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the size of the particles; this was subsequently followed by differential scanning calorimetry.Results and discussion: Nanoparticles of drug crystals were successfully prepared. The size of the drug crystals ranged from 20 nm to 400 nm; the particle size of amitriptyline hydrochloride was approximately 71 nm. The particles were spherical and rectangular in shape. Moreover, the melting point of the nanoparticles decreased from 198.2°C to 196.3°C when compared to raw particle crystals. Furthermore, the agglomeration effect was also attenuated as a result of electrostatic repulsion among each particle when absorbed, and depositing on the inner wall of the gathering unit occurred under the electrostatic effect.Conclusion: Ultrasonic spray-assisted electrostatic adsorption is a very effective and continuous method to produce drug nanocrystals. This method can be applied to poorly water-soluble drugs, and it can also be a very effective alternative for industrial production. Once the

  2. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  3. Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the

  4. Synthesis and characterization of in situ TiC–TiB2 composite coatings by reactive plasma spraying on a magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Binglin; Tao Shunyan; Huang Wenzhi; Khan, Zuhair S.; Fan Xizhi; Gu Lijian; Wang Ying; Xu Jiaying; Cai Xiaolong; Ma Hongmei; Cao Xueqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiC–TiB 2 composites coatings were produced on Mg alloy by reactive plasma spraying. ► Phase composition, microstructure and wear resistance of the coatings were studied. ► The resultant product in the coatings was composed of TiC and TiB 2 . ► The produced coatings displayed porous and dense microstructures. ► The synthesized coatings exhibited good wear resistance for Mg alloy substrate. - Abstract: TiC–TiB 2 composite coatings were successfully synthesized using the technique of reactive plasma spraying (RPS) on a magnesium alloy. Phase composition, microstructure and wear resistance of the coatings were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and pin-on-disk wear test, respectively. The results showed that the resultant product in the RPS coatings was composed of TiC and TiB 2 . Depending on the ignition of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction in the agglomerate particles, the RPS coatings displayed porous and dense microstructures. The porosity of the RPS coatings, to some extent, decreased when the feed powders were plasma sprayed with Ni powders. The RPS coatings provided good wear resistance for the substrate under various loads. For high loads (e.g., ≥15 N), the wear resistance could be significantly improved by the proper addition of Ni into the RPS coatings.

  5. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Craye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin–lysine (SVS-LYS at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co-amorphous mixture upon ball milling. In addition, a spray-dried formulation of SVS without LYS was prepared. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS revealed that SLS coated the SVS and SVS-LYS particles upon spray drying. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC showed that in the spray-dried formulations the remaining crystallinity originated from SLS only. The best dissolution properties and a “spring and parachute” effect were found for SVS spray-dried from a 5% SLS solution without LYS. Despite the presence of at least partially crystalline SLS in the mixtures, all the studied formulations were able to significantly extend the stability of amorphous SVS compared to previous co-amorphous formulations of SVS. The best stability (at least 12 months in dry conditions was observed when SLS was spray-dried with SVS (and LYS. In conclusion, spray drying of SVS and LYS from aqueous surfactant solutions was able to produce formulations with improved physical stability for amorphous SVS.

  6. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craye, Goedele; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas; Laitinen, Riikka

    2015-12-03

    In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin-lysine (SVS-LYS) at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co-amorphous mixture upon ball milling. In addition, a spray-dried formulation of SVS without LYS was prepared. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that SLS coated the SVS and SVS-LYS particles upon spray drying. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that in the spray-dried formulations the remaining crystallinity originated from SLS only. The best dissolution properties and a "spring and parachute" effect were found for SVS spray-dried from a 5% SLS solution without LYS. Despite the presence of at least partially crystalline SLS in the mixtures, all the studied formulations were able to significantly extend the stability of amorphous SVS compared to previous co-amorphous formulations of SVS. The best stability (at least 12 months in dry conditions) was observed when SLS was spray-dried with SVS (and LYS). In conclusion, spray drying of SVS and LYS from aqueous surfactant solutions was able to produce formulations with improved physical stability for amorphous SVS.

  7. Preparation and characterization of tin sulphide thin films by a spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Haj Salah, H.; Bouzouita, H.; Rezig, B.

    2005-01-01

    We have attempted the preparation and characterization of Sn 2 S 3 thin films by using the spray pyrolysis technique. We started with acidic aqueous solutions including tin (II) chloride and thiourea, which were atomized with compressed air as carrier gas. The Sn 2 S 3 thin films were obtained on glass substrates. Thin layers of Sn-S have been grown at various temperatures in the range of 275-325 deg. C and various [S/Sn] ratios. The structural properties have been determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The changes observed in the structural phases during the film formation in dependence of growth temperatures are reported and discussed. The optical constants of the deposited films were obtained using the experimentally recorded transmission and reflectance spectral data as functions of the wavelength, in the range of 300-1800 nm. An analysis of the deduced spectral absorption of the deposited films revealed an optical indirect band gap energy of 1.9-2.2 eV for Sn 2 S 3 layers

  8. Spray Droplet Characterization from a Single Nozzle by High Speed Image Analysis Using an In-Focus Droplet Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Sofija Vulgarakis; Cointault, Frédéric; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2016-02-06

    Accurate spray characterization helps to better understand the pesticide spray application process. The goal of this research was to present the proof of principle of a droplet size and velocity measuring technique for different types of hydraulic spray nozzles using a high speed backlight image acquisition and analysis system. As only part of the drops of an agricultural spray can be in focus at any given moment, an in-focus criterion based on the gray level gradient was proposed to decide whether a given droplet is in focus or not. In a first experiment, differently sized droplets were generated with a piezoelectric generator and studied to establish the relationship between size and in-focus characteristics. In a second experiment, it was demonstrated that droplet sizes and velocities from a real sprayer could be measured reliably in a non-intrusive way using the newly developed image acquisition set-up and image processing. Measured droplet sizes ranged from 24 μm to 543 μm, depending on the nozzle type and size. Droplet velocities ranged from around 0.5 m/s to 12 m/s. The droplet size and velocity results were compared and related well with the results obtained with a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  9. Characterization of the spray velocities from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosland, Brian Michael; Johnson, Matthew Ronald; Matida, Edgar Akio

    2009-06-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are widely used to deliver aerosolized medications to the lungs, most often to relieve the symptoms of asthma. Over the past decade, pMDIs have been modified in several ways to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons in their manufacture while increasing efficacy. Numerical simulations are being used more frequently to predict the flow and deposition of particles at various locations, both inside the respiratory tract as well as in pMDIs and add-on devices. These simulations require detailed information about the spray generated by a pMDI to ensure the validity of their results. This paper presents detailed, spatially resolved velocity measurements of the spray emitted from salbutamol sulfate pMDIs obtained using optically triggered particle image velocimetry (PIV). Instantaneous planar velocity measurements were taken and ensemble-averaged at nine different times during the spray event ranging from 1.3 to 100 msec after a pneumatically controlled actuation. The mean spray velocities were shown to be bimodal in time, with two velocity peaks and velocity magnitudes found to be much lower than published data from instantaneous single point measurements. Planar velocity data at each time step were analyzed to produce prescriptive velocity profiles suitable for use in numerical simulations. Spray geometry data are also reported. Statistical comparisons from several thousand individual spray events indicate that there is no significant difference in measured velocity among (1) two brands of pMDI canisters, (2) two pMDIs of the same brand but having different lot numbers, and (3) a full pMDI versus an almost empty pMDI. The addition of a secondary air flow of 30 SLPM (to represent simultaneous inhalation and spray actuation) deflected the spray downward but did not have a significant effect on flow velocity. Further experiments with an added cylindrical spacer revealed that within the spacer, the spray direction and cone angle

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Yttria-stabilized-zirconia by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo Halmenschlager, Cibele; Vieira, Ramaugusto; Shigueaki Takimi, Antonio; Lima da Silva, Aline; De Fraga Malfatti, Celia; Perez Bergmann, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) has been object of many studies due to its great chemical stability and excellent ionic conduction in high temperature. One of the applications of YSZ films is the use as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The great challenge of the SOFC is the development of a intermediary temperature solid oxide fuel cell (ITSOFC) to work in a temperature around 700 o C with the same efficiency of high temperature SOFC, with this aim fuel cells utilizing thin electrolyte films ha been developed. Traditional techniques of thin films deposition as Combustion Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Sputtering are very expensive, the reagents must be very pure and it is necessary to use a system of vacuum. Spray pyrolysis is a good alternative to deposit dense films with thickness between 0,1 and 10 . This technique has a lot of advantages front to classic methods of deposition because of the simplicity of the process and the equipment, low cost, and minimal waste production. In this process, when the parameters are very well controlled, it is possible to obtain oxide films with high quality. In the present work, amorphous films consisted of a layer of 8 mol% Yttria-stabilized zirconia were produced by spray pyrolysis and heat treated to obtain crystalline films. The film was prepared with zirconium acetylacetonate (Zr(C 6 H 7 O 2 ) 4 ) and yttrium chloride (YCl 3 .6H 2 O), dissolved in ethanol (C 2 H 6 O) and diethylene glycol butyl ether (C 8 H 18 O 3 ) mixed in the volume ratio of 1:1, and a disk of steel 316L was used as substrate. The amorphous film was deposited in the substrate heat until 280 o C ± 50 o C and after deposition from thermal treatment at 700 o C, the amorphous film was changed into Yttria-stabilized-zirconia crystalline film. The precursor solution was characterized for the Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The morphology and crystallinity of the films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction

  11. Synthesis Characterization and Decomposition Studies of tris[N-N-dibenzyidithocarbaso)Indium (III) Chemical Spray Deposition of Polycrystalline CuInS2 on Copper Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.; Lau, J. Eva; Harris, Jerry D.; Hoops, Michael D.; Duffy, Norman V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the synthesis characterization and decomposition studies of tris[N-N-dibenzyidithocarbaso)Indium (III) with chemical spray deposition of polycrystalline CuInS2 on Copper Films.

  12. Spray characterization of a piezo pintle-type injector for gasoline direct injection engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, J. M.; Hamid, M. A.; Yan, Y.; Arcoumanis, C.

    2007-10-01

    The sprays from a pintle-type nozzle injected into a constant volume chamber have been visualised by a high resolution CCD camera and quantified in terms of droplet velocity and diameter with a 2-D phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) system at an injection pressure of 200 bar and back-pressures varying from atmospheric to 12 bar. Spray visualization illustrated that the spray was string-structured, that the location of the strings remained constant from one injection to the next and that the spray structure was unaffected by back pressure. The overall spray cone angle was also stable and independent of back pressure whose effect was to reduce the spray tip penetration so that the averaged vertical spray tip velocity was reduced by 37% when the back-pressure increased from 1 to 12 bar. Detailed PDA measurements were carried out under atmospheric conditions at 2.5 and 10 mm from the injector exit with the results providing both the temporal and the spatial velocity and size distributions of the spray droplets. The maximum axial mean droplet velocity was 155 m/s at 2.5 mm from the injector which was reduced to 140 m/s at z = 10 mm. The string spacing determined from PDA measurements was around 0.375 mm and 0.6 mm at z=2.5 and 10 mm, respectively. The maximum mean droplet diameter was found to be in the core of the strings with values up to 40 μm at z=2.5 mm reducing to 20 μm at z=10 mm.

  13. Spray characterization of a piezo pintle-type injector for gasoline direct injection engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, J M; Hamid, M A; Yan, Y; Arcoumanis, C

    2007-01-01

    The sprays from a pintle-type nozzle injected into a constant volume chamber have been visualised by a high resolution CCD camera and quantified in terms of droplet velocity and diameter with a 2-D phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) system at an injection pressure of 200 bar and back-pressures varying from atmospheric to 12 bar. Spray visualization illustrated that the spray was string-structured, that the location of the strings remained constant from one injection to the next and that the spray structure was unaffected by back pressure. The overall spray cone angle was also stable and independent of back pressure whose effect was to reduce the spray tip penetration so that the averaged vertical spray tip velocity was reduced by 37% when the back-pressure increased from 1 to 12 bar. Detailed PDA measurements were carried out under atmospheric conditions at 2.5 and 10 mm from the injector exit with the results providing both the temporal and the spatial velocity and size distributions of the spray droplets. The maximum axial mean droplet velocity was 155 m/s at 2.5 mm from the injector which was reduced to 140 m/s at z = 10 mm. The string spacing determined from PDA measurements was around 0.375 mm and 0.6 mm at z=2.5 and 10 mm, respectively. The maximum mean droplet diameter was found to be in the core of the strings with values up to 40 μm at z=2.5 mm reducing to 20 μm at z=10 mm

  14. Spray droplet velocity characterization for convergent nozzles with three different diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Payri; B. Tormos; F.J. Salvador; L. Araneo [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). CMT-Motores Termicos

    2008-11-15

    The core of the present work consists of the phase-Doppler anemometry non-intrusive measurements performed at various points of diesel direct injection sprays in order to obtain the local speed of fuel droplets. The main objective was to perform extensive sets of measurements on convergent nozzles with various orifices diameters, observe and justify the differences and compare the experimental data with a theoretical approach derived by the authors in a previous work which takes into account the spray momentum flux. Experimental axial velocity profiles in different sections of the spray showed a radial distribution that was fitted with a high level of agreement to a Gaussian profile and so proving that this type of profile is a reasonable approach for the type of sprays within the scope of the present work. The experimental results showed that the velocity in the spray's axis inversely depends on axial position and that for a given axial position; higher axial velocity has been measured for the nozzles with higher spray momentum. 16 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of spray deposited CZTS thin films for photo-electrochemical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Arvind; Patel, Biren; Mukhopadhyay, Priyanka Marathey Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is one of the most promising light absorber materials for photovoltaic and photo-electrochemical applications. We synthesized CZTS thin films on a F:SnO2 and soda lime glass substrates by very simple, cost effective and highly scalable spray pyrolysis technique. The films were post treated by rapid thermal processing route of sulfurization to enhance the stoichiometry and crystallinity of the film. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of RTP sulfurized films were studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of tetragonal CZTS phase, which confirmed by Raman analysis with a major peak at 336 cm-1 without the presence of the principle vibration mode of any other secondary phases, such as Cu2SnS3, CuxS(x=1.8,2) etc. The sulfurized film exhibited increased crystallinity and better stoichiometry. The optical and electrical data reveal the direct optical band gap, bulk carrier concentration and resistivity of 1.5 eV, 2.28×1018 cm-3 and 1.21 Ω/cm2, respectively. Finally the photoactivity of CZTS thin films was tested by forming photoelectrochemical cell in 0.1M Na2S2O3 electrolyte (pH=7.72), showing a cathodic photocurrent of nearly 20 µA/cm2 at 0V RHE.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Fe doped cadmium selenide thin films by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhijit A., E-mail: aay_physics@yahoo.co.in [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413 512, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and inexpensive method to dope trivalent Fe in CdSe thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe doped CdSe thin films are highly photosensitive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM analysis shows uniform deposition of film over the entire substrate surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap energy decreases from 1.74 to 1.65 eV with Fe doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film resistivity decreases to 6.76 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} {Omega}-cm with Fe doping in CdSe thin films. - Abstract: Undoped and Fe doped CdSe thin films have been deposited onto the amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The Fe doping concentration has been optimized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) characterization technique. The structural, surface morphological, compositional, optical and electrical properties of undoped and Fe doped CdSe thin films have been studied. X-ray diffraction study reveals that the as deposited CdSe films possess hexagonal crystal structure with preferential orientation along (1 0 0) plane. AFM analysis shows uniform deposition of the film over the entire substrate surface with minimum surface roughness of 7.90 nm. Direct allowed type of transition with band gap decreasing from 1.74 to 1.65 eV with Fe doping has been observed. The activation energy of the films has been found to be in the range of 0.14-0.19 eV at low temperature and 0.27-0.44 eV at high temperature. Semi-conducting behavior has been observed from resistivity measurements. The thermoelectric power measurements reveal that the films are of n type.

  17. Water spray-induced grooming is negatively correlated with depressive behavior in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Noboru; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Masuda, Akira; Aou, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Rodents show grooming, a typical self-care behavior, under stress and non-stress conditions. Previous studies revealed that grooming under stress conditions such as the open-field test (OFT) or the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) is associated with anxiety, but the roles of grooming under non-stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we examined spray-induced grooming as a model of grooming under a non-stress condition to investigate the relationship between this grooming and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test, and we compared spray-induced grooming with OFT- and EPM-induced grooming. The main finding was that the duration of spray-induced grooming, but not that of OFT/EPM-induced grooming, was negatively correlated with the duration of immobility in the FST, an index of depression-like behavior. The results suggest that spray-induced grooming is functionally different from the grooming in the OFT and EPM and is related to reduction of depressive behavior.

  18. Effects of isothermal treatment on microstructure and scratch test behavior of plasma sprayed zirconia coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Guilherme

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the petroleum cost in the last decades revitalized the interest for lighter and more economic vehicles. Simultaneously, the demand for safe and unpolluted transports grows. The application of thermal barriers coatings (TBC on combustion chamber and on flat surface of pistons reduces the thermal losses of the engines, resulting in higher temperatures in the combustion chamber. This fact contributes to the improvement of the thermal efficiency (performance and for the reduction of incomplete combustion. Supported on these initial ideas, thermal barriers coatings constituted by CaO partially stabilized zirconia were produced and their microstructure examined. This coating still presents some drawbacks associated with thermal stresses and permeability to oxidizing gases, which will, eventually, lead to failure of the TBC by spallation. The failure may, in general, be associated to one of three factors: oxide growth at the ceramic-metal interface, formed during thermal cycling; stress build-up due to thermal cycling; and metal-oxide interface segregation, mainly of S. However, it is also relevant to understand the behavior of TBC's under isothermal oxidation. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of oxidation on the adherence of thermal sprayed coatings. The adherence was measured by linear scratching tests, widely used for thin coatings. Plasma sprayed calcia partially stabilized zirconia was used as TBC and Ni-5%Al as bond coat, with Al substrates. Coated samples were submitted to heat treatments at 500 °C, for 50 h. The microstructures were examined by optical light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, profilometry and SEM.

  19. Durability of Compressed Earth Bricks: Assessing Erosion Resistance Using the Modified Spray Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The discussion in this paper is part of research directed at establishing optimal stabilization strategy for compressed bricks. The deployment context for the use of the compressed bricks was Dar es Salaam (Tanzania where manually fabricated bricks are increasingly being used in low cost housing units. This discussion specifically focuses on strategies that can be used to counter deterioration due to wind-driven rain erosion. The impact of using cement, lime, fiber and a commercial stabilizing fluid was assessed. Factory-produced bricks were used for benchmarking. The durability of the bricks was assessed using the “modified” Bulletin 5 Spray Test. The different brick specimens were sprayed with water at 2.07 MPa and 4.14 MPa over one-hour time period while measuring the depth of erosion every 15 minutes. Factory-produced bricks hardly eroded at both 2.07 MPa and 4.14 MPa pressure levels. The maximum depth of erosion for Soil-Cement bricks ranged from a maximum of 0.5 mm at 2.07 MPa water pressure to 0.8 mm at 4.14 MPa. The maximum and minimum depths of erosion for Soil-Cement-Lime bricks were 25mm and 17 mm respectively. The inclusion of natural fiber in the bricks resulted in a sharp increase of the erosion depth to a maximum of 40 mm at 2.07 MPa and 55 mm at 4.14 Mpa. As the use of natural fibers and lime enhances some physio-mechanical properties, further research is necessary to determine ways of achieving this goal while maintaining acceptable levels of erosion resistance.

  20. Testing of Disposable Protective Garments Against Isocyanate Permeation From Spray Polyurethane Foam Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellette, Michael P; Bello, Dhimiter; Xue, Yalong; Yost, Michael; Bello, Anila; Woskie, Susan

    2018-05-12

    Diisocyanates (isocyanates), including methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), are the primary reactive components of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation. They are potent immune sensitizers and a leading cause of occupational asthma. Skin exposure to isocyanates may lead to both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and possibly contribute to systemic sensitization. More than sufficient evidence exists to justify the use of protective garments to minimize skin contact with aerosolized and raw isocyanate containing materials during SPF applications. Studies evaluating the permeation of protective garments following exposure to SPF insulation do not currently exist. To conduct permeation testing under controlled conditions to assess the effectiveness of common protective gloves and coveralls during SPF applications using realistic SPF product formulations. Five common disposable garment materials [disposable latex gloves (0.07 mm thickness), nitrile gloves (0.07 mm), vinyl gloves (0.07 mm), polypropylene coveralls (0.13 mm) and Tyvek coveralls (0.13 mm)] were selected for testing. These materials were cut into small pieces and assembled into a permeation test cell system and coated with a two-part slow-rise spray polyurethane foam insulation. Glass fiber filters (GFF) pretreated with 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine) (MAP) were used underneath the garment to collect permeating isocyanates. GFF filters were collected at predetermined test intervals between 0.75 and 20.00 min and subsequently analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For each garment material, we assessed (i) the cumulative concentration of total isocyanate, including phenyl isocyanate and three MDI isomers, that effectively permeated the material over the test time; (ii) estimated breakthrough detection time, average permeation rate, and standardized breakthrough time; from which (iii) recommendations were developed for the use of similar protective garments following

  1. Phase Change Activation and Characterization of Spray-Deposited Poly(vinylidene) Fluoride Piezoelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosbaas, Miranda Tiffany

    Structural safety and integrity continues to be an issue of utmost concern in our world today. Existing infrastructures in civil, commercial, and military applications are beginning to see issues associated with age and environmental conditions. In addition, new materials are being put to service that are not yet fully characterized and understood when it comes to long term behavior. In order to assess the structural health of both old and new materials, it is necessary to implement a technique for monitoring wear and tear. Current methods that are being used today typically depend on visual inspection techniques or handheld instruments. These methods are not always ideal for large structures as they become very tedious leading to a substantial amount of both time and money spent. More recently, composite materials have been introduced into applications that can benefit from high strength-to-weight ratio materials. However, the use of more complex materials (such as composites) leads to a high demand of structural health monitoring techniques, since the damage is often internal and not visible to the naked eye. The work performed in this thesis examines the methods that can be used for phase change activation and characterization of sprayable poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) thin films in order to exploit their piezoelectric characteristics for sensing applications. PVDF is widely accepted to exist in four phases: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Alpha phase PVDF is produced directly from the melt and exhibits no piezoelectric properties. The activation or transition from α phase to some combination of beta and/or gamma phase PVDF leads to a polarizable piezoelectric thin film to be used in sensing applications. The work herein presents the methods used to activate phase change in PVDF, such as mechanical stretching, annealing, and chemical composition, to be able to implement PVDF as an impact detection sensor. The results and analysis provided in this thesis will

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed Ultrafine Chromium Oxide Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feng; Jiang Xianliang; Yu Yueguang; Zeng Keli; Ren Xianjing; Li Zhenduo

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were prepared by plasma spraying with ultrafine feedstock. Processing parameters of plasma spraying were optimized. Optical microscope (OM) was used to observe the microstructure of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and particle size of ultrafine powder feedstock as well as to examine the microstructure of the chromium oxide coating. In addition, hardness and bonding strength of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were measured. The results showed that the optimized plasma spraying parameters were suitable for ultrafine chromium oxide coating and the properties and microstructure of the optimized ultrafine chromium oxide coating were superior compared to conventional chromium oxide wear resistant coatings

  3. Assessment study of RELAP5/MOD2, CYCLE 36. 04 based on spray start-up test for DOEL-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeyaert, P.; Stubbe, E.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents an assessment study for the code RELAP-5 MOD-2 based on a pressurizer spray start-up test of the Doel-4 power plant. Doel-4 is a three loop WESTINGHOUSE PWR plant ordered by the EBES utility with a nominal power rating of 1000 MWe and equipped with preheater type E steam generators. A large series of commissioning tests are normally performed on new plants, of which the so called pressurizer spray and heater test (SU-PR-01) was performed on February 2nd 1985. TRACTEBEL, being the Architect-Engineer for this plant was closely involved with all start-up tests and was responsible for the final approval of the tests.

  4. Fire tests to study heat insulation scenario of galvanized rolling shutters sprayed with intumescent coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ying-Ji; Chuang, Ying-Hung; Lin, Ching-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study, through standard furnace fire tests and a natural fire test, is to analyze the heat insulation behavior of galvanized rolling shutters sprayed with intumescent coatings. The following experiments and associated estimations demonstrated that in the 1-h standard fire-resisting tests, the radiant heat flux at a measuring point horizontally 1 m away from the center of an unexposed surface the radiation could reach 4.64 W/cm 2 for the traditional uninsulated galvanized rolling shutter, and that the radiant heat flux would be substantially decreased to 0.22 W/cm 2 for one with intumescent coating of 0.3 mm target thickness, which, during the heating process, expanded about 100 times in volume and then generated a certain insulation effect. Therefore the intumescent coatings on galvanized rolling shutters have been proved by this study to be a feasible method of insulation, which can be applied in the future fire compartment design of buildings.

  5. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of plasma sprayed coatings on titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Zia ur; Shabib, Ishraq [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Haider, Waseem, E-mail: haide1w@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In the realm of biomaterials, metallic materials are widely used for load bearing joints due to their superior mechanical properties. Despite the necessity for long term metallic implants, there are limitations to their prolonged use. Naturally, oxides of titanium have low solubilities and form passive oxide film spontaneously. However, some inclusion and discontinuity spots in oxide film make implant to adopt the decisive nature. These defects heighten the dissolution of metal ions from the implant surface, which results in diminishing bio-integration of titanium implant. To increase the long-term metallic implant stability, surface modifications of titanium alloys are being carried out. In the present study, biomimetic coatings of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and titanium were applied to the surface of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in order to study their electrochemical behavior. Moreover, cytotoxicity analysis was conducted for osteoblast cells by performing MTS assay. It is concluded that both hydroxyapatite and titanium coatings enhance corrosion resistance and improve cytocompatibility. - Highlights: • Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • The cyclic polarization tests revealed noticeable improvement towards the positive potentials for both Tip coatings. • CpTi-Hap and Ti6Al4V-Hap both demonstrate similar corrosion rate. • High cytotoxicity was observed for Mp when compared with Tip and Hap after 21 days of immersion. • Both Tip and Hap coatings promoted the osteoblast cell adhesion and exhibited stellar morphology.

  6. Development of an Improved Inhalable Powder Formulation of Pirfenidone by Spray-Drying: In Vitro Characterization and Pharmacokinetic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Chan, Hak-Kim; Onoue, Satomi

    2016-06-01

    Previously, a respirable powder (RP) formulation of pirfenidone (PFD) was developed for reducing phototoxic risk; however, PFD-RP demonstrated unacceptable in vitro inhalation performance. The present study aimed to develop a new RP system of PFD with favorable inhalation properties by spray-drying method. Spray-dried PFD (SD/PFD) was prepared by spray-drying with L-leucine, and the physicochemical properties and efficacy in an antigen-sensitized airway inflammation model were assessed. A pharmacokinetic study was also conducted after intratracheal and oral administration of PFD formulations. Regarding powder characterization, SD/PFD had dimpled surface with the mean diameter of 1.793 μm. In next generation impactor analysis, SD/PFD demonstrated high in vitro inhalation performance without the need of carrier particles, and the fine particle fraction of SD/PFD was calculated to be 62.4%. Insufflated SD/PFD (0.3 mg-PFD/rat) attenuated antigen-evoked inflammatory events in the lung, including infiltration of inflammatory cells and myeloperoxidase activity. Systemic exposure level of PFD after insufflation of SD/PFD at the pharmacologically effective dose was 600-fold lower than that after oral administration of PFD at the phototoxic dose. SD/PFD would be suitable for inhalation, and the utilization of an RP system with SD/PFD would provide a safer medication compared with oral administration of PFD.

  7. Analytical methods to characterize heterogeneous raw material for thermal spray process: cored wire Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, T.; Bonebeau, S.; Drehmann, R.; Grund, T.; Pawlowski, L.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In wire arc spraying, the raw material needs to exhibit sufficient formability and ductility in order to be processed. By using an electrically conductive, metallic sheath, it is also possible to handle non-conductive and/or brittle materials such as ceramics. In comparison to massive wire, a cored wire has a heterogeneous material distribution. Due to this fact and the complex thermodynamic processes during wire arc spraying, it is very difficult to predict the resulting chemical composition in the coating with sufficient accuracy. An Inconel 625 cored wire was used to investigate this issue. In a comparative study, the analytical results of the raw material were compared to arc sprayed coatings and droplets, which were remelted in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis were used to determine the chemical composition. The phase determination was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results were related to the manufacturer specifications and evaluated in respect to differences in the chemical composition. The comparison between the feedstock powder, the remelted droplets and the thermally sprayed coatings allows to evaluate the influence of the processing methods on the resulting chemical and phase composition.

  8. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craye, Goedele; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin-lysine (SVS-LYS) at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co...

  9. Formation mechanism and microstructure characterization of nickel-aluminum intertwining interface in cold spray

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xie, Y.; Yin, S.; Čížek, Jan; Cupera, J.; Guo, E.; Lupoi, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 337, March (2018), s. 447-452 ISSN 0257-8972 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Kinetic spray * Materials mixing * Grain refinement * Dynamic recrystallization * Nanostructure Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897218300574

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized calcium phosphates by flame spray pyrolysis, and their effect on osteogenic differentiation of stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataol, Sibel; Tezcaner, Ayşen [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Turkey); Duygulu, Ozgur [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Materials Institute (Turkey); Keskin, Dilek [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Turkey); Machin, Nesrin E., E-mail: nesrinmachin@gmail.com [Kocaeli University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey)

    2015-02-15

    The present study evaluates the synthesis of biocompatible osteoconductive and osteoinductive nano calcium phosphate (CaP) particles by industrially applied, aerosol-derived flame spray pyrolysis method for biomedical field. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles were produced in a range of calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, (1.20–2.19) in order to analyze the morphology and crystallinity changes, and to test the bioactivity of particles. The characterization results confirmed that nanometer-sized, spherical calcium phosphate particles were produced. The average primary particle size was determined as 23 nm by counting more than 500 particles in TEM pictures. XRD patterns, HRTEM, SAED, and SEM analyses revealed the amorphous nature of the as-prepared nano calcium phosphate particles at low Ca/P ratios. Increases in the specific surface area and crystallinity were observed with the increasing Ca/P ratio. TGA–DTA analysis showed that the thermally stable crystal phases formed after 700 °C. Cell culture studies were conducted with urine-derived stem cells that possess the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Synthesized amorphous nanoparticles did not have cytotoxic effect at 5–50 μg/ml concentration range. Cells treated with the as-prepared nanoparticles had higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity than control cells, indicating osteogenic differentiation of cells. A slight decrease in ALP activity of cells treated with two highest Ca:P ratios at 50 μg/ml concentration was observed at day 7. The findings suggest that calcium phosphate nanoparticles produced in this work have a potential to be used as biomaterials in biomedical applications.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized calcium phosphates by flame spray pyrolysis, and their effect on osteogenic differentiation of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataol, Sibel; Tezcaner, Ayşen; Duygulu, Ozgur; Keskin, Dilek; Machin, Nesrin E.

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluates the synthesis of biocompatible osteoconductive and osteoinductive nano calcium phosphate (CaP) particles by industrially applied, aerosol-derived flame spray pyrolysis method for biomedical field. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles were produced in a range of calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, (1.20-2.19) in order to analyze the morphology and crystallinity changes, and to test the bioactivity of particles. The characterization results confirmed that nanometer-sized, spherical calcium phosphate particles were produced. The average primary particle size was determined as 23 nm by counting more than 500 particles in TEM pictures. XRD patterns, HRTEM, SAED, and SEM analyses revealed the amorphous nature of the as-prepared nano calcium phosphate particles at low Ca/P ratios. Increases in the specific surface area and crystallinity were observed with the increasing Ca/P ratio. TGA-DTA analysis showed that the thermally stable crystal phases formed after 700 °C. Cell culture studies were conducted with urine-derived stem cells that possess the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Synthesized amorphous nanoparticles did not have cytotoxic effect at 5-50 μg/ml concentration range. Cells treated with the as-prepared nanoparticles had higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity than control cells, indicating osteogenic differentiation of cells. A slight decrease in ALP activity of cells treated with two highest Ca:P ratios at 50 μg/ml concentration was observed at day 7. The findings suggest that calcium phosphate nanoparticles produced in this work have a potential to be used as biomaterials in biomedical applications.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of spray-dried PLGA/PEG microspheres, and preliminary assessment of biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javiya, Curie; Jonnalagadda, Sriramakamal

    2016-09-01

    The use of spray-drying to prepare blended PLGA:PEG microspheres with lower immune detection. To study physical properties, polymer miscibility and alveolar macrophage response for blended PLGA:PEG microspheres prepared by a laboratory-scale spray-drying process. Microspheres were prepared by spray-drying 0-20% w/w ratios of PLGA 65:35 and PEG 3350 in dichloromethane. Particle size and morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Polymer miscibility and residual solvent levels evaluated by thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry - DSC and thermogravimetric analysis - TGA). Immunogenicity was assessed in vitro by response of rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383) by the MTT-based cell viability assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection. The spray dried particles were spherical, with a size range of about 2-3 µm and a yield of 16-60%. Highest yield was obtained at 1% PEG concentration. Thermal analysis showed a melting peak at 59 °C (enthalpy: 170.61 J/g) and a degradation-onset of 180 °C for PEG 3350. PLGA 65:35 was amorphous, with a Tg of 43 °C. Blended PLGA:PEG microspheres showed a delayed degradation-onset of 280 °C, and PEG enthalpy-loss corresponding to 15% miscibility of PEG in PLGA. NR8383 viability studies and ROS detection upon exposure to these cells suggested that blended PLGA:PEG microspheres containing 1 and 5% PEG are optimal in controling cell proliferation and activation. This research establishes the feasibility of using a spray-drying process to prepare spherical particles (2-3 µm) of molecularly-blended PLGA 65:35 and PEG 3350. A PEG concentration of 1-5% was optimal to maximize process yield, with minimal potential for immune detection.

  13. Electrochemical testing of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    Electrochemical performance of metal-supported plasma sprayed (PS) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was tested for three nominal electrolyte thicknesses and three electrolyte fabrication conditions to determine the effects of electrolyte thickness and microstructure on open circuit voltage (OCV) and series resistance (R s). The measured OCV values were approximately 90% of the Nernst voltages, and electrolyte area specific resistances below 0.1 Ω cm 2 were obtained at 750 °C for electrolyte thicknesses below 20 μm. Least-squares fitting was used to estimate the contributions to R s of the YSZ bulk material, its microstructure, and the contact resistance between the current collectors and the cells. It was found that the 96% dense electrolyte layers produced from high plasma gas flow rate conditions had the lowest permeation rates, the highest OCV values, and the smallest electrolyte-related voltage losses. Optimal electrolyte thicknesses were determined for each electrolyte microstructure that would result in the lowest combination of OCV loss and voltage loss due to series resistance for operating voltages of 0.8 V and 0.7 V.

  14. An Optical Characterization of Atomization in Non-Evaporating Diesel Sprays

    OpenAIRE

    Lockett, R. D.; Jeshani, M.; Makri, K.; Price, R.

    2016-01-01

    High-speed planar laser Mie scattering and Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) was employed for the determination of Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution in non-evaporating diesel sprays. The effect of rail pressure, distillation profile, and consequent fuel viscosity on the drop size distribution developing during primary and secondary atomization was investigated. Samples of conventional crude-oil derived middle-distillate diesel and light distillate kerosene were delivered into an optical...

  15. InP and GaAs characterization with variable stoichiometry obtained by molecular spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massies, J.; Linh, N. T.; Olivier, J.; Faulconnier, P.; Poirier, R.

    1979-01-01

    Both InP and GaAs surfaces were studied in parallel. A molecular spray technique was used to obtain two semiconductor surfaces with different superficial compositions. The structures of these surfaces were examined by electron diffraction. Electron energy loss was measured spectroscopically in order to determine surface electrical characteristics. The results are used to support conclusions relative to the role of surface composition in establishing a Schottky barrier effect in semiconductor devices.

  16. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  17. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  18. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  19. Testing of a new dense gas approach in the Lagrangian Dispersion Model SPRAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortarini, Luca; Alessandrini, Stefano; Ferrero, Enrico; Anfossi, Domenico; Manfrin, Massimiliano

    2013-04-01

    A new original method for the dispersion of a positively and negatively buoyant plume is proposed. The buoyant pollutant movement is treated introducing a fictitious scalar inside the Lagrangian Stochastic Particle Model SPRAY. The method is based on the same idea of Alessandrini and Ferrero (Phys. A 388:1375-1387, 2009) for the treatment of a background substance entrainment into the plume. In this application, the fictitious scalar is the density and momentum difference between the plume portions and the environment air that naturally takes into account the interaction between the plume and the environment. As a consequence, no more particles than those inside the plume have to be released to simulate the entrainment of the background air temperature. In this way the entrainment is properly simulated and the plume sink is calculated from the local property of the flow. This new approach is wholly Lagrangian in the sense that the Eulerian grid is only used to compute the propriety of a portion of the plume from the particles contained in every cell. No equation of the bulk plume is solved on a fixed grid. To thoroughly test the turbulent velocity field calculated by the model, the latter is compared with a water tank experiment carried out in the TURLAB laboratory in Turin (Italy). A vertical density driven current was created releasing a saline solution (salt and water) in a water tank with no mean flow. The experiment reproduces in physical similarity, based on the density Froud number, the release of a dense gas in the planetary boundary layer and the Particle Image Velocimetry technique has been used to analyze the buoyancy generated velocity field. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the measurements gives a deep insight to the problems of the bouncing of the dense gas and of the creation of the outflow velocity at the ground.

  20. Improved methods for testing bond and intrinsic strength and fatigue of thermally sprayed metallic and ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, K.K.; Ziehl, M.H.; Schwaminger, C.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional bond strength tests for thermally sprayed coatings represent only a rough means of obtaining overall strength values, with no differentiation between adhesion at the interface and intrinsic coating properties. In order to obtain information about the influence of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion of a Tribaloy T700 coating, tensile bond strength and modified crack-opening displacement (COD) specimens were tested by deliberate crack initiation at the interface. Crack initiation was achieved by weakening of the interface at the outer diameter in the case of bond strength specimens or at the notch root in the case of COD specimens. This made it possible to look at the influence of surface roughness and grit contamination on the coating adhesion separately. Modified COD specimens with the notch in the centre of the coating were used to determine crack-opening energies and critical stress intensity factors of atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiAl and low pressure plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY bond coatings and a ZrO 2 7Y 2 O 3 thermal barrier coating (TBC). Additionally, bond strength specimens were stressed dynamically, and it could be demonstrated that Woehler (S/N) diagrams can be established for a metallic NiAl bond coating and even for a ceramic ZrO 2 7Y 2 O 3 TBC. (orig.)

  1. Surface characterization of a corroded bronze-leaded alloy in a salt spray cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura D'Ars de Figueiredo Junior, Joao; Freitas Cunha Lins, Vanessa de; Bellis, Vito Modesto de

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion products of a TM 23 bronze-leaded alloy (Cu 72%, Pb 15%, Zn 8% and Sn 5%) were obtained in a salt spray cabinet after exposition during 120 h and 1000 h. The products obtained were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The major products of bronze-leaded corrosion were oxides and basic salts of Cu, CuCl 2 .3Cu(OH) 2 , and Pb, Pb(OH)Cl. The results can be attributed to a kinetic control of the corrosion reactions

  2. Plasma-spray synthesis and characterization of ti-based nitride and oxide nanogranules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipas, Georgios S.E., E-mail: gantipas@metal.ntua.gr [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis of nanosized Ti-based nanogranules via plasma spraying is reported. The synthesis route involved use of both nitrogen and oxygen gases with varying results. In the case of nitrogen, a mixture of titanium nitrides were produced, yielding both the Ti2N and the sub-stoichiometric TiN0.61 compounds. In the case of oxygen, both the stoichiometric rutile and TiO ceramic phases were indexed. Based on EDS analysis, even fractional oxygen concentrations caused tungsten impurities which originated from the cathode electrode. The method yielded particle mass median sizes of the order of 15nm and the smallest particles detected were 5nm. (author)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films using spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamale, A.P.; Chourasiya, M.G.; Chavan, A.U.; Patil, S.P.; Jadhav, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    Micro solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are of great potential, which require components in film form. We are reporting the spray pyrolysis of 8YSZ films as solid electrolyte for micro-SOFC. The process parameters of the technique were optimized to get stoichiometric films of YSZ. The micro-structural and electrical properties of the films were studied. The elemental analysis of the film showed the desired composition in the film. The conductivity of the film was 0.05 S/cm at 500 deg C with activation energy of 0.90eV. (author)

  4. High resolution microstructure characterization of the interface between cold sprayed Al coating and Mg alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Qiu, Dong; Xiong, Yuming; Birbilis, Nick; Zhang, Ming-Xing

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) has validated the intimate metallurgical (atomic) bond formed along the interface of a cold-sprayed Al coating upon an Mg-alloy (AZ91) substrate. The compressive impact led to the formation of nanostructured layers of about 300–500 nm into the substrate. A highly distorted lattice structure with the inclusion of small amorphous zones was observed at the periphery of the particle/substrate interface, as a result of adiabatic shear plastic deformation at a high strain rate.

  5. Wet Slurry Abrasion Tests of Ceramic Coatings Deposited by Water-Stabilized Plasma Spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nohava, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 203-214 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma spraying, wear resistence, ceramic coating Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  6. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tosh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%. Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively than lentils (21.9%, whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%. Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.

  7. Formulation and characterization of Turkish oregano microcapsules prepared by spray-drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskaite, Juste; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Masteikova, Ruta; Kopustinskiene, Dalia; Baranauskas, Algirdas; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was optimization of spray-drying process conditions for microencapsulation of Turkish oregano extract. Different concentrations of maltodextrin and gum arabic as encapsulating agents (wall material) as well as influence of selected processing variables were evaluated. The optimal conditions were maintained on the basis of the load of main bioactive compounds - ursolic, rosmarinic acids and carvacrol - in prepared microparticles after comparison of all significant response variables using desirability function. Physicomechanical properties of powders such as flowability, wettability, solubility, moisture content as well as product yield, encapsulation efficiency (EE), density, morphology and size distribution of prepared microparticles have been determined. The results demonstrated that the optimal conditions for spray-drying mixture consisted of two parts of wall material solution and one part of ethanolic oregano extract when the feed flow rate was 40 mL/min and air inlet temperature -170 °C. Optimal concentration of wall materials in solution was 20% while the ratio of maltodextrin and gum arabic was 8.74:1.26.

  8. Deposition and characterization of ZnO thin films by modified pulsed-spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilakan, Periyasamy; Radheep, D Mohan; Saravanakumar, K; Sasikala, G

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited using modified pulsed-spray pyrolysis on glass substrates. Depositions were carried out using N 2 as the carrier gas and analysed with respect to the rate of deposition. X-ray analysis revealed the presence of mixed crystallization with a nanocrystalline structure of about 6.9 nm dispersed in the amorphous matrix. A negative trend between the bandgap and resistivity was observed with the decrease in the deposition rate. A lowest bandgap of 3.1 eV with a resistivity value of 1.6 × 10 −2 Ω cm was achieved at a lowest deposition rate of 1.3 nm min −1 . Hot-probe measurement revealed the p-type conductivity for the film deposited at a lowest deposition rate of 1.3 nm min −1 . Details about the influence of pulsed-spray deposition for the achievement of this negative trend between bandgap and resistivity will be discussed in this paper

  9. Characterization of the SnO{sub 2}:F/CdS:In structures prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.; Ahmad-Bitar, Riyad N. [University of Jordan, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Queen Rania Street, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-05-15

    SnO{sub 2}:F/CdS:In bilayers were spray-deposited on glass substrates. The structures were characterized by recording and investigating their transmittance curves, I-V plots, X-ray diffractograms (XRD) and by observing their scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. From the I-V plots it was found that the SnO{sub 2}:F forms an ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with CdS:In. XRD patterns show the polycrystalline nature of the films and show that there is a small shift in the position of the (2 0 0) line of SnO{sub 2}:F without the appearance of new peaks. The morphology of the structures are compared with those of SnO{sub 2}:F alone and CdS:In alone on glass substrates. (author)

  10. Characterization of in-swath spray deposition for CP-11TT flat-fan nozzles used in low volume aerial application of crop production and protection materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    For aerial application of crop production and protection materials, a complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved. It is difficult to completely characterize spray drift and deposition, but estimates can be made with appropriate sampling protocol and analysis. With c...

  11. Growth and characterization of the ZnO/ZnS bilayer obtained by chemical spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.C.; Espinos, J.P.; Leinen, D.; Martin, F.; Centeno, S.P.; Romero, R.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO/ZnS bilayer antireflection coatings have been prepared by spray pyrolysis using aqueous solutions of zinc acetate and thiourea or zinc chloride and thiourea. The structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical transmittance of the bilayer have been examined as a function of the composition of the initial solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and Ar ion-beam sputter etching was carried out to obtain a depth profile of bilayer. Neither carbon nor other by-products, which could alter the optical transmittance of the bilayer were found in either the interface or bulk. The differences between the bilayers arise from the annealing of the ZnS underlayer, as well as the precursor used to prepare it.

  12. Characterization and electrochemical properties of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 multiphase coatings prepared by HVOF spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders were produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni-25 at.% Si powder mixture. Then, the as-milled powders were sprayed onto copper substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that although single phase Ni3Si was formed during annealing of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders, but, only Ni(Si) and Ni5Si2 are present in HVOF coatings and no new phase has been formed during spraying. The coatings had microhardness up to 746 HV0.05. Further investigations showed the corrosion performance of multiphase coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution was better than that of copper substrate. The phase transitions during MA, HVOF and annealing processes were discussed in association with Ni-Si phase diagram and nature of each process.

  13. Spray nozzle pattern test for the DWPF HEME Task QA Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.

    1991-01-01

    The DWPF melter off-gas systems have two High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) upstream of the High-Efficiency Particulates Air filters (HEPA) to remove fine mists and particulates from the off-gas. To have an acceptable filter life and an efficient operation, an air atomized water is spray on the HEME. The water spray keeps the HEME wet and dissolves the soluble particulates and enhances and HEME efficiency. DWPF Technical asked SRL to determine the conditions which will give satisfactory atomization and distribution of water so that the HEME will operate efficiently. The purpose of this document is to identify, QA controls to be applied in the pursuit of this task (WSRC-RP-91-1151)

  14. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jinghua; Vogt, Frederick G; Li, Xiaojian; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI) hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX) microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water) from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was rendered noncrystalline (amorphous) following organic solution advanced spray drying. This was in contrast to spray-dried OFLX, which retained partial crystallinity, as did OFLX:DPPC powders at certain compositions. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using inertial impaction with a dry powder inhaler device approved for human use. The present study demonstrates that the use of DPPC offers improved aerosol delivery of MOXI as cospray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders, whereas residual partial crystallinity influenced aerosol dispersion of OFLX and most of the compositions of OFLX:DPPC inhalation powders. PMID:24092972

  15. Optical, structural and surface characterization of ultrasonically sprayed CdO:F films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, I.; Kose, S.; Ketenci, E.; Bilgin, V.; Atay, F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of F doping on the optical, structural and surface properties of ultrasonically sprayed CdO films has been investigated. F doping affected each of these properties. → The low cost of the production system is an advantage for potential applications of these films. CF4 film caused the transmittance values to increase which is a desired development for transparent conducting oxide industry. → Low reflectance value of CF2 film makes this sample a promising material for anti-reflection coatings. → F doping has found to be an alternative solution to increase the narrow band gap of CdO films. This is an other development of CdO:F films for optoelectronic and photovoltaic solar cell applications. → Rough samples may be an alternative in single-junction μc-Si solar cells having superstrate configuration. When we take into account the refractive index and rough surface of the samples, rough interface between a low refractive index material (CdO:F, n ∼ 1.6) and a high refractive index material (for Si n ∼ 3.7) results in reduced reflection due to gradual refractive index matching. In order to increase this effect high rms roughness (R q ) values needed. Also this will allow light trapping into Si layer and cause back and forth scattering at the interfaces increasing the optical path within the Si layer. - Abstract: In this work, we report the effect of F doping on some physical properties of CdO films. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique has been used to obtain the films. Thicknesses, refractive indices and extinction coefficients of the films have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry technique using Cauchy-Urbach model for fitting. Transmission and reflectance spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer, and band gap values have been determined by optical method. X-ray diffraction patterns have been used to study the structural properties such as crystallinity level, texture coefficient, crystallite size and

  16. Spray-combustion process characterization in a common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends by conventional methods and optical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Silvia Merola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The target of a sustainable mobility has led to investigate advanced combustion modes and fuels technologies. On the other side, the increasing global energy demand and the decreasing fossil-energy resources are enhancing the interest in the use of renewable alternative fuels for compression ignition engines with the target of near-zero emission levels. Although performance and emissions of alternative-fuel within light-duty diesel engines have been extensively investigated, results of fuel chemical composition impact on combustion by integrated optical methodologies are lacking. In order to meet this challenge, one of the main objectives of the research efforts is to characterize the combustion and species evolution. In this investigation, conventional tests and optical diagnostics were employed to enhance the comprehension of the combustion process and chemical markers in a common rail compression ignition engine powered by butanol-diesel blends. The investigation was focused on the effect of the injection strategy and blend composition on in-cylinder spray combustion and soot formation, through UV-visible digital imaging and natural emission spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in an optically accessible single cylinder high swirl compression ignition engine, equipped with a common rail multi-jets injection system. UV-visible emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of the combustion process chemical markers. Spectral features of OH were identified and followed during the spray combustion process examining different pilot-main dwell timings. Soot spectral evidence in the visible wavelength range was correlated to soot engine out emissions. In this work, conventional and optical data related to diesel fuel blended with 40 % of n-butanol will be presented.

  17. Use of the spray chilling method to deliver hydrophobic components: physical characterization of microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food industry has been developing products to meet the demands of increasing number of consumers who are concerned with their health and who seek food products that satisfy their needs. Therefore, the development of processed foods that contain functional components has become important for this industry. Microencapsulation can be used to reduce the effects of processing on functional components and preserve their bioactivity. The present study investigated the production of lipid microparticles containing phytosterols by spray chilling. The matrices comprised mixtures of stearic acid and hydrogenated vegetable fat, and the ratio of the matrix components to phytosterols was defined by an experimental design using the mean diameters of the microparticles as the response variable. The melting point of the matrices ranged from 44.5 and 53.4 ºC. The process yield was melting point dependent; the particles that exhibited lower melting point had greater losses than those with higher melting point. The microparticles' mean diameters ranged from 13.8 and 32.2 µm and were influenced by the amount of phytosterols and stearic acid. The microparticles exhibited spherical shape and typical polydispersity of atomized products. From a technological and practical (handling, yield, and agglomeration points of view, lipid microparticles with higher melting point proved promising as phytosterol carriers.

  18. Optical and electrical characterization of AgInS2 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, H.; Calixto, M.E.; Pena, Y.; Martinez-Escobar, Dalia; Tiburcio-Silver, A.; Sanchez-Juarez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Silver indium sulfide (AgInS 2 ) thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis (SP) technique using silver acetate, indium acetate, and N, N-dimethylthiourea as precursor compounds. Films were deposited onto glass substrates at different substrate temperatures (T s ) and Ag:In:S ratios in the starting solutions. Optical transmission and reflection as well as electrical measurements were performed in order to study the effect of deposition parameters on the optical and electrical properties of AgInS 2 thin films. X-ray diffraction measurements were used to identify the deposited compounds. It was found that different compounds such as AgInS 2 , Ag 2 S, In 2 O 3 , and In 2 S 3 can be grown only by changing the Ag:In:S ratio in the starting solution and T s . So that, by carefully selecting the deposition parameters, single phase AgInS 2 thin films can be easily grown. Thin films obtained using a molar ratio of Ag:In:S = 1:1:2 and T s = 400 o C, have an optical band gap of 1.9 eV and n-type electrical conductivity with a value of 0.3 Ω -1 cm -1 in the dark.

  19. Characterization of scandia doped pressed cathode fabricated by spray drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yuntao; Wang Jinshu; Liu Wei; Wang Yiman; Zhou Meiling

    2011-01-01

    Scandia doped pressed cathode was prepared by a new method of spray drying combined with two-step hydrogen reduction process. The Sc 2 O 3 and barium-calcium aluminate co-doped powders have sub-micrometer size in the range of 0.1-1 μm and scandium oxide and barium-calcium aluminate are distributed evenly in the powders. The cathodes sintered by powder metallurgy at 1600 deg. C b have a smooth surface and sub-micrometer grain structure with homogeneous distribution of scandium, barium, calcium and aluminum which are dispersed over and among the tungsten grains. This cathode has good emission, e.g., the current density of this cathode reaches 31.50 A/cm 2 at 850 deg. C b . After proper activation, the cathode surface is covered by a Ba-Sc-O active substances layer with a preferable atomic ratio, leading to its good emission property. The evaporation activation energy of SDP cathode with 4.58 eV is the highest among the Ba-W, M-type and SDP cathodes, and the average evaporation velocity v t of SDP cathode with 1.28 x 10 -8 g cm -2 s -1 at 1150 deg. C b is the lowest one.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of CuAlO2 transparent thin films prepared by spray technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzidi, C.; Bouzouita, H.; Timoumi, A.; Rezig, B.

    2005-01-01

    CuAlO 2 thin films have been grown on glass substrates using spray technique; a low-cost method of thin films depositing. The deposition was carried out in a 450-525 deg. C range of substrate temperature. The solution and gas flow rates were kept constant at 5 cm 3 min -1 and 6.10 -3 m 3 min -1 , respectively. Compressed air was used as a carrier gas. The structural, morphological and optical properties of these thin films have been studied. These properties are strongly related to the substrate temperature and to the [Cu]/[Al] molar ratio r. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the initial amorphous nature of as-deposited films and phase transition into crystalline CuAlO 2 with the preferential orientation (1 0 1) upon annealing at 570 deg. C. The optical transmission of 80% has been achieved in the visible spectrum. CuAlO 2 band gap energy in the range of 3.34-3.87 eV has been found by optical measurement depending on fabrication parameters

  1. Production and characterization of aluminium oxide nanoshells on spray dried lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrup, Joel; Rooth, Mårten; Johansson, Anders; Mahlin, Denny

    2017-08-30

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables deposition of dense nanometer thick metal oxide nanoshells on powder particles with precise thickness control. This leads to products with low weight fraction coating, also when depositing on nano- or micron sized powder particles. This study aimed at investigating the aluminium oxide nanoshell thickness required to prevent moisture sorption. The nanoshells were produced with ALD on spray-dried lactose, which is amorphous and extremely hygroscopic. The particles were studied with dynamic vapor sorption between 0 and 50% RH, light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and polarized light microscopy. The ALD did not induce any recrystallization of the amorphous lactose. The dynamic vapor sorption indicated that the moisture sorption was almost completely inhibited by the nanoshell. Neat amorphous lactose rapidly recrystallized upon moisture exposure. However, only ca. 15% of the amorphous lactose particles recrystallized of a sample with 9% (by weight) aluminium oxide nanoshell at storage for six months upon 75% RH/40°C, which indicate that the moisture sorption was completely inhibited in the majority of the particles. In conclusion, the aluminium oxide nanoshells prevented moisture sorption and dramatically improved the long term physical stability of amorphous lactose. This shows the potential of the ALD-technique to protect drug microparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of luminescent samarium doped HfO2 coatings synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Roa, C; Guzman-Mendoza, J; Aguilar-Frutis, M; Garcia-Hipolito, M; Alvarez-Fragoso, O; Falcony, C

    2008-01-01

    Trivalent samarium (Sm 3+ ) doped hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) films were deposited using the spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The films were deposited on Corning glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550 deg. C using chlorides as raw materials. Films, mostly amorphous, were obtained when deposition temperatures were below 350 deg. C. However, for temperatures higher than 400 deg. C, the films became polycrystalline, presenting the HfO 2 monoclinic phase. Scanning electron microscopy of the films revealed a rough surface morphology with spherical particles. Also, electron energy dispersive analysis was performed on these films. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence characteristics of the HfO 2 : SmCl 3 films, measured at room temperature, exhibited four main bands centred at 570, 610, 652 and 716 nm, which are due to the well-known intra-4f transitions of the Sm 3+ ion. It was found that the overall emission intensity rose as the deposition temperature was increased. Furthermore, a concentration quenching of the luminescence intensity was also observed

  3. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. II. Sex and thyroid hormone concentrations and testes development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, C A; Van Der Kraak, G J; Ng, P; Smits, J E; Hontela, A

    1998-12-25

    To investigate the effects of pesticides on wild birds, sex (17beta-estradiol; testosterone) and thyroid (triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentrations, body mass, and testes mass were measured and the development of testes was evaluated in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in four sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1995-1996. In orchards, birds were exposed to asmany as 11 individual spray events and five sprays of mixtures of chemicals. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, lead, and arsenic concentrations were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE concentrations, which ranged from 0.36 to 2.23 microg/g wet weight in eggs. These persistent compounds were not correlated with any endocrine response measured in tree swallows. In 16-d-old male tree swallow chicks, body mass and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), testosterone, and T3 in plasma showed no significant differences between sprayed and nonsprayed groups and among sites within those groups. However, T3 concentrations were slightly elevated in the sprayed group compared to the nonsprayed group, and there was a significant and positive correlation between T3 and the number of mixtures of sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 16-d-old female chicks, there were no significant differences among spray treatments or sites and no correlations with spray exposure for testosterone, estradiol, or T3 in plasma. Body mass was correlated positively with T3 and negatively with estradiol but showed no differences among spray exposure groups or sites. Histology of testes of 16-d-old male chicks indicated there were no significant differences among sprayed and nonsprayed birds in testes mass, area, or diameter, or the presence of Leydig cells in the interstitium, the distribution of the Sertoli cells, or the occurrence of heterophils in the testicular interstitium. For the percentage of spermatogonia present on

  4. Characterization and taste masking evaluation of microparticles with cetirizine dihydrochloride and methacrylate-based copolymer obtained by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelian Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Taste of a pharmaceutical formulation is an important parameter for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy. Cetirizine dihydrochloride (CET is a second-generation antihistamine that is commonly administered in allergy treatment. CET is characterized by extremely bitter taste and it is a great challenge to successfully mask its taste; therefore the goal of this work was to formulate and characterize the microparticles obtained by the spray drying method with CET and poly(butyl methacrylate-co-(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate 1:2:1 copolymer (Eudragit E PO as a barrier coating. Assessment of taste masking by the electronic tongue has revealed that designed formulations created an effective taste masking barrier. Taste masking effect was also confirmed by the in vivo model and the in vitro release profile of CET. Obtained data have shown that microparticles with a drug/polymer ratio (0.5:1 are promising CET carriers with efficient taste masking potential and might be further used in designing orodispersible dosage forms with CET.

  5. Characterization of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louardi, A.; Rmili, A.; Ouachtari, F.; Bouaoud, A. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Elidrissi, B., E-mail: e.bachir@mailcity.com [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Erguig, H. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films show a micro porous structure. > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are formed with spherical grains less than 50 nm in diameter. > The porous structure of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films is expected to have promising application in electrochromism. - Abstract: Cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of hydrated cobalt chloride salt (CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O) as source of cobalt. The films were deposited onto the amorphous glass substrates kept at different temperatures (300-500 deg. C). The influences of molar concentration of the starting solution and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were studied. It was found from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the films prepared with molar concentration greater than 0.025 M/L were polycrystalline spinel type cubic structure. The preferred orientation of the crystallites of these films changes gradually from (6 2 2) to (1 1 1) when the substrate temperature increases. By Raman spectroscopy, five Raman active modes characteristic of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel type cubic structure were found and identified at 194, 484, 522, 620 and 691 cm{sup -1}. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed micro porous structure with very fine grains less than 50 nm in diameter. These films exhibited also a transmittance value of about 70% in the visible and infra red range.

  6. Preparation and characterization of fast dissolving flurbiprofen and esomeprazole solid dispersion using spray drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Roshan; Tran, Tuan Hiep; Kim, Sung Yub; Woo, Kyu Bong; Choi, Yong Joo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-04-11

    We aimed to develop an immediate-release flurbiprofen (FLU) and esomeprazole (ESO) combination formulation with enhanced gastric aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. Aqueous solubility can be enhanced by formulating solid dispersions (SDs) with a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-K30 hydrophilic carrier, using spray-drying technique. Aqueous and gastric pH dissolution can be achieved by macro-environmental pH modulation using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) as the alkaline buffer. FLU/ESO-loaded SDs (FLU/ESO-SDs) significantly improved aqueous solubility of both drugs, compared to each drug powder. Dissolution studies in gastric pH and water were compared with the microenvironmental pH modulated formulations. The optimized FLU/ESO-SD powder formulation consisted of FLU/ESO/PVP-K30/sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in a weight ratio 1:0.22:1.5:0.3, filled in the inner capsule. The outer capsule consisted of NaHCO3 and Mg(OH)2, which created the macro-environmental pH modulation. Increased aqueous and gastric pH dissolution of FLU and ESO from the SD was attributed to the alkaline buffer effects and most importantly, to drug transformation from crystalline to amorphous SD powder, clearly revealed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thus, the combined FLU and ESO SD powder can be effectively delivered as an immediate-release formulation using the macro-environmental pH modulation concept. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. JOHNSON-MATTHEY DIFFUSER CHARACTERIZATION TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, P; James Klein, J; Henry Sessions, H; Gregg Morgan, G

    2007-01-01

    A diffuser/permeator commercially fabricated by Johnson-Matthey was purchased for characterization testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). A test system was fabricated to not only feed and bleed flows and pressures, but also permeate pressure for flows up to 20 SLPM

  8. Development of method to characterize emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation updates symposium participants re EPA progress towards development of SPF insulation emissions characterization methods. The presentation highlights evaluation of experiments investigating emissions after application of SPF to substrates in micro chambers and i...

  9. Double tracks test site characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER)

  10. Test plan for dig-face characterization performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.

    1993-09-01

    The dig-face characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since FY 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A Dig-face Characterization System conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation dig-face and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and identifying hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes initial efforts to test the dig-face characterization concept at the INEL Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. The Cold Test Pit is a simulated waste site containing hazardous and radioactive waste surrogates at known locations. Testing will be directed toward three generic characterization problems: metal detection, plume detection, and radioactive source detection. The prototype apparatus will gather data using magnetometers, a ground conductivity meter, a trace gas analyzer, and a gamma ray sensor during simulated retrieval of the surrogate waste materials. The data acquired by a dig-face characterization system are unique because of the high precision, high data density, and multiple viewpoints attainable through the dig-face deployment approach. The test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating a representative dig-face characterization data set. Analysis of these data will focus on developing criteria for predicting the depth, location, composition, and other characteristics of the surrogate waste materials. If successful, this proof-of-concept exercise will provide a foundation for future development of a fully-operational system that is capable of operating on an actual waste site

  11. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  12. Characterization and physical stability of spray dried solid dispersions of probucol and PVP-K30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Pia; Pedersen, Betty L; Hovgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to obtain stable, well-characterized solid dispersions (SDs) of amorphous probucol and polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP-K30) with improved dissolution rates. A secondary aim was to investigate the flow-through dissolution method for in-vitro dissolution measuremen...

  13. Deposition and characterization of plasma sprayed Ni-5A1/ magnesia stabilized zirconia based functionally graded thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M N; Khalid, F A

    2014-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are employed to protect hot section components in industrial and aerospace gas turbine engines. Conventional TBCs frequently fail due to high residual stresses and difference between coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the substrate and coatings. Functionally graded thermal barrier coatings (FG-TBCs) with gradual variation in composition have been proposed to minimize the problem. In this work, a five layered functionally graded thermal barrier coating system was deposited by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) technique on Nimonic 90 substrates using Ni-5Al as bond coat (BC) and magnesia stabilized zirconia as top coat (TC). The coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and optical profilometer. Microhardness and coefficient of thermal expansion of the five layers deposited as individual coatings were also measured. The deposited coating system was oxidized at 800°C. SEM analysis showed that five layers were successfully deposited by APS to produce a FG-TBC. The results also showed that roughness (Ra) of the individual layers decreased with an increase in TC content in the coatings. It was found that microhardness and CTE values gradually changed from bond coat to cermet layers to top coat. The oxidized coated sample revealed parabolic behavior and changes in the surface morphology and composition of coating

  14. Johnson-Matthey diffuser characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, P. J.; Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.; Morgan, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    A diffuser/permeator commercially fabricated by Johnson-Matthey was purchased for characterization testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). A test system was fabricated to test not only feed and bleed flows and pressures, but also permeate pressure for flows up to 20 sLPM. The tests described in this paper consider the effect of various inert gas types, feed gas compositions, methods for temperature control, and varying tube pressure on permeation of H 2 through the Pd/Ag tubes. (authors)

  15. Preparation of Spray-Dried Soy Isoflavone-Loaded Gelatin Microspheres for Enhancement of Dissolution: Formulation, Characterization and in Vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gean Pier Panizzon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI, daidzein (DAI and genistein (GEN have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to microencapsulate DAI and GEN from soy extract (SE by spray drying, in order to obtain solid dispersions to overcome solubility problems and to allow controlled release. The influences of 1:2 (MP2 and 1:3 (MP3 SE/polymer ratios on the solid state, yield, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, release kinetics and cumulative release were evaluated. Analyses showed integral microparticles and high drug content. MP3 and MP2 yield were 43.6% and 55.9%, respectively, with similar mean size (p > 0.05, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous solid state of SE. In vitro release tests showed that dissolution was drastically increased. The results indicated that SE microencapsulation might offer a good system to control SI release, as an alternative to improve bioavailability and industrial applications.

  16. Characterization of deposition from nasal spray devices using a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbell, Julia S; Segal, Rebecca A; Asgharian, Bahman; Wong, Brian A; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Southall, Jeremy P; Dickens, Colin J; Brace, Geoff; Miller, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    Many studies suggest limited effectiveness of spray devices for nasal drug delivery due primarily to high deposition and clearance at the front of the nose. Here, nasal spray behavior was studied using experimental measurements and a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages constructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy adult male. Eighteen commercially available nasal sprays were analyzed for spray characteristics using laser diffraction, high-speed video, and high-speed spark photography. Steadystate, inspiratory airflow (15 L/min) and particle transport were simulated under measured spray conditions. Simulated deposition efficiency and spray behavior were consistent with previous experimental studies, two of which used nasal replica molds based on this nasal geometry. Deposition fractions (numbers of deposited particles divided by the number released) of 20- and 50-microm particles exceeded 90% in the anterior part of the nose for most simulated conditions. Predicted particle penetration past the nasal valve improved when (1) the smaller of two particle sizes or the lower of two spray velocities was used, (2) the simulated nozzle was positioned 1.0 rather than 0.5 or 1.5 cm into the nostril, and (3) inspiratory airflow was present rather than absent. Simulations also predicted that delaying the appearance of normal inspiratory airflow more than 1 sec after the release of particles produced results equivalent to cases in which no inspiratory airflow was present. These predictions contribute to more effective design of drug delivery devices through a better understanding of the effects of nasal airflow and spray characteristics on particle transport in the nose.

  17. Simulation of the containment spray system test PACOS PX2.2 with the integral code ASTEC and the containment code system COCOSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risken, Tobias; Koch, Marco K.

    2011-01-01

    The reactor safety research contains the analysis of postulated accidents in nuclear power plants (npp). These accidents may involve a loss of coolant from the nuclear plant's reactor coolant system, during which heat and pressure within the containment are increased. To handle these atmospheric conditions, containment spray systems are installed in various light water reactors (LWR) worldwide as a part of the accident management system. For the improvement and the safety ensurance in npp operation and accident management, numeric simulations of postulated accident scenarios are performed. The presented calculations regard the predictability of the containment spray system's effect with the integral code ASTEC and the containment code system COCOSYS, performed at Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum. Therefore the test PACOS Px2.2 is simulated, in which water is sprayed in the stratified containment atmosphere of the BMC (Battelle Modell-Containment). (orig.)

  18. Characterization of naproxen-loaded solid SMEDDSs prepared by spray drying: the effect of the polysaccharide carrier and naproxen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar, Alenka; Vrečer, Franc; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare solid SMEDDS (sSMEDDS) particles produced by spray-drying using maltodextrin (MD), hypromellose (HPMC), and a combination of the two as a solid carrier. Naproxen (NPX) as the model drug was dissolved (at 6% concentration) or partially suspended (at 18% concentration) in a liquid SMEDDS composed of Miglyol(®) 812, Peceol™, Gelucire(®) 44/14, and Solutol(®) HS 15. Among the sSMEDDSs tested, the MD-based sSMEDDSs (with a granular, smooth-surfaced, microspherical appearance) preserved the self-microemulsifying properties of liquid SMEDDSs and exhibited dissolution profiles similar to those of liquid SMEDDSs, irrespective of the concentration of NPX. In contrast, HPMC-based sSMEDDSs (irregular-shaped microparticles) exhibited slightly prolonged release times due to the polymeric nature of the carrier. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Raman mapping analysis confirmed molecularly dissolved NPX (at 6% of drug loading), whereas at 18% NPX loading drug is partially molecularly dissolved and partially in the crystalline state. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  20. Preparation and characterization of rare earth modified nanocrystalline Al2O3/13 wt%TiO2 feedstock for plasma spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Tian, W; Yang, Y

    2009-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of RE modified nanocrystalline Al2O3/13 wt%TiO2 feedstock for plasma spraying are described in this paper. Taking individual nano particles as starting materials, by wet ball milling, spray drying, sintering and plasma treating, nanocrystalline plasma sprayable feedstock is prepared. The as-prepared feedstocks were analyzed by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and HRTEM methods. As shown from analyses results, the reconstituted agglomerate feedstock possesses spherical geometry, proper particle size, homogeneous composition distribution and nano scaled grains. There are three dimensional net structures in the prepared feedstock, which could be retained in coatings if the feedstock does not melt or partially melts during the plasma spray process. The three dimensional net structures could play an important role in improving crack propagation resistance and wear resistance of coatings. The reconstitution process and characterization methods discussed in this paper can also be applied to prepare intraclass nanocrystalline feedstock such as ZrO2/Y2O3 and Cr2O3 et al.

  1. Deposition and Characterization of HVOF Thermal Sprayed Functionally Graded Coatings Deposited onto a Lightweight Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M.; Stokes, J.; Looney, L.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2009-02-01

    There is a significant interest in lightweight materials (like aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and so on) containing a wear resistance coating, in such industries as the automotive industry, to replace heavy components with lighter parts in order to decrease vehicle weight and increase fuel efficiency. Functionally graded coatings, in which the composition, microstructure, and/or properties vary gradually from the bond coat to the top coat, may be applied to lightweight materials, not only to decrease weight, but also to enhance components mechanical properties by ensuring gradual microstructural (changes) together with lower residual stress. In the current work, aluminum/tool-steel functionally graded coatings were deposited onto lightweight aluminum substrates. The graded coatings were then characterized in terms of residual stress and hardness. Results show that residual stress increased with an increase in deposition thickness and a decrease in number of layers. However, the hardness also increased with an increase in deposition thickness and decrease in number of layers. Therefore, an engineer must compromise between the hardness and stress values while designing a functionally graded coating-substrate system.

  2. [Preparation of panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone H(A) composite method for pulmonary delivery with spray-drying method and its characterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Mei; Fu, Ting-Ming; Guo, Li-Wei

    2013-02-01

    To prepare panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone II(A) composite particles for pulmonary delivery, in order to explore a dry powder particle preparation method ensuring synchronized arrival of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine compounds at absorption sites. Panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone II(A) composite particles were prepared with spray-drying method, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared analysis (IR), dry laser particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the aerodynamic behavior was evaluated by a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The dry powder particles produced had narrow particle size distribution range and good aerodynamic behavior, and could realize synchronized administration of multiple components. The spray-drying method is used to combine traditional Chinese medicine components with different physical and chemical properties in the same particle, and product into traditional Chinese medicine compound particles in line with the requirements for pulmonary delivery.

  3. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  4. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  5. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Carvalho, Joao; Panao, Miguel R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  6. Quantitative characterization of near-field fuel sprays by multi-orifice direct injection using ultrafast x-tomography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Im, K.S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Hung, D.L.S.; Winkelman, J.R.; Tate, M.W.; Ercan, A.; Koerner, L.J.; Caswell, T.; Chamberlain, D.; Schuette, D.R.; Philipp, H.; Smilgies, D.M.; Gruner, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    A low-pressure direct injection fuel system for spark ignition direct injection engines has been developed, in which a high-turbulence nozzle technology was employed to achieve fine fuel droplet size at a low injection pressure around 2 MPa. It is particularly important to study spray characteristics in the near-nozzle region due to the immediate liquid breakup at the nozzle exit. By using an ultrafast x-ray area detector and intense synchrotron x-ray beams, the interior structure and dynamics of the direct injection gasoline sprays from a multi-orifice turbulence-assisted nozzle were elucidated for the first time in a highly quantitative manner with μs-temporal resolution. Revealed by a newly developed, ultrafast computed x-microtomography technique, many detailed features associated with the transient liquid flows are readily observable in the reconstructed spray. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by the time-resolved computed tomography. The time-dependent fuel density distribution revealed that the fuel jet is well broken up immediately at the nozzle exits. These results not only reveal the near-field characteristics of the partial atomized fuel sprays with unprecedented detail, but also facilitate the development of an advanced multi-orifice direct injector. This ultrafast tomography capability also will facilitate the realistic computational fluid dynamic simulations in highly transient and multiphase fuel spray systems.

  7. Corrosion characterization of in-situ titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloy by two methods: Salts spray fog and linear polarization resistance (LPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Talari, M. K.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.; Hanim, M. A. Azmah

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloys is the one of most Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have important high-strength Al alloys. The aluminium (Al) casting alloys, based on the Al-Cu system are widely used in light-weight constructions and transport applications requiring a combination of high strength and ductility. In this research, Al-Cu master alloy was reinforced with 3 and 6wt.% titanium diboride (TiB2) that obtained from salts route reactions. The salts used were were potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) and potassium tetrafluoroborate (KBF4). The salts route reaction process were done at 800 °C. The Al-Cu alloy then has characterized on the mechanical properties and microstructure characterization. Salts spray fog test and Gamry-electrode potentiometer instruments were used to determine the corrosion rate of this alloys. From results obtained, the increasement of 3wt.%TiB2 contents will decrease the value of the corrosion rate. In corrosion test that conducted both of salt spray fog and Gamry-electrode potentiometer, the addition of 3wt.%TiB2 gave the good properties in corrosion characterization compare to Al-Cu-6wt.%TiB2 and Al-Cu cast alloy itself. As a comparison, Al-Cu with 3wt.%TiB2 gave the lowest value of corrosion rate, which means alloy has good properties in corrosion characterization. The results obtained show that in-situ Al-Cu alloy composites containing the different weight of TiB2 phase were synthesized successfully by the salt-metal reaction method.

  8. Pilot-scale test on electron beam treatment of municipal solid waste flue gas with spraying slaked-lime slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Osada; Masahiro Sudo; Koichi Hirota

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous removal of NO x , SO 2 and HCl in flue gas of a municipal solid waste incinerator was studied by using electron beam irradiation technology. The flue gas of around 1000 Nm 3 /h was led to a spray-dryer-type reactor from an inlet of ESP of the municipal waste incinerator by spraying slaked-lime slurry with one or more stoichiometric amount of the pollutants, concentrations of HCl (400 ppm) and SO 2 (50 ppm) decreased almost completely, while concentrations of NO x (100 ppm) were markedly decreased to about 20 ppm by electron beam irradiation with a dose of 10 kGy at 150 o C under spraying slaked-lime slurry of two stoichiometric amounts. The removal of NO x was improved by increasing the dose and the amount of spraying slaked-lime slurry, and by lowering of the irradiation temperature. (Author)

  9. Plasma Spraying and Characterization of Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Coatings by the Water-Stabilized System WSP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kašparová, M.; Bellin, J.; Le Guen, E.; Zahálka, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, - (2009), s. 1-11 ISSN 1687-8434 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tungsten karbide – cobalt, cermet * wear resistance * abrasion * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2009/254848.html

  10. Spatially-resolved, three-dimensional spray characterization of impinging jets by digital in-line holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Rodrigues, Neil; Sojka, Paul; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The impinging jet injector is a preferred method for the atomization of liquid rocket propellants. The majority of experimental studies in literature are not spatially-resolved due to the limitations of widely available point-wise and two-dimensional (2D) diagnostic techniques such as phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), which requires significant experimental repetitions to give spatially-resolved measurements. In the present study, digital in-line holography (DIH) is used to provide spatially-resolved, three-dimensional (3D) characteristics of impinging jet sprays. A double-exposure DIH setup is configured to measure droplet 3D, three-component velocity as well as the size distribution. The particle information is extracted by the hybrid method, which is recently proposed as a particle detection method. To enlarge the detection volume, two parallel, collimated laser beams are used to simultaneously probe the spray at two locations, and two identical cameras are used to record the corresponding holograms. Such a setup has a detection volume of approximately 20 cm by 3.6 cm by 4.8 cm. Sprays of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids corresponding to regimes at relatively lower jet Reynolds and Weber numbers are investigated. Measurements from DIH are further verified by comparison with experimental data obtained from shadowgraph and PDA. It is revealed that DIH is particularly suitable to provide spatially-resolved, 3D measurements of impinging jet sprays that are not particularly dense.

  11. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  12. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlach, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  13. 78 FR 42719 - Test Procedures for Showerheads, Faucets, Water Closets, Urinals, and Commercial Prerinse Spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... flow control insert of showerheads for purposes of amending DOE test procedures. In addition, DOE... may be publicly available, such as information that is exempt from public disclosure. A link to the docket Web page can be found at www.regulations.gov . The www.regulations.gov Web page contains a link to...

  14. New Test Method for Rotating Spray Head Performance in Tank Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Mette; Dethlefsen, Markus Wied; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2011-01-01

    on a standardised stainless steel plate; positioning the steel plate in tank; record total cleaning time. The method was tested on four different RSHs from Alfa Laval. Cleaning times were recorded at different distances and flow rates. Using the new method, it is possible to distinguish between RSHs based...

  15. Characterization of microstructure and surface properties of hybrid coatings of WC-CoCr prepared by laser heat treatment and high velocity oxygen fuel spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shihong; Cho, Tong-Yul; Yoon, Jae-Hong; Fang, Wei; Song, Ki-O; Li Mingxi; Joo, Yun-Kon; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and microhardness of high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings were comparatively studied both before and after laser heat treatment of the coatings. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness testing were applied to investigate the microstructure, phase composition, porosity and microhardness. The results indicate that WC is still present, and W 2 C has appeared, while neither cobalt nor σ-CrCo is detectable. Co 4 W 2 C has appeared in the high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed coating after laser heat treatment as compared to the coating before laser treatment. The relative content of the W 2 C has not increased with laser treatment, but the laser treatment has essentially eliminated the porosity almost entirely, providing a more homogeneous and densified microstructure. The laser heat treatment has effected the formation of a denser compact coating on the substrate. After laser heat treatment, the thickness of the coating has decreased from 300 μm to 225 μm. This corresponds to an average porosity in the high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed coating that is approximately five times greater than that in the subsequently laser heat-treated coating. The laser treatment has also resulted in an increased hardness of the coating near the surface, where the average value increased from Hv 0.2 = 1262.4 in the coating before laser heat treatment to Hv 0.2 = 1818.7 after laser heat treatment

  16. Sodium leakage and combustion tests. Measurement and distribution of droplet size using various spray nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Keiichi; Hirabayashi, Masaru; Onojima, T.; Gunji, Minoru; Ara, Kuniaki; Oki, Yoshihisa

    1999-04-01

    In order to develop a numerical code simulating sodium fires initiated frame dispersion of droplets, measured data of droplet diameter as well as its distribution are needed. In the present experiment the distribution of droplet diameter was measured using water, oil and sodium. The tests elucidated the influential factors with respect to the droplet diameter. In addition, we sought to develop a similarity law between water and sodium. The droplet size distribution of sodium using the large diameter droplet (Elnozzle) was predicted. (J.P.N.)

  17. Instantaneous Characterization Of Vegetable Oils Via Tag And Ffa Profiles By Easy Ambient Sonic-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2015-01-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil an...

  18. Characterizing experiments of the PPOOLEX test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    This report summarizes the results of the characterizing test series in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Air and steam/air mixture was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool (wet well). Altogether eight air and four steam/air mixture experiments, each consisting of several blows (tests), were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the general behavior of the facility and the performance of basic instrumentation. Proper operation of automation, control and safety systems was also tested. The test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. The facility is equipped with high frequency measurements for capturing different aspects of the investigated phenomena. The general behavior of the PPOOLEX facility differs significantly from that of the previous POOLEX facility because of the closed two-compartment structure of the test vessel. Heat-up by several tens of degrees due to compression in both compartments was the most obvious evidence of this. Temperatures also stratified. Condensation oscillations and chugging phenomenon were encountered in those tests where the fraction of non-condensables had time to decrease significantly. A radical change from smooth condensation behavior to oscillating one occurred quite abruptly when the air fraction of the blowdown pipe flow dropped close to zero. The experiments again demonstrated the strong diminishing effect that noncondensable gases have on dynamic unsteady loadings experienced by submerged pool structures. BWR containment like behavior related to the beginning of a postulated steam line break accident was observed in the PPOOLEX test facility during the steam/air mixture experiments. The most important task of the research project, to produce experimental data for code simulation purposes, can be

  19. Plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeper, T.J.; Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E.; Riggs, W.L. II; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the air plasma spraying (APS) of alumina-titania powder using argon-hydrogen working gases. This powder system is being used in the fabrication of heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coatings. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, surface profilometry, image analysis, optical metallography, and x-ray diffraction. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. attempts are made to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters

  20. Study of ethanol and gasoline fuel sprays using mie-scatter and schlieren imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Lauren; Bittle, Joshua; Puzinauskas, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Many cars today are capable of running on both gasoline and ethanol, however it is not clear how well optimized the engines are for the multiple fuels. This experiment looks specifically at the fuel spray in a direct injection system. The length and angle of direct injection sprays were characterized and a comparison between ethanol and gasoline sprays was made. Fuels were tested using a modified diesel injector in a test chamber at variable ambient pressures and temperatures in order to simulate both high and low load combustion chamber conditions. Rainbow schlieren and mie-scatter imaging were both used to investigate the liquid and vapor portions of the sprays. The sprays behaved as expected with temperature and pressure changes. There was no noticeable fuel effect on the liquid portion of the spray (mie-scatter), though the gasoline vapor spray angles were wider than ethanol spray angles (possible a result of the distillation curves of the two fuels). Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  1. In-nozzle flow and spray characteristics for mineral diesel, Karanja, and Jatropha biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Som, Sibendu; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra; Goyal, Harsh; Longman, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In-nozzle flow characterization for biodiesel sprays. • Comparison of experimental spray parameters and nozzle hole simulations. • Effect of Karanja and Jatropha biodiesel on in-nozzle cavitation. • Cavitation formation investigation with diesel and biodiesels. • Nozzle hole outlet fuel velocity profile determination for test fuels. - Abstract: Superior spray behavior of fuels in internal combustion engines lead to improved combustion and emission characteristics therefore it is necessary to investigate fuel spray behavior of new alternative fuels. This study discusses the evolution of the in-nozzle orifice parameters of a numerical simulation and the evolution of spray parameters of fuel spray in a constant-volume spray chamber during an experiment. This study compares mineral diesel, biodiesels (Karanja-and Jatropha-based), and their blends with mineral diesel. The results show that mineral diesel provides superior atomization and evaporation behavior compared to the biodiesel test fuels. Karanja biodiesel provides superior atomization and evaporation characteristics compared to Jatropha biodiesel. The qualitative comparison of simulation and experimental results in tandem shows that nozzle-hole design is a critical parameter for obtaining optimum spray behavior in the engine combustion chamber

  2. Synthesis, characterization and decomposition studies of tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III): chemical spray deposition of polycrystalline CuInS2 on copper films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehemann, David G.; Lau, J. Eva; Harris, Jerry D.; Hoops, Michael D.; Duffy, Norman V.; Fanwick, Philip E.; Khan, Osman; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2005-01-01

    Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S'), commonly referred to as tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III), In(S 2 CNBz 2 ) 3 , was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1-bar with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS 2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In 2 S 3 . Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S 2 CNBz 2 ) 3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce stoichiometric CuInS 2 films

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Decomposition Studies of Tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato) Indium(III): Chemical Spray Deposition of Polycrystalline CuInS2 on Copper Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.; Lau, J. Eva; Harris, Jerry D.; Hoops, Michael D.; Duffy, Norman V.; Fanwick, Philip E.; Khan, Osman; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2005-01-01

    Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S ), commonly referred to as tris(N,Ndibenzyldithiocarbamato) indium(III), In(S2CNBz2)3, was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 bar with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In2S3. Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S2CNBz2)3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce stoichiometric CuInS2 films.

  4. Growth and physical investigations of sprayed ZnMoO4 thin films along with wettability tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askri, Besma; Mhamdi, Ammar; Mahdhi, Noureddine; Amlouk, Mosbah

    2018-06-01

    Ternary oxides based on zinc and molybdenum elements have known as semiconductor oxides with large band gap energies. With the focus mainly on their synthesis by cost-effective process as thin films, the aspect of their stability and reactivity as transparent layers against both UV radiation and oxidation under wet medium due to their oxygen deficiency has so far not been investigated. This work covers the synthesis as well as the structural, electrical and the wettability properties of ZnMoO4 thin films which have been prepared by the spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates at 460 °C. First, X-ray diffraction analysis shows that this oxide crystallizes in triclinic structure with the space group P-1. The thickness value of ZnMoO4 thin film of about 1.5 μm was estimated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Moreover, a special emphasis has been focused on the photoluminescence properties of such films to reach possible presence of defaults and oxygen vacancy. Second, the electrical conductivity, conduction mechanism, relaxation model of these films were indeed studied using impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range 10-1-106 Hz at various temperatures (25-300 °C). At high temperature, σAC conductivity obeys to the power law established by Jonscher. Besides, the variation of σDC with the inverse of the temperature follows Arrhenius law. This evolution suggests that the conduction process is thermally activated and the activation energy of this process is equal to 0.97 eV. Finally, the wettability tests reveal that zinc molybdates loses its hydrophobic character during aging under UV radiation to become completely hydrophilic. All these physical investigations demonstrated that such ternary oxide contains oxygen deficiency which may be of interest for photocatalytic purposes and pave the way for various sensitivity applications like gas and bio-sensors.

  5. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  6. Synthesis, structural characterization and in vitro testing of dysprosium containing silica particles as potential MRI contrast enhancing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriac, L.B.; Trandafir, D.L. [Faculty of Physics & National Magnetic Resonance Center, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences & Faculty of Physics, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Turcu, R.V.F. [Faculty of Physics & National Magnetic Resonance Center, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Todea, M. [Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences & Faculty of Physics, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Simon, S., E-mail: simons@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Physics & National Magnetic Resonance Center, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences & Faculty of Physics, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Dysprosium containing silica microparticles obtained by freeze and spray drying. • Higher structural units interconnection achieved in freeze vs. spray dried samples. • Dy occurance on the outermost layer of the microparticles evidenced by XPS. • Enhanced MRI contrast observed for freeze dried samples with 5% mol Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The work is focused on synthesis and structural characterization of novel dysprosium-doped silica particles which could be considered as MRI contrast agents. Sol-gel derived silica rich particles obtained via freeze-drying and spray-drying processing methods were structurally characterized by XRD, {sup 29}Si MAS-NMR and XPS methods. The occurrence of dysprosium on the outermost layer of dysprosium containing silica particles was investigated by XPS analysis. The MRI contrast agent characteristics have been tested using RARE-T{sub 1} and RARE-T{sub 2} protocols. The contrast of MRI images delivered by the investigated samples was correlated with their local structure. Dysprosium disposal on microparticles with surface structure characterised by decreased connectivity of the silicate network units favours dark T{sub 2}-weighted MRI contrast properties.

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization and in vitro testing of dysprosium containing silica particles as potential MRI contrast enhancing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriac, L.B.; Trandafir, D.L.; Turcu, R.V.F.; Todea, M.; Simon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dysprosium containing silica microparticles obtained by freeze and spray drying. • Higher structural units interconnection achieved in freeze vs. spray dried samples. • Dy occurance on the outermost layer of the microparticles evidenced by XPS. • Enhanced MRI contrast observed for freeze dried samples with 5% mol Dy_2O_3. - Abstract: The work is focused on synthesis and structural characterization of novel dysprosium-doped silica particles which could be considered as MRI contrast agents. Sol-gel derived silica rich particles obtained via freeze-drying and spray-drying processing methods were structurally characterized by XRD, "2"9Si MAS-NMR and XPS methods. The occurrence of dysprosium on the outermost layer of dysprosium containing silica particles was investigated by XPS analysis. The MRI contrast agent characteristics have been tested using RARE-T_1 and RARE-T_2 protocols. The contrast of MRI images delivered by the investigated samples was correlated with their local structure. Dysprosium disposal on microparticles with surface structure characterised by decreased connectivity of the silicate network units favours dark T_2-weighted MRI contrast properties.

  8. Report on COTECH test procedure and characterization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    that need to be attained for successful characterization of the planned demonstrators and it deals with the material characterization and prototype testing for the COTECH demonstrators. The summary of this report includes:  General description of COTECH industrial demonstrators  COTECH materials...... and material characterization techniques  Characterization techniques of the COTECH demonstrators  Functionality and lifecycle testing of the COTECH demonstrators Besides the general introduction and conclusion each section of the report is dedicated to the characterization techniques and test procedure.......Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for innovative self-ligating dental brackets (EO) Section 5.Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for smart diagnostic chips comprising a microfluidic channel system (GBO) Section 6.Characterization techniques and test procedure...

  9. Kinetic characterization for hemicellulose hydrolysis of corn stover in a dilute acid cycle spray flow-through reactor at moderate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Qiang; Zhang, Hongman; Yan, Lishi; Qu, Liang; Huang, He

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic characterization of hemicellulose hydrolysis of corn stover was investigated using a new reactor of dilute acid cycle spray flow-through (DCF) pretreatment. The primary purpose was to obtain kinetic data for hemicellulose hydrolysis with sulfuric acid concentrations (10-30 kg m -3 ) at relatively low temperatures (90-100 o C). A simplified kinetic model was used to describe its performance at moderate conditions. The results indicate that the rates of xylose formation and degradation are sensitive to flow rate, temperature and acid concentration. Moreover, the kinetic data of hemicellulose hydrolysis fit a first-order reaction model and the experimental data with actual acid concentration after accounting for the neutralization effect of the substrates at different temperatures. Over 90% of the xylose monomer yield and below 5.5% of degradation product (furfural) yield were observed in this reactor. Kinetic constants for hemicellulose hydrolysis models were analyzed by an Arrhenius-type equation, and the activation energy of xylose formation were 111.6 kJ mol -1 , and 95.7 kJ mol -1 for xylose degradation, respectively. -- Highlights: → Investigating a novel pretreatment reactor of dilute acid cycle spray flow-through. → Xylose yield is sensitive to flow rate, temperature and acid concentration. → Obtaining relatively higher xylose monomer yield and lower fermentation inhibitor. → Lumping hemicellulose and xylan oligmers together in the model is a valid way. → The kinetic model as a guide for reactor design, and operation strategy optimization.

  10. Electrochemical Characterization of Nanoporous Nickel Oxide Thin Films Spray-Deposited onto Indium-Doped Tin Oxide for Solar Conversion Scopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonstoichiometric nickel oxide (NiOx has been deposited as thin film utilizing indium-doped tin oxide as transparent and electrically conductive substrate. Spray deposition of a suspension of NiOx nanoparticles in alcoholic medium allowed the preparation of uniform NiOx coatings. Sintering of the coatings was conducted at temperatures below 500°C for few minutes. This scalable procedure allowed the attainment of NiOx films with mesoporous morphology and reticulated structure. The electrochemical characterization showed that NiOx electrodes possess large surface area (about 1000 times larger than their geometrical area. Due to the openness of the NiOx morphology, the underlying conductive substrate can be contacted by the electrolyte and undergo redox processes within the potential range in which NiOx is electroactive. This requires careful control of the conditions of polarization in order to prevent the simultaneous occurrence of reduction/oxidation processes in both components of the multilayered electrode. The combination of the open structure with optical transparency and elevated electroactivity in organic electrolytes motivated us to analyze the potential of the spray-deposited NiOx films as semiconducting cathodes of dye-sensitized solar cells of p-type when erythrosine B was the sensitizer.

  11. Characterization of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by suspension plasma spraying with axial feedstock injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Craig; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-12-01

    Composite Ni-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 anodes were fabricated by axial-injection suspension plasma spraying in open atmosphere conditions. The composition of the anode is controllable by adjustment of the plasma gas composition, stand-off distance, and suspension feed rate. The total porosity is controllable through the addition of carbon black to the suspension as a sacrificial pore-forming material as well as by adjustment of the suspension feed rate. The size of the NiO particles in suspension affects both the composition and total porosity, with larger NiO particles leading to increased Ni content and porosity in the deposited coatings. The surface roughness increases with a decrease of the in-flight droplet momentum, which results from both smaller NiO particles in suspension and the addition of low density pore-forming materials. A solid oxide fuel cell was fabricated with both electrodes and electrolyte fabricated by axial-injection plasma spraying. Peak power densities of 0.718 W cm-2 and 1.13 W cm-2 at 750 °C and 850 °C, respectively, were achieved.

  12. The Properties of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Coatings on Armor-Grade Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Adamiak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an examination of the properties of arc-sprayed aluminum on alloyed armor-grade steel. Thermal arc spraying was conducted with a EuTronic Arc Spray 4 wire arc sprayer. Aluminum wire 1.6 mm in diameter was used to produce dense, abrasion- and erosion-resistant coatings approx. 1.0 mm thick with and without nickel/5% aluminum-buffered subcoating. Aluminum coatings were characterized in accordance with ASTM G 65-00 abrasion resistance test, ASTM G 76-95 erosion resistance tests, ASTM C 633-01 adhesion strength, HV0.1 hardness tests and metallographic analyses. Results demonstrate properties of arc-sprayed aluminum and aluminum-nickel material coatings that are especially promising in industrial applications where erosion-, abrasion- and corrosion-resistant coating properties are required.

  13. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: experimental study in the TOSQAN facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcheron, E.; Lemaitre, P.; Malet, J.; Nuboer, A.; Brun, P.; Bouilloux, L.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la Surete des Usines, des laboratoires, des transports et des dechets, Saclay, BP 68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and steam wall condensation. In order to assess the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, hydrogen distribution in the containment has to be known. The TOSQAN experimental program has been created to simulate typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work is devoted to study the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation mean in order to reduce containment pressure and to produce a mixing of air, steam and hydrogen induced by spray entrainment and condensation on droplet. In order to have a better understanding of physical phenomena, we need to make a detailed characterization of the spray and the gas. The TOSQAN facility that is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics consists in a closed cylindrical vessel (7 m{sup 3} volume, 4 m high, 1.5 m i.d.) into which steam is injected. Water droplets size is measured in the vessel by the Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing technique. Droplet velocity is obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry, and droplet temperature is measured by global rainbow refractometry. Gas concentration measurements are performed by Spontaneous Raman Scattering. The walls of the vessel are thermostatically controlled by heated oil circulation. Inner spray system that is located on the top of the enclosure on the vertical axis, is composed of a single nozzle producing a full cone water spray. Spray test scenario consists of water spray injection in TOSQAN that is first pressurized with a steam injection (steam injection is stopped before spray injection). Water spray falling into the sump is removed to avoid accumulation and evaporation

  14. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to test substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Weber, Kerry L.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    A mobile bioassay trailer was used to assess the efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder (SDP) formulation for controlling zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from two midwestern lakes: Lake Carlos (Alexandria, Minnesota) and Shawano Lake (Shawano, Wisconsin). The effects of SDP exposure concentration and exposure duration on zebra mussel survival were evaluated along with the evaluation of a benthic injection application technique to reduce the amount of SDP required to induce zebra mortality.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of absorber pellets for FFTF irradiation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Methods used for characterization of B 4 C powder and fabricated pellets are summarized. Fabrication techniques used at HEDL for absorber test pellets are reviewed and selected powder and pellet characterization data are presented

  16. Instantaneous characterization of vegetable oils via TAG and FFA profiles by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2010-04-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil and is performed without any pre-separation or chemical manipulation. It also causes no fragmentation of TAG ions hence diacylglyceride (DAG) and monoacylglyceride (MAG) profiles and contents can also be measured. The EASI(+/-)-MS profiles of TAG and FFA permit authentication and quality control and can be used, for instance, to access levels of adulteration, acidity, oxidation or hydrolysis of vegetable oils in general.

  17. Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties of Copper-doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia ZHAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide-based thin films are deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technology, in which Cu addition is introduced to enhance the gas sensing performance by H2S detection. The thin films are porous and comprise nano-sized crystallites. One of the Cu-containing thin film sensors demonstrates a fast and significant response to H2S gas. The values of power law exponent n are calculated to discuss the sensitivity of the sensors, which is significantly promoted by Cu additive. The sensitivity of Cu-doped SnO2 gas sensors is determined by two mechanisms. One is the normal gas sensing mechanism of SnO2 grains, and the other is the promoted mechanism caused by the transformation between CuO and CuS in the H2S detection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12917

  18. Growth and characterization of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods deposited by spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alghafour, N. M., E-mail: na2013bil@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: nas-tiji@yahoo.com; Hassan, Zai. [Iraqi Ministry of Education, Anbar-Iraq (Iraq); Mohammad, Sabah M. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, university sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Bououdina, M. [Nanotechnology Centre, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038, Kingdom of Bahrain Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038, Kingdom of Bahrain, Iraqi Ministry of Education (Bahrain)

    2016-07-06

    Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanorods were deposited by spray pyrolysis on preheated glass substrates at low temperatures. The influence of substrate temperature on the crystallization of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) revealed that the films deposited at T{sub sub} = 300°C were orthorhombic structures with preferential along (001) direction. Formation of nanorods from substrate surface which led to the formation of films with small-sized and rod-shaped nanostructure is observed by field scanning electron microscopy. Optical transmittance in the visible range increases to reach a maximum value of about 80% for a substrate temperature of 350°C. PL spectra reveal one main broad peak centered around 540 nm with high intensity.

  19. 3rd International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gutheil, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the results of the 2nd and 3rd International Workshops on Turbulent Spray Combustion. The focus is on progress in experiments and numerical simulations for two-phase flows, with emphasis on spray combustion. Knowledge of the dominant phenomena and their interactions allows development of predictive models and their use in combustor and gas turbine design. Experts and young researchers present the state-of-the-art results, report on the latest developments and exchange ideas in the areas of experiments, modelling and simulation of reactive multiphase flows. The first chapter reflects on flame structure, auto-ignition and atomization with reference to well-characterized burners, to be implemented by modellers with relative ease. The second chapter presents an overview of first simulation results on target test cases, developed at the occasion of the 1st International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion. In the third chapter, evaporation rate modelling aspects are covered, while the fourth ...

  20. 21 CFR 58.105 - Test and control article characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test and control article characterization. 58.105... GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Test and Control Articles § 58.105 Test and control article characterization. (a) The identity, strength, purity, and composition or other...

  1. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  2. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer

    2015-01-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...

  3. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  4. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  5. Characterization of dip-coated ITO films derived from nanoparticles synthesized by low-pressure spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogi, Takashi; Iskandar, Ferry; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2006-01-01

    In 2 O 3 :Sn (Indium Tin Oxide; ITO) films were prepared from a sol solution with highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles (less than 20 nm in size with 10 at.% Sn) which had been prepared by low-pressure spray pyrolysis (LPSP) in a single step. The ITO sol solution was prepared by dispersing LPSP-prepared ITO nanoparticles into ultra pure water. The nanoparticle ITO film was deposited on a glass substrate using a dip-coating method and then annealed in air at various temperatures. The optical transmittances of the ITO films were measured by UV-Vis spectrometry, and the films were found to have a high transparency to visible light (in the case of a film thickness of 250 nm annealed at 400 deg. C, the transparency was in excess of 95% over the range λ=450-800 nm, with a maximum value near 100% at wavelengths above λ=700 nm). The optical transmittances of the films were influenced by the size of the ITO particle used, the film thickness and the annealing temperature. The ITO films showed a minimum resistivity of 9.5x10 -2 Ω cm, and their resistivity was affected by both the ITO particle size and the annealing temperature used

  6. Optical and electrical characterization of AgInS{sub 2} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto-Rodriguez, M., E-mail: manuela@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Martinez, H. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Calixto, M.E. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Pena, Y. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Martinez-Escobar, Dalia [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Tiburcio-Silver, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca-SEP, Apartado Postal 20, 52176, Metepec 3, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez-Juarez, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Silver indium sulfide (AgInS{sub 2}) thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis (SP) technique using silver acetate, indium acetate, and N, N-dimethylthiourea as precursor compounds. Films were deposited onto glass substrates at different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) and Ag:In:S ratios in the starting solutions. Optical transmission and reflection as well as electrical measurements were performed in order to study the effect of deposition parameters on the optical and electrical properties of AgInS{sub 2} thin films. X-ray diffraction measurements were used to identify the deposited compounds. It was found that different compounds such as AgInS{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}S, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be grown only by changing the Ag:In:S ratio in the starting solution and T{sub s}. So that, by carefully selecting the deposition parameters, single phase AgInS{sub 2} thin films can be easily grown. Thin films obtained using a molar ratio of Ag:In:S = 1:1:2 and T{sub s} = 400 {sup o}C, have an optical band gap of 1.9 eV and n-type electrical conductivity with a value of 0.3 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} in the dark.

  7. Cavitation Erosion of Plasma -sprayed Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. J.; Park, J. S.; Jeon, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten Carbide, chromium carbide and chromium oxide coatings were obtained on a 304 stainless steel substrate by plasma spraying technique. The coated samples were exposed to cavitation generated in distilled water by a 20KHz ultrasonic horn. The results of investigation reveal that all the samples tested are significantly eroded even within ten minutes of exposure, indicative of a short incubation period. The eroded surfaces can be characterized as having large pits and flat smooth areas. The latter may be associated with the poor cohesive strength of the coatings, which leads to the failures between individual lamellae

  8. Effects of spray parameters on the microstructure and property of Al2O3 coatings sprayed by a low power plasma torch with a novel hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changjiu; Sun Bo

    2004-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 coating is deposited using a low power plasma torch with a novel hollow cathode through axial powder injection under a plasma power up to several kilowatts. The effects of the main processing parameters including plasma arc power, operating gas flow and spray distance on particle velocity during spraying, and the microstructure and property of the coating are investigated. The microstructure of the Al 2 O 3 coating is examined using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The property of the coating is characterized by dry rubber wheel abrasive wear test. The velocity of in-flight particle is measured using a velocity/temperature measurement system for spray particle based on thermal radiation from the particle. The dependency of the microstructure and property of the coating on spray particle conditions are examined by comparing the particle velocity, and microstructure and abrasive wear weight loss of subsequent coating deposited by low power plasma spray with those of the coating by conventional plasma spray at a power one order higher. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating revealed that Al 2 O 3 particles during low power plasma spraying reach to sufficiently melting state prior to impact on the substrate with a velocity comparable to that in conventional plasma spraying. The experiment results have shown that processing parameters have significant influence on the particle conditions and performance of deposited Al 2 O 3 coating. The coating of comparable microstructure and properties to that deposited by conventional plasma spray can be produced under a power one order lower. From the present study, it can be suggested that a comparable coating can be produced despite plasma power level if the comparable particle velocity and molten state are achieved

  9. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  10. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shen, Dejiu, E-mail: DejiuShen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  11. Physicochemical Characterization and In Vivo Evaluation of Amorphous and Partially Crystalline Calcium Phosphate Coatings Fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V Implants by the Plasma Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam A. Bonfante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the topographic and chemical properties of 2 bioceramic coated plateau root form implant surfaces and evaluate their histomorphometric differences at 6 and 12 weeks in vivo. Methods. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (PSHA and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, interferometry (IFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Implants were placed in the radius epiphysis, and the right limb of dogs provided implants that remained for 6 weeks, and the left limb provided implants that remained 12 weeks in vivo. Thin sections were prepared for bone-to-implant contact (BIC and bone-area-fraction occupancy (BAFO measurements (evaluated by Friedman analysis <0.05. Results. Significantly, higher Sa (<0.03 and Sq (<0.02 were observed for ACP relative to PSHA. Chemical analysis revealed significantly higher HA, calcium phosphate, and calcium pyrophosphate for the PSHA surface. BIC and BAFO measurements showed no differences between surfaces. Lamellar bone formation in close contact with implant surfaces and within the healing chambers was observed for both groups. Conclusion. Given topographical and chemical differences between PSHA and ACP surfaces, bone morphology and histomorphometric evaluated parameters showed that both surfaces were osseoconductive in plateau root form implants.

  12. Radball Technology Testing For Hot Cell Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2010-01-01

    Operations at various U.S. Department of Energy sites have resulted in substantial radiological contamination of tools, equipment, and facilities. It is essential to use remote technologies for characterization and decommissioning to keep worker exposures as low as reasonably achievable in these highly contaminated environments. A significant initial step in planning and implementing D and D of contaminated facilities involves the development of an accurate assessment of the radiological, chemical, and structural conditions inside of the facilities. Collected information describing facility conditions using remote technologies could reduce the conservatism associated with planning initial worker entry (and associated cost).

  13. Hydrologic Tests at Characterization Well R-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. McLin; W. Stone

    2004-08-01

    Well R-14 is located in Ten Site Canyon and was completed at a depth of 1316 ft below ground surface (bgs) in August 2002 within unassigned pumiceous deposits located below the Puye Formation (fanglomerate). The well was constructed with two screens positioned below the regional water table. Individual static depths measured for each isolated screen after the Westbay{trademark} transducer monitoring system was installed in mid-December 2002 were nearly identical at 1177 ft bgs, suggesting only horizontal subsurface flow at this time, location, and depth. Screen 1 straddles the geologic contact between the Puye fanglomerate and unassigned pumiceous deposits. Screen 2 is located about 50 ft deeper than screen 1 and is only within the unassigned pumiceous deposits. Constant-rate, straddle-packer, injection tests were conducted at screen 2, including two short tests and one long test. The short tests were 1 minute each but at different injection rates. These short tests were used to select an appropriate injection rate for the long test. We analyzed both injection and recovery data from the long test using the Theis, Theis recovery, Theis residual-recovery, and specific capacity techniques. The Theis injection, Theis recovery, and specific capacity methods correct for partial screen penetration; however, the Theis residual-recovery method does not. The long test at screen 2 involved injection at a rate of 10.1 gallons per minute (gpm) for 68 minutes and recovery for the next 85 minutes. The Theis analysis for screen 2 gave the best fit to residual recovery data. These results suggest that the 158-ft thick deposits opposite screen 2 have a transmissivity (T) equal to or greater than 143 ft{sup 2}/day, and correspond to a horizontal hydraulic conductivity (K) of at least 0.9 ft/day. The specific capacity method yielded a T value equal to or greater than 177 ft{sup 2}/day, and a horizontal K of at least 1.1 ft/day. Results from the injection and recovery phases of the

  14. Characterization of luminescent praseodymium-doped ZrO{sub 2} coatings deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Brito, F [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos, DiDe, Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Av. De las Americas No. 2771 Nte. Col. Villa Universidad, C.P. 80010 Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360 Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Alejo-Armenta, C [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos, DiDe, Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Av. De las Americas No. 2771 Nte. Col. Villa Universidad, C.P. 80010 Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Alvarez-Fragoso, O [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360 Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Falcony, C [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 DF (Mexico)

    2007-11-07

    ZrO{sub 2} : Pr films were synthesized by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process. X-ray diffraction studies, as a function of the deposition temperature, indicate a tetragonal crystal structure of zirconia as the substrate temperature was increased. Luminescence (photo- and cathodoluminescence) properties of the films were studied as a function of growth parameters such as the substrate temperature and the praseodymium concentration. For an excitation wavelength of 290 nm, all the photoluminescent emission spectra show peaks located at 490, 510, 566, 615, 642, 695, 718, 740 and 833 nm, associated with the electronic transitions {sup 3} P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 3}P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3} H{sub 4}, {sup 3}P{sub 1} + {sup 1}I{sub 6} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 5}, {sup 1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 3} P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 6}, {sup 1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3} H{sub 5}, {sup 1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 5}, {sup 3} P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}F{sub 3,4} and {sup 1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3} F{sub 2} of the Pr{sup 3+} ion. As the deposition temperature is increased, an increasing intensity of the luminescence emission is observed. Also, quenching of the luminescence, with increasing doping concentration, is observed. The chemical composition of the films as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy is reported as well. In addition, the surface morphology characteristics of the films, as a function of the deposition temperature, are presented.

  15. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, Frank A; Thorne, Paul D; Newcomer, Darrell R

    2001-01-01

    This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within eleven Hanford Site wells during fiscal year 2000. Detailed characterization tests performed included groundwater-flow characterization; barometric response evaluation; slug tests; single-well tracer tests; constant-rate pumping tests; and in-well, vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include transmissivity; hydraulic conductivity; specific yield; effective porosity; in-well, lateral flow velocity; aquifer-flow velocity; vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section); and in-well, vertical flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater-flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed

  16. New spark test device for material characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Kildemo, Morten

    2004-01-01

    An automated spark test system based on combining field emission and spark measurements, exploiting a discharging capacitor is investigated. In particular, the remaining charge on the capacitor is analytically solved assuming the field emitted current to follow the Fowler Nordheim expression. The latter allows for field emission measurements from pA to A currents, and spark detection by complete discharge of the capacitor. The measurement theory and experiments on Cu and W are discussed.

  17. Advanced testing and characterization of transportation soils and bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study was intended to develop laboratory test procedures for advance testing and characterization of fine-grained cohesive soils and oil sand materials. The test procedures are based on typical field loading conditions and the loading...

  18. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, G.; Rao, D.S.; Prasad, K.U.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12% Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al 2 O 3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode

  19. Characterization, Corrosion Resistance, and Cell Response of High-Velocity Flame-Sprayed HA and HA/TiO2 Coatings on 316L SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tejinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Hazoor

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate corrosion and biocompatibility behavior of thermal spray hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite/titania bond (HA/TiO2)-coated 316L stainless steel (316L SS). In HA/TiO2 coatings, TiO2 was used as a bond coat between HA top coat and 316L SS substrate. The coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and corrosion resistance determined for the uncoated substrate and the two coatings. The biological behavior was investigated by the cell culture studies using osteosarcoma cell line KHOS-NP (R-970-5). The corrosion resistance of the steel was found to increase after the deposition of the HA and HA/TiO2 bond coatings. Both HA, as well as, HA/TiO2 coatings exhibit excellent bond strength of 49 and 47 MPa, respectively. The cell culture studies showed that HA-coated 316L SS specimens appeared more biocompatible than the uncoated and HA/TiO2-coated 316L SS specimens.

  20. Use of Electro-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the characterization of complexes 'ligand - metallic cations' in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthon, Laurence; Zorz, Nicole; Lagrave, Stephanie; Gannaz, Benoit; Hill, Clement [CEA-Marcoule DEN-DRCP-SCPS-LCSE, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste reprocessing, separation processes of minor actinides from fission products are developed by Cea. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the 'ligand/metallic cation' complexes, formed in the organic phases are characterized by electro-spray-mass-spectrometry (ESI-MS). This paper deals with the extraction of lanthanides (III) and americium (III) cations by an organic phase composed of a malonamide or / and a dialkyl phosphoric acid, diluted in an aliphatic diluent. For the dialkyl phosphoric acid, Ln(DEHP){sub 3}(HDEHP){sub 3} complexes are observed and in the presence of a large excess of Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, dinuclear species are also observed. For the malonamide extractant, it appears that the complexes formed in the organic phase are of the Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}D{sub x} type, with 2 {<=} x {<=} 4: their distributions depend on the ratio [Ln]/[DMDOHEMA]. When the two extractants are present in the organic phase, mixed 'Ln-malonamide-dialkyl phosphoric acid' species are observed. The influence of several parameters, such as extractant concentration, solute concentration, aqueous acidity and the nature of the cations (lanthanides or americium) are studied. (authors)

  1. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Monat, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  2. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  3. Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Han, Feng-Yun; Liu, Qi-Nie; Fan, Han-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: → The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. → Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. → The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

  4. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-08-01

    The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  5. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  6. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  7. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL's Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal

  8. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  9. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  10. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Pesticide spray drift reduction technologies--Evaluation of the verification protocol for low and high speed wind tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide spray drift is defined as the movement of spray droplets through the air at the time of application or soon thereafter from the target site to any non- or off-target site, excluding pesticide movements by erosion, migration, volatility, or windblown soil particles after...

  11. F-15B in on ramp with close-up of test panels covered with advanced spray-on foam insulation materia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Test panels covered with an advanced foam insulation material for the Space Shuttle's giant external fuel tank were test flown aboard an F-15B research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Six panels were mounted on the left side of a heavily instrumented Flight Text Fixture mounted underneath the F-15B's fuselage. Insulation on this panel was finely machined over a horizontal rib structure to simulate in-line airflow past the tank; other panels had the ribs mounted vertically or had the insulation left in a rough as-sprayed surface. The tests were part of an effort by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to determine why small particles of the new insulation flaked off the tank on recent Shuttle missions. The tests with Dryden's F-15B were designed to replicate the pressure environment the Shuttle encounters during the first minute after launch. No noticeable erosion of the insulation material was noted after the flight experiment at Dryden.

  12. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  13. Evaluation of droplet velocity and size from nasal spray devices using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2010-03-30

    To determine aerosol deposition during the inhalation drug delivery, it is important to understand the combination of velocity and droplet size together. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to simultaneously characterize the aerosol velocity and droplet size distribution (DSD) of three nasal spray pumps filled with water. Thirteen sampling positions were located in the horizontal cross-sectional area of the nasal spray plumes at a distance of 3cm from the pump orifice. The results showed droplet velocities near the center of the spray plume were higher and more consistent than those near the edge. The pumps examined showed significant differences in their aerosol velocity at the center of the spray plume, which suggest that this metric might be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of nasal sprays. Droplet size measurements performed using PDA were compared with results from laser light scattering measurements. The ability of PDA to provide simultaneous measurements of aerosol velocity and size makes it a powerful tool for the detailed investigation of nasal spray plume characteristics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Optimization of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings for High Temperature Corrosion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-04-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-spray coatings have proven successful in resisting the high temperature sulfidizing conditions found in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. The corrosion resistance of the coatings is dependent upon the coating composition, to form chromium sulfides and oxides to seal the coating, and on the coating microstructure. Selection of the arc-spray parameters influences the size, temperature and velocity of the molten droplets generated during spraying, which in turn dictates the coating composition and formation of the critical coating microstructural features—splat size, porosity and oxide content. Hence it is critical to optimize the arc-spray parameters in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the coating. In this work the effect of key spray parameters (current, voltage, spray distance and gas atomizing pressure) on the coating splat thickness, porosity content, oxide content, microhardness, thickness, and surface profile were investigated using a full factorial design of experiment. Based on these results a set of oxidized, porous and optimized coatings were prepared and characterized in detail for follow-up corrosion testing.

  15. Effects of spray axis incident angle on heat transfer performance of rhombus-pitch shell-and-tube interior spray evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ru-Li; Chang, Tong-Bou; Liang, Chih-Chang

    2012-01-01

    An interior spray method is proposed for enhancing the heat transfer performance of a compact rhombus-pitch shell-and-tube spray evaporator. The experimental results show that the shell-side heat transfer coefficient obtained using the proposed spray method is significantly higher than that achieved in a conventional flooded-type evaporator. Four different spray axis incident angles (0 .deg., 45 .deg., 60 .deg. and 75 .deg.) are tested in order to investigate the effect of the spray inclination angle on the heat transfer performance of the spray evaporator system. It is shown that the optimal heat transfer performance is obtained using a spray axis incident angle of 60 .deg.

  16. Using Virtual Testing for Characterization of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph

    Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications -- airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental effects, have high impact strength, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes. Generalized constitutive models are being developed to accurately model composite systems so they can be used in implicit and explicit finite element analysis. These models require extensive characterization of the composite material as input. The particular constitutive model of interest for this research is a three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model that requires a total of 12 experimental stress-strain curves, yield stresses, and Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio in the material directions as input. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out reliable experimental tests needed to characterize the composite material. One solution is using virtual testing to fill the gaps in available experimental data. A Virtual Testing Software System (VTSS) has been developed to address the need for a less restrictive method to characterize a three-dimensional orthotropic composite material. The system takes in the material properties of the constituents and completes all 12 of the necessary characterization tests using finite element (FE) models. Verification and validation test cases demonstrate the capabilities of the VTSS.

  17. Glovebox characterization and barrier integrity testing using fluorescent powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing the spread of contamination and testing the barrier integrity of a new glovebox during material transfer operations and glove change-outs using fluorescent powder. Argonne National Laboratory-West has performed this test on several new gloveboxes prior to putting them into service. The test is performed after the glovebox has been leak tested and all systems have been verified to be operational. The purpose of the test is to show that bag-in/bag-out operations and glove change-outs can be accomplished without spreading the actual contaminated material to non-contaminated areas. The characterization test also provides information as to where contamination might be expected to build-up during actual operations. The fluorescent powder is used because it is easily detectable using an ultra-violet light and disperses in a similar fashion to radioactive material. The characterization and barrier integrity test of a glovebox using fluorescent powder provides a visual method of determining areas of potential contamination accumulation and helps evaluate the ability to perform clean transfer operations and glove change-outs

  18. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 in matrices containing soluble fibre by spray drying: Technological characterization, storage stability and survival after in vitro digestion☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Lina; Sun, Han; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated sodium alginate, chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as co-encapsulants for spray dried Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 by assessing their impact on cell viability and physicochemical properties of the dried powders, viability over 35 days of storage at 25 °C and survival after simulated digestion. Fibres were added to a control carrier medium containing whey protein concentrate, d-glucose and maltodextrin. Sodium alginate and HPMC did not affect cell viability but chitosan reduced viable counts in spray dried powders, as compared to the control. Although chitosan caused large losses of viability during spray-drying, these losses were counteracted by the excellent storage stability compared to control, sodium alginate and HPMC, and the overall effect became positive after the 35-day storage. Chitosan also improved survival rates in simulated GI conditions, however no single fibre could improve L. acidophilus NCIMB 701748 viability in all steps from production through storage and digestion. PMID:24748900

  19. Assessing Reliability of Cold Spray Sputter Targets in Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Kedar; Vlcek, Johannes; Bheemreddy, Venkata; Juliano, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Cold spray has been used to manufacture more than 800 Cu-In-Ga (CIG) sputter targets for deposition of high-efficiency photovoltaic thin films. It is a preferred technique since it enables high deposit purity and transfer of non-equilibrium alloy states to the target material. In this work, an integrated approach to reliability assessment of such targets with deposit weight in excess of 50 lb. is undertaken, involving thermal-mechanical characterization of the material in as-deposited condition, characterization of the interface adhesion on cylindrical substrate in as-deposited condition, and developing means to assess target integrity under thermal-mechanical loads during the physical vapor deposition (PVD) sputtering process. Mechanical characterization of cold spray deposited CIG alloy is accomplished through the use of indentation testing and adaptation of Brazilian disk test. A custom lever test was developed to characterize adhesion along the cylindrical interface between the CIG deposit and cylindrical substrate, overcoming limitations of current standards. A cohesive zone model for crack initiation and propagation at the deposit interface is developed and validated using the lever test and later used to simulate the potential catastrophic target failure in the PVD process. It is shown that this approach enables reliability assessment of sputter targets and improves robustness.

  20. Comparison of the Characteristics and Performance of Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg Spray for Sore Throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Shephard, Adrian; Adams, Verity; Lidster, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Sore throat sprays provide targeted relief by delivering the active ingredient directly to the site of pain. Different sprays vary in characteristics, thus affecting delivery of the active ingredient to the throat, which can impact compliance. The characteristics and performance of FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY were compared with 12 other sprays. Parameters assessed included spray angle and pattern, droplet size distribution, shot weight uniformity and shot weight throughout life. Among all sprays tested WICK Sulagil Halsspray had the smallest spray angle (46°) and also the smallest diameter spray pattern (X=32.8 mm; Y=34.4 mm). Thiovalone® Buccal Spray Suspension had both the largest spray angle (82°) and largest diameter spray pattern (X=62.6 mm; Y=78.0 mm). Hasco Sept® Aerosol Spray had the smallest droplet size (Dv90=118.4 μm) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray had the largest (Dv90=214.34 μm). In terms of shot weight uniformity, TANTUM® VERDE GOLA 0.25% spray showed the least variation (2% RSD) between shots and UNIBEN Aerosol Spray the most (23.4% RSD). Shot weight throughout life studies showed that FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the least deviation from shot weight (1.77%) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray deviated the most (44.9%). FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the second smallest spray angle/pattern and droplet size distribution and also the least variation in shot weight. Different sore throat sprays vary in different attributes, affecting delivery of the active ingredient. FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY performed well overall, ranking first among all sprays tested, and providing a dose which is targeted and uniformly delivered throughout the life of the bottle. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste. The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with ALARA precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  2. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project (RWMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste (MW). The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B Permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  3. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C{sub 19}H{sub 29}NO{sub 5} compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C{sub 3} hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene.

  4. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C 19 H 29 NO 5 compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C 3 hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene

  5. Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fukuda, Katsumi; Sato, Tatsuro; Nonaka, Katsumi; Gozu, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m 3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

  6. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  7. Dynamic MTF, an innovative test bench for detector characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Rossi; Raphaël, Lardière; Delmonte, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    PLEIADES HR are High Resolution satellites for Earth observation. Placed at 695km they reach a 0.7m spatial resolution. To allow such performances, the detectors are working in a TDI mode (Time and Delay Integration) which consists in a continuous charge transfer from one line to the consecutive one while the image is passing on the detector. The spatial resolution, one of the most important parameter to test, is characterized by the MTF (Modulation Transfer Function). Usually, detectors are tested in a staring mode. For a higher level of performances assessment, a dedicated bench has been set-up, allowing detectors' MTF characterization in the TDI mode. Accuracy and reproducibility are impressive, opening the door to new perspectives in term of HR imaging systems testing.

  8. Effects of self-pulsation on the spray characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng; Zhang, Xinqiao; Wang, Zhen-guo

    2016-10-01

    To understand the influence of self-pulsation on the spray characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injector, a back-lighting photography technique has been employed to capture the instantaneous self-pulsated spray and stable spray images with a high speed camera. The diameter and velocity of the droplets in the spray have been characterized with a Dantec Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system. The effects of self-pulsation on the spray pattern, primary breakup, spray angle, diameter and velocity distribution and mass flow rate distribution are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the spray morphology is greatly influenced by self-pulsation. The stable spray has a cone shape, while the self-pulsated spray looks like a Christmas tree. The main difference of these two sprays is the primary breakup. The liquid film of stable spray keeps stable while that of self-pulsated spray oscillates periodically. The film width of self-pulsated spray varies in a large range with 'neck' and 'shoulder' features existing. The liquid film of self-pulsated spray breaks up at the second neck, and then the second shoulder begins to breakup into ligaments. The self-pulsated spray produces droplet clusters periodically, varies horizontal spray width and mass flux periodically. From the point of spatial distribution, self-pulsation is good for the spray, it uniformizes the mass flux along radius and increases the spray angle. However, when self-pulsation occurs, the SMD distribution varies from an inverted V shape to a hollow cone shape, and SMD increases at all the measuring points. Namely, from the point of atomization performance, self-pulsation has negative effects even when the breakup length is smaller. The effects of self-pulsation on the diameter and velocity distributions of the spray are mainly in the center part of the spray. The periphery of stable and self-pulsated spray has similar diameter and velocity distribution.

  9. Pain Modulation after Oromucosal Cannabinoid Spray (SATIVEX® in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Study with Quantitative Sensory Testing and Laser-Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Turri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC/cannabidiol (CBD (nabiximols or Sativex® is an oromucosal spray formulation containing THC and CBD at an approximately 1:1 fixed ratio. Its administration for the treatment of pain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS has been established. MS patients generally complain of different kinds of pain, including spasticity-related and neuropathic pain. In this study, we compared and evaluated pain modulation and thermal/pain threshold of MS patients before and after THC/CBD administration. Methods. 19 MS patients underwent clinical examination, numerical rating scale (NRS, quantitative sensory testing (QST, and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs before and after 1 month of therapy. Psychophysiological and neurophysiological data were compared to sex- and age-matched controls. Results. Patients reported a significant reduction in pain. We found statistically significant differences in LEP parameters between patients and controls but no significant change in LEP measures after THC/CBD therapy. Cold and heat detection thresholds were altered in patients but did not change after THC/CBD therapy. There was a significant increase in cold pain threshold by hand stimulation and a significant reduction in abnormal cold perception thresholds. Conclusions. Our results indicate that Sativex® therapy provides pain relief in MS patients and suggest that it might modulate peripheral cold-sensitive TRP channels.

  10. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, J.L.; Kahler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 thin films by spray pyrolysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chourashiya, M. G.; Pawar, S. H.; Jadhav, L. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Gd doped ceria (CGO) in thin layers is of great interest for low temperature operation. In the present investigation, we report on the use of spray pyrolysis technique for the synthesis of CGO thin films. The process parameters were optimized for synthesizing Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 films. Films were...... characterized by XRD, EDS, SEM, and AFM and are observed to be phase pure and dense with surface roughness of the order of ∼5 nm. The d.c. conductivity was also measured and is observed to be ∼0.5 S/cm at 623 K....

  12. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material: ATM-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1988-10-01

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material (ATM)-106 spent fuel from Assembly BT03 of pressurized-water reactor Calvert Cliffs No. 1. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well- characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCWRM) program. ATM-106 consists of 20 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 3700 GJ/kgM (43 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of /approximately/10%. Characterization data include (1) as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (6) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel rod are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report. 12 refs., 110 figs., 81 tabs

  13. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  14. Modeling Droplet Heat and Mass Transfer during Spray Bar Pressure Control of the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) Tank in Normal Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartuzova, O.; Kassemi, M.

    2016-01-01

    A CFD model for simulating pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks through the injection of a subcooled liquid into the ullage is presented and applied to the 1g MHTB spray bar cooling experiments. An Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is utilized to track the spray droplets and capture the interaction between the discrete droplets and the continuous ullage phase. The spray model is coupled with the VOF model by performing particle tracking in the ullage, removing particles from the ullage when they reach the interface, and then adding their contributions to the liquid. A new model for calculating the droplet-ullage heat and mass transfer is developed. In this model, a droplet is allowed to warm up to the saturation temperature corresponding to the ullage vapor pressure, after which it evaporates while remaining at the saturation temperature. The droplet model is validated against the results of the MHTB spray-bar cooling experiments with 50% and 90% tank fill ratios. The predictions of the present T-sat based model are compared with those of a previously developed kinetic-based droplet mass transfer model. The predictions of the two models regarding the evolving tank pressure and temperature distributions, as well as the droplets' trajectories and temperatures, are examined and compared in detail. Finally, the ullage pressure and local vapor and liquid temperature evolutions are validated against the corresponding data provided by the MHTB spray bar mixing experiment.

  15. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    G Nasr; A Whitehead; A Yule

    2016-01-01

    Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's). The Spray Research Group (SRG) have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA) for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coatin...

  16. Laser Processing of Multilayered Thermal Spray Coatings: Optimal Processing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Zhang, Tao; Lee, Hwasoo; Sampath, Sanjay; Hwang, David; Longtin, Jon

    2017-12-01

    Laser processing offers an innovative approach for the fabrication and transformation of a wide range of materials. As a rapid, non-contact, and precision material removal technology, lasers are natural tools to process thermal spray coatings. Recently, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was fabricated using thermal spray and laser processing. The TEG device represents a multilayer, multimaterial functional thermal spray structure, with laser processing serving an essential role in its fabrication. Several unique challenges are presented when processing such multilayer coatings, and the focus of this work is on the selection of laser processing parameters for optimal feature quality and device performance. A parametric study is carried out using three short-pulse lasers, where laser power, repetition rate and processing speed are varied to determine the laser parameters that result in high-quality features. The resulting laser patterns are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electrical isolation tests between patterned regions. The underlying laser interaction and material removal mechanisms that affect the feature quality are discussed. Feature quality was found to improve both by using a multiscanning approach and an optional assist gas of air or nitrogen. Electrically isolated regions were also patterned in a cylindrical test specimen.

  17. Effects of Achyrocline satureioides Inflorescence Extracts against Pathogenic Intestinal Bacteria: Chemical Characterization, In Vitro Tests, and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzana Moresco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Achyrocline satureioides (AS inflorescences extracts were characterized: (i a freeze-dried extract prepared from the aqueous extractive solution and (ii a freeze-dried and (iii a spray-dried extract prepared from hydroethanol extractive solution (80% ethanol. The chemical profile, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria of AS extracts were evaluated. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay. In vivo analysis and characterization of intestinal microbiota were performed in male Wistar rats (saline versus treated animals with AS dried extracts by high-throughput sequencing analysis: metabarcoding. Antimicrobial activity was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion tests. Moisture content of the extracts ranged from 10 to 15% and 5.7 to 17 mg kg−1 of fluorine. AS exhibited antioxidant activity, especially in its freeze-dried form which also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria greater than those observed by the antibiotic, amoxicillin, when tested against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of AS extracts seemed to be positively correlated with the present amount of flavonoids. These findings suggest a potential use of AS as a coadjuvant agent for treating bacterial-induced intestinal diseases with high rates of antibiotic resistance.

  18. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  19. Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Sprayed alpha-Fe2O3 Thin Films : Influence of Si Doping and SnO2 Interfacial Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Y.; Enache, C.S.; Van De Krol, R.

    2008-01-01

    a-Fe2O3 thin film photoanodes for solar water splitting were prepared by spray pyrolysis of Fe(AcAc)3. The donor density in the Fe2O3 films could be tuned between 10171020cm-3 by doping with silicon. By depositing a 5 nm SnO2 interfacial layer between the Fe2O3 films and the transparent conducting

  20. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  1. Improvements in Modelling Bystander and Resident Exposure to Pesticide Spray Drift: Investigations into New Approaches for Characterizing the 'Collection Efficiency' of the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler Ellis, M Clare; Kennedy, Marc C; Kuster, Christian J; Alanis, Rafael; Tuck, Clive R

    2018-03-17

    The BREAM (Bystander and Resident Exposure Assessment Model) (Kennedy et al. in BREAM: A probabilistic bystander and resident exposure assessment model of spray drift from an agricultural boom sprayer. Comput Electron Agric 2012;88:63-71) for bystander and resident exposure to spray drift from boom sprayers has recently been incorporated into the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance for determining non-dietary exposures of humans to plant protection products. The component of BREAM, which relates airborne spray concentrations to bystander and resident dermal exposure, has been reviewed to identify whether it is possible to improve this and its description of variability captured in the model. Two approaches have been explored: a more rigorous statistical analysis of the empirical data and a semi-mechanistic model based on established studies combined with new data obtained in a wind tunnel. A statistical comparison between field data and model outputs was used to determine which approach gave the better prediction of exposures. The semi-mechanistic approach gave the better prediction of experimental data and resulted in a reduction in the proposed regulatory values for the 75th and 95th percentiles of the exposure distribution.

  2. Phytase production by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm: characterization of enzymatic activity after spray drying in presence of carbohydrates and nonconventional adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira; Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandez; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2014-02-28

    Microbial phytases are enzymes with biotechnological interest for the feed industry. In this article, the effect of spray-drying conditions on the stability and activity of extracellular phytase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus biofilm is described. The phytase was spray-dried in the presence of starch, corn meal (>150 μm), soy bean meal (SB), corn meal (drying adjuvants. The residual enzyme activity after drying ranged from 10.7% to 60.4%, with SB and CM standing out as stabilizing agents. Water concentration and residual enzyme activity were determined in obtained powders as a function of the drying condition. When exposed to different pH values, the SB and CM products were stable, with residual activity above 50% in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.5 for 60 min. The use of CM as drying adjuvant promoted the best retention of enzymatic activity compared with SB. Spray drying of the R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase using different drying adjuvants showed interesting results, being quite feasible with regards their biotechnological applications, especially for poultry diets.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.

    2007-01-01

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  4. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum-4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  5. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  6. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeClue, J.F.; Moses, S.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers

  7. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental investigation of iodine removal and containment depressurization in containment spray system test facility of 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Manish [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Kandar, T.K.; Vhora, S.F.; Mohan, Nalini [Directorate of Technology Development, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Prabhu, S.V., E-mail: svprabhu@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Depressurization rate in a scaled down vessel filled with air and steam is studied. • Iodine removal rate in a scaled down vessel filled with steam/air is investigated. • Effect of SMD and vessel pressure on depressurization rate is studied. • Depressurization rate decreases with the increase in the droplet size (590 μm – 1 mm) • Decrease in pressure and iodine concentration with time follow exponential trend. - Abstract: As an additional safety measure in the new 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactors, the first of a kind system called containment Spray System is introduced. The system is designed to cater/mitigate the conditions after design basis accidents i.e., loss of coolant accident and main steam line break. As a contribution to the safety analysis of condition following loss-of-coolant accidents, experiments are carried out to establish the performance of the system. The loss of coolant is simulated by injecting saturated steam and iodine vapors into the containment vessel in which air is enclosed at atmospheric and room temperature, and then the steam-air mixture is cooled by sprays of water. The effect of water spray on the containment vessel pressure and the iodine scrubbing in a scaled down facility is investigated for the containment spray system of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors. The experiments are carried out in the scaled down vessel of the diameter of 2.0 m and height of 3.5 m respectively. Experiments are conducted with water at room temperature as the spray medium. Two different initial vessel pressure i.e. 0.7 bar and 1.0 bar are chosen for the studies as they are nearing the loss of coolant accident & main steam line break pressures in Indian pressurized heavy water reactors. These pressures are chosen based on the containment resultant pressures after a design basis accident. The transient temperature and pressure distribution of the steam in the vessel are measured during the depressurization

  9. Spray-dried adjunct cultures of autochthonous non-starter lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guillermo H; Bergamini, Carina V; Audero, Gabriela; Páez, Roxana; Wolf, I Verónica; Perotti, M Cristina; Hynes, Erica R

    2017-08-16

    Spray-drying of lactic cultures provides direct-to-vat starters, which facilitate their commercialization and use. However, this process may alter the metabolic activity and deteriorate technological features. In this work, we assessed the influence of spray-drying on the survival and aroma production of two strains of mesophilic lactobacilli: Lactobacillus paracasei 90 and Lactobacillus plantarum 91, which have already been characterized as good adjunct cultures. The spray-drying was carried out using a laboratory scale spray and the dried cultures were monitored during the storage for the survival rate. The dried cultures were applied to two cheese models: sterile cheese extract and miniature soft cheese. The influence on the carbohydrate metabolism and the production of organic acids and volatile compounds was determined. Both strains retained high levels of viable counts in the powder after drying and during the storage at 5°C for twelve months. In addition, they also remained at high level in both cheese models during incubation or ripening. Similar profiles of carbohydrate fermentation and bioformation of volatile compounds were observed in the cheese extracts for each of the strains when tested as both fresh and dried cultures. In addition, the ability of Lb. paracasei 90 to increase the production of acetoin and diacetyl remarkably in cheese models was also confirmed for the spray-dried culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deposition of titanium nitride layers by electric arc – Reactive plasma spraying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Pascu, Doru Romulus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Titanium nitride layers deposited by electric arc – reactive plasma spraying method. ► Deposition of titanium nitride layers on C45 steel at different spraying distances. ► Characterization of the coatings hardness as function of the spraying distances. ► Determination of the corrosion behavior of titanium nitride layers obtained. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic material which possesses high mechanical properties, being often used in order to cover cutting tools, thus increasing their lifetime, and also for covering components which are working in corrosive environments. The paper presents the experimental results on deposition of titanium nitride coatings by a new combined method (reactive plasma spraying and electric arc thermal spraying). In this way the advantages of each method in part are combined, obtaining improved quality coatings in the same time achieving high productivity. Commercially pure titanium wire and C45 steel as substrate were used for experiments. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposited coatings are composed of titanium nitride (TiN, Ti 2 N) and small amounts of Ti 3 O. The microstructure of the deposited layers, investigated both by optical and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the coatings are dense, compact, without cracks and with low porosity. Vickers microhardness of the coatings presents maximum values of 912 HV0.1. The corrosion tests in 3%NaCl solution show that the deposited layers have a high corrosion resistance compared to unalloyed steel substrate.

  11. New test and characterization methods for PV modules and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.; Sommeling, P. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Scholten, H. [Solland, Heerlen (Netherlands); Muller, J. [Moser-Baer, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Grossiord, N. [Holst Centre, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Smits, C.; Blanco Mantecon, M. [Holland Innovative, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Verheijen, M.; Van Berkum, J. [Philips Innovation Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The results of the project geZONd (shared facility for solar module analysis and reliability testing) are described. The project was set up by Philips, ECN, Holst, Solland, OM and T and Holland Innovative. The partners have shared most of their testing and analysis equipment for PV modules and cells, and together developed new or improved methods (including the necessary application know-how). This enables faster and more efficient innovation projects for each partner, and via commercial exploitation for other interested parties. The project has concentrated on five failure modes: corrosion, delamination, moisture ingress, UV irradiation, and mechanical bending. Test samples represented all main PV technologies: wafer based PV and rigid and flexible thin-film PV. Breakthroughs are in very early detection of corrosion, in quantitative characterization of adhesion, in-situ detection of humidity and oxygen inside modules, and ultra-fast screening of materials on UV stability.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Yb and Er based monosilicate powders and durability of plasma sprayed Yb2SiO5 coatings on C/C–SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zuhair S.; Zou Binglin; Huang Wenzhi; Fan Xizhi; Gu Lijian; Chen Xiaolong; Zeng Shuibing; Wang Chunjie; Cao Xueqiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultra-pure rare-earth monosilicate powders based on Er and Yb have been fabricated by solid-state reaction. ► Spray-drying treatment results in powders with free flowing characteristics and rounded surface morphologies. ► CTEs are found to be 7.1 ppm/°C for Yb 2 SiO 5 and 7.5 ppm/°C for Er 2 SiO 5 . ► Plasma spraying has been used to deposit Yb 2 SiO 5 coatings on C/C–SiC substrate. ► Coatings remain strongly intact with the substrate on thermal cycling between ∼400 °C and 1500 °C in gas burner rig experiment. - Abstract: Rare-earth silicates such as Yb 2 SiO 5 and Er 2 SiO 5 are promising environmental barrier coating materials for ceramic matrix composites. In this work, Yb 2 SiO 5 and Er 2 SiO 5 ceramic powders have been synthesized by solid-state reaction using Yb 2 O 3 , Er 2 O 3 and SiO 2 as starting materials. The fabricated powders were subjected to spray drying treatment for subsequent synthesis of coatings by plasma spraying. The spray drying resulted in well-dispersed and spherical powder particles with good flowability. Analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and dilatometry were applied to study the microstructural and thermal characteristics of the powders. Ultra-high purity monosilicate powders formed as a result of heating treatments at 1400 °C in a box furnace for 20 h. TG/DSC revealed the genesis temperatures of the silicate formation (low temperature polymorphs) and also showed that the solid-state reactions to form Yb and Er based monosilicates proceeded without any weight-loss in the tested temperature range. The values of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the fabricated compounds are found to be 7.1 ppm/°C for Yb 2 SiO 5 and 7.5 ppm/°C for Er 2 SiO 5 by dilatometric measurements. Besides these studies, coating formation by plasma spraying of spray-dried Yb 2 SiO 5 powders on the ceramic

  13. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  14. Studies on Nanocrystalline TiN Coatings Prepared by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride (TiN coatings with nanostructure were prepared on the surface of 45 steel (Fe-0.45%C via reactive plasma spraying (denoted as RPS Ti powders using spraying gun with self-made reactive chamber. The microstructural characterization, phases constitute, grain size, microhardness, and wear resistance of TiN coatings were systematically investigated. The grain size was obtained through calculation using the Scherrer formula and observed by TEM. The results of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction indicated that the TiN is main phase of the TiN coating. The forming mechanism of the nano-TiN was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of surface of TiN coating and TiN drops sprayed on the surface of glass, and observing the temperature and velocity of plasma jet using Spray Watch. The tribological properties of the coating under nonlubricated condition were tested and compared with those of the AISI M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating. The results have shown that the RPS TiN coating presents better wear resistance than the M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating under nonlubricated condition. The microhardness of the cross-section and longitudinal section of the TiN coating was tested. The highest hardness of the cross-section of TiN coating is 1735.43HV100 g.

  15. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  16. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  17. Characterization testing of a 40 Ahr bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gahn, Randall F.

    1989-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop NiH2 bipolar technology to a point where it can be used efficiently in space flight, testing of a second 40 Ahr, 10-cell bipolar battery has begun. This battery has undergone extensive characterization testing to determine the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure. The fundamental design of this actively cooled bipolar battery is the same as the first battery. Most of the individual components, however, are from different manufacturers. Different testing procedures as well as certain unique battery characteristics make it difficult to directly compare the two sets of results. In general, the performance of this battery throughout characterization produced expected results. The main differences seen between the first and second batteries occurred during the high-rate discharge portion of the test matrix. The first battery also had poor high-rate discharge results, although better than those of the second battery. Minor changes were made to the battery frame design used for the first battery in an attempt to allow better gas access to the reaction sites for the second build and hopefully improve performance. The changes, however, did not improve the performance of the second battery and could have possibly contributed to the poorer performance that was observed. There are other component differences that could have contributed to the poorer performance of the second battery. The H2 electrode in the second battery was constructed with a Goretex backing which could have limited the high-rate current flow. The gas screen in the second battery had a larger mesh which again could have limited the high-rate current flow. Small scale 2 x 2 batteries are being tested to evaluate the effects of the component variations.

  18. Evaluating a Heptafluoropropane System With a Water Spray Cooling System for Compartments With Low Flash Point Liquids. Halon Replacement Agent Testing Compartment 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheinson, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    .... The presence of HF in the room's atmosphere greatly hinders recovery. To counter the HF threat, we evaluated fire suppression via HFP with the NRL- invented Water Spray Cooling System (WSCS) in a 28 m(3) (1,000 ft(3...

  19. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  1. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  2. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Mechanical Properties of Spray Cast 7XXX Series Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of spray deposited and extruded 7xxx series aluminium alloys were investigated in peak aged condition. To study the influence of Zn additions on the mechanical behaviour of spray deposited materials, three alloy compositions were selected, namely: SS70 (11.5% Zn), N707 (10.9% Zn) and 7075 (5.6% Zn). After ageing treatment, notched and unnotched specimens of spray deposited alloys were subjected to tensile tests at room temperature. Experimental results showed...

  4. Application of High Performance Computing for Simulations of N-Dodecane Jet Spray with Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    is unlimited. 10 6. References 1. Malbec L-M, Egúsquiza J, Bruneaux G, Meijer M. Characterization of a set of ECN spray A injectors : nozzle to...sprays and develop a predictive theory for comparison to measurements in the laboratory of turbulent diesel sprays. 15. SUBJECT TERMS high...models into future simulations of turbulent jet sprays and develop a predictive theory for comparison to measurements in the lab of turbulent diesel

  5. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  6. Mechanical Characterization and Corrosion Testing of X608 Al Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Catalini, David; Lavender, Curt A.; Rohatgi, Aashish

    2016-02-07

    This paper describes the mechanical characterization and corrosion testing of X608 Al alloy that is being considered for A-pillar covers for heavy-duty truck applications. Recently, PNNL developed a thermo-mechanical process to stamp A-pillar covers at room temperature using this alloy, and the full-size prototype was successfully stamped by a tier-1 supplier. This study was conducted to obtain additional important information related to the newly developed forming process, and to further improve its mechanical properties. The solutionization temperature, pre-strain and paint-bake heat-treatment were found to influence the alloy’s fabricability and mechanical properties. Natural aging effect on the formability was investigated by limiting dome height (LDH) tests. Preliminary corrosion experiments showed that the employed thermo-mechanical treatments did not significantly affect the corrosion behavior of Al X608.

  7. Standard test methods for characterizing duplex grain sizes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide simple guidelines for deciding whether a duplex grain size exists. The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type. 1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use.

  8. CuS p-type thin film characterization deposited on Ti, ITO and glass substrates using spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) for light emitting diode (LED) application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabah, Fayroz A., E-mail: fayroz-arif@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: naser@usm.my; Hassan, Z., E-mail: zai@usm.my; Azzez, Shrook A. [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Rasheed, Hiba S., E-mail: hibasaad1980@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Al-Hazim, Nabeel Z., E-mail: nabeelnano333@gmail.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ministry of Education, the General Directorate for Educational Anbar (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    The copper sulphide (CuS) thin films were grown with good adhesion by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) on Ti, ITO and glass substrates at 200 °C. The distance between nozzle and substrate is 30 cm. The composition was prepared by mixing copper chloride CuCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as a source of Cu{sup 2+} and sodium thiosulfate Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O as a source of and S{sup 2−}. Two concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 M) were used for each CuCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} to be prepared and then sprayed (20 ml). The process was started by spraying the solution for 3 seconds and after 10 seconds the cycle was repeated until the solution was sprayed completely on the hot substrates. The structural characteristics were studied using X-ray diffraction; they showed covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure for 0.2 M concentration, and covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure with two small peaks of chalcocite Cu{sub 2}S hexagonal crystal structure for 0.4 M concentration. Also the surface and electrical characteristics were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and current source device, respectively. The surface study for the CuS thin films showed nanorods to be established for 0.2 M concentration and mix of nanorods and nanoplates for 0.4 M concentration. The electrical study showed ohmic behavior and low resistivity for these films. Hall Effect was measured for these thin films, it showed that all samples of CuS are p- type thin films and ensured that the resistivity for thin films of 0.2 M concentration was lower than that of 0.4 M concentration; and for the two concentrations CuS thin film deposited on ITO had the lowest resistivity. This leads to the result that the conductivity was high for CuS thin film deposited on ITO substrate, and the conductivity of the three thin films of 0.2 M concentration was higher than that of 0.4 M concentration.

  9. Deposition and characterization of graded Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, B.J. [Department of Electrical Engineering-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Avenida IPN 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, D.F. C.P 07360 (Mexico); Institute of Molecules and Materials, UMR-CNRS 6283, Université du Maine, Avenue O. Messiaen, F-72085 Le Mans (France); Velumani, S., E-mail: velu@cinvestav.mx [Department of Electrical Engineering-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Avenida IPN 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, D.F. C.P 07360 (Mexico); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kassiba, A. [Institute of Molecules and Materials, UMR-CNRS 6283, Université du Maine, Avenue O. Messiaen, F-72085 Le Mans (France); Asomoza, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Avenida IPN 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, D.F. C.P 07360 (Mexico); Chavez-Carvayar, J.A. [Instituto Investigaciones en Materiales-UNAM, Ciudad Universitario, D.F.Mexico (Mexico); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.kr [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films and their graded (x = 1 to 0) layer were grown on soda lime glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) at different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). After optimization of T{sub s}, depositions were carried out at different gallium composition (x) at optimized temperature of 350 °C. All the films deposited at T{sub s} ≥ 350 °C were polycrystalline chalcopyrite structure, with a preferential orientation of (112), including the graded layer. With increase in x, lattice parameters a and c were observed to decrease. Line scan of the CIGS layer showed intersection of gallium and indium concentrations, revealing the graded nature of the film. Composition dependence of Raman peak for CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) deposited by CSP was analyzed. Optical transmittance at a wavelength of 800 nm of the film with x = 0 (CIS) (30%) was found lower than that of the film grown with x = 0.82 (CIGS) (50%). Cusp-shape of the resistivity was observed with an increase of x leading to steep rise in resistivity of the films (1.61–71.68 Ω-cm) till x = 0.42 and then decreased to 4.78 Ω-cm at x = 0.82. Carrier concentrations of the films were evaluated in the order of 10{sup 16}–10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} with p-type conductivity. These results indicate that graded CIGS thin films with modulated gallium composition can be prepared by CSP. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Optimization of the spray deposition system for device grade chalcopyrite CIGS films. • Optimized substrate temperature to obtain single-phase CIGS by spray deposition. • Detailed report on compositional dependence of CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) thin films. • Systematic analysis of the influence of Ga in CIS by spray deposition. • Bowing parameter is extracted from the experiment values.

  10. The Evaluation of Momentum Flux to Estimate Exposure From Spray Painting Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blazicko, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... The model was tested with an anthropometric, 73 inch mechanical mannequin spraying nonvolatile oil on a flat plate in a paint booth while using a high volume, low pressure (HVLP) spray paint gun...

  11. Thermal spray coating for corrosion under insulation (CUI) prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Mohd Fazril Irfan Ahmad; Razak, Khalil Abdul; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Othman, Nur Hidayati; Lah, Nik Khairul Irfan Nik Ab

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the predominant issues affecting process of Oil and Gas and Petrochemical industries. CUI refers to external corrosion, but it is difficult to be detected as the insulation cover masks the corrosion problem. One of the options to prevent CUI is by utilizing the protective coating systems. Thermal spray coating (TSC) is an advanced coating system and it shows promising performance in harsh environment, which could be used to prevent CUI. However, the application of TSC is not attractive due to the high initial cost. This work evaluates the potential of TSC based on corrosion performance using linear polarization resistance (LPR) method and salt spray test (SST). Prior to the evaluation, the mechanical performance of TSC was first investigated using adhesion test and bend test. Microstructure characterization of the coating was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The LPR test results showed that low corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/years was obtained for TSC in compared to the bare steel especially at high temperature of 80 °C, where usually normal coating would fail. For the salt spray test, there was no sign of corrosion products especially at the center (fully coated region) was observed. From SEM images, no corrosion defects were observed after 336 hours of continuous exposure to salt fog test. This indicates that TSC protected the steel satisfactorily by acting as a barrier from a corrosive environment. In conclusion, TSC can be a possible solution to minimize the CUI in a long term. Further research should be done on corrosion performance and life cycle cost by comparing TSC with other conventional coating technology.

  12. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  13. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... 5 sprays into the air away from the face. If you have not used it for 2 ...

  14. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  15. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  16. Microstructural and electrical characterizations of tungsten-doped La2Mo2O9 prepared by spray pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baqué, Laura; Vega-Castillo, Jesús; Georges, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    La2Mo2 − xWxO9 (x=0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.3) nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by spray pyrolysis (SP) assisted by an ultrasonic atomizer. Microstructure, sinterability and thermal stability of the prepared powders were investigated. Spherical particles of 430 to 530 nm in diameter and crystall......La2Mo2 − xWxO9 (x=0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.3) nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by spray pyrolysis (SP) assisted by an ultrasonic atomizer. Microstructure, sinterability and thermal stability of the prepared powders were investigated. Spherical particles of 430 to 530 nm in diameter...... by applying different sintering programs starting from La2Mo2 − xWxO9 powders (x=0 and 1.3) obtained by SP and SSR processes. The electrical properties of these ionic conductors were analyzed by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and correlated with microstructural observations. No significant...... variation of the electrical properties of these ionic conductors was found as compared to conventional ceramics with remarkable microstructural differences....

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites powder by modified perfume spray pyrolysis method and its antimicrobial investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakkumar, D.; Sivaranjani, S.; Kaviyarasu, K.; Ayeshamariam, A.; Ravikumar, B.; Pandiarajan, S.; Veeralakshmi, C.; Jayachandran, M.; Maaza, M.

    2018-03-01

    Pure ZnO, ZnO–CuO nanocomposites can be synthesized by using a modified perfume spray pyrolysis method (MSP). The crystallite size of the nanoparticles (NPs) has been observed by X-ray diffraction pattern and is nearly 36 nm. Morphological studies have been analyzed by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and its elemental analysis was reported by Elemental X-ray Analysis (EDX); these studies confirmed that ZnO and CuO have hexagonal structure and monoclinic structure respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the presence of functional frequencies of ZnO and CuO were observed at 443 and 616 cm‑1. The average bandgap value at 3.25 eV using UV–vis spectra for the entitled composite has described a blue shift that has been observed here. The antibacterial study against both gram positive and negative bacteria has been studied by the disc diffusion method. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on ZnO–CuO nanocomposite synthesized by a modified perfume spray pyrolysis method.

  18. ROTARY SPRAY DUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nechaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of hydraulic resistance, ablation of splashes and efficiency of dedusting in the rotor spray dust collector are given. Influence of frequency of rotation of the spray, the specified speed of gas and diameter of spattering holes on hydraulic resistance, size ablation of splashes and efficiency of a dedusting the device by diameter 0,25 m is investigated. As model liquid water is used. Results of mathematical processing are presented.

  19. Characteristics of combustion flame sprayed nickel aluminum using a Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar for off-normal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Reid S.

    A novel flame spray collar called the Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar (CSM) has been tested for use on the Sulzer Metco 5P II combustion flame spray gun. A comparison study of the stock nozzle and the CSM has been performed by evaluating the porosity, surface roughness, microhardness, tensile strength and microscopy of normal and off-normal sprayed NiAl deposits. The use of the CSM collar resulted in the need to position the sprayed coupons closer to the gun, which in turn affected the particle impact energy and particle temperatures of the NiAl powder. For the CSM, porosities had a larger scatterband, surface roughness was comparably the same, microhardness was lower, and tensile strength was higher. The microscopy analysis revealed a greater presence of unmelted particles and steeper intersplat boundaries for the CSM. For both processes, the porosity and surface roughness increased and the microhardness decreased as the spray angle decreased.

  20. Draft Underground Test Plan for site characterization and testing in an exploratory shaft facility in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) at the Deaf Smith County, Texas is a potential candidate repository site in salt. This program of underground testing constitutes part of the effort to determine site suitability, provide data for repository design and performance assessment, and prepare licensing documentation. This program was developed by defining the information needs, as derived from the governing regulatory requirements and associated performance issues; evaluating the efficacy of available tests in satisfying the information needs; and selecting the suite of underground tests that are most cost-effective and timely, considering the other surface-based, surface borehole, and laboratory test programs. Tests are described conceptually, categorized in terms of geology, geomechanics, thermomechanics, geohydrology, or geochemistry, and range in scope from site characterization to site/engineered system interactions. The testing involves construction testing, conducted in the shafts during construction, and in situ testing at depth, conducted in the shafts and in the at-depth test facility at the repository horizon after shaft connection. 41 refs., 67 figs., 16 tabs

  1. X ray reflection masks: Manufacturing, characterization and first tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Stephen

    1992-09-01

    SXPL (Soft X-ray Projection Lithography) multilayer mirrors are characterized, laterally structured and then used as reflection masks in a projecting lithography procedure. Mo/Si-multilayer mirrors with a 2d in the region of 14 nm were characterized by Cu-k(alpha) grazing incidence as well as soft X-ray normal incidence reflectivity measurements. The multilayer mirrors were patterned by reactive ion etching with CF4 using a photoresist as etch mask, thus producing X-ray reflection masks. The masks were tested at the synchrotron radiation laboratory of the electron accelerator ELSA. A double crystal X-ray monochromator was modified so as to allow about 0.5 sq cm of the reflection mask to be illuminated by white synchrotron radiation. The reflected patterns were projected (with an energy of 100 eV) onto a resist and structure sizes down to 8 micrometers were nicely reproduced. Smaller structures were distorted by Fresnel-diffraction. The theoretically calculated diffraction images agree very well with the observed images.

  2. Testing and Characterization of Engineered Forms of Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The E mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, E MST and E mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight (∼10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower (∼0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of E MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the E MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of E MST and the post-peroxide treated E mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated E mMST has a higher Sr and Np capacity, but

  3. TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERED FORMS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-05-14

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The {sup E}mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, {sup E}MST and {sup E}mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight ({approx}10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower ({approx}0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of {sup E}MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the {sup E}MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of {sup E}MST and the post-peroxide treated {sup E}mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated

  4. Characterization of Lanthanum Ferric Cobaltite doped with Strontium (LSCF) films deposited by spray-pyrolysis for application as cathode in PaCOS-TI; Caracterizacao de filmes de CFLE depositados por spray-pirolise para utilizacao como catodo em PaCOS-TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.S.; Guimaraes, V.F.; Paes Junior, H.R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados], Emails: laryssadsa@yahoo.com.br, valtencyguimaraes@yahoo.com.br, herval@uenf.br

    2010-07-01

    The lanthanum ferric cobaltite doped with strontium (LSCF) is a ceramic material with the perovskite structure that stands out in the field of research for its use as cathode in solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC). The films were synthesized by spray-pyrolysis technique on 8% mol Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. It was studied the influence of heat treatment temperatures (600-1000 deg C) on the properties of the films under the conditions of treatment during four hours. Samples were tested electrically by measuring the variation of electrical conductivity with temperature, structurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films heat treated at 700 deg C for 4 hours showed better performance for application as cathode. (author)

  5. Deposition and characterization of spray pyrolysed p-type Cu2SnS3 thin film for potential absorber layer of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Sakthi, P.; Prabhakaran, S.; Chakravarty, Sujay; Ganesan, V.; Rajesh, A. Leo

    2018-06-01

    Thin film of ternary Cu2SnS3 (CTS), a potential absorber layer for solar cells was successfully deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the film having tetragonal Cu2SnS3 phase with the preferential orientation along (112), (200), (220) and (312) plane and it is further confirmed using Raman spectroscopy by the existence of Raman peak at 320 cm-1. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to estimate the surface roughness of 28.8 nm. The absorption coefficient was found to be greater than the order of 105 cm-1 and bandgap of 1.70 eV. Hall effect measurement indicates the p type nature of the film with a hole concentration of 1.03 × 1016cm-3 and a hall mobility of 404 cm2/V. The properties of CTS thin film confirmed suitable to be a potential absorber layer material for photovoltaic applications.

  6. Characterization and testing of monolithic RERTR fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.; Jue, J.F.; Burkes, D.E. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Monolithic fuel plates are being developed as a LEU (low enrichment uranium) fuel for application in research reactors throughout the world. These fuel plates are comprised of a U-Mo alloy foil encased in aluminum alloy cladding. Three different fabrication techniques have been looked at for producing monolithic fuel plates: hot isostatic pressing (HIP), transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB), and friction stir welding (FSW). Of these three techniques, HIP and FSW are currently being emphasized. As part of the development of these fabrication techniques, fuel plates are characterized and tested to determine properties like hardness and the bond strength at the interface between the fuel and cladding. Testing of HIP-made samples indicates that the foil/cladding interaction behavior depends on the Mo content in the UMo foil, the measured hardness values are quite different for the fuel, cladding, and interaction zone phase and Ti, Zr and Nb are the most effective diffusion barriers. For FSW samples, there is a dependence of the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface on the type of tool that is employed for performing the actual FSW process. (authors)

  7. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  8. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J 2 /He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  9. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola; Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Linden, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  10. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  11. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  12. [Investigation on Spray Drying Technology of Auricularia auricular Extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Chen, Hui; Xie, Yuan; Chen, Peng; Wang, Luo-lin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of spray drying technology of Auricularia auricular extract and its optimum process. On the basis of single factor test, with the yield of dry extract and the content of polysaccharide as indexes, orthogonal test method was used to optimize the spray drying technology on the inlet air temperature, injection speed and crude drug content. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography(TLC) and pharmacodynamics as indicators, extracts prepared by traditional alcohol precipitation drying process and spray drying process were compared. Compared with the traditional preparation method, the extract prepared by spray drying had little differences from the polysaccharide content, TLC and the function of reducing TG and TC, and its optimum technology condition were as follows: The inlet air temperature was 180 °C, injection speed was 10 ml/min and crude drugs content was 0. 4 g/mL. Auricularia auricular extract by spray drying technology is stable and feasible with high economic benefit.

  13. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  14. Computational Analysis of Spray Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Utsav

    There is a boost in the utilization of renewable sources of energy but because of high energy density applications, combustion will never be obsolete. Spray combustion is a type of multiphase combustion which has tremendous engineering applications in different fields, varying from energy conversion devices to rocket propulsion system. Developing accurate computational models for turbulent spray combustion is vital for improving the design of combustors and making them energy efficient. Flamelet models have been extensively used for gas phase combustion because of their relatively low computational cost to model the turbulence-chemistry interaction using a low dimensional manifold approach. This framework is designed for gas phase non-premixed combustion and its implementation is not very straight forward for multiphase and multi-regime combustion such as spray combustion. This is because of the use of a conserved scalar and various flamelet related assumptions. Mixture fraction has been popularly employed as a conserved scalar and hence used to parameterize the characteristics of gaseous flamelets. However, for spray combustion, the mixture fraction is not monotonic and does not give a unique mapping in order to parameterize the structure of spray flames. In order to develop a flamelet type model for spray flames, a new variable called the mixing variable is introduced which acts as an ideal conserved scalar and takes into account the convection and evaporation of fuel droplets. In addition to the conserved scalar, it has been observed that though gaseous flamelets can be characterized by the conserved scalar and its dissipation, this might not be true for spray flamelets. Droplet dynamics has a significant influence on the spray flamelet and because of effects such as flame penetration of droplets and oscillation of droplets across the stagnation plane, it becomes important to accommodate their influence in the flamelet formulation. In order to recognize the

  15. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Power’s (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was met—sorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO® Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC®-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.5–2.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The

  16. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  17. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  18. High-Performance Molybdenum Coating by Wire–HVOF Thermal Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Satish; Modi, Ankur; Modi, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    Coating deposition on many industrial components with good microstructural, mechanical properties, and better wear resistance is always a challenge for the thermal spray community. A number of thermal spray methods are used to develop such promising coatings for many industrial applications, viz. arc spray, flame spray, plasma, and HVOF. All these processes have their own limitations to achieve porous free, very dense, high-performance wear-resistant coatings. In this work, an attempt has been made to overcome this limitation. Molybdenum coatings were deposited on low-carbon steel substrates using wire-high-velocity oxy-fuel (W-HVOF; WH) thermal spray system (trade name HIJET 9610®). For a comparison, Mo coatings were also fabricated by arc spray, flame spray, plasma spray, and powder-HVOF processes. As-sprayed coatings were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy for phase, and microstructural analysis, respectively. Coating microhardness, surface roughness, and porosity were also measured. Adhesion strength and wear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical and wear properties of the as-sprayed coatings. Results show that the coatings deposited by W-HVOF have better performance in terms of microstructural, mechanical, and wear resistance properties, in comparison with available thermal spray process (flame spray and plasma spray).

  19. Development of design solutions for spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, M.P.; Minasyan, R.G.; Kranzfeld, Ja.L.; Zaruba, V.C.; Baranov, Yu.A.; Sorokin, M.Ja.; Jegorov, A.V.; Khashchina, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of process design of spray cooling systems for responsible consumers of up-to-date reactor building are discussed in this paper. Development in design principles with respect to problem solving of operational reliability increase and ecological efficiency of nuclear power equipment is shown. The structural solutions of basin antifiltration shield are spoken in detail. The results of experimental physical-mathematical and climatic studies as well as comparative tests of bituminous asphalt emulsive mastic and mushy asphalt are reported. The directions of up-to-date researches on improvement of concept of spray coolers are indicated

  20. Characterization of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by solution precursor plasma spraying with axial feedstock injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Craig; Lay-Grindler, Elisa; Kesler, Olivera

    2014-02-01

    Nickel and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes were fabricated by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) and incorporated into metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A power density of 0.45 W cm-2 at 0.7 V and a peak power density of 0.52 W cm-2 at 750 °C in humidified H2 was obtained, which are the first performance results reported for an SOFC having an anode fabricated by SPPS. The effects of solution composition, plasma gas composition, and stand-off distance on the composition of the deposited Ni-YSZ coatings by SPPS were evaluated. It was found that the addition of citric acid to the aqueous solution delayed re-solidification of NiO particles, improving the deposition efficiency and coating adhesion. The composition of the deposited coatings was found to vary with torch power. Increasing torch power led to coatings with decreasing Ni content, as a result of Ni vaporizing in-flight at stand-off distances less than 60 mm from the torch nozzle exit.

  1. Production and characterization of submicron hematite (α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırcı, Burak; Ebin, Burçak; Gürmen, Sebahattin [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method has been used to prepare submicron hematite (α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles using two different industrial pickling solutions of iron chloride (41 g/L FeCl{sub 2} and 54 g/L FeCl{sub 3}) Particles were obtained by thermal decomposition of generated aerosols from precursor solutions using 1.7 MHz ultrasonic atomizer. Reaction temperature was set up at 800 °C and aerosol droplets were carried into the heated zone by 0.7 L/min air flow rate. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies were used to determine the crystal structure and crystallite size of the particles. Results indicate that patterns correspond to hematite phase with rhombohedral crystal structure (space group: R3c). The crystallite sizes of particles prepared from FeCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3} solutions that were calculated from Scherrer equation are 59 and 33 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) investigations give detailed information about particle size, morphology and composition. SEM micrographs show that hematite nanoparticles aggregate and formed spherical secondary particles in submicron range.

  2. Structural and photoluminescence characterization of SnO{sub 2}: F thin films deposited by advanced spray pyrolysis technique at low substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, P.S. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Ung Sim, Kyu; Kim, Ye-bin; Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Uplane, M.D., E-mail: mdu_eln@unishivaji.ac.in [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, at different substrate temperatures using advanced spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallinity of the thin films increased with increasing substrate temperature. FESEM and AFM studies support the conclusions drawn from X-ray diffraction studies. X-ray photoelectron studies confirm oxygen deficiency in formation of the FTO nanocrystallites. The photoluminescence of the FTO films were investigated. It was found that, room temperature photoluminescence spectra are dominated by oxygen vacancies and exhibit a rich violet photoluminescence band about ∼404 nm with an extensively feeble red emission about 700 nm. The Photoluminescence intensity varies with the substrate temperature. The photoemission position is observed to be independent of substrate temperature. -- Highlights: ► Photoluminescent FTO thin films were deposited at low substrate temperatures. ► Influence of substrate temperature on the PL characteristics was studied. ► The samples are polycrystalline with a cassiterite tetragonal crystal structure. ► The room temperature UV/violet PL emission was dominated by the oxygen vacancies. ► PL efficiency is optimum at 613 K substrate temperature.

  3. Preparation and characterizations of electroluminescent p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO : Ga/ITO thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Panatarani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis (SP method with p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO:Ga/ITO structure. The X-ray results show that the deposited films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The EDS results observed that the composition of Ga in ZnO:Ga and N in ZnO:N was 3.73% and 27.73% respectively. The photoluminescence (PL with excitation wave length of 260 nm shows that ZnO:Ga and ZnO:N films emitted UV emission at ∼393 and ∼388 nm, respectively and the films resistivity was 7.12 and 12.80 Ohm-cm respectively. The electroluminescence of the p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO:Ga/ITO structure was obtained by applying forward bias of 5 volt with 30 mA current, resulting in a 3.35 volt threshold bias with the peak electroluminescence in UV-blue range.

  4. Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Sprayed α-Fe2O3 Thin Films: Influence of Si Doping and SnO2 Interfacial Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Liang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 thin film photoanodes for solar water splitting were prepared by spray pyrolysis of Fe(AcAc3. The donor density in the Fe2O3 films could be tuned between 1017–1020 cm-3 by doping with silicon. By depositing a 5 nm SnO2 interfacial layer between the Fe2O3 films and the transparent conducting substrates, both the reproducibility and the photocurrent can be enhanced. The effects of Si doping and the presence of the SnO2 interfacial layer were systematically studied. The highest photoresponse is obtained for Fe2O3 doped with 0.2% Si, resulting in a photocurrent of 0.37 mA/cm2 at 1.23 VRHE in a 1.0 M KOH solution under 80 mW/cm2 AM1.5 illumination.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, O.; Nohava, Jiří; Siegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 129-145 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma sprayed alumina coatings, fatigue test, metalography, fractography, residual stress, microhardness, Young's modulus , four-point bending Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  6. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  7. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  8. The electrical, optical, structural and thermoelectrical characterization of n- and p-type cobalt-doped SnO 2 transparent semiconducting films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad

    2010-10-01

    The electrical, optical and structural properties of Cobalt (Co) doped SnO 2 transparent semiconducting thin films, deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique, have been studied. The SnO 2:Co films, with different Co-content, were deposited on glass substrates using an aqueous-ethanol solution consisting of tin and cobalt chlorides. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the SnO 2:Co films were polycrystalline only with tin oxide phases and preferential orientations along (1 1 0) and (2 1 1) planes and grain sizes in the range 19-82 nm. Optical transmittance spectra of the films showed high transparency ∼75-90% in the visible region, decreasing with increase in Co-doping. The optical absorption edge for undoped SnO 2 films was found to be 3.76 eV, while for higher Co-doped films shifted toward higher energies (shorter wavelengths) in the range 3.76-4.04 eV and then slowly decreased again to 4.03 eV. A change in sign of the Hall voltage and Seebeck coefficient was observed for a specific acceptor dopant level ∼11.4 at% in film and interpreted as a conversion from n-type to p-type conductivity. The thermoelectric electro-motive force (e.m.f.) of the films was measured in the temperature range 300-500 K and Seebeck coefficients were found in the range from -62 to +499 μVK -1 for various Co-doped SnO 2 films.

  9. The electrical, optical, structural and thermoelectrical characterization of n- and p-type cobalt-doped SnO2 transparent semiconducting films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri-Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad

    2010-01-01

    The electrical, optical and structural properties of Cobalt (Co) doped SnO 2 transparent semiconducting thin films, deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique, have been studied. The SnO 2 :Co films, with different Co-content, were deposited on glass substrates using an aqueous-ethanol solution consisting of tin and cobalt chlorides. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the SnO 2 :Co films were polycrystalline only with tin oxide phases and preferential orientations along (1 1 0) and (2 1 1) planes and grain sizes in the range 19-82 nm. Optical transmittance spectra of the films showed high transparency ∼75-90% in the visible region, decreasing with increase in Co-doping. The optical absorption edge for undoped SnO 2 films was found to be 3.76 eV, while for higher Co-doped films shifted toward higher energies (shorter wavelengths) in the range 3.76-4.04 eV and then slowly decreased again to 4.03 eV. A change in sign of the Hall voltage and Seebeck coefficient was observed for a specific acceptor dopant level ∼11.4 at% in film and interpreted as a conversion from n-type to p-type conductivity. The thermoelectric electro-motive force (e.m.f.) of the films was measured in the temperature range 300-500 K and Seebeck coefficients were found in the range from -62 to +499 μVK -1 for various Co-doped SnO 2 films.

  10. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  11. Development of process data capturing, analysis and controlling for thermal spray techniques - SprayTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, C.; Marke, S.; Trommler, U.; Rupprecht, C.; Weis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal spraying processes are becoming increasingly important in high-technology areas, such as automotive engineering and medical technology. The method offers the advantage of a local layer application with different materials and high deposition rates. Challenges in the application of thermal spraying result from the complex interaction of different influencing variables, which can be attributed to the properties of different materials, operating equipment supply, electrical parameters, flow mechanics, plasma physics and automation. In addition, spraying systems are subject to constant wear. Due to the process specification and the high demands on the produced coatings, innovative quality assurance tools are necessary. A central aspect, which has not yet been considered, is the data management in relation to the present measured variables, in particular the spraying system, the handling system, working safety devices and additional measuring sensors. Both the recording of all process-characterizing variables, their linking and evaluation as well as the use of the data for the active process control presuppose a novel, innovative control system (hardware and software) that was to be developed within the scope of the research project. In addition, new measurement methods and sensors are to be developed and qualified in order to improve the process reliability of thermal spraying.

  12. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  13. Nanoparticles for intravascular applications: physicochemical characterization and cytotoxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matuszak, J.; Baumgartner, J.; Zaloga, J.; Juenet, M.; Da Silva, A.E.; Franke, D.; Almer, G.; Texier, I.; Faivre, D.; Metselaar, Josbert Maarten; Navarro, F.P.; Chauvierre, C.; Prassl, R.; Dézsi, L.; Urbanics, R.; Alexiou, C.; Mangge, H.; Szebeni, J.; Letourneur, D.; Cicha, I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We report the physicochemical analysis of nanosystems intended for cardiovascular applications and their toxicological characterization in static and dynamic cell culture conditions. Methods: Size, polydispersity and ζ-potential were determined in 10 nanoparticle systems including liposomes,

  14. Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A mechanical as well as metallurgical bonding is necessary. 3. Applications ... Here the feasibility of using metallic components that were plasma spray- ... To study the electrical insulation, integrity of ceramic coating etc, tests were carried out.

  15. Detection of Corrosion Resistance of Components in Cyclic Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Álló

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is, to investigate the influence of two types of cyclic salt spray tests on parts surface treated with galvanizing. On the selected components was performed the method Zn-Ni surface treating on the bath line. Subsequently were the components embedded in the corrosion chamber, where was performed two types of cyclic salt test. In the first test was performed 4 hour salt spray, 8 hours drying, 60 hours condensation and 24 hours drying. Once cycle lasted 96 hours, and it was repeated 4 times. During the second test was performed 2 hours salt spray, 2 hours condensation. The cycle was repeated 4 times, that means 96 hours. After the cycle was performed 72 hours free relaxation in the corrosion chamber, on 20–25 °C temperature. As the research showed, after the cyclic salt spray was no red corrosion on the selected components. The white corrosion appeared only slightly.

  16. Detailed assessment of diesel spray atomization models using visible and X-ray extinction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnotti, G.M.; Genzale, C.L. (GIT)

    2017-12-01

    The physical mechanisms characterizing the breakup of a diesel spray into droplets are still unknown. This gap in knowledge has largely been due to the challenges of directly imaging this process or quantitatively measuring the outcomes of spray breakup, such as droplet size. Recent x-ray measurements by Argonne National Laboratory, utilized in this work, provide needed information about the spatial evolution of droplet sizes in selected regions of the spray under a range of injection pressures (50–150 MPa) and ambient densities (7.6–22.8 kg/m3) relevant for diesel operating conditions. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) measurements performed at the Advanced Photon Source are presented, which quantify Sauter mean diameters (SMD) within optically thick regions of the spray that are inaccessible by conventional droplet sizing measurement techniques, namely in the near-nozzle region, along the spray centerline, and within the core of the spray. To quantify droplet sizes along the periphery of the spray, a complementary technique is proposed and introduced, which leverages the ratio of path-integrated x-ray and visible laser extinction (SAMR) measurements to quantify SMD. The SAMR and USAXS measurements are then utilized to evaluate current spray models used for engine computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. We explore the ability of a carefully calibrated spray model, premised on aerodynamic wave growth theory, to capture the experimentally observed trends of SMD throughout the spray. The spray structure is best predicted with an aerodynamic primary and secondary breakup process that is represented with a slower time constant and larger formed droplet size than conventionally recommended for diesel spray models. Additionally, spray model predictions suggest that droplet collisions may not influence the resultant droplet size distribution along the spray centerline in downstream regions of the spray.

  17. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  18. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  19. Characterization test of the optimized H type grid spring under the in-grid boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Tae; Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok

    2004-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the simplified method for the characterization test. In reality, the spring should be tested with the test specimen of spacer grid assembly itself (assembly-based test). But the available space for loading is very small due to the dimples and the spring of the adjacent straps, much care should be necessary in conducting the assembly-based test. Test results are compared with the previous test results for checking the usability of the assembly-based test

  20. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established within EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine the applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. In examination of the ISV process for applicability to SDA waste, this In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan identifies the following: sampling and analysis strategy; sampling procedures; methods to conduct analyses; equipment; and procedures to ensure data quality. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  2. Plasma transferred arc surface modification of atmospheric plasma sprayed ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulutan, Mustafa; Kilicay, Koray; Kaya, Esad; Bayar, Ismail [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, a 90MnCrV8 steel surface was coated with aluminum oxide and chromium oxide powders through the Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and Plasma transferred arc (PTA) methods. The effects of PTA surface melting on the microstructure, hardness, and wear behavior were investigated. The microstructures of plasma-sprayed and modified layers were characterized by Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The dry-sliding wear properties of the samples were determined through the ball-on-disk wear test method. Voids, cracks, and nonhomogeneous regions were observed in the microstructure of the APS ceramic-coated surface. These microstructure defects were eliminated by the PTA welding process. The microhardness of the samples was increased. Significant reductions in wear rate were observed after the PTA surface modification. The wear resistance of ceramic coatings increased 7 to 12 times compared to that of the substrate material.

  3. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  4. Radiolysis of spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

  5. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  6. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization

  7. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  8. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  9. Sand characterization by combined centrifuge and laboratory tests

    OpenAIRE

    GAUDIN, C; SCHNAID, F; GARNIER, J

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate new methods of interpretation of in situ tests in sand from correlations established from centrifuge and laboratory data. Emphasis is given to methods that are based on the combination of measurements from independent tests, such as the ratio of the elastic stiffness to ultimate strenght and the ratio of cone resistance and limit pressure. For that purpose, a series of centrifuge tests using a cone penetrometer and a cone pressuremeter was carried out ...

  10. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Characterization Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Zachary D.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    Testing has been conducted on Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs)-E2 at NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) project. This testing has been conducted to understand sensitivities of convertor parameters due to environmental and operational changes during operation of the ASRG in missions to space. This paper summarizes test results and explains the operation of the ASRG during space missions

  11. Tests, measurements, and characterization of electro-optic devices and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadekar, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on tests, measurements and characterization of electro-optic devices and systems. Topics covered include: Measurement of spectral dynamics in single-quantum-well lasers, High power computer controlled laser diode characterization tester, and Laser diode characterization instrumentation

  12. 78 FR 6400 - Results of FAA Nitrous Oxide BLEVE Characterization Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Results of FAA Nitrous Oxide BLEVE Characterization Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public... FAA sponsored testing of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) characteristics. Nitrous oxide is an important oxidizer...

  13. Design of Test Parts to Characterize Micro Additive Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Mischkot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The minimum feature size and obtainable tolerances of additive manufacturing processes are linked to the smallest volumetric elements (voxels) that can be created. This work presents the iterative design of a test part to investigate the resolution of AM processes with voxel sizes at the micro...... scale. Each design iteration reduces the test part size, increases the number of test features, improves functionality, and decreases coupling in the part. The final design is a set of three test parts that are easy to orient and measure, and that provide useful information about micro additive...... manufacturing processes....

  14. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  15. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity Testing of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product (Test Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, or fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), has been hypothesized as a contributory cause of an anomaly which occurred in the chamber pressure (PC) transducer tube on the Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) aft thruster 467 on flight STS-51. A small hole was found in the titanium-alloy PC tube at the first bend below the pressure transducer. It was surmised that the hole may have been caused by heat and pressure resulting from ignition of FORP. The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to define the chemical characteristics of FORP, characterize its reactivity, and simulate the events in a controlled environment which may have lead to the Pc-tube failure. Samples of FORP were obtained from the gas-phase reaction of MMH with NTO under laboratory conditions, the pulsed firings of RCS thrusters with modified PC tubes using varied oxidizer or fuel lead times, and the nominal RCS thruster firings at WSTF and Kaiser-Marquardt. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to FTIR (TGA/FTIR), and mechanical impact testing were used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the chemical, thermal, and ignition properties of FORP. These studies showed that the composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depends on the fuel loxidizer ratio at the time of formation, composition of the post-formation atmosphere (reducing or oxidizing), and reaction or postreaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate (MMHN), ammonium nitrate (AN), methylammonium nitrate (MAN), and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. The thermal decomposition

  16. Spray structure as generated under homogeneous flash boiling nucleation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levy, Y.; Sher, E.

    2014-01-01

    We show the effect of the initial pressure and temperature on the spatial distribution of droplets size and their velocity profile inside a spray cloud that is generated by a flash boiling mechanism under homogeneous nucleation regime. We used TSI's Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. We conclude that the homogeneous nucleation process is strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature while the initial pressure has only a minor effect. The spray shape is not affected by temperature or pressure under homogeneous nucleation regime. We noted that the only visible effect is in the spray opacity. Finally, homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer construction, and thus is potentially suitable for fuel injection systems in combustors and engines. - Highlights: • We study the characteristics of a spray that is generated by a flash boiling process. • In this study, the flash boiling process occurs under homogeneous nucleation regime. • We used Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. • The SMD has been found to be strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature. • Homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer unit

  17. Process optimization of ultrasonic spray coating of polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    is developed for statistical analysis which identifies the distance between nozzle and substrate as the most significant parameter. Depending on the drying of the sprayed droplets on the substrate, we define two broad regimes, "dry" and "wet". The optimum condition of spraying lies in a narrow window between...... these two regimes, where we obtain a film of desired quality. Both with increasing nozzle-substrate distance and temperature, the deposition moves from a wet state to a dry regime. Similar results are also achieved for solvents with low boiling points. Finally, we study film formation during spray coating......In this work we have performed a detailed study of the influence of various parameters on spray coating of polymer films. Our aim is to produce polymer films of uniform thickness (500 nm to 1 μm) and low roughness compared to the film thickness. The coatings are characterized with respect...

  18. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Aluminum-Copper cold sprayed and alloy 625 wire arc sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashirzadeh, Milad

    This study examines microstructural-based mechanical properties of Al-Cu composite deposited by cold spraying and wire arc sprayed nickel-based alloy 625 coating using numerical modeling and experimental techniques. The microhardness and elastic modulus of samples were determined using the Knoop hardness technique. Hardness in both transverse and longitudinal directions on the sample cross-sections has been measured. An image-based finite element simulation algorithm was employed to determine the mechanical properties through an inverse analysis. In addition mechanical tests including, tensile, bending, and nano-indentation tests were performed on alloy 625 wire arc sprayed samples. Overall, results from the experimental tests are in relatively good agreement for deposited Al-Cu composites and alloy 625 coating. However, results obtained from numerical simulation are significantly higher in value than experimentally obtained results. Examination and comparison of the results are strong indications of the influence of microstructure characteristics on the mechanical properties of thermally spray deposited coatings.

  19. Characterization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the combined glucose-insulin test in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-insulin dynamic challenges such as the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) have not been described in donkeys. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy adult donkeys, and (2) to establish normal glucose-insulin proxies. Sixteen donkeys were used and body morphometric variables obtained each. For the IVGTT, glucose (300 mg/kg) was given IV. For the CGIT, glucose (150 mg/kg) followed by recombinant insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were administered IV. Blood samples for glucose and insulin determinations were collected over 300 min. In the IVGTT the positive phase lasted 160.9 ± 13.3 min, glucose concentration peaked at 323.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL and declined at a rate of 1.28 ± 0.15 mg/dL/min. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 21.4 ± 1.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and the insulin AUC was 7.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. The positive phase of the CGIT curve lasted 44 ± 3 min, with a glucose clearance rate of 2.01 ± 0.18 mg/dL/min. The negative phase lasted 255.9 ± 3 min, decreasing glucose concentration at rate of -0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL/min, and reaching a nadir (33.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL) at 118.3 ± 6.3 min. The glucose and insulin AUC values were 15.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and 13.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. This is the first study characterizing CGIT and IVGTT, and glucose-insulin proxies in healthy adult donkeys. Distinct glucose dynamics, when compared with horses, support the use of species-specific protocols to assess endocrine function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Saclay (France); Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr [Electricité de France, EDF MF2E, Chatou (France); Manzini, G., E-mail: giovanni.manzini@rse-web.it [RSE, Milano (Italy); Xiao, J., E-mail: jianjun.xiao@kit.edu [IKET, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Vyskocil, L., E-mail: vyl@ujv.cz [UJV Rez (Czech Republic); Siccama, N.B., E-mail: siccama@nrg.eu [NRG, Safety and Power (Netherlands); Huhtanen, R., E-mail: risto.huhtanen@vtt.fi [VTT, PO Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety.

  1. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Mimouni, S.; Manzini, G.; Xiao, J.; Vyskocil, L.; Siccama, N.B.; Huhtanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety

  2. Interdisciplinary hydrogeologic site characterization at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; Drellack, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices. Hydrogeologic investigations began in earnest with the US Geological Survey mapping much of the area from 1960 to 1965. Since 1963, all nuclear detonations have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts, but a small percentage are conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks, but sometimes in alluvium. Hydrogeologic investigations began in earnest with the US Geological Survey's mapping of much of the NTS region from 1960 to 1965. Following the BANEBERRY test in December 1970, which produced an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, the US Department of Energy (then the Atomic Energy Commission) established the Containment Evaluation Panel (CEP). Results of interdisciplinary hydrogeologic investigations for each test location are included in a Containment Prospectus which is thoroughly reviewed by the CEP

  3. Role of Oxides and Porosity on High-Temperature Oxidation of Liquid-Fueled HVOF Thermal-Sprayed Ni50Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K. T.; Hussain, T.

    2017-02-01

    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high-temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid-fueled high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using oxygen content analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Short-term air oxidation tests (4 h) of freestanding coatings (without boiler steel substrate) in a thermogravimetric analyzer at 700 °C were performed to obtain the kinetics of oxidation of the as-sprayed coating. Long-term air oxidation tests (100 h) of the coated substrates were performed at same temperature to obtain the oxidation products for further characterization in detail using SEM/EDX and XRD. In all samples, oxides of various morphologies developed on top of the Ni50Cr coatings. Cr2O3 was the main oxidation product on the surface of all three coatings. The coating with medium porosity and medium oxygen content has the best high-temperature oxidation performance in this study.

  4. Real time analysis of brain tissue by direct combination of ultrasonic surgical aspiration and sonic spray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Karl-Christian; Balog, Júlia; Szaniszló, Tamás; Szalay, Dániel; Mezey, Géza; Dénes, Júlia; Bognár, László; Oertel, Matthias; Takáts, Zoltán

    2011-10-15

    Direct combination of cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry is presented. A commercially available ultrasonic surgical device was coupled to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) source by directly introducing liquified tissue debris into the Venturi air jet pump. The Venturi air jet pump was found to efficiently nebulize the suspended tissue material for gas phase ion production. The ionization mechanism involving solely pneumatic spraying was associated with that of sonic spray ionization. Positive and negative ionization spectra were obtained from brain and liver samples reflecting the primary application areas of the surgical device. Mass spectra were found to feature predominantly complex lipid-type constituents of tissues in both ion polarity modes. Multiply charged peptide anions were also detected. The influence of instrumental settings was characterized in detail. Venturi pump geometry and flow parameters were found to be critically important in ionization efficiency. Standard solutions of phospholipids and peptides were analyzed in order to test the dynamic range, sensitivity, and suppression effects. The spectra of the intact tissue specimens were found to be highly specific to the histological tissue type. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based data analysis method was developed for real-time tissue identification in a surgical environment. The method has been successfully tested on post-mortem and ex vivo human samples including astrocytomas, meningeomas, metastatic brain tumors, and healthy brain tissue. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Simulation of oblique evaporating diesel sprays, and comparison with empirical correlations and simulated straight sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, I.A.; Mirza, M.R.; Rashid, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The innovation in software analysis and various available programming facilities have urged the designers at various levels to do indispensable calculations for engine flows. Presently, the 3-D analysis approach is under practice to do simulations for various parameters involving engine operations using various soft wares, 'Fluent' being the trendiest at the moment for CFD modeling. The present work involves CFD modeling of diesel fuel sprays at a specified angle with cylinder axis. Fuel spray modeling includes sub-models for aerodynamic drag, droplet oscillation and distortion, turbulence effects, droplet breakup, evaporation, and droplet collision and coalescence. The data available from existing published work is used to model the fuel spray and the subsequent simulation results are compared to experimental results to test validity of the proposed models. (author)

  6. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study: Plasma spray process development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal-barrier coatings to aircraft gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical blade positioner incorporating two interlaced six-degree-of-freedom assemblies; a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem; a microprocessor-based adaptive system controller; and commercial plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage turbine blades specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of + or - 53 micrometers, much better than is achievable manually. Factors limiting this performance were identified and process modifications were initiated accordingly. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were initiated. One of the preliminary evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation.

  7. Characterization of the Goubau line for testing beam diagnostic instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Stulle, F.; Sung, C. K.; Yoo, K. H.; Seok, J.; Moon, K. J.; Choi, C. U.; Chung, Y.; Kim, G.; Woo, H. J.; Kwon, J.; Lee, I. G.; Choi, E. M.; Chung, M.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Goubau line is that it supports a low-loss, non-radiated surface wave guided by a dielectric-coated metal wire. The dominant mode of the surface wave along the Goubau line is a TM01 mode, which resembles the pattern of the electromagnetic fields induced in the metallic beam pipe when the charged particle beam passes through it. Therefore, the Goubau line can be used for the preliminary bench test and performance optimization of the beam diagnostic instruments without requiring charged particle beams from the accelerators. In this paper, we discuss the basic properties of the Goubau line for testing beam diagnostic instruments and present the initial test results for button-type beam position monitors (BPMs). The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical estimations, which indicates that Goubau line allows effective testing of beam diagnostic equipment.

  8. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  9. BIOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TEST SITES FOR MAIZE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Šimić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield stability of genotypes and analysis of genotype×environment interaction (GEI as important objects in analyses of multienvironment trials are well documented in Croatia. However, little is known about suitability and biometrical characters of the sites where genotypes should be tested. Objectives of this study were in combined analysis of balanced maize trials i to compare test sites in joint linear regression analysis and ii to compare several stability models by clustering test sites in order to assess biometrical suitability of particular test sites. Partitioning of GEI sum of squares according to the symmetrical joint linear regression analysis revealed highly significant Tukey's test, heterogeneity of environmental regressions and residual deviations. Mean grain yields, within-macroenvironment error mean squares, and stability parameters varied considerably among 16 macroenvironments. The highest grain yields were recorded in Osijek in both years and in Varaždin in 1996, with more than 11 t ha-1 . It seems that Feričanci would be optimum test site with relatively high and consistent yield and high values of entry mean squares indicating satisfactory differentiation among cultivars. However, four clustering methods generally did not correspond. According to three out of four clustering methods, two macroenvironments of Feričanci provide similar results. Employing other methods such as shifted multiplicative models, which effectively eliminate significant rank-change interaction, appears to be more reasonable.

  10. Performance of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the use of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP for retrofit of timber beams. A total of 10-full scale specimens were tested. Two different timber preservatives and two different bonding agents were investigated. Strengthening was characterized using load deflection diagrams. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance load-carrying capacity and energy absorption characteristics using the technique of SFRP. Of the two types of preservatives investigated, the technique appears to be more effective for the case of creosote-treated specimens, where up to a 51% improvement in load-carrying capacity and a 460% increase in the energy absorption capacity were noted. Effectiveness of the bonding agent used was dependent on the type of preservative the specimen had been treated with.

  11. Hydrologic test plans for large-scale, multiple-well tests in support of site characterization at Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, P.M.; Stone, R.; Lu, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is preparing plans for tests and has begun work on some tests that will provide the data necessary for the hydrogeologic characterization of a site located on a United States government reservation at Hanford, Washington. This site is being considered for the Nation's first geologic repository of high level nuclear waste. Hydrogeologic characterization of this site requires several lines of investigation which include: surface-based small-scale tests, testing performed at depth from an exploratory shaft, geochemistry investigations, regional studies, and site-specific investigations using large-scale, multiple-well hydraulic tests. The large-scale multiple-well tests are planned for several locations in and around the site. These tests are being designed to provide estimates of hydraulic parameter values of the geologic media, chemical properties of the groundwater, and hydrogeologic boundary conditions at a scale appropriate for evaluating repository performance with respect to potential radionuclide transport

  12. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-10-03

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery.

  13. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko ten; Soema, Peter C.; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery. PMID:28925794

  14. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year −1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  15. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Sereh (Chymbopogon Nardus L.)sebagai Alternatif Anti Bakteri Staphylococcusepidermidis pada Deodoran Parfume Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Nenny Widiani, Retno Atun Khasanah, Eko Budiyanto

    2011-01-01

    This experimental research was aimed at determining the effectiveness of using parfume spray deodorant with lemon grass extract on Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial activity and to find out the optimum concentration oflemongrass extract in parfume spray deodorant to reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis activity.The research method included four steps, namely preparing lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus L.) extract,making perfume spray deodorant, conducting laboratory test, and testing within a lim...

  16. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  17. [A microbiological investigation of the effectiveness of Micro Megas E-spray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardel, K; Hegna, I K; Kardel, M

    1976-06-01

    The disinfecting effect of Micro Megas E-spray was tested using a microbiological technique which also included a practical test. Contra-angels and straight handpieces which were sprayed after being used for treatment on patients, and then dried and incubated in a liquid medium, showed a marked growth of microorganisms. The spray had a weak and barely significant growth inhibiting effect on contaminated, simulated instrument surfaces. using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as test bacteria. It is concluded that the spray is not suitable for distinfection of contra-angels and straight handpieces.

  18. Characterization of axial probes used in eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wache, G.; Nourrisson, Ph.; Garet, Th.

    2001-01-01

    Customized reference tubes reduced sensitivity discrepancies able to be observed from one probe to the other, due to the gain setting adjustment required for a pre-definite level in amplitude response of the artificial notch. The use of a reference circuit in place of a reference part, makes characterization of the probe matched to its generator more accurate: - the material dependence is cancelled during the compensation process, - the reference signal can be adjusted more accurately in amplitude and phase response, - the manufacturing cost is reduced compared to the one necessary for machining the reference part, - the amplitude and phase response of the reference circuit can be simply modelled by using the transformer relations, such as one can appreciate the variations of the probe definition parameters and its connexion to the generator, and makes them optimal for use. The method proposed by ALSTOM for the characterization of the condenser and exchanger tubing probes, takes in account the amplitude and phase response of a reference circuit versus frequency, such it can be done by using SURECA tubing provided by ASCOT: it allows to control that the frequency values of the probe required for use are inside the useful bandwidth defined by the - 6 dB attenuation from the maximum amplitude response of the reference circuit versus frequency. Examples coming from measurements done among more than 200 probes, for which faults have been observed and replacements made by the manufacturer, are displayed and commented. (authors)

  19. Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Arroyave, C. E.; Barrero, C. A.; Cook, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10 -2 M and 1x10 -1 M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl - ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

  20. DARPA Antibody Technology Program. Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody Produced by Illumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    ECBC-TR-1395 DARPA ANTIBODY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM STANDARDIZED TEST BED FOR... ANTIBODY CHARACTERIZATION: CHARACTERIZATION OF AN MS2 SCFV ANTIBODY PRODUCED BY ILLUMINA Patricia E. Buckley Alena M. Calm Heather Welsh Roy...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv

  1. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach.

  2. Research into Thermal Sprayed Coatings with Ultrasonic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Gargasas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on thermal sprayed coatings with ultrasonic methods is the main object of this thesis. Metal surface coating was applied to modify its mechanical and physical-chemical properties and resistance to external impact and improve aesthetics. Spraying was carried out by scanning the rotating sample of 30 cm/s speed. Surface microstructure, ultrasonic thickness, porosity, micro hardness and surface modulus tests performed. Conclusions were formulated.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Dynamic Brazilian Test for Mechanical Characterization of Ceramic Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Scapin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to identify the tensile strength of alumina (Corbit98, by performing Brazilian tests at different loading rate. In this kind of test, generally used for brittle material in static loading conditions, a cylindrical specimen is diametrically compressed and failure is generated in the middle of the component as a consequence of a positive tensile stress. In this work, this experimental technique was applied also in dynamic loading conditions by using a setup based on the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. Due to the properties of the investigated material, among which are high hardness, high compressive strength, and brittle behaviour, some precautions were needed to assure the validity of the tests. Digital Image Correlation techniques were applied for the analysis of high framerate videos.

  4. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 w...

  5. Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy: Cold Spray Deposition and Simulated Body Fluid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorakma, Abdullah C. W.; Zuhailawati, Hussain; Aishvarya, V.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2013-10-01

    A simple modified cold spray process in which the substrate of AZ51 alloys were preheated to 400 °C and sprayed with hydroxyapatite (HAP) using high pressure cold air nozzle spray was designed to get biocompatible coatings of the order of 20-30 μm thickness. The coatings had an average modulus of 9 GPa. The biodegradation behavior of HAP-coated samples was tested by studying with simulated body fluid (SBF). The coating was characterized by FESEM microanalysis. ICPOES analysis was carried out for the SBF solution to know the change in ion concentrations. Control samples showed no aluminum corrosion but heavy Mg corrosion. On the HAP-coated alloy samples, HAP coatings started dissolving after 1 day but showed signs of regeneration after 10 days of holding. All through the testing period while the HAP coating got eroded, the surface of the sample got deposited with different apatite-like compounds and the phase changed with course from DCPD to β-TCP and β-TCMP. The HAP-coated samples clearly improved the biodegradability of Mg alloy, attributed to the dissolution and re-precipitation of apatite showed by the coatings as compared to the control samples.

  6. Applicability of slug interference testing of hydraulic characterization of contaminated aquifer sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A.; Swanson, L.C.

    1993-10-01

    Aquifer test methods available for characterizing hazardous waste sites are sometimes restricted because of problems with disposal of contaminated groundwater. These problems, in part, have made slug tests a more desirable method of determining hydraulic properties at such sites. However, in higher permeability formations (i.e., transmissivities ≥ 1 x 10 -3 m 2 /s), slug test results often cannot be analyzed and give, at best, only a lower limit for transmissivity. A need clearly exists to develop test methods that can be used to characterize higher permeability aquifers without removing large amounts of contaminated groundwater. One hydrologic test method that appears to hold promise for characterizing such sites is the slug interference test. To assess the applicability of this test method for use in shallow alluvial aquifer systems, slug interference tests have been conducted, along with more traditional aquifer testing methods, at several Hanford multiple-well sites. Transmissivity values estimated from the slug interference tests were comparable (within a factor of 2 to 3) to values calculated using traditional testing methods, and made it possible to calculate the storativity or specific yield for the intervening test formation. The corroboration of test results indicates that slug interference testing is a viable hydraulic characterization method in transmissive alluvial aquifers, and may represent one of the few test methods that can be used in sensitive areas where groundwater is contaminated

  7. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  8. Wind tunnel measurement of spray drift from on-off controlled sprayer nozzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Jensen, Peter Kryger; Miller, Paul

    wide surface area with a length of 200 mm. The test was conducted in the wind tunnel at Silsoe Spray Applications Unit in the UK. The measurements consisted of two test series; airborne drift was collected on polyethylene lines more than 375 mm away from the centerline of the nozzle and ground deposits...... and arranged to deliver a pulse of spray using the WeedSeeker valve. The tests were conducted to determine accumulated spray deposit at different crosswind and forward speeds. In general, the deposits, especially those measured downwind close to the target zone showed significant increase as the crosswind......Sensor-based precision weed control system at a high resolution requires a high spray application accuracy to keep the spray in a small target zone. The objective of this research was to investigate the target accuracy and spray drift from individual controlled sprayer nozzles targeting a 250 mm...

  9. Nondestructive mechanical characterization of developing biological tissues using inflation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, P J A; van Kelle, M A J; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Loerakker, S

    2017-10-01

    One of the hallmarks of biological soft tissues is their capacity to grow and remodel in response to changes in their environment. Although it is well-accepted that these processes occur at least partly to maintain a mechanical homeostasis, it remains unclear which mechanical constituent(s) determine(s) mechanical homeostasis. In the current study a nondestructive mechanical test and a two-step inverse analysis method were developed and validated to nondestructively estimate the mechanical properties of biological tissue during tissue culture. Nondestructive mechanical testing was achieved by performing an inflation test on tissues that were cultured inside a bioreactor, while the tissue displacement and thickness were nondestructively measured using ultrasound. The material parameters were estimated by an inverse finite element scheme, which was preceded by an analytical estimation step to rapidly obtain an initial estimate that already approximated the final solution. The efficiency and accuracy of the two-step inverse method was demonstrated on virtual experiments of several material types with known parameters. PDMS samples were used to demonstrate the method's feasibility, where it was shown that the proposed method yielded similar results to tensile testing. Finally, the method was applied to estimate the material properties of tissue-engineered constructs. Via this method, the evolution of mechanical properties during tissue growth and remodeling can now be monitored in a well-controlled system. The outcomes can be used to determine various mechanical constituents and to assess their contribution to mechanical homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel Galvanic Corrosion Inhibitors: Synthesis, Characterization, Fabrication and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Polyimide Insulated Electrical Wire", SAMPE pp.16, Jan/Feb 1984. 11. Brown, S. R.; Deluccia, J.J., " Galvanic Corrosion Fatigue Testing of 7075-T6...Modified Microporous Aluminosilicate" Development of Adsorbents for Air and Water Treatment Conference, 226th American Chemical Society (ACS) National

  11. Characterization of pavement distress from test pit observation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available the profiling exercise of an investigation into the causes of the premature failure of a pavement. The field investigation entailed a detailed inspection and recording of the profile exposed in test pits, with particular attention being paid to areas with cracks...

  12. Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH{sub 3}I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH{sub 3}l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large ({approx}38 m{sup 3}) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH{sub 3}I removal rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I{sub 2} with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH{sub 3}I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss

  13. A Planar-Fluorescence Imaging Technique for Studying Droplet-Turbulence Interactions in Vaporizing Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavicca, Dom A.; Coy, E.

    1990-01-01

    Droplet turbulence interactions directly affect the vaporization and dispersion of droplets in liquid sprays and therefore play a major role in fuel oxidizer mixing in liquid fueled combustion systems. Proper characterization of droplet turbulence interactions in vaporizing sprays require measurement of droplet size velocity and size temperature correlations. A planar, fluorescence imaging technique is described which is being developed for simultaneously measuring the size, velocity, and temperature of individual droplets in vaporizing sprays. Preliminary droplet size velocity correlation measurements made with this technique are presented. These measurements are also compared to and show very good agreement with measurements made in the same spray using a phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  14. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  15. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  16. Nondestructive characterization of ductile cast iron by magnetic adaptive testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Uchimoto, T.; Tomáš, Ivan; Takagi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 322, č. 20 (2010), s. 3117-3121 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1323; GA AV ČR 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic NDE * magnetic adaptive testing * magnetic hysteresis * cast iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.689, year: 2010

  17. Atomization and spray characteristics of bioethanol and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel injected through a direct injection gasoline injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Kim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Chang Sik

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the spray characteristics and atomization performance of gasoline fuel (G100), bioethanol fuel (E100), and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel (E85) in a direct injection gasoline injector in a gasoline engine. The overall spray and atomization characteristics such as an axial spray tip penetration, spray width, and overall SMD were measured experimentally and predicted by using KIVA-3V code. The development process and the appearance timing of the vortices in the test fuels were very similar. In addition, the numerical results accurately described the experimentally observed spray development pattern and shape, the beginning position of the vortex, and the spray breakup on the spray surface. Moreover, the increased injection pressure induced the occurrence of a clear circular shape in the downstream spray and a uniform mixture between the injected spray droplets and ambient air. The axial spray tip penetrations of the test fuels were similar, while the spray width and spray cone angle of E100 were slightly larger than the other fuels. In terms of atomization performance, the E100 fuel among the tested fuels had the largest droplet size because E100 has a high kinematic viscosity and surface tension.

  18. Miniaturized Charpy test for reactor pressure vessel embrittlement characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, M.P. Sr. [MPM Research and Consulting, Lemont, PA (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Modifications were made to a conventional Charpy machine to accommodate the miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) specimens which were fabricated from an archived reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. Over 100 dynamic MCVN tests were performed and compared to the results from conventional Charpy V-Notch (CVN) tests to demonstrate the efficacy of the miniature specimen test. The optimized sidegrooved MCVN specimens exhibit transitional fracture behavior over essentially the same temperature range as the CVN specimens which indicates that the stress fields in the MCVN specimens reasonably simulate those of the CVN specimens and this fact has been observed in finite element calculations. This result demonstrates a significant breakthrough since it is now possible to measure the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) using miniature specimens with only small correction factors, and for some materials as in the present study, without the need for any correction factor at all. This development simplifies data interpretation and will facilitate future regulatory acceptance. The non-sidegrooved specimens yield energy-temperature data which is significantly shifted downward in temperature (non-conservative) as a result of the loss of constraint which accompanies size reduction.

  19. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of MCC [Materials Characterization Center] approved testing material: ATM-10 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center ATM-10 glass represents a reference commercial high-level waste form similar to that which will be produced by the West Valley Nuclear Service Co. Inc., West Valley, New York. The target composition and acceptable range of composition were defined by the sponsor, West Valley Nuclear Service. The ATM-10 glass was produced in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of the work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-10 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. All of the ATM-10 glass was produced in the form of bars 1.9 /times/ 1.9 /times/ 10 cm nominal size, and 93 g nominal mass. A total of 15 bars of ATM-10 glass weighing 1394 g was produced. The production bars were characterized to determine the mean composition, oxidation state, and microstructure of the ATM-10 product. Table A summarizes the characterization results. The ATM-10 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the specifications of the client. Visually, the ATM-10 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination revealed low (less than 2 wt %) concentractions of 3-μm iron-chrome (suspected spinel) crystals and /approximately/0.5-μm ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 5 to 250 μm, was observed in all samples. 4 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs

  1. A comparative study of the effect of spray drying and hot-melt extrusion on the properties of amorphous solid dispersions containing felodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmah, Osama; Tabbakh, Rami; Kelly, Adrian; Paradkar, Anant

    2014-02-01

    To compare the properties of solid dispersions of felodipine for oral bioavailability enhancement using two different polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), by hot-melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying. Felodipine solid dispersions were prepared by HME and spray drying techniques. PVP and HPMCAS were used as polymer matrices at different drug : polymer ratios (1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3). Detailed characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and in-vitro dissolution testing. Dissolution profiles were evaluated in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Stability of different solid dispersions was studied under accelerated conditions (40°C/75% RH) over 8 weeks. Spray-dried formulations were found to release felodipine faster than melt extruded formulations for both polymer matrices. Solid dispersions containing HMPCAS exhibited higher drug release rates and better wettability than those produced with a PVP matrix. No significant differences in stability were observed except with HPMCAS at a 1 : 1 ratio, where crystallization was detected in spray-dried formulations. Solid dispersions of felodipine produced by spray drying exhibited more rapid drug release than corresponding melt extruded formulations, although in some cases improved stability was observed for melt extruded formulations. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Characterization of aqueous silver nitrate solutions for leakage tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the pH over a period of 168 h and the ionic silver content in various concentrations and post-preparation times of aqueous silver nitrate solutions. Also, the possible effects of these factors on microleakage test in adhesive/resin restorations in primary and permanent teeth were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A digital pHmeter was used for measuring the pH of the solutions prepared with three types of water (purified, deionized or distilled and three brands of silver nitrate salt (Merck, Synth or Cennabras at 0, 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h after preparation, and storage in transparent or dark bottles. Ionic silver was assayed according to the post-preparation times (2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 168 h and concentrations (1, 5, 25, 50% of solutions by atomic emission spectrometry. For each sample of each condition, three readings were obtained for calculating the mean value. Class V cavities were prepared with enamel margins on primary and permanent teeth and restored with the adhesive systems OptiBond FL or OptiBond SOLO Plus SE and the composite resin Filtek Z-250. After nail polish coverage, the permanent teeth were immersed in 25% or 50% AgNO3 solution and the primary teeth in 5% or 50% AgNO3 solutions for microleakage evaluation. ANOVA and the Tukey's test were used for data analyses (α=5%. RESULTS: The mean pH of the solutions ranged from neutral to alkaline (7.9±2.2 to 11.8±0.9. Mean ionic silver content differed depending on the concentration of the solution (4.75±0.5 to 293±15.3 ppm. In the microleakage test, significant difference was only observed for the adhesive system factor (p=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Under the tested experimental conditions and based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that the aqueous AgNO3 solutions: have neutral/alkaline pH and service life of up to 168 h; the level of ionic silver is proportional to the concentration of the solution; even at 5% concentration, the solutions were

  3. Therapeutic paint of cidofovir/sucralfate gel combination topically administered by spraying for treatment of orf virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonvico, Fabio; Colombo, Gaia; Gallina, Laura; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Rossi, Alessandra; McInnes, Colin J; Massimo, Gina; Colombo, Paolo; Scagliarini, Alessandra

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study a new cidofovir/sucralfate drug product to be used as a spray for treating the mucosal and/or skin lesions. The product, i.e., a water suspension of sucralfate (15% w/w) and cidofovir (1% w/w), combines the potent antiviral activity of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir ((S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) and the wound healing properties of sucralfate gel (sucrose octasulphate basic aluminum salt). The product was characterized in vitro with respect to compatibility between drug and carrier, spray particle size, spray deposition, drying kinetics, and drug content and release. An interaction between the two active substances was found. The interaction between sucralfate and cidofovir was counteracted by introducing sodium dihydrogen phosphate (16% w/w) in the preparation. The spray formulation containing cidofovir/sucralfate gel painted the skin and dried quickly to a scab, remaining firmly adhered to the lesions. The therapeutic paint was tested in vivo on lambs infected with orf virus by treating the animals with different cidofovir/sucralfate formulations (0.5% or 1% cidofovir + sucralfate 15% + NaH(2)PO(4) 16% w/w) and with sucralfate gel suspension alone as control. The treatment with formulations containing cidofovir and phosphate salt for four consecutive days resulted in a rapid resolution of the lesions, with scabs containing significantly lower amounts of viable virus when compared with untreated lesions and lesions treated with sucralfate suspension alone.

  4. Comparative characteristic and erosion behavior of NiCr coatings deposited by various high-velocity oxyfuel spray processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the mechanical properties and microstructure details at the interface of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF)-sprayed NiCr-coated boiler tube steels, namely ASTM-SA-210 grade A1, ASTM-SA213-T-11, and ASTM-SA213-T-22. Coatings were developed by two different techniques, and in these techniques liquefied petroleum gas was used as the fuel gas. First, the coatings were characterized by metallographic, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, surface roughness, and microhardness, and then were subjected to erosion testing. An attempt has been made to describe the transformations taking place during thermal spraying. It is concluded that the HVOF wire spraying process offers a technically viable and cost-effective alternative to HVOF powder spraying process for applications in an energy generation power plant with a point view of life enhancement and to minimize the tube failures because it gives a coating having better resistance to erosion.

  5. Measurements and predictions for nonevaporating sprays in a quiescent environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Shuen, J.-S.; Faeth, G. M.; Zhang, Q.-F.

    1983-01-01

    Yule et al. (1982) have conducted a study of vaporizing sprays with the aid of laser techniques. The present investigation has the objective to supplement the measurements performed by Yule et al., by considering the limiting case of a spray in a stagnant environment. Mean and fluctuating velocities of the continuous phase are measured by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) techniques, while Fraunhofer diffraction and slide impaction methods are employed to determine drop sizes. Liquid fluxes in the spray are found by making use of an isokinetic sampling probe. The obtained data are used as a basis for the evaluation of three models of the process, including a locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model, a deterministic separated flow (DSF) model, and a stochastic separated flow (SSF) model. It is found that the LHF and DSF models do not provide very satisfactory predictions for the test sprays, while the SSF model does provide reasonably good predictions of the observed structure.

  6. Increasing efficacy of graminicides with a forward angled spray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2012-01-01

    Control of annual grass species with vertically oriented leaves in agricultural crops by application of foliar acting herbicides with conventional hydraulic sprayers can be increased using forward angled nozzles. Changing the spray angle from the normally predominantly vertical spray towards...... an angled spray increases the potential target size of vertically oriented targets. This theory was tested in field experiments from 2005 to 2009 investigating control of three different grass species and a dicotyledonous weed species at early growth stages using foliar acting herbicides. Lolium perenne...... efficacy on L. perenne at early growth stages using nozzles with different spray quality, at different driving speeds and in different wind conditions. Similarly graminicide efficacy was increased when nozzles were angled 60° forward controlling A. myosuroides. Experiments investigating control of the two...

  7. Characterization and durability testing of a glass-bonded ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded ceramic waste form for encapsulating the fission products and transuranics from the conditioning of metallic reactor fuel. This waste form is currently being scaled to the multi-kilogram size for encapsulation of actual high level waste. This paper will present characterization and durability testing of the ceramic waste form. An emphasis on results from application of glass durability tests such as the Product Consistency Test and characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The information presented is based on a suite of tests utilized for assessing product quality during scale-up and parametric testing

  8. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  9. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third......, the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition....

  10. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    , the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition.......Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third...

  11. Microstructural characterization of Charpy-impact-tested nanostructured bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Y.T.; Chang, H.T.; Huang, B.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.Y. [Iron and Steel R& D Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, J.R., E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a possible cause of the extraordinary low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite has been investigated. The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted chiefly of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with retained austenite films. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurement indicated that no retained austenite existed in the fractured surface of the Charpy-impact-tested specimens. Fractographs showed that cracks propagated mainly along bainitic ferrite platelet boundaries. The change in microstructure after impact loading was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, confirming that retained austenite was completely transformed to strain-induced martensite during the Charpy impact test. However, the zone affected by strained-induced martensite was found to be extremely shallow, only to a depth of several micrometers from the fracture surface. It is appropriately concluded that upon impact, as the crack forms and propagates, strain-induced martensitic transformation immediately occurs ahead of the advancing crack tip. The successive martensitic transformation profoundly facilitates the crack propagation, resulting in the extremely low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite. Retained austenite, in contrast to its well-known beneficial role, has a deteriorating effect on toughness during the course of Charpy impact. - Highlights: • The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted of nano-sized bainitic ferrite subunits with retained austenite films. • Special sample preparations for SEM, XRD and TEM were made, and the strain-affected structures have been explored. • Retained austenite films were found to transform into martensite after impact loading, as evidenced by XRD and TEM results. • The zone of strain-induced martensite was found to extend to only several micrometers from the fracture surface. • The poor Charpy impact toughness is associated with the fracture of martensite at a high strain rate during

  12. Design and performance of a full-scale spray calciner for nonradioactive high-level-waste-vitrification studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.A.

    1981-06-01

    In the spray calcination process, liquid waste is spray-dried in a heated-wall spray dryer (termed a spray calciner), and then it may be combined in solid form with a glass-forming frit. This mixture is then melted in a continuous ceramic melter or in an in-can melter. Several sizes of spray calciners have been tested at PNL- laboratory scale, pilot scale and full scale. Summarized here is the experience gained during the operation of PNL's full-scale spray calciner, which has solidified approx. 38,000 L of simulated acid wastes and approx. 352,000 L of simulated neutralized wastes in 1830 h of processing time. Operating principles, operating experience, design aspects, and system descriptions of a full-scale spray calciner are discussed. Individual test run summaries are given in Appendix A. Appendices B and C are studies made by Bechtel Inc., under contract by PNL. These studies concern, respectively, feed systems for the spray calciner process and a spray calciner vibration analysis. Appendix D is a detailed structural analysis made at PNL of the spray calciner. These appendices are included in the report to provide a complete description of the spray calciner and to include all major studies made concerning PNL's full-scale spray calciner

  13. Standard tests for the characterization of roofing slate pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenes, V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathologies formed in slate roofs are mainly due to the presence of potentially unstable minerals (iron sulfides, carbonates and organic matter. These minerals may become altered by the effect of environmental agents, once the slate roof is finished. The pathologies are mainly associated with oxidation and gypsification processes of the cited mineral phases. In this work, the potential pathologies of several Spanish roofing slates are identified, using the tests defined in the European Norms EN 12326:2005, 14147:2004 and 11597:2007.

    Las patologías que se originan en pizarra para cubiertas son debidas fundamentalmente a la presencia de materiales alterables (sulfuros de hierro, carbonatos y materia orgánica. Estos minerales pueden llegar a alterarse por efecto de los agentes medioambientales, una vez que la pizarra es puesta en obra. Las patologías están principalmente asociadas a procesos de oxidación y yesificación de las citadas fases minerales. En este trabajo se determinan las patologías potenciales de varias pizarras para cubiertas españolas, utilizando los ensayos definidos en las normas UNE-EN 12326:2005, 14147:2004 y 11597:2007.

  14. Characterization of California Central Coast Aquifers using Pneumatic Slug Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelius, S.; Platt, D.; Whetsler, B.; Malama, B.

    2017-12-01

    The recent prolonged drought in California, where about 75% of the population depends to some extent ongroundwater, has led to increased stresses on the state's groundwater resources due to reduced recharge andincreased abstraction to supplement dwindling surface water supplies for irrigation and other urban uses.These factors have conspired to cause historic lows in groundwater levels, lost aquifer storage capacity dueincreased potential for land subsidence, and degraded water quality in coastal aquifers faced with increasedrates of seawater intrusion. Groundwater accounts for about a third of the total water uses in California,with some coastal communities being 100% dependent on groundwater. Irrigation accounts for over 60%of all state groundwater withdrawals in California. In light of this, the state of California recently passedthe Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) aimed at bringing the State's groundwater basinsinto sustainable regimes of abstraction, recharge and storage. Groundwater ow models are critical to thesuccessful implementation of the SGMA legislation. However, the usefulness of the models is severely limitedby a lack of detailed knowledge of aquifer properties at spatial scales that allow for accurate projections tobe made about groundwater basin sustainability by resource managers. We report here the results of highresolution pneumatic slug tests performed in two shallow aquifers in San Luis Obispo County on the CaliforniaCentral Coast to obtain detailed information about aquifer properties, including permeability and storage,and their spatial variability.

  15. New contributions to granite characterization by ultrasonic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, C; Jiménez, A; Rufo, M; Paniagua, J; Pachón, F T

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound evaluation permits the state of rocks to be determined quickly and cheaply, satisfying the demands faced by today's producers of ornamental stone, such as environmental sustainability, durability and safety of use. The basic objective of the present work is to analyse and develop the usefulness of ultrasound testing in estimating the physico-mechanical properties of granite. Various parameters related to Fast Fourier Transform (FFTs) and attenuation have been extracted from some of the studies conducted (parameters which have not previously been considered in work on this topic, unlike the ultrasonic pulse velocity). The experimental study was carried out on cubic specimens of 30 cm edges using longitudinal and shear wave transducers and equipment which extended the normally used natural resonance frequency range up to 500 kHz. Additionally, a validation study of the laboratory data has been conducted and some methodological improvements have been implemented. The main contribution of the work is the analysis of linear statistical correlations between the aforementioned new ultrasound parameters and physico-mechanical properties of the granites that had not previously been studied, i.e., resistance to salt crystallization and breaking load for anchors. Being properties that directly affect the durability and safety of use of granites, these correlations consolidate ultrasonics as a nondestructive method well suited to this type of material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Initial characterization of the ATR [Advanced Test Reactor] Large Gamma Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzler, B.G.; Rogers, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation fields in the ATR Large Gamma Facility test volume are characterized. The preliminary characterization efforts described in this report include total dose rate measurements in the facility, development of a simple methodology for calculating radiation fields from the ATR fuel element power histories, and a comparison of the measured and calculated values

  17. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.; Unger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  18. Characterization Test Procedures for Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems Based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Characterization test procedures have been developed to quantify the performance of intersection collision avoidance (ICA) systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications. These systems warn the driver of an imminent crossing-path collision at a r...

  19. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corno, Ada del, E-mail: delcorno@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Morandi, Sonia, E-mail: morandi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.araneo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy); CNR-IENI, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Casella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco2.casella@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m{sup 3}. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m{sup 3}. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was

  20. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m"3. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m"3. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  1. Characterization of thyroid function and antithyroid antibody tests among Saudis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammah, Anwar A.; Alshehri, Anwar S.; Alrakhis, Afaf A.; Alhedaithy, Asma S.; Almadhi, Asma M.; Alkwai, Hala M.; Alhamad, Maram M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference intervals for thyroid function tests and the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January to June 2013. History and physical examination were obtained. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured by Electro-chemiluminescence Immunoassay system-assay. Anti-thyroperoxidase, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay. Subjects with previous or a family history of thyroid disorders, those taking medications affecting thyroid function, pregnant or lactating women, and those with goiter were excluded. Individuals with positive antibodies were excluded from the final analysis of the TSH reference range, but were used to determine the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. Results: Out of 337 Saudi subjects initially screened, 132 (aged 13-60 years) were candidates for reference calculation, the mean±standard deviation, and (2.5th-97.5th) percentile of TSH (mIU/L) was 1.96±0.9 (0.59-4.37), for FT4 (pmol/L) was 15.47±1.83 (12.04-19.13), and for FT3 (pmol/L) was 5.22±0.7 (4.07-6.76). The TSH was higher in the antibodies positive group (2.5±1.17 mIU/L) compared with the negative one (1.96±0.9 mIU/L) (pantithyroid antibodies. Conclusion: The TSH reference range was similar to laboratory references. Thyroid antibodies were prevalent in Saudis, necessitating further work in larger scale studies. PMID:25987111

  2. Novel Approach in the Use of Plasma Spray: Preparation of Bulk Titanium for Bone Augmentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Fousova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal plasma spray is a common, well-established technology used in various application fields. Nevertheless, in our work, this technology was employed in a completely new way; for the preparation of bulk titanium. The aim was to produce titanium with properties similar to human bone to be used for bone augmentations. Titanium rods sprayed on a thin substrate wire exerted a porosity of about 15%, which yielded a significant decrease of Young′s modulus to the bone range and provided rugged topography for enhanced biological fixation. For the first verification of the suitability of the selected approach, tests of the mechanical properties in terms of compression, bending, and impact were carried out, the surface was characterized, and its compatibility with bone cells was studied. While preserving a high enough compressive strength of 628 MPa, the elastic modulus reached 11.6 GPa, thus preventing a stress-shielding effect, a generally known problem of implantable metals. U-2 OS and Saos-2 cells derived from bone osteosarcoma grown on the plasma-sprayed surface showed good viability.

  3. Combined control of morphology and polymorph in spray drying of mannitol for dry powder inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Feng; Liu, Jing J.; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xue Z.

    2017-06-01

    The morphology and polymorphism of mannitol particles were controlled during spray drying with the aim of improving the aerosolization properties of inhalable dry powders. The obtained microparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction and inhaler testing with a next generation impactor. Mannitol particles of varied α-mannitol content and surface roughness were prepared via spray drying by manipulating the concentration of NH4HCO3 in the feed solution. The bubbles produced by NH4HCO3 led to the formation of spheroid particles with a rough surface. Further, the fine particle fraction was increased by the rough surface of carriers and the high α-mannitol content. Inhalable dry powders with a 29.1 ± 2.4% fine particle fraction were obtained by spray-drying using 5% mannitol (w/v)/2% NH4HCO3 (w/v) as the feed solution, proving that this technique is an effective method to engineer particles for dry powder inhalation.

  4. A Complete Characterization of Potential Compensation Tests of Hicksian Welfare Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Keenan; Arthur Snow

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present complete characterizations of the compensation tests for potential Pareto superiority proposed by Kaldor, Hicks, and Samuelson in terms of the aggregate Hicksian measures of income compensation, including compensating and equivalent variations. The key to obtaining these characterizations lies in recognizing that each potential compensation test entails a search over possible outcomes, rather than a comparison of only the new and original outcomes, as with s...

  5. Effects of spray drying on antioxidant capacity and anthocyanidin content of blueberry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kar; Ma, Mitzi; Dolan, Kirk D

    2011-09-01

    The effect of spray drying on degradation of nutraceutical components in cull blueberry extract was investigated. Samples collected before and after spray drying were tested for antioxidant capacity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL) ) and total phenolics; and for individual anthocyanidins. In Study 1, four different levels of maltodextrin (blueberry solids to maltodextrin ratios of 5: 95, 10: 90, 30: 70, and 50: 50) were spray dried a pilot-scale spray dryer. There was significantly higher retention of nutraceutical components with increased levels of maltodextrin indicating a protective effect of maltodextrin on the nutraceutical components during spray drying. In Study 2, the air inlet temperature of the spray dryer was kept constant for all runs at 150 °C, with 2 different outlet temperatures of 80 and 90 °C. The degradation of nutraceutical components was not significantly different at the 2 selected outlet temperatures. ORAC(FL) reduction for blueberry samples after spray drying was 66.3% to 69.6%. After spray drying, total phenolics reduction for blueberry was 8.2% to 17.5%. Individual anthocyanidin reduction for blueberry was 50% to 70%. The experimental spray dried powders compared favorably to commercial blueberry powders. Results of the study show that use of blueberry by-products is feasible to make a value-added powder. Results can be used by producers to estimate final nutraceutical content of spray-dried blueberry by-products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  7. Functionally Graded Materials using Plasma Spray with Nano Structured Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioh, E L; Tok, A I Y

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, nano structured FGM was fabricated using DC plasma spray technique. Nano structured and micro structured powder were used as the feeding powder with steel substrate. The spray parameters was optimized and characterisation of nano-ceramic FGM and micro-ceramic FGM were done using bending test and micro-hardness test. Experimental results have shown that the nano-structured FGM exhibit 20% improvement flexure strength and 10% in hardness. A comparison was made between sintered micro ceramic tile and nano ceramic FGM using simple drop test method.

  8. Characterization of cracking in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites using the compact tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A. O.

    The characterization of the tensile behavior of strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) is of significant importance to the material design. In a previous work the tensile stress-crack opening response of different types of SHCC was characterized using notched specimens tested in direct...... tension, where a single crack was obtained and mechanically characterized by performing Single Crack Tension Test (SCTT). In this study the tensile behavior of SHCC materials is characterized under eccentric tensile load using the Compact Tension Test (CTT). The long edge notch placed in the rectangular...... plate specimens and the eccentrically applied tensile load create the local conditions necessary to the initiation of a single crack at the tip of the notch. Further propagation and opening of the crack in Mode I allow the assessment of the tensile load-displacement relationship. The experimental...

  9. The characterization and testing of candidate immobilization forms for the disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakel, A. J.; Buck, E. C.; Chamberlain, D. B.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Fortner, J. A.; Marra, J. C.; Mcgrail, B. P.; Mertz, C. J.; Peeler, D. K.; Shaw, H. F.; Strachan, D. M.; Van Konynenburg, R. A.; Vienna, J. D.; Wolf, S. F.

    1997-01-01

    Candidate immobilization forms for the disposal of surplus weapons-useable are being tested and characterized. The goal of the testing program was to provide sufficient data that, by August 1997, an informed selection of a single immobilization form could be made so that the form development and production R and D could be more narrowly focused. Two forms have been under consideration for the past two years: glass and ceramic. In August, 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected ceramic for plutonium disposition, halting further work on the glass material. In this paper, we will briefly describe these two waste forms, then describe our characterization techniques and testing methods. The analytical methods used to characterize altered and unaltered samples are the same. A full suite of microscopic techniques is used. Techniques used include optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopies. For both candidate immobilization forms, the analyses are used to characterize the material for the presence of crystalline phases and amorphous material. Crystalline materials, either in the untested immobilization form or in the alteration products from testing, are characterized with respect to morphology, crystal structure, and composition. The goal of these analyses is to provide data on critical issues such as Pu and neutron absorber volubility in the immobilization form, thermal stability, potential separation of absorber and Pu, and the long-term behavior of the materials. Results from these analyses will be discussed in the presentation. Testing methods include MCC-1 tests, product consistency tests (methods A and B), unsaturated ''drip'' tests, vapor hydration tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and pressurized unsaturated flow tests. Both candidate immobilization forms have very low dissolution rates; examples of typical test results will be reported

  10. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  11. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  12. Auditory tests for characterizing individual hearing deficits: The BEAR test battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Lopez, Raul; Fereczkowski, Michal; Bianchi, Federica

    deficits can be complex. Therefore, one aim of the BEAR project is to design a hearing test battery for classification of listeners into a small number of auditory profiles. If successful, this BEAR test battery may be refined and reduced to form the basis for improved profile-based hearing-aid fitting......BACKGROUND The Better hEAring Rehabilitation (BEAR) project seeks to develop and assess new clinically feasible strategies for individualized hearing-loss diagnosis and hearing-aid fitting. The aim is to improve current clinical practice, where the fitting process relies on the pure-tone audiogram...... protocols. METHOD Based on the reanalysis of existing auditory profiling data and on criteria of their feasibility, time efficiency, and evidence from the literature, eleven potential tests for inclusion in a clinical test battery were selected. The proposed tests were divided into six categories...

  13. Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ou-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70 under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30 in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.

  14. Structure of nonevaporating sprays - Measurements and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Shuen, J.-S.; Zhang, Q.-F.; Faeth, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Structure measurements were completed within the dilute portion of axisymmetric nonevaporating sprays (SMD of 30 and 87 microns) injected into a still air environment, including: mean and fluctuating gas velocities and Reynolds stress using laser-Doppler anemometry; mean liquid fluxes using isokinetic sampling; drop sizes using slide impaction; and drop sizes and velocities using multiflash photography. The new measurements were used to evaluate three representative models of sprays: (1) a locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model, where slip between the phases was neglected; (2) a deterministic separated flow (DSF) model, where slip was considered but effects of drop interaction with turbulent fluctuations were ignored; and (3) a stochastic separated flow (SSF) model, where effects of both interphase slip and turbulent fluctuations were considered using random sampling for turbulence properties in conjunction with random-walk computations for drop motion. The LHF and DSF models were unsatisfactory for present test conditions-both underestimating flow widths and the rate of spread of drops. In contrast, the SSF model provided reasonably accurate predictions, including effects of enhanced spreading rates of sprays due to drop dispersion by turbulence, with all empirical parameters fixed from earlier work.

  15. Erosion protection of carbon-epoxy composites by plasma-sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, F.; Fagoaga, I.; Oregui, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the production of plasma-sprayed erosion-resistant coatings on carbon-fibre - epoxy composites, and the study of their erosion behaviour. The heat sensitivity of the composite substrate requires a specific spraying procedure in order to avoid its degradation. In addition, several bonding layers were studied to allow spraying of the protective coatings. Two different functional coatings were sprayed onto an aluminium-glass bonding layer, a WC-12Co cermet and an Al 2 O 3 ceramic oxide. The microstructure and properties of these coatings were studied and their erosion behaviour determined experimentally in an erosion-testing device. (orig.)

  16. Research on the Properties of Thermal Sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the flame sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B coating on aluminum alloy substrates. Before the thermal spraying process, aluminum samples were modified applying chemical, mechanical and thermal processing pre-treatment methods. The main aluminum surface treatment was removing an oxide layer from the surface and improving the exploitation properties of nickel-based coatings. The work involved coating microstructure, porosity, adhesion and microhardness tests. The dependence of the estimated exploitation properties of flame spray coatings on aluminum surface preparation methods and technological parameters of spraying has been established.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Research on the Properties of Thermal Sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the flame sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B coating on aluminum alloy substrates. Before the thermal spraying process, aluminum samples were modified applying chemical, mechanical and thermal processing pre-treatment methods. The main aluminum surface treatment was removing an oxide layer from the surface and improving the exploitation properties of nickel-based coatings. The work involved coating microstructure, porosity, adhesion and microhardness tests. The dependence of the estimated exploitation properties of flame spray coatings on aluminum surface preparation methods and technological parameters of spraying has been established.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Experimental investigation of cooling by top spray and bottom flooding of a simulated 64 rod bundle for a BWR. Pt. 2. Main experiment with modified test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.; Gustafson, L.; Harju, R.

    1978-06-01

    The cooling of an electrically heated, full scale 64-rod bundle has been investigated under simulated emergency core cooling conditions. Emphasis was laid on measurements of rod cladding and canister temperatures. By means of difference pressure measurements the levels in bundle, by-pass and downcomer could be estimated and thus the effective reflooding velocity. The test section was modified compared to the pre-tests, in order to improve system effects simulation. A new rod bundle was installed including a hollow, water, rod and 63 indirectly heated rods. Parameter effects of coolant mass flow rate and distribution, initial cladding temperature, pressure and power were studied. The effect of the way the test section was vented was also investigated and turned out to be very significant. (author)

  19. Characterization testing support requirements for the exploratory shaft facility at Yucca mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, H.N.; Klkins, N.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The National waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended on December 22, 1987, requires that before proceeding to sink exploratory shafts at the Yucca Mountain site, the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) shall submit to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and to the Governor of Nevada or Legislature of the State of Nevada, for their review and comment, a general plane for the characterization activities to be conducted at the Yucca Mountain site. DOE submitted a Site Characterization Plan in December of 1988. This plan outlines activities to be undertaken by DOE to characterize the Yucca Mountain site as potentially the first national repository for the permanent isolation of high-level radioactive waste as well as the quality assurance (QA) program that will be applied on this project. The DOE plans to utilize an Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) to gain access to the underground environment and conduct characterization, construction, and mining-method evaluation and performance-related tests. This paper identifies the types of ESF tests to be performed, test requirements with respect to facility design, and the management of the testing program. An important ESF test program element is the design, installation, and management of an Integrated Data System (IDS), an automated system for collecting and recording test data for many of the tests. The rationale used in developing the facility and methodology used to develop testing and IDS requirements are also discussed in this paper

  20. Characterization of holding brake friction pad surface after pin-on-plate wear test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, N.; Gonzalez Madruga, D.; De Chiffre, L.

    2018-01-01

    This article concerns the metrological characterization of the surface on a holding brake friction material pin after a pin-on-plate (POP) wear test. The POP test induces the formation of surface plateaus that affect brake performances such as wear, friction, noise and heat. Three different...

  1. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, Kendall J.; Pena, Maria I.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  2. Materials Characterization Center meeting on impact testing of waste forms. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, M.D.; Atteridge, D.; Dudder, G.

    1981-10-01

    A meeting was held on March 25-26, 1981 to discuss impact test methods for waste form materials to be used in nuclear waste repositories. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) in preparing the MCC-10 Impact Test Method to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The meeting focused on two essential aspects of the test method, namely the mechanical process, or impact, used to effect rapid fracture of a waste form and the analysis technique(s) used to characterize particulates generated by the impact

  3. One-step spray-coating process for the fabrication of colorful superhydrophobic coatings with excellent corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wu, Runni; Jing, Zhijiao; Yan, Long; Zha, Fei; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-10-06

    A simple method was used to generate colorful hydrophobic stearate particles via chemical reactions between inorganic salts and sodium stearate. Colored self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings were prepared through a facile one-step spray-coating process by spraying the stearate particle suspensions onto stainless steel substrates. Furthermore, the colorful superhydrophobic coating maintains excellent chemical stability under both harsh acidic and alkaline circumstances. After being immersed in a 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution for 1 month, the as-prepared coatings remained superhydrophobic; however, they lost their self-cleaning property with a sliding angle of about 46 ± 3°. The corrosion behavior of the superhydrophobic coatings on the Al substrate was characterized by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical corrosion test results indicated that the superhydrophobic coatings possessed excellent corrosion resistance, which could supply efficient and long-term preservation for the bare Al substrate.

  4. Gene Expression, Bacteria Viability and Survivability Following Spray Drying of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hunter Lauten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We find that Mycobacterium smegmatis survives spray drying and retains cell viability in accelerated temperature stress (40 °C conditions with a success rate that increases with increasing thermal, osmotic, and nutrient-restriction stresses applied to the mycobacterium prior to spray drying. M.smegmatis that are spray dried during log growth phase, where they suffer little or no nutrient-reduction stress, survive for less than 7 days in the dry powder state at accelerated temperature stress conditions, whereas M. smegmatis that are spray dried during stationary phase, where cells do suffer nutrient reduction, survive for up to 14 days. M. smegmatis that are spray dried from stationary phase, subjected to accelerated temperature stress conditions, regrown to stationary phase, spray dried again, and resubmitted to this same process four consecutive times, display, on the fourth spray drying iteration, an approximate ten-fold increase in stability during accelerated temperature stress testing, surviving up to 105 days. Microarray tests revealed significant differences in genetic expression of M. smegmatis between log phase and stationary phase conditions, between naïve (non spray-dried and multiply cycled dried M. smegmatis (in log and stationary phase, and between M. smegmatis in the dry powder state following a single spray drying operation and after four consecutive spray drying operations. These differences, and other phenotypical differences, point to the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway as a probable pathway contributing to bacteria survival in the spray-dried state and suggests strategies for spray drying that may lead to significantly greater room-temperature stability of mycobacteria, including mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, the current TB vaccine.

  5. Characterization testing of a 40 ampere hour bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40-ampere hour (A h), 10-cell, bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery, to study the effects of operating parameters such as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure on capacity, A h and watt hour (W h) efficiencies, and end-of-charge and midpoint discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout the test matrix except during the high-rate (5 C and 10 C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 in. x 2 in. battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit cycle life testing at a 40-percent depth of discharge and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  6. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  7. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  8. Mechanical characterization tests of the X2-Gen fuel assembly and skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, Young Ho; Kang, Heung Seok

    2011-01-01

    The KNF (KEPCO Nuclear Fuel) requested mechanical characterization tests of a fuel assembly and a skeleton of the X2-Gen fuel. The tests consisted of the lateral vibration and lateral/axial stiffness, lateral/axial impact and combined deflection tests carried out by using the FAMeCT (Fuel Assembly Mechanical Characterization Tester) in KAERI. The upper and lower core plate simulators were newly designed and manufactured because the fuel geometry of the X2-Gen was different from the KSNP type fuel assembly. In addition to this, the upper carriage was also revised with the LM guide system from the previous two guide rods system. Therefore, the axial and combined deflection tests were soundly executed. Each test was repeated twice to confirm the repeatability. The discrepancy from the repetition was small enough to be neglected. The mechanical characterization tests were accredited with the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme) standard, and the certified test reports (lateral vibration, lateral/axial bending and lateral/axial impact) and the uncertified test report (combined deflection) were issued together with the current test result report

  9. Graphite nodules in fatigue-tested cast iron characterized in 2D and 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Fæster, Søren; Hansen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Thick-walled ductile iron casts have been studied by applying (i) cooling rate calculations by FVM, (ii) microstructural characterization by 2D SEM and 3D X-ray tomography techniques and (iii) fatigue testing of samples drawn from components cast in sand molds and metal molds. An analysis has shown...... correlations between cooling rate, structure and fatigue strengths demonstrating the benefit of 3D structural characterization to identify possible causes of premature fatigue failure of ductile cast iron....

  10. Collection Efficiencies of Various Airborne Spray Flux Samplers Used in Aerial Application Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    provided by ASTM Standard E1260: Standard Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light...Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Stan- dards, ASTM International, West

  11. Effect of spray drying on the properties of amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water soluble amylose-hexadecyl ammonium chloride complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and hexadecyl ammonium chloride by excess steam jet cooking. Amylose inclusion complexes were spray dried to determine the viability of spray drying as a production method. The variables tested in...

  12. Structure Analysis Of Corrosion Resistant Thermal Sprayed Coatings On Low Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pistofidis, N.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Metallic coatings have been proved to reduce the rate of corrosion of steel in various atmospheres. In this work the structure of Al, Cu-Al and Zn thermal sprayed coatings is examined. The as formed coatings are extremely rough, and they are composed of several phases which increase corrosion resistance as it was determined Salt Spray Chamber tests.

  13. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  14. Site characterization and validation - equipment design and techniques used in single borehole hydraulic testing, simulated drift experiment and crosshole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.C.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the equipment and techniques used to investigate the variation of hydrogeological parameters within a fractured crystalline rock mass. The testing program was performed during stage 3 of the site characterization and validation programme at the Stripa mine in Sweden. This programme used a multidisciplinary approach, combining geophysical, geological and hydrogeological methods, to determine how groundwater moved through the rock mass. The hydrogeological work package involved three components. Firstly, novel single borehole techniques (focused packer testing) were used to determine the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and head along individual boreholes. Secondly, water was abstracted from boreholes which were drilled to simulate a tunnel (simulated drift experiment). Locations and magnitudes of flows were measured together with pressure responses at various points in the SCV rock mass. Thirdly, small scale crosshole tests, involving detailed interference testing, were used to determine the variability of hydrogeological parameters within previously identified, significant flow zones. (au)

  15. MELCOR 1.8.3 assessment: CSE containment spray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-12-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part, of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a series of containment spray tests performed in the Containment Systems Experiment (CSE) vessel to evaluate the performance of aqueous sprays as a means of decontaminating containment atmospheres. Basecase MELCOR results are compared with test data, and a number of sensitivity studies on input modelling parameters and options in both the spray package and the associated aerosol washout and atmosphere decontamination by sprays modelled in the radionuclide package have been done. Time-step and machine-dependency calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in these CSE assessment analyses. A significant time-step dependency due to an error in the spray package coding was identified and eliminated. A number of other code deficiencies and inconveniences also are noted

  16. USO DE FIPRONIL SPRAY NO TRATAMENTO DA ESCABIOSE CANINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franco Andrade

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to prove the effectiveness of the fipronil spray (FRONTLINE, a new synthetic molecule, as a safe acaricide in dogs. Were analyzed 10 dogs from the attendance of the service of Dermatology of the Veterinary Hospital and of the kennel of UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, with symptomatic and tested positive for scabies by scrapings, and used the fipronil spray in the whole body of the animal, besides external ear conduct, weekly until the disappearance of the symptoms and scrapings from the skin tested negative for scabies. The remission of the symptoms jointly with scraped of skin negative it happened on average from 4 to 6 weeks, demonstrating to be the fipronil spray effective and practical could be a safe alternative in the treatment of the canine scabies.

  17. Upgraded Features of Newly Constructed Fuel Assembly Mechanical Characterization Test Facility in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Soo Ho; Yang, Jae Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Fuel assembly mechanical characterization test facility (FAMeCT) in KAERI is newly constructed with upgraded functional features such as increased loading capacity, under-water vibration testing and severe earthquake simulation for extended fuel design guideline. The facility building is compactly designed in the scale of 3rd floor building and has regions for assembly-wise mechanical test equipment, dynamic load (seismic) simulating test system, small scale hydraulic loop and component wise test equipment. Figure 1 shows schematic regional layout of the facility building. Mechanical test platform and system is designed to increase loading capacity for axial compression test. Structural stability of the support system of new upper core plate simulator is validated through a limit case functional test. Fuel assembly mechanical characterization test facility in KAERI is newly constructed and upgraded with advanced functional features such as uprated loading capacity, under-water vibration testing and severe earthquake simulation for extended fuel design guideline. This paper briefly introduce the test facility construction and scope of the facility and is focused on the upgraded design features of the facility. Authors hope to facilitate the facility more in the future and collaborate with the industry.

  18. Residual stress determination in thermally sprayed metallic deposits by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Thomas; Margadant, Nikolaus; Pirling, Thilo; Riegert-Escribano, Maria J.; Wagner, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to obtain spatially resolved strain and stress profiles in thermally sprayed metallic 'NiCrAlY' deposits (chemical composition 67 wt.% Ni, 22 wt.% Cr, 10 wt.% Al, 1 wt.% Y) and the underlying steel substrates. Samples of four different spray techniques were analyzed: atmospheric and water stabilized plasma spraying (APS and WSP), flame spraying (FS) and wire arc spraying (WAS). The results are quantitatively compared with the average in-plane residual stress determined by complementary bending tests and the hole drilling technique. While the stress profiles from the surface to the interface in the deposits are similar for all investigated spray techniques, their absolute values and gradients vary strongly. This is attributed to different quenching stresses from the impinging particles, different thermal histories the deposit/substrate systems undergo during the spraying and subsequent cooling, and also to different coating properties. In the water stabilized plasma sprayed and the wire arc sprayed deposits, a gradient in the stress-free lattice parameter was observed. Crack formation is found to be a dominant mechanism for stress relaxation in the surface plane

  19. Residual stress determination in thermally sprayed metallic deposits by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Thomas; Margadant, Nikolaus; Pirling, Thilo; Riegert-Escribano, Maria J.; Wagner, Werner

    2004-05-25

    Neutron diffraction was used to obtain spatially resolved strain and stress profiles in thermally sprayed metallic 'NiCrAlY' deposits (chemical composition 67 wt.% Ni, 22 wt.% Cr, 10 wt.% Al, 1 wt.% Y) and the underlying steel substrates. Samples of four different spray techniques were analyzed: atmospheric and water stabilized plasma spraying (APS and WSP), flame spraying (FS) and wire arc spraying (WAS). The results are quantitatively compared with the average in-plane residual stress determined by complementary bending tests and the hole drilling technique. While the stress profiles from the surface to the interface in the deposits are similar for all investigated spray techniques, their absolute values and gradients vary strongly. This is attributed to different quenching stresses from the impinging particles, different thermal histories the deposit/substrate systems undergo during the spraying and subsequent cooling, and also to different coating properties. In the water stabilized plasma sprayed and the wire arc sprayed deposits, a gradient in the stress-free lattice parameter was observed. Crack formation is found to be a dominant mechanism for stress relaxation in the surface plane.

  20. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.