WorldWideScience

Sample records for spray application center

  1. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  2. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  3. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  4. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  5. A comparison of biological effect and spray liquid distribution and deposition for different spray application techniques in different crops

    OpenAIRE

    Larsolle, Anders; Wretblad, Per; Westberg, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a selection of spray application techniques with different application volumes, with respect to the spray liquid distribution on flat surfaces, the deposition in fully developed crops and the biological effect. The spray application techniques in this study were conventional spray technique with three different nozzles: Teelet XR, Lechler ID and Lurmark DriftBeta, and also AirTec, Danfoil, Hardi Twin, Kyndestoit and Släpduk. The dynamic spray liquid ...

  6. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  7. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  8. Skin Sterility After Application of a Vapocoolant Spray Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Karolina; Lyahn, Hwang; Richards, Bryson; Schleicher, William; Bassiri Gharb, Bahar; Procop, Gary; Tuohy, Marion; Zins, James

    2015-08-01

    Refrigerant sprays have been used for pain relief at the time of minor office procedures. However, their sterility remains in question. This study investigates the microbiologic effect of this vapocoolant when sprayed after 70 % isopropyl alcohol skin preparation. In 50 healthy volunteers, three skin culture samples were collected: Group 1 prior to alcohol application; Group 2 after preparation with alcohol, and Group 3 after preparation with alcohol followed with vapocoolant spray. Samples were cultured in a blinded fashion and analyzed after 5 days of incubation. Gram staining was performed when cultures were positive. Bacterial growth was found in 98 % of samples prior to any skin preparation. This was reduced to 54 % after alcohol use (Group 2). Spraying with the skin refrigerant further reduced bacterial growth to 46 % (Group 3). The results showed a significant reduction in the number of positive bacterial cultures following skin preparation with alcohol and when alcohol prep was followed by vapocoolant spray (p < 0.001) compared to initial cultures. No statistical difference was observed between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.74). The use of the vapocoolant spray does not compromise the sterility of the skin following alcohol prep. Both 70 % isopropyl alcohol antiseptic preparation and skin preparation followed by vapocoolant spray significantly reduce skin colonization when compared to unprepared skin (p < 0.001).

  9. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  10. Regimes of spray formation in gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, D.; Kulkarni, V. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2011-09-15

    Spray formation in ambient atmosphere from gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers is described by carrying out experiments in a spray test facility. The atomizer discharges a circular air jet and an axisymmetric swirling water sheet from its coaxially arranged inner and outer orifices. A high-speed digital imaging system along with a backlight illumination arrangement is employed to record the details of liquid sheet breakup and spray development. Spray regimes exhibiting different sheet breakup mechanisms are identified and their characteristic features presented. The identified spray regimes are wave-assisted sheet breakup, perforated sheet breakup, segmented sheet breakup, and pulsation spray regime. In the regime of wave-assisted sheet breakup, the sheet breakup shows features similar to the breakup of two-dimensional planar air-blasted liquid sheets. At high air-to-liquid momentum ratios, the interaction process between the axisymmetric swirling liquid sheet and the circular air jet develops spray processes which are more specific to the atomizer studied here. The spray exhibits a periodic ejection of liquid masses whose features are dominantly controlled by the central air jet. (orig.)

  11. Crop adapted spray application (CASA) - precise and safe plant protection in fruit growing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doruchowski, G.; Balsari, P.; Marucco, P.; Zande, van de J.C.; Wenneker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Crop Adapted Spray Application (CASA) system for orchards integrates disease detection based on reflectance imaging, crop identification with ultrasonic sensors, wind measurement and DGPS navigation. Through the automatic adjustment of spray application parameters according to the crop

  12. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 - 2009 cropping season to determine the minimal insecticide application which can reduce cowpea yield losses on the field due to insect pest infestations in the Transkei region of South Africa. Treatments consisted of five cowpea varieties and four regimes of insecticide spray ...

  13. Field experiment on spray drift: Deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, A.; Linnemann, V.; Zande, van de J.C.; Vereecken, H.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done

  14. Simulation of the coating film appearance for spray application

    OpenAIRE

    Seeler, Fabian; Hager, Christian; Schneider, Matthias; Tiedje, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The coating film topography depends on the substrate structure, the application parameters and the coating material’s levelling properties. Substrates consisting of several materials with different surface structures and differently inclined areas make a homogenous coating film structure difficult. By means of simulations, the paint film structure is intended to be controlled so that the theoretical optimum is reached and the experimental effort can be reduced. The focus is on spray applicati...

  15. Spray-coatable negative photoresist for high topography MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Markus; Haas, Sven; Schwenzer, Falk; Schwenzer, Gunther; Reuter, Danny; Geßner, Thomas; Voigt, Anja; Gruetzner, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    In microsystem technology, the lithographical processing of substrates with a topography is very important. Interconnecting lines, which are routed over sloped topography sidewalls from the top of the protecting wafer to the contact pads of the device wafer, are one example of patterning over a topography. For structuring such circuit paths, a photolithography process, and therefore a process for homogeneous photoresist coating, is required. The most flexible and advantageous way of depositing a homogeneous photoresist film over structures with high topography steps is spray-coating. As a pattern transfer process for circuit paths in cavities, the lift-off process is widely used. A negative resist, like ma-N (MRT) or AZnLOF (AZ) is favoured for lift-off processes due to the existing negative angle of the sidewalls. Only a few sprayable negative photoresists are commercially available. In this paper, the development of a novel negative resist spray-coating based on a commercially available single-layer lift-off resist for spin-coating, especially for the patterning of structures inside the cavity and on the cavity wall, is presented. A variety of parameters influences the spray-coating process, and therefore the patterning results. Besides the spray-coating tool and the parameters, the composition of the resist solution itself also influences the coating results. For homogeneous resist coverage over the topography of the substrate, different solvent combinations for diluting the resist solution, different chuck temperatures during the coating process, and also the softbake conditions, are all investigated. The solvent formulations and the process conditions are optimized with respect to the homogeneity of the resist coverage on the top edge of the cavities. Finally, the developed spray-coating process, the resist material and the process stability are demonstrated by the following applications: (i) lift-off, (ii) electroplating, (iii) the wet and (iv) the dry

  16. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  17. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... detergents, including but not limited to assembly and storage of raw materials, crutching, spray drying... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150 Applicability...

  18. Application of pulse combustion technology in spray drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zbicinski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents development of valved pulse combustor designed for application in drying process and drying tests performed in a specially built installation. Laser technique was applied to investigate the flow field and structure of dispersed phase during pulse combustion spray drying process. PDA technique was used to determine initial atomization parameters as well as particle size distribution, velocity of the particles, mass concentration of liquid phase in the cross section of spray stream, etc., in the drying chamber during drying tests. Water was used to estimate the level of evaporation and 5 and 10% solutions of sodium chloride to carry out drying tests. The Computational Fluid Dynamics technique was used to perform theoretical predictions of time-dependent velocity, temperature distribution and particle trajectories in the drying chamber. Satisfactory agreement between calculations and experimental results was found in certain regions of the drying chamber.

  19. Applications of thermal spraying for automotive parts. Jidosha ni okeru yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1992-10-31

    Application of thermal spraying for automotive parts is described. Outlines of the spraying types that are materialized recently, like 'gel-double spraying of turbo-compressor housing part' and 'iron alloy spraying to outer portion of valve lifter made with Al alloy', are introduced. Gel-double spraying technology is widely used in the jet engine of aeroplane, however its use in automotive turbo was difficult from the reason like quality assurance relating to continuous production of automotives. As a result of the research and development based on the above reasons, a low speed torque is confirmed by the formation of gel-double spray layer. Spraying to the outer part of the valve lifter made from Al alloy is cited as the best example of thermal spraying. Relation between flying speed of spraying particles and degree of flattening, etc., relating to the conformity of adhesion power of coated layer, is explained. Further research topics are given as; improvement of spraying efficiency, improvement of resistance of spraying equipments, unification of equipments standards, quantification of spray coatings, design of spray materials, etc. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  1. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  2. Drift curves from spray applications on commom bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Bueno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to avoid the occurrence of drift in pesticide applications, it is fundamental to know the behavior of sprayed droplets. This study aimed to determine drift curves in pesticide applications on common bean crop under brazilian weather conditions, using different nozzle types and compared them with the "German" and "Dutch" drift prediction models. The experiment was conducted in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais/Brazil, in completely randomized design with ten replications and 4 x 20 split-plot arrangement in space. Drift deposited on collectors located over ground level was resulted by 150 L ha-1 carrier volume applications through four nozzle types (XR 11002 (fine droplets; AIXR 11002 (coarse droplets; TT 11002 (medium droplets; TTI 11002 (extremely coarse droplets, collected in 20 downwind distances, parallel to the crop line outside the target area, spaced by 2.5 m. The tracer rhodamine B was added to the spray to be quantified by fluorimetry. Drift prediction models adjusted by exponential functions were obtained considering the 90th percentile for XR, TT, AIXR and TTI nozzles. It is suggested to use the estimated drift models from this study for each nozzle type in drift prediction evaluations on bean crops under brazilian weather conditions.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Powders for Biomedical Applications by Plasma Spray Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Sasidharan Pillai, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This PhD work mainly focus on the synthesis and characterization of calcium phosphate powders for plasma spray coating. The preparation of high temperature phase stabilized βTCP and HA/βTCP powders for plasma spray coating applications has been the topic of investigation. Nowadays plasma sprayed coatings are widely used for biomedical applications especially in the dental and orthopaedic implantation field. Previously Ti based alloys were widely used for the orthopaedic and dental implant ap...

  4. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, M.; Wenneker, M.; Withagen, J.C.M.; Christensen, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application versus

  5. Thermal plasma spraying for SOFCs: Applications, potential advantages, and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Rob; Wang, Zhenwei; Jankovic, Jasna; Yick, Sing; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Rose, Lars [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-07-10

    In this article, the applications, potential advantages, and challenges of thermal plasma spray (PS) processing for nanopowder production and cell fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reviewed. PS processing creates sufficiently high temperatures to melt all materials fed into the plasma. The heated material can either be quenched into oxide powders or deposited as coatings. This technique has been applied to directly deposit functional layers as well as nanopowder for SOFCs application. In particularly, low melting point and highly active electrodes can be directly fabricated on zirconia-based electrolytes. This is a simple processing technique that does not require the use of organic solvents, offering the opportunity for flexible adjustment of process parameters, and significant time saving in production of the cell and cost reduction compared with tape casting, screen printing and sintering processing steps. Most importantly, PS processing shows strong potential to enable the deposition of metal-supported SOFCs through the integrated fabrication of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA) on porous metallic substrates with consecutive deposition steps. On the other hand, the application of PS processing to produce SOFCs faces some challenges, such as insufficient porosity of the electrodes, the difficulty of obtaining a thin (<10 {mu}m) and dense electrolyte layer. Fed with H{sub 2} as the fuel gas and oxygen as the oxidant gas, the plasma sprayed cell reached high power densities of 770 mW cm{sup -2} at 900 C and 430 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 C at a cell voltage of 0.7 V. (author)

  6. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  7. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  8. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  9. A Review on Atomization and Sprays of Biofuels for IC Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Boggavarapu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing energy requirements, environmental concerns and energy security needs are strongly influencing engine researchers to consider renewable biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels. Spray process being important in IC engine combustion, existing literature on various biofuel sprays is reviewed and summarized. Both experimental and computational research findings are reviewed in a detailed manner for compression ignition (CI engine sprays and briefly for spark ignition (SI engine sprays. The physics of basic atomization process of sprays from various injectors is included to highlight the most recent research findings followed by discussion highlighting the effect of physico-chemical properties on spray atomization for both biofuels and fossil fuels. Biodiesel sprays are found to penetrate faster and have narrow spray plume angle and larger droplet sizes compared to diesel. Results of analytical and computational models are shown to be useful in shedding light on the actual process of atomization. However, further studies on understanding primary atomization and the effect of fuel properties on primary atomization are required. As far as secondary atomization is concerned, changes in regimes are observed to occur at higher air-jet velocities for biodiesel compared to those of diesel. Evaporating sprays revealed that the liquid length is longer for biodiesel. Pure plant oil sprays with potential use in CI engines may require alternative injector technology due to slower breakup as compared to diesel. Application of ethanol to gasoline engines may be feasible without any modifications to port fuel injection (PFI engines. More studies are required on the application of alternative fuels to high pressure sprays used in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engines.

  10. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder...

  11. Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized. Methods and tools for controlling the spray process are presented as well as their use in optimizing the coating process. It will be shown how the differences from the starting powder to the final coating formation affect the coating microstructure and performance. Typical properties of HVOF sprayed coatings and coating performance is described. Also development of testing methods used for the evaluation of coating properties and current status of standardization is presented. Short discussion of typical applications is done.

  12. Kinematic Optimization of Robot Trajectories for Thermal Spray Coating Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sihao; Liang, Hong; Cai, Zhenhua; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain

    2014-12-01

    Industrial robots are widely used in the field of thermal spray nowadays. Due to their characteristics of high-accuracy and programmable flexibility, spraying on complex geometrical workpieces can be realized in the equipped spray room. However, in some cases, the robots cannot guarantee the process parameters defined by the robot movement, such as the scanning trajectory, spray angle, relative speed between the torch and the substrate, etc., which have distinct influences on heat and mass transfer during the generation of any thermally sprayed coatings. In this study, an investigation on the robot kinematics was proposed to find the rules of motion in a common case. The results showed that the motion behavior of each axis of robot permits to identify the motion problems in the trajectory. This approach allows to optimize the robot trajectory generation in a limited working envelop. It also minimizes the influence of robot performance to achieve a more constant relative scanning speed which is represented as a key parameter in thermal spraying.

  13. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  14. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A; Law, S Edward

    2011-01-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  15. Spray pesticide applications in Mediterranean citrus orchards: Canopy deposition and off-target losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcerá, Cruz; Moltó, Enrique; Chueca, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Only a portion of the water volume sprayed is deposited on the target when applying plant protection products with air-assisted axial-fan airblast sprayers in high growing crops. A fraction of the off-target losses deposits on the ground, but droplets also drift away from the site. This work aimed at assessing the spray distribution to different compartments (tree canopy, ground and air) during pesticide applications in a Mediterranean citrus orchard. Standard cone nozzles (Teejet D3 DC35) and venturi drift reducing nozzles (Albuz TVI 80 03) were compared. Applications were performed with a conventional air-assisted sprayer, with a spray volume of around 3000lha -1 in a Navel orange orchard. Brilliant Sulfoflavine (BSF) was used as a tracer. Results showed that only around 46% of the applied spray was deposited on the target trees and around 4% of the spray was deposited on adjacent trees from adjoining rows independently of the nozzle type. Applications with standard nozzles produced more potential airborne spray drift (23%) than those with the drift reducing nozzles (17%) but fewer direct losses to the ground (22% vs. 27%). Indirect losses (sedimenting spray drift) to the ground of adjacent paths were around 7-9% in both cases. The important data set of spray distribution in the different compartments around sprayed orchard (air, ground, vegetation) generated in this work is highly useful as input source of exposure to take into account for the risk assessment in Mediterranean citrus scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spray Deposition and Drift Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Aerial Application at Different Application Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  17. Characterization of spray deposition and drift from a low drift nozzle for aerial application at different application altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  18. Application of an antibacterial dressing spray in the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... with a long-acting anti-microbial material. ... of JUC is sprayed on skin surface or mucosal area, it immediately solidifies ... Grade 2 healing indicated wound with the reactions ..... depletion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes associated with Fas li- ... Isolation of opportunistic pathogens in dental plaque, saliva.

  19. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... This study provides information on the incidence of major insect pests of cowpea as well as the minimum insecticide control intervention necessary for effectively reducing cowpea yield losses on the field. Two insecticide spray regimes (once at flowering and podding) significantly reduced insect population ...

  20. Application of the FIRST Combustion model to Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid fuel is of interest to apply to gas turbines. The large advantage is that liquids are easily storable as compared to gaseous fuels. Disadvantage is that liquid fuel has to be sprayed, vaporized and mixed with air. Combustion occurs at some stage of mixing and ignition. Depending on the

  1. Optimization of the spray application technology in bay laurel (Laurus nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyttens, D; Braekman, P; Foque, D

    2009-01-01

    Bay laurel is an evergreen, commercially grown and expensive ornamental pot plant, which is susceptible to different pests like aphids, scale and lerp insects, thrips, caterpillars of codling moth and sooty moulds. Recently, caterpillars of the Mediterranean carnation leafroller (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) cause more and more problems. These pests can lead to important financial losses for the growers. During summer the individual pot plants are placed on a field-container in a fairly dense configuration. Crop protection is traditionally done by moving with a spray lance between the rows of pot plants and treating each individual plant from bottom to top. Good penetration is clearly an important advantages of this spray technique but it is very time-consuming, unhealthy and laborious. Some other growers use a 'spray platform' on a high-clearance tractor. Plants sprayed from this platform are exclusively approached from above resulting in an inferior spray deposition on the lower parts of the plants. To overcome the disadvantages of both available techniques, the potential of an automated tunnel sprayer was investigated. Five different nozzle types were evaluated under laboratory conditions i.e. hollow cone, standard flat fan, air inclusion flat fan, deflector flat fan and twin air inclusion flat fan at spray pressures varying from 3.0 to 7.0 bar depending on the type of nozzle. For each nozzle type, three nozzle sizes were included in the experiments which resulted in 15 different spray application techniques. All experiments were done at a speed of 2.5 km x h(-1). This resulted in three different application volumes: 2450, 4900 and 7300 l x ha(-1). After optimizing the nozzle configuration (distance and orientation) using water-sensitive paper, deposition tests with five different mineral chelates as tracer elements were performed. Filter papers were used as collectors at 20 different positions to measure spray deposition, distribution and penetration in the canopy

  2. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, Melissa A; Luck, Joe D; Sama, Michael P

    2015-12-17

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  3. Internal Diameter HVAF Spraying for Wear and Corrosion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyphout, C.; Björklund, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electrolytic hard chrome (EHC) methods are still widely utilized in the printing, automotive and off-shore industries. Alternative methods to EHC have been widely developed in the past decade by conventional HVOF processes and more recently HVAF systems, which are processing at higher kinetic energy and more particularly at lower temperature, significantly increasing wear and corrosion resistance properties. A dedicated internal diameter HVAF system is here presented, and coatings characteristics are compared to the one obtained by standard HVAF coatings. Specially R&D designed fixtures with inside bore of 200 mm have been manufactured for this purpose, with a possibility to spray samples at increasing depth up to 400 mm while simulating closed bottom bore spraying. WC-based and Cr3C2-based powder feedstock materials have been deposited onto high-strength steel substrates. Respective coating microstructures, thermally induced stresses and corrosion resistance are discussed for further optimization of coating performances. The fact that the ID-HVAF system is utilized both for spraying and gritblasting procedures is also given a particular interest.

  4. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    . None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0.......01 to 0.2 mg kg−1 for pyraclostrobin, the pesticide with the lowest variation. Residues of fenoxycarb and indoxacarb were only found in a few apples, probably due to the early application time of these two compounds. The evaluation of the effect of spray quality did not show any major difference between......In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...

  5. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  6. Effect of the spray application technique on the deposition of entomopathogenic nematodes in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselman, Eva; Beck, Bert; Pollet, Sabien; Temmerman, Femke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Nuyttens, David

    2012-03-01

    The present study compared entomopathogenic nematode delivery at the base of savoy cabbage and cauliflower, at the lower side of savoy cabbage and cauliflower leaves and in leek stems and the ground deposition using a five-nozzle spray boom equipped with an ISO 08 flat fan, an air induction flat fan and Twinjet spray nozzles. Additionally, an air support system and a row application system were evaluated. Approximately 40% of the applied nematodes did not reach the foot of the cabbage plants. The use of an air support system or a row application system improved nematode deposition at the savoy cabbage base. Relative nematode deposition on the lower side of savoy cabbage leaves was 27.20%, while only 2.64% of the applied nematodes reached the lower side of cauliflower leaves. After spraying leek with a standard boom, a low relative nematode deposition (26.64%) was measured in the leek stem. Nozzle type affected the distribution of nematodes in droplet spots. Nozzle type has a minor effect on the number of entomopathogenic nematodes delivered on difficult-to-reach targets. The use of modified spray application techniques directing the spray to the target site are necessary to increase the chances of contact of entomopathogenic nematodes with their target. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. In-Swath Spray Deposition Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Low Volume Aerial Application - Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP flat-fan nozzles with selectable tips were evaluated for droplet spectra and coverage using water sensitive papers placed in the spray swath. This study used low application volumes (1, 2, and 3 GPA) at a certain spray application height as measured precisely by laser mounted in the aircraft. No...

  8. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  9. Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (LSCF) Using Suspension Plasma Spraying for Oxygen Transport Membrane Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, E. S. C.; Kesler, O.

    2015-08-01

    Suspension plasma spray deposition was utilized to fabricate dense lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen separation membranes (OSMs) on porous metal substrates for mechanical support. The as-sprayed membranes had negligible and/or reversible material decomposition. At the longer stand-off distance (80 mm), smooth and dense membranes could be manufactured using a plasma with power below approximately 81 kW. Moreover, a membrane of 55 μm was observed to have very low gas leakage rates desirable for OSM applications. This thickness could potentially be decreased further to improve oxygen diffusion by using metal substrates with finer surface pores.

  10. Industrial application of model predictive control to a milk powder spray drying plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results from an industrial application of model predictive control (MPC) with real-time steady-state target optimization (RTO) for control of an industrial spray dryer that produces enriched milk powder. The MPC algorithm is based on a continuous-time transfer...... provides significantly better control of the residual moisture content, increases the throughput and decreases the energy consumption compared to conventional PI-control. The MPC operates the spray dryer closer to the residual moisture constraint of the powder product. Thus, the same amount of feed...

  11. Computational homogenisation for thermoviscoplasticity: application to thermally sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Rolf; Denzer, Ralf; Oppermann, Philip; Menzel, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Metal forming processes require wear-resistant tool surfaces in order to ensure a long life cycle of the expensive tools together with a constant high quality of the produced components. Thermal spraying is a relatively widely applied coating technique for the deposit of wear protection coatings. During these coating processes, heterogeneous coatings are deployed at high temperatures followed by quenching where residual stresses occur which strongly influence the performance of the coated tools. The objective of this article is to discuss and apply a thermo-mechanically coupled simulation framework which captures the heterogeneity of the deposited coating material. Therefore, a two-scale finite element framework for the solution of nonlinear thermo-mechanically coupled problems is elaborated and applied to the simulation of thermoviscoplastic material behaviour including nonlinear thermal softening in a geometrically linearised setting. The finite element framework and material model is demonstrated by means of numerical examples.

  12. Applicability of fan spray nozzles to stripping insoluble gases from viscous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, H.H.; Johnson, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    Fan spray nozzle stripping appears to be a practical technique for separating dilute volatile solutes from nonvolatile solvents. In particular this technique can be used to strip molecular tritium and tritium fluoride at extremely small concentration (in the parts per million range) from molten salts used as blanket materials in a fusion reactor. Under adjusted operating conditions of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle, a high percentage of the theoretically maximum achievable stripping would take place from the expanding sheet of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle and before it breaks up. Although the only available experimental data are for aqueous solutions, a new theoretical analysis of the fan spray sheet demonstrates the applicability of this technique to nonaqueous liquids. The equation derived from this analysis relates the theoretically achievable mass transfer efficiency to the properties of the liquid flowing through the fan spray nozzle and to the operating conditions of the nozzle. Any fluid with viscosity higher than or equal to that of water would be expected to follow this equation as long as a fan-shaped sheet is formed under the operating conditions of the nozzle

  13. Thermal Spray Applications in Electronics and Sensors: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Thermal spray has enjoyed unprecedented growth and has emerged as an innovative and multifaceted deposition technology. Thermal spray coatings are crucial to the enhanced utilization of various engineering systems. Industries, in recognition of thermal spray's versatility and economics, have introduced it into manufacturing environments. The majority of modern thermal spray applications are "passive" protective coatings, and they rarely perform an electronic function. The ability to consolidate dissimilar material multilayers without substrate thermal loading has long been considered a virtue for thick-film electronics. However, the complexity of understanding/controlling materials functions especially those resulting from rapid solidification and layered assemblage has stymied expansion into electronics. That situation is changing: enhancements in process/material science are allowing reconsideration for novel electronic/sensor devices. This review critically examines past efforts in terms of materials functionality from a device perspective, along with ongoing/future concepts addressing the aforementioned deficiencies. The analysis points to intriguing future possibilities for thermal spray technology in the world of thick-film sensors.

  14. Application of thermal spray coatings for jet engines. Kokuki sangyo eno yosha no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Y [All Nippon Airways Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-10-31

    Application condition of spray coating on jet engine parts and characteristics of spray reparing process are explained. Spray coating used for jet engine is classified as recovery of dimension, crevice adjustment, improvement of resistance to friction, improvement of fretting resistance and heat resistance. Titanium alloy having better adhesion and acid resistance, is used as coating for dimensional recovery, where as nickel-crome-aluminium coating is used for the improvement of heat resistance of stainless steel, etc. Crevice adjustment coatings are used in rotating parts of jet engines, and they are of two types are; gel-double coating of aluminium, nickel-aluminium, etc., abrasive coating of aluminium oxide. Tungsten carbide and cobalt are used as coatings for the friction improvement. Nickel and indium, etc., are used as fretting resistance coating. Various types of ceramics together with heat resistance steels like HS-188 are used as coating for heat resistance improvement. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  16. Thin Spray-on Liner - a potential application. Demonstrated at a longwall installation on Dendrobium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Roger [BHP Billiton, NSW (Australia). Dendrobium Mine; Martin, Philip [BASF AG Australia (Australia). BASF-CC Australia Ltd' s

    2008-08-21

    The paper describes a potential application of a Thin Spray-on Liner, on a longwall installation in Australia. The BHPBilliton mine, Dendrobium, is a relatively new mine in the Southern New South Wales coalfields, near to Wollongong. Normal installation and start-up operations for a new longwall face is to completely rock bolt and mesh the face. The operations use plastic/glassfibre cutable rock bolts, with steel/plastic mesh to prevent spalling. The biggest problem on face start up is the sheets of steel or plastic mesh getting wrapped around the shearer disc, which requires time consuming additional work removing the mesh. BASF Construction Chemicals Australia Pty Ltd's Underground Construction group, (UGC), proposed the use of Masterseal 845A, a fast sprayable cementitious/polymer membrane material that could be trialed and used to replace the steel mesh, as a surface support in unison with the conventional cutable rock bolts. The application took 12 h spraying to cover the 240 m long face line which averaged about 3.3 m high. The product was sprayed between 3.5 m to 4 mm thick, and according to the mine operators was at least three times quicker than mesh installation, not withstanding the savings in transport of the awkward bundles of mesh. In conclusion the Thin Spray-on Liner (TSL) performed adequately and achieved it's objective in this installation at Dendrobium mine. (orig.)

  17. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  18. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    Thermal spray cermet and metallic coatings are extensively used for wear, abrasion and corrosion control in a variety of industries. The first part of the thesis focuses mainly on testing of sand erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings on carbon composites used in the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades. The test set-up employed is a sand blasting machine and is an effort to duplicate the in-flight conditions especially those encountered in hot arid conditions. The technique adopted follows the Department of Defence test method standard. Carbon Composites have excellent stiffness, strength and low weight/density. The strength to weight ratio is high. Hence, these are used in aerospace applications to a large extent. However, the biggest problem encountered with carbon composites is its low abrasion resistance as its surface is very weak. Hence, thermal spray coatings are used to improve the surface properties of CFRP. Zinc bond coats and WC-Co coatings were tested. However, high amount of thermal stresses were developed between the substrate and the coating due to large differences in the CTE's of the both, leading to high mass losses within two minutes and just 130 grams of sand sprayed on to the coatings with the sand blasting machine built; and hence the coatings with CC as a substrate could not qualify for the application. The second part of the thesis focuses on the assessment of different thermal spray coatings used for manufacture of mechanical seals in pumps and analyze the best coating material for the wear resistance application through detail quantification of material loss by block-on-ring test set-up. A machine based on Block-on-ring test set-up following ASTM G77 (Measurement of Adhesive wear resistance of thermal spray coatings) standards was built to duplicate the pump conditions. Thermally sprayed coated materials were tested in different conditions (Load, time, abrasive). WC-Co had the highest wear resistance (lower volume losses) and

  19. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  20. Microstructure and properties of thermally sprayed Al-Sn-based alloys for plain bearing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, T.; Driver, L. C.; Harris, S. J.; McCartney, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    Al-Sn plain bearings for automotive applications traditionally comprise a multilayer structure. Conventionally, bearing manufacturing involves casting the Al-Sn alloy and roll-bonding to a steel backing strip. Recently, high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spraying has been used as a novel alternative manufacturing route. The present project extends previous work on ternary Al-Sn-Cu alloys to quaternary systems, which contain specific additions for potentially enhanced properties. Two alloys were studied in detail, namely, Al-20wt.%Sn-1wt.%Cu-2wt.%Ni and Al-20wt.%Sn-1wt.%Cu-7wt.%Si. This article will describe the microstructural evolution of these alloys following HVOF spraying onto steel substrates and subsequent heat treatment. The microstructures of powders and coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and the phases were identified by x-ray diffraction. Coating microhardnesses were determined under both as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions, and by the differences related to the microstructures that developed. Finally, the wear behavior of the sprayed and heat-treated coatings in hot engine oil was measured using an industry standard test and was compared with that of previous work on a ternary alloy.

  1. Validation of the AGDISP model for predicting airborne atrazine spray drift: a South African ground application case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nsibande, SA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Air dispersion software models for evaluating pesticide spray drift during application have been developed that can potentially serve as a cheaper convenient alternative to field monitoring campaigns. Such models require validation against field...

  2. Process development for synthesis and plasma spray deposition of LaPO4 and YPO4 for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, Y.; Sreekumar, K.P.; Jayakumar, S.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Das, A.K.; Gantayet, L.M.; Krishnan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Rare earth phosphates are geologically very stable and considered as potential matrix material for nuclear waste disposal and also for many high temperature thermal barrier and corrosion barrier applications involving molten metals. This paper focuses on developmental studies related to synthesis, thermal stability and plasma spray deposition of LaPO 4 and YPO 4 . The rare earth phosphates were synthesized by chemical method from their respective oxide materials using ortho phosphoric acid. The as-precipitated powders were converted to thermal spray grade powder by compaction, sintering and crushing. Thermal stability of these phosphates up to their melting point was determined by arc plasma melting, followed by X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that LaPO 4 and YPO 4 melt congruently without decomposition. Plasma spray deposition was carried out using the in-house 40 kW atmospheric plasma spray system. Adherent coatings could be deposited on various substrates by optimizing the plasma spray parameters. (author)

  3. Center for the Polyurethanes Industry summary of unpublished industrial hygiene studies related to the evaluation of emissions of spray polyurethane foam insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard D

    2017-09-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight-year period from 2007-2014. These studies address emissions from medium density closed cell and low density open cell formulations. This article summarizes the results of personal and area air samples collected during application and post application of SPF to interior building surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. Chemicals of interest included: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), flame retardants, amine catalysts, blowing agents, and aldehydes. Overall, the results indicate that SPF applicators and workers in close proximity to the application are potentially exposed to MDI in excess of recommended and governmental occupational exposure limits and should use personal protective equipment (PPE) consisting of air supplied respirators and full-body protective clothing to reduce exposure. Catalyst emissions can be reduced by using reactive catalysts in SPF formulations, and mechanical ventilation is important in controlling emissions during and after application.

  4. Failure Analysis of Multilayered Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Rocchio-Heller, R.; Liu, J.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-02-01

    Improvement in the performance of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the key objectives for further development of gas turbine applications. The material most commonly used as TBC topcoat is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). However, the usage of YSZ is limited by the operating temperature range which in turn restricts the engine efficiency. Materials such as pyrochlores, perovskites, rare earth garnets are suitable candidates which could replace YSZ as they exhibit lower thermal conductivity and higher phase stability at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work was to investigate different multilayered TBCs consisting of advanced topcoat materials fabricated by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The investigated topcoat materials were YSZ, dysprosia-stabilized zirconia, gadolinium zirconate, and ceria-yttria-stabilized zirconia. All topcoats were deposited by TriplexPro-210TM plasma spray gun and radial injection of suspension. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue and thermal shock testing. Microstructure analysis of as-sprayed and failed specimens was performed with scanning electron microscope. The failure mechanisms in each case have been discussed in this article. The results show that SPS could be a promising route to produce multilayered TBCs for high-temperature applications.

  5. A new device for vein localization and effect of application of disinfectant spray on its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A functional device was developed to immediately show the localization of veins by detecting a temperature increase on the skin directly above them. Our new idea, compared to other developments, is the comparison of temperatures between a small, ideally punctiform, skin area, and a larger circularly surrounding area. This is realized by two infrared temperature sensors, one with a small field of view, and the other one with a larger field of view. The position of the vein is indicated by two laser modules, which beams cross in one spot, when the device is held in a defined distance to the skin. If the device is held over a vein, the laser spot lightens up. The device was tested in ten study participants. Cooling of the skin by disinfectant spray prior to the measurements increases the temperature gradient and thereby improves the efficiency of the device. Temperature profiles of four skin areas of each study participant were measured before and one minute after application of disinfectant spray. After application of disinfectant spray, a temperature difference of more than 0.3 K between a measuring point above a vein and points 15 mm next to this could be found in 36 out of 40 measurements (90%, compared to 26 out of 40 (65% before disinfection. The mean temperature gradient could be increased from 0.476 K to 1.03 K (p < 0.001.

  6. Application of wear resistant spraying for diesel engine; Diesel kikan eno taimamo yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuliding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-31

    Diesel engines used widely as propelling engines of ships have increasingly been provided with a high output and a high thermal efficiency; their structural members, particularly, the component parts for combustion chambers are therefore used under severe conditions, giving rise to the need of surface treatment and surface reforming of the members. Parts for marine diesel engines are huge, so that the technology applicable to the surface treatment and reforming are limited in point of facility and cost; therefore, most suitable is thermal spraying. This paper primarily discusses, among marine diesel engines, a 2-cycle low-speed engine with a 260-980mm bore used for the main engine of a merchant ship such as a container ship, bulk carrier or a tanker, and a 4-cycle medium-speed engine with a 300-420mm bore used for the main engine of a naval vessel; the paper explains the application status of a thermal spraying technology which is in progress to cope with the high output and high thermal efficiency of the diesel engines, explaining particularly the story of the development and the technological features of the wear resistant thermal spraying, which has been put to practical use, on the cylinder liner and the piston ring of the 4-cycle medium-speed engine. (NEDO)

  7. Spray drying of silica microparticles for sustained release application with a new sol-gel precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bifeng; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-10-30

    A new precursor, tetrakis(2-methoxyethyl) orthosilicate (TMEOS) was used to fabricate microparticles for sustained release application, specifically for biopharmaceuticals, by spray drying. The advantages of TMEOS over the currently applied precursors are its water solubility and hydrolysis at moderate pH without the need of organic solvents or catalyzers. Thus a detrimental effect on biomolecular drug is avoided. By generating spray-dried silica particles encapsulating the high molecular weight model compound FITC-dextran 150 via the nano spray dryer Büchi-90, we demonstrated how formulation parameters affect and enable control of drug release properties. The implemented strategies to regulate release included incorporating different quantities of dextrans with varying molecular weight as well as adjusting the pH of the precursor solution to modify the internal microstructures. The addition of dextran significantly altered the released amount, while the release became faster with increasing dextran molecular weight. A sustained release over 35days could be achieved with addition of 60 kD dextran. The rate of FITC-Dextran 150 release from the dextran 60 containing particles decreased with higher precursor solution pH. In conclusion, the new precursor TMEOS presents a promising alternative sol-gel technology based carrier material for sustained release application of high molecular weight biopharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of spray application methods for navel orangeworm control in almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, James C; Niederholzer, Franz Ja; Zalom, Frank G

    2016-12-01

    Gear Up/Throttle Down (GUTD) and Inward Only strategies represent potential alternatives to conventional airblast applications to reduce spray drift. This study evaluates Inward Only and a modified version of GUTD in almonds, the largest US tree crop, at the recommended hull split treatment timing for control of navel orangeworm (NOW), the key almond insect pest. Conventional treatment produced the most drift (15.6% of total bifenthrin load), while the GUTD and Inward Only treatments produced only 7.6 and 9.7% respectively. For all methods, 92-94% of the drift was found in the first 15.2 m downwind of the orchard. NOW control was lower for the Inward Only treatment compared with the GUTD and conventional treatments. NOW control was consistently lower at 4.88 m height relative to 2.44 m in all treatments, reflecting the reduced deposition higher in the tree canopy recorded in deposition samples. While Inward Only treatments reduced spray drift relative to the conventional application method, poorer control of NOW, the key insect pest of almonds, in the Inward Only treatment would likely limit its voluntary use by growers. However, GUTD holds promise for use at the hull split treatment timing to address spray drift. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Suspension Flame Spray Construction of Polyimide-Copper Layers for Marine Antifouling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiaomin; Suo, Xinkun; Gong, Yongfeng; Li, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Individual capsule-like polyimide splats have been fabricated by suspension flame spray, and the polyimide splat exhibits hollow structure with an inner pore and a tiny hole on its top surface. Enwrapping of 200-1000-nm copper particles inside the splats is accomplished during the deposition for constrained release of copper for antifouling performances. Antifouling testing of the coatings by 24-h exposure to Escherichia coli-containing artificial seawater shows that the Cu-doped splat already prohibits effectively attachment of the bacteria. The prohibited adhesion of bacteria obviously impedes formation and further development of bacterial biofilm. This capsulated splat with releasing and loading of copper biocides results in dual-functional structures bearing both release-killing and contact-killing mechanisms. The suspension flame spray route and the encapsulated structure of the polyimide-Cu coatings would open a new window for designing and constructing marine antifouling layers for long-term applications.

  10. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H 2 gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m 2

  11. Improving the biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against Mamestra brassicae: effect of spray application technique, adjuvants and an attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Brusselman, Eva; Nuyttens, David; Moens, Maurice; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), is a potential biological control agent for the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae L.). This research aimed to identify a suitable spray application technique, and to determine whether yeast extract added to an EPN spray has an attracting and/or a feeding stimulant effect on M. brassicae. The biological control capabilities of EPN against this pest were examined in the field. Good coverage of the underside of cauliflower leaves, the habitat of young instar larvae (L1-L4) of M. brassicae was obtained using different spray boom configurations with vertical extensions that carried underleaf spraying nozzles. One of the configurations was selected for field testing with an EPN spray. Brewer's yeast extract stimulated larval feeding on leaves, and increased the mortality of these larvae when exposed to EPN. The field trial showed that a spray application with S. carpocapsae, Addit and xanthan gum can effectively lower the numbers of cabbage heads damaged by M. brassicae. Brewer's yeast extract did not significantly increase this field performance of EPN. Steinernema carpocapsae, applied with an appropriate spray technique, can be used within biological control schemes as part of a resistance management programme for Bt. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Poly-urea spray elastomer for waste containment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.J.; Cheng, S.C.J.; Tanis, R.

    1997-01-01

    Geomembrane usage in environmental applications has increased dramatically following the promulgation of federal regulations resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Subtitle D rules, formulated under the authority of RCRA, call for minimum performance standards to limit adverse effects of a solid waste disposal facility on human health or the environment (40 CFR 257,258, August 30, 1988). These rules set minimum standards requiring new landfill designs to include liner systems and final cover systems. Each state has the responsibility to develop rules that are at least as stringent as the Subtitle D rules. There are several types of geomembranes currently available for landfill applications, each offering particular advantages and disadvantages. For example, PVC does not show the yield point (point of instability) that HDPE shows, HDPE has a higher puncture resistance than PVC, and PVC will deform much more than HDPE before barrier properties of the geomembrane are lost. Because each geomembrane material exhibits its own particular characteristics the material selected should be chosen based on the individual project requirements. It is preferable to select a design that uses the least expensive material and meets the performance specifications of the project

  13. Spray cooling heat transfer: Technology overview and assessment of future challenges for micro-gravity application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Eric A.; Golliher, Eric L.; Paneer Selvam, R.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced on-board flight systems for future NASA space exploration programs consist of components such as laser-diode arrays (LDA's) and multi-chip modules (MCM's). Thermal management of these systems require high heat flux cooling capability (≥100 W/cm 2 ), tight temperature control (approx. ±2 deg. C), reliable start-up (on demand) and long term stability. Traditional multiphase thermal control technologies for space flight (e.g., loop heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, etc.) satisfy the temperature control, start-up and stability requirements, but their heat flux removal capabilities are limited. Spray cooling can provide high heat fluxes in excess of 100 W/cm 2 using fluorinerts and over 1000 W/cm 2 with water while allowing tight temperature control at low coolant fluid flow rates. Spray cooling has been flight proven in an open loop configuration through the Space shuttle's flash evaporator system (FES). However, several closed system issues require investigation to further advance the technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) appropriate for closed system space flight application. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of spray cooling technology as well as NASA's goals, current direction, and challenges associated with the implementation and practice of this technology in the micro-gravity environment

  14. Application of cyclodextrins in antibody microparticles: potentials for antibody protection in spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Vahid; Vatanara, Alireza; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Nabi Meibodi, Mohsen; Fanaei, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    Dry powder formulations are extensively used to improve the stability of antibodies. Spray drying is one of important methods for protein drying. This study investigated the effects of trehalose, hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and beta cyclodextrin (BCD) on the stability and particle properties of spray-dried IgG. D-optimal design was employed for both experimental design and analysis and optimization of the variables. The size and aerodynamic behavior of particles were determined using laser light scattering and glass twin impinger, respectively. In addition, stability, ratio of beta sheets and morphology of antibody were analyzed using size exclusion chromatography, IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy, respectively. Particle properties and antibody stability were significantly improved in the presence of HPBCD. In addition, particle aerodynamic behavior, in terms of fine-particle fraction (FPF), enhanced up to 52.23%. Furthermore, antibody was better preserved not only during spray drying, but also during long-term storage. In contrast, application of BCD resulted in the formation of larger particles. Although trehalose caused inappropriate aerodynamic property, it efficiently decreased antibody aggregation. HPBCD is an efficient excipient for the development of inhalable protein formulations. In this regard, optimal particle property and antibody stability was obtained with proper combination of cyclodextrins and simple sugars, such as trehalose.

  15. Factors affecting the development of sprays produced by multihole injectors for direct-injection engine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Romunde, R. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The spray form development from a state of the art multi-hole injector for gasoline direct injection internal combustion engines is examined to attempt to determine the thermo-fluid dynamics affecting the spray development. The current state of knowledge regarding spray break-up and the interactivity of the factors on spray form are detailed. The spray under investigation was injected into purposely designed quiescent chambers to decouple the effects of the fluid mechanics on s...

  16. Directed-spray application of paraquat and diuron in physic nut plants

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,N.V.; Neunfeld,T.H.; Ohland,T.; Piano,J.T.; Klein,J.

    2013-01-01

    There is little information about the selectivity of herbicides in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of different doses and mixtures of paraquat and diuron in direted-spray applications in physic nut plants in greenhouse conditions. The study used a randomized block design, with five replicates. The treatments were: paraquat (200 and 600 g ha-1), diuron (1,000 and 2,000 g ha-1), paraquat + diuron (200 + 1,000 g ha-1), paraquat + di...

  17. Fungicides efficiency on wheat diseases control in response to the application with different spray nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides to leaf control diseases of wheat, when applied to different models of spray nozzles. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of factorial (4 x 3+1. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungicides used were: Opera® (pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole 0.75 L.ha-1 , Opera® 0.75 L.ha-1 +Folicur® (tebuconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® (azoxystrobin+cyproconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® 0.3 L.ha-1 +Tilt® (propiconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 . These fungicides were applied with three models of spray nozzles jet planes: XR 11 001 (fine drop, AIRMIX 11,001 (average drop and AVI 11,001 (coarse drop. We evaluated the incidence and severity (damage per plant leaf of yellow spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis, spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana, leaf rust (Puccinia triticina and grain yield (kg.ha-1 culture. The results show that the application of fungicides for control of leaf diseases in wheat resulted in increases in grain yield, and yield higher values were observed with the application of Opera®, using the XR 11001.

  18. Application of High Performance Computing for Simulations of N-Dodecane Jet Spray with Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    is unlimited. 10 6. References 1. Malbec L-M, Egúsquiza J, Bruneaux G, Meijer M. Characterization of a set of ECN spray A injectors : nozzle to...sprays and develop a predictive theory for comparison to measurements in the laboratory of turbulent diesel sprays. 15. SUBJECT TERMS high...models into future simulations of turbulent jet sprays and develop a predictive theory for comparison to measurements in the lab of turbulent diesel

  19. Field evaluation of a self-propelled sprayer and effects of the application rate on spray deposition and losses to the ground in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hermosilla, Julián; Rincón, Víctor J; Páez, Francisco; Agüera, Francisco; Carvajal, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    In the greenhouses of south-eastern Spain, plant protection products are applied using mainly sprayers at high pressures and high volumes. This results in major losses on the ground and less than uniform spray deposition on the canopy. Recently, self-propelled vehicles equipped with vertical spray booms have appeared on the market. In this study, deposition on the canopy and the losses to the ground at different spray volumes have been compared, using a self-propelled vehicle with vertical spray booms versus a gun sprayer. Three different spray volumes have been tested with a boom sprayer, and two with a spray gun. The vehicle with the vertical spray boom gave similar depositions to those made with the gun, but at lower application volumes. Also, the distribution of the vertical spray boom was more uniform, with lower losses to the ground. The vertical spray booms used in tomato crops improve the application of plant protection products with respect to the spray gun, reducing the application volumes and the environmental risks of soil pollution. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Thermal conductivity of spray-on foam insulations for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Matt; Vanderlaan, Mark; Van Sciver, Steven

    2012-06-01

    A guarded-hot-plate apparatus [1] has been developed to measure the thermal conductivity of spray-on foam insulations (SOFI) at temperatures ranging from 30 K to 300 K. The foam tested in the present study is NCFI 24-124, a polyisocyanurate foam used on the External Tanks of the Space Shuttle. The foam was tested first in ambient pressure air, then evacuated and tested once more. These thermal conductivities were compared to the thermal conductivity taken from a sample immediately after being subjected to conditions similar to those experienced by the foam while on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center. To mimic the conditions experienced on the launch pad, an apparatus was built to enclose one side of the foam sample in a warm, humid environment while the other side of the sample contacts a stainless steel surface held at 77 K. The thermal conductivity data obtained is also compared to data found in the literature.

  1. Thermal-fluid assessment of multijet atomization for spray cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panao, Miguel R.O.; Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Durao, Diamantino F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal management is a particularly difficult challenge to the miniaturization of electronic components because it requires high performance cooling systems capable of removing large heat loads at fast rates in order to keep the operating temperature low and controlled. To meet this challenge, the Intermittent Spray Cooling (ISC) concept has been suggested as a promising technology which uses a proper match between the frequency and duration of consecutive injection cycles to control heat transfer. This concept also depends on: the atomization strategy; a homogeneous dispersion of droplets impinging on the hot surface; and the quantitative control of the liquid deposited, avoiding excessive secondary atomization or pre-impingement-evaporation. In this work, the use of liquid atomization by multiple jets impact, also referred as multijet atomization, is the subject of a thermal-fluid assessment using heat transfer correlations previously derived for intermittent sprays. Simultaneous measurements of droplet size and velocity are provided as input for the correlations and the analysis explores the influence of the number of impinging jets on the heat removal pattern and magnitude. Emphasis is put on the promising applicability of multijet atomization for promoting an intelligent use of energy in the thermal management of electronic devices.

  2. Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin CHEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Oyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Our pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spray drying process optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.

  3. Analysis of several Boolean operation based trajectory generation strategies for automotive spray applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guoyou; Jiang, Chunsheng; Chen, Tao; Hui, Chun

    2018-05-01

    Industrial robots are widely used in various processes of surface manufacturing, such as thermal spraying. The established robot programming methods are highly time-consuming and not accurate enough to fulfil the demands of the actual market. There are many off-line programming methods developed to reduce the robot programming effort. This work introduces the principle of several based robot trajectory generation strategy on planar surface and curved surface. Since the off-line programming software is widely used and thus facilitates the robot programming efforts and improves the accuracy of robot trajectory, the analysis of this work is based on the second development of off-line programming software Robot studio™. To meet the requirements of automotive paint industry, this kind of software extension helps provide special functions according to the users defined operation parameters. The presented planning strategy generates the robot trajectory by moving an orthogonal surface according to the information of coating surface, a series of intersection curves are then employed to generate the trajectory points. The simulation results show that the path curve created with this method is successive and smooth, which corresponds to the requirements of automotive spray industrial applications.

  4. Cold sprayed WO3 and TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water and methanol oxidation in renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Christoph; Schneider, Jenny; Fleisch, Manuel; Gutzmann, Henning; Klassen, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2017-10-03

    Films prepared by cold spray have potential applications as photoanodes in electrochemical water splitting and waste water purification. In the present study cold sprayed photoelectrodes produced with WO 3 (active under visible light illumination) and TiO 2 (active under UV illumination) on titanium metal substrates were investigated as photoanodes for the oxidation of water and methanol, respectively. Methanol was chosen as organic model pollutant in acidic electrolytes. Main advantages of the cold sprayed photoelectrodes are the improved metal-semiconductor junctions and the superior mechanical stability. Additionally, the cold spray method can be utilized as a large-scale electrode fabrication technique for photoelectrochemical applications. Incident photon to current efficiencies reveal that cold sprayed TiO 2 /WO 3 photoanodes exhibit the best photoelectrochemical properties with regard to the water and methanol oxidation reactions in comparison with the benchmark photocatalyst Aeroxide TiO 2 P25 due to more efficient harvesting of the total solar light irradiation related to their smaller band gap energies.

  5. Application of persulfate-oxidation foam spraying as a bioremediation pretreatment for diesel oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajagain, Rishikesh; Lee, Sojin; Jeong, Seung-Woo

    2018-05-15

    This study investigated a persulfate-bioaugmentation serial foam spraying technique to remove total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) present in diesel-contaminated unsaturated soil. Feeding of remedial agents by foam spraying increased the infiltration/unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of reagents into the unsaturated soil. Persulfate mixed with a surfactant solution infiltrated the soil faster than peroxide, resulting in relatively even soil moisture content. Persulfate had a higher soil infiltration tendency, which would facilitate its distribution over a wide soil area, thereby enhancing subsequent biodegradation efficiency. Nearly 80% of soil-TPHs were degraded by combined persulfate-bioaugmentation foam spraying, while bioaugmentation foam spraying alone removed 52%. TPH fraction analysis revealed that the removal rate for the biodegradation recalcitrant fraction (C 18 to C 22 ) in deeper soil regions was higher for persulfate-bioaugmentation serial foam application than for peroxide-bioaugmentation foam application. Persulfate-foam spraying may be superior to peroxide for TPH removal even at a low concentration (50 mN) because persulfate-foam is more permeable, persistent, and does not change soil pH in the subsurface. Although the number of soil microbes declines by oxidation pretreatment, bioaugmentation-foam alters the microbial population exponentially. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of directed-spray glyphosate applications on survival and growth of planted oaks after three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Josh L. Moree; Rory O. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of acres of oak (Quercus spp.) plantations are established across the South annually. Survival and growth of these plantings have been less than desirable. Several techniques have been utilized in attempts to achieve improved success in these areas. One such technique that has been recommended is the application of directed-spray herbicide...

  7. Positioning system of a torch used in thermal spray coatings applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Absalón Torres-Barahona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, construction and performance evaluation of a positioning system used for the deposition of coatings with molten particles, by using a torch CastoDyn Ds 8000 thermal spray with oxyacetylene combustion. The design has been done with parameters obtained in the laboratory of materials of the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, and the information determined from the evaluation of the device, allows to control the main process variables as the projection distance, flow powder, torch speed and rotation speed of the sample holder; this has been seen in coatings made in application tests zirconia / nickel on a carbon steel substrate and analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM.

  8. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  9. An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J H; Tunnell, J W; Pikkula, B M; Anvari, B

    2001-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is a method used to protect the epidermis from non-specific thermal injury that may occur as a result of various dermatological laser procedures. However, better understanding of cryogen deposition and skin thermal response to CSC is needed to optimize the technique. Temperature measurements and video imaging were carried out on an epoxy phantom as well as human skin during CSC with and without simultaneous application of airflow which was intended to accelerate cryogen evaporation from the substrate surface. An inverse thermal conduction model was used to estimate heat flux and total heat removed. Lifetime of the cryogen film deposited on the surface of skin and epoxy phantom lasted several hundred milliseconds beyond the spurt, but could be reduced to the spurt duration by application of airflow. Values over 100 J/cm(3) were estimated for volumetric heat removed from the epidermis using CSC. "Film cooling" instead of "evaporative cooling" appears to be the dominant mode of CSC on skin. Estimated values of heat removed from the epidermis suggest that a cryogen spurt as long as 200 milliseconds is required to counteract heat generated by high laser fluences (e.g., in treatment of port wine stains) in patients with high concentration of epidermal melanin. Additional cooling beyond spurt termination can be avoided by simultaneous application of airflow, although it is unclear at the moment if avoiding the additional cooling would be beneficial in the actual clinical situation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Applications in the Nuclear Industry for Thermal Spray Amorphous Metal and Ceramic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blink, J.; Farmer, J.; Choi, J.; Saw, C.

    2009-06-01

    Amorphous metal and ceramic thermal spray coatings have been developed with excellent corrosion resistance and neutron absorption. These coatings, with further development, could be cost-effective options to enhance the corrosion resistance of drip shields and waste packages, and limit nuclear criticality in canisters for the transportation, aging, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Iron-based amorphous metal formulations with chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten have shown the corrosion resistance believed to be necessary for such applications. Rare earth additions enable very low critical cooling rates to be achieved. The boron content of these materials and their stability at high neutron doses enable them to serve as high efficiency neutron absorbers for criticality control. Ceramic coatings may provide even greater corrosion resistance for waste package and drip shield applications, although the boron-containing amorphous metals are still favored for criticality control applications. These amorphous metal and ceramic materials have been produced as gas-atomized powders and applied as near full density, nonporous coatings with the high-velocity oxy-fuel process. This article summarizes the performance of these coatings as corrosion-resistant barriers and as neutron absorbers. This article also presents a simple cost model to quantify the economic benefits possible with these new materials.

  11. Applications in the Nuclear Industry for Corrosion-Resistant Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-01-01

    Amorphous metal and ceramic thermal spray coatings have been developed that can be used to enhance the corrosion resistance of containers for the transportation, aging and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. Fe-based amorphous metal formulations with chromium, molybdenum and tungsten have shown the corrosion resistance believed to be necessary for such applications. Rare earth additions enable very low critical cooling rates to be achieved. The boron content of these materials, and their stability at high neutron doses, enable them to serve as high efficiency neutron absorbers for criticality control. Ceramic coatings may provide even greater corrosion resistance for container applications, though the boron-containing amorphous metals are still favored for criticality control applications. These amorphous metal and ceramic materials have been produced as gas atomized powders and applied as near full density, non-porous coatings with the high-velocity oxy-fuel process. This paper summarizes the performance of these coatings as corrosion-resistant barriers, and as neutron absorbers. Relevant corrosion models are also discussed, as well as a cost model to quantify the economic benefits possible with these new materials

  12. Effects of Water Hardness on Spray Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Nonimaging Light‐Scattering Instruments (ASTM, 2003). Table 1. Spray formulations for water hardness levels. Hardness (ppm) Tank, L (gal) Kocide, kg (lb...characteristics in a spray using optical nonimaging light‐scattering instruments. W. Conshohocken, Pa.: ASTM Intl. ASTM. 2004. E1620‐97. Standard

  13. Collection Efficiencies of Various Airborne Spray Flux Samplers Used in Aerial Application Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    provided by ASTM Standard E1260: Standard Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light...Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Stan- dards, ASTM International, West

  14. The crush and spray: a patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-...

  15. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  16. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  17. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Smegal, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  18. Highly doped ZnO films deposited by spray-pyrolysis. Design parameters for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2016-04-30

    Synthesis and preparation of ZnO films are relevant subjects for obtaining transparent and conducting layers with interesting applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Optimization of parameters such as dopant type and concentration, deposition time and substrate temperature is important for obtaining ZnO layers with optimal properties. In this work we present a study about the induced effects of deposition time on optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films. These films were deposited by spray pyrolysis of a suitable Zn precursor, obtained through the sol–gel method. The deposition time has direct incidence on internal stress in the crystal structure, generating defects that may affect transparency and electrical transport into the layers. We performed mosaicity measurements, through X-ray diffraction, and used it as a tool to get an insight on structural characteristics and homogeneity of ZnO layers. Also, through this technique, we analyzed thickness and doping effects on crystallinity and carrier transport properties. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO films with high conductivity and moderate Hall mobility were obtained. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increased with film thickness. • Lattice parameters a and c diminished linearly as a function of Al concentration. • First steps for developing porous silicon/doped ZnO heterojunctions were presented.

  19. Highly doped ZnO films deposited by spray-pyrolysis. Design parameters for optoelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, F.A.; Budini, N.; Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis and preparation of ZnO films are relevant subjects for obtaining transparent and conducting layers with interesting applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Optimization of parameters such as dopant type and concentration, deposition time and substrate temperature is important for obtaining ZnO layers with optimal properties. In this work we present a study about the induced effects of deposition time on optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films. These films were deposited by spray pyrolysis of a suitable Zn precursor, obtained through the sol–gel method. The deposition time has direct incidence on internal stress in the crystal structure, generating defects that may affect transparency and electrical transport into the layers. We performed mosaicity measurements, through X-ray diffraction, and used it as a tool to get an insight on structural characteristics and homogeneity of ZnO layers. Also, through this technique, we analyzed thickness and doping effects on crystallinity and carrier transport properties. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO films with high conductivity and moderate Hall mobility were obtained. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increased with film thickness. • Lattice parameters a and c diminished linearly as a function of Al concentration. • First steps for developing porous silicon/doped ZnO heterojunctions were presented.

  20. Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings for high-temperature wear-protection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.

    1980-03-01

    Under normal high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions, faying surfaces of metallic components under high contact pressure are prone to friction, wear, and self-welding damage. Component design calls for coatings for the protection of the mating surfaces. Anticipated operating temperatures up to 850 to 950 0 C (1562 to 1742 0 F) and a 40-y design life require coatings with excellent thermal stability and adequate wear and spallation resistance, and they must be compatible with the HTGR coolant helium environment. Plasma and detonation-gun (D-gun) deposited chromium carbide-base and stabilized zirconia coatings are under consideration for wear protection of reactor components such as the thermal barrier, heat exchangers, control rods, and turbomachinery. Programs are under way to address the structural integrity, helium compatibility, and tribological behavior of relevant sprayed coatings. In this paper, the need for protection of critical metallic components and the criteria for selection of coatings are discussed. The technical background to coating development and the experience with the steam cycle HTGR (HTGR-SC) are commented upon. Coating characterization techniques employed at General Atomic Company (GA) are presented, and the progress of the experimental programs is briefly reviewed. In characterizing the coatings for HTGR applications, it is concluded that a systems approach to establish correlation between coating process parameters and coating microstructural and tribological properties for design consideration is required

  1. Synthesis and characterization of spray deposited CZTS thin films for photo-electrochemical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Arvind; Patel, Biren; Mukhopadhyay, Priyanka Marathey Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is one of the most promising light absorber materials for photovoltaic and photo-electrochemical applications. We synthesized CZTS thin films on a F:SnO2 and soda lime glass substrates by very simple, cost effective and highly scalable spray pyrolysis technique. The films were post treated by rapid thermal processing route of sulfurization to enhance the stoichiometry and crystallinity of the film. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of RTP sulfurized films were studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of tetragonal CZTS phase, which confirmed by Raman analysis with a major peak at 336 cm-1 without the presence of the principle vibration mode of any other secondary phases, such as Cu2SnS3, CuxS(x=1.8,2) etc. The sulfurized film exhibited increased crystallinity and better stoichiometry. The optical and electrical data reveal the direct optical band gap, bulk carrier concentration and resistivity of 1.5 eV, 2.28×1018 cm-3 and 1.21 Ω/cm2, respectively. Finally the photoactivity of CZTS thin films was tested by forming photoelectrochemical cell in 0.1M Na2S2O3 electrolyte (pH=7.72), showing a cathodic photocurrent of nearly 20 µA/cm2 at 0V RHE.

  2. Inhalation exposure during spray application and subsequent sanding of a wood sealant containing zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael R; West, Gavin H; Burrelli, Leonard G; Dresser, Daniel; Griffin, Kelsey N; Segrave, Alan M; Perrenoud, Jon; Lippy, Bruce E

    2017-07-01

    Nano-enabled construction products have entered into commerce. There are concerns about the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure assessments are needed for a more complete understanding of risk. This study assessed potential inhalation exposure to ZnO nanoparticles during spray application and power sanding of a commercially available wood sealant and evaluated the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation in reducing exposure. A tradesperson performed the spraying and sanding inside an environmentally-controlled chamber. Dust control methods during sanding were compared. Filter-based sampling, electron microscopy, and real-time particle counters provided measures of exposure. Airborne nanoparticles above background levels were detected by particle counters for all exposure scenarios. Nanoparticle number concentrations and particle size distributions were similar for sanding of treated versus untreated wood. Very few unbound nanoparticles were detected in aerosol samples via electron microscopy, rather nano-sized ZnO was contained within, or on the surface of larger airborne particles. Whether the presence of nanoscale ZnO in these aerosols affects toxicity merits further investigation. Mass-based exposure measurements were below the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit for Zn, although there are no established exposure limits for nanoscale ZnO. Local exhaust ventilation was effective, reducing airborne nanoparticle number concentrations by up to 92% and reducing personal exposure to total dust by at least 80% in terms of mass. Given the discrepancies between the particle count data and electron microscopy observations, the chemical identity of the airborne nanoparticles detected by the particle counters remains uncertain. Prior studies attributed the main source of nanoparticle emissions during sanding to copper nanoparticles generated from electric sander motors. Potentially contrary results are presented suggesting the sander motor may not have been

  3. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha Miroslav; Jedelsky Jan; Durdina Lukas

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV) and Phase-Doppler Par...

  4. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV and Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer (P/DPA. The results obtained with P/DPA include information about Sauter Mean Diameter of droplets and spray velocity profiles in one plane perpendicular to the spray axis. Velocity magnitudes of droplets in an axial section of the spray were obtained using PIV. The experimental outputs also show a good confirmation of velocity profiles obtained with both instruments in the test plane. These data together will elucidate impact of the spray quality on the whole combustion process, its efficiency and exhaust gas emissions.

  5. Optimization of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings for High Temperature Corrosion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-04-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-spray coatings have proven successful in resisting the high temperature sulfidizing conditions found in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. The corrosion resistance of the coatings is dependent upon the coating composition, to form chromium sulfides and oxides to seal the coating, and on the coating microstructure. Selection of the arc-spray parameters influences the size, temperature and velocity of the molten droplets generated during spraying, which in turn dictates the coating composition and formation of the critical coating microstructural features—splat size, porosity and oxide content. Hence it is critical to optimize the arc-spray parameters in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the coating. In this work the effect of key spray parameters (current, voltage, spray distance and gas atomizing pressure) on the coating splat thickness, porosity content, oxide content, microhardness, thickness, and surface profile were investigated using a full factorial design of experiment. Based on these results a set of oxidized, porous and optimized coatings were prepared and characterized in detail for follow-up corrosion testing.

  6. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch Solutions and Their Sprays for High Temperature Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature. PMID:24592165

  7. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdina, Lukas; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV) and Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer (P/DPA). The results obtained with P/DPA include information about Sauter Mean Diameter of droplets and spray velocity profiles in one plane perpendicular to the spray axis. Velocity magnitudes of droplets in an axial section of the spray were obtained using PIV. The experimental outputs also show a good confirmation of velocity profiles obtained with both instruments in the test plane. These data together will elucidate impact of the spray quality on the whole combustion process, its efficiency and exhaust gas emissions.

  8. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  9. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  10. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  11. Parameters of electrostatic spraying and its influence on the application efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Shigueaki Sasaki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When the electrostatic spraying is used correctly, it provides advantages over conventional systems, however many factors can affect the system efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the charge/mass ratio (Q/M at different spraying distances (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, and the liquid deposition efficiency on the target. Evaluating the Q/M ratio the Faraday cage method was used and to evaluate the liquid deposition efficiency the artificial targets were positioned longitudinally and transversely to the spray jet. It was found that the spraying distance affects the Q/M ratio, consequently, the liquid deposition efficiency. For the closest distance to the target the Q/M ratio was 4.11 mC kg-1, and at distances of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, the ratio decreased to 1.38, 0.64, 0.31, 0.17 and 0.005 mC kg-1, respectively. For the liquid deposition, the electrostatic system was affected by the target orientation and spraying distance. The target transversely to the jet of liquid did not improve the liquid deposition, but longitudinally increased the deposition up to 3 meters of distance.

  12. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.; Cowgill, D.F.; Snead, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits

  13. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.W.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1-5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits. (orig.)

  14. Exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in spray polyurethane foam applicators: Role of dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Anila; Carignan, Courtney C; Xue, Yalong; Stapleton, Heather M; Bello, Dhimiter

    2018-04-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) is a highly effective thermal insulation material that has seen considerable market growth in the past decade. Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are added to SPF formulations to meet fire code requirements. A common flame retardant used in SPF formulations is tris 1-chloro 2-propyl phosphate (TCIPP), a suspected endocrine disruptor. Exposure monitoring efforts during SPF applications have focused primarily on the isocyanate component, a potent respiratory and dermal sensitizer. However, to our knowledge, there is no monitoring data for TCIPP. To characterize occupational exposures to TCIPP and other flame retardants during SPF insulation. Workers at four SPF insulation sites and one foam removal site (total n = 14) were recruited as part of this pilot study. Personal inhalation exposure to TCIPP was monitored with a CIP-10MI inhalable sampler and potential dermal exposure was assessed through the use of a glove dosimeter. Biomarkers of TCIPP and three other PFRs were measured in urine collected from workers pre-and post-shift. Linear mixed effect models were used to analyze associations of urinary biomarkers with inhalation and dermal exposures and paired t-tests were used to examine the difference on the means of urinary biomarkers pre-and post-shift. Chemical analysis of all species was performed with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of TCIPP in personal air monitors and glove dosimeters collected from SPF applicators, 294.7 μg/m 3 and 18.8 mg/pair respectively. Overall, GM concentrations of the two TCIPP urinary biomarkers BCIPP and BCIPHIPP and (6.2 and 88.8 μg/mL) were 26-35 times higher than reported in the general population. Post-shift levels of TCIPP biomarkers were higher than pre-shift even though workers at insulation sites wore supplied air respirators, gloves and coveralls. The urinary biomarkers for the other PFRs were not

  15. Imaging diagnostics of ethanol port fuel injection sprays for automobile engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padala, Srinivas; Le, Minh Khoi; Kook, Sanghoon; Hawkes, Evatt R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents characteristics of ethanol sprays at port fuel injection (PFI) conditions with variations in injection and ambient parameters. Details of temporal and spatial development of ethanol PFI sprays are studied using Mie-scattering and high-speed shadowgraph imaging techniques. Momentum flux-based injection rate measurement is also performed. The influences of fuel flow-rate, injection duration, and ambient air cross-flow are of particular interest in an effort to understand ethanol PFI spray characteristics that are relevant to automobile engines. For comparison purposes, the results from gasoline fuel are also presented. Ethanol flow-rate effects are studied using two injectors with different nozzle-hole sizes at a fixed injection pressure. From the experiments, it was found that the actual injection duration was longer for the higher flow-rate injector although an electronic pulse width was fixed. This was due to an extended delay in the injector needle closing as the flow resistance against the needle was increased for the high flow-rate injector. For liquid droplets, the larger hole size of the higher flow-rate injector caused a higher mean droplet diameter and higher number of droplets. Injection duration was also varied to study transient spray behaviour: short-injection sprays with the end-of-injection transient dominating the overall spray development were compared to long, steady-injection sprays. From Mie-scattering images, the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter were found to be less for the short injection sprays. Detailed analysis using an axial profile of the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter suggested that the observed trends were a result of increased evaporation rate near the nozzle after the end of injection. This was consistent with shadowgraph images showing no liquid regions but only the vapour-phase fuel near the nozzle. Under the influence of ambient air cross-flow, both mean droplet diameter and number of

  16. Spray deposited gallium doped tin oxide thinfilm for acetone sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, M. S.; Bharath, S. P.; Bangera, Kasturi V.

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and gallium doped (1 at.%, 2 at.% and 3 at.%) tin oxide thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis technique by optimising the deposition conditions such as precursor concentration, substrate temperature and spraying rate. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed formation of tetragonally structured polycrystalline films. The SEM micrographs of Ga doped films showed microstructures. The electrical resistivity of the doped films was found to be more than that of the undoped films. The Ga-doped tin oxide thin films were characterised for gas sensors. 1 at.% Ga doped thin films were found to be better acetone gas sensor, showed 68% sensitivity at 350°C temperature.

  17. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset contains comprehensive treaty information for multilateral environmental agreements,...

  18. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  19. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  20. Nantucket pine tip moth phenology and timing of insecticide spray applications in seven Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a common pest of Christmas tree and pine plantations throughout much of the Eastern United States. The moth completes two to five generations annually, and insecticide spray timing models are currently available for controlling populations where three or...

  1. Effects of Spray Mixtures on Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions and Implications on Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light‐Scattering Instruments (ASTM Standards, 2003). The most common term used to...using optical nonimaging light‐scattering instruments. West Conshohocken, Pa.: ASTM Intl. ASTM Standards. 2004. E 1620. Standard terminology relating

  2. Spray deposition of organic electroluminescent coatings for application in flexible light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic electroluminescent (EL films of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinatoaluminum (Alq3 mixed with polystyrene (PS binder were produced by spray deposition. The influence of the substrate temperature on the layer’s morphology and uniformity was investigated. The deposition conditions were optimized and simple flexible light-emitting devices consisting of indium-tin oxide/Alq3:PS/aluminum were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET foil to demonstrate the advantages of the sprayed organic coatings. Same structure was produced by thermal evaporation of Alq3 film as a reference. The influence of the deposition method on the film roughness and contact resistance at the electrode interfaces for both types of structures was estimated. The results were related to the devices’ efficiency. It was found that the samples with sprayed films turn on at 4 V, which is 2 V lower in comparison to the device with thermal evaporated Alq3. The current through the sprayed device is six times higher as well (17 mA vs. 2.8 mA at 6.5 V, which can be ascribed to the lower contact resistance at the EL film/electrode interfaces. This is due to the lower surface roughness of the pulverized layers.

  3. Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100 mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500 mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Space Operations Learning Center Facebook Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) Facebook module, initially code-named Spaceville, is intended to be an educational online game utilizing the latest social networking technology to reach a broad audience base and inspire young audiences to be interested in math, science, and engineering. Spaceville will be a Facebook application/ game with the goal of combining learning with a fun game and social environment. The mission of the game is to build a scientific outpost on the Moon or Mars and expand the colony. Game activities include collecting resources, trading resources, completing simple science experiments, and building architectures such as laboratories, habitats, greenhouses, machine shops, etc. The player is awarded with points and achievement levels. The player s ability increases as his/her points and levels increase. A player can interact with other players using multiplayer Facebook functionality. As a result, a player can discover unexpected treasures through scientific missions, engineering, and working with others. The player creates his/her own avatar with his/her selection of its unique appearance, and names the character. The player controls the avatar to perform activities such as collecting oxygen molecules or building a habitat. From observations of other successful social online games such as Farmville and Restaurant City, a common element of these games is having eye-catching and cartoonish characters, and interesting animations for all activities. This will create a fun, educational, and rewarding environment. The player needs to accumulate points in order to be awarded special items needed for advancing to higher levels. Trophies will be awarded to the player when certain goals are reached or tasks are completed. In order to acquire some special items needed for advancement in the game, the player will need to visit his/her neighboring towns to discover the items. This is the social aspect of the game that requires the

  5. Technology status of spray calcination--vitrification of high-level liquid waste for full-scale application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, R.B.; Bonner, W.F.; Larson, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Spray calcination and vitrification technology for stabilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been developed to the point that initiation of technology transfer to an industrial-sized facility could begin. This report discusses current process and equipment development status together with additional R and D studies and engineering evaluations needed. Preliminary full-scale process and equipment descriptions are presented. Technology application in a full-scale plant would blend three distinct maintenance design philosophies, depending on service life anticipated: (1) totally remote maintenance with limited viewing and handling equipment, (2) totally remote maintenance with extensive viewing and handling equipment, and (3) contact maintenance

  6. Atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) coatings of Al2O3–TiO2 system for photocatalytic application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Ageorges, H.; Ctibor, Pavel; Murafa, Nataliya

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2009), s. 733-738 ISSN 1474-905X. [European Meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis:Environmental Applications /5th./. Palermo, 04.10.2008-08.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Alumina * titania * plasma spraying * reflectivity * bangap * phase composition Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2009

  7. Rational Application of Fertilizer Nitrogen to Soil in Combination With Foliar Zn Spraying Improved Zn Nutritional Quality of Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate human zinc (Zn deficiency, it is worthy to develop rational agronomic managements to achieve high yielding and high resource-use efficiency wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains biofortified with Zn. Effects of application of three rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer (75,200 and 275 kg·ha−1 to soil in combination with three foliar applications (deionized water, Zn alone, and a combination of Zn and sucrose on grain yield, yield components, grain Zn concentration, protein, phytic acid (PA, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, and carbon (C, as well as on Zn bioavailability, were investigated in four wheat cultivars (“Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” under field conditions. Enhanced N increased Zn and protein concentrations as well as bioavailability; excessive N input did not result in further improvements. Zinc spraying was more effective than soil fertilizer N application, the spray of Zn (with or without sucrose increased grain Zn concentrations by 11.1–15.6 mg·kg−1 (27.1–38.1%, and increased grain Zn bioavailability, estimated using total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ and molar ratios of PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn, by 0.4–0.6 mg d−1 (28.6–42.9%, 23.1–27.4% and 24.0–28.0%, respectively. Remarkably, increases caused by ‘Zn + sucrose’ were higher than spraying Zn alone. Grain Zn bioavailability was more sensitive to the selection of cultivar than Zn concentrations. Among cultivars, the higher the grain yields and concentrations of antinutritional compounds, the lower the grain Zn nutritional quality would be. 200 kg N ha−1 application rate in combination with foliar spraying of “Zn + sucrose” maximized grain Zn concentrations of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” to be 59.4, 56.9, 55.8, and 60.9 mg kg−1, respectively, achieving the target value for biofortification. Additionally, PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” and “Luyuan 502” were

  8. The Application of Liquid Nitrogen Spray Cryotherapy in Treatment of Bronchial Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Kelly J; Abbas, Abbas El-Sayed; Ambur, Vishnu; Yu, Daohai

    Spray cryotherapy (SCT), the application of liquid nitrogen in a noncontact form, has been demonstrated to have efficacy in treating various types of pathologic lesions of the airway when used as an adjunct with bronchoscopy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of the use of bronchoscopic SCT on the airway in a single institution. We performed a retrospective review of data collected on all patients who underwent SCT to re-establish or improve airway patency in an 11-month period. Patients were classified based on the nature of their disease into benign or malignant. Demographic data, change in luminal patency, and clinical outcomes were recorded. The percent of stenosis was divided into grades according to the following classification: 1, ≤25%; 2, 26% to 50%; 3, 51% to 75%; and 4, ≥76%. We defined successful completion of treatment as obtaining a final patency of grade 1. Twenty-two patients met inclusion criteria, with 45.5% (10 patients) having benign stenosis and 54.5% (12 patients) malignant. At initial bronchoscopic evaluation, the median grade of stenosis was 4 for malignant disease and 3.5 for benign disease. The median final posttreatment grade of stenosis was 2 for malignant disease and 1 for benign. The median improvement in grade of stenosis after treatment was 2 for both malignant and benign causes (Wilcoxon test, P = 0.92). Final patency of grade 1 was achieved in 42% of malignant stenosis and 80% of benign. Overall, 86.4% of patients had an improvement in grade of stenosis after treatment. The rate of morbidity was 4.5% (1/22) of all patients. The median change in grade after treatment was 2 grades of improvement for both the benign and malignant groups. These results provide evidence that the use of SCT is equally efficacious for both types of stenosis with an expectation of overall improvement in luminal patency, offering a safe and effective method of achieving airway patency in a minimally invasive fashion. This study

  9. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  10. The Role of Spraying Parameters and Inert Gas Shrouding in Hybrid Water-Argon Plasma Spraying of Tungsten and Copper for Nuclear Fusion Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Kavka, Tetyana; Bertolissi, Gabriele; Ctibor, Pavel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2013), s. 744-755 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI2/702; GA TA ČR TA01010300 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * tungsten * copper * inert gas shrouding * water-argon plasma torch * gas shroud * hybrid plasma torch * influence of spray parameters * nuclear fusion * oxidation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.491, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11666-013-9895-x.pdf

  11. Spray deposition from ground-based applications of carbaryl to protect individual trees from bark beetle attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; McKelvey, Stephen R; Bush, Parshall B; Borys, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are recognized as the most important tree mortality agent in western coniferous forests. A common method of protecting trees from bark beetle attack is to saturate the tree bole with carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) using a hydraulic sprayer. In this study, we evaluate the amount of carbaryl drift (ground deposition) occurring at four distances from the tree bole (7.6, 15.2, 22.9, and 38.1 m) during conventional spray applications for protecting individual lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) from spruce beetle (D. rufipennis [Kirby]) attack. Mean deposition (carbaryl + alpha-naphthol) did not differ significantly among treatments (nozzle orifices) at any distance from the tree bole. Values ranged from 0.04 +/- 0.02 mg carbaryl m(-2) at 38.1 m to 13.30 +/- 2.54 mg carbaryl m(-2) at 7.6 m. Overall, distance from the tree bole significantly affected the amount of deposition. Deposition was greatest 7.6 m from the tree bole and quickly declined as distance from the tree bole increased. Approximately 97% of total spray deposition occurred within 15.2 m of the tree bole. Application efficiency (i.e., percentage of insecticide applied that is retained on trees) ranged from 80.9 to 87.2%. Based on review of the literature, this amount of drift poses little threat to adjacent aquatic environments. No-spray buffers of 7.6 m should be sufficient to protect freshwater fish, amphibians, crustaceans, bivalves, and most aquatic insects. Buffers >22.9 m appear sufficient to protect the most sensitive aquatic insects (Plecoptera).

  12. Application of a topical vapocoolant spray decreases pain at the site of initial intradermal anaesthetic injection during ultrasound-guided breast needle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado-Mesa, F.; Net, J.M.; Arheart, K.; Klevos, G.A.; Yepes, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether the application of a topical vapocoolant spray immediately prior to initial intradermal anaesthetic injection during ultrasound-guided breast biopsy decreases pain at the site of the initial injection. Materials and methods: In this institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study, 50 women aged 49.1 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error) were recruited and provided written informed consent. Participants served as their own controls and were blinded as to whether a topical vapocoolant spray or a placebo was used immediately prior to the initial local anaesthetic injection at two separate biopsy sites. With the exception of the application of vapocoolant or placebo, the entire ultrasound-guided procedure was performed according to a routine protocol. Participants recorded pain at initial injection site on a visual analogue scale. General linear mixed models for repeated measures analysis of variance and a 0.05 significance level were used. Results: Application of topical vapocoolant spray was shown to significantly decrease pain at the site of initial intradermal anaesthetic injection as compared to placebo (p<0.001). Treatment effect was independent of age of the subject, race/ethnicity, operator, type of biopsy device, and histopathology result. No complications from vapocoolant spray use were reported. Conclusion: Application of a topical vapocoolant spray immediately prior to initial intradermal anaesthetic injection during ultrasound-guided breast biopsy significantly decreases pain at the site of the initial injection and could contribute to improve the patient's overall procedural experience. -- Highlights: •Topical vapocoolant spray decreased pain at site of initial anesthetic injection (

    spray use were reported

  13. Futurepath: The Story of Research and Technology at NASA Lewis Research Center. Structures for Flight Propulsion, ARC Sprayed Monotape, National Aero-Space Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The story of research and technology at NASA Lewis Research Center's Structures Division is presented. The job and designs of the Structures Division needed for flight propulsion is described including structural mechanics, structural dynamics, fatigue, and fracture. The video briefly explains why properties of metals used in structural mechanics need to be tested. Examples of tests and simulations used in structural dynamics (bodies in motion) are briefly described. Destructive and non-destructive fatigue/fracture analysis is also described. The arc sprayed monotape (a composite material) is explained, as are the programs in which monotape plays a roll. Finally, the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP or x-30) is introduced, including the material development and metal matrix as well as how NASP will reduce costs for NASA.

  14. Applications in the Nuclear Industry for Thermal Spray Amorphous Metal and Ceramic Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Blink, J.; Farmer, J.; Choi, J.; Saw, C.

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous metal and ceramic thermal spray coatings have been developed with excellent corrosion resistance and neutron absorption. These coatings, with further development, could be cost-effective options to enhance the corrosion resistance of drip shields and waste packages, and limit nuclear criticality in canisters for the transportation, aging, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Iron-based amorphous metal formulations with chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten have shown the corrosion resis...

  15. Enhancing Corn Productivity through Application of Vermi Tea as Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Bulalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major commodities in the Province of Apayao is corn. In the municipality of Conner, a previous study conducted showed that corn farmers heavily rely on the use of inorganic fertilizers and still produce low yield. This study was then conducted to compare traditional farming against the use of an intervention using Vermi Tea as supplemental spray. Results of this endeavor showed that the farms applied with supplemental organic spray performed better that that of the usual farmer’s practice in various aspects of corn growth and yield. Findings show that vermi tea, when used as a foliar spray can significantly improve the growth and yield of corn . Due to the presence of plant growth regulators, and its ability to improve the condition of the soil, the corn farm sprayed with vermi tea produced taller corn crops with longer and thicker ears. As reflected in this study, corn when applied with the vermi tea can have an increased yield which can go as high as two tons/ha. More importantly, vermi tea promotes the use of organic fertilizer which does not entail high cost and can be prepared using agricultural wastes and other locally available materials. This will not only contribute to the reduction of the amount of total waste but will also help minimize the use of chemical fertilizers. The technology intervention promoted in this project complements and supports various government agency thrusts and priorities which are geared towards improving the agriculture industry, maintaining environmental quality and sustainable use of resources, climate change adaptation and mitigation; and production of excellent researches that will promote quality education and contribute to the upliftment of the country and encourage multisectoral/ multidisciplinary research along the priority areas like food safety and security among others.

  16. Handheld and automated ultrasonic spray deposition of conductive PEDOT:PSS films and their application in AC EL devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ely, Fernando; Matsumoto, Agatha; Zoetebier, Bram; Peressinotto, Valdirene S.; Hirata, Marcelo Kioshi; de Sousa, Douglas A.; Maciel, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we explore the spray deposition technique to achieve smooth films based on the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS. Two different spray systems were used and compared namely: (a) handheld airbrush and (b) automated ultrasonic spray system. For each system a number of parameters were

  17. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-15

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  18. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

  19. Review of Thermal Spray Coating Applications in the Steel Industry: Part 2—Zinc Pot Hardware in the Continuous Galvanizing Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; James, B.

    2010-12-01

    This two-part article series reviews the application of thermal spray coating technology in the production of steel and steel sheet products. Part 2 of this article series is dedicated to coating solutions in the continuous galvanizing line. The corrosion mechanisms of Fe- and Co-based bulk materials are briefly reviewed as a basis for the development of thermal spray coating solutions. WC-Co thermal spray coatings are commonly applied to low Al-content galvanizing hardware due to their superior corrosion resistance compared to Fe and Co alloys. The effect of phase degradation, carbon content, and WC grain size are discussed. At high Al concentrations, the properties of WC-Co coatings degrade significantly, leading to the application of oxide-based coatings and corrosion-resistant boride containing coatings. The latest results of testing are summarized, highlighting the critical coating parameters.

  20. Application of global rainbow technique in sprays with a dependence of the refractive index on droplet size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengkaew, S.; Bodoc, V.; Lavergne, G.; Grehan, G.

    2013-01-01

    In liquid combustion, the evaporation process is one of the key parameters which controls combustion efficiency. To understand the combustion process, and to be able to develop an efficient combustor which produces less pollutant, it is necessary to be able to measure evaporation properties. Several techniques exist to measure the physical properties of fuel droplets, but very few exist to measure the thermo-chemical properties. The global rainbow technique (GRT) has been proposed and successfully used to measure the average temperature and the size distribution of sprays under the assumption that all the droplets are at the same temperature. This paper explores the applicability of GRT to sprays where the refractive index is a function of the particle size. A first result proves that the refractive index measured by GRT is weighted by the droplet diameter to the power of 7/3. This result permits accurate and fast comparisons between the numerical simulations and the experiments. A second result is the measurement of the refractive index by the size class by coupling GRT and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements (or another measurement technique with a low sensitivity to the refractive index such as holography, diffractometry, etc).

  1. Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K.; Philominathan, P. [PG and Research Department of Physics, AVVM, Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Good quality CdS films were fabricated by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. CdS films have been deposited from aqueous solutions of sulphur and cadmium, keeping the molar concentrations of S:Cd = 0.01:0.01, 0.02:0.02, 0.04:0.04 and 0.06:0.06 in the starting solutions. The structural studies reveal that the S:Cd concentration has a strong influence on the microstructural characteristics of the sprayed CdS films. It was found that there is a transition in the preferred orientation from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane when S:Cd molar concentration increases. The SEM images depict that the films are uniform and homogeneous. All the films have high optical transmittance (>80%) in the visible range. The optical band gap values are found to be in the range of 2.46-2.52 eV. CdS films fabricated by this simple and economic spray technique without using any carrier gas are found to be good in structural and optical properties which are desirable for photovoltaic applications. Hence, this simplified version of spray technique can be considered as an economic alternative to conventional spray pyrolysis (using carrier gas), for the mass production of low-cost, large area CdS coatings for solar cell applications. (author)

  2. Doped nanocrystalline ZnO powders for non-linear resistor applications by spray pyrolysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembram, Kaliyan; Vijay, R; Rao, Y S; Rao, T N

    2009-07-01

    Homogeneous and doped nanocrystalline ZnO powders (30-200 nm) were synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique. The spray pyrolysed powders were calcined in the temperature range of 500-750 degrees C. Formation of insulating pyrochlore phase started from 700 degrees C during the calcination itself. The calcined powders were compacted and sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900-1200 degrees C for 0.5-4 h. The densification behavior was found to be dependent on calcination temperature of the nanopowder. The resulting discs were found to have density (5.34-5.62 g/cc) in the range of 96-99% of theoretical density. The breakdown voltage value obtained for the nanopowder based non-linear resistor is 10.3 kV/cm with low leakage current density of 0.7 microA/cm2 and coefficient of nonlinearity as high as 193. The activation energy for grain growth of the doped ZnO nanopowder powders is 449.4 +/- 15 kJ/mol.

  3. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical applications of sequencing take center stage

    OpenAIRE

    Glusman, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    A report on the Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting, Marco Island, Florida, USA, February 20-23, 2013. This year's Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting reflected the current state of 'next generation' sequencing (NGS) technologies: significantly reduced competition and innovation, and a strong focus on standardization and application. Announcements of technological breakthroughs - a hallmark of previous AGBT meetings - were markedly absent, but existin...

  5. Development and validation of an n-dodecane skeletal mechanism for spray combustion applications

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaoyu

    2014-03-04

    n-Dodecane is a promising surrogate fuel for diesel engine study because its physicochemical properties are similar to those of the practical diesel fuels. In the present study, a skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane with 105 species and 420 reactions was developed for spray combustion simulations. The reduction starts from the most recent detailed mechanism for n-alkanes consisting of 2755 species and 11,173 reactions developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An algorithm combining direct relation graph with expert knowledge (DRGX) and sensitivity analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The skeletal mechanism was first extensively validated in 0-D and 1-D combustion systems, including auto-ignition, jet stirred reactor (JSR), laminar premixed flame and counter flow diffusion flame. Then it was coupled with well-established spray models and further validated in 3-D turbulent spray combustion simulations under engine-like conditions. These simulations were compared with the recent experiments with n-dodecane as a surrogate for diesel fuels. It can be seen that combustion characteristics such as ignition delay and flame lift-off length were well captured by the skeletal mechanism, particularly under conditions with high ambient temperatures. Simulations also captured the transient flame development phenomenon fairly well. The results further show that ignition delay may not be the only factor controlling the stabilisation of the present flames since a good match in ignition delay does not necessarily result in improved flame lift-off length prediction. The work of Zhaoyu Luo, Sibendu Som, Max Plomer, William J. Pitz, Douglas E. Longman and Tianfeng Lu was authored as part of their official duties as Employees of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 USC. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under US Law. S. Mani Sarathy hereby waives his right to

  6. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  7. Characterization of in-swath spray deposition for CP-11TT flat-fan nozzles used in low volume aerial application of crop production and protection materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    For aerial application of crop production and protection materials, a complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved. It is difficult to completely characterize spray drift and deposition, but estimates can be made with appropriate sampling protocol and analysis. With c...

  8. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of CulnS2 Thin Films for Application in Solar Cell Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Jenkins. Philip P.; Stan, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Chalcopyrite CuInS2 is a direct band gap semiconductor (1.5 eV) that has potential applications in photovoltaic thin film and photoelectrochemical devices. We have successfully employed spray chemical vapor deposition using the previously known, single-source, metalorganic precursor, (Ph3P)2CuIn(SEt)4, to deposit CuInS2 thin films. Stoichiometric, polycrystalline films were deposited onto fused silica over a range of temperatures (300-400 C). Morphology was observed to vary with temperature: spheroidal features were obtained at lower temperatures and angular features at 400 C. At even higher temperatures (500 C), a Cu-deficient phase, CuIn5S8, was obtained as a single phase. The CuInS2 films were determined to have a direct band gap of ca. 1.4 eV.

  9. Spray pyrolyzed Cu2SnS3 thin films for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren; Waldiya, Manmohansingh; Pati, Ranjan K.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    We report the fabrication of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) thin films by a non-vacuum and low cost spray pyrolysis technique. Annealing of the as-deposited film in the sulphur atmosphere produces highly stoichiometric, granular and crystalline CTS phase. The CTS thin films shows direct optical band gap of 1.58 eV with high absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1. Hall measurement shows the carrier concentration of the order of 1021 cm-3 and a favourable resistivity of 10-3 Ω cm. A solar cell architecture of Glass/FTO/CTS/CdS/Al:ZnO/Al was fabricated and its current-voltage characteristic shows an open circuit voltage, short circuit current density and fill-factor of 12.6 mV, 20.2 µA/cm2 and 26% respectively. A further improvement in the solar cell parameters is underway.

  10. Application of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Ferrite Layers for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Taborelli, M; Schulz, C; Bobzin, K; Wu, J

    2013-01-01

    A common problem in all kinds of cavity-like structures in particle accelerators is the occurrence of RF-resonances. Typically, ferrite plates attached to the walls of such structures as diagnostic devices, kickers or collimators, are used to dampen those undesired modes. However, the heat transfer rate from these plates to the walls is rather limited. Brazing ferrite plates to the walls is not possible in most cases due to the different thermal expansion coefficients. To overcome those limitations, atmospheric plasma spraying techniques have been investigated. Ferrite layers with a thickness from 50 μm to about 300 μm can be deposited on metallic surfaces like stainless steel exhibiting good thermal contact and still reasonable absorption properties. In this paper the technological aspects of plasma deposition are discussed and results of specifically developed RF loss measurement procedures for such thin magnetically lossy layers on metal are presented.

  11. An Overview of Spray Modeling With OpenNCC and its Application to Emissions Predictions of a LDI Combustor at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The open national combustion code (Open- NCC) is developed with the aim of advancing the current multi-dimensional computational tools used in the design of advanced technology combustors. In this paper we provide an overview of the spray module, LSPRAY-V, developed as a part of this effort. The spray solver is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal, and transport properties of a rapidly evaporating multi-component liquid spray. The modeling approach is applicable over a wide-range of evaporating conditions (normal, superheat, and supercritical). The modeling approach is based on several well-established atomization, vaporization, and wall/droplet impingement models. It facilitates large-scale combustor computations through the use of massively parallel computers with the ability to perform the computations on either structured & unstructured grids. The spray module has a multi-liquid and multi-injector capability, and can be used in the calculation of both steady and unsteady computations. We conclude the paper by providing the results for a reacting spray generated by a single injector element with 600 axially swept swirler vanes. It is a configuration based on the next-generation lean-direct injection (LDI) combustor concept. The results include comparisons for both combustor exit temperature and EINOX at three different fuel/air ratios.

  12. Application of TiC reinforced Fe-based coatings by means of High Velocity Air Fuel Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Liao, X.; Sommer, J.

    2017-03-01

    In the field of hydraulic applications, different development trends can cause problems for coatings currently used as wear and corrosion protection for piston rods. Aqueous hydraulic fluids and rising raw material prices necessitate the search for alternatives to conventional coatings like galvanic hard chrome or High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF)-sprayed WC/Co coatings. In a previous study, Fe/TiC coatings sprayed by a HVOF-process, were identified to be promising coating systems for wear and corrosion protection in hydraulic systems. In this feasibility study, the novel High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF)-process, a modification of the HVOF-process, is investigated using the same feedstock material, which means the powder is not optimized for the HVAF-process. The asserted benefits of the HVAF-process are higher particle velocities and lower process temperatures, which can result in a lower porosity and oxidation of the coating. Further benefits of the HVAF process are claimed to be lower process costs and higher deposition rates. In this study, the focus is set on to the applicability of Fe/TiC coatings by HVAF in general. The Fe/TiC HVAF coating could be produced, successfully. The HVAF- and HVOF-coatings, produced with the same powder, were investigated using micro-hardness, porosity, wear and corrosion tests. A similar wear coefficient and micro-hardness for both processes could be achieved. Furthermore the propane/hydrogen proportion of the HVAF process and its influence on the coating thickness and the porosity was investigated.

  13. Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Hemodynamics and Oxygenation After Cold-Spray Application as Monitored by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Pakravan, Amir H.; Hoens, Alison; Reid, W. Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Context Vapocoolant spray, commonly known as cold spray (CS), is a cryotherapy modality used in sports medicine, athletic training, and rehabilitation settings. Proposed physiologic effects of cryotherapy modalities include reductions in tissue blood flow, oxygenation, and cell metabolism in addition to attenuation of pain perception attributed to reduced superficial nerve conduction velocity. Objective To examine the effects of CS on subcutaneous and intramuscular blood flow and oxygenation on the thigh muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy, an optical method to monitor changes in tissue oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total (tHb) hemoglobin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Muscle Biophysics Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Participants were 13 healthy adults (8 men, 5 women; age = 37.4 ± 6 years, body mass index = 27.4 ± 2.6, adipose tissue thickness = 7.2 ± 1.8 mm). Intervention(s) Conventional CS was applied to the vastus medialis muscles. Main Outcome Measure(s) Changes in chromophore concentrations of O2Hb, HHb, and tHb at superficial and deep layers were monitored for 5 minutes using a 2-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Thirty seconds after CS application, we observed a decrease from baseline in O2Hb and tHb only in the superficial layer that was maintained for 3 minutes. Conclusions Application of CS induced a transient change in blood flow and oxygenation of the superficial tissues with no change in deeper tissues over the healthy vastus medialis muscle. The limited physiologic effect of CS on the superficial hemodynamics and oxygenation of limb muscles may limit the therapeutic benefit of this cryotherapy modality to a temporary analgesic effect, a hypothesis that warrants a clinical trial on traumatized muscles. PMID:26098273

  14. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4π-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4π-α spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4π -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  15. Replacement of corrosion protection chromate primers and paints used in cryogenic applications on the Space Shuttle with wire arc sprayed aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. L.; Sanders, H. L.; Zimmerman, F. R.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new environmental laws restricting volatile organic compounds and hexavalent chrome emissions, 'environmentally safe' thermal spray coatings are being developed to replace the traditional corrosion protection chromate primers. A wire arc sprayed aluminum coating is being developed for corrosion protection of low pressure liquid hydrogen carrying ducts on the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Currently, this hardware utilizes a chromate primer to provide protection against corrosion pitting and stress corrosion cracking induced by the cryogenic operating environment. The wire are sprayed aluminum coating has been found to have good potential to provide corrosion protection for flight hardware in cryogenic applications. The coating development, adhesion test, corrosion test and cryogenic flexibility test results will be presented.

  16. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  17. Atmospheric Pressure Spray Chemical Vapor Deposited CuInS2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. D.; Raffaelle, R. P.; Banger, K. K.; Smith, M. A.; Scheiman, D. A.; Hepp, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    Solar cells have been prepared using atmospheric pressure spray chemical vapor deposited CuInS2 absorbers. The CuInS2 films were deposited at 390 C using the single source precursor (PPh3)2CuIn(SEt)4 in an argon atmosphere. The absorber ranges in thickness from 0.75 - 1.0 micrometers, and exhibits a crystallographic gradient, with the leading edge having a (220) preferred orientation and the trailing edge having a (112) orientation. Schottky diodes prepared by thermal evaporation of aluminum contacts on to the CuInS2 yielded diodes for films that were annealed at 600 C. Solar cells were prepared using annealed films and had the (top down) composition of Al/ZnO/CdS/CuInS2/Mo/Glass. The Jsc, Voc, FF and (eta) were 6.46 mA per square centimeter, 307 mV, 24% and 0.35%, respectively for the best small area cells under simulated AM0 illumination.

  18. Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: basic objectives of the NASA-wide AI program; inhouse research program; constraint-based scheduling; learning and performance improvement for scheduling; GEMPLAN multi-agent planner; planning, scheduling, and control; Bayesian learning; efficient learning algorithms; ICARUS (an integrated architecture for learning); design knowledge acquisition and retention; computer-integrated documentation; and some speculation on future applications.

  19. Application of NASA Kennedy Space Center system assurance analysis methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) entered into an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to conduct a study to demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of applying the KSC System Assurance Analysis (SAA) methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs. In joint meetings of KSC and Duke Power personnel, an agreement was made to select to CATAWBA systems, the Containment Spray System and the Residual Heat Removal System, for the analyses. Duke Power provided KSC with a full set a Final Safety Analysis Reports as well as schematics for the two systems. During Phase I of the study the reliability analyses of the SAA were performed. During Phase II the hazard analyses were performed. The final product of Phase II is a handbook for implementing the SAA methodology into nuclear power plant systems designs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SAA methodology as it applies to nuclear power plant systems designs and to discuss the feasibility of its application. The conclusion is drawn that nuclear power plant systems and aerospace ground support systems are similar in complexity and design and share common safety and reliability goals. The SAA methodology is readily adaptable to nuclear power plant designs because of it's practical application of existing and well known safety and reliability analytical techniques tied to an effective management information system

  20. [Development and application of hospital customer service center platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minya; Zheng, Konglin; Xia, Yong

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the construction and application of the platform of client service center in the general hospital and discusses how to provide patients with an entire service including service before clinic, on clinic and after clinic. It can also provide references for a new service mode for clinic service.

  1. Chaparral Commerce Center Proposed Tribal Minor NSR Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal Minor New Source Review (NSR) Permit application for the two emergency diesel-fired generators (1,500 kW each) to be installed at the Chaparral Commerce Center in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC) in Scottsdale, Arizona.

  2. Center of Excellence for Laser Applications in Medicine, Microlaser Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R. H.

    2003-01-17

    The Center of Excellence for Laser Applications in Medicine at the Schepens Eye Research Institute (SERI) is a Center for: A core group of researchers who support each other and their various projects for real-time medical imaging and diagnostics in contiguous space at SERI. Clinical collaborators who participate in the core research at SERI, MEEI, and local ophthalmology practices, and at associated sites around the world. Industrial partners who transfer our technology to commercial products that will reach clinical usage everywhere. Students, post-doctoral associates and medical fellows who work with us and learn how to practice real-time medical imaging and diagnostics.

  3. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

    2003-01-01

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  4. Marshall Space Flight Center's Virtual Reality Applications Program 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1993-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. Other NASA Centers, most notably Ames Research Center (ARC), have contributed to the development of the VR enabling technologies and VR systems. This VR technology development has now reached a level of maturity where specific applications of VR as a tool can be considered. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, validate, and utilize VR as a Human Factors design and operations analysis tool and to assess and evaluate VR as a tool in other applications (e.g., training, operations development, mission support, teleoperations planning, etc.). The long-term goals of this technology program is to enable specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process and develop more effective training and mission support systems. The capability to perform specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process is required to better refine and validate requirements during the requirements definition phase. This leads to a more efficient design process where perturbations caused by late-occurring requirements changes are minimized. A validated set of VR analytical tools must be developed to enable a more efficient process for the design and development of space systems and operations. Similarly, training and mission support systems must exploit state-of-the-art computer-based technologies to maximize training effectiveness and enhance mission support. The approach of the VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical

  5. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices. PMID:27161379

  6. MS-Based Analytical Techniques: Advances in Spray-Based Methods and EI-LC-MS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Isabel; Cappiello, Achille; Careri, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is the most powerful technique for the detection and identification of organic compounds. It can provide molecular weight information and a wealth of structural details that give a unique fingerprint for each analyte. Due to these characteristics, mass spectrometry-based analytical methods are showing an increasing interest in the scientific community, especially in food safety, environmental, and forensic investigation areas where the simultaneous detection of targeted and nontargeted compounds represents a key factor. In addition, safety risks can be identified at the early stage through online and real-time analytical methodologies. In this context, several efforts have been made to achieve analytical instrumentation able to perform real-time analysis in the native environment of samples and to generate highly informative spectra. This review article provides a survey of some instrumental innovations and their applications with particular attention to spray-based MS methods and food analysis issues. The survey will attempt to cover the state of the art from 2012 up to 2017.

  7. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P; Snaith, Henry J; Grant, Patrick S

    2016-05-10

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices.

  8. Application of NASA Kennedy Space Center System Assurance Analysis methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In May of 1982, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) entered into an agreement with the NRC to conduct a study to demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of applying the KSC System Assurance Analysis (SAA) methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs. North Carolina's Duke Power Company expressed an interest in the study and proposed the nuclear power facility at CATAWBA for the basis of the study. In joint meetings of KSC and Duke Power personnel, an agreement was made to select two CATAWBA systems, the Containment Spray System and the Residual Heat Removal System, for the analyses. Duke Power provided KSC with a full set of Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSAR) as well as schematics for the two systems. During Phase I of the study the reliability analyses of the SAA were performed. During Phase II the hazard analyses were performed. The final product of Phase II is a handbook for implementing the SAA methodology into nuclear power plant systems designs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SAA methodology as it applies to nuclear power plant systems designs and to discuss the feasibility of its application. (orig./HP)

  9. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  11. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  12. Effects of nozzle type and spray angle on spray deposition in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Nuyttens, David

    2011-02-01

    Fewer plant protection products are now authorised for use in ornamental growings. Frequent spraying with the same product or a suboptimal technique can lead to resistance in pests and diseases. Better application techniques could improve the sustainable use of the plant protection products still available. Spray boom systems--instead of the still predominantly used spray guns--might improve crop protection management in greenhouses considerably. The effect of nozzle type, spray pressure and spray angle on spray deposition and coverage in ivy pot plants was studied, with a focus on crop penetration and spraying the bottom side of the leaves in this dense crop. The experiments showed a significant and important effect of collector position on deposition and coverage in the plant. Although spray deposition and coverage on the bottom side of the leaves are generally low, they could be improved 3.0-4.9-fold using the appropriate application technique. When using a spray boom in a dense crop, the nozzle choice, spray pressure and spray angle should be well considered. The hollow-cone, the air-inclusion flat-fan and the standard flat-fan nozzle with an inclined spray angle performed best because of the effect of swirling droplets, droplets with a high momentum and droplet direction respectively. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Coating Properties of WC-Ni Cold Spray Coating for the Application in Secondary Piping System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JeongWon; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of FAC(flow accelerated corrosion), severe accidents, failure of carbon steel like a Mihama Unit-3 occurred. Chemical composition change of carbon steel or coating to inner surface is one of methods to improve corrosion properties. Among them, thermal spray coating is convenient solution to apply at industry. Powder is melted at blast furnace and ejected to substrate. After adhesion, substrate and coating layer is cooled down and coated layer protects steel from corrosion finally. However high thermal energy is transferred to substrate and coating layer so it leads high thermal residual stress in coating procedure. Besides, high temperature for melting powder makes unexpected chemical reaction of powder like an oxidation or carburization. Whereas, cold spray uses low temperature comparing with other thermal spray. Thermal energy is used for not melting powder but high kinetic energy of powder and plastic deformation during collision. Therefore, fuel such as oxygen-acetylene gas is not needed. It needs carrier gas, compressed air, nitrogen or helium, to increase kinetic energy of powder and move powder to substrate. Comparing cold spray with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF), one of thermal spray, cold spray coating layer contains only WC and Co. One of other problem about WC is brittleness during coating. To improve deformability of WC, binder metal is added. For example, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Al, Fe or etc. Additionally, binder metal lowering melting temperature of composite powder increases coating properties. Among them, Co which is widely used as binder metal maintains mechanical properties like a hardness and improves corrosion properties. Therefore Co is not suitable for binder metal of WC coating. In contrast, Ni has better corrosion resistance to alkaline environment and makes lower melting temperature. Moreover, in a view of cold spray, FCC structure has better deformability than BCC or HCP, and BCC has lowest deformability. WC is BCC structure so it

  14. Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ou-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70 under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30 in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.

  15. Effect of spray angle and spray volume on deposition of a medium droplet spray with air support in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2014-03-01

    Spray boom systems, an alternative to the predominantly-used spray guns, have the potential to considerably improve crop protection management in glasshouses. Based on earlier experiments, the further optimization of the deposits of a medium spray quality extended range flat fan nozzle type using easy adjustable spray boom settings was examined. Using mineral chelate tracers and water sensitive papers, the spray results were monitored at three plant levels, on the upper side and the underside of the leaves, and on some off-target collectors. In addition, the deposition datasets of all tree experiments were compared. The data showed that the most efficient spray distribution with the medium spray quality flat fan nozzles was found with a 30° forward angled spray combined with air support and an application rate of 1000 L ha(-1) . This technique resulted in a more uniform deposition in the dense canopy and increased spray deposition on the lower side of the leaves compared with the a standard spray boom application. Applying 1000 L ha(-1) in two subsequent runs instead of one did not seem to show any added value. Spray deposition can be improved hugely simply by changing some spray boom settings like nozzle type, angling the spray, using air support and adjusting the spray volume to the crop. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Spray layer-by-layer films based on phospholipid vesicles aiming sensing application via e-tongue system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.H.B.; Volpati, D.; Cabrera, F.C.; Trombini, V.L.; Riul, A.; Constantino, C.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique via spraying (spray-LbL) has been applied as new and alternative methodology to fabricate ultrathin films due to its versatility in relation to the conventional dipping-LbL method, mainly in terms of faster layer deposition and larger coated area. In this work, the possibility of immobilizing vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG) phospholipid onto alternating layers of the polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) using the spray-LbL method was investigated, being the results compared to the conventional dipping-LbL method. The growth of (PAH/DPPG) n spray-LbL films was systematically monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy, revealing a linear increase of the absorbance vs deposited layers. In relation to a possible electrostatic interaction between the groups PO 4 − (DPPG) and NH 3 + (PAH), it was observed through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy that the spectrum recorded for the spray-LbL film is basically a simple superposition of the FTIR spectra from PAH and DPPG casting films. The latter indicates a weak interaction between both materials, differently of the trend observed for (PAH/DPPG) n grown via dipping-LbL method. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of spray-LbL films showed evidences that the DPPG vesicles present in the aqueous dispersion are not destroyed when submitted to pressure conditions during the spray deposition. However, comparing to dipping-LbL, the DPPG vesicles do not cover completely the PAH layer for the spray-LbL film, which was further confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. Moreover, the AFM analysis showed that the spray-LbL deposition led to thicker PAH/DPPG bilayers in average than via dipping-LbL for the same concentrations of PAH solution and DPPG dispersion, which is consistent with QCM and UV–vis absorption results. PAH/DPPG films deposited by

  17. Study of air entrainment in high pressure spray: optics diagnostics and application to the Diesel injection; Etude de l'entrainement d'air dans un spray haute pression: diagnostics optiques et application a l'injection diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeau, A.

    2004-12-15

    The actual development of the engine must reply to a will of fuel consumption reduction and to norms more and more strict concerning the pollutant emissions. Although the Diesel engines are efficient, the NO{sub x} and particle emissions mainly come from the existence of wealthy fuel zone preventing an optimal combustion. Therefore, the air / fuel mixing preparation, highly controlled by the air entrainment in spray, is essential. In this context, we have developed metrological tools in order to analyse the air entrainment mechanism in a dense spray. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is first applied to a conical spray with an injection pressure less than 100 bars to study the air entrainment in spray. A transfer of the methodologies allows then the characterisation and the understanding of the air entrainment mechanism in high pressure full spray (injection pressure less than 1600 bars) type Diesel one. The influence of injection parameters (injection pressure and back pressure) on the mixing rate is studied. The increase of the injection pressure from 800 to 1600 bars implies an increase of the mixing rate of 60 %. Moreover, the thermodynamic conditions of the ambient air, simulated by the chamber back pressure, widely favours the mixing rate. Actually, this latter increases of 350 % when the chamber back pressure varies from 1 to 7 bars. The experimental results do not follow classical laws of air entrainment in one-phase flow jet with variable density, but are in good agreement with an integral model for air entrainment in an axisymmetric full spray. Finally, the Fluorescence Particle Image Velocimetry (FPIV) is introduced in order to extend the PIV application field in dense two-phase flows. (author)

  18. Final Report. Center for Scalable Application Development Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-10-26

    The Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) was established as a part- nership between Rice University, Argonne National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, University of Tennessee – Knoxville, and University of Wisconsin – Madison. CScADS pursued an integrated set of activities with the aim of increasing the productivity of DOE computational scientists by catalyzing the development of systems software, libraries, compilers, and tools for leadership computing platforms. Principal Center activities were workshops to engage the research community in the challenges of leadership computing, research and development of open-source software, and work with computational scientists to help them develop codes for leadership computing platforms. This final report summarizes CScADS activities at Rice University in these areas.

  19. Spray-coated Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films for large-scale photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Mariño, Simón López

    2017-01-01

    The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), has in the preceding ten years been investigated and developed as a new Earth-abundant material for solar cells. The interest in this inorganic semiconductor originates in its optimal energy band gap of approx. 1.5 eV, high absorption coefficient...... that alkali metal chloride salts can also be dissolved in controllable amounts, which we have found enhances grain growth in the films during the subsequent annealing step. A Sono-tek spray-coating system with ultrasonic atomization is used. We investigate the effect of ink concentration, and spray...

  20. 76 FR 37085 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers (RERCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers...)--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Rehabilitation Engineering Research... (Rehabilitation Act). Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Program (RERCs) The purpose of the RERC program...

  1. Mid-Atlantic Technology Applications Center. Quarters 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mid-atlantic Technology Application Center (MTAC) pursued a number of initiatives designed to enhance the strategic position of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) and NASA in industry. Among these was a closer association with the ISA, International Society for Measurement and Control. During 1997, MTAC placed articles regarding NASA-developed technologies in each In Tech magazine. The monthly magazine is sent to 46,000 sensors and instrumentation professionals. In addition, MTAC coordinated NASXs participation in the ISA Tech 97 Conference, securing $112,000 of free exhibit space, 1500 NASA sensors posters at no cost to NASA, and thousands of dollars of free publicity. MTAC was awarded a contract by ISA to operate its Technical Resource Center (TRC). The goal of this project is to determine what user needs are in order to identify opportunities for collaboration between NASA centers and companies. In addition, the TRC work will lay the groundwork for the Technology Development Consortium (TDC) proposed by MTAC. The purpose of the TDC is to: match current industry needs with NASA technologies available now, and to identify future needs of NASA and industry which may lead to dual use projects. The goal of these activities is twofold: to infuse NASA technologies into the sensors and instrumentation industry and to secure industry funds to support NASA technology development projects. The instrumentation and sensors industry is valued at $30 billion worldwide, with $12 billion in sales in the United States. The growth rate averages 13.5%, so that by the year 2000, the industry will produce products worth $49 billion. More than 80% of instruments, sensors and control systems are currently manufactured in the United States. NASA and the industry do not have a history of collaborative projects; MTAC's initiatives in this area are designed to foster working relationships between the two parties that will help maintain U.S. leadership in this field. Mid-atlantic Technology

  2. Application of reliability centered maintenance to Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Antonio; Perdomo, Manuel; Fornero, Damian; Corchera, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    One of the most recent applications of Probabilistic Safety Analysis to Embalse NPP is the Safety Oriented Maintenance Program developed through the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology. Such an application was carried out by a cooperated effort between the staff of nuclear safety department of NPP and experts from Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas of Cuba. So far 6 technological systems have been analyzed with important results regarding the optimization of preventive and predictive maintenance program of those systems. Any tasks of RCM were automated via MOSEG code. The results of this study were focused on the elaboration and modification of the Preventive Program, prioritization of stocks, reorientation of predictive techniques and modification in the time parameters of maintenance. (author)

  3. Atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) coatings of Al2O3-TiO2 system for photocatalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, V; Ageorges, H; Ctibor, P; Murafa, N

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the photocatalytic ability of coatings produced by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The plasma gun used is a common gas-stabilized plasma gun (GSP) working with a d.c. current and a mixture of argon and hydrogen as plasma-forming gas. The TiO(2) powders are particles of about 100 nm which were agglomerated to a mean size of about 55 mum, suitable for spraying. Composition of the commercial powder is 13 wt% of TiO(2) in Al(2)O(3), whereas also in-house prepared powder with the same nominal composition but with agglomerated TiO(2) and conventional fused and crushed Al(2)O(3) was sprayed. The feedstock materials used for this purpose are alpha-alumina and anatase titanium dioxide. The coatings are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion probe (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Photocatalytic degradation of acetone is quantified for various coatings. All plasma sprayed coatings show a lamellar structure on cross section, as typical for this process. Anatase titania from feedstock powder is converted into rutile titania and alpha-alumina partly to gamma-alumina. Coatings are proven to catalyse the acetone decomposition when irradiated by UV rays.

  4. Development and application of the global rainbow refractometry for the study of heat and mass transfers in a spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.

    2004-12-01

    During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressure Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen produced by the degradation and oxidation of the reactor core and high pressure water vapor can be released into the reactor containment. The repartition of the hydrogen in the reactor containment is then dependent of the forced (mixed or natural) convection flows which will be established. This type of accidental scenario will lead then to the pressurization of the reactor containment and to a potential risk of hydrogen combustion, able to prejudice to the integrity of the reactor. One of the means of PWR safety, called spraying, consists to release cold water sprays in the reactor containment, with the aim to make its internal pressure and its temperature decrease, on account of the condensation of water vapor on the injected water droplets. Moreover, the spraying leads to a mixing of the gaseous mixture containing air, water vapor and hydrogen, and contributes to make the hydrogen local concentration decreased. The TOSQAN experiment, developed at the IRSN, allows to reproduce the thermal-hydraulic conditions which represent accidental sequences able to happen in a PWR. In the frame of the current program consecrated to the spraying study, an innovating optical technique has been implemented on the TOSQAN experiment to finely characterize the mass and heat transfers between a spray and the surrounding atmosphere. This work gives into details the development of the global rainbow technique which allows to measure, in a non intrusive way, the temperature of the droplets during their fall. This technique has been coupled with others optical diagnoses such as the spontaneous Raman diffusion spectrometry, the PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and the implementation imagery, to respectively measure the water vapor parts as well as the velocities and the droplets sizes. The obtained experimental results have led to a global and local analysis of the interaction between the

  5. Head spray nozzle in reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Shun-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, a head spray nozzle is used for cooling the head of the pressure vessel and, in view of the thermal stresses, it is desirable that cooling is applied as uniformly as possible. A conventional head spray is constituted by combining full cone type nozzles. Since the sprayed water is flown down upon water spraying and the sprayed water in the vertical direction is overlapped, the flow rate distribution has a high sharpness to form a shape as having a maximum value near the center and it is difficult to obtain a uniform flow rate distribution in the circumferential direction. Then, in the present invention, flat nozzles each having a spray water cross section of laterally long shape, having less sharpness in the circumferential distribution upon spraying water to the inner wall of the pressure vessel and having a wide angle of water spray are combined, to make the flow rate distribution of spray water uniform in the inner wall of the pressure vessel. Accordingly, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly and thermal stresses upon cooling can be decreased. (N.H.)

  6. Center for Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel E

    2008-02-21

    This report describes the activities conducted under a Congressional Direction project whose goal was to develop applications for Single-walled carbon nanotubes, under the Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), a multi-investigator program that capitalizes on OU’s advantageous position of having available high quality carbon nanotubes. During the first phase of CANTEC, 11 faculty members and their students from the College of Engineering developed applications for carbon nanotubes by applying their expertise in a number of areas: Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Nanotube synthesis, Surfactants, Colloid Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Tissue Engineering, Biosensors, Biochemical Engineering, Cell Biology, Thermal Transport, Composite Materials, Protein synthesis and purification, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulations. In particular, during this phase, the different research groups involved in CANTEC made advances in the tailoring of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) of controlled diameter and chirality by Modifying Reaction Conditions and the Nature of the catalyst; developed kinetic models that quantitatively describe the SWNT growth, created vertically oriented forests of SWNT by varying the density of metal nanoparticles catalyst particles, and developed novel nanostructured SWNT towers that exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. They also developed molecular simulations of the growth of Metal Nanoparticles on the surface of SWNT, which may have applications in the field of fuell cells. In the area of biomedical applications, CANTEC researchers fabricated SWNT Biosensors by a novel electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method, which may have an impact in the control of diabetes. They also functionalized SWNT with proteins that retained the protein’s biological activity and also retained the near-infrared light absorbance, which finds applications in the treatment of cancer.

  7. Synthesis of free-standing carbon nanohybrid by directly growing carbon nanotubes on air-sprayed graphene oxide paper and its application in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Yuan, Yang; Goh, Kunli; Yu, Dingshan; Wang, Liang; Chen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a free-standing two dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid by directly growing CNTs on air-sprayed GO paper. As a result of the good integration between CNTs and thermally reduced GO film during chemical vapor deposition, excellent electrical conductivity (2.6×10 4 S/m), mechanical flexibility (electrical resistance only increases 1.1% after bent to 90° for 500 times) and a relatively large surface area (335.3 m 2 /g) are achieved. Two-electrode supercapacitor assembled using the CNT–rGO hybrids in ionic liquid electrolyte (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) shows excellent stability upon 500 bending cycles with the gravimetric energy density measuring 23.7 Wh/kg and a power density of 2.0 kW/kg. Furthermore, it shows an impedance phase angle of −64.4° at a frequency of 120 Hz, suggesting good potentials for 120 Hz alternating current line filtering applications. - Graphical abstract: Flexible and highly conductive carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. - Highlights: • Direct growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition on air-sprayed graphene oxide paper. • Two-dimensional carbon nanohybrid with excellent conductivity and mechanical flexibility. • Supercapacitor with excellent performance stability upon mechanical deformation for flexible electronics applications. • Supercapacitor with high impedance phase angle for 120 Hz alternating current line filtering applications

  8. The Detector Physics and Applications Center - DePAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plothow-Besch, H.; Besch, H.-J.; Fiorini, C.; Grupen, C.; Hassard, J.; Longoni, A.; Walenta, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    A new project, the 'Detector Physics and Applications Center (DePAC)', is presented. DePAC is a general detector and sensor database, which is not application specific, on the Internet. DePAC collects and explains the physics, the technology and the application of a wide range of radiation detectors. DePAC also collects and describes information about noise problems, front-end electronics, data transfer, processing and storage. DePAC provides short write-ups and source code of all sorts of detector related software depending on availability. DePAC collects useful constants and properties of materials in an exhaustive series of tables and graphs. DePAC also acts as a point of contact for researchers and industry in an interdisciplinary way, e.g. in biology, in medicine, in materials research and in high energy or nuclear physics. Last but not least, DePAC aims to develop also into a virtual lecturing school and serves as a tutorial for students and all interested scientists

  9. The Detector Physics and Applications Center - DePAC

    CERN Document Server

    Plothow-Besch, H; Fiorini, C; Grupen, C; Hassard, J; Longoni, A; Walenta, Albert H

    2001-01-01

    A new project, the 'Detector Physics and Applications Center (DePAC)', is presented. DePAC is a general detector and sensor database, which is not application specific, on the Internet. DePAC collects and explains the physics, the technology and the application of a wide range of radiation detectors. DePAC also collects and describes information about noise problems, front-end electronics, data transfer, processing and storage. DePAC provides short write-ups and source code of all sorts of detector related software depending on availability. DePAC collects useful constants and properties of materials in an exhaustive series of tables and graphs. DePAC also acts as a point of contact for researchers and industry in an interdisciplinary way, e.g. in biology, in medicine, in materials research and in high energy or nuclear physics. Last but not least, DePAC aims to develop also into a virtual lecturing school and serves as a tutorial for students and all interested scientists.

  10. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  11. Surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of nickel oxide and lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films, toward electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denayer, Jessica [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Bister, Geoffroy [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Laboratory LPS, University of Namur, rue de bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Colson, Pierre; Maho, Anthony [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Aubry, Philippe [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Vertruyen, Bénédicte [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Henrist, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.henrist@ulg.ac.be [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Lardot, Véronique; Cambier, Francis [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Cloots, Rudi [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted USP: a novel and low cost process to obtain high quality nickel oxide films, with or without lithium dopant. • Increased uniformity and reduced light scattering thanks to the addition of a surfactant. • Improved electrochromic performance (coloration efficiency and contrast) for lithium-doped films by comparison with the undoped NiO film. - Abstract: Lithium-doped nickel oxide and undoped nickel oxide thin films have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by a surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the sprayed solution has led to improved uniformity and reduced light scattering compared to films made without surfactant. Furthermore, the presence of lithium ions in NiO films has resulted in improved electrochromic performances (coloration contrast and efficiency), but with a slight decrease of the electrochromic switching kinetics.

  12. A numerical approach for the study of large sodium spray fires and its application for SPX1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, T.; Leroy, B.; Barthez, M.; Malet, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    For the original design of SUPER-PHENIX, only pool fires were analysed for secondary sodium because these were thought to be the most likely. However, after the sodium spray fire at the solar plant of ALMERIA, an analysis of the consequences of secondary spray fire was undertaken. According to the French Safety Authority, the most penalizing cases of sodium leak and fire must be taken into account for each type of consequences, up to the complete rupture of a main secondary pipe. The experimental data available were mainly based on sodium flowrates in the range of ten kilograms per second, which are far below the leak flowrates obtained in case of a complete rupture of a main secondary pipe, i.e. several tons of sodium per second during a short time interval; moreover, it was obviously not possible to perform sodium tests with such high flowrate conditions. Consequently a complete methodology for the prediction of the behaviour of large sodium spray fires has been developed: the two-dimensional code PULSAR, which solves the two phase flow Navier-Stokes equations with source terms of mass and energy, is first used to evaluate the physical behaviour of a spray of sodium droplets in a cell in diverse conditions and thus to determine the burning rate. This last value is then used as data in the FEUMIX code in which other phenomena such as the dynamic response of pressure relief systems are described, in order to determine the pressure transient in the cell. This approach has been successfully tested using the experimental data available from past and recent tests, particularly the high flowrates tests IGNA 3602 and IGNA 3604. This numerical approach has been applied to the analysis of the consequences of postulated large sodium leaks in SUPER-PHENIX and allowed us to justify the hypotheses used to design the protective measures implemented on the plant, and thus the demonstration of safety with regard to large sodium leaks. (author)

  13. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doisneau, François, E-mail: fdoisne@sandia.gov; Arienti, Marco, E-mail: marient@sandia.gov; Oefelein, Joseph C., E-mail: oefelei@sandia.gov

    2017-01-15

    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier–Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle–particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  14. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis growth of ZnO and ZnO:Al nanostructured films: Application to photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenanakis, G., E-mail: gkenanak@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katsarakis, N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Al–ZnO thin films and nanostructures were obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. • The texture and morphology of the samples depend on the deposition parameters. • The photocatalytic degradation of stearic acid was studied upon UV-A irradiation. - Abstract: Pure and Al-doped ZnO (Al = 1, 3, 5%) nanostructured thin films were grown at 400 °C on glass substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, a simple, environmental-friendly and inexpensive method, using aqueous solutions as precursors. The structural and morphological characteristics of the samples depend drastically on deposition parameters; ZnO nanostructured films, nanopetals and nanorods were systematically obtained by simply varying the precursor solution and/or the spraying time. Transmittance measurements have shown that all samples are transparent in the visible wavelength region. Finally, the photocatalytic properties of the samples were investigated against the degradation of stearic acid under UV-A light illumination (365 nm); both pure and Al-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films show good photocatalytic activity regarding the degradation of stearic acid, due to their good crystallinity and large surface area.

  15. Fabrication of gas diffusion layer based on x-y robotic spraying technique for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitanggang, Ramli; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Iyuke, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The x-y robotic spraying technique developed in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia is capable of fabricating various sizes of thickness and porosity of gas diffusion layer (GDL) used in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). These parameters are obtained by varying the characteristic spray numbers of the robotic spraying machine. This investigation results were adequately represented with mathematical equations for hydrogen gas distribution in GDL. Volumetric modulus (M) parameter is used to determine the value of current density produced on the electrode of a single cell PEMFC. Thus the M parameter can be employed as indicator for a successful GDL fabrication. GDL type 4 has three variables of layer design that can be optimized to function as gas distributor, gas storage, flooding preventer on GDL surface, to evacuate water from the electrode and to control the electrical conductivity. The gas distribution in GDL was mathematically represented with average error of 15.5%. The M value of GDL type 4 according to the model was 0.22 cm 3 /s and yielded a current density of 750 A/m 2 .

  16. Spray-Deposited Large-Area Copper Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes and Their Uses for Touch Screen Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsun-Chen; Chang, Yen-Chen; Lin, Yow; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Wei-Chung; Li, Guo-An; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2016-05-25

    Large-area conducting transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were prepared by a fast, scalable, and low-cost spray deposition of copper nanowire (CuNW) dispersions. Thin, long, and pure copper nanowires were obtained via the seed-mediated growth in an organic solvent-based synthesis. The mean length and diameter of nanowires are, respectively, 37.7 μm and 46 nm, corresponding to a high-mean-aspect ratio of 790. These wires were spray-deposited onto a glass substrate to form a nanowire conducting network which function as a TCE. CuNW TCEs exhibit high-transparency and high-conductivity since their relatively long lengths are advantageous in lowering in the sheet resistance. For example, a 2 × 2 cm(2) transparent nanowire electrode exhibits transmittance of T = 90% with a sheet resistance as low as 52.7 Ω sq(-1). Large-area sizes (>50 cm(2)) of CuNW TCEs were also prepared by the spray coating method and assembled as resistive touch screens that can be integrated with a variety of devices, including LED lighting array, a computer, electric motors, and audio electronic devices, showing the capability to make diverse sizes and functionalities of CuNW TCEs by the reported method.

  17. U.S. DOE Southeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzarella, Isaac [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mago, Pedro [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kalland, Stephen [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Between 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Southeast Clean Energy Application Center (SE-CEAC), co-located at the North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University (NCSU) and at Mississippi State University. The SE-CEAC was one of eight regional CEACs established to promote and assist in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), district energy (DE) and waste heat to power (WHP) throughout the U.S. CHP locates power generation at the point of demand and makes productive use of the residual thermal energy for process and space heating in factories and businesses, thus lowering the cost of meeting electricity and heat requirements and increasing energy efficiency. The overall goal of the SE-CEAC was to support end-user implementation and overall market transformation for CHP and related clean energy technologies. Five objectives were targeted to achieve the goal: 1. Market Analysis and Information Dissemination 2. Outreach and Education for Potential CHP End-users 3. Policy Support for State and Regional Stakeholders 4. Technical Assistance to Support CHP Deployment 5. Collaboration with DOE and other CEACs Throughout the project, the CEACs provided key services of education and outreach, technical assistance and market analysis in support of project objectives. These services were very effective at achieving key objectives of assisting prospective CHP end-users and informing policy makers, utilities and others about the benefits of CHP. There is a marked increase in the awareness of CHP technologies and applications as an energy resource among end-users, policymakers, utility regulators, electric utilities and natural gas utilities in the Southeast region as a result. At the end of 2013, a number of best-practice policies for CHP were applied or under consideration in various Southeast states. The SE-CEAC met its targets for providing technical assistance with over 50 analyses delivered for 412 MW of potential end

  18. New development in optical fibers for data center applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Shubochkin, Roman; Zhu, Benyuan

    2015-01-01

    VCSEL-multimode optical fiber based links is the most successful optical technology in Data Centers. Laser-optimized multimode optical fibers, OM3 and OM4, have been the primary choice of physical media for 10 G serial, 4 x 10 G parallel, 10 x 10 G parallel, and 4 x 25 G parallel optical solutions in IEEE 802.3 standards. As the transition of high-end servers from 10 Gb/s to 40 Gb/s is driving the aggregation of speeds to 40 Gb/s now, and to 100 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s in near future, industry experts are coming together in IEEE 802.3bs 400 Gb/s study group and preliminary discussion of Terabit transmission for datacom applications has also been commenced. To meet the requirement of speed, capacity, density, power consumption and cost for next generation datacom applications, optical fiber design concepts beyond the standard OM3 and OM4 MMFs have a revived research and developmental interest, for example, wide band multimode optical fiber using multiple dopants for coarse wavelength division multiplexing; multicore multimode optical fiber using plural multimode cores in a single fiber strand to improve spatial density; and perhaps 50 Gb/s per lane and few mode fiber in spatial division multiplexing for ultimate capacity increase in far future. This talk reviews the multitude of fiber optic media being developed in the industry to address the upcoming challenges of datacom growth. We conclude that multimode transmission using low cost VCSEL technology will continue to be a viable solution for datacom applications.

  19. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  20. Effects of coflow temperature and composition on ethanol spray flames in hot-diluted coflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia Rodrigues, H.; Tummers, M.J.; Veen, E.H. van; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive experimental study of spray flames in hot-diluted coflow. • Application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman in spray flames. • Identification of relevant phenomena determining the lift-off behavior of spray flames in hot-diluted coflow. - Abstract: Ethanol pressure-swirl sprays issuing in a hot-diluted oxidizer coflow with different temperature and composition were studied. The bulk coflow temperature was varied together with the oxygen volume fraction. The bulk coflow temperature was changed from 1480 K to 1225 K and the oxygen volume fraction from 7.1% to 10.1%. The liquid mass flow rates were chosen to yield spray flames with nearly identical Weber number. Laser Doppler anemometry, phase Doppler anemometry and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering were applied in the spray region and the coflow inlet. The current measurements provide a thorough description of the spray structure, droplet dispersion and gas temperature fields as well as a comprehensive database useful for validation of numerical models. Visual observations of the flame luminescence reveal that the lift-off height depends on the liquid mass flow rates as well as the coflow conditions. The lift-off height is shown to increase for lower coflow temperatures and higher liquid mass flow rates. It is found that lift-off behavior depends on the droplet convective, vaporization and chemical time scales prior to ignition. Phase Doppler anemometry results indicate that the droplet mean size and velocity distribution close to the atomizer are not influenced by the coflow conditions. A flame-front develops at the outer region of the spray where a low density of large droplets are present. A significant number of peak temperatures samples above 2000 K is observed at this location. Decrease of the coflow temperature leads to a reduction of the local peak temperatures. Closer to the center axis, the local mixture composition becomes increasingly rich and the heat-release is lower than

  1. Properties of arc-sprayed coatings from Fe-based cored wires for high-temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, Yu. S.; Nevezhin, S. V.; Filiрpov, M. A.; Makarov, A. V.; Malygina, I. Yu.; Fantozzi, D.; Milanti, A.; Koivuluoto, H.; Vuoristo, P.

    2017-12-01

    Equipment of a thermal power plant is subjected to high temperature oxidation and wear. This raises operating costs through frequent repair of worn parts and high metal consumption. The paper proposes a possible solution to this problem through arc spraying of protective coatings. Cored wires of the Fe-Cr-C basic alloying system are used as a feedstock. Additional alloying by Al, B, Si, Ti and Y allows one to create wear- and heat-resistant coatings, which are an attractive substitute of more expensive Co- and Ni-based materials.

  2. Preparation of nanostructured ZrO2 thin films by using spray pyrolysis technique for gas sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.B.; Bari, R.H.; Jain, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    In present work the nano-structured pure ZrO 2 thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis techniques. The aqueous solution of ZrCl 4 , was used as a precursor with flow rate controlled 5 mI/min. The films were synthesized on glass substrate between temperature 250-400℃ and subjected to different analytical characterization like SEM, XRD, TEM, FTIR, UV, TGA-DTA/DSC. The gas sensing performances of various gases were tested in different operating temperature range. The sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time for H 2 S gas was discussed. Also nano structured grain size discussed. (author)

  3. Spray drift and deposit pattern from a forest herbicide application. SRC publication No. E-2310-4-E-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewchuk, S.R.; Wallace, K.; Maybank, J.

    1991-01-01

    In October 1989, a series of trials were carried out at Ruby Creek, British Columbia to compare the air sampling capability of a number of drift measuring devices in a forest pesticide spraying with a helicopter. Since this study was not designed for a mass balance, no attempt was made to fully bracket or define the drifting cloud, neither vertically nor horizontally. Because of the need for total accountability of the emitted material, the study was extended into a preliminary mass balance evaluation. This report presents the results of the mass balance evaluation, calculated using Kromekote card and Petri dish deposit samplers and two air samplers.

  4. Pulse sliced picosecond Ballistic Imaging and two planar elastic scattering: Development of the techniques and their application to diesel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Sean Patrick Hynes

    A line of sight imaging technique was developed which utilized pulse slicing of laser pulses to shorten the duration of the parent laser pulse, thereby making time gating more effective at removing multiple scattered light. This included the development of an optical train which utilized a Kerr cell to selectively pass the initial part of the laser pulse while rejecting photons contained later within the pulse. This line of sight ballistic imaging technique was applied to image high-pressure fuel sprays injected into conditions typically encountered in a diesel combustion chamber. Varying the environmental conditions into which the fuel was injected revealed trends in spray behavior which depend on both temperature and pressure. Different fuel types were also studied in this experiment which demonstrated remarkably different shedding structures from one another. Additional experiments were performed to characterize the imaging technique at ambient conditions. The technique was modified to use two wavelengths to allow further rejection of scattered light. The roles of spatial, temporal and polarization filtration were examined by imaging an USAF 1951 line-pair target through a highly scattering field of polystyrene micro-spheres. The optical density of the scattering field was varied by both the optical path length and number densities of the spheres. The equal optical density, but with variable path length results demonstrated the need for an aggressively shorter pulse length to effectively image the distance scales typical encountered in the primary breakup regions of diesel sprays. Results indicate that the system performance improved via the use of two wavelengths. A final investigation was undertaken to image coherent light which has elastically scattered orthogonal to the direction of the laser pulse. Two wavelengths were focused into ˜150 micron sheets via a cylindrical lens and passed under the injector nozzle. The two sheets were adjustable spatially to

  5. U.S. DOE Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Patti [Etc Group, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center helped promote, assist, and transform the market for combined heat and power (CHP), including waste heat to power and district energy with CHP, in the intermountain states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. We accomplished these objectives through a combination of the following methods, which proved in concert to be a technically and economically effective strategy: o Identifying and facilitating high-impact CHP projects o Helping industrial, commercial, institutional, federal, and other large energy users in evaluating the economic and technical viability of potential CHP systems o Disseminating essential information about CHP including benefits, technologies, applications, project development, project financing, electric and gas utility incentives, and state policies o Coordinating and collaborating on CHP advancement with regional stakeholders including electric utilities, gas utilities, state energy offices, municipal development and planning personnel, trade associations, industry groups, non-profits, energy users, and others Outcomes of the project included increased understanding of and deployment of efficient and well-designed CHP systems in the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Increased CHP deployment helps the United States to enhance energy efficiency, strengthen the competitiveness of American industries, promote economic growth, foster a robust and resilient energy infrastructure, reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and increase the use of market-ready advanced technologies. Specific outcomes included direct assistance to energy-intensive industrial facilities and other businesses, workshops and CHP tours, communication materials, and state policy education, all contributing to implementation of CHP systems in the intermountain region.

  6. Cold Spray for Repair of Magnesium Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Readiness Center East GM General Motors He helium hex-Cr hexavalent chromium HP-Al High Purity Aluminum HVOF High Velocity Oxygen Fuel ID inner...process is the hexavalent chromium (hex-Cr) permissible exposure limit (PEL) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...project related to replacement of hard chrome plating on helicopter dynamic components using HVOF thermal spray coatings. FRC-E has a thermal spray

  7. One-Pot Synthesis of CoSex -rGO Composite Powders by Spray Pyrolysis and Their Application as Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Dae; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-03-14

    A simple one-pot synthesis of metal selenide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders for application as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries was developed. The detailed mechanism of formation of the CoSe(x)-rGO composite powders that were selected as the first target material in the spray pyrolysis process was studied. The crumple-structured CoSe(x)-rGO composite powders prepared by spray pyrolysis at 800 °C had a crystal structure consisting mainly of Co0.85 Se with a minor phase of CoSe2. The bare CoSe(x) powders prepared for comparison had a spherical shape and hollow structure. The discharge capacities of the CoSe(x)-rGO composite and bare CoSe(x) powders in the 50th cycle at a constant current density of 0.3 A g(-1) were 420 and 215 mA h g(-1), respectively, and their capacity retentions measured from the second cycle were 80 and 46%, respectively. The high structural stability of the CoSe(x)-rGO composite powders for repeated sodium-ion charge and discharge processes resulted in superior sodium-ion storage properties compared to those of the bare CoSe(x) powders. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic polyurethane/nano-Al2O3 coatings by suspension flame spraying for anti-corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; Yuan, Jianhui; Huang, Jing; Ren, Kun; Liu, Yi; Lu, Shaoyang; Li, Hua

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to further enhance the anti-corrosion performances of Al coatings by constructing superhydrophobic surfaces. The Al coatings were initially arc-sprayed onto steel substrates, followed by deposition of polyurethane (PU)/nano-Al2O3 composites by a suspension flame spraying process. Large-scale corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic PU/nano-Al2O3-Al coatings were successfully fabricated. The coatings showed tunable superhydrophilicity/superhydrophobicity as achieved by changing the concentration of PU in the starting suspension. The layer containing 2.0 wt.%PU displayed excellent hydrophobicity with the contact angle of ∼151° and the sliding angle of ∼6.5° for water droplets. The constructed superhydrophobic coatings showed markedly improved anti-corrosion performances as assessed by electrochemical corrosion testing carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The PU/nano-Al2O3-Al coatings with superhydrophobicity and competitive anti-corrosion performances could be potentially used as protective layers for marine infrastructures. This study presents a promising approach for fabricatiing superhydrophobic coatings for corrosion-resistant applications.

  9. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  10. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  11. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  12. Application of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF Spraying to the Fabrication of Yb-Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bakan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From the literature, it is known that due to their glass formation tendency, it is not possible to deposit fully-crystalline silicate coatings when the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS process is employed. In APS, rapid quenching of the sprayed material on the substrate facilitates the amorphous deposit formation, which shrinks when exposed to heat and forms pores and/or cracks. This paper explores the feasibility of using a high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF process for the cost-effective fabrication of dense, stoichiometric, and crystalline Yb2Si2O7 environmental barrier coatings. We report our findings on the HVOF process optimization and its resultant influence on the microstructure development and crystallinity of the Yb2Si2O7 coatings. The results reveal that partially crystalline, dense, and vertical crack-free EBCs can be produced by the HVOF technique. However, the furnace thermal cycling results revealed that the bonding of the Yb2Si2O7 layer to the Silicon bond coat needs to be improved.

  13. Preparation of mesoporous alumina particles by spray pyrolysis and application to double bond migration of 2-butene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ki Chang; Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Jin Han; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Park, Young-Kwon; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the catalytic performance of mesoporous alumina that were prepared via spray pyrolysis for double bond migration from 2-butene to 1-butene. The mesoporous alumina particles were prepared via spray pyrolysis by changing the types of organic surfactants and Al precursors. The texture and acidic properties of mesoporous alumina were analyzed through N2 adsorption, SEM, ammonia-temperature programmed desorption, and FT-IR of adsorbed pyridine. The morphologies and texture properties of the mesoporous alumina were found to have been strongly influenced by the combination of the Al precursor and the structure-directing agents. The mesoporous alumina samples had two kinds of acidic sites: a Lewis acid site and a H-bonded weak acid site. 1-Butene was produced selectively through double bond migration of 2-butene over all of the mesoporous alumina catalysts. The catalyst prepared by using a chloride compound as an aluminium precursor and CTAC as a structure-directing agent showed the highest activity in the double bond migration of 2-butene, which was attributed to its large surface area and an overall high amount of acid sites.

  14. O3 Layers via Spray Pyrolysis at Low Temperatures and Their Application in High Electron Mobility Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Isakov, Ivan

    2017-04-06

    The growth mechanism of indium oxide (InO) layers processed via spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor solution in the temperature range of 100-300 °C and the impact on their electron transporting properties are studied. Analysis of the droplet impingement sites on the substrate\\'s surface as a function of its temperature reveals that Leidenfrost effect dominated boiling plays a crucial role in the growth of smooth, continuous, and highly crystalline InO layers via a vapor phase-like process. By careful optimization of the precursor formulation, deposition conditions, and choice of substrate, this effect is exploited and ultrathin and exceptionally smooth layers of InO are grown over large area substrates at temperatures as low as 252 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using these optimized InO layers exhibit superior electron transport characteristics with the electron mobility reaching up to 40 cm V s, a value amongst the highest reported to date for solution-processed InO TFTs. The present work contributes enormously to the basic understanding of spray pyrolysis and highlights its tremendous potential for large-volume manufacturing of high-performance metal oxide thin-film transistor electronics.

  15. O3 Layers via Spray Pyrolysis at Low Temperatures and Their Application in High Electron Mobility Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Isakov, Ivan; Faber, Hendrik; Grell, Max; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George P.; Patsalas, Panos P.; Li, Ruipeng; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    The growth mechanism of indium oxide (InO) layers processed via spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor solution in the temperature range of 100-300 °C and the impact on their electron transporting properties are studied. Analysis of the droplet impingement sites on the substrate's surface as a function of its temperature reveals that Leidenfrost effect dominated boiling plays a crucial role in the growth of smooth, continuous, and highly crystalline InO layers via a vapor phase-like process. By careful optimization of the precursor formulation, deposition conditions, and choice of substrate, this effect is exploited and ultrathin and exceptionally smooth layers of InO are grown over large area substrates at temperatures as low as 252 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using these optimized InO layers exhibit superior electron transport characteristics with the electron mobility reaching up to 40 cm V s, a value amongst the highest reported to date for solution-processed InO TFTs. The present work contributes enormously to the basic understanding of spray pyrolysis and highlights its tremendous potential for large-volume manufacturing of high-performance metal oxide thin-film transistor electronics.

  16. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  17. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  18. Morphology-controllable of Sn doped ZnO nanorods prepared by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, M. Shahul; Princice, J. Joseph; Babu, N. Ramesh; Zahirullah, S. Syed; Deshmukh, Sampat G.; Arunachalam, A.

    2018-05-01

    Transparent conductive Sn doped ZnO nanorods have been deposited at various doping level by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrate. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of these films have been investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. XRD patterns revealed a successful high quality growth of single crystal ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite structure having (002) preferred orientation. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the prepared films exposed the uniform distribution of Sn doped ZnO nanorod shaped grains. All these films were highly transparent in the visible region with average transmittance of 90%.

  19. Corrosion behavior of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-silicon oxide coatings on AISI 304 for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Hazoor; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-silicon oxide (SiO 2 ) coated AISI 304 substrates. In HA-SiO 2 coatings, 10 wt% SiO 2 and 20 wt% SiO 2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance was determined for the uncoated and coated samples. The corrosion resistance of the AISI 304 was found more after the deposition of the HA-SiO 2 coatings rather than HA coating and uncoated. All the coatings were crack free after 24 h dipping in Ringer's solution for electrochemical corrosion testing.

  20. Resonant mode for a dc plasma spray torch by means of pressure–voltage coupling: application to synchronized liquid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krowka, J; Rat, V; Coudert, J F

    2013-01-01

    Electric arc instabilities in dc plasma torches result in non-homogeneous treatment of nanosized solid particles injected into the plasma jets. In the particular case of suspension plasma spraying, large discrepancies in the particles trajectories and thermal histories make the control of coating properties more difficult to achieve. In this paper, a new approach of arc dynamics highlights the existence of different resonant modes and the possibility of their coupling. This study leads us to design a special plasma torch working in a very regular pulsed regime. Then, an innovative injection system based on the drop-on-demand method synchronized with the plasma oscillations is presented as an efficient method to control the dynamics of plasma/particles interactions. (paper)

  1. Effect of sunlight radiation, rainfall and droplet spectra of sprays on persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis deposits after application of DiPel 76AF formulation onto conifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, A.; Sundaram, K.M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Effect of sunlight radiation, rainfall and droplet spectra of sprays on per ‐sistence of a Bacillus thuringiensis subspp. kurstaki (Btk) formulation, DiPel? 76AF, was examined after application onto spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] foliage. The investigation consisted of three studies: (i) Study I: a laboratory microcosm study to examine the photostability of DiPel 76AF deposits on foliage after different periods of exposure to two radiation intensities, (ii) Study II: a laboratory microcosm study to examine the rainfastness of foliar deposits after exposure to different amounts of rainfall consisting of two separate droplet spectra, and (iii) Study III: a field microcosm study to investigate the influence of two different droplet spectra of DiPel 76AF sprays on foliar persistence of Btk under natural weathering conditions. In all studies, persistence of Btk was investigated both by bioassay [using spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens)] and total protein assay.The findings of Study I indicated that bioactivity of foliar deposits decreased with increasing duration of exposure to radiation, and with increasing radiation intensity. The half‐life (DT 50 , the exposure period required for 50% of the initial bioactivity to disappear) was 5.1 d for the low intensity, and 3.9 d for the higher intensity. In contrast with the bioassay results, the total protein levels [determined by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method] showed no decrease with increasing duration of exposure, or with increasing radiation intensity.The findings of Study II indicated that bioactivity of foliar deposits decreased with increasing cumulative rainfall. A new term, RF 50 [the amount of rain (in mm) required to washoff 50% of the initial deposit], was introduced to understand the relationship between rainfall intensity and reduction in bioactivity. When the same amount of rain was applied in different droplet sizes, the RF 50 value was high (5.2 mm) for the small rain droplets

  2. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying application to obtain hydroxyapatite coatings on the stainless steel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Marija D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the standard metallic materials for hip implants, besides the 316LVM stainless steel, were titanium- and cobalt/chromium-based alloys. Although bioinert, due to their corrosion resistance, they are not biocompatible. Contemporary surgical implants are not made just of bioinert metal anymore, but with deposited bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp coating. Hydroxyapatite is chemically identical with the mineral constituent of bones and teeth, what besides its biocompatibility provides bioactivity as well. The HAp limitations are, however, weak tensile strength and low fatigue resistance for long term loadings, if used alone. This is the reason for HAp to be deposited onto the surgical implant, and to enable its bioactivity, what means intergrowth with bones, and therefore the long-lasting and mechanical stable non-cemented prosthesis. This is important predominantly because the need for such prostheses for younger population, and a better life quality. There are several contemporary techniques that have been used for deposition of these coatings onto the metal implant. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying for obtaining the stable HAp coatings on the 316LVM stainless steel, ordinary used as a standard material for hip implants production are presented in this paper. The coatings of a commercially available hydroxyapatite powder were plasma-sprayed onto the specimens of medical grade 316LVM stainless steel under various operating conditions. The optical microscopy was used for microstructure and porosity characterization, while coating morphology and Ca/P ratio were analyzed using SEM equipped with EDX. Coating microstructure varied from a porous to a glassy structure, depending on operating conditions applied and coating thickness. Coating porosity was determined to be at the lower required limit requested for the bone-coating intergrowth possibility, but nevertheless adhesion measurements showed good results. The Ca/P ratio was

  3. Improvement of thermophysiological stress in participants wearing protective clothing for spraying pesticide, and its application in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

    2000-04-01

    Thermoregulatory responses were compared under two experimental conditions, in the laboratory (Experiment I), and in the field (Experiment II), between two kinds of protective clothing for spraying pesticides. One was currently being used (Type A), and was composed of ready made Gore-Tex clothing, mask, polyurethane gloves and rubber boots. The other one was newly designed (Type B), and was composed of pesticide-proof clothing (100% cotton with water repellent finish), mask, Gore-Tex gloves, and special boots consisting of rubber for the feet and ankle and Gore-Tex around the legs. In addition, the head and chest were cooled by frozen gel strips fixed in the cap and undershirt. In Experiment I, five female adults took part, in a climate-chamber controlled at an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. In Experiment II, five farmers (one male and four female) were tested in an apple orchard in July, August and September. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) change of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in Type B in Experiment I, (2) change of heart rate tended to be lower in Type B than in Type A in both experiments, (3) salivary lactic acid concentration at the end of the first exercise was significantly higher in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (4) the number of contractions in the handgrip exercise which was performed immediately after the third exercise, was significantly smaller in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (5) subjective comfort sensation was significantly improved in Type B in Experiments I and II. Thus, it was concluded that the newly designed protective clothing could reduce thermal stress during the spraying of pesticides in an apple orchard in summer.

  4. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  5. A study of the wall/jet interaction on a transient spray. Application to diesel injection; Etude de l'interaction jet/paroi dans un spray transitoire. Application a l'injection diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chale Gongora, H.G.

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to better understand the mechanisms that govern the formation and development of the parietal flow occurring during the impact of a diesel fuel jet on a plate. In order to isolate the dynamical aspects of the phenomenon, a non-confined experimental configuration at ambient temperature and pressure has been used. The behaviour of the dispersed phase for different conditions of jet approach and different plate temperatures has been analyzed. Velocity and diameter fields of the free zone and of the parietal zone have been measured using a laser doppler apparatus up to a plate surface resolution of 0.2 mm. In a first step, an estimation of the average time value gives information about the global behaviour of the spray: the plate effect is sensible up to a very reduced distance but increases with the plate temperature, the momentum of the parietal jet is localized in a zone very close to the wall, an increase of the droplets size and of radial velocities in the parietal zone is observed when the nozzle is moved closer to the wall, and the increase of the plate temperature facilitates the jet penetration and leads to a reduction of the droplets size (increase of the shear stresses) and to a reduction of the liquid film thickness submitted to splashing. In order to examine the behaviour of velocity and droplets diameter with time, a processing has been defined which provides an average description of the phenomena. A laser tomography study in association with fast cinematography and CCD camera video recording has permitted to outline the main aspects of the evolution of the parietal spray with time: fast development of a swirl which drags most of the small droplets and limits their dispersion, effect of the temperature rise of the plate in the beginning of fuel injection, development of a more intense swirl which leads to an increase of velocity fluctuations, development of wavelet structures in the internal zone of the flow, near the wall, and

  6. A study on the macroscopic spray behavior and atomization characteristics of biodiesel and dimethyl ether sprays under increased ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Park, Su Han [Graduate School of Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Chang Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the spray behaviors of biodiesel and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels using image processing and atomization performance analysis of the two fuel sprays injected through a common-rail injection system under various ambient pressure conditions in a high pressure chamber. In order to observe the biodiesel and DME fuel spray behaviors under various ambient pressures, the spray images were analyzed at various times after the start of energization using a visualization system consisting of a high speed camera and two metal halide light sources. In addition, a high pressure chamber that can withstand a pressure of 4 MPa was used for adjusting the ambient pressure. From the spray images, spray characteristics such as the spray tip penetration, cone angle, area, and contour plot at various light intensity levels were analyzed using image conversion processing. Also, the local Sauter mean diameters (SMD) were measured at various axial/radial distances from the nozzle tip by a droplet measuring system to compare the atomization performances of the biodiesel and DME sprays. The results showed that the ambient pressure had a significant effect on the spray characteristics of the fuels at the various experimental conditions. The spray tip penetration and spray area decreased as the ambient pressure increased. The contour plot of the biodiesel and DME sprays showed a high light intensity level in the center regions of the sprays. In addition, it was revealed that the atomization performance of the biodiesel spray was inferior to that of the DME spray at the same injection and ambient conditions. (author)

  7. CONCHAS-SPRAY, Reactive Flows with Fuel Sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Amsden, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Description of program or function: CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite- difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two- dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included

  8. Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fukuda, Katsumi; Sato, Tatsuro; Nonaka, Katsumi; Gozu, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m 3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

  9. Effects of self-pulsation on the spray characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng; Zhang, Xinqiao; Wang, Zhen-guo

    2016-10-01

    To understand the influence of self-pulsation on the spray characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injector, a back-lighting photography technique has been employed to capture the instantaneous self-pulsated spray and stable spray images with a high speed camera. The diameter and velocity of the droplets in the spray have been characterized with a Dantec Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system. The effects of self-pulsation on the spray pattern, primary breakup, spray angle, diameter and velocity distribution and mass flow rate distribution are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the spray morphology is greatly influenced by self-pulsation. The stable spray has a cone shape, while the self-pulsated spray looks like a Christmas tree. The main difference of these two sprays is the primary breakup. The liquid film of stable spray keeps stable while that of self-pulsated spray oscillates periodically. The film width of self-pulsated spray varies in a large range with 'neck' and 'shoulder' features existing. The liquid film of self-pulsated spray breaks up at the second neck, and then the second shoulder begins to breakup into ligaments. The self-pulsated spray produces droplet clusters periodically, varies horizontal spray width and mass flux periodically. From the point of spatial distribution, self-pulsation is good for the spray, it uniformizes the mass flux along radius and increases the spray angle. However, when self-pulsation occurs, the SMD distribution varies from an inverted V shape to a hollow cone shape, and SMD increases at all the measuring points. Namely, from the point of atomization performance, self-pulsation has negative effects even when the breakup length is smaller. The effects of self-pulsation on the diameter and velocity distributions of the spray are mainly in the center part of the spray. The periphery of stable and self-pulsated spray has similar diameter and velocity distribution.

  10. Physical investigations on NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sprayed magnetic spinel for sensitivity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbi, T.; Amara, A.; Ouni, B. [Unité de physique des dispositifs a semi-conducteurs, Faculté des sciences de Tunis, Tunis El Manar University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Inoubli, A. [Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Département de Physique, Zarzouna, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Karyaoui, M. [Laboratoire de photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Énergie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Yumak, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, Göztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Saadallah, F. [Phothermal laboratory IPEIN, Mrezka, BP 62, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); Boubaker, K., E-mail: mmbb11112000@yahoo.fr [Unité de physique des dispositifs a semi-conducteurs, Faculté des sciences de Tunis, Tunis El Manar University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Amlouk, M. [Unité de physique des dispositifs a semi-conducteurs, Faculté des sciences de Tunis, Tunis El Manar University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2015-08-01

    NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} ternary nickel manganese oxide thin films spinels have been grown on glass substrates at 350 °C through spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses show that the synthesized film has mainly cubic spinel structure with a preferred orientation along (111) plane. Some optical constants such as the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), Urbach energy (E{sub U}=342 eV) and optical energy band gap (E{sub g}=1.07 eV) have been calculated from reflection-transmission spectra. The mirage effect technique has been used to estimate the thermal conductivity (K{sub c}). Its value is K{sub c}=25 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}. The real part of the ac the conductivity behaviour has been investigated in the frequency range 100 Hz to 1 MHz. It was found that the real conductivity follows a power law (Aω{sup s}). The dc conductivity has been studied in the temperature range from 250 °C to 375 °C and supports the variable range hopping model proposed by Mott. The activation energy value estimated from the relaxation frequency is Ea~0.32 eV. Moreover, the temperature dependency of the resistance indicates that conduction was well described by a variable range hopping model, in which electron transfer takes place between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions. - Highlights: • The nickel manganese oxide (NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) has been prepared by the low-cost spray pyrolysis technique. • The optical band gap of this ternary oxide is around 1 eV and the crystallites are oriented preferentially along (111) direction. • Presenting an accurate technique “Mirage effect” for original investigation of thermal properties. • DC and AC conductivity can be both attributed to a hopping transport, while at high frequency a metallic-like behavior is observed. • A deep analysis within correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model was carried out. • Outlining a correlation between Magnetic and electrical properties.

  11. Testing of a Spray-bar Thermodynamic Vent System in Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hastings, L. J.; Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    To support development of a microgravity pressure control capability for liquid oxygen, thermodynamic vent system (TVS) testing was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a LOX simulant. The spray bar TVS hardware used was originally designed by the Boeing Company for testing in liquid hydrogen (LH2). With this concept, a small portion of the tank fluid is passed through a Joule-Thomson (J-T) device, and then through a longitudinal spray bar mixed-heat exchanger in order to cool the bulk fluid. To accommodate the larger mass flow rates associated with LN2, the TVS hardware was modified by replacing the recirculation pump with an LN2 compatible pump and replacing the J-T valve. The primary advantage of the spray-bar configuration is that tank pressure control can be achieved independent of liquid and vapor location, enhancing the applicability of ground test data to microgravity conditions. Performance testing revealed that the spray-bar TVS was effective in controlling tank pressure within a 6.89 kPa band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Tests were also conducted with gaseous helium (GHe) in the ullage. The TVS operated nominally with GHe in the ullage, with performance similar to the tests with gaseous nitrogen (GN2). Testing demonstrated that the spray-bar TVS design was flexible enough for use in two different propellants with minimal hardware modifications.

  12. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    G Nasr; A Whitehead; A Yule

    2016-01-01

    Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's). The Spray Research Group (SRG) have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA) for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coatin...

  13. Re-emission and thermal desorption of deuterium from plasma sprayed tungsten coatings for application in ASDEX-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rosales, C.; Franzen, P.; Plank, H.; Roth, J.; Gauthier, E.

    1996-01-01

    The trapping and release of deuterium implanted with an energy of 100 eV in wrought and in plasma sprayed tungsten of different manufacture and structure has been investigated by means of re-emission as well as thermal and isothermal desorption spectroscopy. The experimental data for wrought tungsten are compared with model calculations with the PIDAT code in order to estimate the parameters governing diffusion, surface recombination and trapping in tungsten. The amount of retained deuterium in tungsten is of the same order of magnitude as in graphite for the implantation parameters used in this work. The mobile hydrogen concentration in tungsten during the implantation is of the same order of magnitude than the trapped one, being released after the termination of the implantation. The fraction of deuterium trapped to defects increases strongly with the porosity of the samples. The temperature needed for the release of the trapped deuterium (∝600 K) are considerably lower than for graphite, due to the smaller trapping energy (≤1.5 eV). (orig.)

  14. ENCAPSULATION OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L., JOJOBA OIL AND JASMINE OIL BY SPRAY DRYING AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN TEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖGE Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a technique that allows liquid or solid agents, such as pharmaceutical agents, pesticides, insect repellent agents, dyes, cosmetics and fragrances, to be encapsulated by a suitable barrier wall. Liquid or solid agents that are encapsulated are called core material. The importance of functional finishes have been increasing rapidly in the World. Microencapsulation is an alternative way to achieve the functional finishes because of their unique properties, such as controlled release, protection against to hazardous and destructive media, and providing higher surface area. In this study, jojoba, jasmine and St. John's Wort oils, were encapsulated according to spray drying method. St. John's Wort and jojoba oils were used at 1:1 ratio as fixed oil. Jasmine essential oil was added to fixed oil mixture at two different ratios. After preparing the core mixture, encapsulation studies were performed three different core : wall ratios. Morphological analyses of microcapsules were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. FTIR spectroscopy spectrums of microcapsules were determined (Fourier Transform Infrared. Particle size distribution microcapsules were analyzed by laser scattering measurement method. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermographs of microcapsules were obtained. All microcapsules were applied to 100% cotton knitted fabrics. Strength to washing of fabrics were observed by SEM micrographs.

  15. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe Based Coatings by HVOF Sprayed on Gray Cast-Iron for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Priyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commercially available FeSiNiCr and FeBCr alloy powders were designed with suitable compositions, gas atomized and then coated on gray cast-iron substrate. The microstructures of the feed stock Fe based alloy powders and the coatings were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In the present study, both the coating materials experienced two-body wear mechanisms. The results showed that for loads of 0.05 N, 0.1 N and 0.2 N, the wear resistance of FeBCr coating was less than FeSiNiCr by 44 %, 40 % and 31 %, respectively. The results indicated that the coated substrates exhibited lower corrosion current densities and lower corrosion rates, when placed in 20 wt.% H2SO4 solutions. In addition, the use of optimal spraying parameters/conditions gave improvements to the corrosion resistance of the substrates that had been treated with the crystalline coating.

  16. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  17. Performance of spray nozzles in land applications with high speed Desempenho de pontas de pulverização em aplicações terrestres com alta velocidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. Zaidan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different spray nozzles for land applications in high speed on the coverage and deposit in soybean plants pulverization. It was evaluated the AXI 110 04 plane jet nozzles operated at speed of 4.17m.s-1 (control, the grey APE and the AXI 110 08 plane jets, and the TD HiSpeed 110 06 and AXI TWIN 120 06 twin jets, at speed of 9.72m.s-1. The application volume was fixed in 120L ha-1. The application efficiency was evaluated by two different methods: analysis of the coverage area using fluorescent pigment and UV light and analysis of deposits through the recovery and quantification of FD&C N°1 brilliant blue marker by spectrophotometry. Both analyses were done in samples collected from top, middle and bottom parts of the plants. The spray nozzles showed differences in coverage and deposit pattern, so in the top part, the coverage was increased with smaller drops and the deposits were increased with medium drops. In the other parts of the plants, there were no statistical differences between the treatments for both coverage and deposits. The displacement speed did not influence the application efficiency for nozzles with the same drop pattern, and the obtained spray coverage and deposits at the medium and bottom parts of the plants were less than 50% of that found at the top of the soybean plants.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes pontas de pulverização para aplicações terrestres em alta velocidade sobre a cobertura e depósito da pulverização em plantas de soja. Foram avaliadas as pontas de jatos planos AXI 110 04 à velocidade de 4,17 m.s-1 (testemunha, de jatos planos APE cinza e AXI 110 08, e de jatos planos duplos TD HiSpeed 110 06 e AXI TWIN 120 06, à velocidade de deslocamento de 9,72 m.s-1. O volume de aplicação foi fixado em 120 L.ha-1. A eficiência de aplicação foi avaliada por dois métodos: análise visual do percentual de cobertura, utilizando marcador fluorescente

  18. An electrothermal chemical technology for thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, S.; Appelbaum, G.; Alimi, R.; Rabani, L.; Zoler, D.; Zhitomirsky, V.; Factor, M.; Roman, I.

    1998-01-01

    A new spray technology for producing hard-coatings, has been developed at the SOREQ Nuclear Research Center. The concept is based on the extensive experience accumulated at SOREQ in the course of the development of Electrothermal (ET), Electrothermal-Chemical (ETC) and Solid-Propellant Electrothermal-Chemical (SPETC) guns(r). High quality coatings may be obtained by thermal spraying powder particles onto a variety of substrates. Mature state-of-the-art technologies such as plasma spray, high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) and detonation gun (D-Gun) are widely used for many applications. As each method has its own drawbacks there is a need for a combination of several parameters which cannot be achieved by any existing individual commercial technology. The method presented is oriented toward a high-quality, multi-step, high-throughput, easily programmable continuous coating process and relatively inexpensive technology. The combustion products of a solid or liquid propellant accelerate the powder particles of the coating material. A pulsed-plasma jet, provided by a confined capillary discharge, ignites the propellant and controls the combustion process. The powder particles are accelerated to velocities over 1000 m/s. Due to the very high carrier gas density, high velocity, high throughput and high powder consumption efficiency are obtained. The plasma jet enables control of the gas temperature and consequently influences the powder temperature

  19. Writing Cancer Grant Applications | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course focuses on how to write clear and persuasive grant applications. The purpose is to increase the quality of your grant application by successfully communicating scientific data and ideas. Emphasis is placed on how to use the title abstract and introduction sections to draw in reviewers and how to write an organized and focused proposal using specific scientific aims.

  20. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  1. KBTAC [Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center] - The EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute]-sponsored knowledge-based technology application center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Wood, R.M.; Scherer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has announced the establishment of the Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center (KBTAC), whose goal is to assist member utilities with expert system technology and applications. The center, established November 7, 1989, is located on the campus of Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, and will be operated jointly by Kaman Sciences Corporation and the university. The mission of the KBTAC is to assist EPRI member utilities to develop, test, and transfer expert systems into nuclear power plant operations, maintenance, and administration

  2. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  3. Guide for generic application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Toomey, G.E.; Morgan, T.A.; Darling, S.S.

    1991-02-01

    Previously completed reliability centered maintenance (RCM) studies form the basis for developing or refining a preventive maintenance program. This report describes a generic methodology that will help utilities optimize nuclear plant maintenance programs using RCM techniques. This guide addresses the following areas: history of the generic methodology development process, and use of the generic methodology for conducting system-to-system and component-to-component evaluations. 2 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Evaluation of effervescent atomizer internal design on the spray unsteadiness using a phase/Doppler particle analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Meng; Duan, YuFeng; Zhang, TieNan [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the dependence of effervescent spray unsteadiness on operational conditions and atomizer internal design by the ideal spray theory of Edwards and Marx. The convergent-divergent effervescent atomizer spraying water with air as atomizing medium in the ''outside-in'' gas injection was used in this study. Results demonstrated that droplet formation process at various air to liquid ratio (ALR) led to the spray unsteadiness and all droplet size classes exhibited unsteadiness behavior in spray. The spray unsteadiness reduced quickly at ALR of 3% and decreased moderately at ALR of other values as the axial distance increased. When the axial distance was 200 mm, the spray unsteadiness reduced dramatically with the increase in radial distance, but lower spray unsteadiness at the center of spray and higher spray unsteadiness at the edge of spray were shown as the axial distance increased. The spray unsteadiness at the center region of spray increased with the injection pressure. Low spray unsteadiness and good atomization performance can be obtained when the diameter of incline aeration holes increased at ALR of 10%. Although short mixing chamber with large discharge orifice diameter for convergent-divergent effervescent atomizer produced good atomization, the center region of spay showed high spray unsteadiness and maybe formed the droplet clustering. (author)

  5. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  6. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  7. Application of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings to the base materials of the rotating disk in the centrifugal atomization process. Enshinryoku funmuho ni okeru kaiten enban eno ceramic yosha himaku no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Okimoto, K [Government Industrial Research Inst., Kyushu, Tosu, Saga (Japan); Yasutake, R [Koeiseiko Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1992-07-08

    Applicability of the ceramic coating on the rotating disk was studied. In regard to the synthesis of Cu-based rapidly solidified powders, centrifugal atomization with molten Cu-24.6Sn was carried out using rotating disks sprayed with four kinds of sprayed ceramic coatings. It was found that atomization of Al203-40%TiO2 sprayed coating has been the best, and the yield ratio has been about 60 %. The melt temperature in case of Fe-based rapidly solidified metal powders, has risen above 1600[degree]C, and the required conditions for rotating disk have been very difficult to meet. The reason for it is thought that there has also been limitations regarding the functions of the characteristics like heat transfer, heat capacity, etc. Fe-24Cr-5Ni-1Mo 2 phase stainless steel powder has shown the most suitable trend among the seven kinds of disk materials examined for ZrO2 ceramic sprayed coatings. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  9. Volpe Center Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA) : FY 2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Technology transfer activities performed by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center during fiscal year 2013 in fulfillment of statutory Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA) responsibilities are summarized in this report. Dur...

  10. Volpe Center Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA) : fiscal year 2014 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Technology transfer activities performed by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center during fiscal year 2014 in fulfillment of statutory Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA) responsibilities are summarized in this report.

  11. Effect of UV and water spraying on the mechanical properties of flax fabric reinforced polymer composites used for civil engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Libo; Chouw, Nawawi; Jayaraman, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • UV weathering degraded mechanical properties of flax/epoxy composites. • SEM confirmed degradation in fibre/matrix interfacial bonding. • UV weathering caused discolouration, matrix erosion, microcracking. - Abstract: The lack of data related to durability is one major challenge that needed to be addressed prior to the widespread acceptance of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites for engineering applications. In this work, the combined effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and water spraying on the mechanical properties of flax fabric reinforced epoxy composite was investigated to assess the durability performance of this composite used for civil engineering applications. Specimens fabricated by hand lay-up process were exposed in an accelerated weathering chamber for 1500 h. Tensile and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructures of the composites. In addition, the durability performance of flax/epoxy composite was compared with synthetic (glass and carbon) and hybrid fibre reinforced composites. The test results show that the tensile strength/modulus of the weathered composites decreased 29.9% and 34.9%, respectively. The flexural strength/modulus reduced 10.0% and 10.2%, respectively. SEM study confirmed the degradation in fibre/matrix interfacial bonding after exposure. Comparisons with other composites implies that flax fabric/epoxy composite has potential to be used for civil engineering applications when taking its structural and durability performance into account. Proper treatments to enhance its durability performance will make it more comparable to synthetic fibre reinforced composites when considering as construction building materials

  12. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  13. Application of VLLW management principles to the CEA research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetat, P.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the content of a CEA policy relating to very low level waste management elaborated in application of the waste management principles defined in France. The policy deals with very low level waste, subject to recycling, incineration or landfill disposal. It does not deal with reuse. The following principles are applicable to waste streams produced by CEA nuclear installations either during operating or dismantling activities. The policy deals only with very low level wastes (VLLW) (order of magnitude: <100 Bq/g for high energy emitters). It does not deal with low, intermediate or high level waste, which are either recycled or incinerated in nuclear industry or disposed of in the Aube surface disposal (CSA) or kept in intermediate storage, before geological disposal or any alternative final solution

  14. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 μm, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 μm on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications

  16. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D

    2002-01-01

    Background This report describes the utility of hypnosis for patients who presented to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center over a 30 month period. Methods Hypnotherapy was offered to 303 patients from May 1, 1998 – October 31, 2000. Patients offered hypnotherapy included those thought to have pulmonary symptoms due to psychological issues, discomfort due to medications, or fear of procedures. Improvement in symptoms following hypnosis was observed by the pulmonologist for most patients with habit cough and conversion reaction. Improvement of other conditions for which hypnosis was used was gauged based on patients' subjective evaluations. Results Hypnotherapy was associated with improvement in 80% of patients with persistent asthma, chest pain/pressure, habit cough, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, sighing, and vocal cord dysfunction. When improvement was reported, in some cases symptoms resolved immediately after hypnotherapy was first employed. For the others improvement was achieved after hypnosis was used for a few weeks. No patients' symptoms worsened and no new symptoms emerged following hypnotherapy. Conclusions Patients described in this report were unlikely to have achieved rapid improvement in their symptoms without the use of hypnotherapy. Therefore, hypnotherapy can be an important complementary therapy for patients in a pediatric practice. PMID:12460456

  19. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the utility of hypnosis for patients who presented to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center over a 30 month period. Methods Hypnotherapy was offered to 303 patients from May 1, 1998 – October 31, 2000. Patients offered hypnotherapy included those thought to have pulmonary symptoms due to psychological issues, discomfort due to medications, or fear of procedures. Improvement in symptoms following hypnosis was observed by the pulmonologist for most patients with habit cough and conversion reaction. Improvement of other conditions for which hypnosis was used was gauged based on patients' subjective evaluations. Results Hypnotherapy was associated with improvement in 80% of patients with persistent asthma, chest pain/pressure, habit cough, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, sighing, and vocal cord dysfunction. When improvement was reported, in some cases symptoms resolved immediately after hypnotherapy was first employed. For the others improvement was achieved after hypnosis was used for a few weeks. No patients' symptoms worsened and no new symptoms emerged following hypnotherapy. Conclusions Patients described in this report were unlikely to have achieved rapid improvement in their symptoms without the use of hypnotherapy. Therefore, hypnotherapy can be an important complementary therapy for patients in a pediatric practice.

  20. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  1. Laser-Based Spatio-Temporal Characterisation of Port Fuel Injection (PFI Sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. N. Anand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, detailed laser-based diagnostic experiments were conducted to characterise the spray from low pressure 2-hole and 4-hole Port Fuel Injection (PFI injectors. The main objective of the work included obtaining quantitative information of the spatio-temporal spray structure of such low-pressure gasoline sprays. A novel approach involving a combination of techniques such as Mie scattering, Granulometry, and Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD was used to study the spray structure. The droplet sizes, distributions with time, Sauter Mean Diameters (SMD, droplet velocities, cone angles and spray tip penetrations of the sprays from the injectors were determined. The spray from these injectors is found to be ‘pencil like’ and not dispersed as in high pressure sprays. The application of the above mentioned techniques provides two-dimensional SMD contours of the entire spray at different instants of time, with reasonable accuracy.

  2. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum-4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  3. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  4. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  5. Spatial Data Services for Interdisciplinary Applications from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; MacManus, K.; Vinay, S.; Yetman, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), one of 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) in the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), has developed a variety of operational spatial data services aimed at providing online access, visualization, and analytic functions for geospatial socioeconomic and environmental data. These services include: open web services that implement Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS), and Web Coverage Service (WCS); spatial query services that support Web Processing Service (WPS) and Representation State Transfer (REST); and web map clients and a mobile app that utilize SEDAC and other open web services. These services may be accessed from a variety of external map clients and visualization tools such as NASA's WorldView, NOAA's Climate Explorer, and ArcGIS Online. More than 200 data layers related to population, settlements, infrastructure, agriculture, environmental pollution, land use, health, hazards, climate change and other aspects of sustainable development are available through WMS, WFS, and/or WCS. Version 2 of the SEDAC Population Estimation Service (PES) supports spatial queries through WPS and REST in the form of a user-defined polygon or circle. The PES returns an estimate of the population residing in the defined area for a specific year (2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, or 2020) based on SEDAC's Gridded Population of the World version 4 (GPWv4) dataset, together with measures of accuracy. The SEDAC Hazards Mapper and the recently released HazPop iOS mobile app enable users to easily submit spatial queries to the PES and see the results. SEDAC has developed an operational virtualized backend infrastructure to manage these services and support their continual improvement as standards change, new data and services become available, and user needs evolve. An ongoing challenge is to improve the reliability and performance

  6. Implementation and evaluation of LMS mobile application: scele mobile based on user-centered design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banimahendra, R. D.; Santoso, H. B.

    2018-03-01

    The development of mobile technology is now increasing rapidly, demanding all activities including learning should be done on mobile devices. It shows that the implementation of mobile application as a learning medium needs to be done. This study describes the process of developing and evaluating the Moodle-based mobile Learning Management System (LMS) application called Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCeLE). This study discusses the process of defining features, implementing features into the application, and evaluating the application. We define the features using user research and literature study, then we implement the application with user-centered design basis, at the last phase we evaluated the application using usability testing and system usability score (SUS). The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which this application can help the users doing their tasks and provide recommendation for the next research and development.

  7. The Knowledge-Based Technology Applications Center (KBTAC) seminar series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isik, C.; Wood, R.M.

    1993-12-01

    Neural Networks are adaptive systems that allow users to model complex systems, classify patterns, filter data or control processes with little or no a-priori knowledge. Neural networks represent a branch of artificial intelligence technology. Fuzzy logic is a generalization of formalized mathematical logic that allows representation of uncertainty by providing a smooth transition from true to false, instead of a step change. It allows for a proposition to be both true and false, to different degrees at the same time. This allows representation of approximate reasoning concepts that occur frequently in everyday experience, such as ''somewhat true,'' or ''not very hot.'' To utilize these technologies, utility personnel need to acquire knowledge and skills in a number of areas: 1. basic principles of neural networks and fuzzy logic; 2. types of neural networks and fuzzy logic systems, their applications, and requirements for use; 3. considerations for designing neural networks and fuzzy logic systems; 4. software tools available for these technologies. Off-the-shelf software is available for a variety of hardware platforms to rapidly develop, tune and test neural networks and fuzzy logic systems. Familiarity with the problem to which a neural network or fuzzy logic system is applied allows the designer to develop an appropriate design. Therefore, it is desirable to teach neural network and fuzzy logic technology to utility experts in the domain of application

  8. The role of organizational strategy in the user-centered design of mobile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshet, Eyal; de Reuver, G.A.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gathering insights on users and the contexts they use mobile applications is at the core of the user-centered design (UCD). Organizations find it strategically important to efficiently and effectively use these insights. With the proliferation of mobile applications, gaining timely and relevant

  9. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Huang; Jin Zhang; Neil P. Young; Henry J. Snaith; Patrick S. Grant

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that u...

  10. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  11. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... 5 sprays into the air away from the face. If you have not used it for 2 ...

  12. Effects of Vermi-compost Fertilizer Application and Foliar Spraying on Yield and Yield Component of Isabgol (Plantago ovate L. Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Rahimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vermi-compost is the ability of some species of earthworms to consume and break down a wide range of organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial refuse. Vermi-composts are usually more stable than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical and microbiological properties. Aerial compost tea contains high populations of live microorganism consisting of rhizobactria, trichoderma and pseudomonas species which increase the growth and yield of the plant. Acid humic is the main humic substance and the important ingredient of soil organic matter (humus which causes increase of yield and quality of crop. The aim of this research is evaluating the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of compost tea and acid humic on yield, yield component and mucilage content of isabgol. Vermiwash as the extract of vermi-compost is liquid organic fertilizer obtained from unit of vermiculture and vermi-compost as drainage. It is used as a foliar spraying on the leaf. Vermiwash stimulate and increase the yield of crop products and foliar application of vermiwash can be caused of plant resistance to different factors and can prevent leaf necrosis. Material and Methods In order to study the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of tea compost and acid humic on growth indices of isabgol (Plantago ovata, an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on complete randomized design with three replications in agricultural research farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments were included application of vermi-compost (0 (control, 4, 8, 12 and 16 t.ha-1 and 3 levels of foliar application (distilled water as control, acid humic and compost tea. Samples for evaluating of yield, yield components and mucilage content were taken from 1 m2 area of each treatment. Tea compost solution prepared using mix of vermi-compost, acid humic, yeast and alga extract

  13. ROTARY SPRAY DUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nechaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of hydraulic resistance, ablation of splashes and efficiency of dedusting in the rotor spray dust collector are given. Influence of frequency of rotation of the spray, the specified speed of gas and diameter of spattering holes on hydraulic resistance, size ablation of splashes and efficiency of a dedusting the device by diameter 0,25 m is investigated. As model liquid water is used. Results of mathematical processing are presented.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.66 - Criteria for design and construction of spray booths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Conformance. Drying, curing, or fusion apparatus in connection with spray application of flammable and... drying apparatus and electrical connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray... apparatus, the drying apparatus, and the ventilating system of the spray enclosure shall be equipped with...

  15. SPRAYTRAN USER'S GUIDE: A GIS-BASED ATMOSPHERIC SPRAY DROPLET DISPERSION MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offsite drift of pesticide from spray operations is an ongoing source of concern. The SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) system, documented in this report, incorporates the near-field spray application model, AGDISP, into a meso-scale atmospheric transport model. The AGDISP model ...

  16. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  17. Quality by design approach in the optimization of the spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldinger, Arnaud; Clerdent, Lucas; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the influence of the processing parameters, inlet temperature, atomization air flow rate and feed flow rate, on critical quality attributes of spray-dried powders using design of experiments (DoE). Spray-dried powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Multivariate analysis of two different experimental designs was performed to elucidate the optimal process conditions. XRPD revealed that the spray-dried powders consisted of crystalline β-mannitol and amorphous trehalose. Non-invasive NIR measurement was successfully used for correlating the critical quality attribute particle size with size determined by laser diffraction. The full factorial design proved to be unsuitable due to the non-linear influence of factors. The composite face-centered design improved the quality of the models and showed both linear and non-linear influence of the parameters on the outcomes. A model explaining the influence of the factors on all quality attributes showed similar results as the models optimized for a single response. This study showed the applicability of DoE for the investigation of spray-dried powders. The knowledge of the interplay between process parameters and quality attributes will enable rational process design to achieve a desired outcome.

  18. Design, construction and performance of a portable handheld electrohydrodynamic multi-needle spray gun for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofokleous, Panagiotis; Stride, Eleanor; Bonfield, William; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) processing has attracted substantial interest in the technological and pharmaceutical sectors in recent years. Given the complexity of the process, exploring new ideas for EHD electrospraying and electrospinning delivery is a challenge. In this article, the design, construction and testing of a portable handheld EHD multi-needle device are described to produce multifunctional particles and fibers. Solid and encapsulated polymer particles and fibers were generated in order to study the performance of the device. The intrinsic properties of the feed solution/suspension and the processing conditions were adjusted to ensure robustness of the process and give uniform and reproducible products, with diameters ranging from the sub-micrometer scale to a few micrometers. These products have a broad range of applications in many advanced industrial sectors e.g. drug delivery systems, wound dressing patches, low calorie food products and cosmetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  20. Production of ceramic formed parts by means of plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, K.

    1989-01-01

    Open and closed pipes and tubes, nozzles and crucibles, conical parts and other molded articles of ceramic materials such as aluminium oxide, magnesium-aluminium spinel, zirconium oxide, zirconium silicate and special ceramics can be fabricated by spray application to a core which is afterwards removed. Because at the same time these are mainly high temperature materials and high temperature application areas, plasma spraying is preferred. The process and examples of application are described, the advantages and disadvantages are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  1. New atomization nozzle for spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, H.C. van; Houben, R.J.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    A new atomization nozzle based on ink jet technology is introduced for spray drying. Application areas are the food and dairy industry, in the first instance, because in these industries the quality demands on the final powders are high with respect to heat load, powder shape, and size distribution.

  2. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervenka, J.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many large molecular complexes are limited in thin film applications by their insufficient thermal stability, which excludes deposition via commonly used vapour phase deposition methods. Here we demonstrate an alternative way of monolayer formation of large molecules by a simple spray coating method

  3. A Descriptive Study towards Green Computing Practice Application for Data Centers in IT Based Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Jnr. Bokolo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The progressive upsurge in demand for processing and computing power has led to a subsequent upsurge in data center carbon emissions, cost incurred, unethical waste management, depletion of natural resources and high energy utilization. This raises the issue of the sustainability attainment in data centers of Information Technology (IT based industries. Green computing practice can be applied to facilitate sustainability attainment as IT based industries utilizes data centers to provide services to staffs, practitioners and end users. But it is a known fact that enterprise servers utilize huge quantity of energy and incur other expenditures in cooling operations and it is difficult to address the needs of accuracy and efficiency in data centers while yet encouraging a greener application practice alongside cost reduction. Thus this research study focus on the practice application of Green computing in data centers which houses servers and as such presents the Green computing life cycle strategies and best practices to be practiced for better management in data centers in IT based industries. Data was collected through questionnaire from 133 respondents in industries that currently operate their in-house data centers. The analysed data was used to verify the Green computing life cycle strategies presented in this study. Findings from the data shows that each of the life cycles strategies is significant in assisting IT based industries apply Green computing practices in their data centers. This study would be of interest to knowledge and data management practitioners as well as environmental manager and academicians in deploying Green data centers in their organizations.

  4. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  5. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J 2 /He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  6. High-Performance Molybdenum Coating by Wire–HVOF Thermal Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Satish; Modi, Ankur; Modi, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    Coating deposition on many industrial components with good microstructural, mechanical properties, and better wear resistance is always a challenge for the thermal spray community. A number of thermal spray methods are used to develop such promising coatings for many industrial applications, viz. arc spray, flame spray, plasma, and HVOF. All these processes have their own limitations to achieve porous free, very dense, high-performance wear-resistant coatings. In this work, an attempt has been made to overcome this limitation. Molybdenum coatings were deposited on low-carbon steel substrates using wire-high-velocity oxy-fuel (W-HVOF; WH) thermal spray system (trade name HIJET 9610®). For a comparison, Mo coatings were also fabricated by arc spray, flame spray, plasma spray, and powder-HVOF processes. As-sprayed coatings were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy for phase, and microstructural analysis, respectively. Coating microhardness, surface roughness, and porosity were also measured. Adhesion strength and wear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical and wear properties of the as-sprayed coatings. Results show that the coatings deposited by W-HVOF have better performance in terms of microstructural, mechanical, and wear resistance properties, in comparison with available thermal spray process (flame spray and plasma spray).

  7. Nitrogen-Vacancy color center in diamond-emerging nanoscale applications in bioimaging and biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Lazariev, Andrii; Arumugam, Sri Ranjini; Duan, De-Wen

    2014-06-01

    Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center in diamond is a flourishing research area that, in recent years, has displayed remarkable progress. The system offers great potential for realizing futuristic applications in nanoscience, benefiting a range of fields from bioimaging to quantum-sensing. The ability to image single NV color centers in a nanodiamond and manipulate NV electron spin optically under ambient condition is the main driving force behind developments in nanoscale sensing and novel imaging techniques. In this article we discuss current status on the applications of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) for optical super resolution nanoscopy, magneto-optical (spin-assisted) sub-wavelength localization and imaging. We present emerging applications such as single molecule spin imaging, nanoscale imaging of biomagnetic fields, sensing molecular fluctuations and temperatures in live cellular environments. We summarize other current advances and future prospects of NV diamond for imaging and sensing pertaining to bio-medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of a novel 3-fluid nozzle spray drying process for the microencapsulation of therapeutic agents using incompatible drug-polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Tara; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel 3-fluid concentric nozzle (3-N) spray drying process for the microencapsulation of omeprazole sodium (OME) using Eudragit L100 (EL100). Feed solutions containing OME and/or EL100 in ethanol were assessed visually for OME stability. Addition of OME solution to EL100 solution resulted in precipitation of OME followed by degradation of OME reflected by a colour change from colourless to purple and brown. This was related to the low pH of 2.8 of the EL100 solution at which OME is unstable. Precipitation and progressive discoloration of the 2-fluid nozzle (2-N) feed solution was observed over the spray drying time course. In contrast, 3-N solutions of EL100 or OME in ethanol were stable over the spray drying period. Microparticles prepared using either nozzle showed similar characteristics and outer morphology however the internal morphology was different. DSC showed a homogenous matrix of drug and polymer for 2-N microparticles while 3-N microparticles had defined drug and polymer regions distributed as core and coat. The results of this study demonstrate that the novel 3-N spray drying process can allow the microencapsulation of a drug using an incompatible polymer and maintain the drug and polymer in separate regions of the microparticles.

  9. Clean Energy Application Centers: Annual Metrics Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Between fiscal year (FY) 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded nine Clean Energy Application Centers (CEACs) with national coverage to promote and assist in transforming the market for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat to Power CHP, and district energy (DE) with CHP1. Prior to that, similar services were provided by eight Regional Application Centers (RACs). The key services that the CEACs provided were market assessments, education and outreach, and technical assistance. There were eight regional CEACs, each of which served a specific area of the country, and a separate center operated by the International District Energy Association (IDEA) which supported the regional centers with technical assistance, education, training, publicity, and outreach related to district energy with CHP. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed four previous studies of CEAC activities. The first one examined what the centers had done each year from the initiation of the program through FY 2008; the second addressed center activities for FY 2009; the third one focused on what was accomplished in FY 2010; and the fourth looked at the CEACs’ FY 2011 accomplishments, with a heightened emphasis on the adoption of CHP\\DE technologies and the activities thought to be most closely related to CHP/DE development and use. The most recent study, documented in this report, examines CEAC activities in FY 2012.

  10. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium chloride doped ZnO films synthesized by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E., E-mail: ezaleta@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camargo-Martinez, J.; Ramirez-Garibo, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Perez-Arrieta, M.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Fisica, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Mexico (Mexico); Balderas-Xicohtencatl, R.; Rivera-Alvarez, Z. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-12-01

    Indium chloride doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using zinc acetate by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique. The effect of substrate temperature, deposition time and acetic acid added to the spraying solution on the structural, electrical and optical properties of these ZnO:In films is reported. The films were in all cases polycrystalline with a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, a transparency over 80% and resistivity of the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} Ohm-Sign {center_dot}cm. The resistivity was dependent on the volume % of acetic acid added to the spraying solution. The minimum resistivity value was obtained with a 5 vol.% acetic acid (pH = 3.71) at substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. The deposition rates obtained were as high as 180 A{center_dot}min{sup -1} at a substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive ZnO:In thin films were deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is of low cost, high growth rates and scalable for industrial applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is appropriate for the deposition of metallic oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effect of acetic acid, time deposition and substrate temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc acetate and indium chloride were used as precursor materials.

  11. Vacancy-impurity centers in diamond: prospects for synthesis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekimov, E. A.; Kondrin, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    The bright luminescence of impurity-vacancy complexes, combined with high chemical and radiation resistance, makes diamond an attractive platform for the production of single-photon emitters and luminescent biomarkers for applications in nanoelectronics and medicine. Two representatives of this kind of defects in diamond, silicon-vacancy (SiV) and germanium-vacancy (GeV) centers, are discussed in this review; their similarities and differences are demonstrated in terms of the more thoroughly studied nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes. The recent discovery of GeV luminescent centers opens a unique opportunity for the controlled synthesis of single-photon emitters in nanodiamonds. We demonstrate prospects for the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) technique to create single-photon emitters, not only as an auxiliary to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ion-implantation methods but also as a primary synthesis tool for producing color centers in nanodiamonds. Besides practical applications, comparative studies of these two complexes, which belong to the same structural class of defects, have a fundamental importance for deeper understanding of shelving levels, the electronic structure, and optical properties of these centers. In conclusion, we discuss several open problems regarding the structure, charge state, and practical application of these centers, which still require a solution.

  12. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  13. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-04-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  14. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-03-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  15. 76 FR 48814 - Applications for New Awards; Postsecondary Education Center for Individuals Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ...., work schedules and deadlines, job-related reading and math), and job-related social and interpersonal..., through additional research, from improved levels of evidence for specific practices. In consultation with..., Application Control Center, Attention: (CFDA Number 84.326D), LBJ Basement Level 1, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW...

  16. 41 CFR 102-81.30 - What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 81-SECURITY Security § 102-81.30 What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal...

  17. 77 FR 50520 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... copy of the information collection instrument with supplementary documents, or need additional...-0061] Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant Investor Pilot Program, Form I-924 and Form I-924A; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

  18. 76 FR 37336 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center-Interventions To Promote...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...-funded research and development activities in refereed journals. The percentage of new NIDRR grants that... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center... regulations in 34 CFR part 86 apply to institutions of higher education (IHEs) only. II. Award Information...

  19. Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A mechanical as well as metallurgical bonding is necessary. 3. Applications ... Here the feasibility of using metallic components that were plasma spray- ... To study the electrical insulation, integrity of ceramic coating etc, tests were carried out.

  20. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  1. Computational Analysis of Spray Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Utsav

    There is a boost in the utilization of renewable sources of energy but because of high energy density applications, combustion will never be obsolete. Spray combustion is a type of multiphase combustion which has tremendous engineering applications in different fields, varying from energy conversion devices to rocket propulsion system. Developing accurate computational models for turbulent spray combustion is vital for improving the design of combustors and making them energy efficient. Flamelet models have been extensively used for gas phase combustion because of their relatively low computational cost to model the turbulence-chemistry interaction using a low dimensional manifold approach. This framework is designed for gas phase non-premixed combustion and its implementation is not very straight forward for multiphase and multi-regime combustion such as spray combustion. This is because of the use of a conserved scalar and various flamelet related assumptions. Mixture fraction has been popularly employed as a conserved scalar and hence used to parameterize the characteristics of gaseous flamelets. However, for spray combustion, the mixture fraction is not monotonic and does not give a unique mapping in order to parameterize the structure of spray flames. In order to develop a flamelet type model for spray flames, a new variable called the mixing variable is introduced which acts as an ideal conserved scalar and takes into account the convection and evaporation of fuel droplets. In addition to the conserved scalar, it has been observed that though gaseous flamelets can be characterized by the conserved scalar and its dissipation, this might not be true for spray flamelets. Droplet dynamics has a significant influence on the spray flamelet and because of effects such as flame penetration of droplets and oscillation of droplets across the stagnation plane, it becomes important to accommodate their influence in the flamelet formulation. In order to recognize the

  2. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  3. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

  4. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  5. Thermal spray coating for corrosion under insulation (CUI) prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Mohd Fazril Irfan Ahmad; Razak, Khalil Abdul; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Othman, Nur Hidayati; Lah, Nik Khairul Irfan Nik Ab

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the predominant issues affecting process of Oil and Gas and Petrochemical industries. CUI refers to external corrosion, but it is difficult to be detected as the insulation cover masks the corrosion problem. One of the options to prevent CUI is by utilizing the protective coating systems. Thermal spray coating (TSC) is an advanced coating system and it shows promising performance in harsh environment, which could be used to prevent CUI. However, the application of TSC is not attractive due to the high initial cost. This work evaluates the potential of TSC based on corrosion performance using linear polarization resistance (LPR) method and salt spray test (SST). Prior to the evaluation, the mechanical performance of TSC was first investigated using adhesion test and bend test. Microstructure characterization of the coating was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The LPR test results showed that low corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/years was obtained for TSC in compared to the bare steel especially at high temperature of 80 °C, where usually normal coating would fail. For the salt spray test, there was no sign of corrosion products especially at the center (fully coated region) was observed. From SEM images, no corrosion defects were observed after 336 hours of continuous exposure to salt fog test. This indicates that TSC protected the steel satisfactorily by acting as a barrier from a corrosive environment. In conclusion, TSC can be a possible solution to minimize the CUI in a long term. Further research should be done on corrosion performance and life cycle cost by comparing TSC with other conventional coating technology.

  6. Effect of spray volume on the deposition, viability and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes in a foliar spray on vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselman, Eva; Beck, Bert; Pollet, Sabien; Temmerman, Femke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Nuyttens, David

    2012-10-01

    Spray volume can influence the amount of free water on the leaf surface and subsequently the ability of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to move. In this study, an investigation was made of the effect of spray volume (548, 730 and 1095 L ha(-1) ) on the deposition, viability and infectivity of EPNs against Galleria mellonella on savoy cabbage, cauliflower and leek. Increasing spray volume decreased nematode deposition on 7.1 cm2 leek leaf discs at a 15° angle with the spray nozzle. Although the number of living nematodes observed on leek after 240 min of exposure was not significantly different between the low-volume application (548 L ha(-1) ) and the high-volume application (1095 L ha(-1) ), a greater infectivity was obtained in the latter application. The higher number of droplets deposited on the leek discs in the high-volume application may have stimulated nematode movement. No significant effect of spray volume was observed on the relative deposition of Steinernema carpocapsae on the bottom side of cauliflower and savoy cabbage leaf discs. In spite of the low S. carpocapsae deposition on the bottom side of the savoy cabbage discs, high infectivity was obtained against G. mellonella. Using the lowest spray volume on savoy cabbage, infectivity decreased with increasing exposure time, while infectivity was not affected by exposure time when a spray volume of 730 L ha(-1) or more was used. Spray volume is an important application parameter, as it affects nematode infectivity. Future research should investigate the effect of spray volume in the field and its influence on the effect of adjuvants. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Investigation of PAM-4 for extending reach in data center interconnect applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Teipen, Brian; Eiselt, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Optical four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) is being widely studied for various short-reach optical interfaces, motivated by the need to keep cost structure low, and to increase link capacity despite various constraints in component bandwidth. When considering PAM-4 in applications...... with reach significantly greater than 10km, such as in extended data center interconnects which require optical amplification, impairments such as chromatic dispersion, optical filtering, and ASE must be controlled. We investigate and report on requirements of PAM-4 for extended-reach, data center...

  8. Development of process data capturing, analysis and controlling for thermal spray techniques - SprayTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, C.; Marke, S.; Trommler, U.; Rupprecht, C.; Weis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal spraying processes are becoming increasingly important in high-technology areas, such as automotive engineering and medical technology. The method offers the advantage of a local layer application with different materials and high deposition rates. Challenges in the application of thermal spraying result from the complex interaction of different influencing variables, which can be attributed to the properties of different materials, operating equipment supply, electrical parameters, flow mechanics, plasma physics and automation. In addition, spraying systems are subject to constant wear. Due to the process specification and the high demands on the produced coatings, innovative quality assurance tools are necessary. A central aspect, which has not yet been considered, is the data management in relation to the present measured variables, in particular the spraying system, the handling system, working safety devices and additional measuring sensors. Both the recording of all process-characterizing variables, their linking and evaluation as well as the use of the data for the active process control presuppose a novel, innovative control system (hardware and software) that was to be developed within the scope of the research project. In addition, new measurement methods and sensors are to be developed and qualified in order to improve the process reliability of thermal spraying.

  9. Application of a hybrid breakup model for the spray simulation of a multi-hole injector used for a DISI gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; He, Bang-Quan; Zhao, Hua

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid atomization and breakup model was developed for the simulation of the fuel injection processes of multi-hole injectors for direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines. In modeling primary breakup, a competition between the Huh–Gosman and Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) breakup mechanisms was adopted. In addition to the two breakup mechanisms above, the Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) model was selected as a third competing mechanism in simulating secondary breakup. The hybrid model was implemented in the Star-CD software to simulate the effect of the background and injection pressures on the breakup processes of gasoline jets in a constant volume vessel, and on the mixture stratification of a wall-guided DISI gasoline engine with a newly-designed cavity in the piston. Results indicate that a higher background pressure intensifies the aerodynamically induced breakup along the tip of spray although it tends to reduce the overall breakup of spray. The spray atomization enhanced by increasing injection pressures is more pronounced at elevated background pressures. With the retard of fuel injection timing, the inhomogeneity of mixture increases in the DISI gasoline engine. Double injection with elevated second injection pressure can reduce the overall inhomogeneity of the mixture and effectively direct the mixture towards the spark plug. - Highlights: •A hybrid breakup model was developed to simulate injection process in a DISI engine. •Higher fuel injection pressure enhances breakup and evaporation at the spray tip. •Single fuel injection leads to a narrow spark timing range. •Two-stage fuel injection improves the homogeneity of the mixture. •The second injection with higher fuel pressure decreases over-rich mixture

  10. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  11. High throughput two-step ultrasonic spray deposited CH3NH3PbI3 thin film layer for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ding-Hung; Hong, Shao-Huan; Chou, Li-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Liang

    2018-06-01

    Organometal halide perovskite materials have demonstrated tremendous advances in the photovoltaic field recently because of their advantageous features of simple fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. To meet the high demand for high throughput and cost-effective, we present a wet process method that enables the probing of the parameters for perovskite layer deposition through two-step sequential ultrasonic spray-coating. This paper describes a detailed investigation on the effects of modification of spray precursor solution (PbI2 and CH3NH3I precursor concentration and solvents used) and post-annealing condition (temperature and time), which can be performed to create optimal film quality as well as improve device efficiency. Through the systematic optimization, the inverted planar perovskite solar cells show the reproducible photovoltaic properties with best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.40% and average PCE of 9.70 ± 0.40%. A continuous spray-coating technique for rapid fabrication of total 16 pieces of perovskite films was demonstrated for providing a viable alternative for the high throughput production of the perovskite solar cells.

  12. Evaluation of chemical spraying and environmental management efficacy in areas with minor previous application of integrated control actions for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2017-12-01

    Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that are transmitted to humans through the bite of Leishmania-infected phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae). The main proved vector of visceral leishmaniais (VL) in the New World - Lutzomyia longipalpis - is well-adapted to urban areas and has extensive distribution within the five geographical regions of Brazil. Integrated public health actions directed for the vector, domestic reservoir and humans for the control of VL are preferentially applied in municipalities with higher epidemiological risk of transmission. In this study, we evaluated the individual impact of two main vector control actions - chemical spraying and environmental management - in two districts with no reported cases of human VL. Although belonging to an endemic municipality for VL in Brazil, the integrated control actions have not been applied in these districts due to the absence of human cases. The number of L. longipalpis captured in a two-year period was used as indicator of the population density of the vector. After chemical spraying a tendency of reduction in L. longipalpis was observed but with no statistical significance compared to the control. Environmental management was effective in that reduction and it may help in the control of VL by reducing the population density of the vector in a preventive and more permanent action, perhaps associated with chemical spraying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Anguo; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g −1 at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path

  14. A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2012-07-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  16. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Carvalho, Joao; Panao, Miguel R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  17. Applied Virtual Reality Research and Applications at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, mission operations training and science training. Before this technology can be utilized with confidence in these applications, it must be validated for each particular class of application. That is, the precision and reliability with which it maps onto real settings and scenarios, representative of a class, must be calculated and assessed. The approach of the MSFC VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical tools will then be available for use in the design and development of space systems and operations and in training and mission support systems. Specific validation studies for selected classes of applications have been completed or are currently underway. These include macro-ergonomic "control-room class" design analysis, Spacelab stowage reconfiguration training, a full-body micro-gravity functional reach simulator, and a gross anatomy teaching simulator. This paper describes the MSFC VR Applications Program and the validation studies.

  18. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-10-03

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery.

  19. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko ten; Soema, Peter C.; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery. PMID:28925794

  20. Characterization of Lanthanum Ferric Cobaltite doped with Strontium (LSCF) films deposited by spray-pyrolysis for application as cathode in PaCOS-TI; Caracterizacao de filmes de CFLE depositados por spray-pirolise para utilizacao como catodo em PaCOS-TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.S.; Guimaraes, V.F.; Paes Junior, H.R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados], Emails: laryssadsa@yahoo.com.br, valtencyguimaraes@yahoo.com.br, herval@uenf.br

    2010-07-01

    The lanthanum ferric cobaltite doped with strontium (LSCF) is a ceramic material with the perovskite structure that stands out in the field of research for its use as cathode in solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC). The films were synthesized by spray-pyrolysis technique on 8% mol Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. It was studied the influence of heat treatment temperatures (600-1000 deg C) on the properties of the films under the conditions of treatment during four hours. Samples were tested electrically by measuring the variation of electrical conductivity with temperature, structurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films heat treated at 700 deg C for 4 hours showed better performance for application as cathode. (author)

  1. Avaliação de pontas de pulverização hidráulicas na aplicação de fungicida em feijoeiro Evaluation of hydraulic spray nozzles for fungicide application on common beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As pontas de pulverização são um dos componentes mais importantes dos pulverizadores hidráulicos para aplicação de agrotóxicos por afetarem as características do jato emitido. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar três pontas de pulverização hidráulicas (jato plano padrão, jato plano antideriva e jato cônico vazio no controle de doenças do feijoeiro. O fungicida clorotalonil foi aplicado aos 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência (DAE, num volume de água de 125 L ha-1. Para comparação, foi utilizada uma testemunha que não recebeu o defensivo. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os primeiros sintomas da antracnose, da mancha-angular e da ferrugem foram observados já aos 20 DAE. A densidade de gotas obtida com as três pontas de pulverização foi superior a 60 gotas cm-2. As três pontas proporcionaram controle satisfatório das doenças e não houve diferença entre pontas. Em média, o aumento da produtividade devido ao fungicida foi de 76%, em relação à testemunha.The spray nozzles are one of the most important components of pesticide hydraulic sprayer because they affect the characteristics of the emitted spray. The objective of this study was to evaluate three hydraulic spray nozzles (standard flat fan, low drift flat fan and hollow cone for bean diseases control upon application of the fungicide chlorothalonil applied at 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after emergency (DAE in a water volume of 125 L ha-1. For comparison, a non-treated plot was used. A randomized complete-block design with four replications was used. The first symptoms of anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust were observed at 20 DAE. The droplet density obtained with the three spray nozzles was above 60 droplets cm-2. The fungicide applied with the three nozzles provided satisfactory control of the diseases and there were no differences among nozzles. On average, bean yield increased 76% due to the fungicide applications.

  2. Jackson State University's Center for Spatial Data Research and Applications: New facilities and new paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce E.; Elliot, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Jackson State University recently established the Center for Spatial Data Research and Applications, a Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing laboratory. Taking advantage of new technologies and new directions in the spatial (geographic) sciences, JSU is building a Center of Excellence in Spatial Data Management. New opportunities for research, applications, and employment are emerging. GIS requires fundamental shifts and new demands in traditional computer science and geographic training. The Center is not merely another computer lab but is one setting the pace in a new applied frontier. GIS and its associated technologies are discussed. The Center's facilities are described. An ARC/INFO GIS runs on a Vax mainframe, with numerous workstations. Image processing packages include ELAS, LIPS, VICAR, and ERDAS. A host of hardware and software peripheral are used in support. Numerous projects are underway, such as the construction of a Gulf of Mexico environmental data base, development of AI in image processing, a land use dynamics study of metropolitan Jackson, and others. A new academic interdisciplinary program in Spatial Data Management is under development, combining courses in Geography and Computer Science. The broad range of JSU's GIS and remote sensing activities is addressed. The impacts on changing paradigms in the university and in the professional world conclude the discussion.

  3. Spray drying of fenofibrate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; Shrestha, Neha; van de Streek, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose) and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content...... of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915) was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w). Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase...... in particle size of the NLCs after reconstitution in water as compared to that in the initial aqueous dispersion. The decrease in crystallinity of the dry powder by reducing the ratio of mannitol to trehalose could improve the reconstitution of the NLCs in water. However the yield and residual moisture...

  4. Exergy analysis of encapsulation of photochromic dye by spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çay, A.; Akçakoca Kumbasar, E. P.; Morsunbul, S.

    2017-10-01

    Application of exergy analysis methodology for encapsulation of photochromic dyes by spray drying was presented. Spray drying system was investigated considering two subsystems, the heater and the dryer sections. Exergy models for each subsystem were proposed and exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of each subsystem and the whole system were computed. Energy and exergy efficiency of the system were calculated to be 5.28% and 3.40%, respectively. It was found that 90% of the total exergy inlet was destroyed during encapsulation by spray drying and the exergy destruction of the heater was found to be higher.

  5. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland OR, Houston TX, and Galveston TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulant of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  6. Patient-centered innovation in health care organizations: a conceptual framework and case study application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Susan E; Conrad, Douglas A; Marcus-Smith, Miriam S; Reed, Peter; Watts, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centered innovation is spreading at the federal and state levels. A conceptual framework can help frame real-world examples and extract systematic learning from an array of innovative applications currently underway. The statutory, economic, and political environment in Washington State offers a special contextual laboratory for observing the interplay of these factors. We propose a framework for understanding the process of initiating patient-centered innovations-particularly innovations addressing patient-centered goals of improved access, continuity, communication and coordination, cultural competency, and family- and person-focused care over time. The framework to a case study of a provider organization in Washington State actively engaged in such innovations was applied in this article. We conducted a selective review of peer-reviewed evidence and theory regarding determinants of organizational change. On the basis of the literature review and the particular examples of patient-centric innovation, we developed a conceptual framework. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted to illustrate the framework with concrete examples of patient-centered innovation. The primary determinants of initiating patient-centered innovation are (a) effective leadership, with the necessary technical and professional expertise and creative skills; (b) strong internal and external motivation to change; (c) clear and internally consistent organizational mission; (d) aligned organizational strategy; (e) robust organizational capability; and (f) continuous feedback and organizational learning. The internal hierarchy of actors is important in shaping patient-centered innovation. External financial incentives and government regulations also significantly shape innovation. Patient-centered care innovation is a complex process. A general framework that could help managers and executives organize their thoughts around innovation within their organization is presented.

  7. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  8. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  9. Study of the droplet size of sprays generated by swirl nozzles dedicated to gasoline direct injection: measurement and application of the maximum entropy formalism; Etude de la granulometrie des sprays produits par des injecteurs a swirl destines a l'injection directe essence: mesures et application du formalisme d'entropie maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyaval, S.

    2000-06-15

    This PhD presents a study on a series of high pressure swirl atomizers dedicated to Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). Measurements are performed in stationary and pulsed working conditions. A great aspect of this thesis is the development of an original experimental set-up to correct multiple light scattering that biases the drop size distributions measurements obtained with a laser diffraction technique (Malvern 2600D). This technique allows to perform a study of drop size characteristics near the injector tip. Correction factors on drop size characteristics and on the diffracted intensities are defined from the developed procedure. Another point consists in applying the Maximum Entropy Formalism (MEF) to calculate drop size distributions. Comparisons between experimental distributions corrected with the correction factors and the calculated distributions show good agreement. This work points out that the mean diameter D{sub 43}, which is also the mean of the volume drop size distribution, and the relative volume span factor {delta}{sub v} are important characteristics of volume drop size distributions. The end of the thesis proposes to determine local drop size characteristics from a new development of deconvolution technique for line-of-sight scattering measurements. The first results show reliable behaviours of radial evolution of local characteristics. In GDI application, we notice that the critical point is the opening stage of the injection. This study shows clearly the effects of injection pressure and nozzle internal geometry on the working characteristics of these injectors, in particular, the influence of the pre-spray. This work points out important behaviours that the improvement of GDI principle ought to consider. (author)

  10. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  11. Radiolysis of spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

  12. Analysis of processes in DC arc plasma torches for spraying that use air as plasma forming gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V; Ivanov, D; Toropchin, A

    2014-01-01

    Developed in Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University technological processes of air-plasma spraying of wear-resistant, regenerating, hardening and decorative coatings used in number of industrial areas are described. The article contains examples of applications of air plasma spraying of coatings as well as results of mathematical modelling of processes in air plasma torches for spraying

  13. Radiometric investigation of factors, influencing the spray characteristics of aerosol flasks filled with propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkoe, Gy.; Stampf, Gy.; Csontos, A.; Gyarmati, L.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 16 sprayheads, 5 valve systems and 3 propellant mixtures has been investigated in influencing the spray characteristics of pharmaceuticals. The distribution of matter has been determined with the aid of radiometry. The 14 C activity of spray spots has been measured in a mosaic-like way determining the activity of each area of 1 cm 2 in the right-angles spot-coordinate system. A Frieseke-Hoepfner type, PB gas current scaler has been used for measuring activity. According to the results spray heads play a decisive role in influencing the spray characteristics of aerosol flasks filled with propellants. The different propellant mixtures and valve systems influence the spray characteristics only in a small degree and only when adjusted to a given spray head. The method is well applicable for qualification of spray heads in practice of both factories and hospitals. (K.A.)

  14. Aplicação em jato dirigido em cana-de-açúcar. II: espaçamento entre bicos turbo floodjet para a aplicação de herbicidas Directed spraying in sugarcane. II: spacing between floodjet nozzles for herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Peressin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicações de herbicidas em estádios mais avançados de desenvolvimento da cana-de-açúcar, em pré ou em pós-emergência inicial das plantas infestantes, podem ser feitas em jato dirigido, para que o produto atinja diretamente o alvo. Com esse fim, avaliaram-se 10 bicos TF-VS4 a 30 lbf/pol2, determinando-se as vazões e os padrões de deposição em 6 alturas (entre 9 e 36cm, em mesa de prova com 67 canaletas. Após isso, um programa computacional simulou o padrão de deposição de dois bicos separados entre 20 e 70cm no centro da entre linha da cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados indicaram que as vazões obtidas com bicos individuais apresentaram média de 2,3 l/min, com coeficiente de variação 2,5% e os padrões de deposição mostraram boa precisão com um intervalo de confiança estreito. Foi possível selecionar as melhores combinações de altura (A e espaçamento (E entre dois bicos, para os espaçamentos usuais de cana-de-açúcar; sendo que as melhores combinações mostraram relação E/A próxima de 1,4. Por exemplo, A = 35 cm e E = 50 cm para cana-de-açúcar a 140cm entrelinhas.Post emergence late herbicide application in sugarcane, shoud be carride out prefereable in inter-row, directing the spray mainly to the weeds. This study was performed aiming to evaluate the use of two Floodjet nozzles at the center of row sugarcane in situation of the most usual sugarcane row spacing in São Paulo State. It was started by the determination of spray pattern of tem FS-VS4 nozzles in a patternator with 67 channels, at six heights. An appropriated computer program simulated the spray deposition from two nozzles separated 20 to 70cm in the center of inter-row sugarcane. Results indicated: a at the started, nozzles output was 2.3 l/min, with a coeficient of variation of 2.5%, showing good respectivity and reliability. Regarting to the spray pattern in was observed a good precision with a narrow confidence interval by channel; b it was

  15. CuS p-type thin film characterization deposited on Ti, ITO and glass substrates using spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) for light emitting diode (LED) application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabah, Fayroz A., E-mail: fayroz-arif@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: naser@usm.my; Hassan, Z., E-mail: zai@usm.my; Azzez, Shrook A. [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Rasheed, Hiba S., E-mail: hibasaad1980@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Al-Hazim, Nabeel Z., E-mail: nabeelnano333@gmail.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ministry of Education, the General Directorate for Educational Anbar (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    The copper sulphide (CuS) thin films were grown with good adhesion by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) on Ti, ITO and glass substrates at 200 °C. The distance between nozzle and substrate is 30 cm. The composition was prepared by mixing copper chloride CuCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as a source of Cu{sup 2+} and sodium thiosulfate Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O as a source of and S{sup 2−}. Two concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 M) were used for each CuCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} to be prepared and then sprayed (20 ml). The process was started by spraying the solution for 3 seconds and after 10 seconds the cycle was repeated until the solution was sprayed completely on the hot substrates. The structural characteristics were studied using X-ray diffraction; they showed covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure for 0.2 M concentration, and covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure with two small peaks of chalcocite Cu{sub 2}S hexagonal crystal structure for 0.4 M concentration. Also the surface and electrical characteristics were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and current source device, respectively. The surface study for the CuS thin films showed nanorods to be established for 0.2 M concentration and mix of nanorods and nanoplates for 0.4 M concentration. The electrical study showed ohmic behavior and low resistivity for these films. Hall Effect was measured for these thin films, it showed that all samples of CuS are p- type thin films and ensured that the resistivity for thin films of 0.2 M concentration was lower than that of 0.4 M concentration; and for the two concentrations CuS thin film deposited on ITO had the lowest resistivity. This leads to the result that the conductivity was high for CuS thin film deposited on ITO substrate, and the conductivity of the three thin films of 0.2 M concentration was higher than that of 0.4 M concentration.

  16. Metallic coating deposited by Cold Gas Spray onto Light alhoys

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Vidaller, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of Cold Gas Spray technology (CGS) to spray different nature powders onto light alloys with the aim of increasing their wear resistance. The growing industrial interest for costs reduction (fuel consumption, machinery lifetime, or personal security) has emphasized the necessity to investigate the potential applications that light alloys can offer. Weight reduction is a reason why light metals and its alloys have been associated with strong industries a...

  17. GO evaluation of a PWR spray system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.T.

    1975-08-01

    GO is a reliability analysis methodology developed over the years from 1960 to the present by Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. In this report the GO methodology is presented and its application demonstrated by performing a reliability analysis of a conceptual PWR Containment Spray System. Certain numerical results obtained are compared with those of a prior fault tree analysis of the same system as documented in the 11 January 1973 draft report, A Fault Tree Evaluation of a PWR Spray System

  18. 3D printing for cyclonic spray chambers in ICP spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Geertsen , Valérie; Barruet , Elodie; Tache , Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D-printing is an increasingly widespread technique which is often described as a source for rapid prototyping whereas it is a manufacturing process in itself. It is a new tool for instrumental research laboratories which can now easily manufacture by themselves a large variety of devices. This article describes its application to ICP introduction system spray chambers. We undertake to print and study cyclone spray chambers by combining a...

  19. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 w...

  20. Adaptation of Control Center Software to Commerical Real-Time Display Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing an enhanced Huntsville Operation Support Center (HOSC) system designed to support multiple spacecraft missions. The Enhanced HOSC is based upon a distributed computing architecture using graphic workstation hardware and industry standard software including POSIX, X Windows, Motif, TCP/IP, and ANSI C. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is currently developing a prototype of the Display Services application for this system. Display Services provides the capability to generate and operate real-time data-driven graphic displays. This prototype is a highly functional application designed to allow system end users to easily generate complex data-driven displays. The prototype is easy to use, flexible, highly functional, and portable. Although this prototype is being developed for NASA-MSFC, the general-purpose real-time display capability can be reused in similar mission and process control environments. This includes any environment depending heavily upon real-time data acquisition and display. Reuse of the prototype will be a straight-forward transition because the prototype is portable, is designed to add new display types easily, has a user interface which is separated from the application code, and is very independent of the specifics of NASA-MSFC's system. Reuse of this prototype in other environments is a excellent alternative to creation of a new custom application, or for environments with a large number of users, to purchasing a COTS package.

  1. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers

  2. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  3. The development of a clinical outcomes survey research application: Assessment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard; Rothrock, Nan E; Hanrahan, Rachel T; Jansky, Liz J; Harniss, Mark; Riley, William

    2010-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health sponsored Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) aimed to create item banks and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) across multiple domains for individuals with a range of chronic diseases. Web-based software was created to enable a researcher to create study-specific Websites that could administer PROMIS CATs and other instruments to research participants or clinical samples. This paper outlines the process used to develop a user-friendly, free, Web-based resource (Assessment Center) for storage, retrieval, organization, sharing, and administration of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instruments. Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions were conducted with representatives from numerous institutions in order to supply a general wish list of features. Use Cases were then written to ensure that end user expectations matched programmer specifications. Program development included daily programmer "scrum" sessions, weekly Usability Acceptability Testing (UAT) and continuous Quality Assurance (QA) activities pre- and post-release. Assessment Center includes features that promote instrument development including item histories, data management, and storage of statistical analysis results. This case study of software development highlights the collection and incorporation of user input throughout the development process. Potential future applications of Assessment Center in clinical research are discussed.

  4. Application of sol gel spin coated yttria-stabilized zirconia layers for the improvement of solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Lars [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Tang, Zhaolin; Burgess, Alan [Northwest Mettech Corp., 467 Mountain Hwy, North Vancouver, British Columbia, V7J 2L3 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Due to its high thermal stability and purely oxide ionic conductivity, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most commonly used electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Standard electrolyte fabrication techniques for planar SOFCs involve wet ceramic techniques such as tape-casting or screen printing, requiring sintering steps at temperatures above 1300 C. Plasma spraying (PS) may provide a more rapid and cost efficient method to produce SOFCs without sintering. High-temperature sintering requires long processing times and can lead to oxidation of metal alloys used as mechanical supports, or to detrimental interreactions between the electrolyte and adjacent electrode layers. This study investigates the use of spin coated sol gel derived YSZ precursor solutions to fill the pores present in plasma sprayed YSZ layers, and to enhance the surface area for reaction at the electrolyte-cathode interface, without the use of high-temperature firing steps. The effects of different plasma conditions and sol concentrations and solid loadings on the gas permeability and fuel cell performance have been investigated. (author)

  5. Effect of paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block application for pain relief during suction termination of first-trimester pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Özoğlu, Nil; Aksoy, Ülkü; Albayrak, Evrim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block with ultracaine on curettage procedure. A total of 111 subjects with the request of pregnancy termination between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The first group (control group) consisted of 20 participants without medication. The second group consisted of 25 participants receiving 2 puffs of lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. The third group consisted of 20 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The fourth group consisted of 23 participants receiving 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the fifth group consisted of 23 participants receiving paracervical block with ultracaine. Paracervical block reduced pain score significantly in both intraoperative and postoperative periods. All analgesic procedures were significantly effective for reducing pain in postoperative period. Paracervical block may be the best method for reducing pain scores in intraoperative and postoperative periods during curettage procedure. All analgesic procedures such as lidocaine, paracetamol, ultracaine, and paracervical block with ultracaine can be used for reducing pain score in postoperative period. This trial is registered with NCT01947205.

  6. Effect of paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, lidocaine spray, pethidine & diclofenac sodium application for pain relief during fractional curettage: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gökhan; Bayraktar, Evrim; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Başer, Mürvet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Oğuz; Müderris, İptisam İpek

    2015-10-01

    Patients frequently experience pain of moderate to severe degree during gynaecologic procedures. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, pethidine and diclofenac sodium on fractional curettage procedure. A total of 144 multiparous women were randomly allocated to one of the six groups. The first group (control group) consisted of 22 participants and they did not receive any treatment. The second group had 26 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The 23 participants of the third group received two puff lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. t0 he forth group consisted of 25 participants receiving 100 mg pethidine. In the fifth group, the 23 participants received 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the sixth group consisted of 25 participants receiving diclofenac sodium. Pethidine was the best choice for reducing pain score during curettage procedure (t2:intra-operative). All analgesic procedures were significantly effective in reducing pain during postoperative period (t3). Significant pain reduction was achieved for both intra- and postoperative period by using analgesics. The results of our study showed that lidocaine puffs provided the best pain relief than the other analgesics used. Therefore, lidocaine may be considered as the first choice analgesic in fractional curettage (NCT ID: 01993589).

  7. Effect of Paracetamol, Dexketoprofen Trometamol, Lidocaine Spray, and Paracervical Block Application for Pain Relief during Suction Termination of First-Trimester Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Açmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block with ultracaine on curettage procedure. A total of 111 subjects with the request of pregnancy termination between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The first group (control group consisted of 20 participants without medication. The second group consisted of 25 participants receiving 2 puffs of lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. The third group consisted of 20 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The fourth group consisted of 23 participants receiving 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the fifth group consisted of 23 participants receiving paracervical block with ultracaine. Paracervical block reduced pain score significantly in both intraoperative and postoperative periods. All analgesic procedures were significantly effective for reducing pain in postoperative period. Paracervical block may be the best method for reducing pain scores in intraoperative and postoperative periods during curettage procedure. All analgesic procedures such as lidocaine, paracetamol, ultracaine, and paracervical block with ultracaine can be used for reducing pain score in postoperative period. This trial is registered with NCT01947205.

  8. Application of a cold spray technique to the fabrication of a copper canister for the geological disposal of CANDU spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radioactive Waste Management Technology Development, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radioactive Waste Management Technology Development, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A new method was proposed for the manufacture of a copper-cast iron canister for the spent fuel disposal based on the cold spray coating technique. The thickness of a copper shell could be fabricated to be as thin as 10 mm with the new method. Around 6 tons of copper could be saved with a 10 mm thick canister compared with a 50 mm thick canister. The electrochemical properties of the cold sprayed copper layer and forged copper were measured through a polarization test. The two copper layers showed very similar electrochemical properties. The lifetime of a 10 mm copper canister was estimated with a mathematical model based on the mass transport of sulfide ions through the buffer. The results showed that the canister lifetime was more than 140,000 years under the Korean granite groundwater condition. The thermal analysis with a current pre-conceptual design of a CANDU spent fuel canister showed that the maximum temperature between the canister and the saturated buffer was below the thermal criteria, 100 {sup o}C. Finally, the mechanical stability of the copper canister was confirmed with a computer program, ABAQUS, under the rock movement scenario.

  9. Intermetallic Al-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray for Applications on Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchinsky, E.; Sobiesiak, A.; Maev, R.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of a duplex structure with a metallic bond coat and a ceramic heat insulating topcoat. They possess the desired low thermal conductivity, but at the same time they are very brittle and sensitive to thermal shock and thermal cycling due to the inherently low coefficient of thermal expansion. Recent research activities are focused on the developing of multilayer TBC structures obtained using cold spraying and following annealing. Aluminum intermetallics have demonstrated thermal and mechanical properties that allow them to be used as the alternative TBC materials, while the intermetallic layers can be additionally optimized to achieve superior thermal physical properties. One example is the six layer TBC structure in which cold sprayed Al-based intermetallics are synthesized by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. These multilayer coating systems demonstrated an improved thermal fatigue capability as compared to conventional ceramic TBC. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS and mechanical tests to define the TBC material properties and intermetallic formation mechanisms.

  10. PDF modelling and particle-turbulence interaction of turbulent spray flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beishuizen, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent spray flames can be found in many applications, such as Diesel engines, rocket engines and power plants. The many practical applications are a motivation to investigate the physical phenomena occurring in turbulent spray flames in detail in order to be able to understand, predict and

  11. Development and application of the global rainbow refractometry for the study of heat and mass transfers in a spray; Developpement et application de la refractometrie arc-en-ciel global pour l'etude des transferts massique et thermique dans un spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P

    2004-12-15

    During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressure Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen produced by the degradation and oxidation of the reactor core and high pressure water vapor can be released into the reactor containment. The repartition of the hydrogen in the reactor containment is then dependent of the forced (mixed or natural) convection flows which will be established. This type of accidental scenario will lead then to the pressurization of the reactor containment and to a potential risk of hydrogen combustion, able to prejudice to the integrity of the reactor. One of the means of PWR safety, called spraying, consists to release cold water sprays in the reactor containment, with the aim to make its internal pressure and its temperature decrease, on account of the condensation of water vapor on the injected water droplets. Moreover, the spraying leads to a mixing of the gaseous mixture containing air, water vapor and hydrogen, and contributes to make the hydrogen local concentration decreased. The TOSQAN experiment, developed at the IRSN, allows to reproduce the thermal-hydraulic conditions which represent accidental sequences able to happen in a PWR. In the frame of the current program consecrated to the spraying study, an innovating optical technique has been implemented on the TOSQAN experiment to finely characterize the mass and heat transfers between a spray and the surrounding atmosphere. This work gives into details the development of the global rainbow technique which allows to measure, in a non intrusive way, the temperature of the droplets during their fall. This technique has been coupled with others optical diagnoses such as the spontaneous Raman diffusion spectrometry, the PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and the implementation imagery, to respectively measure the water vapor parts as well as the velocities and the droplets sizes. The obtained experimental results have led to a global and local analysis of the interaction between the

  12. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  13. [Study on Xinyueshu spray drying assisted with copovidone and its effect on powder property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Yan, Hong-Mei; Hu, Shao-Ying; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-12-01

    To study the application characteristics of copovidone (PVP-S630) in Xinyueshu extracts during the spray drying process, and its effect on such pharmaceutical properties as micromeritics and drug release behavior. PVP-S630 was added into Xinyueshu extracts to study on the spray drying, the effect of different dosages of PVP-S630 against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying, as well as the power property of Xinyueshu spray drying power and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component of hyperoside. The results showed that PVP-S630 revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect, with no notable change in the grain size of the spray drying power, increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior of hyperoside. It was worth further studying the application of PVP-S630 in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Wind tunnel measurement of spray drift from on-off controlled sprayer nozzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Jensen, Peter Kryger; Miller, Paul

    wide surface area with a length of 200 mm. The test was conducted in the wind tunnel at Silsoe Spray Applications Unit in the UK. The measurements consisted of two test series; airborne drift was collected on polyethylene lines more than 375 mm away from the centerline of the nozzle and ground deposits...... and arranged to deliver a pulse of spray using the WeedSeeker valve. The tests were conducted to determine accumulated spray deposit at different crosswind and forward speeds. In general, the deposits, especially those measured downwind close to the target zone showed significant increase as the crosswind......Sensor-based precision weed control system at a high resolution requires a high spray application accuracy to keep the spray in a small target zone. The objective of this research was to investigate the target accuracy and spray drift from individual controlled sprayer nozzles targeting a 250 mm...

  15. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  16. Correlation for predicting aerosol concentration in sodium spray fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, K.

    2001-01-01

    Aerosol behaviour computer codes are reported for the study of time-dependent airborne aerosol concentration in a containment. The use of available computer codes requires a thorough knowledge of the various rate processes employed to describe the aerosol behaviour. The present work describes a simple empirical equation to calculate sodium fire aerosol concentration with respect to time in a containment and is applicable to sodium spray fire conditions. Sodium spray fire aerosol concentration values obtained using this simplified approach agree reasonably well with experimental results. The empirical equation described in the present work is incorporated in the spray fire code NACOM and the code calculated values of aerosol concentration agreement with the sodium spray fire experimental results is reasonably good. (author)

  17. Increasing efficacy of graminicides with a forward angled spray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2012-01-01

    Control of annual grass species with vertically oriented leaves in agricultural crops by application of foliar acting herbicides with conventional hydraulic sprayers can be increased using forward angled nozzles. Changing the spray angle from the normally predominantly vertical spray towards...... an angled spray increases the potential target size of vertically oriented targets. This theory was tested in field experiments from 2005 to 2009 investigating control of three different grass species and a dicotyledonous weed species at early growth stages using foliar acting herbicides. Lolium perenne...... efficacy on L. perenne at early growth stages using nozzles with different spray quality, at different driving speeds and in different wind conditions. Similarly graminicide efficacy was increased when nozzles were angled 60° forward controlling A. myosuroides. Experiments investigating control of the two...

  18. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  19. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  20. Rapid in situ synthesis of spherical microflower Pt/C catalyst via spray-drying for high performance fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balgis, R.; Ogi, T.; Okuyama, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Anilkumar, G.M.; Sago, S. [Research and Development Centre, Noritake Co., Ltd., Higashiyama, Miyoshi, Aichi (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    A facile route for the rapid in situ synthesis of platinum nanoparticles on spherical microflower carbon has been developed. An aqueous precursor slurry containing carbon black, polystyrene latex (PSL), polyvinyl alcohol, and platinum salt was spray-dried, followed by calcination to simultaneously reduce platinum salt and to decompose PSL particles. Prepared Pt/C catalyst showed high-performance electrocatalytic activity with excellent durability. The mass activity and specific activity values were 132.26 mA mg{sup -1} Pt and 207.62 {mu}A cm{sup -2} Pt, respectively. This work presents a future direction for the production of high-performance Pt/C catalyst in an industrial scale. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  2. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  3. Some aspects of numerical analysis of turbulent gaseous and spray combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper numerical calculations and analysis on turbulent non-premixed gaseous and spray combustion are reviewed. Attentions were paid to the turbulent flow and combustion modeling applicable to predicting the flow, mixing and combustion of gaseous fuels and sprays. Some of the computed results of turbulent gaseous non-premixed (diffusion) flames with and without swirl and transient spray combustion were compared with experimental ones to understand the processes in the flame and to assure how the computations predict the experiments

  4. Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics and its application in tokamak geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Hong; Guan Xiaoyin; Tang, William M.

    2009-01-01

    A variational symplectic integrator for the guiding center motion of charged particles in general magnetic fields is developed to enable accurate long-time simulation studies of magnetized plasmas. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding center motion, the action of the guiding center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The variational symplectic integrator conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and globally bounds the numerical error in energy by a small number for all simulation time steps. Compared with standard integrators, such as the fourth order Runge-Kutta method, the variational symplectic integrator has superior numerical properties over long integration time. For example, in a two-dimensional tokamak geometry, the variational symplectic integrator is able to guarantee the accuracy for both the trapped and transit particle orbits for arbitrarily long simulation time. This is important for modern large-scale simulation studies of fusion plasmas where it is critical to use algorithms with long-term accuracy and fidelity. The variational symplectic integrator is expected to have a wide range of applications.

  5. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  6. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, Tim [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kammen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonell, Vince [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Samuelsen, Scott [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beyene, Asfaw [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Ganji, Ahmad [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC) was formed in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission to provide education, outreach, and technical support to promote clean energy -- combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, and waste energy recovery (WHP) -- development in the Pacific Region. The region includes California, Nevada, Hawaii, and the Pacific territories. The PCEAC was operated as one of nine regional clean energy application centers, originally established in 2003/2004 as Regional Application Centers for combined heat and power (CHP). Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, these centers received an expanded charter to also promote district energy and waste energy recovery, where economically and environmentally advantageous. The centers are working in a coordinated fashion to provide objective information on clean energy system technical and economic performance, direct technical assistance for clean energy projects and additional outreach activities to end users, policy, utility, and industry stakeholders. A key goal of the CEACs is to assist the U.S. in achieving the DOE goal to ramp up the implementation of CHP to account for 20% of U.S. generating capacity by 2030, which is estimated at a requirement for an additional 241 GW of installed clean technologies. Additional goals include meeting the Obama Administration goal of 40 GW of new CHP by 2020, key statewide goals such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in each state, California’s greenhouse gas emission reduction goals under AB32, and Governor Brown’s “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” goal of 6.5 GW of additional CHP over the next twenty years. The primary partners in the PCEAC are the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Energy and Resources Group (ERG) at UC Berkeley, the Advanced Power and Energy Program (APEP) at UC Irvine, and the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC

  8. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  9. Practical applications of injury surveillance: a brief 25-year history of the Connecticut Injury Prevention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Garry; Borrup, Kevin; DiVietro, Susan; Campbell, Brendan T; Beebe, Rebecca; Grasso, Damion; Rogers, Steven; Joseph, D'Andrea; Banco, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Connecticut Injury Prevention Center (CIPC), jointly housed in Connecticut Children's Medical Center and Hartford Hospital, is to reduce unintentional injury and violence among Connecticut residents, with a special focus on translating research into injury prevention programmes and policy. The CIPC engages in four core activities: research, education and training, community outreach programmes and public policy. As surveillance is an essential element of injury prevention, the CIPC has developed a robust statewide fatal and non-fatal injury surveillance system that has guided our prior work and continues to inform our current projects. The purpose of this article is to review the projects, programmes, and collaborative relationships that have made the CIPC successful in reducing unintentional injury and violence in Connecticut throughout the course of its 25 years history. Retrospective review of the application of injury surveillance. We believe that the application of our surveillance system can serve as a model for others who wish to engage in collaborative, community-based, data-driven injury prevention programmes in their own communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Experimental Comparison of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 and DMT for Data Center Interconnect Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We experiment......Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We...... experimentally investigate and compare both modulation formats at a data rate of 56 Gb/s and a transmission wavelength of 1544 nm using the same experimental setup. We show that PAM-4 outperforms double sideband DMT and also vestigial sideband DMT for the optical back-to-back (b2b) case and also...... for a transmission distance of 80 km SSMF in terms of required OSNR at a FEC-threshold of 3.8e-3. However, it is also pointed out that both versions of DMT do not require any optical dispersion compensation to transmit over 80 km SSMF while this is essential for PAM-4. Thus, implementation effort and cost may...

  11. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  12. Shear Strengthening of RC Beams Using Sprayed Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohamad Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of externally bonded sprayed glass fiber reinforced polymer (Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening of RC beams under quasi-static loading is investigated. Different techniques were utilized to enhance the bond between concrete and Sprayed GFRP, involving the use of through bolts and nuts paired with concrete surface preparation through sandblasting and through the use of a pneumatic chisel prior to Sprayed GFRP application. It was found that roughening the concrete surface using a pneumatic chisel and using through bolts and nuts were the most effective techniques. Also, Sprayed GFRP applied on 3 sides (U-shaped was found to be more effective than 2-sided Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening. Sprayed GFRP increased the shear load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capacities of RC beams. It was found that the load-carrying capacity of strengthened RC beams was related to an effective strain of applied Sprayed GFRP. This strain was related to Sprayed GFRP configuration and the technique used to enhance the concrete-FRP bond. Finally, an equation was proposed to calculate the contribution of Sprayed GFRP in the shear strength of an RC beam.

  13. A decision-support tool to predict spray deposition of insecticides in commercial potato fields and its implications for their performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Vaughn, Kathy; Xue, Yingen; Rush, Charlie; Workneh, Fekede; Goolsby, John; Troxclair, Noel; Anciso, Juan; Gregory, Ashley; Holman, Daniel; Hammond, Abby; Mirkov, Erik; Tantravahi, Pratyusha; Martini, Xavier

    2011-08-01

    Approximately US $1.3 billion is spent each year on insecticide applications in major row crops. Despite this significant economic importance, there are currently no widely established decision-support tools available to assess suitability of spray application conditions or of the predicted quality or performance of a given commercial insecticide applications. We conducted a field study, involving 14 commercial spray applications with either fixed wing airplane (N=8) or ground rig (N=6), and we used environmental variables as regression fits to obtained spray deposition (coverage in percentage). We showed that (1) ground rig applications provided higher spray deposition than aerial applications, (2) spray deposition was lowest in the bottom portion of the canopy, (3) increase in plant height reduced spray deposition, (4) wind speed increased spray deposition, and (5) higher ambient temperatures and dew point increased spray deposition. Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), mortality increased asymptotically to approximately 60% in response to abamectin spray depositions exceeding around 20%, whereas mortality of psyllid adults reached an asymptotic response approximately 40% when lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam spray deposition exceeded 30%. A spray deposition support tool was developed (http://pilcc.tamu.edu/) that may be used to make decisions regarding (1) when is the best time of day to conduct spray applications and (2) selecting which insecticide to spray based on expected spray deposition. The main conclusion from this analysis is that optimization of insecticide spray deposition should be considered a fundamental pillar of successful integrated pest management programs to increase efficiency of sprays (and therefore reduce production costs) and to reduce risk of resistance development in target pest populations.

  14. Preparation of cellulose based microspheres by combining spray coagulating with spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song; Xia, Lin Hua

    2014-10-13

    Porous microspheres of regenerated cellulose with size in range of 1-2 μm and composite microspheres of chitosan coated cellulose with size of 1-3 μm were obtained through a two-step spray-assisted approach. The spray coagulating process must combine with a spray drying step to guarantee the formation of stable microspheres of cellulose. This approach exhibits the following two main virtues. First, the preparation was performed using aqueous solution of cellulose as precursor in the absence of organic solvent and surfactant; Second, neither crosslinking agent nor separated crosslinking process was required for formation of stable microspheres. Moreover, the spray drying step also provided us with the chance to encapsulate guests into the resultant cellulose microspheres. The potential application of the cellulose microspheres acting as drug delivery vector has been studied in two PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) solution with pH values at 4.0 and 7.4 to mimic the environments of stomach and intestine, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Status of emergency spray modelling in the integral code ASTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumecocq, W.; Passalacqua, R.

    2001-01-01

    Containment spray systems are emergency systems that would be used in very low probability events which may lead to severe accidents in Light Water Reactors. In most cases, the primary function of the spray would be to remove heat and condense steam in order to reduce pressure and temperature in the containment building. Spray would also wash out fission products (aerosols and gaseous species) from the containment atmosphere. The efficiency of the spray system in the containment depressurization as well as in the removal of aerosols, during a severe accident, depends on the evolution of the spray droplet size distribution with the height in the containment, due to kinetic and thermal relaxation, gravitational agglomeration and mass transfer with the gas. A model has been developed taking into account all of these phenomena. This model has been implemented in the ASTEC code with a validation of the droplets relaxation against the CARAIDAS experiment (IPSN). Applications of this modelling to a PWR 900, during a severe accident, with special emphasis on the effect of spray on containment hydrogen distribution have been performed in multi-compartment configuration with the ASTEC V0.3 code. (author)

  16. Simulation of exhaust gas heat recovery from a spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, Boris; Julklang, Wittaya

    2014-01-01

    This study explored various alternatives in improving the energy utilization of spray drying process through the exhaust gas heat recovery. Extensible and user-friendly simulation code was written in Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel for this purpose. The effects of process parameters were analyzed on the energy efficiency and energy saving in the industrial-scale spray drying system with exhaust gas heat recovery in an air-to-air heat exchanger and in the system with partial recirculation of exhaust air. The spray dryer is equipped with an indirect heater for heating the drying air. The maximum gains of 16% in energy efficiency and 50% in energy saving were obtained for spray drying system equipped with heat exchanger for exhaust air heat recovery. In addition, 34% in energy efficiency and 61% in energy saving for system with recirculation of exhaust air in the present range of process parameters. The high energy efficiency was obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. The energy saving was increased using the large amount of hot drying air. - Highlights: • We model industrial-scale spray drying process with the exhaust gas heat recovery. • We develop an Excel VBA computer program to simulate spray dryer with heat recovery. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy saving. • High energy efficiency is obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. • Energy saving is increased using the large amount of hot drying air

  17. Development of corrosion and wear resistant coatings by an improved HVOF spraying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Y.; Kawakita, J.; Kuroda, S. [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have developed an improved HVOF spray process called ''Gas-shrouded HVOF'' (GS-HVOF) over the past several years. By using an extension nozzle at the exit of a commercial HVOF spray gun, GS-HVOF is capable of controlling the oxidation of sprayed materials during flight as well as achieving higher velocity of sprayed particles. These features result in extremely dense and clean microstructure of the sprayed coatings. The process has been successfully applied to corrosion resistant alloys such as SUS316L, Hastelloy C, and alloy 625 as well as cermets such as WC-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-Ni. The spray process, coatings microstructure and property evaluation will be discussed with potential industrial applications in the near future. (orig.)

  18. Current situation and development tendency of thermal spraying materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Yue-guang

    2005-01-01

    The current situations of thermal spraying materials in China are described in this paper.The thermal spraying technology in China has a great progress over tens of years. More than one hundred varieties of material products serve thermal spraying producing now. They belong to three kinds, powders,wires and rods. Technologies for producing alloy, ceramic and composite powders, alloy and cored wires,and oxide ceramic rods are applied to large-scale production. Many research and development works on advanced materials for thermal spraying are carrying out recent years. They show that the general tendencies of thermal spraying materials in China are composite or low-impurity component, ultrafine or nanosized microstructure, high properties, and specialized and systematized applications. Thermal spraying materials have great prospects with the development of saving society in China.

  19. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  20. Dendritic silica particles with center-radial pore channels: promising platforms for catalysis and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-01-27

    Dendritic silica micro-/nanoparticles with center-radial pore structures, a kind of newly created porous material, have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique open three-dimensional dendritic superstructures with large pore channels and highly accessible internal surface areas compared with conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). They are very promising platforms for a variety of applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. In this review, their unique structural characteristics and properties are first analyzed, then novel and interesting synthesis methods associated with the possible formation mechanisms are summarized to provide material scientists some inspiration for the preparation of this kind of dendritic particles. Subsequently, a few examples of interesting applications are presented, mainly in catalysis, biomedicine, and other important fields such as for sacrificial templates and functional coatings. The review is concluded with an outlook on the prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and potential applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Application of reliability centered maintenance for nuclear power station in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, Haruyuki; Honda, Hironobu.

    1990-01-01

    The reliability centered maintenance (RCM) method has been widely used with good results in aviation companies in the U.S. to ensure positive preventive maintenance and management. In addition, the Electric Power Research Institute has been making studies and tests in an effort to apply the RCM method to nuclear power plants. The present report shows and discusses some results of a preliminary study aimed at the introduction of the RCM method to nuclear power plants in Japan. The history of the development and application of RCM is outlined first, and the procedure of its implementation is then described and discussed. The procedure consists of five major steps: collection of data, identification of system components, analysis of the functions of the system, selection of required tasks for preventive management, and packaging. Some actual examples of the application of RCM to nuclear power plants in the U.S. are described. And finally, the report discusses some major problems to be solved to permit the application of RCM to nuclear power plants in Japan. (N.K.)

  2. Effect of Spray Application of Calcium Compounds Combined with Free Polyamines at Different Growth Stages on Physiological Problems and Yield of ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid mohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran, USA, Turkey and some Mediterranean countries. Some physiological problems such as abscission of inflorescence buds, blankness, non-splitting, early splitting, cracking and nut deformation reduce the pistachio yield and quality. A proper nutrition management of pistachio orchard might decrease the physiological problems and increasing the yield. Calcium is an essential plant macro-nutrient that has several distinct functions within plants. These functions can be divided into main areas including effects on membranes, enzymes, cell walls, and interactions of calcium with phytohormones. Free polyamines (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, are the widely distributed of N containing organic molecules binding to the intracellular anions (DNA, RNA, chromatin and proteins. They are also known to possess several regulatory functions. In plants, they have been associated with regulating many physiological processes, such as organogenesis, embryogenesis, floral initiation and development, leaf senescence, fruit development and ripening, and abiotic and biotic plant stress responses. Although the spray application of calcium compound and free polyamine has been investigated separately, application of calcium compounds combined with free polyamines has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined treatments of calcium and free polyamines on decreasing the physiological problems and improving the yield of ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ pistachio trees. Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out in a commercial 20-year old ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ pistachio orchard in Rafsanjan, Iran. It was arranged as factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications. The treatments were control, calcium compounds (calcium nitrate and calcium chloride at concentration of 0.5% combined with free polyamines (putrescine

  3. Theoretical Design and First Test in Laboratory of a Composite Visual Servo-Based Target Spray Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to spray onto the canopy of interval planting crop, an approach of using a target spray robot with a composite vision servo system based on monocular scene vision and monocular eye-in-hand vision was proposed. Scene camera was used to roughly locate target crop, and then the image-processing methods for background segmentation, crop canopy centroid extraction, and 3D positioning were studied. Eye-in-hand camera was used to precisely determine spray position of each crop. Based on the center and area of 2D minimum-enclosing-circle (MEC of crop canopy, a method to calculate spray position and spray time was determined. In addition, locating algorithm for the MEC center in nozzle reference frame and the hand-eye calibration matrix were studied. The processing of a mechanical arm guiding nozzle to spray was divided into three stages: reset, alignment, and hovering spray, and servo method of each stage was investigated. For preliminary verification of the theoretical studies on the approach, a simplified experimental prototype containing one spray mechanical arm was built and some performance tests were carried out under controlled environment in laboratory. The results showed that the prototype could achieve the effect of “spraying while moving and accurately spraying on target.”

  4. Systematic Review of Data Mining Applications in Patient-Centered Mobile-Based Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Mina; Niakan Kalhori, Sharareh R

    2017-10-01

    Smartphones represent a promising technology for patient-centered healthcare. It is claimed that data mining techniques have improved mobile apps to address patients' needs at subgroup and individual levels. This study reviewed the current literature regarding data mining applications in patient-centered mobile-based information systems. We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for original studies reported from 2014 to 2016. After screening 226 records at the title/abstract level, the full texts of 92 relevant papers were retrieved and checked against inclusion criteria. Finally, 30 papers were included in this study and reviewed. Data mining techniques have been reported in development of mobile health apps for three main purposes: data analysis for follow-up and monitoring, early diagnosis and detection for screening purpose, classification/prediction of outcomes, and risk calculation (n = 27); data collection (n = 3); and provision of recommendations (n = 2). The most accurate and frequently applied data mining method was support vector machine; however, decision tree has shown superior performance to enhance mobile apps applied for patients' self-management. Embedded data-mining-based feature in mobile apps, such as case detection, prediction/classification, risk estimation, or collection of patient data, particularly during self-management, would save, apply, and analyze patient data during and after care. More intelligent methods, such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms, and even the hybrid methods may result in more patients-centered recommendations, providing education, guidance, alerts, and awareness of personalized output.

  5. Dose-Dependent Effects of CeO2 on Microstructure and Antibacterial Property of Plasma-Sprayed TiO2 Coatings for Orthopedic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Liu, Gaopeng; Zheng, Hai; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively for orthopedic and dental implants. Although these devices have achieved high rates of success, two major complications may be encountered: the lack of osseointegration and the biomaterial-related infection. Accordingly, cerium oxide (CeO2)-doped titanium oxide (TiO2) materials were coated on titanium by an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) technique. The phase structures, morphologies, and surface chemical states of the obtained coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The in vitro antibacterial and cytocompatibility of the materials were studied with Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus, ATCC25923) and osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1. The results indicated that the addition of CeO2 shifts slightly the diffraction peaks of TiO2 matrix to low angles but does not change its rutile phase structure. In addition, the CeO2/TiO2 composite coatings possess dose-dependent corrosion resistance and antimicrobial properties. And doping of 10 wt.% CeO2 exhibits the highest activity against S. aureus, improved corrosion resistance, and competitive cytocompatibility, which argues a promising option for balancing the osteogenetic and antibacterial properties of titanium implants.

  6. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  7. Tailoring a High Temperature Corrosion Resistant FeNiCrAl for Oxy-Combustion Application by Thermal Spray Coating and HIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Metsäjoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel combustion combined with CCS (carbon capture and storage aims to decrease CO2 emissions in energy production using fossil fuels. Oxygen firing changes power plant boiler conditions compared to conventional firing. Higher material temperatures and harsher and more variable environmental conditions cause new degradation processes that are inadequately understood at the moment. In this study, an Fe-Ni-Cr-Al alloy was developed based on thermodynamic simulations. The chosen composition was manufactured as powder by gas atomization. The powder was sieved into two fractions: The finer was used to produce thermal spray coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF and the coarser to manufacture bulk specimens by hot isostatic pressing (HIP. The high temperature corrosion properties of the manufactured FeNiCrAl coating and bulk material were tested in laboratory conditions simulating oxy-combustion. The manufacturing methods and the results of high temperature corrosion performance are presented. The corrosion performance of the coating was on average between the bulk steel references Sanicro 25 and TP347HFG.

  8. Mass Production of LiFePO4/C Powders by Large Type Spray Pyrolysis Apparatus and Its Application to Cathode for Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Akao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherical LiFePO4/C powders were successfully produced at a rate of 100 g/h using a large type spray pyrolysis apparatus. Organic compounds such as citric acid and sucrose were used as carbon sources. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that they had a spherical morphology with nonaggregation. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the olivine phase was obtained by heating at 600∘C under argon (95%/hydrogen (5% atmosphere. The chemical composition of LiFePO4/C powders was in good agreement with that of the starting solution. Electrochemical measurement revealed that the use of citric acid was most effective in ensuring a high rechargeable capacity and cycle stability. The rechargeable capacity of the LiFePO4/C cathode obtained using citric acid was 155 mAh/g at a discharge rate of 1 C. Because of the good discharge capacity of the LiFePO4/C cathode, it exhibited excellent cycle stability after 100 cycles at each discharge rate. Moreover, this high cycle stability of the LiFePO4/C cathode was maintained even at 50∘C.

  9. Development of SnS (FTO/CdS/SnS) thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, A. M. S.; Valanarasu, S.; Jeyadheepan, K.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report a well-organized analysis on various key-properties of SnS thin films for solar cell fabricated by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction study reveals the polycrystalline nature of deposited films with orthorhombic crystal structure. The crystallite size was calculated and observed to be in the range of 8-28 nm with increasing molarity of precursor solution. The stoichiometry composition of SnS was confirmed by EDX study. SEM/AFM studies divulge the well-covered deposited surface with spherical grains and the size of grains is increasing with concentration and so the roughness. A remarkable decrease in band gap from 2.6 eV to 1.6 eV was noticed by raising the molar concentration from 0.025 M up to 0.075 M. A single strong emission peak at about 825 nm is observed in PL spectra with enhanced intensity which may be attributed to near band edge emission. From the Hall effect measurement, it was found that the SnS thin film exhibits p-type conductivity. The calculated values of resistivity and carrier concentration are 0.729 Ω cm and 3.67 × 1018/cm3 respectively. Furthermore, to study the photovoltaic properties of SnS thin films a heterojunction solar cell, FTO/n-CdS/p-SnS was produced and the conversion efficiency was recorded about 0.01%.

  10. Process of optical excitation and relaxation of color center in synthetic diamond and its application to optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of high-pressure synthesized diamond is carried out by using a nuclear reactor or a linac. Then, the effect of annealing on the color centers is observed. A study is made to identify different color centers and to provide techniques to control their introduction. Investigations cover the relation of color center formation with annealing temperature, dependence of color center formation on radiation dose, migration of H3 center and hydrogen, and applicability of five different color centers to optoelectronics. Next, a study is made of the formation and relaxation of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a metastable excited state produced by optical excitation. An optical gain is essential to provide laser. Optical amplification is measured at the vibronic emission band of the NV center. An increase in absorption is detected, indicating that the NV center will not provide laser. In the optical excitation-relaxation process, the relaxation proceeds via a metastable state. Finally, hole burning of ZPL of the NV center is observed in the temperature range from 20K to 80K, and some of its features are described. (N.K.)

  11. Perspectives from the Wearable Electronics and Applications Research (WEAR) Lab, NASA, Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Haifa R.

    2017-01-01

    As NASA moves beyond exploring low earth orbit and into deep space exploration, increased communication delays between astronauts and earth drive a need for crew to become more autonomous (earth-independent). Currently crew on board the International Space Station (ISS) have limited insight into specific vehicle system performance because of the dependency on monitoring and real-time communication with Mission Control. Wearable technology provides a method to bridge the gap between the human (astronaut) and the system (spacecraft) by providing mutual monitoring between the two. For example, vehicle or environmental information can be delivered to astronauts through on-body devices and in return wearables provide data to the spacecraft regarding crew health, location, etc. The Wearable Electronics and Applications Research (WEAR) Lab at the NASA Johnson Space Center utilizes a collaborative approach between engineering and human factors to investigate the use of wearables for spaceflight. Zero and partial gravity environments present unique challenges to wearables that require collaborative, user-centered, and iterative approaches to the problems. Examples of the WEAR Lab's recent wearable projects for spaceflight will be discussed.

  12. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  13. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  14. Effects of Nantucket pine tip moth insecticide spray schedules on loblolly pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Kenneth W. McCravy; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Frequent and prolonged insecticide applications to control the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera:Torticidae) (NPTM), although effective, may be impractical and uneconomica1, for commercial timber production. Timed insecticide sprays of permethrin (Polmce 3.2® EC) were applied to all possible combinations of spray...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as the...

  16. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  17. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  18. Hospital image and the positioning of service centers: an application in market analysis and strategy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Clark, M

    1990-09-01

    The research confirms the coexistence of different images for hospitals, service centers within the same hospitals, and service programs offered by each of the service centers. The images of individual service centers are found not to be tied to the image of the host facility. Further, service centers and host facilities have differential rankings on the same service decision attributes. Managerial recommendations are offered for "image differentiation" between a hospital and its care centers.

  19. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Maniero Moreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. Method: descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. Results: the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%, infectious-sharps (31-42% and recyclable (5-17%. The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. Conclusion: the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services.

  20. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana Maria Maniero; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. Method: descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. Results: the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%), infectious-sharps (31-42%) and recyclable (5-17%). The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. Conclusion: the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services. PMID:27556874

  1. Fabrication of Eu doped CdO [Al/Eu-nCdO/p-Si/Al] photodiodes by perfume atomizer based spray technique for opto-electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, M.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd; Chandramohan, R.; Arun Kumar, K. Deva; Valanarasu, S.; Kathalingam, A.; AlFaify, S.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, thin films of cadmium oxide (CdO) with different concentrations (0, 1, 3, and 5 wt%) of Eu doping were deposited onto Si and glass substrates by a novel and facile spray technique using simple perfume atomizer for the first time. Prepared films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical properties and the photo diode studies, using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Isbnd V characteristics, and fundamental parameters are reported. All the prepared Eu:CdO films exhibit cubic structure. The preferential orientation is along (200) plane. Scanning electron microscopy study indicates the growth of smooth and pin-hole free films with clusters of homogeneous grains. The values of band gap energy are found to be varying from 2.42 to 2.33 eV for various Eu doping concentration from 0 to 5 wt%. EDAX studies revealed the presence of Eu, Cd and O elements without any other impurities. FTIR spectra showed a peak at 575 cm-1 confirming the stretching mode of Cdsbnd O. The resistivity (ρ), high carrier concentration (n) and carrier mobility (μ) for 3 wt% CdO thin film are found to be 0.452 × 10-3(Ω.cm), 17.82 × 1020 cm-3 and 7.757 cm2/V, respectively. Current-voltage measurements on the fabricated nanostructured Al/Eu-nCdO/p-Si/Al heterojunction device showed a non-linear electric characteristics indicating diode like behaviour.

  2. Effects of growth temperatures on the physical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films deposited through spray pyrolysis for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadavieslam, M. R.; Keshavarz, S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the effects of substrate temperature on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films deposited on soda lime glass through spray pyrolysis without sulfurization. Substrate temperatures ranged from 250 to 500 °C at a step of 50 °C, and a precursor solution was prepared by dissolving copper chloride, zinc acetate, zinc chloride, and thiourea in ethanol and di-ionized water. The films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and electrical resistance and Hall effect measurements, respectively, obtained by two-point probe and van der Pauw techniques. XRD revealed the formation of polycrystalline CZTS thin films and the appearance of relatively intense and sharp diffraction peaks at (112), (200), (220), and (312) of a kesterite phase with (112) preferential orientation, in which the crystalline degree increased as substrate temperature increased. Surface morphological analysis demonstrated the formation of a smooth, compact, and uniform CZTS surface. When substrate temperature increased from 250 to 500 °C, single-crystal grains increased from 6.38 to 28 nm, carrier concentration increased from 3.4 × 1017 to 2.36 × 1019 cm-3, Hall mobility increased from 30.96 to 68.52 cm2/V.S, optical band gap decreased from 1.74 to 1.14 eV, and resistivity decreased from 0.59 to 3.87 × 10-3 Ωcm. Hall effect analysis indicated that the films exhibited p-type conductivity.

  3. Trajectory and velocity measurement of a particle in spray by digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue Qieni; Chen Yiliang; Yuan Rui; Ge Baozhen; Gao Yan; Zhang Yimo

    2009-12-20

    We present a method for the trajectory and the velocity measurement of a particle in spray by digital holography. Based on multiple exposure digital in-line holography, a sequence of digital holograms of a dynamic spray particle field at different times are recorded with a CW laser and a high-speed CCD. The time evolution of the serial positions of particles, i.e., the motion trajectories of the particles, is obtained by numerically reconstructing the synthetic hologram of a sequence of digital holograms. The center coordinate (x,y) of each particle image can be extracted using a Hough transform and subpixel precision computing, and the velocity of an individual particle can also be obtained, which is then applied to measuring the velocity of diesel spray and alcohol spray. The research shows that the method presented in this paper for measuring spray field is feasible.

  4. "1"3"7Cs distribution in mulberry (Morus alba) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and effect of spray application of a liquid potassium fertilizer onto trunk surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masanori; Motojima, Sayaka; Igarashi, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, contamination of mulberry-leaf tea with over 100Bq kg"-"1 "1"3"7Cs was found. We therefore investigated "1"3"7Cs distribution in mulberry trees (Morus alba) and soil in Nihonmatsu City from 2012. As a result, mulberry leaves near the end of branches (0 - 30 cm), which are usually used as edible leaves, were shown to contain higher "1"3"7Cs concentration than the others. Trunk showed highest "1"3"7Cs concentration among the plant parts of mulberry investigated, while root "1"3"7Cs concentration was relatively low. Autoradiographic studies for leaf, bark and cross-sectional trunk suggest that radioactive substances were deposited onto bark and leaf radioactive contamination could be due to translocation of "1"3"7Cs from trunk. Spray application of 0.5% KH_2PO_4 solution onto trunk surface significantly reduced "1"3"7Cs concentration in edible leaves emerged about one month after the application. However, the effect was limited and insufficient to solve the problem of radioactive contamination in edible mulberry leaves. (author)

  5. Nanostructured thin film La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-δ} synthesized via salt-assisted spray pyrolysis for micro-SOFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benel, Cahit; Darbandi, Azad J. [Institute for Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials/Technische Universitaet Darmstadt and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Evans, Anna; Toelke, Rene [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Hahn, Horst [Institute for Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials/Technische Universitaet Darmstadt and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are anticipated for battery replacement due to their increased energy capacity for applications such as portable electronic devices, mobile phones and laptops. In this work, nanocrystalline La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-δ} (LSC) powder with ultrafine microstructure and high specific surface area was synthesized via salt-assisted spray pyrolysis method. XRD results show the formation of a nanocrystalline single phase perovskite structure. Agglomerate-free LSC nanoparticles were stabilized in water-based dispersion without the need of ultrasonic energy application. Nanoparticulate cathode thin films of LSC with thickness between 150 and 500 nm were prepared via single step spin coating on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. Gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) film was applied to YSZ substrate to avoid the chemical reaction between cathode and electrolyte. The performance of the thin film cathodes was evaluated by high temperature impedance spectroscopy on symmetrical samples.

  6. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  7. Patient-Centered Tablet Application for Improving Medication Adherence after a Drug-Eluting Stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vicki; Dileep, Anandu; Dickens, Carolyn; Groo, Vicki; Welland, Betty; Field, Jerry; Baumann, Matthew; Flores, Jose D; Shroff, Adhir; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J; Boyd, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate a patient-centered educational electronic tablet application, "My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App" (MyIDEA) to see if there was an increase in patient knowledge about dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and medication possession ratio (MPR) compared to treatment as usual. In a pilot project, 24 elderly (≥50 years old) research participants were recruited after a drug-eluting stent. Eleven were randomized to the control arm and 13 to the interventional arm. All the participants completed psychological and knowledge questionnaires. Adherence was assessed through MPR, which was calculated at 3 months for all participants who were scheduled for second and third follow-up visits. Relative to control, the interventional group had a 10% average increase in MPR. As compared to the interventional group, more patients in the control group had poor adherence (<80% MPR). The psychological data revealed a single imbalance in anxiety between the control and interventional groups. On average, interventional participants spent 21 min using MyIDEA. Consumer health informatics has enabled us to engage patients with their health data using novel methods. Consumer health technology needs to focus more on patient knowledge and engagement to improve long-term health. MyIDEA takes a unique approach in targeting DAPT from the onset. MyIDEA leverages patient-centered information with clinical care and the electronic health record highlighting the patients' role as a team member in their own health care. The patients think critically about adverse events and how to solve issues before leaving the hospital.

  8. Patient Centered Tablet Application for improving medication adherence after a Drug Eluting Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Shah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study’s objective was to evaluate a patient-centered educational electronic tablet application, My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App (MyIDEA to see if there was an increase in patient knowledge about dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT and medication possession ratio (MPR compared to treatment as usual. Methods: In a pilot project, 24 elderly (≥50 years-old research participants were recruited after a Drug Eluting Stent. 11 were randomized to the control arm and 13 to the interventional arm. All participants completed psychological and knowledge questionnaires. Adherence was assessed through MPR, which was calculated at three months for all participants who were scheduled for a second and third follow-up visit.Results: Relative to control, the interventional group had a 10% average increase in MPR. As compared to the interventional group, more patients in the control group had poor adherence (<80% MPR. The psychological data revealed a single imbalance in anxiety between the control and interventional groups. On average interventional participants spent 21 minutes using MyIDEA. Discussion: Consumer health informatics has enabled us to engage patients with their health data using novel methods. Consumer health technology needs to focus more on patient knowledge and engagement to improve long term health. MyIDEA takes a unique approach in targeting DAPT from the onset.Conclusion: MyIDEA leverages patient centered information with clinical care and the electronic health record highlighting the patients’ role as a team member in their own healthcare. The patients think critically about adverse events and how to solve issues before leaving the hospital.

  9. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula s "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA s SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT s experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  10. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  11. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  12. Mathematical modeling and numerical study of a spray in a rarefied gas. Application to the simulation of dust particle transport in ITER in case of vacuum loss accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, F.

    2009-11-01

    The thesis deals with kinetic models describing a rarefied spray. These models rely on coupling two Partial Differential Equations which describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the distribution of molecules and dust particles. The model presented in the first part is described by two Boltzmann-type equations where collisions between molecules and particles are modeled by two collision operators. We suggest two models of this collision operators. In the first one, collisions between dust particles and molecules are supposed to be elastic. In the second one, we assume those collisions are inelastic and given by a diffuse reflexion mechanism on the surface of dust specks. This leads to establish non classical collision operators. We prove that in the case of elastic collisions, the spatially homogeneous system has weak solutions which preserve mass and energy, and which satisfy an entropy inequality. We then describe the numerical simulation of the inelastic model, which is based on a Direct Simulation Method. This brings to light that the numerical simulation of the system becomes too expensive because the typical size of a dust particle is too large. We therefore introduce in the second part of this work a model constituted of a coupling (by a drag force term) between a Boltzmann equation and a Vlasov equation. To this end, we perform a scaling of the Boltzmann/Boltzmann system and an asymptotic expansion of one of the dimensionless collision operators with respect to the ratio of mass between a molecule of gas and a particle. A rigorous proof of the passage to the limit is given in the spatially homogeneous setting, for the elastic model of collision operators. It includes a new variant of Povzner's inequality in which the vanishing mass ratio is taken into account. Moreover, we numerically compare the Boltzmann/Boltzmann and Vlasov/Boltzmann systems with the inelastic collision operators. The simulation of the Vlasov equation is performed with a Particle

  13. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Limaye, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula's "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA's SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT's experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  15. Application of theory to family-centered care: a role for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Family-centered care is an emerging trend in health care settings today. An explanation, principles, and a definition of family-centered care are offered and discussed. A theoretical framework, Balance Theory of Coordination, which can be utilized by social workers to develop and enhance family-centered care practices, is explained and discussed. Various family-centered care practices are examined within the context of Balance Theory of Coordination as examples.

  16. Development & characterization of alumina coating by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jobin; Scaria, Abyson; Kurian, Don George

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on metals to prevent them from oxidation and corrosion at room as well as elevated temperatures. The service environment, mechanisms of protection, chemical and mechanical compatibility, application method, control of coating quality and ability of the coating to be repaired are the factors that need to be considered while selecting the required coating. The coatings based on oxide materials provides high degree of thermal insulation and protection against oxidation at high temperatures for the underlying substrate materials. These coatings are usually applied by the flame or plasma spraying methods. The surface cleanliness needs to be ensured before spraying. Abrasive blasting can be used to provide the required surface roughness for good adhesion between the substrate and the coating. A pre bond coat like Nickel Chromium can be applied on to the substrate material before spraying the oxide coating to avoid chances of poor adhesion between the oxide coating and the metallic substrate. Plasma spraying produces oxide coatings of greater density, higher hardness, and smooth surface finish than that of the flame spraying process Inert gas is often used for generation of plasma gas so as to avoid the oxidation of the substrate material. The work focuses to develop, characterize and optimize the parameters used in Al2O3 coating on transition stainless steel substrate material for minimizing the wear rate and maximizing the leak tightness using plasma spray process. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The parameters that are to be optimized are plasma voltage, spraying distance and the cooling jet pressure. The characterization techniques includes micro-hardness and porosity tests followed by Grey relational analysis of the results.

  17. Vision-aided Monitoring and Control of Thermal Spray, Spray Forming, and Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, John E.; Bolstad, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Vision is one of the most powerful forms of non-contact sensing for monitoring and control of manufacturing processes. However, processes involving an arc plasma or flame such as welding or thermal spraying pose particularly challenging problems to conventional vision sensing and processing techniques. The arc or plasma is not typically limited to a single spectral region and thus cannot be easily filtered out optically. This paper presents an innovative vision sensing system that uses intense stroboscopic illumination to overpower the arc light and produce a video image that is free of arc light or glare and dedicated image processing and analysis schemes that can enhance the video images or extract features of interest and produce quantitative process measures which can be used for process monitoring and control. Results of two SBIR programs sponsored by NASA and DOE and focusing on the application of this innovative vision sensing and processing technology to thermal spraying and welding process monitoring and control are discussed.

  18. The Earth Resources Observation Systems data center's training technical assistance, and applications research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDO, administered by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, provides remotely sensed data to the user community and offers a variety of professional services to further the understanding and use of remote sensing technology. EDC reproduces and sells photographic and electronic copies of satellite images of areas throughout the world. Other products include aerial photographs collected by 16 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Primary users of the remotely sensed data are Federal, State, and municipal government agencies, universities, foreign nations, and private industries. The professional services available at EDC are primarily directed at integrating satellite and aircraft remote sensing technology into the programs of the Department of the Interior and its cooperators. This is accomplished through formal training workshops, user assistance, cooperative demonstration projects, and access to equipment and capabilities in an advanced data analysis laboratory. In addition, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, and the general public can get assistance from the EDC Staff. Since 1973, EDC has contributed to the accelerating growth in development and operational use of remotely sensed data for land resource problems through its role as educator and by conducting basic and applied remote sensing applications research. As remote sensing technology continues to evolve, EDC will continue to respond to the increasing demand for timely information on remote sensing applications. Questions most often asked about EDC's research and training programs include: Who may attend an EDC remote sensing training course? Specifically, what is taught? Who may cooperate with EDC on remote sensing projects? Are interpretation services provided on a service basis? This report attempts to define the goals and

  19. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  20. User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

    2013-09-01

    Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n = 16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean = 5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety.

  1. Dielectric and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Pala, Zdeněk; Kotlan, Jiří; Soumar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 600-616 ISSN 1221-1451. [International Conference on Plasma Physics and Applications/16./. Magurele, Bucharest, 20.06.2013-25.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : olivine * plasma spraying * dielectric properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2015 www.infim.ro/rrp

  2. The VO-Dance web application at the IA2 data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Marco; Knapic, Cristina; Smareglia, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2, http://ia2.oats.inaf.it) is a national infrastructure project of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica, INAF) that provides services for the astronomical community. Besides data hosting for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Corporation, the Galileo National Telescope (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, TNG) Consortium and other telescopes and instruments, IA2 offers proprietary and public data access through user portals (both developed and mirrored) and deploys resources complying the Virtual Observatory (VO) standards. Archiving systems and web interfaces are developed to be extremely flexible about adding new instruments from other telescopes. VO resources publishing, along with data access portals, implements the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) protocols providing astronomers with new ways of analyzing data. Given the large variety of data flavours and IVOA standards, the need for tools to easily accomplish data ingestion and data publishing arises. This paper describes the VO-Dance tool, that IA2 started developing to address VO resources publishing in a dynamical way from already existent database tables or views. The tool consists in a Java web application, potentially DBMS and platform independent, that stores internally the services' metadata and information, exposes restful endpoints to accept VO queries for these services and dynamically translates calls to these endpoints to SQL queries coherent with the published table or view. In response to the call VO-Dance translates back the database answer in a VO compliant way.

  3. Intermediate Photovoltaic System Application Experiment. Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the key results of the Phase II efforts for the Intermediate PV System Applications Experiment at the Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts (OCSA). This phase of the project involved fabrication, installation and integration of a nominal 140 kW flat panel PV system made up of large, square polycrystalline-silicon solar cell modules, each nominally 61 cm x 122 cm in size. The output of the PV modules, supplied by Solarex Corporation, was augmented, 1.35 to 1 at peak, by a row of glass reflectors, appropriately tilted northward. The PV system interfaces with the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Utility at the OCSA main switchgear. Any excess power generated by the system is fed into the utility under a one to one buyback arrangement. Except for a shortfall in the system output, presently suspected to be due to the poor performance of the modules, no serious problems were encountered. Certain value engineering changes implemented during construction and early operational failure events associated with the power conditioning system are also described. The system is currently undergoing extended testing and evaluation.

  4. Applications of Low Density Flow Techniques and Catalytic Recombination at the Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.

    2000-01-01

    The talk presents a brief background on defInitions of catalysis and effects associated with chemically nonequilibrium and low-density flows of aerospace interest. Applications of catalytic recombination on surfaces in dissociated flow are given, including aero heating on reentry spacecraft thermal protection surfaces and reflection of plume flow on pressure distributions associated with the space station. Examples include aero heating predictions for the X-38 test vehicle, the inlet of a proposed gas-sampling probe used in high enthalpy test facilities, and a parabolic body at angle of attack. The effect of accommodation coefficients on thruster induced pressure distributions is also included. Examples of tools used include simple aero heating formulas based on boundary layer solutions, an engineering approximation that uses axisymmetric viscous shock layer flow to simulate full three dimensional flow, full computational fluid dynamics, and direct simulation Monte-Carlo calculations. Methods of determining catalytic recombination rates in arc jet flow are discus ed. An area of catalysis not fully understood is the formation of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with gas phase or nano-size metal particles. The Johnson Space Center is making SWNTs using both a laser ablation technique and an electric arc vaporization technique.

  5. Application of participatory ergonomics to the redesign of the family-centered rounds process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cox, Elizabeth D.; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Kelly, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics (PE) can promote the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles to healthcare system redesign. This study applied a PE approach to redesigning the family-centered rounds (FCR) process to improve family engagement. Various FCR stakeholders (e.g., patients and families, physicians, nurses, hospital management) were involved in different stages of the PE process. HFE principles were integrated in both the content (e.g., shared mental model, usability, workload consideration, systems approach) and process (e.g., top management commitment, stakeholder participation, communication and feedback, learning and training, project management) of FCR redesign. We describe activities of the PE process (e.g., formation and meetings of the redesign team, data collection activities, intervention development, intervention implementation) and present data on PE process evaluation. To demonstrate the value of PE-based FCR redesign, future research should document its impact on FCR process measures (e.g., family engagement, round efficiency) and patient outcome measures (e.g., patient satisfaction). PMID:25777042

  6. Preparation of nanoscale pulmonary drug delivery formulations by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Ruge, Christian A; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    and can offer controlled drug release. There are numerous methods for producing therapeutic nanoparticles, each with their own advantages and suitable application. Liquid atomization techniques such as spray drying can produce nanoparticle formulations in a dry powder form suitable for pulmonary...... administration in a direct one-step process. This chapter describes the different state-of-the-art techniques used to prepare drug nanoparticles (with special emphasize on spray drying techniques) and the strategies for administering such unique formulations to the pulmonary environment....

  7. Estimation of equivalence ratio distribution in diesel spray using a computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasumasa; Tsujimura, Taku; Kusaka, Jin

    2014-08-01

    It is important to understand the mechanism of mixing and atomization of the diesel spray. In addition, the computational prediction of mixing behavior and internal structure of a diesel spray is expected to promote the further understanding about a diesel spray and development of the diesel engine including devices for fuel injection. In this study, we predicted the formation of diesel fuel spray with 3D-CFD code and validated the application by comparing experimental results of the fuel spray behavior and the equivalence ratio visualized by Layleigh-scatter imaging under some ambient, injection and fuel conditions. Using the applicable constants of KH-RT model, we can predict the liquid length spray on a quantitative level. under various fuel injection, ambient and fuel conditions. On the other hand, the change of the vapor penetration and the fuel mass fraction and equivalence ratio distribution with change of fuel injection and ambient conditions quantitatively. The 3D-CFD code used in this study predicts the spray cone angle and entrainment of ambient gas are predicted excessively, therefore there is the possibility of the improvement in the prediction accuracy by the refinement of fuel droplets breakup and evaporation model and the quantitative prediction of spray cone angle.

  8. Space and Materials Reservation Software in Mobile Applications Development: The Case of Istanbul Aydin University Information Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agah Alıcı

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain the adoption of mobile application ICReserve (Information Center Reserve to improve the library services in terms of user satisfaction and management processes with an innovative approach. ICReserve is a kind of reservation software developed specifically for the needs of University Library by the Istanbul Aydin University IT Department and is integrated to the institution’s other information systems. This article contains technical information about mobile application development.

  9. NACOM - a code for sodium spray fire analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.M.; Kannan, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), leakage of sodium can result in a spray fire. Because of higher burning rates in droplet form combustion of sodium in spray fire, thermal consequences are more severe than that in a sodium pool fire. The code NACOM was developed for the analysis of sodium spray fires in LMFBRs facilities. The code uses the validated model for estimating the falling droplet burning rates in pre-ignition and vapour phase combustion stages. It uses a distribution system to generate the droplet groups of different diameters that represent the spray. The code requires about 20 input parameters like sodium leak rates, sodium temperature, initial cell conditions like oxygen concentration, temperature and dimensions. NACOM is a validated code based on experiments with sodium inventory up to 650 kg in 0 to 21 % O 2 atmospheres. The paper brings out the salient features of the code along with the sensitivity analysis of the main input parameters like spray volume mean diameter, oxygen concentration etc. based on the results obtained. The limitations of the code and the confidence margins applicable to results obtained are also brought out

  10. Plasma spraying process of disperse carbides for spraying and facing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Vishnevetskaya, I.A.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Ostapovich, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    A possibility to metallize carbides in plasma of impulsing capacitor discharge is considered. Powders granulation occurs during plasma spraying process, ceramic core being completely capped. X-ray phase and chemical analyses of coatings did not show considerable changes of carbon content in carbides before and after plasma processing. This distinguishes the process of carbides metallization in impulsing plasma from the similar processing in arc and high-frequency plasma generator. Use of powder composites produced in the impulsing capacitor discharge, for plasma spraying and laser facing permits 2-3 times increasing wear resistance of the surface layer as against the coatings produced from mechanical powders mixtures

  11. Adaptação de um pulverizador de tração humana para aplicação localizada de herbicidas Adaptation of a manual spray for herbicide application at specific site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Viliotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho adaptar um pulverizador de tração humana para aplicação localizada de herbicidas. Para o desenvolvimento do circuito eletrônico, foi elaborado um programa computacional em linguagem Assembly, com informações sobre a variação da resistência elétrica no LDR (Resistor Dependente de Luz referente à radiação global incidente e refletida para quatro tipos de superfícies diferentes (plantas dicotiledôneas, plantas monocotiledôneas, palhada de trigo e solo. Concluiu-se que é possível e economicamente viável a utilização do sensor LDR para detecção de plantas daninhas.The objective of this work was to adapt a manual spray for herbicide application at specific site. For the development of the electronic circuit, a computer program in Assembly language was elaborated, with information on the variation of the electric resistance in LDR (Light Dependent Resistance, referring to the incident and reflected global radiation for four types of different surfaces (dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, wheat straw and soil. It was concluded that it is possible and economically viable to utilize the LDR sensor to detect weeds.

  12. Put the concert attendee in the spotlight : A user-centered design and development approach for classical concert applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.; Liem, C.C.S.

    2015-01-01

    As the importance of real-life use cases in the music information retrieval (MIR) field is increasing, so does the importance of understanding user needs. The development of innovative real-life applications that draw on MIR technology requires a user-centered design and development approach that

  13. Career Counseling Centers in Higher Education: A Study of Cross-Cultural Applications from the United States to Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Michael; Lee, Je-Kyung

    2003-01-01

    Interest in career development and career counseling is growing in Korea. Nevertheless, neither the research nor the literature adequately address the question as to what applications can be cross-culturally transferred from career counseling centers in the United States to Korea. This study qualitatively examines the practice of career counseling…

  14. Comprehensive report of aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science applications of the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The research activities of the Lewis Research Center for 1988 are summarized. The projects included are within basic and applied technical disciplines essential to aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science/applications. These disciplines are materials science and technology, structural mechanics, life prediction, internal computational fluid mechanics, heat transfer, instruments and controls, and space electronics.

  15. 20 CFR 670.450 - How are applicants who meet eligibility and selection criteria assigned to centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are applicants who meet eligibility and selection criteria assigned to centers? 670.450 Section 670.450 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Recruitment...

  16. Molybdenum disilicide composites produced by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.; Bartlett, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    The intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2 ) is being considered for high temperature structural applications because of its high melting point and superior oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. The lack of high temperature strength, creep resistance and low temperature ductility has hindered its progress for structural applications. Plasma spraying of coatings and structural components of MoSi 2 -based composites offers an exciting processing alternative to conventional powder processing methods due to superior flexibility and the ability to tailor properties. Laminate, discontinuous and in situ reinforced composites have been produced with secondary reinforcements of Ta, Al 2 O 3 , SiC, Si 3 N 4 and Mo 5 Si 3 . Laminate composites, in particular, have been shown to improve the damage tolerance of MoSi 2 during high temperature melting operations. A review of research which as been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory on plasma spraying of MoSi 2 -based composites to improve low temperature fracture toughness, thermal shock resistance, high temperature strength and creep resistance will be discussed

  17. Influence of powder and spray parameters on erosion and corrosion properties of HVOF sprayed WC-Co-Cr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berget, John

    1998-07-01

    Thermal spraying is a generic term including various processes used to deposit coatings on surfaces. The coating material is in the form of powder or a wire and is melted or softened by means of a heat source. A gas stream accelerates the material towards a prepared surface and deposits it there to form the coating. Examples of components being maintained by application of thermal spray coatings are gate valves and ball valves for the offshore industry and turbine blades in power generations installations. Recent investigation has shown that the commonly used coating material WC-Co is not corrosion resistant. But it can be improved by the addition of Cr. The main objective of this thesis is to study the influence of spray process control variables and powder characteristics on the erosion and erosion-corrosion properties of the coatings. Spray process variables investigated include energy input, powder feed rate and spray distance. Powder characteristics studied are average size of the WC particles, relative proportions of Co and Cr in the metal phase and powder grain size distribution.

  18. Sprayed films of europium complexes toward light conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Sabrina A.; Aoki, Pedro H.B.; Constantino, Carlos J.L.; Pires, Ana Maria, E-mail: anapires@fct.unesp.br

    2014-09-15

    Rare-earth complexes have become subject of intensive research due to the high quantum efficiency of their emission, very narrow bands, and excellent fluorescence monochromaticity. The chemical design and characterization of Eu complexes based on β-diketone ligands hexafluoroacetylacetate (hfac) and dibenzoylmetanate (dbm) is reported here. K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] and K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] complexes were immobilized as thin films by using the spray technique, a promising methodology for practical applications. The latter provides not only a faster layer deposition but also larger coated areas compared to conventional methods, such as layer-by-layer (LbL) and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB). The growth of the sprayed films was monitored through microbalance (QCM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy, which reveal a higher mass and absorbance per deposited layer of K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film. Micro-Raman images display a more homogeneous spatial distribution of the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] complex throughout the film, when compared to K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film. At nanometer scale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicate that the roughness of the K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that for the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film, which pattern is kept at micrometer scale according to micro-Raman measurements. The photoluminescence data show that the complexes remain as pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. Besides, the quantum efficiency for the sprayed films are found equivalent to the values achieved for the powders, highlighting the potential of the films for application in light conversion devices. - Highlights: • Rare earth complexes thin films based on β-diketone ligands. • Spraying procedures to fabricate layer-by-layer (LbL) luminescent thin films. • Chemical design of Eu complexes based on hfac and dbm β-diketones ligands immobilized as sprayed films. • Pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. • Sprayed

  19. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge from the nozzles. (b) Nozzles attached to the branch lines shall be full cone, corrosion resistant and provided with blow-off dust covers. The spray application rate shall not be less than 0.25 gallon...

  20. Application of Fuzzy Delphi TOPSIS to Locate Logistics Centers in Vietnam: The Logisticians’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Yen Pham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistics centers have emerged as an important logistics infrastructure in supply chains. Hence, the problem of locating logistics centers plays a crucial role in designing and practicing logistics and supply chain management. Acknowledging the significance of logistics centers, Vietnam approved a master plan for the development of a logistics center system. However, the plan has been difficult to implementation because of the lack of the prioritization of the determinants used to locate logistics centers. This study aims to develop a benchmarking framework for choosing the locations of logistics centers based on the findings of logisticians by applying a hybrid of the fuzzy method and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS, both of which are utilized extensively to overcome problems in selecting locations. The results indicate that freight demand, closeness to market, production area, customers, and transportation costs are regarded as the most important factors in deciding the location of logistics centers. In addition, among the three locations considered, the northeast provinces of Ho Chi Minh City were the best location for logistic centers, followed by North Hanoi and Da Nang city. The findings of this study make a significant contribution to both academic and practical aspects of locating logistic centers.

  1. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  2. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  3. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigit, A.R.H. [University of Sarawak, Faculty of Engineering, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Shrimpton, John S. [University of Southampton, Energy Technology Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/d{proportional_to}200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested. (orig.)

  4. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  5. Evaluation of Steadiness and Drop Size Distribution in Sprays Generated by Different Twin-Fluid Atomizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaremba Matouš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-fluid atomizers underwent a significant development during the last few decades. They are common in many industrial applications such as fuel spraying, melt atomization and food processing. This paper is focused on the evaluation of four different twin-fluid atomizers. The aim is to compare the quality of sprays generated by various atomizers with similar dimensions and in the same operating regimes. A phase- Doppler anemometry (PDA and particle image velocimetry (PIV were used to measure spray characteristics such as velocity and size of the droplets. Measured data were used to compare droplet size distribution and to evaluate steadiness of the spray. Visualisations were made to support measured data and to clarify the principles of primary atomization and its influence on the spray.

  6. Evaluation of Steadiness and Drop Size Distribution in Sprays Generated by Different Twin-Fluid Atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Matouš; Mlkvik, Marek; Malý, Milan; Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Twin-fluid atomizers underwent a significant development during the last few decades. They are common in many industrial applications such as fuel spraying, melt atomization and food processing. This paper is focused on the evaluation of four different twin-fluid atomizers. The aim is to compare the quality of sprays generated by various atomizers with similar dimensions and in the same operating regimes. A phase- Doppler anemometry (PDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to measure spray characteristics such as velocity and size of the droplets. Measured data were used to compare droplet size distribution and to evaluate steadiness of the spray. Visualisations were made to support measured data and to clarify the principles of primary atomization and its influence on the spray.

  7. Study on spraying water soluble resin to reduce pollution for Fukushima daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiong; Guo Ruiping; Zhang Chunming; Han Fujuan; Hua Jie; Zhang Jiankui

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, Tokyo electric power company used the method of spraying water soluble resin synthesis at the scene of the accident, to restrain and control the spread of the radioactive dust, by forming consolidation layer in pollution area surface. This paper briefly introduced the accident, motivation of spraying water soluble resin, spraying range and implementation process. According to the relevant report on Fukushima nuclear accident, the effect of spraying water soluble resin for reducing pollution was analyzed. The mechanism of reducing pollution for water soluble resin and the application prospect were discussed. Spraying water soluble resin for fixing radioactive dust has reasonable reducing pollution effect. It is worth to use as reference and study in China. (authors)

  8. Translating research into practice through user-centered design: An application for osteoarthritis healthcare planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Eloise Cj; Babione, Julie N; Marshall, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    To identify the needs and requirements of the end users, to inform the development of a user-interface to translate an existing evidence-based decision support tool into a practical and usable interface for health service planning for osteoarthritis (OA) care. We used a user-centered design (UCD) approach that emphasized the role of the end-users and is well-suited to knowledge translation (KT). The first phase used a needs assessment focus group (n=8) and interviews (n=5) with target users (health care planners) within a provincial health care organization. The second phase used a participatory design approach, with two small group sessions (n=6) to explore workflow, thought processes, and needs of intended users. The needs assessment identified five design recommendations: ensuring the user-interface supports the target user group, allowing for user-directed data explorations, input parameter flexibility, clear presentation, and provision of relevant definitions. The second phase identified workflow insights from a proposed scenario. Graphs, the need for a visual overview of the data, and interactivity were key considerations to aid in meaningful use of the model and knowledge translation. A UCD approach is well suited to identify health care planners' requirements when using a decision support tool to improve health service planning and management of OA. We believe this is one of the first applications to be used in planning for health service delivery. We identified specific design recommendations that will increase user acceptability and uptake of the user-interface and underlying decision support tool in practice. Our approach demonstrated how UCD can be used to enable knowledge translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cooperative effects between color centers in diamond: applications to optical tweezers and optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Carlo; Prasanna Venkatesh, B.; Besga, Benjamin; Johnsson, Mattias; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Volz, Thomas; Juan, Mathieu L.

    2017-08-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970,1 optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads2 or single atoms.3 Interestingly, both an atom and a lump of dielectric material can be manipulated through the same mechanism: the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In the case of atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength while it is given by the bulk polarisability for mesoscopic particles. This difference lead to two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings,4 the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms5 in the field of quantum optics. In this context, solid state artificial atoms present the interesting opportunity to combine these two aspects of optical manipulation. We are particularly interested in nanodiamonds as they constitute a bulk dielectric object by themselves, but also contain artificial atoms such as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) or silicon-vacancy (SiV) colour centers. With this system, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same time even at room temperature. In this work, we demonstrate that the resonant force from the optical transition of NV centres at 637 nm can be measured in a nanodiamond trapped in water. This additional contribution to the total force is significant, reaching up to 10%. In addition, due to the very large density of NV centres in a sub-wavelength crystal, collective effects between centres have an important effect on the magnitude of the resonant force.6 The possibility to observe such cooperatively enhanced optical force at room temperature is also theoretically confirmed.7 This approach may enable the study of cooperativity in various nanoscale solid-state systems and the use of atomic physics techniques in the field of nano-manipulation and opto-mechanics.

  10. Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofallo, Silvia Bueno; Machado, Daniel Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Bordim, Odemir Jr.; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Portal, Vera Lúcia, E-mail: veraportal.pesquisa@gmail.com [Post-Graduation Program in Health Sciences: Cardiology, Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery.

  11. Development and application of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    In this work the development of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh is presented and it is applied in the numerical solution of those diffusion equations in multi groups in stationary state and X Y geometry. Originally this scheme was developed by Hennart and del Valle for the monoenergetic diffusion equation with a well-known source and they show that the one scheme is of third order when comparing the numerical solution with the analytical solution of a model problem using several mesh refinements and boundary conditions. The scheme by them developed it also introduces the application of numeric quadratures to evaluate the rigidity matrices and of mass that its appear when making use of the finite elements method of Galerkin. One of the used quadratures is the open quadrature of 4 points, no-standard, of Newton-Cotes to evaluate in approximate form the elements of the rigidity matrices. The other quadrature is that of 3 points of Radau that it is used to evaluate the elements of all the mass matrices. One of the objectives of these quadratures are to eliminate the couplings among the Legendre moments 0 and 1 associated to the left and right faces as those associated to the inferior and superior faces of each cell of the discretization. The other objective is to satisfy the particles balance in weighed form in each cell. In this work it expands such development to multiplicative means considering several energy groups. There are described diverse details inherent to the technique, particularly those that refer to the simplification of the algebraic systems that appear due to the space discretization. Numerical results for several test problems are presented and are compared with those obtained with other nodal techniques. (Author)

  12. Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofallo, Silvia Bueno; Machado, Daniel Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Bordim, Odemir Jr.; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Portal, Vera Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery

  13. Outline of renovation for Mihama Public Relations (PR) Center on atomic power generation and nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    The Mihama PR Center of Kansai Electric Power Co. on atomic power generation and nuclear applications is now under entire renovation. It was constructed accompanying the construction of No. 1 unit in Mihama Nuclear Power Station, and opened in November, 1967, as the only PR facility of open house system. Since then, more than 1.9 million persons visited there in 15 years. Recently the space has become difficult to provide satisfactorily sophisticated exhibits because the importance of nuclear power generation has increased, and the diversified contents have been required. On the other hand, its building was cramped since many rooms were accommodated in the single round building of total area 815 m/sup 2/. In addition, the building has required drastic looking-over because of its deterioration and damages due to aging. The promotion of the understanding for the early securing of nuclear power plant location has been decided as the principal promotion item. The plan includes the modification of the existing building to the exhibition hall only as well as the completion and re-arrangement of the exhibits. It has been determined to construct a new building connected to the existing building, which accommodates a meeting hall, offices, utility machine room, etc., a total area being increased to 1457 m/sup 2/. The fund required is about 600 million yen. The construction work has started on December 1, 1982, aiming at the opening in July, 1983. The meeting hall is designed to seat about 120 persons and to employ multi-screen image techniques.

  14. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  15. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  16. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  17. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  18. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  19. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-04

    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  20. Application of reliability-centered maintenance to boiling water reactor emergency core cooling systems fault-tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.A.; Feltus, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) methods are applied to boiling water reactor plant-specific emergency core cooling system probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) fault trees. The RCM is a technique that is system function-based, for improving a preventive maintenance (PM) program, which is applied on a component basis. Many PM programs are based on time-directed maintenance tasks, while RCM methods focus on component condition-directed maintenance tasks. Stroke time test data for motor-operated valves (MOVs) are used to address three aspects concerning RCM: (a) to determine if MOV stroke time testing was useful as a condition-directed PM task; (b) to determine and compare the plant-specific MOV failure data from a broad RCM philosophy time period compared with a PM period and, also, compared with generic industry MOV failure data; and (c) to determine the effects and impact of the plant-specific MOV failure data on core damage frequency (CDF) and system unavailabilities for these emergency systems. The MOV stroke time test data from four emergency core cooling systems [i.e., high-pressure coolant injection (HPCI), reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC), low-pressure core spray (LPCS), and residual heat removal/low-pressure coolant injection (RHR/LPCI)] were gathered from Philadelphia Electric Company's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 between 1980 and 1992. The analyses showed that MOV stroke time testing was not a predictor for eminent failure and should be considered as a go/no-go test. The failure data from the broad RCM philosophy showed an improvement compared with the PM-period failure rates in the emergency core cooling system MOVs. Also, the plant-specific MOV failure rates for both maintenance philosophies were shown to be lower than the generic industry estimates

  1. The Practical Application of Body-Mind Centering[R] (BMC) in Dance Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Martha

    2006-01-01

    Based in bodily awareness, somatic education has many points of relationship with dance education. Body-Mind Centering[R] (BMC), with some of its roots in Laban Movement Analysis/Bartenieff Fundamentals (LMA/BF), has a particularly easy link to dance. When studying Body-Mind Centering, the theoretical components are often taught through dance…

  2. 77 FR 20369 - Applications for New Awards; Centers for Independent Living-Training and Technical Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Education ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Centers for Independent Living--Training and Technical.... Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program The purpose of the Training and Technical Assistance grant under the Centers for Independent Living program is to provide training and technical assistance...

  3. The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher T.

    This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

  4. Electrostatic spraying in the chemical control of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in guava trees (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Rafael M; Cunha, João Par; Alves, Thales C; Bueno, Mariana R; Silva, Sérgio M; Zandonadi, César Hs

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the difficulty in reaching targets during pesticide applications on guava trees, it is important to evaluate new technologies that may improve pest management. In electrostatic spraying, an electric force is added to the droplets to control their movements such that they are efficiently directed to the target. The present study evaluated the performance of electrostatic and non-electrostatic spraying in the control of the guava psyllid, the deposition of the spray mixture on the leaves and the losses to the soil. The deposition of the spray mixture was up to 2 times greater when using electrostatic spraying in comparison with non-electrostatic application. The losses of the spray mixture to the soil were up to 4 times smaller with the electrostatic spraying. Electrostatic spraying had better control of the psyllid. It was possible to reduce the volume rate of application with electrostatic spraying without adversely affecting the control of the guava psyllid. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Atmospheric-Pressure-Spray, Chemical- Vapor-Deposited Thin-Film Materials Being Developed for High Power-to- Weight-Ratio Space Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Harris, Jerry D.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Smith, Mark A.; Cowen, Jonathan E.

    2001-01-01

    The key to achieving high specific power (watts per kilogram) space photovoltaic arrays is the development of high-efficiency thin-film solar cells that are fabricated on lightweight, space-qualified substrates such as Kapton (DuPont) or another polymer film. Cell efficiencies of 20 percent air mass zero (AM0) are required. One of the major obstacles to developing lightweight, flexible, thin-film solar cells is the unavailability of lightweight substrate or superstrate materials that are compatible with current deposition techniques. There are two solutions for working around this problem: (1) develop new substrate or superstrate materials that are compatible with current deposition techniques, or (2) develop new deposition techniques that are compatible with existing materials. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been focusing on the latter approach and has been developing a deposition technique for depositing thin-film absorbers at temperatures below 400 C.

  6. An assessment of thermal spray coating technologies for high temperature corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Heimgartner, P.; Gustafsson, S.; Irons, G.; Miller, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of thermally sprayed coatings in combating high temperature corrosion continues to grow in the major industries of chemical, waste incineration, power generation and pulp and paper. This has been driven partially by the development of corrosion resistant alloys, improved knowledge and quality in the thermal spray industry and continued innovation in thermal spray equipment. There exists today an extensive range of thermal spray process options, often with the same alloy solution. In demanding corrosion applications it is not sufficient to just specify alloy and coating method. For the production of reliable coatings the whole coating production envelope needs to be considered, including alloy selection, spray parameters, surface preparation, base metal properties, heat input etc. Combustion, arc-wire, plasma, HVOF and spray+fuse techniques are reviewed and compared in terms of their strengths and limitations to provide cost-effective solutions for high temperature corrosion protection. Arc wire spraying, HP/HVOF and spray+fuse are emerging as the most promising techniques to optimise both coating properties and economic/practical aspects. (orig.)

  7. Sequential cryogen spraying for heat flux control at the skin surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Aguilar, Guillermo; Basinger, Brooke; Randeberg, Lise L.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2001-05-01

    Heat transfer rate at the skin-air interface is of critical importance for the benefits of cryogen spray cooling in combination with laser therapy of shallow subsurface skin lesions, such as port-wine stain birthmarks. With some cryogen spray devices, a layer of liquid cryogen builds up on the skin surface during the spurt, which may impair heat transfer across the skin surface due to relatively low thermal conductivity and potentially higher temperature of the liquid cryogen layer as compared to the spray droplets. While the mass flux of cryogen delivery can be adjusted by varying the atomizing nozzle geometry, this may strongly affect other spray properties, such as lateral spread (cone), droplet size, velocity, and temperature distribution. We present here first experiments with sequential cryogen spraying, which may enable accurate mass flux control through variation of spray duty cycle, while minimally affecting other spray characteristics. The observed increase of cooling rate and efficiency at moderate duty cycle levels supports the above described hypothesis of isolating liquid layer, and demonstrates a novel approach to optimization of cryogen spray devices for individual laser dermatological applications.

  8. Armstrong Flight Research Center Flight Test Capabilities and Opportunities for the Applications of Wireless Data Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will overview NASA Armstrong Flight Research Centers flight test capabilities, which can provide various means for flight testing of passive and active wireless sensor systems, also, it will address the needs of the wireless data acquisition solutions for the centers flight instrumentation issues such as additional weight caused by added instrumentation wire bundles, connectors, wire cables routing, moving components, etc., that the Passive Wireless Sensor Technology Workshop may help. The presentation shows the constraints and requirements that the wireless sensor systems will face in the flight test applications.

  9. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Deltamethrin Barrier Sprays for Mosquito Control in Eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Volkan, Josh K; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Vandock, Kurt

    2017-11-07

    Mosquitoes are a nuisance and potentially transmit pathogens causing numerous diseases worldwide. Homeowners and others may hire private companies to alleviate mosquito-related issues. Here, two pyrethroids (Suspend Polyzone [deltamethrin] and Bifen Insecticide/Termiticide [bifenthrin]) were evaluated on properties in North Carolina for 23 wk from 18 May through 19 October 2015. Properties were treated using backpack mist blowers every 21 d. At 17 fixed sampling locations, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention carbon dioxide-baited traps were deployed overnight once/week for the duration of the experiment. Oviposition traps were deployed weekly at the same locations. Differences were observed in mosquito abundance between neighborhoods, treatments, and weeks and differences varied between species. Mosquito abundance was generally significantly higher in traps placed on control properties (no insecticide) compared to traps placed on treatment properties. Bifenthrin and deltamethrin showed differences from each other in efficacy, but this varied between neighborhoods and species. Future studies could test the efficacy of barrier sprays at different application frequencies and/or in conjunction with weather monitoring. Coupled with regular mosquito surveillance and using integrated pest management principles, barrier sprays can be an effective tool for suppression of mosquito populations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar Recent Advances @ the ELEDIA Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salucci, Marco; Tenuti, Lorenza; Nardin, Cristina; Oliveri, Giacomo; Viani, Federico; Rocca, Paolo; Massa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The application of non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE) methodologies in civil engineering has raised a growing interest during the last years because of its potential impact in several different scenarios. As a consequence, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technologies have been widely adopted as an instrument for the inspection of the structural stability of buildings and for the detection of cracks and voids. In this framework, the development and validation of GPR algorithms and methodologies represents one of the most active research areas within the ELEDIA Research Center of the University of Trento. More in detail, great efforts have been devoted towards the development of inversion techniques based on the integration of deterministic and stochastic search algorithms with multi-focusing strategies. These approaches proved to be effective in mitigating the effects of both nonlinearity and ill-posedness of microwave imaging problems, which represent the well-known issues arising in GPR inverse scattering formulations. More in detail, a regularized multi-resolution approach based on the Inexact Newton Method (INM) has been recently applied to subsurface prospecting, showing a remarkable advantage over a single-resolution implementation [1]. Moreover, the use of multi-frequency or frequency-hopping strategies to exploit the information coming from GPR data collected in time domain and transformed into its frequency components has been proposed as well. In this framework, the effectiveness of the multi-resolution multi-frequency techniques has been proven on synthetic data generated with numerical models such as GprMax [2]. The application of inversion algorithms based on Bayesian Compressive Sampling (BCS) [3][4] to GPR is currently under investigation, as well, in order to exploit their capability to provide satisfactory reconstructions in presence of single and multiple sparse scatterers [3][4]. Furthermore, multi-scaling approaches exploiting level

  11. Liquid Methane Testing With a Large-Scale Spray Bar Thermodynamic Vent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Flachbart, R. H.; Sisco, J. D.; Schnell. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted liquid methane testing in November 2006 using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed outfitted with a spray bar thermodynamic vent system (TVS). The basic objective was to identify any unusual or unique thermodynamic characteristics associated with densified methane that should be considered in the design of space-based TVSs. Thirteen days of testing were performed with total tank heat loads ranging from 720 to 420 W at a fill level of approximately 90%. It was noted that as the fluid passed through the Joule-Thompson expansion, thermodynamic conditions consistent with the pervasive presence of metastability were indicated. This Technical Publication describes conditions that correspond with metastability and its detrimental effects on TVS performance. The observed conditions were primarily functions of methane densification and helium pressurization; therefore, assurance must be provided that metastable conditions have been circumvented in future applications of thermodynamic venting to in-space methane storage.

  12. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called antihistamines. It works by blocking the effects of histamine, a substance in the ... first time, point the applicator away from your face. then press down and release the pump five ...

  13. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of drugs called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the pump for the ...

  14. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the pump for the ...

  15. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  16. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  17. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  18. Numerical study of the spray impingement onto a solid wall

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Christian Michel Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The modelling of turbulent multiphase flows has been gathering high interest in the last decades in the scientific community due to its relevance in several applications, such as in industrial and environmental processes or for chemical and biomedical purposes. In fact, regarding the industrial applications, the impingement of liquid fuel sprays onto engine surfaces has become a subject of interest due to its influence on the mixture preparation prior to combustion and, consequently, engine p...

  19. Designing human centered GeoVisualization application--the SanaViz--for telehealth users: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; de Araujo Novaes, Magdala; Machiavelli, Josiane; Iyengar, Sriram; Vogler, Robert; Johnson, Craig; Zhang, Jiajie; Hsu, Chiehwen E

    2012-01-01

    Public health data is typically organized by geospatial unit. GeoVisualization (GeoVis) allows users to see information visually on a map. Examine telehealth users' perceptions towards existing public health GeoVis applications and obtains users' feedback about features important for the design and development of Human Centered GeoVis application "the SanaViz". We employed a cross sectional study design using mixed methods approach for this pilot study. Twenty users involved with the NUTES telehealth center at Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, Brazil were enrolled. Open and closed ended questionnaires were used to gather data. We performed audio recording for the interviews. Information gathered included socio-demographics, prior spatial skills and perception towards use of GeoVis to evaluate telehealth services. Card sorting and sketching methods were employed. Univariate analysis was performed for the continuous and categorical variables. Qualitative analysis was performed for open ended questions. Existing Public Health GeoVis applications were difficult to use. Results found interaction features zooming, linking and brushing and representation features Google maps, tables and bar chart as most preferred GeoVis features. Early involvement of users is essential to identify features necessary to be part of the human centered GeoVis application "the SanaViz".

  20. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  1. Role of oxides and porosity on high temperature oxidation of liquid fuelled HVOF thermal sprayed Ni50Cr coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K.T.; Hussain, Tanvir

    2017-01-01

    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid fuelled high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using...

  2. Optimum cooling of data centers application of risk assessment and mitigation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This book provides data center designers and operators with methods by which to assess and mitigate the risks associated with utilization of optimum cooling solutions. The goal is to provide readers with sufficient knowledge to implement measures such as free air cooling or direct liquid immersion cooling properly, or combination of existing and emerging cooling technologies in data centers, base stations, and server farms. This book also: Discusses various telecommunication infrastructures, with an emphasis on data centers and base stations Covers the most commonly known energy and power management techniques, as well as emerging cooling solutions for data centers Describes the risks to the electronic equipment fitted in these installations and the methods of risk mitigation Devotes  a particular focus to an up-to-date review of the emerging cooling methods (such as free air cooling and direct liquid immersion cooling) and tools and best practices for designers, technology developers, installation operators...

  3. A regional technology transfer program. [North Carolina Industrial Applications Center for the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The proliferation of online searching capabilities among its industrial clients, changes in marketing staff and direction, use of Dun and Bradstreet marketing service files, growth of the Annual Service Package program, and services delivered to clients at the NASA funded North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center are described. The library search service was reactivated and enlarged, and a survey was conducted on the NC/STRC Technical Bulletin's effectiveness. Several quotations from clients assess the overall value of the Center's services.

  4. Application of Suresight handheld auto-refractometer in refraction screening for infants in Community Health Service Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Guo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the application of Suresight handheld auto-refractometer in measuring diopter of infants in Community Health Service Center. METHODS:Totally 836 cases(1 672 eyesfrom June 2013 to December 2013 were examined diopter of infants by Suresight handheld auto-refractometer in Community Health Service Center. RESULTS: Within 1 672 eyes of 836 infants were examined, 202 eyes were diagnosed ametropia, 38 eyes were suspicious, 240 eyes were transferred to the department of ophthalmology, the referral rate was 14.35%; 172 eyes were diagnosed ametropia, and the diagnosis rate of the referral patients was 71.67%. Among 172 eyes, 46 eyes were provided with corrected glasses, accounting for 2.75% of the number of screening, and 126 eyes were given intensive monitoring, accounting for 7.54% of the number of screening.CONCLUSION: Application of Suresight handheld auto-refractometer in refraction screening for infants in Community Health Service Center is convenient and effective. With two-way referral between community health service center and department of ophthalmology can monitor and intervene vision development of infants much earlier.

  5. Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Arpagaus, Cordin; Belleteix, Fabrice; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2010-10-15

    Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Automated setup for spray assisted layer-by-layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Paul; Otto, Tobias; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The design for a setup allowing the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of thin films consisting of various colloidal materials is presented. The proposed system utilizes the spray-assisted LbL approach and is capable of autonomously producing films. It provides advantages to existing LbL procedures in terms of process speed and applicability. The setup offers several features that are advantageous for routine operation like an actuated sample holder, stainless steel spraying nozzles, or an optical liquid detection system. The applicability is demonstrated by the preparation of films containing semiconductor nanoparticles, namely, CdSe∕CdS quantum dots and a polyelectolyte. The films of this type are of potential interest for applications in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes or solar cells.

  7. Application of quantum-dot multi-wavelength lasers and silicon photonic ring resonators to data-center optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Douglas J. S.; Hickey, Ryan; Logan, Dylan F.; Knights, Andrew P.; Chen, Rong; Cao, Bin; Wheeldon, Jeffery F.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum dot comb sources integrated with silicon photonic ring-resonator filters and modulators enable the realization of optical sub-components and modules for both inter- and intra-data-center applications. Low-noise, multi-wavelength, single-chip, laser sources, PAM4 modulation and direct detection allow a practical, scalable, architecture for applications beyond 400 Gb/s. Multi-wavelength, single-chip light sources are essential for reducing power dissipation, space and cost, while silicon photonic ring resonators offer high-performance with space and power efficiency.

  8. Development of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Gynecologic Applicators for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer: Historical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordy, John S.; Almond, Peter R.; Delclos, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide historical background on the development and initial studies of the gynecological (gyn) applicators developed by Dr. Gilbert H. Fletcher, a radiation oncologist and chairperson from 1948 to 1981 of the department at the M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) for Cancer Research in Houston, TX, and to acknowledge the previously unrecognized contribution that Dr. Leonard G. Grimmett, a radiation physicist and chairperson from 1949 to 1951 of the physics department at MDAH, made to the development of the gynecological applicators. Methods and Materials: We reviewed archival materials from the Historical Resource Center and from the Department of Radiation Physics at University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, as well as contemporary published papers, to trace the history of the applicators. Conclusions: Dr. Fletcher’s work was influenced by the work on gynecologic applicators in the 1940s in Europe, especially work done at the Royal Cancer Hospital in London. Those efforts influenced not only Dr. Fletcher’s approach to the design of the applicators but also the methods used to perform in vivo measurements and determine the dose distribution. Much of the initial development of the dosimetry techniques and measurements at MDAH were carried out by Dr. Grimmett.

  9. Evaluation of droplet velocity and size from nasal spray devices using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2010-03-30

    To determine aerosol deposition during the inhalation drug delivery, it is important to understand the combination of velocity and droplet size together. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to simultaneously characterize the aerosol velocity and droplet size distribution (DSD) of three nasal spray pumps filled with water. Thirteen sampling positions were located in the horizontal cross-sectional area of the nasal spray plumes at a distance of 3cm from the pump orifice. The results showed droplet velocities near the center of the spray plume were higher and more consistent than those near the edge. The pumps examined showed significant differences in their aerosol velocity at the center of the spray plume, which suggest that this metric might be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of nasal sprays. Droplet size measurements performed using PDA were compared with results from laser light scattering measurements. The ability of PDA to provide simultaneous measurements of aerosol velocity and size makes it a powerful tool for the detailed investigation of nasal spray plume characteristics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. 75 FR 59228 - Solicitation of Applications for the MBDA Business Center (MBC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... of MBEs is anticipated to have a significant impact on employment and the tax base in their.... Consideration will be given as to whether the applicant has a physical presence in the applicable location and... appearance). The applicant's plan for satisfying the MBC information technology requirements, including...

  11. Coating by the Cold Spray Process: a state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guagliano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of cold spray coating process is presented. This paper intends to review some the previous works which are mostly about the influences of the cold spray parameters, mostly the surface ofthe substrate, on the deposition efficiency (DE. Almost all the important parameters, with more focus on the roughness of the substrate, on increasing the DE are briefly studied; this review also includes a description of application of cold spray and of some important effect of this method on substrate properties.On this basis, some possible development in this field of research are drawn and discussed.

  12. Residual stress in sprayed Ni+5%Al coatings determined by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Matejicek, J; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Prask, H J

    2002-01-01

    Coatings of nickel-based alloys are used in numerous high-performance applications. Their properties and lifetimes are influenced by factors such as residual stress. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for nondestructive residual stress determination. In this study, through-thickness residual stress profiles in Ni+5%Al coatings on steel substrates were determined. Two examples of significantly different spraying techniques - plasma spraying and cold spraying - are highlighted. Different stress-generation mechanisms are discussed with respect to process parameters and material properties. (orig.)

  13. Pretreatment Prediction of the Outcomes of Intranasal Steroid Sprays in Cases with Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Abdullah

    2017-09-01

    Intranasal steroid sprays (INSS) are frequently prescribed for treating inferior turbinate hypertrophy (ITH). Complications due to the long-term application of INSS such as crusting, epistaxis, nasal mucosa dryness, and septal perforation may occur. Predicting patients who would benefit from INSS early might lower treatment costs and complication rates. We examined the predictive value of nasal decongestant response rates for the outcomes of INSS in ITH. Fifty patients with bilateral ITH were included in two groups: patients benefiting from INSS and those not benefiting. Nasal airflow was assessed by peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement in all cases. Measurements were taken three times: before and after the application of nasal decongestant sprays and after the application of INSS. In both groups, the nasal air flow rates significantly increased after the application of nasal decongestant sprays; however, the nasal decongestant response rates were higher in the group with patients benefiting from INSS. There was a strong correlation between the nasal air flow rates measured after the application of nasal decongestant sprays and after the application of INSS. The cut-off value for the relationship between increased nasal air flow rates after the application of nasal decongestant sprays and outcomes of INSS was 23%. Measurement of nasal airflow increase rate after the application of nasal decongestant sprays is a simple and easy method for the early prediction of the outcomes of INSS in ITH. A higher than 23% increase in nasal air flow rates after the application of nasal decongestant sprays indicates much better outcomes of INSS for patients.

  14. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian flows on center manifolds with applications to elliptic variational problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    The theory of center manifold reduction is studied in this monograph in the context of (infinite-dimensional) Hamil- tonian and Lagrangian systems. The aim is to establish a "natural reduction method" for Lagrangian systems to their center manifolds. Nonautonomous problems are considered as well assystems invariant under the action of a Lie group ( including the case of relative equilibria). The theory is applied to elliptic variational problemson cylindrical domains. As a result, all bounded solutions bifurcating from a trivial state can be described by a reduced finite-dimensional variational problem of Lagrangian type. This provides a rigorous justification of rod theory from fully nonlinear three-dimensional elasticity. The book will be of interest to researchers working in classical mechanics, dynamical systems, elliptic variational problems, and continuum mechanics. It begins with the elements of Hamiltonian theory and center manifold reduction in order to make the methods accessible to non-specialists,...

  15. Aplicação aérea de fungicidas na cultura do arroz irrigado com diferentes bicos de pulverização Aerial fungicide application on irrigated lowland rice with varying spraying nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Bayer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Na safra agrícola 2007/2008, foi realizado um estudo com o objetivo de avaliar a deposição e penetração de gotas através de cartões hidrossensíveis e análise cromatográfica. Para isso, utilizaram-se o bico eletrostático, bico hidráulico e atomizadores rotativos de discos com diferentes volumes de calda. As pulverizações foram realizadas no estádio R3 da cultura, com aeronave Ipanema EMB-202, aplicando-se fungicida trifloxistrobina + propiconazole. Através da leitura de cartões hidrossensíveis, determinou-se a densidade de gotas, o diâmetro médio numérico, diâmetro médio volumétrico, amplitude relativa e a penetração de gotas no dossel (%. Também foi utilizada a análise cromatográfica para determinar a penetração do produto no alvo biológico. O bico hidráulico, com taxa de aplicação de 20L ha-1 e 30L ha-1, e o bico eletrostático, com taxa de aplicação de 10L ha-1, obtiveram maior densidade de gotas no terço superior. O uso de atomizadores rotativos de disco com volume de calda de 15L ha-1 apresentou maior densidade de gotas no terço médio e inferior. Para diâmetro médio volumétrico, os bicos eletrostáticos juntamente com os atomizadores rotativos de discos apresentaram os menores valores. A maior homogeneidade de gotas no terço superior foi obtida com atomizadores rotativos de disco com taxa de aplicação de 6L ha-1 e 10L ha-¹. A análise cromatográfica mostrou que a maior quantidade de produto foi retida com bicos eletrostáticos com taxa de aplicação de 10L ha- ¹ no extrato inferior da planta.In the harvest year of 2007/2008 a study was carried to evaluate the droplets deposition and penetration throughout water sensible cards and gas chromatographic analysis. Were used the hydraulic nozzle, electrostatic nozzle and rotary-disk atomizer spraying systems, with different volumes of spray solution. Aerial applications were performed at R3 stage using the aircraft Ipanema EMB-202 and the fungicide

  16. Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon

    2007-01-01

    Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

  17. Efeito da intensidade do vento, da pressão e de pontas de pulverização na deriva de aplicações de herbicidas em pré-emergência Effect of wind intensity, pressure and nozzles on spray drift from preemergence herbicide applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.F. Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de pontas de pulverização, pressão e intensidade do vento na deriva gerada em aplicações simuladas de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência. Os modelos de pontas de pulverização e as respectivas pressões testadas foram: SF 11002 (207 e 310 kPa, JA-2 (345 e 655 kPa e AVI 11002 (207 e 414 kPa. As aplicações foram realizadas em dois períodos, em dias com condições de velocidade de vento distintas, em uma área de 1.200 m², localizada na Fazenda Experimental da FCA/UNESP. Um pulverizador com barra de 12 m, 24 bicos e tanque de 600 L foi utilizado nas aplicações. A calda de aplicação foi composta por água e o corante alimentício FDC-1 foi usado como traçador. A deriva foi amostrada por coletores ativos fixados sobre a barra de pulverização. As velocidades mínimas, médias e máximas de vento registradas no primeiro e segundo períodos das aplicações foram de 7, 14 e 23 km h-1 e 1, 5 e 18 km h-1, respectivamente. Nas duas ocasiões de aplicação, as pontas de pulverização com indução de ar AVI 11002 e de jato cônico vazio JA-2 a 655 kPa resultaram nas menores e maiores quantidades de depósito de líquido detectadas, respectivamente. A maior intensidade do vento incrementou a deriva. A redução na pressão pode ser utilizada para controle de deriva, mas a seleção adequada de uma ponta mostrou ser mais eficiente para esse propósito.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nozzles, spray pressure and wind intensity on spray drift generated in simulated preemergence herbicide applications. The nozzle designs and respective pressures tested were: SF 11002 (207 and 310 kPa, JA-2 (345 and 655 kPa and AVI 11002 (207and 414 kPa. The applications were performed during two periods, on days with different wind conditions, in an area with 1,200 m², in the Experimental Farm of the FCA/UNESP. A sprayer with a 12 m boom, 24 nozzles and tank with 600 L was used for the

  18. Coupled Lagrangian impingement spray model for doublet impinging injectors under liquid rocket engine operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang WEI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To predict the effect of the liquid rocket engine combustion chamber conditions on the impingement spray, the conventional uncoupled spray model for impinging injectors is extended by considering the coupling of the jet impingement process and the ambient gas field. The new coupled model consists of the plain-orifice sub-model, the jet-jet impingement sub-model and the droplet collision sub-model. The parameters of the child droplet are determined with the jet-jet impingement sub-model using correlations about the liquid jet parameters and the chamber conditions. The overall model is benchmarked under various impingement angles, jet momentum and off-center ratios. Agreement with the published experimental data validates the ability of the model to predict the key spray characteristics, such as the mass flux and mixture ratio distributions in quiescent air. Besides, impinging sprays under changing ambient pressure and non-uniform gas flow are investigated to explore the effect of liquid rocket engine chamber conditions. First, a transient impingement spray during engine start-up phase is simulated with prescribed pressure profile. The minimum average droplet diameter is achieved when the orifices work in cavitation state, and is about 30% smaller than the steady single phase state. Second, the effect of non-uniform gas flow produces off-center impingement and the rotated spray fan by 38°. The proposed model suggests more reasonable impingement spray characteristics than the uncoupled one and can be used as the first step in the complex simulation of coupling impingement spray and combustion in liquid rocket engines.

  19. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  20. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.