WorldWideScience

Sample records for spray application center

  1. Application of Rapid Prototyping and Wire Arc Spray to the Fabrication of Injection Mold Tools (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a layer-by-layer-based additive manufacturing process for constructing three-dimensional representations of a computer design from a wax, plastic, or similar material. Wire arc spray (WAS) is a metal spray forming technique, which deposits thin layers of metal onto a substrate or pattern. Marshall Space Flight Center currently has both capabilities in-house, and this project proposed merging the two processes into an innovative manufacturing technique, in which intermediate injection molding tool halves were to be fabricated with RP and WAS metal forming.

  2. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  3. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  4. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  6. A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza, Qasim

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An anal...

  7. Microgravity Spray Cooling Research for High Powered Laser Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivich, Chad P.

    2004-01-01

    An extremely powerful laser is being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for use on a satellite. This laser has several potential applications. One application is to use it for upper atmosphere weather research. In this case, the laser would reflect off aerosols in the upper atmosphere and bounce back to the satellite, where the aerosol velocities could be calculated and thus the upper atmosphere weather patterns could be monitored. A second application would be for the US. Air Force, which wants to use the laser strategically as a weapon for satellite defense. The Air Force fears that in the coming years as more and more nations gain limited space capabilities that American satellites may become targets, and the laser could protect the satellites. Regardless of the ultimate application, however, a critical step along the way to putting the laser in space is finding a way to efficiently cool it. While operating the laser becomes very hot and must be cooled to prevent overheating. On earth, this is accomplished by simply running cool tap water over the laser to keep it cool. But on a satellite, this is too inefficient. This would require too much water mass to be practical. Instead, we are investigating spray cooling as a means to cool the laser in microgravity. Spray cooling requires much less volume of fluid, and thus could be suitable for use on a satellite. We have inherited a 2.2 second Drop Tower rig to conduct our research with. In our experiments, water is pressurized with a compressed air tank and sprayed through a nozzle onto our test plate. We can vary the pressure applied to the water and the temperature of the plate before an experiment trial. The whole process takes place in simulated microgravity in the 2.2 second Drop Tower, and a high speed video camera records the spray as it hits the plate. We have made much progress in the past few weeks on these experiments. The rig originally did not have the capability to heat the test plate, but I did

  8. Pesticide spray application, behavior, and assessment: workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Roberts

    1976-01-01

    Experts from relevant disciplines exchanged information on three important problems of pesticide spray technology. The four papers presented are Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Applications by N. B. Akesson and W. E. Yates; The Micrometeorology and Physics of Spray Particle Behavior by H. E. Cramer and D. G. Boyle;

  9. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  10. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  11. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  12. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  13. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 - 2009 cropping season to determine the minimal insecticide application which can reduce cowpea yield losses on the field due to insect pest infestations in the Transkei region of South Africa. Treatments consisted of five cowpea varieties and four regimes of insecticide spray ...

  14. Low-Loss-Spray-Application - The Scientific Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst, E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited time frames caused by infection threat and weather demand for efficient pesticide application techniques in modern integrated and organic fruit farming. This demand is best complied by low volume spraying, since it minimizes traveling time and number of fillings per spray treatment, but also minimizes the probability of a contamination of the operator with concentrated pesticides. To obtain good spray deposition, low volume spray application demands small droplets which offer numerous benefits, but also carry a high drift potential. This feature threatened the technique, because no method for spray drift reduction has been available in order to make use of reduced buffer zones to water courses and non-target areas. A new method based on cross flow characteristics of the sprayer fan, canopy adapted forward speed and fan speed and a mixed set of hollow cone nozzles and air induction nozzles resulted in an approx. 85% reduction of particle drift deposits, so that the method has been registered in the official German list of drift reducing devices in the 75% drift reduction class. Besides drift reduction a canopy adapted fan speed also results in an enormous reduction of fuel consumption and noise emission as further environmental benefits of small droplets. An assessment of the influence of a canopy adapted forward speed and fan speed on spray deposit, relative spray coverage and droplet deposit density revealed a significant increase of the application efficiency, rising with decreasing canopy width and compensating a reduction of water volume and dose rate from canopy related dosing models. Testing a tower sprayer in orchards for use with reduced fan speed unexpectedly showed an unusable vertical air distribution. Alarmed by this finding, a subsequent testing of various fan types on a test bench disclosed a very unsatisfying vertical air distribution of many fan types and even within a production series the air distribution differed

  15. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  16. Applications and properties of thermally sprayed oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, L.

    1991-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the general properties of thermally sprayed oxide ceramics, some of the more important materials are discussed in detail. The electric properties of Al 2 O 3 , such as electric resistivity, dielectric constant and dielectric strength, are shown together with the applications of thermally sprayed alumina coatings in 'corona rolls' and substrates in hybrid microelectronics. The thermal conductivity of ZrO 2 stabilized with a different Y 2 O 3 content is discussed together with the coatings' microstructure. The research on the development of zirconia coatings for application in the advanced turbines is briefly described. The mechanical properties of thermally sprayed Cr 2 O 3 coatings as well as their microstructure are shown. As chromia coatings often contain suboxides or even metallic chromium, a special powder giving metal free deposits has been developed and the coatings sprayed therefrom are applied in the printing industry as 'anilox rolls'. Finally, microstructure and some electrical properties of a high temperature superconductor YBa 2 CU 3 O 7-x are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Simulation of the coating film appearance for spray application

    OpenAIRE

    Seeler, Fabian; Hager, Christian; Schneider, Matthias; Tiedje, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The coating film topography depends on the substrate structure, the application parameters and the coating material’s levelling properties. Substrates consisting of several materials with different surface structures and differently inclined areas make a homogenous coating film structure difficult. By means of simulations, the paint film structure is intended to be controlled so that the theoretical optimum is reached and the experimental effort can be reduced. The focus is on spray applicati...

  18. Evaluation of the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Katja; Arpagaus, Cordin; Friess, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    The vibrating mesh spray technology implemented in the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by spray drying common pharmaceutical excipients (e.g. trehalose, mannitol) and model drugs (e.g. griseofulvin). Aerosol droplet size measurements investigated the influence of spray solution factors (e.g. viscosity, surface tension) and of vibrating mesh aperture sizes on particle characteristics. Particle deposition on the spray nozzle was addressed by analyzing the influence of spray solute concentration and solvent on the process outcome. Submicron particles with 0.5 ?m and 0.8 ?m mean particle size were obtained at high yields for 50?mg powder amounts.

  19. Application of pulse combustion technology in spray drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zbicinski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents development of valved pulse combustor designed for application in drying process and drying tests performed in a specially built installation. Laser technique was applied to investigate the flow field and structure of dispersed phase during pulse combustion spray drying process. PDA technique was used to determine initial atomization parameters as well as particle size distribution, velocity of the particles, mass concentration of liquid phase in the cross section of spray stream, etc., in the drying chamber during drying tests. Water was used to estimate the level of evaporation and 5 and 10% solutions of sodium chloride to carry out drying tests. The Computational Fluid Dynamics technique was used to perform theoretical predictions of time-dependent velocity, temperature distribution and particle trajectories in the drying chamber. Satisfactory agreement between calculations and experimental results was found in certain regions of the drying chamber.

  20. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  1. Industrial applications of thermal sprayed coatings in Venezuelan steelmaking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscano, S; Gil, L; Nuñez, E; Zerpa, R

    2013-01-01

    The metal components subjected to high temperature conditions, abrasive wear, corrosion, impact, etc.; tend to present degradation of manufacturing material, causing the failure imminent of the component. One of the alternatives to minimize or eliminate such effect is the application of ceramic coatings, which are thermal insulators and exhibit high mechanical strength. Its extreme hardness, coupled with the low friction properties and chemical stability, allowing its use in a wide variety of applications. Therefore, the following paper describes the application of thermal sprayed coatings obtained by HVOF and Plasma technologies like alternative to protect the metallic equipment in different venezuelan industrial sectors, such as to operate under aggressive conditions of service, such as the steelmaking nationals industries. This study presents applications cases of ceramic-based coatings, in order to minimize the sticking of metallic material in components of reduction reactor of FINMET® and MIDREXTM process

  2. Plasma-sprayed coatings for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullendore, A.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Whitley, J.B.; Sharp, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A series of plasma-sprayed coatings has been given a preliminary evaluation to assess the potential of this class of materials in fusion reactor applications. TiC, TiB 2 , Be and VBe 12 coatings on copper and stainless steel were tested for coating adherence, ion erosion resistance and susceptability to arc erosion. The coatings, in general, display a good resistance to thermal shock failure. The TiC and TiB 2 coatings exhibit favorable ion erosion characteristics and the resistance of the coatings to arc erosion was, in general, superior to that of stainless steel

  3. Drift curves from spray applications on commom bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Bueno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to avoid the occurrence of drift in pesticide applications, it is fundamental to know the behavior of sprayed droplets. This study aimed to determine drift curves in pesticide applications on common bean crop under brazilian weather conditions, using different nozzle types and compared them with the "German" and "Dutch" drift prediction models. The experiment was conducted in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais/Brazil, in completely randomized design with ten replications and 4 x 20 split-plot arrangement in space. Drift deposited on collectors located over ground level was resulted by 150 L ha-1 carrier volume applications through four nozzle types (XR 11002 (fine droplets; AIXR 11002 (coarse droplets; TT 11002 (medium droplets; TTI 11002 (extremely coarse droplets, collected in 20 downwind distances, parallel to the crop line outside the target area, spaced by 2.5 m. The tracer rhodamine B was added to the spray to be quantified by fluorimetry. Drift prediction models adjusted by exponential functions were obtained considering the 90th percentile for XR, TT, AIXR and TTI nozzles. It is suggested to use the estimated drift models from this study for each nozzle type in drift prediction evaluations on bean crops under brazilian weather conditions.

  4. Digital Image Processing application to spray and flammability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, M. A.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Image Processing has been integrated into a new technique for measurements of fuel spray characteristics. The advantages of this technique are: a wide dynamic range of droplet sizes, accounting for nonspherical droplet shapes not possible with other spray assessment techniques. Finally, the technique has been applied to the study of turbojet engine fuel nozzle atomization performance with Jet A and antimisting fuel.

  5. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  6. Thermal Spraying of Bioactive Polymer Coatings for Orthopaedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, A.; Stokes, J.

    2012-06-01

    Flame sprayed biocompatible polymer coatings, made of biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers, were investigated as single coatings on titanium and as top coatings on plasma sprayed Hydroxyapatite. Biocompatible polymers can act as drug carriers for localized drug release following implantation. The polymer matrix consisted of a biodegradable polymer, polyhydroxybutyrate 98%/ polyhydroxyvalerate 2% (PHBV) and a non-biodegradable polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Screening tests were performed to determine the suitable range of spraying parameters, followed by a Design of Experiments study to determine the effects of spraying parameters on coating characteristics (thickness, roughness, adhesion, wettability), and to optimize the coating properties accordingly. Coatings characterization showed that optimized flame sprayed biocompatible polymers underwent little chemical degradation, did not produce acidic by-products in vitro, and that cells proliferated well on their surface.

  7. Modeling dermal exposure--an illustration for spray painting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Koto, Yoshi; Fent, Kenneth; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-09-01

    This article presents a conceptual, mathematical model of dermal exposure resulting from aerosol deposition on human forearm hair. The model is applicable to exposure scenarios where dermal deposition is governed by aerosol impaction, interception, and diffusion mechanisms. The model employs filtration theory, single fiber efficiency equations, and a modified potential airflow approximation. The results are extended, using previously published results, for application to dermal deposition on the forearm during spray painting. The average (N = 8) predicted dermal deposition of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate as collected on a 10-cm(2) tape strip is 108.9 (+/- 70.3) pmol, whereas field measurements indicated an average of 168.6 (+/- 82.0) pmol per strip. The corresponding measured average dermal flux was 3.63 pg/cm(2)s (+/- 1.34); the prediction was 2.24 pg/cm(2)sec (+/- 1.25). The study calls attention to the importance of body hair both for modeling and measuring dermal exposures.

  8. Effects of Spray Mixtures on Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions and Implications on Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Keywords. Aerial application, Glyphosate , Spray adjuvant, Droplet size, Spray drift, AGDISP. pray drift, which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... environmental and human health protection through drift reduction by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost‐ effective application... Environ . Tox. Chem. 21(3): 648‐658. Hoffmann, W. C., J. R. Lingren, J. R. Coppedge, and I. W. Kirk. 1998. Application parameter effects on efficacy of a

  9. A Review on Atomization and Sprays of Biofuels for IC Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Boggavarapu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing energy requirements, environmental concerns and energy security needs are strongly influencing engine researchers to consider renewable biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels. Spray process being important in IC engine combustion, existing literature on various biofuel sprays is reviewed and summarized. Both experimental and computational research findings are reviewed in a detailed manner for compression ignition (CI engine sprays and briefly for spark ignition (SI engine sprays. The physics of basic atomization process of sprays from various injectors is included to highlight the most recent research findings followed by discussion highlighting the effect of physico-chemical properties on spray atomization for both biofuels and fossil fuels. Biodiesel sprays are found to penetrate faster and have narrow spray plume angle and larger droplet sizes compared to diesel. Results of analytical and computational models are shown to be useful in shedding light on the actual process of atomization. However, further studies on understanding primary atomization and the effect of fuel properties on primary atomization are required. As far as secondary atomization is concerned, changes in regimes are observed to occur at higher air-jet velocities for biodiesel compared to those of diesel. Evaporating sprays revealed that the liquid length is longer for biodiesel. Pure plant oil sprays with potential use in CI engines may require alternative injector technology due to slower breakup as compared to diesel. Application of ethanol to gasoline engines may be feasible without any modifications to port fuel injection (PFI engines. More studies are required on the application of alternative fuels to high pressure sprays used in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engines.

  10. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  11. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . The main challenge of spray drying is to meet the residual moisture specification and prevent powder from sticking to the chamber walls. By simulation we compare the performance of the MPC against the conventional PID control strategy. During an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, the MPC increases......In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder...

  12. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Utzen, Christer; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Sp...

  13. Plasma Spraying of Magnetite Coatings for M.W. Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Enikov, R.; Nedkov, I.; Oliver, D.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of arc - plasma spray deposition of polycrystalline ferromagnetic coating are investigated. Powder sintered microwave absorbing ferrite materials were deposited by arc-plasma jet on polycrystalline substrates. By varying the distance between plasma torch and substrates and the spray duration, coatings with different thickness and porosity were obtained. The coatings characteristics were studied by optical, SEM and XRD methods. The mechanism of the magnetic structure formatio...

  14. Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized. Methods and tools for controlling the spray process are presented as well as their use in optimizing the coating process. It will be shown how the differences from the starting powder to the final coating formation affect the coating microstructure and performance. Typical properties of HVOF sprayed coatings and coating performance is described. Also development of testing methods used for the evaluation of coating properties and current status of standardization is presented. Short discussion of typical applications is done.

  15. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A; Law, S Edward

    2011-01-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  16. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  17. Application of the FIRST Combustion model to Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid fuel is of interest to apply to gas turbines. The large advantage is that liquids are easily storable as compared to gaseous fuels. Disadvantage is that liquid fuel has to be sprayed, vaporized and mixed with air. Combustion occurs at some stage of mixing and ignition. Depending on the

  18. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... This study provides information on the incidence of major insect pests of cowpea as well as the minimum insecticide control intervention necessary for effectively reducing cowpea yield losses on the field. Two insecticide spray regimes (once at flowering and podding) significantly reduced insect population ...

  19. Application of an antibacterial dressing spray in the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... The average wound healing time in JUC group was ... Key words:Antibacterial dressing spray, oral squamous cell cancinoma, wound healing, infection. .... Table 1. Characteristics of subjects. Parameters. Patients Number and references values (n=60). Age. 46.5 (range: 32-63). Sex. 48 Male12 Female.

  20. Optimization of the spray application technology in bay laurel (Laurus nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyttens, D; Braekman, P; Foque, D

    2009-01-01

    Bay laurel is an evergreen, commercially grown and expensive ornamental pot plant, which is susceptible to different pests like aphids, scale and lerp insects, thrips, caterpillars of codling moth and sooty moulds. Recently, caterpillars of the Mediterranean carnation leafroller (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) cause more and more problems. These pests can lead to important financial losses for the growers. During summer the individual pot plants are placed on a field-container in a fairly dense configuration. Crop protection is traditionally done by moving with a spray lance between the rows of pot plants and treating each individual plant from bottom to top. Good penetration is clearly an important advantages of this spray technique but it is very time-consuming, unhealthy and laborious. Some other growers use a 'spray platform' on a high-clearance tractor. Plants sprayed from this platform are exclusively approached from above resulting in an inferior spray deposition on the lower parts of the plants. To overcome the disadvantages of both available techniques, the potential of an automated tunnel sprayer was investigated. Five different nozzle types were evaluated under laboratory conditions i.e. hollow cone, standard flat fan, air inclusion flat fan, deflector flat fan and twin air inclusion flat fan at spray pressures varying from 3.0 to 7.0 bar depending on the type of nozzle. For each nozzle type, three nozzle sizes were included in the experiments which resulted in 15 different spray application techniques. All experiments were done at a speed of 2.5 km x h(-1). This resulted in three different application volumes: 2450, 4900 and 7300 l x ha(-1). After optimizing the nozzle configuration (distance and orientation) using water-sensitive paper, deposition tests with five different mineral chelates as tracer elements were performed. Filter papers were used as collectors at 20 different positions to measure spray deposition, distribution and penetration in the canopy

  1. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, Melissa A; Luck, Joe D; Sama, Michael P

    2015-12-17

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  2. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Kesterson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  3. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...... versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were collected from four zones in the tree and pesticide residues were detected in the individual apples....... None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0...

  4. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  5. Thermal Spray Coatings for Fusion Applications — Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel; Linke, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2007), s. 64-83 ISSN 1059-9630 Grant - others:-(XE) EFDA Task DV4/04 (TW0; -(XE) EFDA Task TW5-TVM-PSW Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : beryllium * boron carbide * plasma facing components * plasma sprayed coatings * thermonuclear fusion * tungsten Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2007

  6. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or without laundry facilities subcategory...

  7. Vacuum-plasma-sprayed silicon coatings for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yaran; Liu Xuanyong; Ding Chuanxian

    2008-01-01

    Silicon coating was deposited on titanium alloy substrates by vacuum plasma spraying technology. The morphologies and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The thermal expansion coefficient of silicon coating was measured to be about 3.70 x 10 -6 K -1 . The bond strength of coating was approximately 20.6 MPa. The density, open porosity, roughness and Young's modulus of silicon coating were also measured. The as-sprayed silicon coating was treated by deionized water at 60 deg. C, 80 deg. C and 100 deg. C for a period of time and soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate its bioactivity. The results showed that the water-treated coating could induce apatite to precipitate on its surface in simulated body fluid, indicating that the bioactivity of silicon coating was improved. The increase of temperature and duration of water treatment had a positive effect on the bioactivity of silicon coatings

  8. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  9. Industrial application of model predictive control to a milk powder spray drying plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results from an industrial application of model predictive control (MPC) with real-time steady-state target optimization (RTO) for control of an industrial spray dryer that produces enriched milk powder. The MPC algorithm is based on a continuous-time transfer...... provides significantly better control of the residual moisture content, increases the throughput and decreases the energy consumption compared to conventional PI-control. The MPC operates the spray dryer closer to the residual moisture constraint of the powder product. Thus, the same amount of feed...

  10. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  11. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with laundry... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with laundry facilities subcategory. 429...

  12. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  13. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    Thermal spray cermet and metallic coatings are extensively used for wear, abrasion and corrosion control in a variety of industries. The first part of the thesis focuses mainly on testing of sand erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings on carbon composites used in the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades. The test set-up employed is a sand blasting machine and is an effort to duplicate the in-flight conditions especially those encountered in hot arid conditions. The technique adopted follows the Department of Defence test method standard. Carbon Composites have excellent stiffness, strength and low weight/density. The strength to weight ratio is high. Hence, these are used in aerospace applications to a large extent. However, the biggest problem encountered with carbon composites is its low abrasion resistance as its surface is very weak. Hence, thermal spray coatings are used to improve the surface properties of CFRP. Zinc bond coats and WC-Co coatings were tested. However, high amount of thermal stresses were developed between the substrate and the coating due to large differences in the CTE's of the both, leading to high mass losses within two minutes and just 130 grams of sand sprayed on to the coatings with the sand blasting machine built; and hence the coatings with CC as a substrate could not qualify for the application. The second part of the thesis focuses on the assessment of different thermal spray coatings used for manufacture of mechanical seals in pumps and analyze the best coating material for the wear resistance application through detail quantification of material loss by block-on-ring test set-up. A machine based on Block-on-ring test set-up following ASTM G77 (Measurement of Adhesive wear resistance of thermal spray coatings) standards was built to duplicate the pump conditions. Thermally sprayed coated materials were tested in different conditions (Load, time, abrasive). WC-Co had the highest wear resistance (lower volume losses) and

  14. Desenvolvimento de um sistema de pulverização acoplável a pivô central Development of a spray system attached to center pivot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. A. Vilela

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se aplicar produtos químicos às culturas, desenvolveu-se um sistema de pulverização acoplável a pivô central e também um protótipo do equipamento. Durante a aplicação, a estrutura aérea do pivô central se desloca sem irrigar, apenas transportando o sistema de pulverização sobre a área. O sistema é composto de duas barras de pulverização instaladas em cada vão do pivô. O regime intermitente da pulverização, responsável pela redução da calda aplicada, foi feito por meio de um circuito eletrônico, sincronizado ao acionamento dos motorredutores, que aciona uma válvula solenóide localizada na entrada da barra de pulverização. O sistema desenvolvido possibilita aplicar-se volume de pulverização de até 246 L ha-1. Os diâmetros de gotas atenderam às recomendações técnicas para aplicação de defensivos agrícolas. Tempos ligado-desligado da válvula solenóide de 0,4 - 2,5, 0,5 - 2,5, 0,3 - 3,5 e 0,4 - 3,5 s resultaram em valores de coeficiente de variação inferiores a 15%, aceitáveis para pulverizações por meio terrestre.For the application of chemical products a equipment attached to center pivots was developed. During application, the aerial structure of the center pivot system moves, without accomplishing irrigation, just transporting the spray system around the area. In order to compensate different speeds two spray bars were installed in each pivot span. Intermittent spraying was achieved by means of solenoid valves controlled by electronic circuit synchronized with electric motor gears. The system is able to apply a minimum volume of 246 L ha-1. Drop diameters obtained were compatible with the requirements of application of chemical products. On/off time sequences of 0.4 - 2.5, 0.5 - 2.5, 0.3 - 3.5 and 0.4 - 3.5 s resulted in coefficients of variation under 15%, that are acceptable for ground based applications.

  15. A smartphone application to measure the quality of pest control spraying machines via image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Bruno B.; Spadon, Gabriel; Arruda, Mauro S.; Goncalves, Wesley N.; Carvalho, Andre C. P. L. F.; Rodrigues-Jr, Jose F.

    2017-01-01

    The need for higher agricultural productivity has demanded the intensive use of pesticides. However, their correct use depends on assessment methods that can accurately predict how well the pesticides' spraying covered the intended crop region. Some methods have been proposed in the literature, but their high cost and low portability harm their widespread use. This paper proposes and experimentally evaluates a new methodology based on the use of a smartphone-based mobile application, named Dr...

  16. Center for the Polyurethanes Industry summary of unpublished industrial hygiene studies related to the evaluation of emissions of spray polyurethane foam insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard D

    2017-09-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight-year period from 2007-2014. These studies address emissions from medium density closed cell and low density open cell formulations. This article summarizes the results of personal and area air samples collected during application and post application of SPF to interior building surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. Chemicals of interest included: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), flame retardants, amine catalysts, blowing agents, and aldehydes. Overall, the results indicate that SPF applicators and workers in close proximity to the application are potentially exposed to MDI in excess of recommended and governmental occupational exposure limits and should use personal protective equipment (PPE) consisting of air supplied respirators and full-body protective clothing to reduce exposure. Catalyst emissions can be reduced by using reactive catalysts in SPF formulations, and mechanical ventilation is important in controlling emissions during and after application.

  17. Failure Analysis of Multilayered Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Rocchio-Heller, R.; Liu, J.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-02-01

    Improvement in the performance of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the key objectives for further development of gas turbine applications. The material most commonly used as TBC topcoat is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). However, the usage of YSZ is limited by the operating temperature range which in turn restricts the engine efficiency. Materials such as pyrochlores, perovskites, rare earth garnets are suitable candidates which could replace YSZ as they exhibit lower thermal conductivity and higher phase stability at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work was to investigate different multilayered TBCs consisting of advanced topcoat materials fabricated by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The investigated topcoat materials were YSZ, dysprosia-stabilized zirconia, gadolinium zirconate, and ceria-yttria-stabilized zirconia. All topcoats were deposited by TriplexPro-210TM plasma spray gun and radial injection of suspension. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue and thermal shock testing. Microstructure analysis of as-sprayed and failed specimens was performed with scanning electron microscope. The failure mechanisms in each case have been discussed in this article. The results show that SPS could be a promising route to produce multilayered TBCs for high-temperature applications.

  18. A new device for vein localization and effect of application of disinfectant spray on its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A functional device was developed to immediately show the localization of veins by detecting a temperature increase on the skin directly above them. Our new idea, compared to other developments, is the comparison of temperatures between a small, ideally punctiform, skin area, and a larger circularly surrounding area. This is realized by two infrared temperature sensors, one with a small field of view, and the other one with a larger field of view. The position of the vein is indicated by two laser modules, which beams cross in one spot, when the device is held in a defined distance to the skin. If the device is held over a vein, the laser spot lightens up. The device was tested in ten study participants. Cooling of the skin by disinfectant spray prior to the measurements increases the temperature gradient and thereby improves the efficiency of the device. Temperature profiles of four skin areas of each study participant were measured before and one minute after application of disinfectant spray. After application of disinfectant spray, a temperature difference of more than 0.3 K between a measuring point above a vein and points 15 mm next to this could be found in 36 out of 40 measurements (90%, compared to 26 out of 40 (65% before disinfection. The mean temperature gradient could be increased from 0.476 K to 1.03 K (p < 0.001.

  19. Modified vibrating-mesh nozzles for advanced spray-drying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Paulus, Ilka E; Greiner, Andreas; Kissel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    This work describes uniform polymer coatings allowing for an adjustment of the orifice dimension of vibrating-mesh nozzles and therefore, size of emerging formulation droplets and dried particles, which is of general interest for diverse spray-drying applications. Chemical vapor deposition of poly(p-xylylene) (PPXN) on aperture templates of the B-90 spray-dryer (orifice diameters: ∼4.0μm) caused a reduction of the opening cross-sections of ∼50%. Thus, a more efficient formulation atomization was observed (finer droplets). Likewise, application of PPXN-coated, rather than plain nozzles, resulted in significantly smaller (particle diameter: 1.3 vs. 3.6μm) and narrower distributed (span: ∼1.4 vs. ∼1.8) sildenafil-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. Prediction of the size of spray-dried microparticles using the size results of atomized droplets ("residual core method") was shown to be in agreement with the observed values. Formulations prepared with plain and PPXN-coated nozzles exhibited a sustained sildenafil release profile with mean dissolution times of ∼1.5 and ∼4.0h, respectively. Regardless of the starting aperture template, any desired orifice dimension and therefore, dried particle size could be achieved by generating adequate polymer deposits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spray drying of silica microparticles for sustained release application with a new sol-gel precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bifeng; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-10-30

    A new precursor, tetrakis(2-methoxyethyl) orthosilicate (TMEOS) was used to fabricate microparticles for sustained release application, specifically for biopharmaceuticals, by spray drying. The advantages of TMEOS over the currently applied precursors are its water solubility and hydrolysis at moderate pH without the need of organic solvents or catalyzers. Thus a detrimental effect on biomolecular drug is avoided. By generating spray-dried silica particles encapsulating the high molecular weight model compound FITC-dextran 150 via the nano spray dryer Büchi-90, we demonstrated how formulation parameters affect and enable control of drug release properties. The implemented strategies to regulate release included incorporating different quantities of dextrans with varying molecular weight as well as adjusting the pH of the precursor solution to modify the internal microstructures. The addition of dextran significantly altered the released amount, while the release became faster with increasing dextran molecular weight. A sustained release over 35days could be achieved with addition of 60 kD dextran. The rate of FITC-Dextran 150 release from the dextran 60 containing particles decreased with higher precursor solution pH. In conclusion, the new precursor TMEOS presents a promising alternative sol-gel technology based carrier material for sustained release application of high molecular weight biopharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Poly-urea spray elastomer for waste containment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.J.; Cheng, S.C.J.; Tanis, R.

    1997-01-01

    Geomembrane usage in environmental applications has increased dramatically following the promulgation of federal regulations resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Subtitle D rules, formulated under the authority of RCRA, call for minimum performance standards to limit adverse effects of a solid waste disposal facility on human health or the environment (40 CFR 257,258, August 30, 1988). These rules set minimum standards requiring new landfill designs to include liner systems and final cover systems. Each state has the responsibility to develop rules that are at least as stringent as the Subtitle D rules. There are several types of geomembranes currently available for landfill applications, each offering particular advantages and disadvantages. For example, PVC does not show the yield point (point of instability) that HDPE shows, HDPE has a higher puncture resistance than PVC, and PVC will deform much more than HDPE before barrier properties of the geomembrane are lost. Because each geomembrane material exhibits its own particular characteristics the material selected should be chosen based on the individual project requirements. It is preferable to select a design that uses the least expensive material and meets the performance specifications of the project

  2. Improving the biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against Mamestra brassicae: effect of spray application technique, adjuvants and an attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Brusselman, Eva; Nuyttens, David; Moens, Maurice; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), is a potential biological control agent for the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae L.). This research aimed to identify a suitable spray application technique, and to determine whether yeast extract added to an EPN spray has an attracting and/or a feeding stimulant effect on M. brassicae. The biological control capabilities of EPN against this pest were examined in the field. Good coverage of the underside of cauliflower leaves, the habitat of young instar larvae (L1-L4) of M. brassicae was obtained using different spray boom configurations with vertical extensions that carried underleaf spraying nozzles. One of the configurations was selected for field testing with an EPN spray. Brewer's yeast extract stimulated larval feeding on leaves, and increased the mortality of these larvae when exposed to EPN. The field trial showed that a spray application with S. carpocapsae, Addit and xanthan gum can effectively lower the numbers of cabbage heads damaged by M. brassicae. Brewer's yeast extract did not significantly increase this field performance of EPN. Steinernema carpocapsae, applied with an appropriate spray technique, can be used within biological control schemes as part of a resistance management programme for Bt. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Directed-spray application of paraquat and diuron in physic nut plants

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,N.V.; Neunfeld,T.H.; Ohland,T.; Piano,J.T.; Klein,J.

    2013-01-01

    There is little information about the selectivity of herbicides in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of different doses and mixtures of paraquat and diuron in direted-spray applications in physic nut plants in greenhouse conditions. The study used a randomized block design, with five replicates. The treatments were: paraquat (200 and 600 g ha-1), diuron (1,000 and 2,000 g ha-1), paraquat + diuron (200 + 1,000 g ha-1), paraquat + di...

  4. Study of the droplet coalescence phenomenon in spray systems used for nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabe, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), spraying systems are used to preserve the reactor containment integrity. The efficiency of these sprays depends in particular on droplet characteristics (sizes and velocities), which may evolve during settling, in particular because of coalescence. The evolution of the droplet histogram thus depends on the outcome of binary droplet collision, which is the focus of this study. Our approach required building up an experimental setup which allowed to identify with precision the various collision outcomes: coalescence, stretching or reflexive separation and bouncing. Physical conditions for these regimes to appear were mapped in terms of the three main parameters used in literature: the Weber number, the impact parameter and the diameters ratio. These experimental results were unified through a new, called 'symmetric', Weber number, defined as the ratio of the total kinetic energy of the two drops in the frame of the mass center to the their total surface energy. On the basis of this Weber number, three new models were then formulated in order to describe transitions between the main outcomes for drops with various sizes. These models are in good agreement with our experimental results. Our study focused then on the influence of ambient gas conditions on collision outcomes. In two different sets of experiments (under different pressures and with various helium concentrations), the bouncing outcome was identified. The influence of gas phase properties (density and viscosity) was identified and an empirical correlation describing the evolution of this regime with gaseous parameters was derived. All results were finally applied in a prospective analysis of the interaction between two sprays. (author)

  5. Fungicides efficiency on wheat diseases control in response to the application with different spray nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides to leaf control diseases of wheat, when applied to different models of spray nozzles. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of factorial (4 x 3+1. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungicides used were: Opera® (pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole 0.75 L.ha-1 , Opera® 0.75 L.ha-1 +Folicur® (tebuconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® (azoxystrobin+cyproconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® 0.3 L.ha-1 +Tilt® (propiconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 . These fungicides were applied with three models of spray nozzles jet planes: XR 11 001 (fine drop, AIRMIX 11,001 (average drop and AVI 11,001 (coarse drop. We evaluated the incidence and severity (damage per plant leaf of yellow spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis, spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana, leaf rust (Puccinia triticina and grain yield (kg.ha-1 culture. The results show that the application of fungicides for control of leaf diseases in wheat resulted in increases in grain yield, and yield higher values were observed with the application of Opera®, using the XR 11001.

  6. Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin CHEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Oyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Our pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spray drying process optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.

  7. Thermal-fluid assessment of multijet atomization for spray cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panao, Miguel R.O.; Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Durao, Diamantino F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal management is a particularly difficult challenge to the miniaturization of electronic components because it requires high performance cooling systems capable of removing large heat loads at fast rates in order to keep the operating temperature low and controlled. To meet this challenge, the Intermittent Spray Cooling (ISC) concept has been suggested as a promising technology which uses a proper match between the frequency and duration of consecutive injection cycles to control heat transfer. This concept also depends on: the atomization strategy; a homogeneous dispersion of droplets impinging on the hot surface; and the quantitative control of the liquid deposited, avoiding excessive secondary atomization or pre-impingement-evaporation. In this work, the use of liquid atomization by multiple jets impact, also referred as multijet atomization, is the subject of a thermal-fluid assessment using heat transfer correlations previously derived for intermittent sprays. Simultaneous measurements of droplet size and velocity are provided as input for the correlations and the analysis explores the influence of the number of impinging jets on the heat removal pattern and magnitude. Emphasis is put on the promising applicability of multijet atomization for promoting an intelligent use of energy in the thermal management of electronic devices.

  8. Cold sprayed WO3 and TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water and methanol oxidation in renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Christoph; Schneider, Jenny; Fleisch, Manuel; Gutzmann, Henning; Klassen, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2017-10-03

    Films prepared by cold spray have potential applications as photoanodes in electrochemical water splitting and waste water purification. In the present study cold sprayed photoelectrodes produced with WO 3 (active under visible light illumination) and TiO 2 (active under UV illumination) on titanium metal substrates were investigated as photoanodes for the oxidation of water and methanol, respectively. Methanol was chosen as organic model pollutant in acidic electrolytes. Main advantages of the cold sprayed photoelectrodes are the improved metal-semiconductor junctions and the superior mechanical stability. Additionally, the cold spray method can be utilized as a large-scale electrode fabrication technique for photoelectrochemical applications. Incident photon to current efficiencies reveal that cold sprayed TiO 2 /WO 3 photoanodes exhibit the best photoelectrochemical properties with regard to the water and methanol oxidation reactions in comparison with the benchmark photocatalyst Aeroxide TiO 2 P25 due to more efficient harvesting of the total solar light irradiation related to their smaller band gap energies.

  9. Practical application to a network operation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lebrato Álvaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This project involves the management of a network operations center using a web application that simulates the operations of these centers. We analyze the operation and management of the spanish electricity system, what its functions and objectives are highlighting the similarities between the application and the real system. Considering the importance of the power matrix in the electricity system, we explain the power plants available in the application, the types and operation of each production technology is exposed giving special importance the maintenance which directly affects the cost and electricity production. One of the most interesting installations of the application is the high voltage direct current transformer since electricity transport traditionally has been performed in alternating current. Following the study, an increase is seen in the use of renewable sources for generating electricity in recent years. Its participation in the spanish power matrix is almost equal to that of conventional energy sources, although, because many renewable sources depend on weather conditions, they cannot completely replace conventional sources with current technology.

  10. Aerosolization Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations for the Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Application: Effect of Spray Drying Process Conditions on Aerosol Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxame...

  11. Positioning system of a torch used in thermal spray coatings applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Absalón Torres-Barahona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, construction and performance evaluation of a positioning system used for the deposition of coatings with molten particles, by using a torch CastoDyn Ds 8000 thermal spray with oxyacetylene combustion. The design has been done with parameters obtained in the laboratory of materials of the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, and the information determined from the evaluation of the device, allows to control the main process variables as the projection distance, flow powder, torch speed and rotation speed of the sample holder; this has been seen in coatings made in application tests zirconia / nickel on a carbon steel substrate and analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM.

  12. Effect of directed-spray glyphosate applications on survival and growth of planted oaks after three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Josh L. Moree; Rory O. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of acres of oak (Quercus spp.) plantations are established across the South annually. Survival and growth of these plantings have been less than desirable. Several techniques have been utilized in attempts to achieve improved success in these areas. One such technique that has been recommended is the application of directed-spray herbicide...

  13. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  14. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  15. An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J H; Tunnell, J W; Pikkula, B M; Anvari, B

    2001-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is a method used to protect the epidermis from non-specific thermal injury that may occur as a result of various dermatological laser procedures. However, better understanding of cryogen deposition and skin thermal response to CSC is needed to optimize the technique. Temperature measurements and video imaging were carried out on an epoxy phantom as well as human skin during CSC with and without simultaneous application of airflow which was intended to accelerate cryogen evaporation from the substrate surface. An inverse thermal conduction model was used to estimate heat flux and total heat removed. Lifetime of the cryogen film deposited on the surface of skin and epoxy phantom lasted several hundred milliseconds beyond the spurt, but could be reduced to the spurt duration by application of airflow. Values over 100 J/cm(3) were estimated for volumetric heat removed from the epidermis using CSC. "Film cooling" instead of "evaporative cooling" appears to be the dominant mode of CSC on skin. Estimated values of heat removed from the epidermis suggest that a cryogen spurt as long as 200 milliseconds is required to counteract heat generated by high laser fluences (e.g., in treatment of port wine stains) in patients with high concentration of epidermal melanin. Additional cooling beyond spurt termination can be avoided by simultaneous application of airflow, although it is unclear at the moment if avoiding the additional cooling would be beneficial in the actual clinical situation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The crush and spray: a patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-...

  17. Spray-coated fluorine-free superhydrophobic coatings with easy repairability and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weici; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xinjie; Zhou, Feng

    2009-08-01

    The present paper reports a very simple and low-cost fluorine-free superhydrophobic coating prepared by spray-coating metal alkylcarboxylates, for example, Cu[CH(3)(CH(2))(10)COO](2), onto virtually any substrates. Superhydrophobicity with a static water contact angle of about 160 degrees and a sliding angle of 5 degrees was achieved from the proper precursor concentration. The advantages of the present approach include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, an industrial implementation method, and easy repairability and applicability so as to make a great application potential in practice. The hydrophobicity of coatings and the adhesion to water were found to be dependent on the surface morphology that was governed by the precursor concentrations from which coatings were prepared. The static wetting behavior of water droplets with different sizes gentlly deposited on the coatings was studied in more detail and correlated to theories, i.e., Wenzel's and Cassie's models. The results indicated that nanoribbon-textured coatings prepared from low precursor concentration (0.02 M) exhibited a transition from the metastable Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state with increments in the droplet volume, and eventually droplets firmly stick to the surface even when the droplet was gently deposited on the surface. Surface coatings with dual roughness at both microscale and nanometer scale were formed as the concentration (0.04 M) was increased and conferred a stable Cassie state, even for increased droplet size and increased droplet deposit speed.

  18. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Smegal, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  19. Advanced Technologies for the Improvement of Spray Application Techniques in Spanish Viticulture: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Emilio; Arnó, Jaume; Llorens, Jordi; Sanz, Ricardo; Llop, Jordi; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.; Gallart, Montserrat; Escolà, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Spraying techniques have been undergoing continuous evolution in recent decades. This paper presents part of the research work carried out in Spain in the field of sensors for characterizing vineyard canopies and monitoring spray drift in order to improve vineyard spraying and make it more sustainable. Some methods and geostatistical procedures for mapping vineyard parameters are proposed, and the development of a variable rate sprayer is described. All these technologies are interesting in terms of adjusting the amount of pesticides applied to the target canopy. PMID:24451462

  20. Highly doped ZnO films deposited by spray-pyrolysis. Design parameters for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2016-04-30

    Synthesis and preparation of ZnO films are relevant subjects for obtaining transparent and conducting layers with interesting applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Optimization of parameters such as dopant type and concentration, deposition time and substrate temperature is important for obtaining ZnO layers with optimal properties. In this work we present a study about the induced effects of deposition time on optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films. These films were deposited by spray pyrolysis of a suitable Zn precursor, obtained through the sol–gel method. The deposition time has direct incidence on internal stress in the crystal structure, generating defects that may affect transparency and electrical transport into the layers. We performed mosaicity measurements, through X-ray diffraction, and used it as a tool to get an insight on structural characteristics and homogeneity of ZnO layers. Also, through this technique, we analyzed thickness and doping effects on crystallinity and carrier transport properties. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO films with high conductivity and moderate Hall mobility were obtained. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increased with film thickness. • Lattice parameters a and c diminished linearly as a function of Al concentration. • First steps for developing porous silicon/doped ZnO heterojunctions were presented.

  1. Highly doped ZnO films deposited by spray-pyrolysis. Design parameters for optoelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, F.A.; Budini, N.; Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis and preparation of ZnO films are relevant subjects for obtaining transparent and conducting layers with interesting applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Optimization of parameters such as dopant type and concentration, deposition time and substrate temperature is important for obtaining ZnO layers with optimal properties. In this work we present a study about the induced effects of deposition time on optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films. These films were deposited by spray pyrolysis of a suitable Zn precursor, obtained through the sol–gel method. The deposition time has direct incidence on internal stress in the crystal structure, generating defects that may affect transparency and electrical transport into the layers. We performed mosaicity measurements, through X-ray diffraction, and used it as a tool to get an insight on structural characteristics and homogeneity of ZnO layers. Also, through this technique, we analyzed thickness and doping effects on crystallinity and carrier transport properties. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO films with high conductivity and moderate Hall mobility were obtained. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increased with film thickness. • Lattice parameters a and c diminished linearly as a function of Al concentration. • First steps for developing porous silicon/doped ZnO heterojunctions were presented.

  2. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha Miroslav; Jedelsky Jan; Durdina Lukas

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV) and Phase-Doppler Par...

  3. Optimization of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings for High Temperature Corrosion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-04-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-spray coatings have proven successful in resisting the high temperature sulfidizing conditions found in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. The corrosion resistance of the coatings is dependent upon the coating composition, to form chromium sulfides and oxides to seal the coating, and on the coating microstructure. Selection of the arc-spray parameters influences the size, temperature and velocity of the molten droplets generated during spraying, which in turn dictates the coating composition and formation of the critical coating microstructural features—splat size, porosity and oxide content. Hence it is critical to optimize the arc-spray parameters in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the coating. In this work the effect of key spray parameters (current, voltage, spray distance and gas atomizing pressure) on the coating splat thickness, porosity content, oxide content, microhardness, thickness, and surface profile were investigated using a full factorial design of experiment. Based on these results a set of oxidized, porous and optimized coatings were prepared and characterized in detail for follow-up corrosion testing.

  4. Characterization of modified tapioca starch solutions and their sprays for high temperature coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M Y; Sulaiman, S A; Ariwahjoedi, B; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature.

  5. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch Solutions and Their Sprays for High Temperature Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature. PMID:24592165

  6. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdina, Lukas; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV) and Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer (P/DPA). The results obtained with P/DPA include information about Sauter Mean Diameter of droplets and spray velocity profiles in one plane perpendicular to the spray axis. Velocity magnitudes of droplets in an axial section of the spray were obtained using PIV. The experimental outputs also show a good confirmation of velocity profiles obtained with both instruments in the test plane. These data together will elucidate impact of the spray quality on the whole combustion process, its efficiency and exhaust gas emissions.

  7. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV and Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer (P/DPA. The results obtained with P/DPA include information about Sauter Mean Diameter of droplets and spray velocity profiles in one plane perpendicular to the spray axis. Velocity magnitudes of droplets in an axial section of the spray were obtained using PIV. The experimental outputs also show a good confirmation of velocity profiles obtained with both instruments in the test plane. These data together will elucidate impact of the spray quality on the whole combustion process, its efficiency and exhaust gas emissions.

  8. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  9. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  10. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Collection of Treaty Texts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Collection of Treaty Texts consists of environmental treaty texts compiled in collaboration with the Columbia...

  11. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset contains comprehensive treaty information for multilateral environmental agreements,...

  12. Parameters of electrostatic spraying and its influence on the application efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Shigueaki Sasaki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When the electrostatic spraying is used correctly, it provides advantages over conventional systems, however many factors can affect the system efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the charge/mass ratio (Q/M at different spraying distances (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, and the liquid deposition efficiency on the target. Evaluating the Q/M ratio the Faraday cage method was used and to evaluate the liquid deposition efficiency the artificial targets were positioned longitudinally and transversely to the spray jet. It was found that the spraying distance affects the Q/M ratio, consequently, the liquid deposition efficiency. For the closest distance to the target the Q/M ratio was 4.11 mC kg-1, and at distances of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, the ratio decreased to 1.38, 0.64, 0.31, 0.17 and 0.005 mC kg-1, respectively. For the liquid deposition, the electrostatic system was affected by the target orientation and spraying distance. The target transversely to the jet of liquid did not improve the liquid deposition, but longitudinally increased the deposition up to 3 meters of distance.

  13. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.; Cowgill, D.F.; Snead, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits

  14. Fabrication of spray-printed organic non-volatile memory devices for low cost electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, An-Na; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Sang-A; Noh, Yong-Young; Na, Seok-In; Bae, Sukang; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PS:PCBM-based organic non-volatile memory devices was fabricated using spray printing. • The thickness of the film was controlled by adjusting the concentration of the PS:PCBM solutions. • The roughness of spray-printed films was poorer than that of the spin-coated film. • The minimum thickness of the printed film influenced the memory behavior more than the surface roughness. • The spray printed PS:PCBM showed excellent unipolar switching, reliability, retention, and endurance characteristics. - Abstract: We fabricated polystyrene (PS) and 6-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) based organic non-volatile memory devices using a spray printing technique. Due to the distinct operational properties of this technique, significant differences were observed in the macro- and microscopic features (e.g., the film quality and surface roughness) of the devices. The thickness of the film was successfully controlled by adjusting the concentration of the PS:PCBM solutions sprayed. Although the roughness of the spray-printed films was poorer than that of the spin-coated film, negligible differences were observed in the basic memory characteristics (e.g., the operation voltage range, turn on and off voltage, retention and endurance). In particular, the printing-based organic memory devices were successfully switched, as exhibited by the on/off ratio greater than two orders of magnitude at 0.3 V read voltage. The resistance state of all of the devices was maintained for more than 10 4 s, indicating their non-volatile characteristics

  15. Diesel engine emissions and combustion predictions using advanced mixing models applicable to fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abani, Neerav; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2010-09-01

    An advanced mixing model was applied to study engine emissions and combustion with different injection strategies ranging from multiple injections, early injection and grouped-hole nozzle injection in light and heavy duty diesel engines. The model was implemented in the KIVA-CHEMKIN engine combustion code and simulations were conducted at different mesh resolutions. The model was compared with the standard KIVA spray model that uses the Lagrangian-Drop and Eulerian-Fluid (LDEF) approach, and a Gas Jet spray model that improves predictions of liquid sprays. A Vapor Particle Method (VPM) is introduced that accounts for sub-grid scale mixing of fuel vapor and more accurately and predicts the mixing of fuel-vapor over a range of mesh resolutions. The fuel vapor is transported as particles until a certain distance from nozzle is reached where the local jet half-width is adequately resolved by the local mesh scale. Within this distance the vapor particle is transported while releasing fuel vapor locally, as determined by a weighting factor. The VPM model more accurately predicts fuel-vapor penetrations for early cycle injections and flame lift-off lengths for late cycle injections. Engine combustion computations show that as compared to the standard KIVA and Gas Jet spray models, the VPM spray model improves predictions of in-cylinder pressure, heat released rate and engine emissions of NOx, CO and soot with coarse mesh resolutions. The VPM spray model is thus a good tool for efficiently investigating diesel engine combustion with practical mesh resolutions, thereby saving computer time.

  16. Imaging diagnostics of ethanol port fuel injection sprays for automobile engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padala, Srinivas; Le, Minh Khoi; Kook, Sanghoon; Hawkes, Evatt R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents characteristics of ethanol sprays at port fuel injection (PFI) conditions with variations in injection and ambient parameters. Details of temporal and spatial development of ethanol PFI sprays are studied using Mie-scattering and high-speed shadowgraph imaging techniques. Momentum flux-based injection rate measurement is also performed. The influences of fuel flow-rate, injection duration, and ambient air cross-flow are of particular interest in an effort to understand ethanol PFI spray characteristics that are relevant to automobile engines. For comparison purposes, the results from gasoline fuel are also presented. Ethanol flow-rate effects are studied using two injectors with different nozzle-hole sizes at a fixed injection pressure. From the experiments, it was found that the actual injection duration was longer for the higher flow-rate injector although an electronic pulse width was fixed. This was due to an extended delay in the injector needle closing as the flow resistance against the needle was increased for the high flow-rate injector. For liquid droplets, the larger hole size of the higher flow-rate injector caused a higher mean droplet diameter and higher number of droplets. Injection duration was also varied to study transient spray behaviour: short-injection sprays with the end-of-injection transient dominating the overall spray development were compared to long, steady-injection sprays. From Mie-scattering images, the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter were found to be less for the short injection sprays. Detailed analysis using an axial profile of the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter suggested that the observed trends were a result of increased evaporation rate near the nozzle after the end of injection. This was consistent with shadowgraph images showing no liquid regions but only the vapour-phase fuel near the nozzle. Under the influence of ambient air cross-flow, both mean droplet diameter and number of

  17. Spray Atomization Models in Engine Applications, from Correlations to Direct Numerical Simulations Modèles de spray dans les applications moteur, des corrélations aux simulations numériques directes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dos Santos F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sprays are among the very main factors of mixture formation and combustion quality in almost every (IC engine. They are of great importance in pollutant formation and energy efficiency although adequate modeling is still on development. For many applications, validation and calibration of models are still an open question. Therefore, we present an overview of existing models and propose some trends of improvement. Models are classified in zero dimensional and dimensional classes ranging from simple formulations aimed at close-to-real-time applications to complete detailed description of early atomization stages. Les sprays sont parmi les principaux facteurs de qualite, dans la formation du melange et la combustion, dans un grand nombre de moteurs (a combustion interne. Ils sont de toute premiere importance dans la formation de polluants et l’efficacite energetique, bien qu’une modelisation adequate soit encore en developpement. Pour un grand nombre d’applications, la validation et la calibration de ces modeles demeurent une question ouverte. Aussi, presentons-nous un apercu des modeles existants et proposons quelques voies d’amelioration. Les modeles sont classes en nondimensionnels et dimensionnels allant de formules simples dediees a des applications proches du temps reel a des descriptions detaillees des premiers stades de l’atomisation.

  18. Properties of n-type SnO2 semiconductor prepared by spray ultrasonic technique for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjedidi, H.; Attaf, A.; Saidi, H.; Aida, M. S.; Semmari, S.; Bouhdjar, A.; Benkhetta, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Transparent conducting n-type SnO2 semiconductor films were fabricated by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray ultrasonic technique using an ultrasonic generator at deferent substrate temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The structural studies reveal that the SnO2 films are polycrystalline at 350, 400, 450, 500 °C with preferential orientation along the (200) and (101) planes, and amorphous at 300 °C. The crystallite size of the films was found to be in the range of 20.9-72.2 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap are 80% and 3.9 eV respectively. The films thicknesses were varied between 466 and 1840 nm. The resistivity was found between 1.6 and 4 × 10-2 Ω·cm. This simplified ultrasonic spray technique may be considered as a promising alternative to a conventional spray for the massive production of economic SnO2 films for solar cells, sensors and opto-electronic applications.

  19. Application of thermally sprayed coatings of the type WC/CoCr in reverse osmosis processes for seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwars, A.; Kochanowski, W.; Schramm, B.; Sehr, F. [KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Seawater desalination based on the reverse osmosis process requires a variety of hydraulic systems. The material concepts of these hydraulic systems are designed to reliably resist the corrosive properties of seawater and brine as well as the tribological loads. Strong tribological loads typically occur during the start-up and shutdown of multi-stage high-pressure pumps. Thermally sprayed coatings can be used to increase the wear resistance and also the tribological properties of bearings. Also in pressure exchangers for energy recovery, high tribological loads occur on the surfaces of rotors which operate with a clearance gap of 40-100{mu}m. Today, thermally sprayed coatings are used for the surface protection of these rotors. To resist the various tribological loads, the material pairs are optimized for each case. Thermally sprayed coatings with high surface hardness have proven to be particularly successful. A coating system, based on a CoCr matrix, has been developed especially for these applications. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Application of iodinated starch powder using an atomizer spray gun - a new and effective tool to evaluate hypohidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J H-L; Choo, W; Chang, J H; Tey, H L; Chong, W-S

    2016-08-01

    Hypohidrosis is defined as diminished sweating in response to an appropriate thermal or sympathetic stimulus. When encountered in a clinical setting, it necessitates an accurate documentation of its pattern and extent to prognosticate the risk of associated heat-related illnesses. This can be achieved by thermoregulatory sweat testing which includes a starch-iodine sweat test that can be administered via various methods. To describe and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a novel method of using an atomizer spray gun in administering the starch-iodine test. We describe the administration of the starch-iodine test via an atomizer spray gun (Series 700 Lab Model; Mitsuba Systems, Mumbai, India). The method was utilized for the evaluation of 30 individuals who presented with symptoms of hypohidrosis. Application of iodinated starch powder prepared in-house with the atomizer spray gun achieved a lightweight and homogeneous coat on our patients' skin which allowed for clear visualization of the sweating pattern in areas of anhidrosis. The sharp demarcation of the pathological regions enabled the precise calculation of the affected body surface area of impaired sweating. Unlike the starch-iodine tests using the Minor and Wada methods, neither staining of the skin nor irritation was detected in this method. We report a novel method of using an atomizer spray gun to perform the starch-iodine test in a rapid, reproducible, effective, and safe manner suitable for use in the clinical evaluation of hypohidrosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Space Operations Learning Center Facebook Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) Facebook module, initially code-named Spaceville, is intended to be an educational online game utilizing the latest social networking technology to reach a broad audience base and inspire young audiences to be interested in math, science, and engineering. Spaceville will be a Facebook application/ game with the goal of combining learning with a fun game and social environment. The mission of the game is to build a scientific outpost on the Moon or Mars and expand the colony. Game activities include collecting resources, trading resources, completing simple science experiments, and building architectures such as laboratories, habitats, greenhouses, machine shops, etc. The player is awarded with points and achievement levels. The player s ability increases as his/her points and levels increase. A player can interact with other players using multiplayer Facebook functionality. As a result, a player can discover unexpected treasures through scientific missions, engineering, and working with others. The player creates his/her own avatar with his/her selection of its unique appearance, and names the character. The player controls the avatar to perform activities such as collecting oxygen molecules or building a habitat. From observations of other successful social online games such as Farmville and Restaurant City, a common element of these games is having eye-catching and cartoonish characters, and interesting animations for all activities. This will create a fun, educational, and rewarding environment. The player needs to accumulate points in order to be awarded special items needed for advancing to higher levels. Trophies will be awarded to the player when certain goals are reached or tasks are completed. In order to acquire some special items needed for advancement in the game, the player will need to visit his/her neighboring towns to discover the items. This is the social aspect of the game that requires the

  2. 14 CFR 1201.402 - NASA Industrial Applications Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Department of Computer Science, Baton Rouge, LA 70813-2065. (b) To obtain access to NASA-developed computer... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NASA Industrial Applications Centers. 1201... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION General Information § 1201.402 NASA Industrial Applications Centers. (a...

  3. CFD spray simulations for nuclear reactor safety applications with Lagrangian approach for droplet modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, M.; Kljenak, I.

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of containment spray system operation during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) are to depressurize the containment by steam condensation on spray droplets, to reduce the risk of hydrogen burning by mixing the containment atmosphere, and to collect radioactive aerosols from the containment atmosphere. While the depressurization may be predicted fairly well using lumped-parameter codes, the prediction of mixing and collection of aerosols requires a local description of transport phenomena. In the present work, modelling of sprays on local instantenous scale is presented and the Design of Experiment (DOE) method is used to assess the influence of boundary conditions on the simulation results. Simulation results are compared to the TOSQAN 101 spray test, which was used for a benchmarking exercise in the European Severe accident research network of excellence (SARNET). The modelling approach is based on a Lagrangian description of the dispersed liquid phase (droplets), an Eulerian approach for the description of the continuous gas phase, and a two-way interaction between the phases. The simulations are performed using a combination of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX4.4, which solves the gas transport equations, and of a newly proposed dedicated Lagrangian droplet-tracking code. (author)

  4. Spray deposition of organic electroluminescent coatings for application in flexible light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic electroluminescent (EL films of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinatoaluminum (Alq3 mixed with polystyrene (PS binder were produced by spray deposition. The influence of the substrate temperature on the layer’s morphology and uniformity was investigated. The deposition conditions were optimized and simple flexible light-emitting devices consisting of indium-tin oxide/Alq3:PS/aluminum were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET foil to demonstrate the advantages of the sprayed organic coatings. Same structure was produced by thermal evaporation of Alq3 film as a reference. The influence of the deposition method on the film roughness and contact resistance at the electrode interfaces for both types of structures was estimated. The results were related to the devices’ efficiency. It was found that the samples with sprayed films turn on at 4 V, which is 2 V lower in comparison to the device with thermal evaporated Alq3. The current through the sprayed device is six times higher as well (17 mA vs. 2.8 mA at 6.5 V, which can be ascribed to the lower contact resistance at the EL film/electrode interfaces. This is due to the lower surface roughness of the pulverized layers.

  5. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of laser assisted cold sprayed bioceramic coatings: potential use for biomedical applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of commercial pure titanium (CP)-Ti and HAP bio-ceramic were synthesised on Ti-6Al-4V substrate using laser assisted cold spray (LACS) deposition technique. The LACS system comprised of 4.4 kW Nd:YAG laser system, AT-12000HPHV 5000PSI (35...

  6. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  7. Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100 mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500 mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Study of the droplet coalescence phenomenon in spray systems used for nuclear reactor applications; Etude de la coalescence dans les rampes de sprays: application au systeme d'aspersion des reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Ch.

    2009-01-15

    During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), spraying systems are used to preserve the reactor containment integrity. The efficiency of these sprays depends in particular on droplet characteristics (sizes and velocities), which may evolve during settling, in particular because of coalescence. The evolution of the droplet histogram thus depends on the outcome of binary droplet collision, which is the focus of this study. Our approach required building up an experimental setup which allowed to identify with precision the various collision outcomes: coalescence, stretching or reflexive separation and bouncing. Physical conditions for these regimes to appear were mapped in terms of the three main parameters used in literature: the Weber number, the impact parameter and the diameters ratio. These experimental results were unified through a new, called 'symmetric', Weber number, defined as the ratio of the total kinetic energy of the two drops in the frame of the mass center to the their total surface energy. On the basis of this Weber number, three new models were then formulated in order to describe transitions between the main outcomes for drops with various sizes. These models are in good agreement with our experimental results. Our study focused then on the influence of ambient gas conditions on collision outcomes. In two different sets of experiments (under different pressures and with various helium concentrations), the bouncing outcome was identified. The influence of gas phase properties (density and viscosity) was identified and an empirical correlation describing the evolution of this regime with gaseous parameters was derived. All results were finally applied in a prospective analysis of the interaction between two sprays. (author)

  9. Atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) coatings of Al2O3–TiO2 system for photocatalytic application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Ageorges, H.; Ctibor, Pavel; Murafa, Nataliya

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2009), s. 733-738 ISSN 1474-905X. [European Meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis:Environmental Applications /5th./. Palermo, 04.10.2008-08.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Alumina * titania * plasma spraying * reflectivity * bangap * phase composition Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2009

  10. A Five-year Performance Study of Low VOC Coatings over Zinc Thermal Spray for the Protection of Carbon Steel at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    The launch facilities at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are located approximately 1000 feet from the Atlantic Ocean where they are exposed to salt deposits, high humidity, high UV degradation, and acidic exhaust from solid rocket boosters. These assets are constructed from carbon steel, which requires a suitable coating to provide long-term protection to reduce corrosion and its associated costs. While currently used coating systems provide excellent corrosion control performance, they are subject to occupational, safety, and environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their use. Many contain high volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants, and other hazardous materials. Hazardous waste from coating operations include vacuum filters, zinc dust, hazardous paint related material, and solid paint. There are also worker safety issues such as exposure to solvents and isocyanates. To address these issues, top-coated thermal spray zinc coating systems were investigated as a promising environmentally friendly corrosion protection for carbon steel in an acidic launch environment. Additional benefits of the combined coating system include a long service life, cathodic protection to the substrate, no volatile contaminants, and high service temperatures. This paper reports the results of a performance based study to evaluate low VOC topcoats (for thermal spray zinc coatings) on carbon steel for use in a space launch environment.

  11. The Role of Spraying Parameters and Inert Gas Shrouding in Hybrid Water-Argon Plasma Spraying of Tungsten and Copper for Nuclear Fusion Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Kavka, Tetyana; Bertolissi, Gabriele; Ctibor, Pavel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2013), s. 744-755 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI2/702; GA TA ČR TA01010300 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * tungsten * copper * inert gas shrouding * water-argon plasma torch * gas shroud * hybrid plasma torch * influence of spray parameters * nuclear fusion * oxidation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.491, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11666-013-9895-x.pdf

  12. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  13. Enhancing Corn Productivity through Application of Vermi Tea as Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Bulalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major commodities in the Province of Apayao is corn. In the municipality of Conner, a previous study conducted showed that corn farmers heavily rely on the use of inorganic fertilizers and still produce low yield. This study was then conducted to compare traditional farming against the use of an intervention using Vermi Tea as supplemental spray. Results of this endeavor showed that the farms applied with supplemental organic spray performed better that that of the usual farmer’s practice in various aspects of corn growth and yield. Findings show that vermi tea, when used as a foliar spray can significantly improve the growth and yield of corn . Due to the presence of plant growth regulators, and its ability to improve the condition of the soil, the corn farm sprayed with vermi tea produced taller corn crops with longer and thicker ears. As reflected in this study, corn when applied with the vermi tea can have an increased yield which can go as high as two tons/ha. More importantly, vermi tea promotes the use of organic fertilizer which does not entail high cost and can be prepared using agricultural wastes and other locally available materials. This will not only contribute to the reduction of the amount of total waste but will also help minimize the use of chemical fertilizers. The technology intervention promoted in this project complements and supports various government agency thrusts and priorities which are geared towards improving the agriculture industry, maintaining environmental quality and sustainable use of resources, climate change adaptation and mitigation; and production of excellent researches that will promote quality education and contribute to the upliftment of the country and encourage multisectoral/ multidisciplinary research along the priority areas like food safety and security among others.

  14. [APPLICATION OF TOPICAL HEMOGLOBIN SPRAY IN INFECTED POSTTRAUMATIC AND POSTOPERATIVE WOUNDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubivuc, Marin; Fumic, Nera; Laginja, Stanislava; Smokrovic, Eva; Bakota, Bore; Bekic, Marijo; Čoklo, Miran

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic and postoperative infective wounds that progress to chronic wounds can pose serious problem for the traumatized patient with reduced biological potential for healing. Also, due to the need for specific and individual approach to such a patient, they represent a challenge for physicians. The use of topical hemoglobin spray (Granulox®) with protective and supportive local action ensures and improves physiological conditions for healing, thus providing additional possibilities for adequate and safe healing of complicated infected wounds.

  15. Application of a topical vapocoolant spray decreases pain at the site of initial intradermal anaesthetic injection during ultrasound-guided breast needle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado-Mesa, F.; Net, J.M.; Arheart, K.; Klevos, G.A.; Yepes, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether the application of a topical vapocoolant spray immediately prior to initial intradermal anaesthetic injection during ultrasound-guided breast biopsy decreases pain at the site of the initial injection. Materials and methods: In this institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study, 50 women aged 49.1 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error) were recruited and provided written informed consent. Participants served as their own controls and were blinded as to whether a topical vapocoolant spray or a placebo was used immediately prior to the initial local anaesthetic injection at two separate biopsy sites. With the exception of the application of vapocoolant or placebo, the entire ultrasound-guided procedure was performed according to a routine protocol. Participants recorded pain at initial injection site on a visual analogue scale. General linear mixed models for repeated measures analysis of variance and a 0.05 significance level were used. Results: Application of topical vapocoolant spray was shown to significantly decrease pain at the site of initial intradermal anaesthetic injection as compared to placebo (p<0.001). Treatment effect was independent of age of the subject, race/ethnicity, operator, type of biopsy device, and histopathology result. No complications from vapocoolant spray use were reported. Conclusion: Application of a topical vapocoolant spray immediately prior to initial intradermal anaesthetic injection during ultrasound-guided breast biopsy significantly decreases pain at the site of the initial injection and could contribute to improve the patient's overall procedural experience. -- Highlights: •Topical vapocoolant spray decreased pain at site of initial anesthetic injection (

    spray use were reported

  16. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-15

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  17. Opportunities and Benefits Implementation Business Intelligence Application on Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hady Pranoto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The health center has the task of providing health services to the community, to be able to win the competition among the existing health centers; a health center should have a good operating system, a computerized operating system to improve services in the field of administration. However, providing a computerized system is not enough, many other health centers or competitors also use a computerized system. Unfortunately, health centers in Indonesia have not yet implemented business intelligence application. There are many public and private health centers do not apply automated operational system. A study of the literature is conducted to find evidence of the application of BI, and any sector of the BI can be applied. Many sectors in health services where BI can be applied to improve the productivity quality of service and competitiveness in this era of globalization.

  18. Wastewater application by spray irrigation on a field southeast of Tallahassee, Florida; effects on ground-water quality and quantity, 1980-82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J.F.; Hunn, J.D.; Calhoun, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    A field southeast of Tallahassee, Florida, used for land application of wastewater by spray irrigation was the site of a ground-water monitoring study to determine effects of spray irrigation on water-table elevations and ground-water quality. The study was conducted during 1980-82 in cooperation with the City of Tallahassee. The wastewater has relatively high concentrations of chloride, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon , coliform bacteria, sodium, and potassium. These substances are usually attenuated before they can impact the ground water. However, increases in chloride and nitrate-nitrogen were evident in ground water in some of the monitoring wells during the study. Chloride concentrations increased five-fold or more in some wells directly affected by spray irrigation, and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased eight-fold or more. Ground-water levels in the area of the spray field fluctuated over a range of several feet. These fluctuations were affected somewhat by spray irrigation, but the primary control on water levels was rainfall. As of December 1982, constituents introduced to the system by spray irrigation of effluent had not exceeded drinking water standard in the ground water. However, the system had not yet stabilized and more changes in ground-water quality could be expected. (USGS)

  19. Information and Library Programs at the Technology Application Center (TAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Eugene

    The Technology Application Center (TAC) at the University of New Mexico is one of six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) regional dissemination centers originally established to disseminate NASA technology to private industry on a regional basis. A fee is charged for TAC's services so it has been market oriented and has sought to…

  20. Handheld and automated ultrasonic spray deposition of conductive PEDOT:PSS films and their application in AC EL devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ely, Fernando; Matsumoto, Agatha; Zoetebier, Bram; Peressinotto, Valdirene S.; Hirata, Marcelo Kioshi; de Sousa, Douglas A.; Maciel, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we explore the spray deposition technique to achieve smooth films based on the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS. Two different spray systems were used and compared namely: (a) handheld airbrush and (b) automated ultrasonic spray system. For each system a number of parameters were

  1. Clinical applications of sequencing take center stage

    OpenAIRE

    Glusman, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    A report on the Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting, Marco Island, Florida, USA, February 20-23, 2013. This year's Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting reflected the current state of 'next generation' sequencing (NGS) technologies: significantly reduced competition and innovation, and a strong focus on standardization and application. Announcements of technological breakthroughs - a hallmark of previous AGBT meetings - were markedly absent, but existin...

  2. Application of Plasma Sprayed Zirconia Coating in Dental Implant: Study in Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengfei; Wang, Zhifeng; Li, Chuanhua; Yin, Kaifeng; Hao, Dan; Lan, Jing

    2018-01-05

    The aim was to investigate the osseointegration of a novel coating-plasma-sprayed nanostructured zirconia (NSZ) in dental implant. Nanostructured zirconia coating on non-thread titanium implant was prepared by plasma spraying, the implant surface morphology, surface roughness and wettability were measured. In vivo, nanostructured zirconia-coated implants were inserted in rabbit tibia and animals were respectively sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after implantation. The bond strength between implant and bone was measured by removal torque (RTQ) test. The osseointegration was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro computed tomography (Micro CT) and histological analyses. Quantified parameters were calculated, including removal torque, Bone Volume to Tissue Volume (BV/TV), Trabecular Thickness (Tb. Th), Trabecular Number (Tb. N), Trabecular Separation/Spacing (Tb. Sp), and Bone-Implant contact (BIC) percentage. The statistical differences were detected by two-tail Mann-Whitney U test (SPSS 20.0). The surface roughness (1.58µm) and wettability (54.61°) of nanostructured zirconia coated implant was more suitable than those of titanium implant (0.598µm and 74.38°) for osseointegration and hierarchical surface morphology could be seen on zirconia coating. The histological analyses showed that zirconia coated implant induced earlier and more condensed bone formation than titanium implant at 2 and 4 weeks. Quantified parameters showed the significant differences between these two groups at early healing period, but the differences between these two groups decreased with the increase of healing period. All these results demonstrated that plasma sprayed zirconia coated implant induced better bone formation than titanium implant at early stage.

  3. Doped nanocrystalline ZnO powders for non-linear resistor applications by spray pyrolysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembram, Kaliyan; Vijay, R; Rao, Y S; Rao, T N

    2009-07-01

    Homogeneous and doped nanocrystalline ZnO powders (30-200 nm) were synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique. The spray pyrolysed powders were calcined in the temperature range of 500-750 degrees C. Formation of insulating pyrochlore phase started from 700 degrees C during the calcination itself. The calcined powders were compacted and sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900-1200 degrees C for 0.5-4 h. The densification behavior was found to be dependent on calcination temperature of the nanopowder. The resulting discs were found to have density (5.34-5.62 g/cc) in the range of 96-99% of theoretical density. The breakdown voltage value obtained for the nanopowder based non-linear resistor is 10.3 kV/cm with low leakage current density of 0.7 microA/cm2 and coefficient of nonlinearity as high as 193. The activation energy for grain growth of the doped ZnO nanopowder powders is 449.4 +/- 15 kJ/mol.

  4. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K.; Philominathan, P. [PG and Research Department of Physics, AVVM, Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Good quality CdS films were fabricated by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. CdS films have been deposited from aqueous solutions of sulphur and cadmium, keeping the molar concentrations of S:Cd = 0.01:0.01, 0.02:0.02, 0.04:0.04 and 0.06:0.06 in the starting solutions. The structural studies reveal that the S:Cd concentration has a strong influence on the microstructural characteristics of the sprayed CdS films. It was found that there is a transition in the preferred orientation from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane when S:Cd molar concentration increases. The SEM images depict that the films are uniform and homogeneous. All the films have high optical transmittance (>80%) in the visible range. The optical band gap values are found to be in the range of 2.46-2.52 eV. CdS films fabricated by this simple and economic spray technique without using any carrier gas are found to be good in structural and optical properties which are desirable for photovoltaic applications. Hence, this simplified version of spray technique can be considered as an economic alternative to conventional spray pyrolysis (using carrier gas), for the mass production of low-cost, large area CdS coatings for solar cell applications. (author)

  6. Development and validation of an n-dodecane skeletal mechanism for spray combustion applications

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaoyu

    2014-03-04

    n-Dodecane is a promising surrogate fuel for diesel engine study because its physicochemical properties are similar to those of the practical diesel fuels. In the present study, a skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane with 105 species and 420 reactions was developed for spray combustion simulations. The reduction starts from the most recent detailed mechanism for n-alkanes consisting of 2755 species and 11,173 reactions developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An algorithm combining direct relation graph with expert knowledge (DRGX) and sensitivity analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The skeletal mechanism was first extensively validated in 0-D and 1-D combustion systems, including auto-ignition, jet stirred reactor (JSR), laminar premixed flame and counter flow diffusion flame. Then it was coupled with well-established spray models and further validated in 3-D turbulent spray combustion simulations under engine-like conditions. These simulations were compared with the recent experiments with n-dodecane as a surrogate for diesel fuels. It can be seen that combustion characteristics such as ignition delay and flame lift-off length were well captured by the skeletal mechanism, particularly under conditions with high ambient temperatures. Simulations also captured the transient flame development phenomenon fairly well. The results further show that ignition delay may not be the only factor controlling the stabilisation of the present flames since a good match in ignition delay does not necessarily result in improved flame lift-off length prediction. The work of Zhaoyu Luo, Sibendu Som, Max Plomer, William J. Pitz, Douglas E. Longman and Tianfeng Lu was authored as part of their official duties as Employees of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 USC. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under US Law. S. Mani Sarathy hereby waives his right to

  7. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  8. Application of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Ferrite Layers for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Taborelli, M; Schulz, C; Bobzin, K; Wu, J

    2013-01-01

    A common problem in all kinds of cavity-like structures in particle accelerators is the occurrence of RF-resonances. Typically, ferrite plates attached to the walls of such structures as diagnostic devices, kickers or collimators, are used to dampen those undesired modes. However, the heat transfer rate from these plates to the walls is rather limited. Brazing ferrite plates to the walls is not possible in most cases due to the different thermal expansion coefficients. To overcome those limitations, atmospheric plasma spraying techniques have been investigated. Ferrite layers with a thickness from 50 μm to about 300 μm can be deposited on metallic surfaces like stainless steel exhibiting good thermal contact and still reasonable absorption properties. In this paper the technological aspects of plasma deposition are discussed and results of specifically developed RF loss measurement procedures for such thin magnetically lossy layers on metal are presented.

  9. Carbohydrates in plant immunity and plant protection: roles and potential application as foliar sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Poinssot, Benoît; Gauthier, Adrien; Paris, Franck; Guillier, Christelle; Combier, Maud; Trdá, Lucie; Daire, Xavier; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of "PAMP, MAMP, and DAMP (Pathogen-, Microbe-, Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns) type" oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure/activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora.

  10. Synthesis of nanosized vanadium pentoxide/carbon composites by spray pyrolysis for electrochemical capacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bei; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Wexler, David; Liu Hao; Wang Guoxiu

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured vanadium pentoxide/carbon (V 2 O 5 /carbon) composite powders with enhanced specific capacitance were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis technique. Electrochemical properties were examined by the cyclic voltammetry technique. Following analysis of powders sprayed at different temperatures, composite powders obtained at an optimum temperature of 450 deg. C yielded a maximum specific capacitance of 295 F g -1 in 2 M KCl electrolyte at a 5-mV s -1 scan rate. The weight percentage of carbon-related species was 2.7 wt% in this V 2 O 5 /carbon composite, as detected by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and confirmed by transmission electron microscope energy dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS) analysis. Following initial X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), TEM and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) imaging revealed a specific morphology of spherical shell agglomerates of V 2 O 5 nanorods and nanoribbons, with each shell comprising a network of these one- and two-dimensional nanoparticles in an amorphous carbon matrix. The V 2 O 5 network was not fully dense, and the majority of the nanorod sizes were in the range of 50-150 nm, with additional long nanoribbons extending from the outsides of the spherical shells. The specific surface area was 18 m 2 g -1 for the composite powders, and the pore size distribution revealed that the majority of pores had diameters in the range of 40-50 A, which was relatively larger than the pore diameters obtained at 500 deg. C and would be beneficial for electrochemical performance. The enhancement of the specific capacitance in V 2 O 5 /carbon composites was attributed to the distribution of amorphous carbon throughout the V 2 O 5 and the particular open nanostructure

  11. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  12. Replacement of corrosion protection chromate primers and paints used in cryogenic applications on the Space Shuttle with wire arc sprayed aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. L.; Sanders, H. L.; Zimmerman, F. R.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new environmental laws restricting volatile organic compounds and hexavalent chrome emissions, 'environmentally safe' thermal spray coatings are being developed to replace the traditional corrosion protection chromate primers. A wire arc sprayed aluminum coating is being developed for corrosion protection of low pressure liquid hydrogen carrying ducts on the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Currently, this hardware utilizes a chromate primer to provide protection against corrosion pitting and stress corrosion cracking induced by the cryogenic operating environment. The wire are sprayed aluminum coating has been found to have good potential to provide corrosion protection for flight hardware in cryogenic applications. The coating development, adhesion test, corrosion test and cryogenic flexibility test results will be presented.

  13. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4π-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4π-α spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4π -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  14. Impedance spectroscopy and sensors under ethanol vapors application of sprayed vanadium-doped ZnO compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhamdi, A., E-mail: mhaammar@gmail.com [Unité de physique des dispositifs à semi-conducteurs, Tunis EL MANAR University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Labidi, A. [Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Souissi, B. [Unité de physique des dispositifs à semi-conducteurs, Tunis EL MANAR University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kahlaoui, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021 (Tunisia); Yumak, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, 34722 Göztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Boubaker, K.; Amlouk, A.; Amlouk, M. [Unité de physique des dispositifs à semi-conducteurs, Tunis EL MANAR University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Proposing an original explanation to the behavior of vanadium-doped zinc oxide structures. • Presenting an original combination of several referred and established characterization means. • Outlining average particle size changes effects along the surface of the compounds. - Abstract: Thin films of vanadium-doped zinc oxide with different vanadium-doping levels (0, 1, 2 and 3 at%) were deposited on glass substrates by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using at relatively low substrate temperature (460 °C). The effect of V doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated by Mhamdi et al. (2013). The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the films were well crystallized in würtzite phase with the crystallites preferentially oriented toward (0 0 2) direction parallel c-axis. As also that the average particle size along the surface of the films decreases with increasing of concentration of vanadium. In this work we study the AC and DC conductivity and gas sensor application on ZnO:V thin films. The dielectric properties of ZnO:V thin films were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy and frequency dependence of conductivity measured from the impedance data at a range of frequency intervals between 10 Hz and 13 MHz with a temperature between 355 and 445 °C. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant ε′, dielectric loss ε″, loss tangent (tan δ) and AC electrical conductivity (σ{sub AC}) of the layers was subsequently investigated. In literature, we have shown in previous papers that structural and surface morphology of ZnO thin films, prepared by spray, plays an important role in the gas detection mechanism. In this article, we have studied the response evolution of ZnO:V sensors ethanol versus time and working temperature, relative doping and the concentration of the ethanol vapor.

  15. Atmospheric Pressure Spray Chemical Vapor Deposited CuInS2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. D.; Raffaelle, R. P.; Banger, K. K.; Smith, M. A.; Scheiman, D. A.; Hepp, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    Solar cells have been prepared using atmospheric pressure spray chemical vapor deposited CuInS2 absorbers. The CuInS2 films were deposited at 390 C using the single source precursor (PPh3)2CuIn(SEt)4 in an argon atmosphere. The absorber ranges in thickness from 0.75 - 1.0 micrometers, and exhibits a crystallographic gradient, with the leading edge having a (220) preferred orientation and the trailing edge having a (112) orientation. Schottky diodes prepared by thermal evaporation of aluminum contacts on to the CuInS2 yielded diodes for films that were annealed at 600 C. Solar cells were prepared using annealed films and had the (top down) composition of Al/ZnO/CdS/CuInS2/Mo/Glass. The Jsc, Voc, FF and (eta) were 6.46 mA per square centimeter, 307 mV, 24% and 0.35%, respectively for the best small area cells under simulated AM0 illumination.

  16. Fluorine doped-tin oxide prepared using spray method for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyandari, Hendri; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Suyitno, Hidayanto, Eko

    2013-09-01

    Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by spray deposition method. FTO films were prepared in different sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 Ω/sq. X-ray diffractograms showed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO2. The prepared FTO film have an average transmittance of 80% in the visible region (λ=400-800 nm). These FTO films were then used to fabricate Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The working electrode was made from TiO2 paste using doctor blade technique. DSSC samples were characterized using solar simulator under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2). It is found that the efficiency of DSSC was much affected by sheet resistance of FTO film. The efficiency of DCCS was 2.32, 2.4, 1.1 and 0.97 (%) for the FTO sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 Ω/sq, respectively. It is shown that the optimum DSSC efficiency was made from FTO with sheet resistance 12.1 Ω/sq.

  17. Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: basic objectives of the NASA-wide AI program; inhouse research program; constraint-based scheduling; learning and performance improvement for scheduling; GEMPLAN multi-agent planner; planning, scheduling, and control; Bayesian learning; efficient learning algorithms; ICARUS (an integrated architecture for learning); design knowledge acquisition and retention; computer-integrated documentation; and some speculation on future applications.

  18. Chaparral Commerce Center Proposed Tribal Minor NSR Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal Minor New Source Review (NSR) Permit application for the two emergency diesel-fired generators (1,500 kW each) to be installed at the Chaparral Commerce Center in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC) in Scottsdale, Arizona.

  19. [Development and application of hospital customer service center platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minya; Zheng, Konglin; Xia, Yong

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the construction and application of the platform of client service center in the general hospital and discusses how to provide patients with an entire service including service before clinic, on clinic and after clinic. It can also provide references for a new service mode for clinic service.

  20. Aerosolization characteristics of dry powder inhaler formulations for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application: effect of spray drying process conditions on aerosol performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Worth Longest, P; Hindle, Michael

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20%, v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1 μm/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thickness Effect on Properties of Sprayed In2S3 Films for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguila, N.; Kraini, M.; Halidou, I.; Lacaze, E.; Bouchriha, H.; Bouzouita, H.

    2016-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) films have been deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a spray technique (CSP). Indium chloride and thiourea were used as precursors at a molar ratio of S:In = 2. The substrate temperature was fixed at 340°C. The effect of film thickness on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the as-deposited films has been studied. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical absorption spectroscopy. As-prepared samples were polycrystalline with a cubic structure and (400) as preferential orientation. Their grain size increased from 35 nm to 41 nm with increasing thickness whereas the dislocation density and microstrain of the films decreased with the increase of thickness. Both SEM and AFM images showed that the films were homogenous with an increase of the surface roughness with the increase of thickness. The optical transmittance of the films decreased from 80% to 20% in the visible and infrared regions when the thickness was increased from 0.78 μm to 6.09 μm. The optical band gap E g was found to be in the range of 2.75-2.19 eV and showed a decrease with film thickness. Based on the measured optical constants (n and k), a Wemple-Didomenico model was used to determine the values of single oscillator energy ( E 0), dispersion energy ( E d), optical band gap ( E g) and high frequency dielectric constant ( \\varepsilon_{∞} ). In addition, these films exhibited n-type conductivity and were highly resistive. These results confirm that In2S3 thin films are a promising alternative as a buffer-layer material for CuInGa(S,Se)2-based solar cells.

  2. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  3. Center of Excellence for Laser Applications in Medicine, Microlaser Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R. H.

    2003-01-17

    The Center of Excellence for Laser Applications in Medicine at the Schepens Eye Research Institute (SERI) is a Center for: A core group of researchers who support each other and their various projects for real-time medical imaging and diagnostics in contiguous space at SERI. Clinical collaborators who participate in the core research at SERI, MEEI, and local ophthalmology practices, and at associated sites around the world. Industrial partners who transfer our technology to commercial products that will reach clinical usage everywhere. Students, post-doctoral associates and medical fellows who work with us and learn how to practice real-time medical imaging and diagnostics.

  4. Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluation of Indoor Residual Spraying for Visceral Leishmaniasis Control in the Indian Subcontinent: Application and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mamun Huda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We field tested and validated a newly developed monitoring and evaluation (M&E toolkit for indoor residual spraying to be used by the supervisors at different levels of the national kala-azar elimination programs in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Methods. Methods included document analysis, in-depth interviews, direct observation of spraying squads, and entomological-chemical assessments (bioassay, susceptibility test, chemical analysis of insecticide residues on sprayed surfaces, vector density measurements at baseline, and three follow-up surveys. Results. We found that the documentation at district offices was fairly complete; important shortcomings included insufficient training of spraying squads and supervisors, deficient spray equipment, poor spraying performance, lack of protective clothing, limited coverage of houses resulting in low bioavailability of the insecticide on sprayed surfaces, and reduced vector susceptibility to DDT in India, which limited the impact on vector densities. Conclusion. The M&E toolkit is a useful instrument for detecting constraints in IRS operations and to trigger timely response.

  5. Development of biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, O; de Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; de Ryckel, B; Pussemier, L; Debongnie, Ph; Culot, M

    2005-01-01

    Several studies carried out in Europe showed the importance of direct losses to the contamination of surface water by pesticides. These pesticides losses can occur at the farm site when the sprayer equipment is filled with the pesticide formulation (spills, overflowing, leaking) and during the clean-up (rinsing) of the sprayer after the treatment. In Belgium studies are carried out on biofilters to treat in an efficient way effluents containing pesticides. The biofilter substrate is elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and peat or composted material, able to absorb or degrade the active substances. Biofilters consist in systems of 2 or 3 units depending on the spray equipment of the farmer and on the configuration of the farmyard. Each unit is made from a 1 m3 plastic container and the different units are stacked in a vertical pile and connected between them using plastic valves and pipes. Eight pilot systems were installed in March 2002 in seven farms and in one agricultural school, all selected in the loamy region of Belgium specialised in arable crops such as cereals, sugar beets and vegetables. The efficacy (yield) of the systems was determined by measuring the balance of the inputs and outputs of the pesticides. Results were expressed in percent of pesticide retained on the biofilters. The results obtained after two years with 5 tracer pesticides (atrazine, carbofuran, diuron, lenacil and simazine) brought on the biofilter installations are very satisfactory since the percentage of retention is generally higher than 95% of the amount applied. In the beginning of 2004, ten new pilot biofilters were installed in several farms or agricultural technical centres (producing cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, fruits or ornamental plants), and in a municipal maintenance service. Some biofilters were installed in duplicate in order to compare the efficacy of different substrates. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for the

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center's Virtual Reality Applications Program 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1993-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. Other NASA Centers, most notably Ames Research Center (ARC), have contributed to the development of the VR enabling technologies and VR systems. This VR technology development has now reached a level of maturity where specific applications of VR as a tool can be considered. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, validate, and utilize VR as a Human Factors design and operations analysis tool and to assess and evaluate VR as a tool in other applications (e.g., training, operations development, mission support, teleoperations planning, etc.). The long-term goals of this technology program is to enable specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process and develop more effective training and mission support systems. The capability to perform specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process is required to better refine and validate requirements during the requirements definition phase. This leads to a more efficient design process where perturbations caused by late-occurring requirements changes are minimized. A validated set of VR analytical tools must be developed to enable a more efficient process for the design and development of space systems and operations. Similarly, training and mission support systems must exploit state-of-the-art computer-based technologies to maximize training effectiveness and enhance mission support. The approach of the VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical

  7. The nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-07-01

    Spray drying is an extremely well-established technology for the production of micro-particulate powders suited for a variety of drug delivery applications. In recent years, the rise in nanomedicine has placed increased pressure on the existing systems to produce nanoparticles in good yield and with a narrow size distribution. However, the separation and collection of nanoparticles with conventional spray dryer set ups is extremely challenging due to their typical low collection efficiency for fine particles spray drying technology is provided in this review with particular emphasis on the novel Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Readers will appreciate the limitations of conventional spray drying technology, understand the mechanisms of the Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90, and also learn about the strengths and shortcomings of the system. The Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple and alternative approach for the production of nanoparticles suited for a variety of drug delivery applications.

  8. Effect of annealing on the properties of spray-pyrolysed lead sulphide thin films for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, E.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2017-05-01

    Annealing is the most important processing parameter perhaps as it directly affects the properties of the thin films. In the present article, lead sulphide thin films composed of (2 0 0) plane-oriented nano-rods were successfully synthesized on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique at annealing temperature 350 °C. Films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX), UV-VIS-NIR spectrometry and two-probe experiments. The X-ray diffraction study confirmed that films exhibiting face-centred cubic structure with a preferred orientation along (2 0 0) plane were independent of annealing temperature. SEM photographs revealed the formation of nano-rods. The possible formation of nano-rods and its dependency on optical and electrical properties were discussed. Chemical composition in terms of atomic ratio of the constituents is determined from EDAX studies. The optical band gap of the lead sulphide thin films was found to decrease from 1.22 to 0.98 eV with an increase in annealing temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films at room temperature was of the order of 10-2 Ω-1 cm-1 with the low activation energy. Results prove that lead sulphide films grown by chemical method appeal its adoptability for potential solar cell applications.

  9. Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Industrial Research and its connection with thermal spraying; Hyogokenritsu Kogyo Gijutsu Center to yosha gijutsu tono kakawari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatani, Y. [Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Industrial Research, Kobe (Japan)

    1999-06-30

    This paper introduces one example of research relating to the corrosion of sprayed coating at the Institute. The research has been conducted, in the environment of a frozen water solution, on the corrosion characteristic of aluminum-zinc thermally sprayed coating which is applied to the anti-corrosion of an aluminum and steel base material. The purpose is the protection against corrosion of the base material by dissolving this coating. Regardless of the sprayed coating, the characteristic of the surface-covered coating is very similar to that of electroplating. As a result of the examination of the corrosion characteristic of WC/Co based sprayed coating, corrosion resistance was found to be improved by adding Cr to the binder of Co. In the acid environment, WC/Co seems to be effective for corrosion resistance. Using the method of cladding by plasma powder spraying, a surfing layer of an Ni-Cr alloy was made on the surface of a carbon steel, with carbide particles dispersed, thereby examining corrosion resistance, wear resistance and high temperature oxidation characteristic. The cladding by welding of the Ni-Cr alloy was performed before carbide was dispersed, suppressing the dilution of Fe from the base material, which revealed great improvement in corrosion resistance and high temperature oxidation. (NEDO)

  10. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  11. Coating Properties of WC-Ni Cold Spray Coating for the Application in Secondary Piping System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JeongWon; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of FAC(flow accelerated corrosion), severe accidents, failure of carbon steel like a Mihama Unit-3 occurred. Chemical composition change of carbon steel or coating to inner surface is one of methods to improve corrosion properties. Among them, thermal spray coating is convenient solution to apply at industry. Powder is melted at blast furnace and ejected to substrate. After adhesion, substrate and coating layer is cooled down and coated layer protects steel from corrosion finally. However high thermal energy is transferred to substrate and coating layer so it leads high thermal residual stress in coating procedure. Besides, high temperature for melting powder makes unexpected chemical reaction of powder like an oxidation or carburization. Whereas, cold spray uses low temperature comparing with other thermal spray. Thermal energy is used for not melting powder but high kinetic energy of powder and plastic deformation during collision. Therefore, fuel such as oxygen-acetylene gas is not needed. It needs carrier gas, compressed air, nitrogen or helium, to increase kinetic energy of powder and move powder to substrate. Comparing cold spray with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF), one of thermal spray, cold spray coating layer contains only WC and Co. One of other problem about WC is brittleness during coating. To improve deformability of WC, binder metal is added. For example, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Al, Fe or etc. Additionally, binder metal lowering melting temperature of composite powder increases coating properties. Among them, Co which is widely used as binder metal maintains mechanical properties like a hardness and improves corrosion properties. Therefore Co is not suitable for binder metal of WC coating. In contrast, Ni has better corrosion resistance to alkaline environment and makes lower melting temperature. Moreover, in a view of cold spray, FCC structure has better deformability than BCC or HCP, and BCC has lowest deformability. WC is BCC structure so it

  12. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  13. Final Report. Center for Scalable Application Development Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-10-26

    The Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) was established as a part- nership between Rice University, Argonne National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, University of Tennessee – Knoxville, and University of Wisconsin – Madison. CScADS pursued an integrated set of activities with the aim of increasing the productivity of DOE computational scientists by catalyzing the development of systems software, libraries, compilers, and tools for leadership computing platforms. Principal Center activities were workshops to engage the research community in the challenges of leadership computing, research and development of open-source software, and work with computational scientists to help them develop codes for leadership computing platforms. This final report summarizes CScADS activities at Rice University in these areas.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  15. Study of air entrainment in high pressure spray: optics diagnostics and application to the Diesel injection; Etude de l'entrainement d'air dans un spray haute pression: diagnostics optiques et application a l'injection diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeau, A.

    2004-12-15

    The actual development of the engine must reply to a will of fuel consumption reduction and to norms more and more strict concerning the pollutant emissions. Although the Diesel engines are efficient, the NO{sub x} and particle emissions mainly come from the existence of wealthy fuel zone preventing an optimal combustion. Therefore, the air / fuel mixing preparation, highly controlled by the air entrainment in spray, is essential. In this context, we have developed metrological tools in order to analyse the air entrainment mechanism in a dense spray. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is first applied to a conical spray with an injection pressure less than 100 bars to study the air entrainment in spray. A transfer of the methodologies allows then the characterisation and the understanding of the air entrainment mechanism in high pressure full spray (injection pressure less than 1600 bars) type Diesel one. The influence of injection parameters (injection pressure and back pressure) on the mixing rate is studied. The increase of the injection pressure from 800 to 1600 bars implies an increase of the mixing rate of 60 %. Moreover, the thermodynamic conditions of the ambient air, simulated by the chamber back pressure, widely favours the mixing rate. Actually, this latter increases of 350 % when the chamber back pressure varies from 1 to 7 bars. The experimental results do not follow classical laws of air entrainment in one-phase flow jet with variable density, but are in good agreement with an integral model for air entrainment in an axisymmetric full spray. Finally, the Fluorescence Particle Image Velocimetry (FPIV) is introduced in order to extend the PIV application field in dense two-phase flows. (author)

  16. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  17. Application of reliability centered maintenance to Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Antonio; Perdomo, Manuel; Fornero, Damian; Corchera, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    One of the most recent applications of Probabilistic Safety Analysis to Embalse NPP is the Safety Oriented Maintenance Program developed through the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology. Such an application was carried out by a cooperated effort between the staff of nuclear safety department of NPP and experts from Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas of Cuba. So far 6 technological systems have been analyzed with important results regarding the optimization of preventive and predictive maintenance program of those systems. Any tasks of RCM were automated via MOSEG code. The results of this study were focused on the elaboration and modification of the Preventive Program, prioritization of stocks, reorientation of predictive techniques and modification in the time parameters of maintenance. (author)

  18. Transient heat transfer behavior of water spray evaporative cooling on a stainless steel cylinder with structured surface for safety design application in high temperature scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Hong, Wang; Xun, Zhu; Song, Sihong; Sajid, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    High heat transfer performance of spray cooling on structured surface might be an additional measure to increase the safety of an installation against any threat caused by rapid increase in the temperature. The purpose of present experimental study is to explore heat transfer performance of structured surface under different spray conditions and surface temperatures. Two cylindrical stainless steel samples were used, one with pyramid pins structured surface and other with smooth surface. Surface heat flux of 3.60, 3.46, 3.93 and 4.91 MW/m2 are estimated for sample initial average temperature of 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C, respectively for an inlet pressure of 1.0 MPa. A maximum cooling rate of 507 °C/s was estimated for an inlet pressure of 0.7 MPa at 900 °C for structured surface while for smooth surface maximum cooling rate of 356 °C/s was attained at 1.0 MPa for 700 °C. Structured surface performed better to exchange heat during spray cooling at initial sample temperature of 900 °C with a relative increase in surface heat flux by factor of 1.9, 1.56, 1.66 and 1.74 relative to smooth surface, for inlet pressure of 0.4, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. For smooth surface, a decreasing trend in estimated heat flux is observed, when initial sample temperature was increased from 600 to 900 °C. Temperature-based function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Limited published work is available about the application of structured surface spray cooling techniques for safety of stainless steel structures at very high temperature scenario such as nuclear safety vessel and liquid natural gas storage tanks.

  19. The Effects of Fuel and Cylinder Gas Densities on the Characteristics of Fuel Sprays for Oil Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, Edward G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of a general research on fuel-injection engines for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of fuel and cylinder gas densities with several characteristics of fuel sprays for oil engines. The start, growth, and cut-off of single fuel sprays produced by automatic injection valves were recorded on photographic film by means of special high-speed motion-picture apparatus. This equipment, which has been described in previous reports, is capable of taking twenty-five consecutive pictures of the moving spray at the rate of 4,000 per second. The penetrations of the fuel sprays increased and the cone angles and relative distributions decreased with increase in the specific gravity of the fuel. The density of the gas into which the fuel sprays were injected controlled their penetration. This was the only characteristic of the chamber gas that had a measurable effect upon the fuel sprays. Application of fuel-spray penetration data to the case of an engine, in which the pressure is rising during injection, indicated that fuel sprays may penetrate considerably farther than when injected into a gas at a density equal to that of the gas in an engine cylinder at top center.

  20. Development and application of the global rainbow refractometry for the study of heat and mass transfers in a spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.

    2004-12-01

    During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressure Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen produced by the degradation and oxidation of the reactor core and high pressure water vapor can be released into the reactor containment. The repartition of the hydrogen in the reactor containment is then dependent of the forced (mixed or natural) convection flows which will be established. This type of accidental scenario will lead then to the pressurization of the reactor containment and to a potential risk of hydrogen combustion, able to prejudice to the integrity of the reactor. One of the means of PWR safety, called spraying, consists to release cold water sprays in the reactor containment, with the aim to make its internal pressure and its temperature decrease, on account of the condensation of water vapor on the injected water droplets. Moreover, the spraying leads to a mixing of the gaseous mixture containing air, water vapor and hydrogen, and contributes to make the hydrogen local concentration decreased. The TOSQAN experiment, developed at the IRSN, allows to reproduce the thermal-hydraulic conditions which represent accidental sequences able to happen in a PWR. In the frame of the current program consecrated to the spraying study, an innovating optical technique has been implemented on the TOSQAN experiment to finely characterize the mass and heat transfers between a spray and the surrounding atmosphere. This work gives into details the development of the global rainbow technique which allows to measure, in a non intrusive way, the temperature of the droplets during their fall. This technique has been coupled with others optical diagnoses such as the spontaneous Raman diffusion spectrometry, the PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and the implementation imagery, to respectively measure the water vapor parts as well as the velocities and the droplets sizes. The obtained experimental results have led to a global and local analysis of the interaction between the

  1. Center for Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel E

    2008-02-21

    This report describes the activities conducted under a Congressional Direction project whose goal was to develop applications for Single-walled carbon nanotubes, under the Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), a multi-investigator program that capitalizes on OU’s advantageous position of having available high quality carbon nanotubes. During the first phase of CANTEC, 11 faculty members and their students from the College of Engineering developed applications for carbon nanotubes by applying their expertise in a number of areas: Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Nanotube synthesis, Surfactants, Colloid Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Tissue Engineering, Biosensors, Biochemical Engineering, Cell Biology, Thermal Transport, Composite Materials, Protein synthesis and purification, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulations. In particular, during this phase, the different research groups involved in CANTEC made advances in the tailoring of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) of controlled diameter and chirality by Modifying Reaction Conditions and the Nature of the catalyst; developed kinetic models that quantitatively describe the SWNT growth, created vertically oriented forests of SWNT by varying the density of metal nanoparticles catalyst particles, and developed novel nanostructured SWNT towers that exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. They also developed molecular simulations of the growth of Metal Nanoparticles on the surface of SWNT, which may have applications in the field of fuell cells. In the area of biomedical applications, CANTEC researchers fabricated SWNT Biosensors by a novel electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method, which may have an impact in the control of diabetes. They also functionalized SWNT with proteins that retained the protein’s biological activity and also retained the near-infrared light absorbance, which finds applications in the treatment of cancer.

  2. The Detector Physics and Applications Center - DePAC

    CERN Document Server

    Plothow-Besch, H; Fiorini, C; Grupen, C; Hassard, J; Longoni, A; Walenta, Albert H

    2001-01-01

    A new project, the 'Detector Physics and Applications Center (DePAC)', is presented. DePAC is a general detector and sensor database, which is not application specific, on the Internet. DePAC collects and explains the physics, the technology and the application of a wide range of radiation detectors. DePAC also collects and describes information about noise problems, front-end electronics, data transfer, processing and storage. DePAC provides short write-ups and source code of all sorts of detector related software depending on availability. DePAC collects useful constants and properties of materials in an exhaustive series of tables and graphs. DePAC also acts as a point of contact for researchers and industry in an interdisciplinary way, e.g. in biology, in medicine, in materials research and in high energy or nuclear physics. Last but not least, DePAC aims to develop also into a virtual lecturing school and serves as a tutorial for students and all interested scientists.

  3. The Detector Physics and Applications Center - DePAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plothow-Besch, H.; Besch, H.-J.; Fiorini, C.; Grupen, C.; Hassard, J.; Longoni, A.; Walenta, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    A new project, the 'Detector Physics and Applications Center (DePAC)', is presented. DePAC is a general detector and sensor database, which is not application specific, on the Internet. DePAC collects and explains the physics, the technology and the application of a wide range of radiation detectors. DePAC also collects and describes information about noise problems, front-end electronics, data transfer, processing and storage. DePAC provides short write-ups and source code of all sorts of detector related software depending on availability. DePAC collects useful constants and properties of materials in an exhaustive series of tables and graphs. DePAC also acts as a point of contact for researchers and industry in an interdisciplinary way, e.g. in biology, in medicine, in materials research and in high energy or nuclear physics. Last but not least, DePAC aims to develop also into a virtual lecturing school and serves as a tutorial for students and all interested scientists

  4. Synthesis of free-standing carbon nanohybrid by directly growing carbon nanotubes on air-sprayed graphene oxide paper and its application in supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Yuan, Yang; Goh, Kunli; Yu, Dingshan [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Wang, Liang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Chen, Yuan, E-mail: chenyuan@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore)

    2015-04-15

    We report the synthesis of a free-standing two dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid by directly growing CNTs on air-sprayed GO paper. As a result of the good integration between CNTs and thermally reduced GO film during chemical vapor deposition, excellent electrical conductivity (2.6×10{sup 4} S/m), mechanical flexibility (electrical resistance only increases 1.1% after bent to 90° for 500 times) and a relatively large surface area (335.3 m{sup 2}/g) are achieved. Two-electrode supercapacitor assembled using the CNT–rGO hybrids in ionic liquid electrolyte (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) shows excellent stability upon 500 bending cycles with the gravimetric energy density measuring 23.7 Wh/kg and a power density of 2.0 kW/kg. Furthermore, it shows an impedance phase angle of −64.4° at a frequency of 120 Hz, suggesting good potentials for 120 Hz alternating current line filtering applications. - Graphical abstract: Flexible and highly conductive carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. - Highlights: • Direct growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition on air-sprayed graphene oxide paper. • Two-dimensional carbon nanohybrid with excellent conductivity and mechanical flexibility. • Supercapacitor with excellent performance stability upon mechanical deformation for flexible electronics applications. • Supercapacitor with high impedance phase angle for 120 Hz alternating current line filtering applications.

  5. Kelvin spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-11-21

    A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 μL min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions.

  6. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  7. U.S. DOE Southeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzarella, Isaac [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mago, Pedro [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kalland, Stephen [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Between 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Southeast Clean Energy Application Center (SE-CEAC), co-located at the North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University (NCSU) and at Mississippi State University. The SE-CEAC was one of eight regional CEACs established to promote and assist in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), district energy (DE) and waste heat to power (WHP) throughout the U.S. CHP locates power generation at the point of demand and makes productive use of the residual thermal energy for process and space heating in factories and businesses, thus lowering the cost of meeting electricity and heat requirements and increasing energy efficiency. The overall goal of the SE-CEAC was to support end-user implementation and overall market transformation for CHP and related clean energy technologies. Five objectives were targeted to achieve the goal: 1. Market Analysis and Information Dissemination 2. Outreach and Education for Potential CHP End-users 3. Policy Support for State and Regional Stakeholders 4. Technical Assistance to Support CHP Deployment 5. Collaboration with DOE and other CEACs Throughout the project, the CEACs provided key services of education and outreach, technical assistance and market analysis in support of project objectives. These services were very effective at achieving key objectives of assisting prospective CHP end-users and informing policy makers, utilities and others about the benefits of CHP. There is a marked increase in the awareness of CHP technologies and applications as an energy resource among end-users, policymakers, utility regulators, electric utilities and natural gas utilities in the Southeast region as a result. At the end of 2013, a number of best-practice policies for CHP were applied or under consideration in various Southeast states. The SE-CEAC met its targets for providing technical assistance with over 50 analyses delivered for 412 MW of potential end

  8. A numerical approach for the study of large sodium spray fires and its application for SPX1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, T.; Leroy, B.; Barthez, M.; Malet, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    For the original design of SUPER-PHENIX, only pool fires were analysed for secondary sodium because these were thought to be the most likely. However, after the sodium spray fire at the solar plant of ALMERIA, an analysis of the consequences of secondary spray fire was undertaken. According to the French Safety Authority, the most penalizing cases of sodium leak and fire must be taken into account for each type of consequences, up to the complete rupture of a main secondary pipe. The experimental data available were mainly based on sodium flowrates in the range of ten kilograms per second, which are far below the leak flowrates obtained in case of a complete rupture of a main secondary pipe, i.e. several tons of sodium per second during a short time interval; moreover, it was obviously not possible to perform sodium tests with such high flowrate conditions. Consequently a complete methodology for the prediction of the behaviour of large sodium spray fires has been developed: the two-dimensional code PULSAR, which solves the two phase flow Navier-Stokes equations with source terms of mass and energy, is first used to evaluate the physical behaviour of a spray of sodium droplets in a cell in diverse conditions and thus to determine the burning rate. This last value is then used as data in the FEUMIX code in which other phenomena such as the dynamic response of pressure relief systems are described, in order to determine the pressure transient in the cell. This approach has been successfully tested using the experimental data available from past and recent tests, particularly the high flowrates tests IGNA 3602 and IGNA 3604. This numerical approach has been applied to the analysis of the consequences of postulated large sodium leaks in SUPER-PHENIX and allowed us to justify the hypotheses used to design the protective measures implemented on the plant, and thus the demonstration of safety with regard to large sodium leaks. (author)

  9. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doisneau, François, E-mail: fdoisne@sandia.gov; Arienti, Marco, E-mail: marient@sandia.gov; Oefelein, Joseph C., E-mail: oefelei@sandia.gov

    2017-01-15

    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier–Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle–particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  10. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doisneau, François; Arienti, Marco; Oefelein, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle-particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  11. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis growth of ZnO and ZnO:Al nanostructured films: Application to photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenanakis, G., E-mail: gkenanak@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katsarakis, N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Al–ZnO thin films and nanostructures were obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. • The texture and morphology of the samples depend on the deposition parameters. • The photocatalytic degradation of stearic acid was studied upon UV-A irradiation. - Abstract: Pure and Al-doped ZnO (Al = 1, 3, 5%) nanostructured thin films were grown at 400 °C on glass substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, a simple, environmental-friendly and inexpensive method, using aqueous solutions as precursors. The structural and morphological characteristics of the samples depend drastically on deposition parameters; ZnO nanostructured films, nanopetals and nanorods were systematically obtained by simply varying the precursor solution and/or the spraying time. Transmittance measurements have shown that all samples are transparent in the visible wavelength region. Finally, the photocatalytic properties of the samples were investigated against the degradation of stearic acid under UV-A light illumination (365 nm); both pure and Al-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films show good photocatalytic activity regarding the degradation of stearic acid, due to their good crystallinity and large surface area.

  12. Fabrication of gas diffusion layer based on x-y robotic spraying technique for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitanggang, Ramli; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Iyuke, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The x-y robotic spraying technique developed in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia is capable of fabricating various sizes of thickness and porosity of gas diffusion layer (GDL) used in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). These parameters are obtained by varying the characteristic spray numbers of the robotic spraying machine. This investigation results were adequately represented with mathematical equations for hydrogen gas distribution in GDL. Volumetric modulus (M) parameter is used to determine the value of current density produced on the electrode of a single cell PEMFC. Thus the M parameter can be employed as indicator for a successful GDL fabrication. GDL type 4 has three variables of layer design that can be optimized to function as gas distributor, gas storage, flooding preventer on GDL surface, to evacuate water from the electrode and to control the electrical conductivity. The gas distribution in GDL was mathematically represented with average error of 15.5%. The M value of GDL type 4 according to the model was 0.22 cm 3 /s and yielded a current density of 750 A/m 2 .

  13. Spray-Deposited Large-Area Copper Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes and Their Uses for Touch Screen Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsun-Chen; Chang, Yen-Chen; Lin, Yow; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Wei-Chung; Li, Guo-An; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2016-05-25

    Large-area conducting transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were prepared by a fast, scalable, and low-cost spray deposition of copper nanowire (CuNW) dispersions. Thin, long, and pure copper nanowires were obtained via the seed-mediated growth in an organic solvent-based synthesis. The mean length and diameter of nanowires are, respectively, 37.7 μm and 46 nm, corresponding to a high-mean-aspect ratio of 790. These wires were spray-deposited onto a glass substrate to form a nanowire conducting network which function as a TCE. CuNW TCEs exhibit high-transparency and high-conductivity since their relatively long lengths are advantageous in lowering in the sheet resistance. For example, a 2 × 2 cm(2) transparent nanowire electrode exhibits transmittance of T = 90% with a sheet resistance as low as 52.7 Ω sq(-1). Large-area sizes (>50 cm(2)) of CuNW TCEs were also prepared by the spray coating method and assembled as resistive touch screens that can be integrated with a variety of devices, including LED lighting array, a computer, electric motors, and audio electronic devices, showing the capability to make diverse sizes and functionalities of CuNW TCEs by the reported method.

  14. New development in optical fibers for data center applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Shubochkin, Roman; Zhu, Benyuan

    2015-01-01

    VCSEL-multimode optical fiber based links is the most successful optical technology in Data Centers. Laser-optimized multimode optical fibers, OM3 and OM4, have been the primary choice of physical media for 10 G serial, 4 x 10 G parallel, 10 x 10 G parallel, and 4 x 25 G parallel optical solutions in IEEE 802.3 standards. As the transition of high-end servers from 10 Gb/s to 40 Gb/s is driving the aggregation of speeds to 40 Gb/s now, and to 100 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s in near future, industry experts are coming together in IEEE 802.3bs 400 Gb/s study group and preliminary discussion of Terabit transmission for datacom applications has also been commenced. To meet the requirement of speed, capacity, density, power consumption and cost for next generation datacom applications, optical fiber design concepts beyond the standard OM3 and OM4 MMFs have a revived research and developmental interest, for example, wide band multimode optical fiber using multiple dopants for coarse wavelength division multiplexing; multicore multimode optical fiber using plural multimode cores in a single fiber strand to improve spatial density; and perhaps 50 Gb/s per lane and few mode fiber in spatial division multiplexing for ultimate capacity increase in far future. This talk reviews the multitude of fiber optic media being developed in the industry to address the upcoming challenges of datacom growth. We conclude that multimode transmission using low cost VCSEL technology will continue to be a viable solution for datacom applications.

  15. 77 FR 40596 - Applications for New Awards: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Applications for New Awards: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects; Employment of Individuals With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of... Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program-- Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRPs...

  16. 77 FR 67398 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application; National Center For Natural Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application; National Center For Natural Products Research (NIDA MPROJECT) Pursuant to Sec. 1301..., National Center for Natural Products Research--NIDA MProject, University of Mississippi, 135 Coy Waller...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING THE LOGARITHMIC IMAGE PROCESSING FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of emission standards in Diesel Engines require a detailed understanding, combustion and after treatment. This paper focuses on the spray development as one key parameter in the mixture preparation. The presentation of a methodology to differentiate the internal symmetry of spray images taken under different environmental conditions is presented. In a first step, a preprocessing is performed, then an image re-centering is made using the logarithmic average, afterwards different symmetry axes based on grey levels or on the plume boundary are calculated and, finally, the logarithmic distance characterizing the spray plume internal symmetry is computed. This distance gives more importance to the high grey level pixels, so using our optical setup, it characterizes the liquid continuous core symmetry. The methodology relies on the logarithmic image processing framework, providing a set of specific algebraic and functional operations to analyze images. This paper is an application of the logarithmic image processing framework on Diesel spray characterization. This is a step further in the quantitative diesel spray characterization by means of image analysis. The presented method can be applied to Diesel sprays illuminated with polychromatic or monochromatic light, under atmospheric or pressurized conditions.

  18. U.S. DOE Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Patti [Etc Group, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center helped promote, assist, and transform the market for combined heat and power (CHP), including waste heat to power and district energy with CHP, in the intermountain states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. We accomplished these objectives through a combination of the following methods, which proved in concert to be a technically and economically effective strategy: o Identifying and facilitating high-impact CHP projects o Helping industrial, commercial, institutional, federal, and other large energy users in evaluating the economic and technical viability of potential CHP systems o Disseminating essential information about CHP including benefits, technologies, applications, project development, project financing, electric and gas utility incentives, and state policies o Coordinating and collaborating on CHP advancement with regional stakeholders including electric utilities, gas utilities, state energy offices, municipal development and planning personnel, trade associations, industry groups, non-profits, energy users, and others Outcomes of the project included increased understanding of and deployment of efficient and well-designed CHP systems in the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Increased CHP deployment helps the United States to enhance energy efficiency, strengthen the competitiveness of American industries, promote economic growth, foster a robust and resilient energy infrastructure, reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and increase the use of market-ready advanced technologies. Specific outcomes included direct assistance to energy-intensive industrial facilities and other businesses, workshops and CHP tours, communication materials, and state policy education, all contributing to implementation of CHP systems in the intermountain region.

  19. Properties of arc-sprayed coatings from Fe-based cored wires for high-temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, Yu. S.; Nevezhin, S. V.; Filiрpov, M. A.; Makarov, A. V.; Malygina, I. Yu.; Fantozzi, D.; Milanti, A.; Koivuluoto, H.; Vuoristo, P.

    2017-12-01

    Equipment of a thermal power plant is subjected to high temperature oxidation and wear. This raises operating costs through frequent repair of worn parts and high metal consumption. The paper proposes a possible solution to this problem through arc spraying of protective coatings. Cored wires of the Fe-Cr-C basic alloying system are used as a feedstock. Additional alloying by Al, B, Si, Ti and Y allows one to create wear- and heat-resistant coatings, which are an attractive substitute of more expensive Co- and Ni-based materials.

  20. Preparation of nanostructured ZrO2 thin films by using spray pyrolysis technique for gas sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.B.; Bari, R.H.; Jain, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    In present work the nano-structured pure ZrO 2 thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis techniques. The aqueous solution of ZrCl 4 , was used as a precursor with flow rate controlled 5 mI/min. The films were synthesized on glass substrate between temperature 250-400℃ and subjected to different analytical characterization like SEM, XRD, TEM, FTIR, UV, TGA-DTA/DSC. The gas sensing performances of various gases were tested in different operating temperature range. The sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time for H 2 S gas was discussed. Also nano structured grain size discussed. (author)

  1. Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic polyurethane/nano-Al2O3 coatings by suspension flame spraying for anti-corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; Yuan, Jianhui; Huang, Jing; Ren, Kun; Liu, Yi; Lu, Shaoyang; Li, Hua

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to further enhance the anti-corrosion performances of Al coatings by constructing superhydrophobic surfaces. The Al coatings were initially arc-sprayed onto steel substrates, followed by deposition of polyurethane (PU)/nano-Al2O3 composites by a suspension flame spraying process. Large-scale corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic PU/nano-Al2O3-Al coatings were successfully fabricated. The coatings showed tunable superhydrophilicity/superhydrophobicity as achieved by changing the concentration of PU in the starting suspension. The layer containing 2.0 wt.%PU displayed excellent hydrophobicity with the contact angle of ∼151° and the sliding angle of ∼6.5° for water droplets. The constructed superhydrophobic coatings showed markedly improved anti-corrosion performances as assessed by electrochemical corrosion testing carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The PU/nano-Al2O3-Al coatings with superhydrophobicity and competitive anti-corrosion performances could be potentially used as protective layers for marine infrastructures. This study presents a promising approach for fabricatiing superhydrophobic coatings for corrosion-resistant applications.

  2. Structural characterization of an electrically insulating diffusion barrier on a plasma-sprayed ceramic for severe environment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, Alexandre; Brun, Patrice; Lacombe, Jacques; Tricot, Gregory; Denoirjean, Alain

    2013-01-01

    We investigate in this paper the physical properties and the structure of a protective barrier based on a thermal-sprayed alumina coating. This coating is known to form an electrically insulating barrier that efficiently protects stainless steel structures of melting furnaces subjected to high differences of voltage. Sealing the open and/or interconnected porosity of the alumina coating with aluminum phosphate is also known to improve the protection by mitigating leakage in the ceramic. The sealing procedure has been achieved by (i) impregnating the plasma-sprayed alumina coating with a mono aluminum phosphate (MAlP) solution and (ii) applying a thermal treatment to the system. A waterproof diffusion barrier presenting a good electric insulation is finally obtained and the protective performances were tested on specimens to assess their behavior under aggressive conditions. The formation procedure is characterized by parameters related to the solution and is dependent on the heating rate, the process temperature, and the isothermal duration of the thermal treatment. We show in this paper how these different parameters impact (i) the coating physical properties (thermal and electrical tests) and (ii) the coating structure that has been probed with 31 P solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (authors)

  3. Post-harvest longevity of ×Heucherella L. leaves after the application of benzyladenine sprayed on maternal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses were conducted on leaves of two ×Heucherella L. cultivars: ‘Solar Power’ and ‘Kimono’. Leaves were harvested at two dates: spring (2014-05-22 and summer (2014-07-26. Prior to each leaf harvest day, the maternal plants were sprayed with benzyladenine (BA at a concentration of 100, 300 and 600 mg dm−3. After being cut, the leaves were placed in containers with distilled water. In the cultivar ‘Solar Power’, BA at a concentration of 100–600 mg dm−3 had an advantageous effect on post-harvest longevity of leaves harvested in summer, improving it by 31.7–98.3%, while in the cultivar ‘Kimono’ BA at the above-mentioned concentrations improved post-harvest longevity of leaves harvested both in spring and summer by almost 2 months. BA at a concentration of 100–600 mg dm−3 inhibited proteolysis in leaves of the tested ×Heucherella cultivars, except for leaves of the cultivars ‘Solar Power’ and ‘Kimono’ harvested in summer from plants sprayed with BA at a concentration of 100 mg dm−3. In these leaves, the protein level was comparable to that in the control leaves. In leaves treated with BA at a concentration of 100–600 mg dm−3, the content of saccharides was higher than in the control plants harvested in the spring and summer.

  4. Sb2S3 grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and its application in a hybrid solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erki Kärber

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP is a fast wet-chemical deposition method in which an aerosol is guided by carrier gas onto a hot substrate where the decomposition of the precursor chemicals occurs. The aerosol is produced using an ultrasonic oscillator in a bath of precursor solution and guided by compressed air. The use of the ultrasonic CSP resulted in the growth of homogeneous and well-adhered layers that consist of submicron crystals of single-phase Sb2S3 with a bandgap of 1.6 eV if an abundance of sulfur source is present in the precursor solution (SbCl3/SC(NH22 = 1:6 sprayed onto the substrate at 250 °C in air. Solar cells with glass-ITO-TiO2-Sb2S3-P3HT-Au structure and an active area of 1 cm2 had an open circuit voltage of 630 mV, short circuit current density of 5 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 42% and a conversion efficiency of 1.3%. Conversion efficiencies up to 1.9% were obtained from solar cells with smaller areas.

  5. Application of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF Spraying to the Fabrication of Yb-Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bakan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From the literature, it is known that due to their glass formation tendency, it is not possible to deposit fully-crystalline silicate coatings when the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS process is employed. In APS, rapid quenching of the sprayed material on the substrate facilitates the amorphous deposit formation, which shrinks when exposed to heat and forms pores and/or cracks. This paper explores the feasibility of using a high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF process for the cost-effective fabrication of dense, stoichiometric, and crystalline Yb2Si2O7 environmental barrier coatings. We report our findings on the HVOF process optimization and its resultant influence on the microstructure development and crystallinity of the Yb2Si2O7 coatings. The results reveal that partially crystalline, dense, and vertical crack-free EBCs can be produced by the HVOF technique. However, the furnace thermal cycling results revealed that the bonding of the Yb2Si2O7 layer to the Silicon bond coat needs to be improved.

  6. Effect of the Cold-Sprayed Aluminum Coating-Substrate Interface Morphology on Bond Strength for Aircraft Repair Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blochet, Quentin; Delloro, Francesco; N'Guyen, Franck; Jeulin, Dominique; Borit, François; Jeandin, Michel

    2017-04-01

    This article is dealing with the effects of surface preparation of the substrate on aluminum cold-sprayed coating bond strength. Different sets of AA2024-T3 specimens have been coated with pure Al 1050 feedstock powder, using a conventional cold spray coating technique. The sets were grit-blasted (GB) before coating. The study focuses on substrate surface topography evolution before coating and coating-substrate interface morphology after coating. To study coating adhesion by LASAT® technique for each set, specimens with and without preceding GB treatment were tested in load-controlled conditions. Then, several techniques were used to evaluate the effects of substrate surface treatment on the final coating mechanical properties. Irregularities induced by the GB treatment modify significantly the interface morphology. Results showed that particle anchoring was improved dramatically by the presence of craters. The substrate surface was characterized by numerous anchors. Numerical simulation results exhibited the increasing deformation of particle onto the grit-blasted surface. In addition, results showed a strong relationship between the coating-substrate bond strength on the deposited material and surface preparation.

  7. O3 Layers via Spray Pyrolysis at Low Temperatures and Their Application in High Electron Mobility Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Isakov, Ivan

    2017-04-06

    The growth mechanism of indium oxide (InO) layers processed via spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor solution in the temperature range of 100-300 °C and the impact on their electron transporting properties are studied. Analysis of the droplet impingement sites on the substrate\\'s surface as a function of its temperature reveals that Leidenfrost effect dominated boiling plays a crucial role in the growth of smooth, continuous, and highly crystalline InO layers via a vapor phase-like process. By careful optimization of the precursor formulation, deposition conditions, and choice of substrate, this effect is exploited and ultrathin and exceptionally smooth layers of InO are grown over large area substrates at temperatures as low as 252 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using these optimized InO layers exhibit superior electron transport characteristics with the electron mobility reaching up to 40 cm V s, a value amongst the highest reported to date for solution-processed InO TFTs. The present work contributes enormously to the basic understanding of spray pyrolysis and highlights its tremendous potential for large-volume manufacturing of high-performance metal oxide thin-film transistor electronics.

  8. Plasma spray deposition of Al-Al2O3 coatings doped with metal oxides: catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranevicius, L.; Pranevicius, L.L.; Valatkevicius, P.; Valincius, V.

    2000-01-01

    Al-Al 2 O 3 (70% γ-phase) coatings 30-50 μm thick well-adhered to the steel sheets and with a highly developed surface area (100-120 m 2 g -1 ) were formed employing plasma-spray technology at atmospheric pressure in air. The plasma-gun with two sequential powder feeders was developed offering the ability to control particle trajectories through the plasma flame, and thus their thermal history. The Al powder is mainly melted and oxidized. Al(OH) 3 powder passes through the plasma torch with partial dissociation and is incorporated in the matrix of growing film with subsequent decomposition during thermal annealing at 560 C for 90 min. The good adhesion results are explained by the surface pre-treatment effects taking place on the periphery of the plasma torch moving along the surface of steel sheets. The plasma sprayed Al-Al 2 O 3 coatings doped with CuO and Cr 2 O 3 oxides showed characteristic catalytic combustion behaviors. (orig.)

  9. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  10. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  11. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  12. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It ... also used to relieve sinus congestion and pressure. Oxymetazoline nasal spray should not be used to treat ...

  13. Effects of feed-supplementation and hide-spray application of two sources of tannins on enteric and hide bacteria of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Banuelos, Hector; Pinchak, William E; Min, Byeng R; Carstens, Gordon E; Anderson, Robin C; Tedeschi, Luis O; Krueger, Wimberley K; Krueger, Nathan A; Lancaster, Phillip A; Gomez, Robynne R

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria attached to the hide or shed in the feces of cattle at slaughter can contaminate carcasses intended to be processed for human consumption. Therefore, new pre-harvest interventions are needed to prevent the carriage and excretion of foodborne pathogens in cattle presented to the processing plant. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodborne pathogens when applied as a hide-intervention and as a feed additive to feedlot cattle. Water (control) or solutions (3 % wt/vol) of chestnut- and mimosa-extract treatments were sprayed (25 mL) at the left costal side of each animal to a 1000 cm² area, divided in four equal quadrants. Hide-swabs samples obtained at pre-, 2-min, 8-h, and 24-h post-spray application were cultured to enumerate Escherichia coli/total coliforms and total aerobic plate counts. In a second experiment, diets supplemented without (controls) or with (1.5 % of diet dry matter) chestnut- or mimosa-extracts were fed during a 42-day experimental feeding period. Weekly fecal samples starting on day 0, and rumen fluid obtained on days 0, 7, 21 or 42 were cultured to enumerate E.coli/total coliforms and Campylobacter. Tannin spray application showed no effect of treatment or post-application-time (P > 0.05) on measured bacterial populations, averaging 1.7/1.8, 1.5/1.6 and 1.5/1.7 (log₁₀CFU/cm²) for E. coli/total coliforms, and 4.0, 3.4 and 4.2 (log₁₀CFU/cm²) in total aerobes for control, chestnut and mimosa treatments, respectively. Mean (± SEM) ruminal E. coli and total coliform concentrations (log(10) CFU/mL) were reduced (P cattle hides. Additionally, chestnut tannin reduced E. coli and total coliforms within the rumen but the antimicrobial effect was not maintained in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Further research is necessary to elucidate the possible antimicrobial effects of tannins

  14. qualitative exploration on application of stud. center[1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    enactment of student centered learning in Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Hence, this article intended to explore qualitatively the .... to the university's science and technology education. Last but not least, the study might help as a .... implementing student-centered learning: “…coming late and leaving class early; other ...

  15. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  16. 77 FR 40590 - Applications for New Awards: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Applications for New Awards: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects; Burn Model Systems Centers; Correction AGENCY: Office of Special... Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects--Burn Model...

  17. Comparison on Piston Bowl Shape Effect to Diesel Spray Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Sadikin, Azmahani Binti; Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Md; Khalid, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Piston bowl geometry plays an important role on the combustion characteristics of diesel engine. There are various design of piston bowl in which each utilize the shape geometry to obtaining the specific required combustion characteristics. This objective of this study is to compare the effect of certain piston bowl shapes, namely Toroidal and Flat Bottom to diesel spray development. Simulation were done using ANSYS FLUENT 16.1 software Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulation was performed on different injection pressure of 40 MPa and 100 MPa, with the ambient temperature in the combustion chamber that holding the piston is at 500K and 900K. Results showed that if the pressure and ambient temperature increases, the spray body expand outward from the spray center axis with wider spray cone angle. In addition, the geometry shape of the piston bowl influences the spray velocity distribution and the spray propagation path, indirectly effect the spray area and mass fraction distribution.

  18. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF IRRIGATION SPRAY APPLICATION FOR THE THROAT IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF INFLAMMATORY OROPHARYNX DISEASES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.L. Soldatskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases of the oropharynx manifested with pain or discomfort in the throat, is a frequent pathology in children. Traditionally, patients with acute and exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis and pharyngitis are prescribed gargarism. In recent years, the use of sea water-based throat sprays have been allowed for irrigation therapy. Their use as part of the complex treatment of inflammatory oropharynx diseases statistically reliably decreases the intensity of pain reaction on the 10th–24th day of treatment compared to conventional gargarism and is comparable with conventional therapy when assessing other clinical symptoms. It is therefore possible to recommend using sea water-based substance as a initial means of irrigation therapy in the complex treatment of inflammatory oropharynx diseases in children.Key words: pharyngitis, tonsillitis, throat pain, irrigation therapy, children.

  19. Corrosion behavior of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-silicon oxide coatings on AISI 304 for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Hazoor; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) and HAsbnd silicon oxide (SiO2) coated AISI 304 substrates. In HAsbnd SiO2 coatings, 10 wt% SiO2 and 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance was determined for the uncoated and coated samples. The corrosion resistance of the AISI 304 was found more after the deposition of the HAsbnd SiO2 coatings rather than HA coating and uncoated. All the coatings were crack free after 24 h dipping in Ringer's solution for electrochemical corrosion testing.

  20. Application of resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to determine elastic constants of plasma-sprayed coatings with high internal friction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmák, P.; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Landa, Michal; Mušálek, Radek; Matějíček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 232, October (2013), s. 747-757 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702; GA ČR GA13-13616S; GA ČR(CZ) GPP108/12/P552; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100761203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma-sprayed coatings * elastic constants * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy * internal friction * anisotropy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics; BI - Acoustics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897213006063

  1. Optimization of growth temperature of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by spray pyrolysis method and application for arsenic removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mageswari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been synthesized at different temperatures ranging from 550 °C to 750 °C on silica supported Fe-Co catalyst by spray pyrolysis method using Citrus limonum oil under nitrogen atmosphere. The as-grown MWNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and Raman spectral studies. The HRTEM and Raman spectroscopic studies confirmed the evolution of MWNTs with the outer diameter between 25 and 38 nm. The possibility of use of as-grown MWNTs as an adsorbent for removal of As (V ions from drinking water was studied. Adsorption isotherm data were interpreted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Kinetic data were studied using Elovich, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations in order to elucidate the reaction mechanism.

  2. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying application to obtain hydroxyapatite coatings on the stainless steel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Marija D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the standard metallic materials for hip implants, besides the 316LVM stainless steel, were titanium- and cobalt/chromium-based alloys. Although bioinert, due to their corrosion resistance, they are not biocompatible. Contemporary surgical implants are not made just of bioinert metal anymore, but with deposited bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp coating. Hydroxyapatite is chemically identical with the mineral constituent of bones and teeth, what besides its biocompatibility provides bioactivity as well. The HAp limitations are, however, weak tensile strength and low fatigue resistance for long term loadings, if used alone. This is the reason for HAp to be deposited onto the surgical implant, and to enable its bioactivity, what means intergrowth with bones, and therefore the long-lasting and mechanical stable non-cemented prosthesis. This is important predominantly because the need for such prostheses for younger population, and a better life quality. There are several contemporary techniques that have been used for deposition of these coatings onto the metal implant. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying for obtaining the stable HAp coatings on the 316LVM stainless steel, ordinary used as a standard material for hip implants production are presented in this paper. The coatings of a commercially available hydroxyapatite powder were plasma-sprayed onto the specimens of medical grade 316LVM stainless steel under various operating conditions. The optical microscopy was used for microstructure and porosity characterization, while coating morphology and Ca/P ratio were analyzed using SEM equipped with EDX. Coating microstructure varied from a porous to a glassy structure, depending on operating conditions applied and coating thickness. Coating porosity was determined to be at the lower required limit requested for the bone-coating intergrowth possibility, but nevertheless adhesion measurements showed good results. The Ca/P ratio was

  3. Effect of sunlight radiation, rainfall and droplet spectra of sprays on persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis deposits after application of DiPel 76AF formulation onto conifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, A.; Sundaram, K.M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Effect of sunlight radiation, rainfall and droplet spectra of sprays on per ‐sistence of a Bacillus thuringiensis subspp. kurstaki (Btk) formulation, DiPel? 76AF, was examined after application onto spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] foliage. The investigation consisted of three studies: (i) Study I: a laboratory microcosm study to examine the photostability of DiPel 76AF deposits on foliage after different periods of exposure to two radiation intensities, (ii) Study II: a laboratory microcosm study to examine the rainfastness of foliar deposits after exposure to different amounts of rainfall consisting of two separate droplet spectra, and (iii) Study III: a field microcosm study to investigate the influence of two different droplet spectra of DiPel 76AF sprays on foliar persistence of Btk under natural weathering conditions. In all studies, persistence of Btk was investigated both by bioassay [using spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens)] and total protein assay.The findings of Study I indicated that bioactivity of foliar deposits decreased with increasing duration of exposure to radiation, and with increasing radiation intensity. The half‐life (DT 50 , the exposure period required for 50% of the initial bioactivity to disappear) was 5.1 d for the low intensity, and 3.9 d for the higher intensity. In contrast with the bioassay results, the total protein levels [determined by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method] showed no decrease with increasing duration of exposure, or with increasing radiation intensity.The findings of Study II indicated that bioactivity of foliar deposits decreased with increasing cumulative rainfall. A new term, RF 50 [the amount of rain (in mm) required to washoff 50% of the initial deposit], was introduced to understand the relationship between rainfall intensity and reduction in bioactivity. When the same amount of rain was applied in different droplet sizes, the RF 50 value was high (5.2 mm) for the small rain droplets

  4. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  5. Nanocrystalline proprieties of TiO2 thin film deposited by ultrasonic spray pulverization as an anti-reflection coating for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, Samira; Kermadi, Salim; Zougar, Lyes; Benzaoui, Bouthina; Saoula, Nadia; Mahdid, Khadija; Aitameur, Fatiha; Boumaour, Messaoud

    2017-12-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) films have been synthesized on quartz, silicon and textured silicon substrates by chemical ultrasonic spray deposition. The textured silicon substrate was carried out using Na2CO3 solution. The sample surface exhibits uniform pyramids with an average height of 5 µm. In this paper, particular attention is given to the TiO2 films prepared by spray ultrasonic system using Tetra iso-Propoxide Orthotitanate Titanium (TPOT) as a precursor. The solutions were sprayed onto substrates heated at various temperatures 350 - 550 °C. The properties of films as a function of temperature parameter were investigated using structural and optical analysis. According to XRD, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopies, the anatase phase was found and exhibits nanograins of 9 to 15 nm in size. The indirect and direct bad gap were found to increase by increasing substrate temperature due to the decreasing of nanograins size and were estimated to be around 3.28 and 3.38 eV. A transmittance higher than 80% was found. This paper reports on anti-reflection coating application of TiO2 layers due to its good transparency and appropriate refractive index varies between 2.19 - 2.40 at λ = 632.8 nm as a function of temperature determined by UVVisNIR spectrophotometer and Ellipsometry. To achieve optimum anti-reflection characteristics different anti-reflection designs were experimentally examined with polished and textured substrates. The average reflectance of the polished silicon used in this study is 39%, with TiO2 it decreases to 9%. The textured surface reduces the average reflectance of silicon to be around 14% and it decreases dramatically to 5% after deposition of a single layer of TiO2 as an anti-reflection coating. The gain in density of the short-circuit photocurrent assigned to the reduction of reflection losses up to 44% and 58% were predicted with TiO2 single-coating in polished and textured silicon substrates respectively.

  6. The application of fuzzy neural network in distribution center location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongpan; Liu, Yong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the establishment of the fuzzy neural network model for logistics distribution center location applied the fuzzy method to the input value of BP algorithm and took the experts' evaluation value as the expected output. At the same time, using the network learning to get the optimized selection and furthermore get a more accurate evaluation to the programs of location.

  7. ENCAPSULATION OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L., JOJOBA OIL AND JASMINE OIL BY SPRAY DRYING AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN TEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖGE Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a technique that allows liquid or solid agents, such as pharmaceutical agents, pesticides, insect repellent agents, dyes, cosmetics and fragrances, to be encapsulated by a suitable barrier wall. Liquid or solid agents that are encapsulated are called core material. The importance of functional finishes have been increasing rapidly in the World. Microencapsulation is an alternative way to achieve the functional finishes because of their unique properties, such as controlled release, protection against to hazardous and destructive media, and providing higher surface area. In this study, jojoba, jasmine and St. John's Wort oils, were encapsulated according to spray drying method. St. John's Wort and jojoba oils were used at 1:1 ratio as fixed oil. Jasmine essential oil was added to fixed oil mixture at two different ratios. After preparing the core mixture, encapsulation studies were performed three different core : wall ratios. Morphological analyses of microcapsules were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. FTIR spectroscopy spectrums of microcapsules were determined (Fourier Transform Infrared. Particle size distribution microcapsules were analyzed by laser scattering measurement method. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermographs of microcapsules were obtained. All microcapsules were applied to 100% cotton knitted fabrics. Strength to washing of fabrics were observed by SEM micrographs.

  8. Application of X-ray microtomography for the characterisation of hollow polymer-stabilised spray dried amorphous dispersion particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John F; Terada, Masako; Holzner, Christian; Lavery, Leah; Nicholson, Sarah J; Timmins, Peter; Tobyn, Mike

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of X-ray microtomography to obtain information relating to powder characteristics such as wall thickness and solid volume fraction for hollow, polymer-stabilised spray dried dispersion (SDD) particles. SDDs of varying particle properties, with respect to shell wall thickness and degree of particle collapse, were utilised to assess the capability of the approach. The results demonstrate that the approach can provide insight into the morphological characteristics of these hollow particles, and thereby a means to understand/predict the processability and performance characteristics of the bulk material. Quantitative assessments of particle wall thickness, particle/void volume and thereby solid volume fraction were also demonstrated to be achievable. The analysis was also shown to be able to qualitatively assess the impact of the drying rate on the morphological nature of the particle surfaces, thus providing further insight into the final particle shape. The approach demonstrated a practical means to access potentially important particle characteristics for SDD materials which, in addition to the standard bulk powder measurements such as particle size and bulk density, may enable a better understanding of such materials, and their impact on downstream processability and dosage form performance. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transparent Conducting Mo-Doped CdO Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Method for Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen, S. J.; Devadason, Suganthi; Haris, M.; Mahalingam, T.

    2018-04-01

    Pure and 3%, 5%, and 7% molybdenum-doped cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates preheated to 400°C using a spray pyrolysis technique, then analyzed using x-ray diffraction analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence and Hall measurements. The films were found to have polycrystalline nature with cubic structure. The crystallite size was calculated to be ˜ 12 nm for various doping concentrations. Doping improved the optical transparency of the CdO thin film, with the 5% Mo-doped film recording the highest transmittance in the optical region. The energy bandgap deduced from optical studies ranged from 2.38 eV and 2.44 eV for different Mo doping levels. The electrical conductivity was enhanced on Mo doping, with the highest conductivity of 1.74 × 103 (Ω cm)-1 being achieved for the 5% Mo-doped CdO thin film.

  10. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe Based Coatings by HVOF Sprayed on Gray Cast-Iron for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Priyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commercially available FeSiNiCr and FeBCr alloy powders were designed with suitable compositions, gas atomized and then coated on gray cast-iron substrate. The microstructures of the feed stock Fe based alloy powders and the coatings were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In the present study, both the coating materials experienced two-body wear mechanisms. The results showed that for loads of 0.05 N, 0.1 N and 0.2 N, the wear resistance of FeBCr coating was less than FeSiNiCr by 44 %, 40 % and 31 %, respectively. The results indicated that the coated substrates exhibited lower corrosion current densities and lower corrosion rates, when placed in 20 wt.% H2SO4 solutions. In addition, the use of optimal spraying parameters/conditions gave improvements to the corrosion resistance of the substrates that had been treated with the crystalline coating.

  11. Application of atmospheric solution precursor plasma spray to photocatalytic devices for small and medium industries in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindole, Dickson; Ando, Yasutaka

    2017-01-01

    For development of a functional film deposition process with high deposition rate, as a basic study, TiO2 films were deposited by atmospheric solution precursor plasma spray (ASPPS) process. Ethanol-diluted titanium tetraisobutoxide [TTIB: Ti(OC4H9)4] was used as a feedstock. To achieve a high plasma thermal energy at a low discharge power, N2-dominant Ar/N2 as the plasma working gas was used, for film deposition at various deposition distances. Consequently, photocatalytic TiO2 with a rutile/anatase mixture film structure was deposited evenly in this case. By conducting methylene blue decomposition and wettability tests, photocatalytic properties of the film were confirmed. When a TiO2 film was applied to photocatalytic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the cells generated an electromotive force of 0.143V oc, which is close to those of commercial DSSCs. From these results, the ASPPS process was found to have high potential for high rate functional film deposition and was cost effective, making it suitable for developing countries.

  12. The Impact of Mobile Multimedia Applications on Data Center Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    the speech application; Alvaro Collet , who implemented the object recognition appli- cation; Yi Wu, who implemented the augmented reality application... Collet Romea, R. Diankov, G. Gallagher, G. Hollinger, J. Kuffner, and J. M. Vandeweghe, “Herb: a home exploring robotic butler,” Autonomous Robots, vol

  13. Writing Cancer Grant Applications | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course focuses on how to write clear and persuasive grant applications. The purpose is to increase the quality of your grant application by successfully communicating scientific data and ideas. Emphasis is placed on how to use the title abstract and introduction sections to draw in reviewers and how to write an organized and focused proposal using specific scientific aims.

  14. KBTAC [Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center] - The EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute]-sponsored knowledge-based technology application center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Wood, R.M.; Scherer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has announced the establishment of the Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center (KBTAC), whose goal is to assist member utilities with expert system technology and applications. The center, established November 7, 1989, is located on the campus of Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, and will be operated jointly by Kaman Sciences Corporation and the university. The mission of the KBTAC is to assist EPRI member utilities to develop, test, and transfer expert systems into nuclear power plant operations, maintenance, and administration

  15. Performance of spray nozzles in land applications with high speed Desempenho de pontas de pulverização em aplicações terrestres com alta velocidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. Zaidan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different spray nozzles for land applications in high speed on the coverage and deposit in soybean plants pulverization. It was evaluated the AXI 110 04 plane jet nozzles operated at speed of 4.17m.s-1 (control, the grey APE and the AXI 110 08 plane jets, and the TD HiSpeed 110 06 and AXI TWIN 120 06 twin jets, at speed of 9.72m.s-1. The application volume was fixed in 120L ha-1. The application efficiency was evaluated by two different methods: analysis of the coverage area using fluorescent pigment and UV light and analysis of deposits through the recovery and quantification of FD&C N°1 brilliant blue marker by spectrophotometry. Both analyses were done in samples collected from top, middle and bottom parts of the plants. The spray nozzles showed differences in coverage and deposit pattern, so in the top part, the coverage was increased with smaller drops and the deposits were increased with medium drops. In the other parts of the plants, there were no statistical differences between the treatments for both coverage and deposits. The displacement speed did not influence the application efficiency for nozzles with the same drop pattern, and the obtained spray coverage and deposits at the medium and bottom parts of the plants were less than 50% of that found at the top of the soybean plants.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes pontas de pulverização para aplicações terrestres em alta velocidade sobre a cobertura e depósito da pulverização em plantas de soja. Foram avaliadas as pontas de jatos planos AXI 110 04 à velocidade de 4,17 m.s-1 (testemunha, de jatos planos APE cinza e AXI 110 08, e de jatos planos duplos TD HiSpeed 110 06 e AXI TWIN 120 06, à velocidade de deslocamento de 9,72 m.s-1. O volume de aplicação foi fixado em 120 L.ha-1. A eficiência de aplicação foi avaliada por dois métodos: análise visual do percentual de cobertura, utilizando marcador fluorescente

  16. Pattern recognition for Space Applications Center director's discretionary fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Results and conclusions are presented on the application of recent developments in pattern recognition to spacecraft star mapping systems. Sensor data for two representative starfields are processed by an adaptive shape-seeking version of the Fc-V algorithm with good results. Cluster validity measures are evaluated, but not found especially useful to this application. Recommendations are given two system configurations worthy of additional study,

  17. An electrothermal chemical technology for thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, S.; Appelbaum, G.; Alimi, R.; Rabani, L.; Zoler, D.; Zhitomirsky, V.; Factor, M.; Roman, I.

    1998-01-01

    A new spray technology for producing hard-coatings, has been developed at the SOREQ Nuclear Research Center. The concept is based on the extensive experience accumulated at SOREQ in the course of the development of Electrothermal (ET), Electrothermal-Chemical (ETC) and Solid-Propellant Electrothermal-Chemical (SPETC) guns(r). High quality coatings may be obtained by thermal spraying powder particles onto a variety of substrates. Mature state-of-the-art technologies such as plasma spray, high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) and detonation gun (D-Gun) are widely used for many applications. As each method has its own drawbacks there is a need for a combination of several parameters which cannot be achieved by any existing individual commercial technology. The method presented is oriented toward a high-quality, multi-step, high-throughput, easily programmable continuous coating process and relatively inexpensive technology. The combustion products of a solid or liquid propellant accelerate the powder particles of the coating material. A pulsed-plasma jet, provided by a confined capillary discharge, ignites the propellant and controls the combustion process. The powder particles are accelerated to velocities over 1000 m/s. Due to the very high carrier gas density, high velocity, high throughput and high powder consumption efficiency are obtained. The plasma jet enables control of the gas temperature and consequently influences the powder temperature

  18. Ocular surface frostbite secondary to ethyl chloride spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nelson A; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2012-03-01

    Ethyl chloride (EC) is a fast-acting vapo-coolant spray that provides rapid, transient, local analgesia for minor invasive procedures. Although the application of EC has decreased, it can be used as a cryoanalgesic agent in minor surgical procedures. Despite the widespread use of EC as a local anesthetic, there are few reported cases of serious adverse side effects. We report a 67-year old otherwise healthy man who underwent excision of a papilloma on his superior right eyelid by a general practitioner at a primary care center. The lesion was removed by curettage after slight freezing with EC spray. This chemical agent was applied without the adequate eye protection, and eight hours later the patient presented an acute frost injury of ocular surface. Urgent treatment included copious irrigation of the affected eye, especially the conjunctival fornices, corticosteroid (prednisone) and antibiotic (neomycin) ointment. A week later, the eyelid lesion and keratoconjunctivitis had resolved but evidence of early cicatrization involving the inferior conjucntival fornix and symblepharon formation were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an acute burn of the ocular surface following EC spray exposure. EC should be avoided for short-term local anesthesia in the periocular region to prevent this serious complication.

  19. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  20. Applications of Optical Scanners in an Academic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Carol; Tannenbaum, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes optical scanners, including how the technology works; applications in data management and research; development of instructional materials; and providing community services. Discussion includes the three basic types of optical scanners: optical character recognition (OCR), optical mark readers (OMR), and graphic scanners. A sidebar…

  1. 77 FR 33563 - Applications for New Awards; Comprehensive Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... successful transition of all students from secondary education to college without the need for remediation... assistance benefitting career and technical education students that is consistent with this proportion of... Vol. 77 Wednesday, No. 109 June 6, 2012 Part II Department of Education Applications for New...

  2. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based spray system for highly accurate site-specific application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of crop production and protection materials is a crucial component in the high productivity of American agriculture. Agricultural chemical application is frequently needed at a specific time and location for accurate site-specific management of crop pests. Piloted aircrafts that carry ...

  3. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  4. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  5. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, David Y.H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2004-07-20

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  6. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D

    2002-01-01

    Background This report describes the utility of hypnosis for patients who presented to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center over a 30 month period. Methods Hypnotherapy was offered to 303 patients from May 1, 1998 – October 31, 2000. Patients offered hypnotherapy included those thought to have pulmonary symptoms due to psychological issues, discomfort due to medications, or fear of procedures. Improvement in symptoms following hypnosis was observed by the pulmonologist for most patients with habit cough and conversion reaction. Improvement of other conditions for which hypnosis was used was gauged based on patients' subjective evaluations. Results Hypnotherapy was associated with improvement in 80% of patients with persistent asthma, chest pain/pressure, habit cough, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, sighing, and vocal cord dysfunction. When improvement was reported, in some cases symptoms resolved immediately after hypnotherapy was first employed. For the others improvement was achieved after hypnosis was used for a few weeks. No patients' symptoms worsened and no new symptoms emerged following hypnotherapy. Conclusions Patients described in this report were unlikely to have achieved rapid improvement in their symptoms without the use of hypnotherapy. Therefore, hypnotherapy can be an important complementary therapy for patients in a pediatric practice. PMID:12460456

  7. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the utility of hypnosis for patients who presented to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center over a 30 month period. Methods Hypnotherapy was offered to 303 patients from May 1, 1998 – October 31, 2000. Patients offered hypnotherapy included those thought to have pulmonary symptoms due to psychological issues, discomfort due to medications, or fear of procedures. Improvement in symptoms following hypnosis was observed by the pulmonologist for most patients with habit cough and conversion reaction. Improvement of other conditions for which hypnosis was used was gauged based on patients' subjective evaluations. Results Hypnotherapy was associated with improvement in 80% of patients with persistent asthma, chest pain/pressure, habit cough, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, sighing, and vocal cord dysfunction. When improvement was reported, in some cases symptoms resolved immediately after hypnotherapy was first employed. For the others improvement was achieved after hypnosis was used for a few weeks. No patients' symptoms worsened and no new symptoms emerged following hypnotherapy. Conclusions Patients described in this report were unlikely to have achieved rapid improvement in their symptoms without the use of hypnotherapy. Therefore, hypnotherapy can be an important complementary therapy for patients in a pediatric practice.

  8. Synthesis of Zn1- x Co x Al2O4 Spinel Nanoparticles by Liquid-Feed Flame Spray Pyrolysis: Ceramic Pigments Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur Granados, Natalia; Yi, Eongyu; Laine, Richard M.; Restrepo Baena, Oscar Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Zn1- x Co x Al2O4 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) spinel nanoparticles were synthesized by a liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) method by combusting metallorganic precursor solutions to produce nanopowders with precise composition control. The precursor solutions were aerosolized into a methane/oxygen flame where it was combusted in an oxygen-rich environment to result in nanopowders at a single step. The nanopowders were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, colorimetry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) N2 adsorption. Results show formation of spherical nanopowders with specific surface areas of 42 m2/g to 50 m2/g, which correspond to average particle sizes of 26 nm to 31 nm. Single-phase materials were obtained with a high control of composition, which indicates that LF-FSP is an excellent method to produce mixed-metal oxides for applications in which powder homogeneity is crucial. The products were evaluated for ceramic pigment application, where the ratio of Zn to Co was gradually changed to observe the color change in the structure with the increase of cobalt concentration. The resulting pigments were calcined at 1200°C, which aimed to identify the color stability after a high-temperature process, whereby the colors were measured using the color space CIE L*a*b* under standardized light, D65. Finally, the powders were tested for ceramic decoration using transparent glazes and ceramic bodies. The application was carried out at 1250°C to evaluate the color performance after a decoration process.

  9. Implementation and evaluation of LMS mobile application: scele mobile based on user-centered design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banimahendra, R. D.; Santoso, H. B.

    2018-03-01

    The development of mobile technology is now increasing rapidly, demanding all activities including learning should be done on mobile devices. It shows that the implementation of mobile application as a learning medium needs to be done. This study describes the process of developing and evaluating the Moodle-based mobile Learning Management System (LMS) application called Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCeLE). This study discusses the process of defining features, implementing features into the application, and evaluating the application. We define the features using user research and literature study, then we implement the application with user-centered design basis, at the last phase we evaluated the application using usability testing and system usability score (SUS). The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which this application can help the users doing their tasks and provide recommendation for the next research and development.

  10. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  11. The role of organizational strategy in the user-centered design of mobile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshet, Eyal; de Reuver, G.A.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gathering insights on users and the contexts they use mobile applications is at the core of the user-centered design (UCD). Organizations find it strategically important to efficiently and effectively use these insights. With the proliferation of mobile applications, gaining timely and relevant

  12. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  13. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  14. Hazard Analysis for In Tank Spray Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP) Authorization Basis (AB) contains controls that address spray leaks in tanks. However, there are no hazardous conditions in the Hazards Database that specifically identify in-tank spray leak scenarios. The purpose of this Hazards Evaluation is to develop hazardous conditions related to in-tank spray leaks for the Hazards Database and to provide more complete coverage of Tank Farm facilities. Currently, the in-tank spray leak is part of the ''Spray Leak in Structures or From Waste Transfer Lines'' accidents in Section 3.4.2.9 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG, 2000a). The accident analysis for the ''Spray Leak in Structure or From Waste Transfer Lines'' states the following regarding the location of a possible spray leak: Inside ventilated waste storage tanks (DSTs, DCRTs, and some SSTs). Aerosols could be generated inside a storage tank during a transfer because of a leak from the portion of the transfer pipe inside the tank. The tank ventilation system could help disperse the aerosols to the atmosphere should the vent system HEPA filters fail. This Hazards Evaluation also evaluates the controls currently assigned to the spray leak in structure accident and determines the applicability of the controls to the new hazardous conditions. This comparison reviews both the analysis in the FSAR and the controls found in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) (CHG, 2000h). If the new hazardous conditions do not match the analyzed accident conditions and controls, then additional analysis may be required. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Control decision process as defined in the AB will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  15. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  16. Spray granulation for drug formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Zhi Hui; Er, Dawn Z L; Chan, Lai Wah; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2011-12-01

    Granulation is a key unit process in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms and involves the agglomeration of fine particles with the aid of a binding agent. Fluidized bed granulation, a classic example of spray granulation, is a technique of particle agglomeration brought about by the spray addition of the binding liquid onto a stationary bed of powder particles that is transformed to a fluid-like state by the passage of air through it. The basic working principles, equipment set-up, advantages and challenges of fluidized bed granulation are introduced in this review. This is followed by an overview of the formulation and process-related variables affecting granulation performance. Technological advances, particularly in the application of process analytical tools, in the field of fluidized bed granulation research are also discussed. Fluidized bed granulation is a popular technique for pharmaceutical production, as it is a highly economical and efficient one-pot process. The research and development of process analytical technologies (PAT) has allowed greater process understanding and control to be achieved, even for the lesser known fluidized bed techniques, such as bottom spray and fluidized hot melt granulation. In view of its consistent mixing, as well as continuous and concurrent wetting and drying occurring throughout processing, fluidized bed granulation shows great potential for continuous production although more research is required to fully implement, validate and integrate the PAT tools in a production line.

  17. Laser-Based Spatio-Temporal Characterisation of Port Fuel Injection (PFI Sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. N. Anand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, detailed laser-based diagnostic experiments were conducted to characterise the spray from low pressure 2-hole and 4-hole Port Fuel Injection (PFI injectors. The main objective of the work included obtaining quantitative information of the spatio-temporal spray structure of such low-pressure gasoline sprays. A novel approach involving a combination of techniques such as Mie scattering, Granulometry, and Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD was used to study the spray structure. The droplet sizes, distributions with time, Sauter Mean Diameters (SMD, droplet velocities, cone angles and spray tip penetrations of the sprays from the injectors were determined. The spray from these injectors is found to be ‘pencil like’ and not dispersed as in high pressure sprays. The application of the above mentioned techniques provides two-dimensional SMD contours of the entire spray at different instants of time, with reasonable accuracy.

  18. Effects of Vermi-compost Fertilizer Application and Foliar Spraying on Yield and Yield Component of Isabgol (Plantago ovate L. Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Rahimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vermi-compost is the ability of some species of earthworms to consume and break down a wide range of organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial refuse. Vermi-composts are usually more stable than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical and microbiological properties. Aerial compost tea contains high populations of live microorganism consisting of rhizobactria, trichoderma and pseudomonas species which increase the growth and yield of the plant. Acid humic is the main humic substance and the important ingredient of soil organic matter (humus which causes increase of yield and quality of crop. The aim of this research is evaluating the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of compost tea and acid humic on yield, yield component and mucilage content of isabgol. Vermiwash as the extract of vermi-compost is liquid organic fertilizer obtained from unit of vermiculture and vermi-compost as drainage. It is used as a foliar spraying on the leaf. Vermiwash stimulate and increase the yield of crop products and foliar application of vermiwash can be caused of plant resistance to different factors and can prevent leaf necrosis. Material and Methods In order to study the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of tea compost and acid humic on growth indices of isabgol (Plantago ovata, an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on complete randomized design with three replications in agricultural research farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments were included application of vermi-compost (0 (control, 4, 8, 12 and 16 t.ha-1 and 3 levels of foliar application (distilled water as control, acid humic and compost tea. Samples for evaluating of yield, yield components and mucilage content were taken from 1 m2 area of each treatment. Tea compost solution prepared using mix of vermi-compost, acid humic, yeast and alga extract

  19. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  20. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  1. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  2. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... stop using butorphanol nasal spray, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  3. Application of spray granulation for conversion of mixed phospholipid-bile salt micelles to dry powder form: influence of drug hydrophobicity on nanoparticle reagglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qingyuan; Li, Xianyi; Shen, Baode; Xu, He; Shen, Chengying; Dai, Ling; Bai, Jinxia; Yuan, Hailong; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using spray granulation as a drying method to convert phospholipid (PL)-sodium deoxycholate (SDC)-mixed micelles (MMs) containing a water-insoluble drug to a solid dosage form and to evaluate how drugs with significantly different physicochemical properties affect the spray granulation process and subsequent in vitro and in vivo processes. Cucurbitacin B (Cu B) and glycyrrhizin (GL) were used as the model drugs. After spray granulation, the dried Cu B-PL/SDC-MM powder was completely redispersible within 15 minutes in vitro. Meanwhile, the area under the curve during 24 hours (AUC0-24) and peak serum concentration from the dried powder were significantly (Pgranulation is an effective drying technique that can complement spray-drying and freeze-drying, but also confirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug have a significant influence on the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dried powder obtained after spray granulation.

  4. Recursive Estimation of the Stein Center of SPD Matrices & its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehian, Hesamoddin; Cheng, Guang; Vemuri, Baba C; Ho, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    Symmetric positive-definite (SPD) matrices are ubiquitous in Computer Vision, Machine Learning and Medical Image Analysis. Finding the center/average of a population of such matrices is a common theme in many algorithms such as clustering, segmentation, principal geodesic analysis, etc. The center of a population of such matrices can be defined using a variety of distance/divergence measures as the minimizer of the sum of squared distances/divergences from the unknown center to the members of the population. It is well known that the computation of the Karcher mean for the space of SPD matrices which is a negatively-curved Riemannian manifold is computationally expensive. Recently, the LogDet divergence-based center was shown to be a computationally attractive alternative. However, the LogDet-based mean of more than two matrices can not be computed in closed form, which makes it computationally less attractive for large populations. In this paper we present a novel recursive estimator for center based on the Stein distance - which is the square root of the LogDet divergence - that is significantly faster than the batch mode computation of this center. The key theoretical contribution is a closed-form solution for the weighted Stein center of two SPD matrices, which is used in the recursive computation of the Stein center for a population of SPD matrices. Additionally, we show experimental evidence of the convergence of our recursive Stein center estimator to the batch mode Stein center. We present applications of our recursive estimator to K-means clustering and image indexing depicting significant time gains over corresponding algorithms that use the batch mode computations. For the latter application, we develop novel hashing functions using the Stein distance and apply it to publicly available data sets, and experimental results have shown favorable comparisons to other competing methods.

  5. Design, construction and performance of a portable handheld electrohydrodynamic multi-needle spray gun for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofokleous, Panagiotis; Stride, Eleanor; Bonfield, William; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) processing has attracted substantial interest in the technological and pharmaceutical sectors in recent years. Given the complexity of the process, exploring new ideas for EHD electrospraying and electrospinning delivery is a challenge. In this article, the design, construction and testing of a portable handheld EHD multi-needle device are described to produce multifunctional particles and fibers. Solid and encapsulated polymer particles and fibers were generated in order to study the performance of the device. The intrinsic properties of the feed solution/suspension and the processing conditions were adjusted to ensure robustness of the process and give uniform and reproducible products, with diameters ranging from the sub-micrometer scale to a few micrometers. These products have a broad range of applications in many advanced industrial sectors e.g. drug delivery systems, wound dressing patches, low calorie food products and cosmetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SPRAYTRAN USER'S GUIDE: A GIS-BASED ATMOSPHERIC SPRAY DROPLET DISPERSION MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offsite drift of pesticide from spray operations is an ongoing source of concern. The SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) system, documented in this report, incorporates the near-field spray application model, AGDISP, into a meso-scale atmospheric transport model. The AGDISP model ...

  7. Spray drying of fenofibrate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; Shrestha, Neha; van de Streek, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of aqueous dispersion of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) into dry powder by spray drying could be a useful approach to render NLCs with better physical chemical stability than the aqueous dispersion. In this study, aqueous NLC dispersion containing fenofibrate was converted...... into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose) and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content...... of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915) was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w). Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase...

  8. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  9. Quality by design approach in the optimization of the spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldinger, Arnaud; Clerdent, Lucas; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the influence of the processing parameters, inlet temperature, atomization air flow rate and feed flow rate, on critical quality attributes of spray-dried powders using design of experiments (DoE). Spray-dried powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Multivariate analysis of two different experimental designs was performed to elucidate the optimal process conditions. XRPD revealed that the spray-dried powders consisted of crystalline β-mannitol and amorphous trehalose. Non-invasive NIR measurement was successfully used for correlating the critical quality attribute particle size with size determined by laser diffraction. The full factorial design proved to be unsuitable due to the non-linear influence of factors. The composite face-centered design improved the quality of the models and showed both linear and non-linear influence of the parameters on the outcomes. A model explaining the influence of the factors on all quality attributes showed similar results as the models optimized for a single response. This study showed the applicability of DoE for the investigation of spray-dried powders. The knowledge of the interplay between process parameters and quality attributes will enable rational process design to achieve a desired outcome.

  10. A Descriptive Study towards Green Computing Practice Application for Data Centers in IT Based Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Jnr. Bokolo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The progressive upsurge in demand for processing and computing power has led to a subsequent upsurge in data center carbon emissions, cost incurred, unethical waste management, depletion of natural resources and high energy utilization. This raises the issue of the sustainability attainment in data centers of Information Technology (IT based industries. Green computing practice can be applied to facilitate sustainability attainment as IT based industries utilizes data centers to provide services to staffs, practitioners and end users. But it is a known fact that enterprise servers utilize huge quantity of energy and incur other expenditures in cooling operations and it is difficult to address the needs of accuracy and efficiency in data centers while yet encouraging a greener application practice alongside cost reduction. Thus this research study focus on the practice application of Green computing in data centers which houses servers and as such presents the Green computing life cycle strategies and best practices to be practiced for better management in data centers in IT based industries. Data was collected through questionnaire from 133 respondents in industries that currently operate their in-house data centers. The analysed data was used to verify the Green computing life cycle strategies presented in this study. Findings from the data shows that each of the life cycles strategies is significant in assisting IT based industries apply Green computing practices in their data centers. This study would be of interest to knowledge and data management practitioners as well as environmental manager and academicians in deploying Green data centers in their organizations.

  11. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  12. Nitrogen-Vacancy color center in diamond-emerging nanoscale applications in bioimaging and biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Lazariev, Andrii; Arumugam, Sri Ranjini; Duan, De-Wen

    2014-06-01

    Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center in diamond is a flourishing research area that, in recent years, has displayed remarkable progress. The system offers great potential for realizing futuristic applications in nanoscience, benefiting a range of fields from bioimaging to quantum-sensing. The ability to image single NV color centers in a nanodiamond and manipulate NV electron spin optically under ambient condition is the main driving force behind developments in nanoscale sensing and novel imaging techniques. In this article we discuss current status on the applications of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) for optical super resolution nanoscopy, magneto-optical (spin-assisted) sub-wavelength localization and imaging. We present emerging applications such as single molecule spin imaging, nanoscale imaging of biomagnetic fields, sensing molecular fluctuations and temperatures in live cellular environments. We summarize other current advances and future prospects of NV diamond for imaging and sensing pertaining to bio-medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of ceramic formed parts by means of plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, K.

    1989-01-01

    Open and closed pipes and tubes, nozzles and crucibles, conical parts and other molded articles of ceramic materials such as aluminium oxide, magnesium-aluminium spinel, zirconium oxide, zirconium silicate and special ceramics can be fabricated by spray application to a core which is afterwards removed. Because at the same time these are mainly high temperature materials and high temperature application areas, plasma spraying is preferred. The process and examples of application are described, the advantages and disadvantages are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  14. Clean Energy Application Centers: Annual Metrics Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Between fiscal year (FY) 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded nine Clean Energy Application Centers (CEACs) with national coverage to promote and assist in transforming the market for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat to Power CHP, and district energy (DE) with CHP1. Prior to that, similar services were provided by eight Regional Application Centers (RACs). The key services that the CEACs provided were market assessments, education and outreach, and technical assistance. There were eight regional CEACs, each of which served a specific area of the country, and a separate center operated by the International District Energy Association (IDEA) which supported the regional centers with technical assistance, education, training, publicity, and outreach related to district energy with CHP. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed four previous studies of CEAC activities. The first one examined what the centers had done each year from the initiation of the program through FY 2008; the second addressed center activities for FY 2009; the third one focused on what was accomplished in FY 2010; and the fourth looked at the CEACs’ FY 2011 accomplishments, with a heightened emphasis on the adoption of CHP\\DE technologies and the activities thought to be most closely related to CHP/DE development and use. The most recent study, documented in this report, examines CEAC activities in FY 2012.

  15. Vacancy-impurity centers in diamond: prospects for synthesis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekimov, E. A.; Kondrin, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    The bright luminescence of impurity-vacancy complexes, combined with high chemical and radiation resistance, makes diamond an attractive platform for the production of single-photon emitters and luminescent biomarkers for applications in nanoelectronics and medicine. Two representatives of this kind of defects in diamond, silicon-vacancy (SiV) and germanium-vacancy (GeV) centers, are discussed in this review; their similarities and differences are demonstrated in terms of the more thoroughly studied nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes. The recent discovery of GeV luminescent centers opens a unique opportunity for the controlled synthesis of single-photon emitters in nanodiamonds. We demonstrate prospects for the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) technique to create single-photon emitters, not only as an auxiliary to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ion-implantation methods but also as a primary synthesis tool for producing color centers in nanodiamonds. Besides practical applications, comparative studies of these two complexes, which belong to the same structural class of defects, have a fundamental importance for deeper understanding of shelving levels, the electronic structure, and optical properties of these centers. In conclusion, we discuss several open problems regarding the structure, charge state, and practical application of these centers, which still require a solution.

  16. 41 CFR 102-81.30 - What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 81-SECURITY Security § 102-81.30 What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal...

  17. 77 FR 50520 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... copy of the information collection instrument with supplementary documents, or need additional...-0061] Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant Investor Pilot Program, Form I-924 and Form I-924A; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

  18. Nanosized aerosols from consumer sprays: experimental analysis and exposure modeling for four commercial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christiane; Hagendorfer, Harald; von Goetz, Natalie; Kaegi, Ralf; Gehrig, Robert; Ulrich, Andrea; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-08-01

    Consumer spray products are already on the market in the cosmetics and household sector, which suggest by their label that they contain engineered nanoparticles (ENP). Sprays are considered critical for human health, because the lungs represent a major route for the uptake of ENP into the human body. To contribute to the exposure assessment of ENP in consumer spray products, we analyzed ENP in four commercially available sprays: one antiperspirant, two shoe impregnation sprays, and one plant-strengthening agent. The spray dispersions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and (scanning-) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aerosols were generated by using the original vessels, and analyzed by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and (S)TEM. On the basis of SMPS results, the nanosized aerosol depositing in the respiratory tract was modeled for female and male consumers. The derived exposure levels reflect a single spray application. We identified ENP in the dispersions of two products (shoe impregnation and plant spray). Nanosized aerosols were observed in three products that contained propellant gas. The aerosol number concentration increased linearly with the sprayed amount, with the highest concentration resulting from the antiperspirant. Modeled aerosol exposure levels were in the range of 1010 nanosized aerosol components per person and application event for the antiperspirant and the impregnation sprays, with the largest fraction of nanosized aerosol depositing in the alveolar region. Negligible exposure from the application of the plant spray (pump spray) was observed.

  19. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  20. Application of a novel 3-fluid nozzle spray drying process for the microencapsulation of therapeutic agents using incompatible drug-polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Tara; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel 3-fluid concentric nozzle (3-N) spray drying process for the microencapsulation of omeprazole sodium (OME) using Eudragit L100 (EL100). Feed solutions containing OME and/or EL100 in ethanol were assessed visually for OME stability. Addition of OME solution to EL100 solution resulted in precipitation of OME followed by degradation of OME reflected by a colour change from colourless to purple and brown. This was related to the low pH of 2.8 of the EL100 solution at which OME is unstable. Precipitation and progressive discoloration of the 2-fluid nozzle (2-N) feed solution was observed over the spray drying time course. In contrast, 3-N solutions of EL100 or OME in ethanol were stable over the spray drying period. Microparticles prepared using either nozzle showed similar characteristics and outer morphology however the internal morphology was different. DSC showed a homogenous matrix of drug and polymer for 2-N microparticles while 3-N microparticles had defined drug and polymer regions distributed as core and coat. The results of this study demonstrate that the novel 3-N spray drying process can allow the microencapsulation of a drug using an incompatible polymer and maintain the drug and polymer in separate regions of the microparticles.

  1. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  2. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-03-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  3. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  4. Examining properties of arc sprayed nanostructured coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czupryński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examining properties of arc sprayed coating obtained with nano-alloy on the iron matrix with a high amount of fine carbide precipitates sprayed on non-alloyed steel plates intended for high temperature operation. Powder metal cored wire EnDOtec DO*390N 1,6 mm diameter, was used to produce, dense, very high abrasion and erosion resistant coatings approx. 1,0 mm thick. Nano-material coatings characterization was done to determine abrasion resistance, erosion resistance, adhesion strength, hardness as well as metallographic examinations. Results have proved high properties of arc sprayed nano-material coatings and have shown promising industrial applications.

  5. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {it{Tetralin}}, n-{it{Decane}}, and n-{it{Heptane}}.

  6. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    entrainment may account for the large discrepancy in energy input for the two systems. In the third study, the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol production is probed with the use of a highly stable temperature controlled plunging jet. Similar to previous studies, particle production increases...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  7. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium chloride doped ZnO films synthesized by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E., E-mail: ezaleta@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camargo-Martinez, J.; Ramirez-Garibo, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Perez-Arrieta, M.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Fisica, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Mexico (Mexico); Balderas-Xicohtencatl, R.; Rivera-Alvarez, Z. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-12-01

    Indium chloride doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using zinc acetate by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique. The effect of substrate temperature, deposition time and acetic acid added to the spraying solution on the structural, electrical and optical properties of these ZnO:In films is reported. The films were in all cases polycrystalline with a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, a transparency over 80% and resistivity of the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} Ohm-Sign {center_dot}cm. The resistivity was dependent on the volume % of acetic acid added to the spraying solution. The minimum resistivity value was obtained with a 5 vol.% acetic acid (pH = 3.71) at substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. The deposition rates obtained were as high as 180 A{center_dot}min{sup -1} at a substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive ZnO:In thin films were deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is of low cost, high growth rates and scalable for industrial applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is appropriate for the deposition of metallic oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effect of acetic acid, time deposition and substrate temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc acetate and indium chloride were used as precursor materials.

  8. Physical and photo-electrochemical characterizations of ZnO thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray method: Application to HCrO{sub 4}{sup −} photoreduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebbar, N. [Department of Materials and Compounds, Faculty of Physics, USTHB, BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Trari, M., E-mail: solarchemistry@gmail.com [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Doulache, M. [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Boughelout, A.; Chabane, L. [Department of Materials and Compounds, Faculty of Physics, USTHB, BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2014-02-15

    ZnO thin films, prepared by ultrasonic spray onto glass substrate, crystallize in the wurtzite structure. The XRD pattern shows preferential orientation along the [0 0 2] direction. The films deposited at 350 °C consist of 60 nm crystallites with an average thickness of ∼150 nm and SEM images show rough surface areas. The gap increases with increasing the temperature of the substrate and a value of 3.25 eV is obtained for films deposited at 350 °C. ZnO is nominally non-stochiometric and exhibits n-type conduction because of the native defects such as oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) and/or interstitial zinc atom (Zn{sub i}) which act as donor shallows. The conductivity is thermally activated and obeys to an exponential type law with activation energy of 57 meV and an electron mobility of 7 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The capacitance-voltage (C{sup −2} V) measurement in acid electrolyte (pH ∼ 3) shows a linear behavior with a positive slope, characteristic of n-type conduction. A flat band potential of −0.70 V{sub SCE} and a donors density of 5.30 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} are determined. The Nyquist plot exhibits two semicircles attributed to a capacitive behavior with a low density of surface states within the gap region. The centre is localized below the real axis with a depletion angle of 16° ascribed to a constant phase element (CPE) due to the roughness of the film. The energy band diagram assesses the potentiality of ZnO films for the photo-electrochemical conversion. As application, 94% of chromate (3.8 × 10{sup −4} M) is reduced after 6 h under sunlight (AM 1) with a quantum yield of 0.06% and the oxidation follows a first order kinetic.

  9. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  10. Investigation of PAM-4 for extending reach in data center interconnect applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Teipen, Brian; Eiselt, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Optical four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) is being widely studied for various short-reach optical interfaces, motivated by the need to keep cost structure low, and to increase link capacity despite various constraints in component bandwidth. When considering PAM-4 in applications...... with reach significantly greater than 10km, such as in extended data center interconnects which require optical amplification, impairments such as chromatic dispersion, optical filtering, and ASE must be controlled. We investigate and report on requirements of PAM-4 for extended-reach, data center...

  11. Thermal spray coating for corrosion under insulation (CUI) prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Mohd Fazril Irfan Ahmad; Razak, Khalil Abdul; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Othman, Nur Hidayati; Lah, Nik Khairul Irfan Nik Ab

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the predominant issues affecting process of Oil and Gas and Petrochemical industries. CUI refers to external corrosion, but it is difficult to be detected as the insulation cover masks the corrosion problem. One of the options to prevent CUI is by utilizing the protective coating systems. Thermal spray coating (TSC) is an advanced coating system and it shows promising performance in harsh environment, which could be used to prevent CUI. However, the application of TSC is not attractive due to the high initial cost. This work evaluates the potential of TSC based on corrosion performance using linear polarization resistance (LPR) method and salt spray test (SST). Prior to the evaluation, the mechanical performance of TSC was first investigated using adhesion test and bend test. Microstructure characterization of the coating was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The LPR test results showed that low corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/years was obtained for TSC in compared to the bare steel especially at high temperature of 80 °C, where usually normal coating would fail. For the salt spray test, there was no sign of corrosion products especially at the center (fully coated region) was observed. From SEM images, no corrosion defects were observed after 336 hours of continuous exposure to salt fog test. This indicates that TSC protected the steel satisfactorily by acting as a barrier from a corrosive environment. In conclusion, TSC can be a possible solution to minimize the CUI in a long term. Further research should be done on corrosion performance and life cycle cost by comparing TSC with other conventional coating technology.

  12. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

  13. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  14. Sound Spray - can-shaped sound effect device

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gibeom; Lee, Kyogu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a sound effect device, which was applicable forspray paint art process. For the applicability research of the device, wedesigned a prototype which had a form not far off the traditional spray cans,using Arduino and various sensors. Through the test process of the prototype,we verified the elements that would be necessary to apply our newly designeddevice to real spray paint art activities. Thus we checked the possibility ofvarious musical expressions by expanding th...

  15. Applied Virtual Reality Research and Applications at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, mission operations training and science training. Before this technology can be utilized with confidence in these applications, it must be validated for each particular class of application. That is, the precision and reliability with which it maps onto real settings and scenarios, representative of a class, must be calculated and assessed. The approach of the MSFC VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical tools will then be available for use in the design and development of space systems and operations and in training and mission support systems. Specific validation studies for selected classes of applications have been completed or are currently underway. These include macro-ergonomic "control-room class" design analysis, Spacelab stowage reconfiguration training, a full-body micro-gravity functional reach simulator, and a gross anatomy teaching simulator. This paper describes the MSFC VR Applications Program and the validation studies.

  16. A Novel Cloud-Based Service Robotics Application to Data Center Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Orlando Russo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a robotic application aimed at performing environmental monitoring in data centers. Due to the high energy density managed in data centers, environmental monitoring is crucial for controlling air temperature and humidity throughout the whole environment, in order to improve power efficiency, avoid hardware failures and maximize the life cycle of IT devices. State of the art solutions for data center monitoring are nowadays based on environmental sensor networks, which continuously collect temperature and humidity data. These solutions are still expensive and do not scale well in large environments. This paper presents an alternative to environmental sensor networks that relies on autonomous mobile robots equipped with environmental sensors. The robots are controlled by a centralized cloud robotics platform that enables autonomous navigation and provides a remote client user interface for system management. From the user point of view, our solution simulates an environmental sensor network. The system can easily be reconfigured in order to adapt to management requirements and changes in the layout of the data center. For this reason, it is called the virtual sensor network. This paper discusses the implementation choices with regards to the particular requirements of the application and presents and discusses data collected during a long-term experiment in a real scenario.

  17. A Novel Cloud-Based Service Robotics Application to Data Center Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ludovico Orlando; Rosa, Stefano; Maggiora, Marcello; Bona, Basilio

    2016-08-08

    This work presents a robotic application aimed at performing environmental monitoring in data centers. Due to the high energy density managed in data centers, environmental monitoring is crucial for controlling air temperature and humidity throughout the whole environment, in order to improve power efficiency, avoid hardware failures and maximize the life cycle of IT devices. State of the art solutions for data center monitoring are nowadays based on environmental sensor networks, which continuously collect temperature and humidity data. These solutions are still expensive and do not scale well in large environments. This paper presents an alternative to environmental sensor networks that relies on autonomous mobile robots equipped with environmental sensors. The robots are controlled by a centralized cloud robotics platform that enables autonomous navigation and provides a remote client user interface for system management. From the user point of view, our solution simulates an environmental sensor network. The system can easily be reconfigured in order to adapt to management requirements and changes in the layout of the data center. For this reason, it is called the virtual sensor network. This paper discusses the implementation choices with regards to the particular requirements of the application and presents and discusses data collected during a long-term experiment in a real scenario.

  18. Development of process data capturing, analysis and controlling for thermal spray techniques - SprayTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, C.; Marke, S.; Trommler, U.; Rupprecht, C.; Weis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal spraying processes are becoming increasingly important in high-technology areas, such as automotive engineering and medical technology. The method offers the advantage of a local layer application with different materials and high deposition rates. Challenges in the application of thermal spraying result from the complex interaction of different influencing variables, which can be attributed to the properties of different materials, operating equipment supply, electrical parameters, flow mechanics, plasma physics and automation. In addition, spraying systems are subject to constant wear. Due to the process specification and the high demands on the produced coatings, innovative quality assurance tools are necessary. A central aspect, which has not yet been considered, is the data management in relation to the present measured variables, in particular the spraying system, the handling system, working safety devices and additional measuring sensors. Both the recording of all process-characterizing variables, their linking and evaluation as well as the use of the data for the active process control presuppose a novel, innovative control system (hardware and software) that was to be developed within the scope of the research project. In addition, new measurement methods and sensors are to be developed and qualified in order to improve the process reliability of thermal spraying.

  19. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland OR, Houston TX, and Galveston TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulant of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  20. Patient-centered innovation in health care organizations: a conceptual framework and case study application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Susan E; Conrad, Douglas A; Marcus-Smith, Miriam S; Reed, Peter; Watts, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centered innovation is spreading at the federal and state levels. A conceptual framework can help frame real-world examples and extract systematic learning from an array of innovative applications currently underway. The statutory, economic, and political environment in Washington State offers a special contextual laboratory for observing the interplay of these factors. We propose a framework for understanding the process of initiating patient-centered innovations-particularly innovations addressing patient-centered goals of improved access, continuity, communication and coordination, cultural competency, and family- and person-focused care over time. The framework to a case study of a provider organization in Washington State actively engaged in such innovations was applied in this article. We conducted a selective review of peer-reviewed evidence and theory regarding determinants of organizational change. On the basis of the literature review and the particular examples of patient-centric innovation, we developed a conceptual framework. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted to illustrate the framework with concrete examples of patient-centered innovation. The primary determinants of initiating patient-centered innovation are (a) effective leadership, with the necessary technical and professional expertise and creative skills; (b) strong internal and external motivation to change; (c) clear and internally consistent organizational mission; (d) aligned organizational strategy; (e) robust organizational capability; and (f) continuous feedback and organizational learning. The internal hierarchy of actors is important in shaping patient-centered innovation. External financial incentives and government regulations also significantly shape innovation. Patient-centered care innovation is a complex process. A general framework that could help managers and executives organize their thoughts around innovation within their organization is presented.

  1. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  2. Characterization of Lanthanum Ferric Cobaltite doped with Strontium (LSCF) films deposited by spray-pyrolysis for application as cathode in PaCOS-TI; Caracterizacao de filmes de CFLE depositados por spray-pirolise para utilizacao como catodo em PaCOS-TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.S.; Guimaraes, V.F.; Paes Junior, H.R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados], Emails: laryssadsa@yahoo.com.br, valtencyguimaraes@yahoo.com.br, herval@uenf.br

    2010-07-01

    The lanthanum ferric cobaltite doped with strontium (LSCF) is a ceramic material with the perovskite structure that stands out in the field of research for its use as cathode in solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC). The films were synthesized by spray-pyrolysis technique on 8% mol Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. It was studied the influence of heat treatment temperatures (600-1000 deg C) on the properties of the films under the conditions of treatment during four hours. Samples were tested electrically by measuring the variation of electrical conductivity with temperature, structurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films heat treated at 700 deg C for 4 hours showed better performance for application as cathode. (author)

  3. Avaliação de pontas de pulverização hidráulicas na aplicação de fungicida em feijoeiro Evaluation of hydraulic spray nozzles for fungicide application on common beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As pontas de pulverização são um dos componentes mais importantes dos pulverizadores hidráulicos para aplicação de agrotóxicos por afetarem as características do jato emitido. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar três pontas de pulverização hidráulicas (jato plano padrão, jato plano antideriva e jato cônico vazio no controle de doenças do feijoeiro. O fungicida clorotalonil foi aplicado aos 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência (DAE, num volume de água de 125 L ha-1. Para comparação, foi utilizada uma testemunha que não recebeu o defensivo. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os primeiros sintomas da antracnose, da mancha-angular e da ferrugem foram observados já aos 20 DAE. A densidade de gotas obtida com as três pontas de pulverização foi superior a 60 gotas cm-2. As três pontas proporcionaram controle satisfatório das doenças e não houve diferença entre pontas. Em média, o aumento da produtividade devido ao fungicida foi de 76%, em relação à testemunha.The spray nozzles are one of the most important components of pesticide hydraulic sprayer because they affect the characteristics of the emitted spray. The objective of this study was to evaluate three hydraulic spray nozzles (standard flat fan, low drift flat fan and hollow cone for bean diseases control upon application of the fungicide chlorothalonil applied at 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after emergency (DAE in a water volume of 125 L ha-1. For comparison, a non-treated plot was used. A randomized complete-block design with four replications was used. The first symptoms of anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust were observed at 20 DAE. The droplet density obtained with the three spray nozzles was above 60 droplets cm-2. The fungicide applied with the three nozzles provided satisfactory control of the diseases and there were no differences among nozzles. On average, bean yield increased 76% due to the fungicide applications.

  4. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)]. E-mail: moreira@dem.ist.utl.pt; Carvalho, Joao [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal); Panao, Miguel R.O. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)

    2007-04-15

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  5. Challenging and development of phosphors for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-02-01

    Phosphors (inorganics luminescent material) have been extensively investigated due to their potential application especially for lighting. This article briefly reviews the developments of the phosphors for lighting application. Research and development of phosphors for the application of energy-saving lamps have been developed in the Laboratory of Instrumentation System and Functional Materials Processing, Department of Physics, Universitas Padjadjaran. To fulfill the desired feature for lighting application, we developed host-center type phosphor with compositional modifications prepared by spray pyrolysis and simple solution routes. In order to meet the industry requirement with high production rate, currently we scaled up the spray pyrolysis utilized with a pulse combustion reactor.

  6. Exergy analysis of encapsulation of photochromic dye by spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çay, A.; Akçakoca Kumbasar, E. P.; Morsunbul, S.

    2017-10-01

    Application of exergy analysis methodology for encapsulation of photochromic dyes by spray drying was presented. Spray drying system was investigated considering two subsystems, the heater and the dryer sections. Exergy models for each subsystem were proposed and exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of each subsystem and the whole system were computed. Energy and exergy efficiency of the system were calculated to be 5.28% and 3.40%, respectively. It was found that 90% of the total exergy inlet was destroyed during encapsulation by spray drying and the exergy destruction of the heater was found to be higher.

  7. Study of the droplet size of sprays generated by swirl nozzles dedicated to gasoline direct injection: measurement and application of the maximum entropy formalism; Etude de la granulometrie des sprays produits par des injecteurs a swirl destines a l'injection directe essence: mesures et application du formalisme d'entropie maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyaval, S.

    2000-06-15

    This PhD presents a study on a series of high pressure swirl atomizers dedicated to Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). Measurements are performed in stationary and pulsed working conditions. A great aspect of this thesis is the development of an original experimental set-up to correct multiple light scattering that biases the drop size distributions measurements obtained with a laser diffraction technique (Malvern 2600D). This technique allows to perform a study of drop size characteristics near the injector tip. Correction factors on drop size characteristics and on the diffracted intensities are defined from the developed procedure. Another point consists in applying the Maximum Entropy Formalism (MEF) to calculate drop size distributions. Comparisons between experimental distributions corrected with the correction factors and the calculated distributions show good agreement. This work points out that the mean diameter D{sub 43}, which is also the mean of the volume drop size distribution, and the relative volume span factor {delta}{sub v} are important characteristics of volume drop size distributions. The end of the thesis proposes to determine local drop size characteristics from a new development of deconvolution technique for line-of-sight scattering measurements. The first results show reliable behaviours of radial evolution of local characteristics. In GDI application, we notice that the critical point is the opening stage of the injection. This study shows clearly the effects of injection pressure and nozzle internal geometry on the working characteristics of these injectors, in particular, the influence of the pre-spray. This work points out important behaviours that the improvement of GDI principle ought to consider. (author)

  8. The development of a clinical outcomes survey research application: Assessment CenterSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Nan E.; Hanrahan, Rachel T.; Jansky, Liz J.; Harniss, Mark; Riley, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The National Institutes of Health sponsored Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) aimed to create item banks and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) across multiple domains for individuals with a range of chronic diseases. Purpose Web-based software was created to enable a researcher to create study-specific Websites that could administer PROMIS CATs and other instruments to research participants or clinical samples. This paper outlines the process used to develop a user-friendly, free, Web-based resource (Assessment CenterSM) for storage, retrieval, organization, sharing, and administration of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instruments. Methods Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions were conducted with representatives from numerous institutions in order to supply a general wish list of features. Use Cases were then written to ensure that end user expectations matched programmer specifications. Program development included daily programmer “scrum” sessions, weekly Usability Acceptability Testing (UAT) and continuous Quality Assurance (QA) activities pre- and post-release. Results Assessment Center includes features that promote instrument development including item histories, data management, and storage of statistical analysis results. Conclusions This case study of software development highlights the collection and incorporation of user input throughout the development process. Potential future applications of Assessment Center in clinical research are discussed. PMID:20306332

  9. The development of a clinical outcomes survey research application: Assessment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard; Rothrock, Nan E; Hanrahan, Rachel T; Jansky, Liz J; Harniss, Mark; Riley, William

    2010-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health sponsored Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) aimed to create item banks and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) across multiple domains for individuals with a range of chronic diseases. Web-based software was created to enable a researcher to create study-specific Websites that could administer PROMIS CATs and other instruments to research participants or clinical samples. This paper outlines the process used to develop a user-friendly, free, Web-based resource (Assessment Center) for storage, retrieval, organization, sharing, and administration of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instruments. Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions were conducted with representatives from numerous institutions in order to supply a general wish list of features. Use Cases were then written to ensure that end user expectations matched programmer specifications. Program development included daily programmer "scrum" sessions, weekly Usability Acceptability Testing (UAT) and continuous Quality Assurance (QA) activities pre- and post-release. Assessment Center includes features that promote instrument development including item histories, data management, and storage of statistical analysis results. This case study of software development highlights the collection and incorporation of user input throughout the development process. Potential future applications of Assessment Center in clinical research are discussed.

  10. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  11. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  12. CuS p-type thin film characterization deposited on Ti, ITO and glass substrates using spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) for light emitting diode (LED) application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabah, Fayroz A., E-mail: fayroz-arif@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: naser@usm.my; Hassan, Z., E-mail: zai@usm.my; Azzez, Shrook A. [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Rasheed, Hiba S., E-mail: hibasaad1980@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Al-Hazim, Nabeel Z., E-mail: nabeelnano333@gmail.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ministry of Education, the General Directorate for Educational Anbar (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    The copper sulphide (CuS) thin films were grown with good adhesion by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) on Ti, ITO and glass substrates at 200 °C. The distance between nozzle and substrate is 30 cm. The composition was prepared by mixing copper chloride CuCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as a source of Cu{sup 2+} and sodium thiosulfate Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O as a source of and S{sup 2−}. Two concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 M) were used for each CuCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} to be prepared and then sprayed (20 ml). The process was started by spraying the solution for 3 seconds and after 10 seconds the cycle was repeated until the solution was sprayed completely on the hot substrates. The structural characteristics were studied using X-ray diffraction; they showed covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure for 0.2 M concentration, and covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure with two small peaks of chalcocite Cu{sub 2}S hexagonal crystal structure for 0.4 M concentration. Also the surface and electrical characteristics were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and current source device, respectively. The surface study for the CuS thin films showed nanorods to be established for 0.2 M concentration and mix of nanorods and nanoplates for 0.4 M concentration. The electrical study showed ohmic behavior and low resistivity for these films. Hall Effect was measured for these thin films, it showed that all samples of CuS are p- type thin films and ensured that the resistivity for thin films of 0.2 M concentration was lower than that of 0.4 M concentration; and for the two concentrations CuS thin film deposited on ITO had the lowest resistivity. This leads to the result that the conductivity was high for CuS thin film deposited on ITO substrate, and the conductivity of the three thin films of 0.2 M concentration was higher than that of 0.4 M concentration.

  13. HVOF Combustion spraying of inconel powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacalle, D. J.; Ortiz, M. G.; Miller, C. S.; Steeper, T. J.; Rotolico, A. J.; Nerz, J.; Rlggs, W. L.

    1993-06-01

    A major trend in the thermal spray industry has been to increase the gas jet velocity to obtain better coating attributes. One emerging technology now used in industry is the high-velocity oxygen fuel process (HVOF). High-velocity spray guns combine oxygen and a fuel gas to generate heat and extremely high particle velocities. In this study, Inconel 718 powder was deposited on steel substrates. The primary coating function was electrical resistivity for a heater application. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi L8 statistical fractional/factorial design parametric study. The Taguchi experiment evaluated the effect of six HVOF processing variables on the measured responses. The parameters were oxygen flow, fuel flow, air envelope gas flow, powder feed rate, spray distance, and nozzle configuration. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, surface profilometry, optical metallography, and image analysis. This article investigates coating hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure with respect to the influence of the processing parameters. Analytical studies were conducted to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics for two of the HVOF thermal spray experiments.

  14. GO evaluation of a PWR spray system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.T.

    1975-08-01

    GO is a reliability analysis methodology developed over the years from 1960 to the present by Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. In this report the GO methodology is presented and its application demonstrated by performing a reliability analysis of a conceptual PWR Containment Spray System. Certain numerical results obtained are compared with those of a prior fault tree analysis of the same system as documented in the 11 January 1973 draft report, A Fault Tree Evaluation of a PWR Spray System

  15. Microbial transport from dairying under two spray-irrigation systems in Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Murray; Noonan, Mike; Hector, Ross; Bright, John

    2010-01-01

    Transport through the soil and vadose zone to groundwater of Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, and Campylobacter spp. from pasturing of dairy cows was studied on two working dairy farms under a traveling irrigator and a center pivot system. Leachate was collected from 1.5 m depth using a large linear lysimeter over a period of 4 yr after rainfall or irrigation applied using a traveling irrigator. There was little transport of fecal coliforms or Campylobacter from irrigation applications of 55 mm. There was some transport of fecal coliforms at applications of 80 mm (corresponding to irrigation plus heavy rainfall) but no detectable Campylobacter. When fresh cow pats were placed on half of the lysimeter plots with an 80-mm water application, there was transport of fecal coliforms and Campylobacter, but levels of Campylobacter were low (spray irrigation was monitored monthly from September 2001 to June 2007, with 60% of samples being collected from downgradient wells. Escherichia coli were detected in 5.4 and 2.8% of samples from upgradient and downgradient wells, respectively, at concentrations of >or=1 cfu 100 mL(-1). Campylobacter was detected in 0.7% of samples over the study period, with equal percentages from up- and downgradient wells. The results indicate minimal impact of dairying at these sites on microbial quality of groundwater as a result of spray irrigation using traveling irrigators at rates of approximately 55 mm every 2 wk or center pivot irrigators at 18 mm every 3 to 4 d.

  16. Effect of paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block application for pain relief during suction termination of first-trimester pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Özoğlu, Nil; Aksoy, Ülkü; Albayrak, Evrim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block with ultracaine on curettage procedure. A total of 111 subjects with the request of pregnancy termination between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The first group (control group) consisted of 20 participants without medication. The second group consisted of 25 participants receiving 2 puffs of lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. The third group consisted of 20 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The fourth group consisted of 23 participants receiving 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the fifth group consisted of 23 participants receiving paracervical block with ultracaine. Paracervical block reduced pain score significantly in both intraoperative and postoperative periods. All analgesic procedures were significantly effective for reducing pain in postoperative period. Paracervical block may be the best method for reducing pain scores in intraoperative and postoperative periods during curettage procedure. All analgesic procedures such as lidocaine, paracetamol, ultracaine, and paracervical block with ultracaine can be used for reducing pain score in postoperative period. This trial is registered with NCT01947205.

  17. Effect of paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, lidocaine spray, pethidine & diclofenac sodium application for pain relief during fractional curettage: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gökhan; Bayraktar, Evrim; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Başer, Mürvet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Oğuz; Müderris, İptisam İpek

    2015-10-01

    Patients frequently experience pain of moderate to severe degree during gynaecologic procedures. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, pethidine and diclofenac sodium on fractional curettage procedure. A total of 144 multiparous women were randomly allocated to one of the six groups. The first group (control group) consisted of 22 participants and they did not receive any treatment. The second group had 26 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The 23 participants of the third group received two puff lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. t0 he forth group consisted of 25 participants receiving 100 mg pethidine. In the fifth group, the 23 participants received 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the sixth group consisted of 25 participants receiving diclofenac sodium. Pethidine was the best choice for reducing pain score during curettage procedure (t2:intra-operative). All analgesic procedures were significantly effective in reducing pain during postoperative period (t3). Significant pain reduction was achieved for both intra- and postoperative period by using analgesics. The results of our study showed that lidocaine puffs provided the best pain relief than the other analgesics used. Therefore, lidocaine may be considered as the first choice analgesic in fractional curettage (NCT ID: 01993589).

  18. Effect of Paracetamol, Dexketoprofen Trometamol, Lidocaine Spray, and Paracervical Block Application for Pain Relief during Suction Termination of First-Trimester Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Açmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block with ultracaine on curettage procedure. A total of 111 subjects with the request of pregnancy termination between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The first group (control group consisted of 20 participants without medication. The second group consisted of 25 participants receiving 2 puffs of lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. The third group consisted of 20 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The fourth group consisted of 23 participants receiving 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the fifth group consisted of 23 participants receiving paracervical block with ultracaine. Paracervical block reduced pain score significantly in both intraoperative and postoperative periods. All analgesic procedures were significantly effective for reducing pain in postoperative period. Paracervical block may be the best method for reducing pain scores in intraoperative and postoperative periods during curettage procedure. All analgesic procedures such as lidocaine, paracetamol, ultracaine, and paracervical block with ultracaine can be used for reducing pain score in postoperative period. This trial is registered with NCT01947205.

  19. Application of a cold spray technique to the fabrication of a copper canister for the geological disposal of CANDU spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radioactive Waste Management Technology Development, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radioactive Waste Management Technology Development, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A new method was proposed for the manufacture of a copper-cast iron canister for the spent fuel disposal based on the cold spray coating technique. The thickness of a copper shell could be fabricated to be as thin as 10 mm with the new method. Around 6 tons of copper could be saved with a 10 mm thick canister compared with a 50 mm thick canister. The electrochemical properties of the cold sprayed copper layer and forged copper were measured through a polarization test. The two copper layers showed very similar electrochemical properties. The lifetime of a 10 mm copper canister was estimated with a mathematical model based on the mass transport of sulfide ions through the buffer. The results showed that the canister lifetime was more than 140,000 years under the Korean granite groundwater condition. The thermal analysis with a current pre-conceptual design of a CANDU spent fuel canister showed that the maximum temperature between the canister and the saturated buffer was below the thermal criteria, 100 {sup o}C. Finally, the mechanical stability of the copper canister was confirmed with a computer program, ABAQUS, under the rock movement scenario.

  20. Intermetallic Al-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray for Applications on Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchinsky, E.; Sobiesiak, A.; Maev, R.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of a duplex structure with a metallic bond coat and a ceramic heat insulating topcoat. They possess the desired low thermal conductivity, but at the same time they are very brittle and sensitive to thermal shock and thermal cycling due to the inherently low coefficient of thermal expansion. Recent research activities are focused on the developing of multilayer TBC structures obtained using cold spraying and following annealing. Aluminum intermetallics have demonstrated thermal and mechanical properties that allow them to be used as the alternative TBC materials, while the intermetallic layers can be additionally optimized to achieve superior thermal physical properties. One example is the six layer TBC structure in which cold sprayed Al-based intermetallics are synthesized by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. These multilayer coating systems demonstrated an improved thermal fatigue capability as compared to conventional ceramic TBC. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS and mechanical tests to define the TBC material properties and intermetallic formation mechanisms.

  1. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 w...

  2. Development and application of the global rainbow refractometry for the study of heat and mass transfers in a spray; Developpement et application de la refractometrie arc-en-ciel global pour l'etude des transferts massique et thermique dans un spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P

    2004-12-15

    During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressure Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen produced by the degradation and oxidation of the reactor core and high pressure water vapor can be released into the reactor containment. The repartition of the hydrogen in the reactor containment is then dependent of the forced (mixed or natural) convection flows which will be established. This type of accidental scenario will lead then to the pressurization of the reactor containment and to a potential risk of hydrogen combustion, able to prejudice to the integrity of the reactor. One of the means of PWR safety, called spraying, consists to release cold water sprays in the reactor containment, with the aim to make its internal pressure and its temperature decrease, on account of the condensation of water vapor on the injected water droplets. Moreover, the spraying leads to a mixing of the gaseous mixture containing air, water vapor and hydrogen, and contributes to make the hydrogen local concentration decreased. The TOSQAN experiment, developed at the IRSN, allows to reproduce the thermal-hydraulic conditions which represent accidental sequences able to happen in a PWR. In the frame of the current program consecrated to the spraying study, an innovating optical technique has been implemented on the TOSQAN experiment to finely characterize the mass and heat transfers between a spray and the surrounding atmosphere. This work gives into details the development of the global rainbow technique which allows to measure, in a non intrusive way, the temperature of the droplets during their fall. This technique has been coupled with others optical diagnoses such as the spontaneous Raman diffusion spectrometry, the PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and the implementation imagery, to respectively measure the water vapor parts as well as the velocities and the droplets sizes. The obtained experimental results have led to a global and local analysis of the interaction between the

  3. Application and development of reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) in worldwide nuclear power field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Huang Lijun

    2010-01-01

    Reliability-centered Maintenance (RCM) is widely applied and plays important part in maintenance fields of industrial enterprises, the achievements of which including improving equipment reliability and availability, and reducing the cost of operation and maintenance. Implementation of RCM is well popularized in foreign nuclear power fields, however, the processes of relevant studies and applications in domestic nuclear power fields are still relatively backward. Based on investigation and comparison, this paper presented the introduction of applications of RCM in nuclear power fields all over the world, such as America, France, South Africa, Korea, Spain, Britain and China, and analyzed the innovations and effects resulted from RCM experiences in different countries. The developments and prospects of RCM were discussed and predicted at the last. (authors)

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, Tim [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kammen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonell, Vince [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Samuelsen, Scott [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beyene, Asfaw [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Ganji, Ahmad [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC) was formed in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission to provide education, outreach, and technical support to promote clean energy -- combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, and waste energy recovery (WHP) -- development in the Pacific Region. The region includes California, Nevada, Hawaii, and the Pacific territories. The PCEAC was operated as one of nine regional clean energy application centers, originally established in 2003/2004 as Regional Application Centers for combined heat and power (CHP). Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, these centers received an expanded charter to also promote district energy and waste energy recovery, where economically and environmentally advantageous. The centers are working in a coordinated fashion to provide objective information on clean energy system technical and economic performance, direct technical assistance for clean energy projects and additional outreach activities to end users, policy, utility, and industry stakeholders. A key goal of the CEACs is to assist the U.S. in achieving the DOE goal to ramp up the implementation of CHP to account for 20% of U.S. generating capacity by 2030, which is estimated at a requirement for an additional 241 GW of installed clean technologies. Additional goals include meeting the Obama Administration goal of 40 GW of new CHP by 2020, key statewide goals such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in each state, California’s greenhouse gas emission reduction goals under AB32, and Governor Brown’s “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” goal of 6.5 GW of additional CHP over the next twenty years. The primary partners in the PCEAC are the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Energy and Resources Group (ERG) at UC Berkeley, the Advanced Power and Energy Program (APEP) at UC Irvine, and the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC

  5. Experimental Comparison of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 and DMT for Data Center Interconnect Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We experiment......Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We...... experimentally investigate and compare both modulation formats at a data rate of 56 Gb/s and a transmission wavelength of 1544 nm using the same experimental setup. We show that PAM-4 outperforms double sideband DMT and also vestigial sideband DMT for the optical back-to-back (b2b) case and also...... for a transmission distance of 80 km SSMF in terms of required OSNR at a FEC-threshold of 3.8e-3. However, it is also pointed out that both versions of DMT do not require any optical dispersion compensation to transmit over 80 km SSMF while this is essential for PAM-4. Thus, implementation effort and cost may...

  6. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  7. Simple one step spray process for CuInS2 / In2S3 heterojunctions on flexible substrates for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-09-01

    Flexible semiconducting devices such as solar cells and displays have been a recent attraction. Unlike heavy, brittle glass substrates, plastics and metallic foils have advantage of flexibility. They also have added advantages like good thermal stability and high melting point. In this paper we present a very simple method for the growth of Copper Indium Sulphide (CIS) films by depositing merely Indium Sulphide (InS) directly over the Cu foil using simple and economical chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of volume of precursor solution on structural and morphological properties of the films were studied. Finally trials on heterojunctions with a structure of Cu foil/CIS/InS/Ag were also employed. Further improvement on heterojunction is expected by optimizing the morphological and structural properties of the film.

  8. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  9. Navato Center Regulatory Permit Application by Novato Center Inc. Marin County, California Public Notice 10138-33R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    no technical evaluation of the strength of the Novato Creek levees. However, it appears that because of their age, settlement, and probable method of...Shopping Center in San Rafael, can vary in size from 300,000 to over 1,000,000 square feet of retail area. The strength of regional centers is dependent...i :aaiB suop1iluaouOD apixouow uoqz13£01 ip.1BpuV39 a4.L -suopea~l UO *]JlXOUxOmf uoqz1N J03 pzIQU&29 aIa peaxe 4iSl~ lelutj PSOA a9S044 SA14~1H] ,,m

  10. [Ethyl chloride aerosol spray for local anesthesia before arterial puncture: randomized placebo-controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Peña, Sendoa; Fernández-Aedo, Irrintzi; Vallejo-De la Hoz, Gorka

    2017-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of an ethyl chloride aerosol spray to a placebo spray applied in the emergency department to the skin to reduce pain from arterial puncture for blood gas analysis. Single-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in an emergency department of Hospital de Basurto in Bilbao, Spain. We included 126 patients for whom arterial blood gas analysis had been ordered. They were randomly assigned to receive application of the experimental ethyl chloride spray (n=66) or a placebo aerosol spray of a solution of alcohol in water (n=60). The assigned spray was applied just before arterial puncture. The main outcome variable was pain intensity reported on an 11-point numeric rating scale. The median (interquartile range) pain level was 2 (1-5) in the experimental arm and 2 (1-4.5) in the placebo arm (P=.72). Topical application of an ethyl chloride spray did not reduce pain caused by arterial puncture.

  11. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  12. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  13. Aerial electrostatic-charged sprays for deposition and efficacy against sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latheef, Mohamed A; Carlton, James B; Kirk, Ivan W; Hoffmann, W Clint

    2009-07-01

    The efficacy of aerial electrostatic-charged sprays was evaluated for spray deposit characteristics and season-long control of sweet potato whitefly (SWF), Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B (aka B. argentifolii Bellows & Perring), in an irrigated 24 ha cotton field. Treatments included electrostatic-charged sprays at full and half active ingredient (AI) label rate, uncharged sprays and conventional sprays applied with CP nozzles at full label rate with several different insecticides. Spray droplet size was significantly smaller for electrostatic-charged sprays than for conventional sprays in top- and mid-canopy locations. The seasonal mean numbers of viable eggs and live large nymphs on cotton treated with electrostatic-charged sprays were comparable with those on cotton treated with conventional applications. Lethal concentration (LC(50)) for adults for electrostatic-charged sprays was comparable with that for conventional sprays. The amenability of electrostatic-charged sprays to a wide array of pesticides with different chemistries should be a useful tool in combating insect resistance. Results reported here suggest that the potential exists for obtaining increased efficacy against whiteflies using an electrostatic spray charging system, and that additional research will be required to improve charge-to-mass (Q/M) ratio in order to increase deposition of pest control materials to the lower surfaces of cotton leaves where the whiteflies reside. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  15. Characteristics of intermittent fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, B.; Gulari, E.; Henein, N. A.

    1992-03-01

    The spray-tip penetrations and the drop sizes of intermittent fuel sprays were measured by using a modified pulsed optical spray sizer. The average spray tip speeds were determined from simultaneously recorded needle lift signals and obscuration traces. The speeds of a sequence of fuel pulses injected at about 1000 Hz were analyzed to elucidate penetration mechanisms. A correlation that relates penetration distance to time, pressure drop across the nozzle, fuel density, and ambient gas density was obtained. The temporal variations of drop size in penetrating pulses of sprays were measured. The concentration of drops were calculated by combining drop size and obscuration data. The Sauter mean diameter of penetrating fuel drops increased with an increase of the chamber pressure and decreased with an increase of the injection pressure.

  16. Dendritic silica particles with center-radial pore channels: promising platforms for catalysis and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-01-27

    Dendritic silica micro-/nanoparticles with center-radial pore structures, a kind of newly created porous material, have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique open three-dimensional dendritic superstructures with large pore channels and highly accessible internal surface areas compared with conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). They are very promising platforms for a variety of applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. In this review, their unique structural characteristics and properties are first analyzed, then novel and interesting synthesis methods associated with the possible formation mechanisms are summarized to provide material scientists some inspiration for the preparation of this kind of dendritic particles. Subsequently, a few examples of interesting applications are presented, mainly in catalysis, biomedicine, and other important fields such as for sacrificial templates and functional coatings. The review is concluded with an outlook on the prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and potential applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 20 CFR 670.450 - How are applicants who meet eligibility and selection criteria assigned to centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are applicants who meet eligibility and selection criteria assigned to centers? 670.450 Section 670.450 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING..., Eligibility, Screening, Selection and Assignment, and Enrollment § 670.450 How are applicants who meet...

  18. Systematic Review of Data Mining Applications in Patient-Centered Mobile-Based Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Mina; Niakan Kalhori, Sharareh R

    2017-10-01

    Smartphones represent a promising technology for patient-centered healthcare. It is claimed that data mining techniques have improved mobile apps to address patients' needs at subgroup and individual levels. This study reviewed the current literature regarding data mining applications in patient-centered mobile-based information systems. We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for original studies reported from 2014 to 2016. After screening 226 records at the title/abstract level, the full texts of 92 relevant papers were retrieved and checked against inclusion criteria. Finally, 30 papers were included in this study and reviewed. Data mining techniques have been reported in development of mobile health apps for three main purposes: data analysis for follow-up and monitoring, early diagnosis and detection for screening purpose, classification/prediction of outcomes, and risk calculation (n = 27); data collection (n = 3); and provision of recommendations (n = 2). The most accurate and frequently applied data mining method was support vector machine; however, decision tree has shown superior performance to enhance mobile apps applied for patients' self-management. Embedded data-mining-based feature in mobile apps, such as case detection, prediction/classification, risk estimation, or collection of patient data, particularly during self-management, would save, apply, and analyze patient data during and after care. More intelligent methods, such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms, and even the hybrid methods may result in more patients-centered recommendations, providing education, guidance, alerts, and awareness of personalized output.

  19. Measuring the Response Bias Induced by an Experience and Application Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ruyter, Boris; van Geel, Rick; Markopoulos, Panos

    In recent years we have observed the rise of Experience and Application Research centers (EARC). These EARCs simulate realistic environments and are used for the empirical evaluation of interactive systems in a controlled setting. Such laboratory environments are intended to facilitate data collection without influencing the data itself. Accumulated experience in the use of EARCs has raised concerns that test participants could be impressed by the environments and have raised expectations for advanced systems they expect to encounter; this brings about the danger of systematic bias in subjective report data collected with EARCs. To evaluate the impact of an EARC as an instrument, a controlled experiment with 40 test participants was conducted. This experiment involved the replication of a traditional usability test in both the EARC and a traditional laboratory environment. The results of this study provide evidence regarding the validity and reliability of EARCs as instruments for evaluating interactive systems.

  20. Process of optical excitation and relaxation of color center in synthetic diamond and its application to optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of high-pressure synthesized diamond is carried out by using a nuclear reactor or a linac. Then, the effect of annealing on the color centers is observed. A study is made to identify different color centers and to provide techniques to control their introduction. Investigations cover the relation of color center formation with annealing temperature, dependence of color center formation on radiation dose, migration of H3 center and hydrogen, and applicability of five different color centers to optoelectronics. Next, a study is made of the formation and relaxation of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a metastable excited state produced by optical excitation. An optical gain is essential to provide laser. Optical amplification is measured at the vibronic emission band of the NV center. An increase in absorption is detected, indicating that the NV center will not provide laser. In the optical excitation-relaxation process, the relaxation proceeds via a metastable state. Finally, hole burning of ZPL of the NV center is observed in the temperature range from 20K to 80K, and some of its features are described. (N.K.)

  1. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  2. Shear Strengthening of RC Beams Using Sprayed Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohamad Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of externally bonded sprayed glass fiber reinforced polymer (Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening of RC beams under quasi-static loading is investigated. Different techniques were utilized to enhance the bond between concrete and Sprayed GFRP, involving the use of through bolts and nuts paired with concrete surface preparation through sandblasting and through the use of a pneumatic chisel prior to Sprayed GFRP application. It was found that roughening the concrete surface using a pneumatic chisel and using through bolts and nuts were the most effective techniques. Also, Sprayed GFRP applied on 3 sides (U-shaped was found to be more effective than 2-sided Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening. Sprayed GFRP increased the shear load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capacities of RC beams. It was found that the load-carrying capacity of strengthened RC beams was related to an effective strain of applied Sprayed GFRP. This strain was related to Sprayed GFRP configuration and the technique used to enhance the concrete-FRP bond. Finally, an equation was proposed to calculate the contribution of Sprayed GFRP in the shear strength of an RC beam.

  3. Log-stable laws as asymptotic solutions to a fragmentation equation:Application to the distribution of droplets in a high Weber-number spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbert, Nicolas; Séro-Guillaume, Olivier

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, it will be shown that “totally skewed to the left” log-stable distributions are suitable asymptotic solutions to a fragmentation equation. This result generalizes Kolmogorov’s work on log-normal distribution for the drops’ size number distribution of particles under pulverization. Indeed, Kolmogorov’s discrete process is extended to a continuous time Markov process for the volume distribution instead of the number distribution. New hypotheses are then introduced which lead to log-stable distributions as asymptotic solutions of the fragmentation equation. Log-stable laws are then used to fit experimental probability distribution function (pdf) of Simmons and Hanratty measuring drop sizes in a horizontal annular gas-liquid flow at high Weber number [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 27, 861 (2001)]. Log-stable pdf better fits to the experimental pdf than usual empirical spray pdf and especially, because of the heavy tail of the associated stable distribution, in the small drops part of the distribution.

  4. Tailoring a High Temperature Corrosion Resistant FeNiCrAl for Oxy-Combustion Application by Thermal Spray Coating and HIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Metsäjoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel combustion combined with CCS (carbon capture and storage aims to decrease CO2 emissions in energy production using fossil fuels. Oxygen firing changes power plant boiler conditions compared to conventional firing. Higher material temperatures and harsher and more variable environmental conditions cause new degradation processes that are inadequately understood at the moment. In this study, an Fe-Ni-Cr-Al alloy was developed based on thermodynamic simulations. The chosen composition was manufactured as powder by gas atomization. The powder was sieved into two fractions: The finer was used to produce thermal spray coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF and the coarser to manufacture bulk specimens by hot isostatic pressing (HIP. The high temperature corrosion properties of the manufactured FeNiCrAl coating and bulk material were tested in laboratory conditions simulating oxy-combustion. The manufacturing methods and the results of high temperature corrosion performance are presented. The corrosion performance of the coating was on average between the bulk steel references Sanicro 25 and TP347HFG.

  5. Development of SnS (FTO/CdS/SnS) thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, A. M. S.; Valanarasu, S.; Jeyadheepan, K.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report a well-organized analysis on various key-properties of SnS thin films for solar cell fabricated by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction study reveals the polycrystalline nature of deposited films with orthorhombic crystal structure. The crystallite size was calculated and observed to be in the range of 8-28 nm with increasing molarity of precursor solution. The stoichiometry composition of SnS was confirmed by EDX study. SEM/AFM studies divulge the well-covered deposited surface with spherical grains and the size of grains is increasing with concentration and so the roughness. A remarkable decrease in band gap from 2.6 eV to 1.6 eV was noticed by raising the molar concentration from 0.025 M up to 0.075 M. A single strong emission peak at about 825 nm is observed in PL spectra with enhanced intensity which may be attributed to near band edge emission. From the Hall effect measurement, it was found that the SnS thin film exhibits p-type conductivity. The calculated values of resistivity and carrier concentration are 0.729 Ω cm and 3.67 × 1018/cm3 respectively. Furthermore, to study the photovoltaic properties of SnS thin films a heterojunction solar cell, FTO/n-CdS/p-SnS was produced and the conversion efficiency was recorded about 0.01%.

  6. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  7. Lu2O3-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings for Environmental Barrier Application by Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying and Influence of Precursor Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Quet, Aurélie; Braidy, Nadi; Gitzhofer, François

    2014-02-01

    As environmental barrier coatings are subjected to thermal stress in gas turbine engines, the introduction of a secondary phase as zircon (ZrSiO4) is likely to increase the stress resistance of Lu2Si2O7 coatings generated by induction plasma spraying using liquid precursors. In a first step, precursor chemistry effect is investigated by the synthesis of ZrO2-SiO2 nanopowders by induction plasma nanopowder synthesis technique. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon precursor and zirconium oxynitrate and zirconium ethoxide as zirconium precursors are mixed in ethanol and produce a mixture of tetragonal zirconia and amorphous silica nanoparticles. The use of zirconium ethoxide precursor results in zirconia particles with diameter below 50 nm because of exothermic thermal decomposition of the ethoxide and its high boiling point with respect to solvent, while larger particles are formed when zirconium oxynitrate is employed. The formation temperature of zircon from zirconia and silica oxides is found at 1425 °C. Second, coatings are synthesized in Lu2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 system. After heat treatment, the doping effect of lutetium on zirconia grains totally inhibits the zircon formation. Dense coatings are obtained with the use of zirconium ethoxide because denser particles with a homogeneous diameter distribution constitute the coating.

  8. Dose-Dependent Effects of CeO2 on Microstructure and Antibacterial Property of Plasma-Sprayed TiO2 Coatings for Orthopedic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Liu, Gaopeng; Zheng, Hai; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively for orthopedic and dental implants. Although these devices have achieved high rates of success, two major complications may be encountered: the lack of osseointegration and the biomaterial-related infection. Accordingly, cerium oxide (CeO2)-doped titanium oxide (TiO2) materials were coated on titanium by an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) technique. The phase structures, morphologies, and surface chemical states of the obtained coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The in vitro antibacterial and cytocompatibility of the materials were studied with Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus, ATCC25923) and osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1. The results indicated that the addition of CeO2 shifts slightly the diffraction peaks of TiO2 matrix to low angles but does not change its rutile phase structure. In addition, the CeO2/TiO2 composite coatings possess dose-dependent corrosion resistance and antimicrobial properties. And doping of 10 wt.% CeO2 exhibits the highest activity against S. aureus, improved corrosion resistance, and competitive cytocompatibility, which argues a promising option for balancing the osteogenetic and antibacterial properties of titanium implants.

  9. Status of emergency spray modelling in the integral code ASTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumecocq, W.; Passalacqua, R.

    2001-01-01

    Containment spray systems are emergency systems that would be used in very low probability events which may lead to severe accidents in Light Water Reactors. In most cases, the primary function of the spray would be to remove heat and condense steam in order to reduce pressure and temperature in the containment building. Spray would also wash out fission products (aerosols and gaseous species) from the containment atmosphere. The efficiency of the spray system in the containment depressurization as well as in the removal of aerosols, during a severe accident, depends on the evolution of the spray droplet size distribution with the height in the containment, due to kinetic and thermal relaxation, gravitational agglomeration and mass transfer with the gas. A model has been developed taking into account all of these phenomena. This model has been implemented in the ASTEC code with a validation of the droplets relaxation against the CARAIDAS experiment (IPSN). Applications of this modelling to a PWR 900, during a severe accident, with special emphasis on the effect of spray on containment hydrogen distribution have been performed in multi-compartment configuration with the ASTEC V0.3 code. (author)

  10. Deposição de calda pulverizada na cultura da soja promovida pela aplicação aérea e terrestre Spray deposition on soybean crop in aerial and ground application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. A. R. da Cunha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da tecnologia de aplicação aérea e terrestre de fitossanitários na deposição de calda, na cultura da soja. Avaliou-se, após a aplicação de um traçador, a deposição nas partes inferior e superior do dossel da cultura, por meio de espectrofotometria. O ensaio foi conduzido no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos (formas de aplicação: 1 - Terrestre (Ponta de jato cônico vazio-TXA 8002 e 180 L ha-1; 2 - Terrestre (Ponta de jato plano defletor duplo com indução de ar-AITTJ 11002 e 150 L ha-1; 3 - Terrestre (Ponta de jato plano defletor com indução de ar-TTI 11002 e 150 L ha-1; 4 - Terrestre (Ponta de jato plano defletor duplo-TTJ60 11002 e 150 L ha-1; 5 - Terrestre (Ponta de jato plano defletor-TT 11002 e 150 L ha-1; 6 - Aéreo (Atomizador rotativo e 40 L ha-1; 7 - Aéreo (Atomizador rotativo e 30 L ha-1; e 8 - Aéreo (Atomizador rotativo e 20 L ha¹. Também foi conduzido um estudo de espectro de gotas. As aplicações terrestres com ponta de jato cônico vazio e aérea (40 L ha-1 foram as mais eficientes em promover a penetração da calda no dossel, embora seus espectros de gotas sejam mais suscetíveis à deriva. A aplicação aérea mostrou-se viável tecnicamente, quanto à deposição de calda, em comparação aos tratamentos terrestres.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aerial and ground application technology in spray deposition on soybean crop. It was evaluated the spray deposition on the bottom and the top of the plant canopy, after application of a tracer, by spectrophotometric technique. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications and eight treatments (application technologies: 1 - Ground (Hollow cone nozzle-TXA 8002 and 180 L ha-1 2 - Ground (Air induction turbo twin flat fan nozzle-AITTJ 11002 and 150 L ha-1, 3 - Ground (Air induction turbo flat fan nozzle-TTI 11002 and 150 L ha-1, 4

  11. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as the...

  12. Effects of growth temperatures on the physical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films deposited through spray pyrolysis for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadavieslam, M. R.; Keshavarz, S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the effects of substrate temperature on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films deposited on soda lime glass through spray pyrolysis without sulfurization. Substrate temperatures ranged from 250 to 500 °C at a step of 50 °C, and a precursor solution was prepared by dissolving copper chloride, zinc acetate, zinc chloride, and thiourea in ethanol and di-ionized water. The films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and electrical resistance and Hall effect measurements, respectively, obtained by two-point probe and van der Pauw techniques. XRD revealed the formation of polycrystalline CZTS thin films and the appearance of relatively intense and sharp diffraction peaks at (112), (200), (220), and (312) of a kesterite phase with (112) preferential orientation, in which the crystalline degree increased as substrate temperature increased. Surface morphological analysis demonstrated the formation of a smooth, compact, and uniform CZTS surface. When substrate temperature increased from 250 to 500 °C, single-crystal grains increased from 6.38 to 28 nm, carrier concentration increased from 3.4 × 1017 to 2.36 × 1019 cm-3, Hall mobility increased from 30.96 to 68.52 cm2/V.S, optical band gap decreased from 1.74 to 1.14 eV, and resistivity decreased from 0.59 to 3.87 × 10-3 Ωcm. Hall effect analysis indicated that the films exhibited p-type conductivity.

  13. Fabrication of Eu doped CdO [Al/Eu-nCdO/p-Si/Al] photodiodes by perfume atomizer based spray technique for opto-electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, M.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd; Chandramohan, R.; Arun Kumar, K. Deva; Valanarasu, S.; Kathalingam, A.; AlFaify, S.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, thin films of cadmium oxide (CdO) with different concentrations (0, 1, 3, and 5 wt%) of Eu doping were deposited onto Si and glass substrates by a novel and facile spray technique using simple perfume atomizer for the first time. Prepared films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical properties and the photo diode studies, using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Isbnd V characteristics, and fundamental parameters are reported. All the prepared Eu:CdO films exhibit cubic structure. The preferential orientation is along (200) plane. Scanning electron microscopy study indicates the growth of smooth and pin-hole free films with clusters of homogeneous grains. The values of band gap energy are found to be varying from 2.42 to 2.33 eV for various Eu doping concentration from 0 to 5 wt%. EDAX studies revealed the presence of Eu, Cd and O elements without any other impurities. FTIR spectra showed a peak at 575 cm-1 confirming the stretching mode of Cdsbnd O. The resistivity (ρ), high carrier concentration (n) and carrier mobility (μ) for 3 wt% CdO thin film are found to be 0.452 × 10-3(Ω.cm), 17.82 × 1020 cm-3 and 7.757 cm2/V, respectively. Current-voltage measurements on the fabricated nanostructured Al/Eu-nCdO/p-Si/Al heterojunction device showed a non-linear electric characteristics indicating diode like behaviour.

  14. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  15. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula s "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA s SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT s experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  16. Patient Centered Tablet Application for improving medication adherence after a Drug Eluting Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Shah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study’s objective was to evaluate a patient-centered educational electronic tablet application, My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App (MyIDEA to see if there was an increase in patient knowledge about dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT and medication possession ratio (MPR compared to treatment as usual. Methods: In a pilot project, 24 elderly (≥50 years-old research participants were recruited after a Drug Eluting Stent. 11 were randomized to the control arm and 13 to the interventional arm. All participants completed psychological and knowledge questionnaires. Adherence was assessed through MPR, which was calculated at three months for all participants who were scheduled for a second and third follow-up visit.Results: Relative to control, the interventional group had a 10% average increase in MPR. As compared to the interventional group, more patients in the control group had poor adherence (<80% MPR. The psychological data revealed a single imbalance in anxiety between the control and interventional groups. On average interventional participants spent 21 minutes using MyIDEA. Discussion: Consumer health informatics has enabled us to engage patients with their health data using novel methods. Consumer health technology needs to focus more on patient knowledge and engagement to improve long term health. MyIDEA takes a unique approach in targeting DAPT from the onset.Conclusion: MyIDEA leverages patient centered information with clinical care and the electronic health record highlighting the patients’ role as a team member in their own healthcare. The patients think critically about adverse events and how to solve issues before leaving the hospital.

  17. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Limaye, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula's "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA's SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT's experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  18. Distribuição de líquido da ponta de pulverização com indução de ar e jato excêntrico AIUB 8502 sob diferentes condições Liquid distribution of air induction and off-center spray nozzles under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Viana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a distribuição de líquido da ponta de pulverização com indução de ar e jato excêntrico AIUB 8502 sob diferentes condições operacionais. Foram avaliados perfil individual, vazão, ângulo de abertura do jato, faixa de aplicação e distribuição volumétrica simulada de duas pontas AIUB 8502 nas pressões de trabalho de 200, 300, 400 e 500 kPa, altura de 30, 40 e 50 cm em relação ao alvo e espaçamento entre pontas de 30 a 100 cm. Todas as análises foram realizadas seguindo a norma ISSO 5682-1, com algumas adaptações. A ponta apresentou distribuição de líquido excêntrica com um lado descontínuo e extremidade oposta excêntrica, com queda abrupta do volume de líquido. À medida que se aumentou a altura da barra e a pressão de trabalho, alongou-se o perfil do jato. O maior número de configurações uniformes foi obtido na altura de 50 cm, decrescendo nas alturas de 40 e 30 cm. A vazão e o ângulo do jato excêntrico aumentaram com o incremento na pressão, não havendo diferença entre o ângulo do jato descontínuo e o total entre as pressões de 400 e 500 kPa e de 200 e 300 kPa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the liquid distribution of air induction and off-center AIUB 8502 spray nozzles under different operating conditions. Individual profile, spray nozzle outflow, spray angle, spray width and simulated distribution profile for two AIUB 8502 nozzles at working pressures of 200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa, height of 30, 40 and 50 cm from the target and 30 to 100 cm spacing were evaluated. All the tests were performed following ISO 5682-1 with some adaptations. The nozzles presented an eccentric liquid distribution with a discontinuous side and eccentric opposing end, with sharp decrease in volume. Profile distribution increased with increased bar height and working pressure. The largest number of uniform configurations was obtained at the height of 50 cm, decreasing at the

  19. The Earth Resources Observation Systems data center's training technical assistance, and applications research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDO, administered by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, provides remotely sensed data to the user community and offers a variety of professional services to further the understanding and use of remote sensing technology. EDC reproduces and sells photographic and electronic copies of satellite images of areas throughout the world. Other products include aerial photographs collected by 16 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Primary users of the remotely sensed data are Federal, State, and municipal government agencies, universities, foreign nations, and private industries. The professional services available at EDC are primarily directed at integrating satellite and aircraft remote sensing technology into the programs of the Department of the Interior and its cooperators. This is accomplished through formal training workshops, user assistance, cooperative demonstration projects, and access to equipment and capabilities in an advanced data analysis laboratory. In addition, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, and the general public can get assistance from the EDC Staff. Since 1973, EDC has contributed to the accelerating growth in development and operational use of remotely sensed data for land resource problems through its role as educator and by conducting basic and applied remote sensing applications research. As remote sensing technology continues to evolve, EDC will continue to respond to the increasing demand for timely information on remote sensing applications. Questions most often asked about EDC's research and training programs include: Who may attend an EDC remote sensing training course? Specifically, what is taught? Who may cooperate with EDC on remote sensing projects? Are interpretation services provided on a service basis? This report attempts to define the goals and

  20. Mathematical modeling and numerical study of a spray in a rarefied gas. Application to the simulation of dust particle transport in ITER in case of vacuum loss accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, F.

    2009-11-01

    The thesis deals with kinetic models describing a rarefied spray. These models rely on coupling two Partial Differential Equations which describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the distribution of molecules and dust particles. The model presented in the first part is described by two Boltzmann-type equations where collisions between molecules and particles are modeled by two collision operators. We suggest two models of this collision operators. In the first one, collisions between dust particles and molecules are supposed to be elastic. In the second one, we assume those collisions are inelastic and given by a diffuse reflexion mechanism on the surface of dust specks. This leads to establish non classical collision operators. We prove that in the case of elastic collisions, the spatially homogeneous system has weak solutions which preserve mass and energy, and which satisfy an entropy inequality. We then describe the numerical simulation of the inelastic model, which is based on a Direct Simulation Method. This brings to light that the numerical simulation of the system becomes too expensive because the typical size of a dust particle is too large. We therefore introduce in the second part of this work a model constituted of a coupling (by a drag force term) between a Boltzmann equation and a Vlasov equation. To this end, we perform a scaling of the Boltzmann/Boltzmann system and an asymptotic expansion of one of the dimensionless collision operators with respect to the ratio of mass between a molecule of gas and a particle. A rigorous proof of the passage to the limit is given in the spatially homogeneous setting, for the elastic model of collision operators. It includes a new variant of Povzner's inequality in which the vanishing mass ratio is taken into account. Moreover, we numerically compare the Boltzmann/Boltzmann and Vlasov/Boltzmann systems with the inelastic collision operators. The simulation of the Vlasov equation is performed with a Particle

  1. Review on Cold Spray Process and Technology: Part I—Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irissou, Eric; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Ryabinin, Anatoly N.; Jodoin, Bertrand; Moreau, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The number of research papers as well as of patents and patent applications on cold spray and cold spray related technologies has grown exponentially in the current decade. This rapid growth of activity brought a tremendous amount of information on this technology in a short period of time. The main motivation for this review is to summarize the rapidly expanding common knowledge on cold spray to help researchers and engineers already or soon to be involved for their future endeavors with this new technology. Cold spray is one of the various names for describing an all-solid-state coating process that uses a high-speed gas jet to accelerate powder particles toward a substrate where they plastically deform and consolidate upon impact. Cold gas dynamic spray, cold spray, kinetic spray, supersonic particle deposition, dynamic metallization or kinetic metallization are all terminologies found in the literature that designate the above-defined coating process. This review on cold spray technology is divided into two parts. In this article, Part I, patents and patent applications related to this process are reviewed, starting from the first few mentions of the idea at the beginning of the 20th century to its practical discovery in Russia in the 1980s and its subsequent occidental development and commercialization. The patent review encompasses Russian and USA patents and patent applications. Part II will review the scientific literature giving a general perspective of the current understanding and capability of this process.

  2. Visible emitting color centers in lithium fluoride for X-ray imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfigli, F.; Almaviva, S.; Cedola, A.; Franzini, I.; Lagomarsino, S.; Pelliccia, D.; Montereali, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Novel solid-state X-ray imaging detectors have been proposed, tested and they are currently under development for application in photonics, biological investigations and material science, as well as in the characterization of intense X-ray sources. Such as detectors are based on the photoluminescence (PL) of stable color centers (CCs) embedded in lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals and films and their readout process consists of detecting the visible PL of CCs under optical excitation. The improvements of the LiF-based detector sensitivity and response are particularly important in X-ray imaging experiments for reducing the irradiation doses and consequently the sample damage due to the radiation exposure, especially for biological specimens. The characterization of LiF samples colored with 8 keV X-rays from a compact table-top source through photoluminescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy will be presented and discussed in order to investigate the characteristics of these novel X-ray imaging detectors.

  3. Visible emitting color centers in lithium fluoride for X-ray imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfigli, F., E-mail: francesca.bonfigli@enea.i [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, V. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Almaviva, S. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, V. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Cedola, A. [Istituto Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, V. Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy); Franzini, I. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, V. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lagomarsino, S. [Istituto Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, V. Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy); Pelliccia, D. [Institut fuer Synchrotronstrahlung, ANKA, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Herman-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Montereali, R.M. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, V. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Novel solid-state X-ray imaging detectors have been proposed, tested and they are currently under development for application in photonics, biological investigations and material science, as well as in the characterization of intense X-ray sources. Such as detectors are based on the photoluminescence (PL) of stable color centers (CCs) embedded in lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals and films and their readout process consists of detecting the visible PL of CCs under optical excitation. The improvements of the LiF-based detector sensitivity and response are particularly important in X-ray imaging experiments for reducing the irradiation doses and consequently the sample damage due to the radiation exposure, especially for biological specimens. The characterization of LiF samples colored with 8 keV X-rays from a compact table-top source through photoluminescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy will be presented and discussed in order to investigate the characteristics of these novel X-ray imaging detectors.

  4. Application of participatory ergonomics to the redesign of the family-centered rounds process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cox, Elizabeth D.; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Kelly, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics (PE) can promote the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles to healthcare system redesign. This study applied a PE approach to redesigning the family-centered rounds (FCR) process to improve family engagement. Various FCR stakeholders (e.g., patients and families, physicians, nurses, hospital management) were involved in different stages of the PE process. HFE principles were integrated in both the content (e.g., shared mental model, usability, workload consideration, systems approach) and process (e.g., top management commitment, stakeholder participation, communication and feedback, learning and training, project management) of FCR redesign. We describe activities of the PE process (e.g., formation and meetings of the redesign team, data collection activities, intervention development, intervention implementation) and present data on PE process evaluation. To demonstrate the value of PE-based FCR redesign, future research should document its impact on FCR process measures (e.g., family engagement, round efficiency) and patient outcome measures (e.g., patient satisfaction). PMID:25777042

  5. Space and Materials Reservation Software in Mobile Applications Development: The Case of Istanbul Aydin University Information Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agah Alıcı

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain the adoption of mobile application ICReserve (Information Center Reserve to improve the library services in terms of user satisfaction and management processes with an innovative approach. ICReserve is a kind of reservation software developed specifically for the needs of University Library by the Istanbul Aydin University IT Department and is integrated to the institution’s other information systems. This article contains technical information about mobile application development.

  6. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally considered nonpoisonous, but it can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  7. Put the concert attendee in the spotlight : A user-centered design and development approach for classical concert applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.; Liem, C.C.S.

    2015-01-01

    As the importance of real-life use cases in the music information retrieval (MIR) field is increasing, so does the importance of understanding user needs. The development of innovative real-life applications that draw on MIR technology requires a user-centered design and development approach that

  8. Autonomous Precision Spraying Trials Using a Novel Cell Spray Implement Mounted on an Armadillo Tool Carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Midtiby, Henrik

    of weed detection algorithms and spraying strategies is developed. The front part of the cell sprayer implement is a camera module mounted in a shock absorbing frame. The camera module is followed by a spraying module containing nozzles with individual valve control. The implement is designed for use......Precision weeding is one of the most promising applications for autonomous service robots in biological production. Herbicides have been the default weeding solution during the past decades, but there is a growing concern about the environmental impact on drinking water reservoirs etc. The use...... with an Armadillo robotic tool carrier consisting of two battery powered track modules mounted on each side of the implement. This paper focus on the cell sprayer implement design including camera system, sprayer module and integration with the service robot and the robot software. The FroboMind software platform...

  9. Development & characterization of alumina coating by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jobin; Scaria, Abyson; Kurian, Don George

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on metals to prevent them from oxidation and corrosion at room as well as elevated temperatures. The service environment, mechanisms of protection, chemical and mechanical compatibility, application method, control of coating quality and ability of the coating to be repaired are the factors that need to be considered while selecting the required coating. The coatings based on oxide materials provides high degree of thermal insulation and protection against oxidation at high temperatures for the underlying substrate materials. These coatings are usually applied by the flame or plasma spraying methods. The surface cleanliness needs to be ensured before spraying. Abrasive blasting can be used to provide the required surface roughness for good adhesion between the substrate and the coating. A pre bond coat like Nickel Chromium can be applied on to the substrate material before spraying the oxide coating to avoid chances of poor adhesion between the oxide coating and the metallic substrate. Plasma spraying produces oxide coatings of greater density, higher hardness, and smooth surface finish than that of the flame spraying process Inert gas is often used for generation of plasma gas so as to avoid the oxidation of the substrate material. The work focuses to develop, characterize and optimize the parameters used in Al2O3 coating on transition stainless steel substrate material for minimizing the wear rate and maximizing the leak tightness using plasma spray process. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The parameters that are to be optimized are plasma voltage, spraying distance and the cooling jet pressure. The characterization techniques includes micro-hardness and porosity tests followed by Grey relational analysis of the results.

  10. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  11. Adaptação de um pulverizador de tração humana para aplicação localizada de herbicidas Adaptation of a manual spray for herbicide application at specific site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Viliotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho adaptar um pulverizador de tração humana para aplicação localizada de herbicidas. Para o desenvolvimento do circuito eletrônico, foi elaborado um programa computacional em linguagem Assembly, com informações sobre a variação da resistência elétrica no LDR (Resistor Dependente de Luz referente à radiação global incidente e refletida para quatro tipos de superfícies diferentes (plantas dicotiledôneas, plantas monocotiledôneas, palhada de trigo e solo. Concluiu-se que é possível e economicamente viável a utilização do sensor LDR para detecção de plantas daninhas.The objective of this work was to adapt a manual spray for herbicide application at specific site. For the development of the electronic circuit, a computer program in Assembly language was elaborated, with information on the variation of the electric resistance in LDR (Light Dependent Resistance, referring to the incident and reflected global radiation for four types of different surfaces (dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, wheat straw and soil. It was concluded that it is possible and economically viable to utilize the LDR sensor to detect weeds.

  12. Dielectric and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Pala, Zdeněk; Kotlan, Jiří; Soumar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 600-616 ISSN 1221-1451. [International Conference on Plasma Physics and Applications/16./. Magurele, Bucharest, 20.06.2013-25.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : olivine * plasma spraying * dielectric properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2015 www.infim.ro/rrp

  13. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    76, No. 1. — journal of. January 2011 physics pp. 153–163. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited aluminium-doped ZnO thin films. S TEWARI1 and A BHATTACHARJEE2,∗ ... It is a versatile material with good electrical and optical ... applications for detecting hazardous gases, including LPG [13,14]. 2.

  14. Establishing Guidelines to Retain Viability of Probiotics during Spray Drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    We present the application of a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to

  15. Energy efficient powder production by closed-loop spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Visser, Quirien; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop dryers are able to reduce the energy consumption in milk powder production up to 60% compared to current practice. Application of monodisperse droplet atomizers eliminates the presence of fines in the exhaust air of spray dryers. It allows the recirculation of the exhaust air over the

  16. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  17. Application of Fuzzy Delphi TOPSIS to Locate Logistics Centers in Vietnam: The Logisticians’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Yen Pham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistics centers have emerged as an important logistics infrastructure in supply chains. Hence, the problem of locating logistics centers plays a crucial role in designing and practicing logistics and supply chain management. Acknowledging the significance of logistics centers, Vietnam approved a master plan for the development of a logistics center system. However, the plan has been difficult to implementation because of the lack of the prioritization of the determinants used to locate logistics centers. This study aims to develop a benchmarking framework for choosing the locations of logistics centers based on the findings of logisticians by applying a hybrid of the fuzzy method and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS, both of which are utilized extensively to overcome problems in selecting locations. The results indicate that freight demand, closeness to market, production area, customers, and transportation costs are regarded as the most important factors in deciding the location of logistics centers. In addition, among the three locations considered, the northeast provinces of Ho Chi Minh City were the best location for logistic centers, followed by North Hanoi and Da Nang city. The findings of this study make a significant contribution to both academic and practical aspects of locating logistic centers.

  18. Resource-saving method of electric arc spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Roianov, Viacheslav O.; Bobikov, Volodymyr I.

    2015-01-01

    On the modern stage of development of resource-saving technologies the basic support is given to the economy of materials consumption without the change of the amount of their use. The special attention is given to the universal methods of renewal of details, and electric arc spraying which has a wide application did not become an exception. The review of the literary data shows that the applied electric arc spraying guns have a large expense of the compressed air. It results in the intensive...

  19. Steroid nanocrystals prepared using the nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-01-25

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. In this study, the preparation of steroid nanocrystals using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle size was controlled by selecting the mesh aperture size. Submicrometer steroid particles in powder form were successfully obtained. These nanoparticles were confirmed to have a crystal structure using powder X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. Since drug nanocrystals have recently been considered as a novel type of drug formulation for drug delivery systems, this study will be useful for nano-medical applications.

  20. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  1. Space data management at the NSSDC (National Space Sciences Data Center): Applications for data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), established in 1966, is the largest archive for processed data from NASA's space and Earth science missions. The NSSDC manages over 120,000 data tapes with over 4,000 data sets. The size of the digital archive is approximately 6,000 gigabytes with all of this data in its original uncompressed form. By 1995 the NSSDC digital archive is expected to more than quadruple in size reaching over 28,000 gigabytes. The NSSDC digital archive is expected to more than quadruple in size reaching over 28,000 gigabytes. The NSSDC is beginning several thrusts allowing it to better serve the scientific community and keep up with managing the ever increasing volumes of data. These thrusts involve managing larger and larger amounts of information and data online, employing mass storage techniques, and the use of low rate communications networks to move requested data to remote sites in the United States, Europe and Canada. The success of these thrusts, combined with the tremendous volume of data expected to be archived at the NSSDC, clearly indicates that innovative storage and data management solutions must be sought and implemented. Although not presently used, data compression techniques may be a very important tool for managing a large fraction or all of the NSSDC archive in the future. Some future applications would consist of compressing online data in order to have more data readily available, compress requested data that must be moved over low rate ground networks, and compress all the digital data in the NSSDC archive for a cost effective backup that would be used only in the event of a disaster.

  2. Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofallo, Silvia Bueno; Machado, Daniel Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Bordim, Odemir Jr.; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Portal, Vera Lúcia, E-mail: veraportal.pesquisa@gmail.com [Post-Graduation Program in Health Sciences: Cardiology, Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery.

  3. Translating research into practice through user-centered design: An application for osteoarthritis healthcare planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Eloise Cj; Babione, Julie N; Marshall, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    To identify the needs and requirements of the end users, to inform the development of a user-interface to translate an existing evidence-based decision support tool into a practical and usable interface for health service planning for osteoarthritis (OA) care. We used a user-centered design (UCD) approach that emphasized the role of the end-users and is well-suited to knowledge translation (KT). The first phase used a needs assessment focus group (n=8) and interviews (n=5) with target users (health care planners) within a provincial health care organization. The second phase used a participatory design approach, with two small group sessions (n=6) to explore workflow, thought processes, and needs of intended users. The needs assessment identified five design recommendations: ensuring the user-interface supports the target user group, allowing for user-directed data explorations, input parameter flexibility, clear presentation, and provision of relevant definitions. The second phase identified workflow insights from a proposed scenario. Graphs, the need for a visual overview of the data, and interactivity were key considerations to aid in meaningful use of the model and knowledge translation. A UCD approach is well suited to identify health care planners' requirements when using a decision support tool to improve health service planning and management of OA. We believe this is one of the first applications to be used in planning for health service delivery. We identified specific design recommendations that will increase user acceptability and uptake of the user-interface and underlying decision support tool in practice. Our approach demonstrated how UCD can be used to enable knowledge translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Outline of renovation for Mihama Public Relations (PR) Center on atomic power generation and nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    The Mihama PR Center of Kansai Electric Power Co. on atomic power generation and nuclear applications is now under entire renovation. It was constructed accompanying the construction of No. 1 unit in Mihama Nuclear Power Station, and opened in November, 1967, as the only PR facility of open house system. Since then, more than 1.9 million persons visited there in 15 years. Recently the space has become difficult to provide satisfactorily sophisticated exhibits because the importance of nuclear power generation has increased, and the diversified contents have been required. On the other hand, its building was cramped since many rooms were accommodated in the single round building of total area 815 m/sup 2/. In addition, the building has required drastic looking-over because of its deterioration and damages due to aging. The promotion of the understanding for the early securing of nuclear power plant location has been decided as the principal promotion item. The plan includes the modification of the existing building to the exhibition hall only as well as the completion and re-arrangement of the exhibits. It has been determined to construct a new building connected to the existing building, which accommodates a meeting hall, offices, utility machine room, etc., a total area being increased to 1457 m/sup 2/. The fund required is about 600 million yen. The construction work has started on December 1, 1982, aiming at the opening in July, 1983. The meeting hall is designed to seat about 120 persons and to employ multi-screen image techniques.

  5. Development and application of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    In this work the development of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh is presented and it is applied in the numerical solution of those diffusion equations in multi groups in stationary state and X Y geometry. Originally this scheme was developed by Hennart and del Valle for the monoenergetic diffusion equation with a well-known source and they show that the one scheme is of third order when comparing the numerical solution with the analytical solution of a model problem using several mesh refinements and boundary conditions. The scheme by them developed it also introduces the application of numeric quadratures to evaluate the rigidity matrices and of mass that its appear when making use of the finite elements method of Galerkin. One of the used quadratures is the open quadrature of 4 points, no-standard, of Newton-Cotes to evaluate in approximate form the elements of the rigidity matrices. The other quadrature is that of 3 points of Radau that it is used to evaluate the elements of all the mass matrices. One of the objectives of these quadratures are to eliminate the couplings among the Legendre moments 0 and 1 associated to the left and right faces as those associated to the inferior and superior faces of each cell of the discretization. The other objective is to satisfy the particles balance in weighed form in each cell. In this work it expands such development to multiplicative means considering several energy groups. There are described diverse details inherent to the technique, particularly those that refer to the simplification of the algebraic systems that appear due to the space discretization. Numerical results for several test problems are presented and are compared with those obtained with other nodal techniques. (Author)

  6. Technological Challenges for Spray Chilling Encapsulation of Functional Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Favaro-Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray chilling technology (also known as spray cooling and spray congealing technology has been widely studied and used in the pharmaceutical field. In the food industry, this technique is gaining interest and can become useful because functional food formulations can be developed. Spray chilling is a fat-based system, which involves the addition of the component of interest to a molten lipid carrier, and the resulting mixture is fed through an atomiser nozzle. When the nebulised material is put into contact with the environment, which is cooled below the melting point of the matrix material, the vehicle solidifies (due to heat exchange between the molten material and cold air, and solid lipid microparticles are formed at the same time. This technology is fat based, and lipid carriers, such as wax and oil (e.g. palm oil, beeswax, cocoa butter, and kernel oil can be used. This encapsulation technique can potentially change the functionality, reduce the hygroscopicity, mask taste or odour, change solubility, and provide physical protection in addition to allowing the controlled release of these ingredients. This low-cost technology is relatively simple to apply and scale up, and it does not require the use of organic solvents and the application of high temperatures in the process. Therefore, spray chilling encapsulation may facilitate the development and production of functional and enriched foods as it may solve some technological problems associated with the use of certain ingredients, such as those that have high reactivity and low stability.

  7. Economic Model Predictive Control for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert

    and MPC strategies to optimize the operation of four-stage spray dryers. The models are first-principle dynamic models with parameters identified from dryer specific experiments and powder properties identified from laboratory tests. A simulation model is used for detailed closed-loop simulations...... and a complexity reduced control model is used for state estimation and prediction in the controllers. These models facilitate development and comparison of control strategies. We develop two MPC strategies; a linear tracking MPC with a Real-Time Optimization layer (MPC with RTO) and an Economic Nonlinear MPC (E...... and sticky powder is avoided from building up on the dryer walls; 3) Demonstrate the industrial application of an MPC strategy to a full-scale industrial four-stage spray dryer. The main scientific contributions can be summarized to: - Modeling of a four-stage spray dryer. We develop new first-principles...

  8. The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher T.

    This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

  9. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  10. Application of reliability-centered maintenance to boiling water reactor emergency core cooling systems fault-tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.A.; Feltus, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) methods are applied to boiling water reactor plant-specific emergency core cooling system probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) fault trees. The RCM is a technique that is system function-based, for improving a preventive maintenance (PM) program, which is applied on a component basis. Many PM programs are based on time-directed maintenance tasks, while RCM methods focus on component condition-directed maintenance tasks. Stroke time test data for motor-operated valves (MOVs) are used to address three aspects concerning RCM: (a) to determine if MOV stroke time testing was useful as a condition-directed PM task; (b) to determine and compare the plant-specific MOV failure data from a broad RCM philosophy time period compared with a PM period and, also, compared with generic industry MOV failure data; and (c) to determine the effects and impact of the plant-specific MOV failure data on core damage frequency (CDF) and system unavailabilities for these emergency systems. The MOV stroke time test data from four emergency core cooling systems [i.e., high-pressure coolant injection (HPCI), reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC), low-pressure core spray (LPCS), and residual heat removal/low-pressure coolant injection (RHR/LPCI)] were gathered from Philadelphia Electric Company's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 between 1980 and 1992. The analyses showed that MOV stroke time testing was not a predictor for eminent failure and should be considered as a go/no-go test. The failure data from the broad RCM philosophy showed an improvement compared with the PM-period failure rates in the emergency core cooling system MOVs. Also, the plant-specific MOV failure rates for both maintenance philosophies were shown to be lower than the generic industry estimates

  11. Armstrong Flight Research Center Flight Test Capabilities and Opportunities for the Applications of Wireless Data Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will overview NASA Armstrong Flight Research Centers flight test capabilities, which can provide various means for flight testing of passive and active wireless sensor systems, also, it will address the needs of the wireless data acquisition solutions for the centers flight instrumentation issues such as additional weight caused by added instrumentation wire bundles, connectors, wire cables routing, moving components, etc., that the Passive Wireless Sensor Technology Workshop may help. The presentation shows the constraints and requirements that the wireless sensor systems will face in the flight test applications.

  12. Nasal Sprays: How to Use Them Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sprays the correct way can take some practice. Path to improved health Prescription nasal sprays come in ... thumb at the bottom and your index and middle fingers on top. Insert the canister tip in ...

  13. Sprayed films of europium complexes toward light conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Sabrina A.; Aoki, Pedro H.B.; Constantino, Carlos J.L.; Pires, Ana Maria, E-mail: anapires@fct.unesp.br

    2014-09-15

    Rare-earth complexes have become subject of intensive research due to the high quantum efficiency of their emission, very narrow bands, and excellent fluorescence monochromaticity. The chemical design and characterization of Eu complexes based on β-diketone ligands hexafluoroacetylacetate (hfac) and dibenzoylmetanate (dbm) is reported here. K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] and K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] complexes were immobilized as thin films by using the spray technique, a promising methodology for practical applications. The latter provides not only a faster layer deposition but also larger coated areas compared to conventional methods, such as layer-by-layer (LbL) and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB). The growth of the sprayed films was monitored through microbalance (QCM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy, which reveal a higher mass and absorbance per deposited layer of K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film. Micro-Raman images display a more homogeneous spatial distribution of the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] complex throughout the film, when compared to K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film. At nanometer scale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicate that the roughness of the K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that for the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film, which pattern is kept at micrometer scale according to micro-Raman measurements. The photoluminescence data show that the complexes remain as pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. Besides, the quantum efficiency for the sprayed films are found equivalent to the values achieved for the powders, highlighting the potential of the films for application in light conversion devices. - Highlights: • Rare earth complexes thin films based on β-diketone ligands. • Spraying procedures to fabricate layer-by-layer (LbL) luminescent thin films. • Chemical design of Eu complexes based on hfac and dbm β-diketones ligands immobilized as sprayed films. • Pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. • Sprayed

  14. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar Recent Advances @ the ELEDIA Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salucci, Marco; Tenuti, Lorenza; Nardin, Cristina; Oliveri, Giacomo; Viani, Federico; Rocca, Paolo; Massa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The application of non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE) methodologies in civil engineering has raised a growing interest during the last years because of its potential impact in several different scenarios. As a consequence, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technologies have been widely adopted as an instrument for the inspection of the structural stability of buildings and for the detection of cracks and voids. In this framework, the development and validation of GPR algorithms and methodologies represents one of the most active research areas within the ELEDIA Research Center of the University of Trento. More in detail, great efforts have been devoted towards the development of inversion techniques based on the integration of deterministic and stochastic search algorithms with multi-focusing strategies. These approaches proved to be effective in mitigating the effects of both nonlinearity and ill-posedness of microwave imaging problems, which represent the well-known issues arising in GPR inverse scattering formulations. More in detail, a regularized multi-resolution approach based on the Inexact Newton Method (INM) has been recently applied to subsurface prospecting, showing a remarkable advantage over a single-resolution implementation [1]. Moreover, the use of multi-frequency or frequency-hopping strategies to exploit the information coming from GPR data collected in time domain and transformed into its frequency components has been proposed as well. In this framework, the effectiveness of the multi-resolution multi-frequency techniques has been proven on synthetic data generated with numerical models such as GprMax [2]. The application of inversion algorithms based on Bayesian Compressive Sampling (BCS) [3][4] to GPR is currently under investigation, as well, in order to exploit their capability to provide satisfactory reconstructions in presence of single and multiple sparse scatterers [3][4]. Furthermore, multi-scaling approaches exploiting level

  15. Atmospheric-Pressure-Spray, Chemical- Vapor-Deposited Thin-Film Materials Being Developed for High Power-to- Weight-Ratio Space Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Harris, Jerry D.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Smith, Mark A.; Cowen, Jonathan E.

    2001-01-01

    The key to achieving high specific power (watts per kilogram) space photovoltaic arrays is the development of high-efficiency thin-film solar cells that are fabricated on lightweight, space-qualified substrates such as Kapton (DuPont) or another polymer film. Cell efficiencies of 20 percent air mass zero (AM0) are required. One of the major obstacles to developing lightweight, flexible, thin-film solar cells is the unavailability of lightweight substrate or superstrate materials that are compatible with current deposition techniques. There are two solutions for working around this problem: (1) develop new substrate or superstrate materials that are compatible with current deposition techniques, or (2) develop new deposition techniques that are compatible with existing materials. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been focusing on the latter approach and has been developing a deposition technique for depositing thin-film absorbers at temperatures below 400 C.

  16. 77 FR 480 - Applications for New Awards; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... and will be negotiated at the time of the grant award. IV. Application and Submission Information 1... competition. Page Limit: The application narrative (Part III of the application) is where you, the applicant... 8.5'' x 11'', on one side only, with 1'' margins at the top, bottom, and both sides. Double space...

  17. 77 FR 34359 - Applications for New Awards: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    .... Double space (no more than three lines per vertical inch) all text in the application narrative... be negotiated at the time of the grant award. IV. Application and Submission Information 1. Address... for this competition. Page Limit: The application narrative (Part III of the application) is where you...

  18. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  19. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  20. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  1. Best Practices for International Collaboration and Applications of Interoperability within a NASA Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, D. F.; Armstrong, E. M.; Tauer, E.; Hausman, J.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Chung, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) is one of 12 data centers sponsored by NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project. The PO.DAAC is tasked with archival and distribution of NASA Earth science missions specific to physical oceanography, many of which have interdisciplinary applications for weather forecasting/monitoring, ocean biology, ocean modeling, and climate studies. PO.DAAC has a 20-year history of cross-project and international collaborations with partners in Europe, Japan, Australia, and the UK. Domestically, the PO.DAAC has successfully established lasting partners with non-NASA institutions and projects including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), United States Navy, Remote Sensing Systems, and Unidata. A key component of these partnerships is PO.DAAC's direct involvement with international working groups and science teams, such as the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST), International Ocean Vector Winds Science Team (IOVWST), Ocean Surface Topography Science Team (OSTST), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). To help bolster new and existing collaborations, the PO.DAAC has established a standardized approach to its internal Data Management and Archiving System (DMAS), utilizing a Data Dictionary to provide the baseline standard for entry and capture of dataset and granule metadata. Furthermore, the PO.DAAC has established an end-to-end Dataset Lifecycle Policy, built upon both internal and external recommendations of best practices toward data stewardship. Together, DMAS, the Data Dictionary, and the Dataset Lifecycle Policy provide the infrastructure to enable standardized data and metadata to be fully ingested and harvested to facilitate interoperability and compatibility across data access protocols, tools, and services. The Dataset Lifecycle Policy provides the checks and balances to help ensure all incoming HDF and net

  2. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  3. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  4. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  5. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  6. Optimum cooling of data centers application of risk assessment and mitigation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This book provides data center designers and operators with methods by which to assess and mitigate the risks associated with utilization of optimum cooling solutions. The goal is to provide readers with sufficient knowledge to implement measures such as free air cooling or direct liquid immersion cooling properly, or combination of existing and emerging cooling technologies in data centers, base stations, and server farms. This book also: Discusses various telecommunication infrastructures, with an emphasis on data centers and base stations Covers the most commonly known energy and power management techniques, as well as emerging cooling solutions for data centers Describes the risks to the electronic equipment fitted in these installations and the methods of risk mitigation Devotes  a particular focus to an up-to-date review of the emerging cooling methods (such as free air cooling and direct liquid immersion cooling) and tools and best practices for designers, technology developers, installation operators...

  7. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-04

    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  8. A regional technology transfer program. [North Carolina Industrial Applications Center for the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The proliferation of online searching capabilities among its industrial clients, changes in marketing staff and direction, use of Dun and Bradstreet marketing service files, growth of the Annual Service Package program, and services delivered to clients at the NASA funded North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center are described. The library search service was reactivated and enlarged, and a survey was conducted on the NC/STRC Technical Bulletin's effectiveness. Several quotations from clients assess the overall value of the Center's services.

  9. Wavelength Locking to CO2 Absorption Line-Center for 2-Micron Pulsed IPDA Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Antill, Charles W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This IPDA lidar system targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements. Independent wavelength control of each of the transmitted laser pulses is a key feature for the success of this instrument. The wavelength control unit provides switching, tuning and locking for each pulse in reference to a 2-micron CW (Continuous Wave) laser source locked to CO2 line-center. Targeting the CO2 R30 line center, at 2050.967 nanometers, a wavelength locking unit has been integrated using semiconductor laser diode. The CO2 center-line locking unit includes a laser diode current driver, temperature controller, center-line locking controller and CO2 absorption cell. This paper presents the CO2 center-line locking unit architecture, characterization procedure and results. Assessment of wavelength jitter on the IPDA measurement error will also be addressed by comparison to the system design.

  10. Electrostatic spraying in the chemical control of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in guava trees (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Rafael M; Cunha, João Par; Alves, Thales C; Bueno, Mariana R; Silva, Sérgio M; Zandonadi, César Hs

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the difficulty in reaching targets during pesticide applications on guava trees, it is important to evaluate new technologies that may improve pest management. In electrostatic spraying, an electric force is added to the droplets to control their movements such that they are efficiently directed to the target. The present study evaluated the performance of electrostatic and non-electrostatic spraying in the control of the guava psyllid, the deposition of the spray mixture on the leaves and the losses to the soil. The deposition of the spray mixture was up to 2 times greater when using electrostatic spraying in comparison with non-electrostatic application. The losses of the spray mixture to the soil were up to 4 times smaller with the electrostatic spraying. Electrostatic spraying had better control of the psyllid. It was possible to reduce the volume rate of application with electrostatic spraying without adversely affecting the control of the guava psyllid. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Deltamethrin Barrier Sprays for Mosquito Control in Eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Volkan, Josh K; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Vandock, Kurt

    2017-11-07

    Mosquitoes are a nuisance and potentially transmit pathogens causing numerous diseases worldwide. Homeowners and others may hire private companies to alleviate mosquito-related issues. Here, two pyrethroids (Suspend Polyzone [deltamethrin] and Bifen Insecticide/Termiticide [bifenthrin]) were evaluated on properties in North Carolina for 23 wk from 18 May through 19 October 2015. Properties were treated using backpack mist blowers every 21 d. At 17 fixed sampling locations, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention carbon dioxide-baited traps were deployed overnight once/week for the duration of the experiment. Oviposition traps were deployed weekly at the same locations. Differences were observed in mosquito abundance between neighborhoods, treatments, and weeks and differences varied between species. Mosquito abundance was generally significantly higher in traps placed on control properties (no insecticide) compared to traps placed on treatment properties. Bifenthrin and deltamethrin showed differences from each other in efficacy, but this varied between neighborhoods and species. Future studies could test the efficacy of barrier sprays at different application frequencies and/or in conjunction with weather monitoring. Coupled with regular mosquito surveillance and using integrated pest management principles, barrier sprays can be an effective tool for suppression of mosquito populations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Transfer of Wire Arc-Sprayed Metal Coatings onto Plastic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Liao, X.; Hopmann, Ch.; Ochotta, P.

    2018-01-01

    By means of In-Mold-Metal-Spraying (IMMS), metal coatings deposited by means of arc spraying process (ASP) can be transferred onto plastic parts during injection molding, thus realizing an efficient production of metallized plastic parts. Parts produced by means of IMMS can be used in electrical applications. In the current study, the electrical resistivity of coatings applied with different feedstock materials was determined. As a starting point, pressurized air is used as atomizing gas for ASP. In contrast to Zn coatings, Cu coatings applied with pressurized air exhibit a significantly higher electrical resistivity in comparison with massive material. One possible reason is the more pronounced oxidation of Cu particles during ASP. Therefore, N2 and a mixture of N2 and H2 were used as atomizing gas. As a result, the electrical resistivity of coatings applied by means of IMMS could be significantly reduced. Furthermore, standoff distance, current and pressure of the atomizing gas were varied to investigate the influence of these process parameters on the electrical resistivity of Zn coatings using a full factorial experiment design with center point. It can be observed that the electrical resistivity of the Zn coatings increases with decreasing current and increasing standoff distance and pressure.

  13. An assessment of thermal spray coating technologies for high temperature corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Heimgartner, P.; Gustafsson, S.; Irons, G.; Miller, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of thermally sprayed coatings in combating high temperature corrosion continues to grow in the major industries of chemical, waste incineration, power generation and pulp and paper. This has been driven partially by the development of corrosion resistant alloys, improved knowledge and quality in the thermal spray industry and continued innovation in thermal spray equipment. There exists today an extensive range of thermal spray process options, often with the same alloy solution. In demanding corrosion applications it is not sufficient to just specify alloy and coating method. For the production of reliable coatings the whole coating production envelope needs to be considered, including alloy selection, spray parameters, surface preparation, base metal properties, heat input etc. Combustion, arc-wire, plasma, HVOF and spray+fuse techniques are reviewed and compared in terms of their strengths and limitations to provide cost-effective solutions for high temperature corrosion protection. Arc wire spraying, HP/HVOF and spray+fuse are emerging as the most promising techniques to optimise both coating properties and economic/practical aspects. (orig.)

  14. Controlling the surface nanostructure of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO thin films using electrostatic spraying for their application in 12% efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2014-07-01

    have a smooth surface and are highly suited for optoelectronic applications.In this paper, ZnO and Al-doped ZnO films were deposited using the electrospraying method and studied for the first time as photoanodes for efficient perovskite solar cells. Effects of substrate temperature, deposition time, applied voltage, substrate-to-nozzle distance and flow rate (droplet size) on the morphology of ZnO were studied with the help of FE-SEM images. The major factors such as the droplet size of the spray, substrate temperature and substrate-to-nozzle distance at deposition control the film morphology. Indeed, these factors determine the density of the film, its smoothness and the flow of solution over the substrate. The droplet size was controlled by the flow rate of the spray. The substrate-to-nozzle distance and flow rate will both regulate the solution amount deposited on the surface of the substrate. The most favorable conditions for a good quality ZnO thin film were a long substrate-to-nozzle distance and lower solution flow rates. In situ droplet size measurement shows that the size and dispersion of particles were narrowed. The method was shown to have a high deposition rate and efficiency relative to well-established thin film deposition techniques such as chemical and physical vapor deposition. In addition, it also allows easy control of the microstructure and stoichiometry of the deposits. The pure ZnO film produced under optimum conditions (440 nm thick) demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.8% when used as a photoanode for perovskite solar cells, owing to its high porosity, uniform morphology and efficient electron transport. For thicker films a drastic decrease in PCE was observed due to their low porosity. We also observed that the open-circuit voltage increases from 1010 mV to 1045 mV and also the PCE increases from 10.8% to 12.0% when pure ZnO films were doped with aluminum (Al). Under atmospheric pressure, the electrospraying system

  15. Liquid Methane Testing With a Large-Scale Spray Bar Thermodynamic Vent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Flachbart, R. H.; Sisco, J. D.; Schnell. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted liquid methane testing in November 2006 using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed outfitted with a spray bar thermodynamic vent system (TVS). The basic objective was to identify any unusual or unique thermodynamic characteristics associated with densified methane that should be considered in the design of space-based TVSs. Thirteen days of testing were performed with total tank heat loads ranging from 720 to 420 W at a fill level of approximately 90%. It was noted that as the fluid passed through the Joule-Thompson expansion, thermodynamic conditions consistent with the pervasive presence of metastability were indicated. This Technical Publication describes conditions that correspond with metastability and its detrimental effects on TVS performance. The observed conditions were primarily functions of methane densification and helium pressurization; therefore, assurance must be provided that metastable conditions have been circumvented in future applications of thermodynamic venting to in-space methane storage.

  16. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  17. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and adverse effects and maximum efficacy as well as patients' compliance [1]. Transdermal dosage forms are .... learning and memory in healthy postmenopausal women stabilized on estrogen, over 26 weeks. When the ... forearm instead until the areolae were the same color again and then applied 1 spray to each forearm ...

  18. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  19. 75 FR 59228 - Solicitation of Applications for the MBDA Business Center (MBC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Criteria: For-profit entities (including but not limited to sole-proprietorships, partnerships, and... on time is the sole responsibility of the applicant. Applications submitted must be for the operation...

  20. Analysis of a Hybrid PV/Thermal Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System for Sports Center Water Heating Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Y.; Chow, T. T.; Ménézo, C.; Dupeyrat, P.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the...

  1. Enhancing Accessibility of Web Based GIS Applications through User Centered Design

    OpenAIRE

    Babar, Shahzad; Mehmood, Aamer

    2010-01-01

    Web Accessibility emerged as problem when disabled and elder people started interaction with web contents soon after the inception of World Wide Web. When web based GIS applications appeared on the scene of web and users of these kinds of applications increased, these applications faced the similar problem of accessibility. The intensity of web accessibility problems in GIS based applications has increased rapidly during recent years due to extensive interaction of user with maps. Web Accessi...

  2. 77 FR 41387 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Vocational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    .... Double space (no more than three lines per vertical inch) all text in the application narrative... package for this competition. Page Limit: The application narrative (Part III of the application) is where... (characters per inch). Use one of the following fonts: Times New Roman, Courier, Courier New, or Arial. The...

  3. 77 FR 33725 - Applications for New Awards; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Matching: Cost sharing is required by 34 CFR 350.62(a) and will be negotiated at the time of the grant... application narrative (Part III of the application) is where you, the applicant, address the selection... only, with 1'' margins at the top, bottom, and both sides. Double space (no more than three lines per...

  4. 77 FR 37012 - Applications for New Awards: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... 34 CFR 350.62(a) and will be negotiated at the time of the grant award. IV. Application and... must submit, are in the application package for this competition. Page Limit: The application narrative...'' margins at the top, bottom, and both sides. Double space (no more than three lines per vertical inch) all...

  5. 76 FR 37085 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers (RERCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... such technologies, facilitate service delivery system changes, stimulate the production and... application narrative (Part III of the application) is where you, the applicant, address the selection... narrative (Part III) to the equivalent of no more than 125 pages, using the following standards: A ``page...

  6. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  7. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian flows on center manifolds with applications to elliptic variational problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    The theory of center manifold reduction is studied in this monograph in the context of (infinite-dimensional) Hamil- tonian and Lagrangian systems. The aim is to establish a "natural reduction method" for Lagrangian systems to their center manifolds. Nonautonomous problems are considered as well assystems invariant under the action of a Lie group ( including the case of relative equilibria). The theory is applied to elliptic variational problemson cylindrical domains. As a result, all bounded solutions bifurcating from a trivial state can be described by a reduced finite-dimensional variational problem of Lagrangian type. This provides a rigorous justification of rod theory from fully nonlinear three-dimensional elasticity. The book will be of interest to researchers working in classical mechanics, dynamical systems, elliptic variational problems, and continuum mechanics. It begins with the elements of Hamiltonian theory and center manifold reduction in order to make the methods accessible to non-specialists,...

  8. A new exceptional points method with application to cell-centered Lagrangian schemes and curved meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claisse, A.; Després, B.; Labourasse, E.; Ledoux, F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the numerical simulation of compressible hydrodynamic strong implosions, which take place for instance in Inertial Confinement Fusion. It focuses in particular on two crucial issues, for such calculations: very low CFL number at the implosion center and approximation error on the initial geometry. Thus, we propose an exceptional points method, which is translation invariant and suitable to curved meshes. This method is designed for cell-centered Lagrangian schemes (GLACE, EUCCLHYD). Several numerical examples on significant test cases are presented to show the relevance of our approach.

  9. Decomposition of algebraic sets and applications to weak centers of cubic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingwu; Zhang, Weinian

    2009-10-01

    There are many methods such as Gröbner basis, characteristic set and resultant, in computing an algebraic set of a system of multivariate polynomials. The common difficulties come from the complexity of computation, singularity of the corresponding matrices and some unnecessary factors in successive computation. In this paper, we decompose algebraic sets, stratum by stratum, into a union of constructible sets with Sylvester resultants, so as to simplify the procedure of elimination. Applying this decomposition to systems of multivariate polynomials resulted from period constants of reversible cubic differential systems which possess a quadratic isochronous center, we determine the order of weak centers and discuss the bifurcation of critical periods.

  10. Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Arpagaus, Cordin; Belleteix, Fabrice; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2010-10-15

    Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Application of Barnes Filter to Positioning the Center of Landed Tropical Cyclone in Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After a tropical cyclone (TC making landfall, the numerical model output sea level pressure (SLP presents many small-scale perturbations which significantly influence the positioning of the TC center. To fix the problem, Barnes filter with weighting parameters C=2500 and G=0.35 is used to remove these perturbations. A case study of TC Fung-Wong which landed China in 2008 shows that Barnes filter not only cleanly removes these perturbations, but also well preserves the TC signals. Meanwhile, the centers (track obtained from SLP processed with Barnes filter are much closer to the observations than that from SLP without Barnes filter. Based on the distance difference (DD between the TC center determined by SLP with/without Barnes filter and observation, statistics analysis of 12 TCs which landed China during 2005–2015 shows that in most cases (about 85% the DDs are small (between −30 km and 30 km, while in a few cases (about 15% the DDs are large (greater than 30 km even 70 km. This further verifies that the TC centers identified from SLP with Barnes filter are more accurate compared to that directly obtained from model output SLP. Moreover, the TC track identified with Barnes filter is much smoother than that without Barnes filter.

  12. 77 FR 43578 - Applications for New Awards; American Overseas Research Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... United States sources, have a permanent presence in the country in which the center is located, and are... taxation under section 501(a) of such Code. 2. Cost Sharing or Matching: This program does not require cost... selection criteria based on statutory provisions that apply to the authorized program. (2) The Secretary...

  13. Application of ANSYS Workbench and CFX at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jody L.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the overall work of the Stennis Space Center, with particular attention paid to the systems analysis and modeling being done with ANSYS Workbench and CFX. Examples of the analyses done with ANSYS Workbench and CFX and planned analyses are reviewed.

  14. Enhancing Reading Comprehension with Student-Centered iPad Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Andria L.; Wold, Cheryl M.; Francom, Gregory M.

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension, or understanding the author's message, is a critical component of teaching literacy (Hougen and Smartt 2012). Student-centered activities using the iPad with the goal of improving reading comprehension in a fifth-grade classroom were implemented for this action research study. University teacher candidates guided fifth-grade…

  15. Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center. License application, PSAR, volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Volume 3 comprises Chapter 5 which provides descriptive information on Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center buildings and other facilities, including their locations. The design features discussed include those used to withstand environmental and accidental forces and to insure radiological protection

  16. Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center. License application, PSAR, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A summary of the location and major design features of the proposed Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center is presented. The safety aspects of the proposed facilities and operations are summarized, taking into account possible normal and abnormal operating and environmental conditions. A chapter on site characteristics is included

  17. A central limit theorem for conditionally centered random fields with an application to Markov fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Comets, F.; Janžura, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (1998), s. 608-621 ISSN 0021-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/93/0449 Keywords : Central limit theorem, Markov random fields, conditional centering Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 1998

  18. The Teaching Resources Center: The Application of Practical Teaching Methods for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chiying

    2016-01-01

    The Teaching Resources Center (TRC) was developed at the university as an integrated project funded by the Ministry of Education. The focus of the TRC is not only on enhancing students' motivation in self-access study and written English, but also on providing the resources for research and information to develop lifelong learners and independent…

  19. How to Speed up Optimization? Opposite-Center Learning and Its Application to Differential Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.; Erdbrink, C.D.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new sampling technique called Opposite-Center Learning (OCL) intended for convergence speed-up of meta-heuristic optimization algorithms. It comprises an extension of Opposition-Based Learning (OBL), a simple scheme that manages to boost numerous optimization methods by

  20. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana Maria Maniero; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2016-08-18

    to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%), infectious-sharps (31-42%) and recyclable (5-17%). The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services. propor instrumento para facilitar diagnóstico, elaboração e avaliação de Plano de Gerenciamento de Resíduos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde e apresentar os resultados da aplicação em quatro unidades selecionadas. pesquisa descritiva que contemplou as etapas de construção/aplicação do instrumento proposto e a avaliação de desempenho do gerenciamento de resíduos nas unidades estudadas. geração de instrumento composto por cinco formulários; proposta de indicadores específicos de geração de resíduos para unidades assistenciais de saúde sem

  1. Evaluation of 1, 3, 6, 8-Pyrene Tetra Sulfonic Acid tetra sodium salt (PTSA) as an agricultural spray tracer dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to measure spray deposition and movement with the use of tracer materials is a necessity for agricultural application research. Ideally, any tracer material used is highly soluble in the solution being sprayed, easily recoverable from both artificial and plant samples, stable in solutio...

  2. Evaluation of 809 Cases Applicated to A Rabies Vaccination Center of Diyarbakır Government Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Temiz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study; 809 cases applicated to rabies vaccination center ofDiyarbakır Government Hospital between May 2006 and May 2007 wereevaluated. Human diploid cell vaccine was applicated as 3 doses in 708cases (%87.5 and 5 doses in 101 cases (%12.5. In 66 cases (%8.2 rabiesantiserum was also used. The sites of injury were head-neck in 45 cases(%5.6, body-arm-leg in 563 (%69.6 cases and hand in 201 (%24.8 cases.477 cases (%59 were evaluated as superficial and 332 cases (%41 wereevaluated as deep injury. 626 cases (%77.4 had dog bite, 142 cases (%17.6had cat bite. While 689 cases (%85.2 visited the rabies vaccination center atthe first day of injury, 115 cases (%14.2 visited in 2-5 days and 5 cases(%0.6 visited after 5 days. In conclusion; the sensitivity and the rate of theearly visit of the vaccination center because of suspicious animal contactare high and when compared with developed countries there must be a greateffort in reducing the incidence of suspicious bites.

  3. Efeito da intensidade do vento, da pressão e de pontas de pulverização na deriva de aplicações de herbicidas em pré-emergência Effect of wind intensity, pressure and nozzles on spray drift from preemergence herbicide applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.F. Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de pontas de pulverização, pressão e intensidade do vento na deriva gerada em aplicações simuladas de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência. Os modelos de pontas de pulverização e as respectivas pressões testadas foram: SF 11002 (207 e 310 kPa, JA-2 (345 e 655 kPa e AVI 11002 (207 e 414 kPa. As aplicações foram realizadas em dois períodos, em dias com condições de velocidade de vento distintas, em uma área de 1.200 m², localizada na Fazenda Experimental da FCA/UNESP. Um pulverizador com barra de 12 m, 24 bicos e tanque de 600 L foi utilizado nas aplicações. A calda de aplicação foi composta por água e o corante alimentício FDC-1 foi usado como traçador. A deriva foi amostrada por coletores ativos fixados sobre a barra de pulverização. As velocidades mínimas, médias e máximas de vento registradas no primeiro e segundo períodos das aplicações foram de 7, 14 e 23 km h-1 e 1, 5 e 18 km h-1, respectivamente. Nas duas ocasiões de aplicação, as pontas de pulverização com indução de ar AVI 11002 e de jato cônico vazio JA-2 a 655 kPa resultaram nas menores e maiores quantidades de depósito de líquido detectadas, respectivamente. A maior intensidade do vento incrementou a deriva. A redução na pressão pode ser utilizada para controle de deriva, mas a seleção adequada de uma ponta mostrou ser mais eficiente para esse propósito.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nozzles, spray pressure and wind intensity on spray drift generated in simulated preemergence herbicide applications. The nozzle designs and respective pressures tested were: SF 11002 (207 and 310 kPa, JA-2 (345 and 655 kPa and AVI 11002 (207and 414 kPa. The applications were performed during two periods, on days with different wind conditions, in an area with 1,200 m², in the Experimental Farm of the FCA/UNESP. A sprayer with a 12 m boom, 24 nozzles and tank with 600 L was used for the

  4. Wind tunnel measurement of spray drift from on-off controlled sprayer nozzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Jensen, Peter Kryger; Miller, Paul

    wide surface area with a length of 200 mm. The test was conducted in the wind tunnel at Silsoe Spray Applications Unit in the UK. The measurements consisted of two test series; airborne drift was collected on polyethylene lines more than 375 mm away from the centerline of the nozzle and ground deposits...... and arranged to deliver a pulse of spray using the WeedSeeker valve. The tests were conducted to determine accumulated spray deposit at different crosswind and forward speeds. In general, the deposits, especially those measured downwind close to the target zone showed significant increase as the crosswind...

  5. Residual stress in sprayed Ni+5%Al coatings determined by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Matejicek, J; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Prask, H J

    2002-01-01

    Coatings of nickel-based alloys are used in numerous high-performance applications. Their properties and lifetimes are influenced by factors such as residual stress. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for nondestructive residual stress determination. In this study, through-thickness residual stress profiles in Ni+5%Al coatings on steel substrates were determined. Two examples of significantly different spraying techniques - plasma spraying and cold spraying - are highlighted. Different stress-generation mechanisms are discussed with respect to process parameters and material properties. (orig.)

  6. Center for commercial applications of combustion in space (CCACS); A partnership for space commercialization at the Colorado School of Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.; Kee, Bob; Linne, Mark; McKinnon, Tom; Moore, John; Parker, Terry; Readey, Dennis; Tilton, John E.; Helble, Joe

    1997-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is a NASA/Industry/University consortium at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). The mission of the Center is to assist industry in developing commercial products by conducting combustion research which takes advantage of the unique properties of space. By conducting experiments in near-zero gravity, convection and buoyancy effects can be minimized and new fundamental design-related knowledge can be gained which can be used to improve combustion-related products and processes on earth. Companies, government laboratories and universities most actively involved in CCACS at present include ABB Combustion, ADA Technologies, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Golden Technologies, Lockheed-Martin, Southwest Sciences, Space Systems/Lora, NASA-Lewis, JPL, the Baylor Dental School and the University of Connecticut. Products and processes of interest to the Center participants include industrial process combustors; catalytic combustion; Halon replacements; ceramic powders, whiskers and fibers; metal-matrix composites; NiTi for bone replacement; diamond coatings for oil-well drill bits; zeolites; imaging sensor arrays and other instrumentation for flame and particulate diagnostics. The center also assists member companies in marketing the resulting products and processes.

  7. Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon

    2007-01-01

    Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

  8. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  9. Applications of ANSYS/Multiphysics at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the uses that the ANSYS/Multiphysics system is used for at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Some of the uses of the ANSYS system is used for is MEMS Structural Analysis of Micro-mirror Array for the James Web Space Telescope (JWST), Micro-shutter Array for JWST, MEMS FP Tunable Filter, AstroE2 Micro-calorimeter. Various views of these projects are shown in this presentation.

  10. SimCenter Hawaii: Virtual Reality Applications for Health Care Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Learning Federation,(3) which is a partnership between industry , academia and private foundations. In essence, SimCenter Hawaii’s aim is to promote and...for TELIS, we can provide a platform for scientists, clinicians, engineers, industry and government to nurture and develop innovative research and...used videogames , and 16% frequently used a Nintendo Wii. Seventy-two percent stated that they had used 3D glasses in a movie theater, but only 32% had

  11. User-centered design of a web application for an online Operating Systems course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Calvo Saiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Operating Systems is a course included in the curricula of Computer Science Engineering that is difficult to teach and learn. This difficulty may be greater in online environments, where synchronous teacher-student contact may be very rare. This paper presents a web application whose purpose is to facilitate the learning of the subject Operating Systems in online environments. This application allows the study of concepts related to the management of operating systems processes and to check their understanding. In order to increase the usability, usercentered design techniques have been used to create the application.

  12. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  13. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coating s * biomedical * electronic s * energy generation * functional coating s * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  14. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  15. Coupled Lagrangian impingement spray model for doublet impinging injectors under liquid rocket engine operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang WEI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To predict the effect of the liquid rocket engine combustion chamber conditions on the impingement spray, the conventional uncoupled spray model for impinging injectors is extended by considering the coupling of the jet impingement process and the ambient gas field. The new coupled model consists of the plain-orifice sub-model, the jet-jet impingement sub-model and the droplet collision sub-model. The parameters of the child droplet are determined with the jet-jet impingement sub-model using correlations about the liquid jet parameters and the chamber conditions. The overall model is benchmarked under various impingement angles, jet momentum and off-center ratios. Agreement with the published experimental data validates the ability of the model to predict the key spray characteristics, such as the mass flux and mixture ratio distributions in quiescent air. Besides, impinging sprays under changing ambient pressure and non-uniform gas flow are investigated to explore the effect of liquid rocket engine chamber conditions. First, a transient impingement spray during engine start-up phase is simulated with prescribed pressure profile. The minimum average droplet diameter is achieved when the orifices work in cavitation state, and is about 30% smaller than the steady single phase state. Second, the effect of non-uniform gas flow produces off-center impingement and the rotated spray fan by 38°. The proposed model suggests more reasonable impingement spray characteristics than the uncoupled one and can be used as the first step in the complex simulation of coupling impingement spray and combustion in liquid rocket engines.

  16. Cold Spraying of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Fernández, R.; Delloro, F.; Jodoin, B.

    2017-04-01

    Titanium parts are ideally suited for aerospace applications due to their unique combination of high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. However, titanium as bulk material is expensive and challenging/costly to machine. Production of complex titanium parts through additive manufacturing looks promising, but there are still many barriers to overcome before reaching mainstream commercialization. The cold gas dynamic spraying process offers the potential for additive manufacturing of large titanium parts due to its reduced reactive environment, its simplicity to operate, and the high deposition rates it offers. A few challenges are to be addressed before the additive manufacturing potential of titanium by cold gas dynamic spraying can be reached. In particular, it is known that titanium is easy to deposit by cold gas dynamic spraying, but the deposits produced are usually porous when nitrogen is used as the carrier gas. In this work, a method to manufacture low-porosity titanium components at high deposition efficiencies is revealed. The components are produced by combining low-pressure cold spray using nitrogen as the carrier gas with low-cost titanium powder produced using the Armstrong process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured titanium components are investigated.

  17. Performance Analysis and Modeling of Thermally Sprayed Resistive Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Marcoux, Pierre; Perrault, Michel; Abbott, Richard C.; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    2013-08-01

    Many processes and systems require hot surfaces. These are usually heated using electrical elements located in their vicinity. However, this solution is subject to intrinsic limitations associated with heating element geometry and physical location. Thermally spraying electrical elements directly on surfaces can overcome these limitations by tailoring the geometry of the heating element to the application. Moreover, the element heat transfer is maximized by minimizing the distance between the heater and the surface to be heated. This article is aimed at modeling and characterizing resistive heaters sprayed on metallic substrates. Heaters were fabricated by using a plasma-sprayed alumina dielectric insulator and a wire flame-sprayed iron-based alloy resistive element. Samples were energized and kept at a constant temperature of 425 °C for up to 4 months. SEM cross-sectional observations revealed the formation of cracks at very specific locations in the alumina layer after thermal use. Finite-element modeling shows that these cracks originate from high local thermal stresses and can be predicted according to the considered geometry. The simulation model was refined using experimental parameters obtained by several techniques such as emissivity and time-dependent temperature profile (infra-red camera), resistivity (four-probe technique), thermal diffusivity (laser flash method), and mechanical properties (micro and nanoindentation). The influence of the alumina thickness and the substrate material on crack formation was evaluated.

  18. 75 FR 10219 - Solicitation of Applications for the FY 2010 University Center Economic Development Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... efficiency; or reuse, recycling, or natural resource restoration efforts across the region. 3. Provides High... applicants that provide concrete evidence outlining how their proposed programs are especially well designed...

  19. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C{sub 19}H{sub 29}NO{sub 5} compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C{sub 3} hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene.

  20. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C 19 H 29 NO 5 compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C 3 hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene

  1. Demonstration of Thermally Sprayed Metal and Polymer Coatings for Steel Structures at Fort Bragg, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    demonstrated, the flame-sprayed polyole- fin coating is too costly for use on large steel structures. Guidance docu- ments are identified to help make...the feedstock material, the thermal-spray process and application parameters, and the post-treat- ment of the applied coating. An 85% zinc and 15...thickness (85/15 plus topcoat) was measured by gauge for compliance with project requirements. Total thickness measure- ments indicated that the

  2. Evaluation of spray and point inoculation methods for the phenotyping of Puccinia striiformis on wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chris Khadgi; Thach, Tine; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring

    2016-01-01

    flexible application procedure for spray inoculation and it gave highly reproducible results for virulence phenotyping. Six point inoculation methods were compared to find the most suitable for assessment of pathogen aggressiveness. The use of Novec 7100 and dry dilution with Lycopodium spores gave...... for the assessment of quantitative epidemiological parameters. New protocols for spray and point inoculation of P. striiformis on wheat are presented, along with the prospect for applying these in rust research and resistance breeding activities....

  3. Applicability of fiber model in seismic response analysis for center-clamp type bushings on transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshinori; Sato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A bushing is a device for insulation and support of a conductor. Especially it is called center-clamp type when it is connected with a metal holder through clamping force. As a consequence of damage of center-clamp type bushings in Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, refinement of the response analysis method and review of the seismic design procedure became necessary. In the present report, the fiber model, which can evaluate non-linear behavior in the section subjected to axial force and bending moment, was implemented to the CRIEPI's finite element analysis program 'Mastrd' considering following characteristics of center-clamp type bushings. a) The gasket section between a porcelain tube and a metal holder has a torus shape. b) Springs around the top of the bushing give clamping force, but they lock in excessive base rotation. c) The gasket does not resist against tension. d) Local resistance against compression due to bending increases in use of very thin gaskets. The developed program was verified through comparison with the shaking table test result for real bushings whose voltage classes were 154 kV and 275 kV. Deformation indices as rotation angle and base opening due to bending were influenced by damping conditions. Though there was not the condition which brought about remarkable underestimation, reduction of damping for a fiber model element was preferable for safety. On the other hand, bending moment was consistent with experimental results because it tended not to fluctuate in the non-linear region. (author)

  4. Attitudes and behavior of drug usage in applicants to primary health care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Yapıcı

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the attitude and behavior of drug usage of participants attending to primary health care center.Materials and methods: This descriptive study was performed among 300 people who admitted at three family health centers located in Mersin city center. Data were collected by using questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions about the demographic characteristics and the attitudes of the applicants’ drug use. Descriptive statistics were used for summarizing the data and the chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables.Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.19±13.27. Of the total participants, 56.3% were female, 37.0% were high school graduated, 9.3% did not have any social insurance. Participants 26% stated that they use medicines without consulting medical doctors, 17.0% of them use medicines with the advice of family/friends/neighbors and 31.3% of them take the drugs without doctor’s prescription. The usage of drugs without consulting medical doctor was significantly higher among participants graduated of high school or university, students and unmarried person. The usage of drugs with advice of family/friends/neighbors were significantly higher among participants under the age of 19, students and unmarried person. Totally, 37.0% of the participants had drugs at home without using. Analgesics were the most frequently drugs held at home.Conclusion: Most participants of this study had the behavior of irrational drug use. Health care workers, media and teachers had an important role to ensure the rational drug use of individuals in the community.

  5. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  6. Magnetic-luminescent spherical particles synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Norma L; Hirata, Gustavo A; Flores, Dora L

    2015-01-01

    The combination of magnetic and luminescent properties in a single particle system, opens-up a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this work, we performed the synthesis of magnetic-luminescent Gd 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ @Fe 2 O 3 particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis performed in a tubular furnace. In order to achieve the composite formation, commercial superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were coated with a luminescent Eu 3+ -doped Gd 2 O 3 shell in a low-cost one-step process. The spray pyrolysis method yields deagglomerated spherical shape magneto/luminescent particles. The photoluminescence spectra under UV excitation (λ Exc = 265 nm) of the magnetic Gd 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ @Fe 2 O 3 compound showed the characteristic red emission of Eu 3+ (λ Em = 612 nm). This magneto/luminescent system will find applications in biomedicine and biotechnology. (paper)

  7. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  8. Energy Remote Sensing Applications Projects at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S. D.; Likens, W. C.; Mouat, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center is active in energy projects primarily in the role of providing assistance to users in the solution of a number of problems related to energy. Data bases were produced which can be used, in combination with other sources of information, to solve spatially related energy problems. Six project activities at Ames are described which relate to energy and remote sensing. Two projects involve power demand forecasting and estimations using remote sensing and geographic information systems; two others involve transmission line routing and corridor analysis; one involves a synfuel user needs assessment through remote sensing; and the sixth involves the siting of energy facilities.

  9. Cold Spray Technology for DOD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Ducts Bleed Valve Intermediate F-100 Engine F-15 Eagle Materials Ti6Al-4V Inconel Waspalloy Aluminum Problems Cavitation Wear Corrosion...T5 500 --- --- --- --- AZ92A T6 --- --- 765 425 5 ZE41A T5 625 2 --- --- --- M. M. Avedesian, Hugh Baker,"Magnesium and magnesium alloys", Edition

  10. Investigation on side-spray fluidized bed granulation with swirling airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2013-03-01

    Top-spray fluidized bed granulation with axial fluidization airflow from the bottom of the granulator is well-established in the pharmaceutical industry. The application of swirling airflow for fluidized bed granulation was more recently introduced. This study examined the effects of various process parameters on the granules produced by side-spray fluidized bed with swirling airflow using the central composite and Box-Behnken design of experiment. Influence of the amount of binder solution, spray rate, and distance between spray nozzle and powder bed were initially studied to establish operationally viable values for these parameters. This was followed by an in-depth investigation on the effects of inlet airflow rate, atomizing air pressure and distance between spray nozzle and powder bed on granule properties. It was found that the amount of binder solution had a positive correlation with granule size and percentage of lumps but a negative correlation with size distribution and Hausner ratio of the granules. Binder solution spray rate was also found to affect the granules size. High drug content uniformity was observed in all the batches of granules produced. Both inlet airflow rate and atomizing air pressure were found to correlate negatively with granule size and percentage of lumps but correlate positively with the size distribution of the granule produced. Percentage of fines was found to be significantly affected by inlet airflow rate. Distance between spray nozzle and powder bed generally affected the percentage of lumps.

  11. Study on Electric field assisted low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasonic spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Ilkyeong; Seong, Baekhoon; Marten, Darmawan; Byun, Doyoung

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic spray is one of the fabulous techniques to discharge small size of droplets because it utilizes ultrasonic vibration on nozzle. However, spray patterns and size of ejected droplet is hardly controlled in conventional ultrasonic spray method. Therefore, here we present electric field assisted ultrasonic spray, which combined conventional technique with electric field in order to control spray pattern and droplet size precisely. Six kinds of various liquid (D.I water, Ethanol, Acetone, Iso-propanol, Toluene, Hexane) with various dielectric constants were used to investigate the mechanism of this method. Also, PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) was used and various variables were obtained including spray angle, amplitude of liquid vibration, current, and size distribution of ejected droplets. Our electric field assisted ultrasonic spray show that the standard deviation of atomized droplet was decreased up to 39.6%, and it shows the infinite possibility to be utilized in various applications which require precise control of high transfer efficiency. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2014-023284).

  12. Hard tissue ablation with a spray-assisted mid-IR laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H W; Rizoiu, I; Welch, A J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the dominant mechanism(s) for dental enamel ablation with the application of water spray. A free-running Er,Cr:YSGG (yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser was used to ablate human enamel tissue at various radiant exposures. During dental ablation, distilled water was sprayed on the sample surface, and these results were compared to ablation without a spray (dry ablation). In order to identify dominant ablation mechanisms, transient acoustic waves were compared to ablation thresholds and the volume of material removed. The ablation profile and depth were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Irregular surface modification, charring and peripheral cracks were associated with dry ablation, whereas craters for spray samples were relatively clean without thermal damage. In spite of a 60% higher ablation threshold for spray associated irradiations owing to water absorption, acoustic peak pressures were six times higher and ablation volume was up to a factor of 2 larger compared to dry ablation. The enhanced pressure and ablation performance of the spray-assisted process was the result of rapid water vaporization, material ejection with recoil stress, interstitial water explosion and possibly liquid-jet formation. With water cooling and abrasive/disruptive mechanical effects, the spray ablation can be a safe and efficient modality for dental treatment

  13. Physico-chemical and functional properties of spray-dried sourdough in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Abolfazl Golshan; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi; Hesari, Javad; Bahrami, Akbar; Bonab, Elnaz Shakuoie

    2013-06-01

    In present study, spray-dried sourdough was produced using a pilot scale spray dryer and the physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the obtained sourdough powder were investigated. The application of the spray-dried sourdough at different levels (3%, 6%, 9% and 15%) in breadmaking was also evaluated. Bulk density, wettability and suspensibility of the sourdough powder were 0.6 g/cm(3), 98 s and 29%, respectively. The most of the powder particles were in a range of 106-250 µm. The spray-dried sourdough had a moisture content and ash content of 3.72% and 1.9% (db), respectively. The pH and total titratable acidity of the sourdough powder were 3.26 and 59 (mL of 0.1 N NaOH/10 g powder), respectively. Spray drying reduced lactic acid bacteria population of the sourdough to 2 × 10(5) CFU/g compared to the initial value of 10(9) CFU/g. Iranian traditional flat bread (Sangak) made with different levels of the sourdough powder had significantly (p spray-dried sourdough delayed bread staling, as judged by sensory panel. The results suggest that spray-dried sourdough at the level of 9% can be successfully used for Sangak breadmaking, leading to bread with an improved flavor and delayed staling.

  14. Warm spraying-a novel coating process based on high-velocity impact of solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Seiji; Kawakita, Jin; Watanabe, Makoto; Katanoda, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, coating processes based on the impact of high-velocity solid particles such as cold spraying and aerosol deposition have been developed and attracting much industrial attention. A novel coating process called 'warm spraying' has been developed, in which coatings are formed by the high-velocity impact of solid powder particles heated to appropriate temperatures below the melting point of the powder material. The advantages of such process are as follows: (1) the critical velocity needed to form a coating can be significantly lowered by heating, (2) the degradation of feedstock powder such as oxidation can be significantly controlled compared with conventional thermal spraying where powder is molten, and (3) various coating structures can be realized from porous to dense ones by controlling the temperature and velocity of the particles. The principles and characteristics of this new process are discussed in light of other existing spray processes such as high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and cold spraying. The gas dynamics of particle heating and acceleration by the spraying apparatus as well as the high-velocity impact phenomena of powder particles are discussed in detail. Several examples of depositing heat sensitive materials such as titanium, metallic glass, WC-Co cermet and polymers are described with potential industrial applications.

  15. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  16. Sandia Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center and its application to transportation risk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, J.T.; Davidson, C.A.; McClure, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to describe an applied research activity which is fundamental to the conduct of transportation analyses: the collection, analysis, storage, and retrieval of information on the intensities of technical environments. This paper describes the collection system which provides such a service to official researchers in transportation analysis and the applications of this information in the area of risk analysis

  17. 78 FR 27208 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Services Administration-Centers for Independent Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance... 22304. Telephone, toll free: 1-877-433-7827. FAX: (703) 605-6794. If you use a telecommunications device... submission requirement, you may mail (through the U.S. Postal Service or a commercial carrier) your...

  18. 77 FR 20369 - Applications for New Awards; Centers for Independent Living-Training and Technical Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... services is to maximize leadership, empowerment, independence, and productivity of individuals with... common problems. CILs are distributed across the Nation and vary in size, stage of development, service... problems submitting your application through Grants.gov , please contact the Grants.gov Support Desk, toll...

  19. 75 FR 2852 - Amended Solicitation of Applications for the Minority Business Enterprise Center (MBEC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... solicitation. In order to receive proper consideration, applicants must comply with the requirements contained.... Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, no person is required to respond to, nor shall any person be subject..., loans, grants, benefits, or contracts (5 U.S.C. 533(a)(2)). Because notice and opportunity for comment...

  20. Dilation Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano Lopez, Miryan Lorena

    Thermal Spray (TS) is a very versatile manufacturing process to deposit thick coatings on a variety of substrates. Coatings are used in protective (i.e. wear, chemical attack, high temperature, etc.) and functional (i.e. sensors) applications. TS coatings have a unique lamellar microstructure as a result of the overlapping of millions of molten and partially-molten particles. During processing, high deformation by impact, high temperature, and rapid solidification lead to a complex hierarchical material system that contains a high amount of microstructural defects. The presence of defects in the microstructure contribute to differences in property values in comparison to bulk materials. Thermal stresses and residual strains arise from processing, thermal gradients and thermal exposure. Evaluation of thermal properties, in this case, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is of vital importance to enhance coating performance. In this dissertation, expansion measurements of various metals, alloys, ceramics, and cermet coatings; were carried out using various techniques (push rod dilatometry, x-ray diffraction XRD, digital image correlation DIC, and curvature method) to determine the dilation behavior at the atomic, micro- and macro-scale levels. The main results were. 1) Mathematical models (Turner and Kerner) used for composite materials, successfully predicted the CTE property of a TS coating where the primary phase is the coating material and the secondary phases can be oxides, precipitates, etc. (formed as a byproduct of the spraying process). CTE was found not to be affected by porosity. 2) Despite the anisotropic behavior characteristic of TS coatings, the experimental results shown that CTE results to be reasonable isotropic within the scope of this study. 3) The curvature method was found to be an alternative technique to obtain the CTE, as well as the Young's modulus of coating in a bi-material strip, with good approximation. 4) An anomalous expansion

  1. Improved Small-Particle Powders for Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao, N.; Miller, Robert A.; Leissler, George W.

    2005-01-01

    Improved small-particle powders and powder-processing conditions have been developed for use in plasma spray deposition of thermal-barrier and environmental barrier coatings. Heretofore, plasma-sprayed coatings have typically ranged in thickness from 125 to 1,800 micrometers. As explained below, the improved powders make it possible to ensure complete coverage of substrates at unprecedently small thicknesses of the order of 25 micrometers. Plasma spraying involves feeding a powder into a hot, high-velocity plasma jet. The individual powder particles melt in the plasma jet as they are propelled towards a substrate, upon which they splat to build up a coating. In some cases, multiple coating layers are required. The size range of the powder particles necessarily dictates the minimum thickness of a coating layer needed to obtain uniform or complete coverage. Heretofore, powder particle sizes have typically ranged from 40 to 70 micrometers; as a result, the minimum thickness of a coating layer for complete coverage has been about 75 micrometers. In some applications, thinner coatings or thinner coating layers are desirable. In principle, one can reduce the minimum complete-coverage thickness of a layer by using smaller powder particles. However, until now, when powder particle sizes have been reduced, the powders have exhibited a tendency to cake, clogging powder feeder mechanisms and feed lines. Hence, the main problem is one of synthesizing smaller-particle powders having desirable flow properties. The problem is solved by use of a process that begins with a spray-drying subprocess to produce spherical powder particles having diameters of less than 30 micrometers. (Spherical-particle powders have the best flow properties.) The powder is then passed several times through a commercial sifter with a mesh to separate particles having diameters less than 15 micrometers. The resulting fine, flowable powder is passed through a commercial fluidized bed powder feeder into a

  2. Terrestrial Hydrological Data from NASA's Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC): Products, Services, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Mocko, David M.; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial hydrological variables are important in global hydrology, climate, and carbon cycle studies. The North American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS and GLDAS, respectively) have been generating a series of land surface states (soil moisture, snow, and temperature) and fluxes (evapotranspiration, radiation, and heat flux) variables. These data, hosted at and available from NASA s Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), include the NLDAS hourly 1/8 degree products and the GLDAS 3-hourly 0.25 and 1.0 degree products. HDISC provides easy access and visualization and analysis capabilities for these products, thus reducing the time and resources spent by scientists on data management and facilitating hydrological research. Users can perform spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and data analysis operations without needing to first download the data. HDISC is continually being developed as a data and services portal that supports weather and climate forecasts, and water and energy cycle research.

  3. Application of chemicals to substrates without the use of liquids: Proof of concepts for powder spray gun and fluidized bed solid-on- solid (SOS) processing of textiles, and continued research in textile xerography printing, solid shade coloration and electrostatic liquid spray SOS finishing of fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F.L.; Carr, W.W.; Tincher, W.C.; Sikorski, M.

    1990-09-28

    The first two years of research under DOE Contract No. FG05-84CE40702 were devoted toward developing processes whereby certain chemicals could be applied to textiles without the use of water, mainly concentrating on powder deposition techniques. The approach was to identify powder-based processes in other industry sectors (mainly the metals and paper industries) that possessed the potential to be adapted to continuous textile manufacturing lines. The adapted textile processes were classified under the general category of solid-on-solid (SOS) processes, since no liquid water was required, and 100% of the chemical materials applied to the substrate remained with it into final product manufacture. The current research focused on several areas of chemical treatment: yarn slashing, textile xerography printing, binding of nonwovens, fluoropolymer barrier finishing, and liquid spray and finishing. Several of these areas were sufficiently developed in the first phase to allow full-scale, proof-of-concept trials to be conducted at industrial sites in the third and fourth years of the project. Other areas were identified and preliminary investigations conducted in the first phase, but were largely left for full development in the reported phase, e.g., liquid spray finishing of 100% solids formulations. This report discusses work in each area of chemical treatment.

  4. Microstructural features and heat flow analysis of atomized and spray-formed Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Ranganathan, S.; Ojha, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructural features of rapidly solidified powders and preforms of Al 80 Fe 10 V 4 Si 6 alloy produced by spray forming process have been studied. The atomization and spray deposition were carried out using a confined gas atomization process and the microstructural features were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The microstructure of a wide size range of atomized powders invariably revealed cellular and dendritic morphology. The extent of dendritic region and the dendritic arm spacing were observed to increase with power particle size. The TEM investigations indicated the presence of ultrafine second-phase particles in the intercellular or interdendritic regions. In contrast, the spray deposits of the alloy showed considerable variation in microstructure and size and dispersion of the second-phase particles at specific distances from the deposit-substrate interface and the exterior regions of the deposit. Nevertheless, considerable homogeneity was observed in the microstructure toward the center of the spray deposit. The formation and distribution of a cubic phase α-Al(Fe, V)Si has been characterized in both atomized powders and spray deposits. A one-dimensional heat flow model has been used to analyze the evolution of microstructure during atomization and also during spray deposition processing of this alloy. The results indicate that thermal history of droplets in the spray on deposition surface and their solidification behavior considerably influence the microstructural features of the spray deposits

  5. Vapocoolant Spray Effectiveness on Arterial Puncture Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Farahmand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Arterial blood gas (ABG sampling is a painful procedure with no perfect technique for quelling the discomfort. An ideal local anesthesia should be rapid, easy to learn, inexpensive, and noninvasive. This study was aimed to compare pain levels from ABG sampling performed with vapocoolant spray in comparison to placebo. We hypothesized that pretreatment with the vapocoolant would reduce the pain of arterial puncture by at least 1 point on a 10 point verbal numeric scale. We have evaluated the effectiveness of a vapocoolant spray in achieving satisfactory pain control in patients undergoing ABG sampling in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Eighty patients were randomized to 2 groups: group A, who received vapocoolant spray, and group B, who received water spray as placebo (Control group. Puncture and spray application pain was assessed with numerical rating scale (0, the absence of pain; 10, greatest imaginable pain and number of attempts was recorded. The pain score during ABG sampling was not lower in group A compared with group B significantly (4.78±1.761 vs. 4.90±1.837; P:0.945. This study showed that while the spray exerts more application pain, the number of attempts required for ABG sampling was not significantly lower in group A compared with group B (1.38±0.54 vs. 1.53±0.68; P=0.372. Vapocoolant spray was not effective in ABG pain reduction, had milder application pain compared to placebo (P<0.05, but did not reduce sampling attempts. At present, this spray cannot be recommended for arterial puncture anesthesia, and further study on different timing is necessary.

  6. RDBMS Applications as Online Based Data Archive: A Case of Harbour Medical Center in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriadi, Bayu; Zamsuri, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Kantor Kesehatan Pelabuhan Kelas II Pekanbaru is a government office that concerns about healthy, especially about environment health. There is a problem in case of saving electronic data, also in analyzing daily data both for internal and external data. The office has some computers and other tools that are useful in saving electronic data. In fact, the data are still saved in available cupboards and it is not efficient for an important data that is analyzed for more than one time. In other words, it is not good for a data is needed to be analyzed continuously. Rational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) application is an online based saving data and it uses System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) method. Hopefully, the application will be very useful for employees Kantor Kesehatan Pelabuhan Pekanbaru in managing their work.

  7. Maximizing Product Innovation through Adaptive Application of User-Centered Methods for Defining Customer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonje Overvik Olsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing deep understanding of customers is a prerequisite to improve success rates of innovations under today’s transient business conditions. This paper summarizes methods and tools to increase customer understanding in new product development. A case study of developing an office chair was conducted, utilizing four such methods (web based survey, interview, observation and workshops to provide directions for later application. Results indicate that methods revealing emotionally-related customer information (workshops and observation are resource-intensive and provide less amount of information directly applicable to the product development team. The opposite is the case for methods providing more functionally-related information (web based survey and interview. The overall conclusion is that the latter methods are more suitable for product improvements, while the former may provide valuable information for creating more differentiated products.

  8. Development of Thin Solar Cells for Space Applications at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, John E.; Hepp, Aloysius; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry D.; Jin, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    NASA GRC Thin Film Solar Cell program is developing solar cell technologies for space applications which address two critical metrics: higher specific power (power per unit mass) and lower launch stowed volume. To be considered for space applications, an array using thin film solar cells must offer significantly higher specific power while reducing stowed volume compared to the present technologies being flown on space missions, namely crystalline solar cells. The NASA GRC program is developing single-source precursors and the requisite deposition hardware to grow high-efficiency, thin-film solar cells on polymer substrates at low deposition temperatures. Using low deposition temperatures enables the thin film solar cells to be grown on a variety of polymer substrates, many of which would not survive the high temperature processing currently used to fabricate thin film solar cells. The talk will present the latest results of this research program.

  9. Integration of ammonia-plasma-functionalized graphene nanodiscs as charge trapping centers for nonvolatile memory applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jer-Chyi

    2016-11-23

    Graphene nanodiscs (GNDs), functionalized using NH3 plasma, as charge trapping sites (CTSs) for non-volatile memory applications have been investigated in this study. The fabrication process relies on the patterning of Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs), whose thicknesses are tuned to adjust the GND density and size upon etching. A GND density as high as 8 × 1011 cm−2 and a diameter of approximately 20 nm are achieved. The functionalization of GNDs by NH3 plasma creates Nsingle bondH+ functional groups that act as CTSs, as observed by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This inherently enhances the density of CTSs in the GNDs, as a result, the memory window becomes more than 2.4 V and remains stable after 104 operating cycles. The charge loss is less than 10% for a 10-year data retention testing, making this low-temperature process suitable for low-cost non-volatile memory applications on flexible substrates.

  10. Spray-ILGAR {sup registered} deposition of controllable ZnS nanodots and application as passivation/point contact at the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} junction in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanpeng Fu

    2012-03-15

    properties of the nanodots from these two processes, i.e. crystal structure, morphology, energy band gap and chemical composition, are comprehensively analyzed before their application as passivation buffer layers in the thin film solar cells by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) respectively. In the second part, the nanodot films dedicated for the application in the thin film solar cells are described. A passivation layer / point contact buffer composed of the ZnS nanodots covered by a homogenous In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer is produced consecutively by the Spray-ILGAR process. The ZnS reduces the recombination of the charge carriers at the absorber / buffer heterointerface which is one important position for performance loss in the chalcopyrite cells. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} in-between and on top of the ZnS dots is necessary for the charge carrier transport as ZnS has a poor conductivity. The optimal ZnS dot density, In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thickness and process temperature are investigated. Moreover, the In precursor salt solutions, indium chloride (InCl{sub 3}) and indium acetylacetonate (In(acac){sub 3}) and the ZnS nanodot deposition methods, Spray-ILGAR and Spray-CVD are varied and investigated. The XPS study hints for a Zn diffusion from the ZnS layer into the Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} absorber, which leads to kinds of type conversion and is beneficial for the cell performance. Finally, the electronic properties and charge separation of the single layers and combined layer systems of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2}, In{sub 2}S{sub 3} and ZnS-nanodot layers are investigated by surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy in the Kelvin probe arrangement. This shows that ZnS nanodots deposited by ILGAR improve significantly the passivation of CIGSSe absorbers. Moreover, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition from InCl{sub 3} is accompanied by defect generation at the interface, which can be

  11. The engine maintenance scheduling by using reliability centered maintenance method and the identification of 5S application in PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Panjaitan, N.; Saragih, A. F.

    2018-02-01

    PT. XYZ is a manufacturing company that produces fresh fruit bunches (FFB) to Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and Palm Kernel Oil (PKO). PT. XYZ consists of six work stations: receipt station, sterilizing station, thressing station, pressing station, clarification station, and kernelery station. So far, the company is still implementing corrective maintenance maintenance system for production machines where the machine repair is done after damage occurs. Problems at PT. XYZ is the absence of scheduling engine maintenance in a planned manner resulting in the engine often damaged which can disrupt the smooth production. Another factor that is the problem in this research is the kernel station environment that becomes less convenient for operators such as there are machines and equipment not used in the production area, slippery, muddy, scattered fibers, incomplete use of PPE, and lack of employee discipline. The most commonly damaged machine is in the seed processing station (kernel station) which is cake breaker conveyor machine. The solution of this problem is to propose a schedule plan for maintenance of the machine by using the method of reliability centered maintenance and also the application of 5S. The result of the application of Reliability Centered maintenance method is obtained four components that must be treated scheduled (time directed), namely: for bearing component is 37 days, gearbox component is 97 days, CBC pen component is 35 days and conveyor pedal component is 32 days While after identification the application of 5S obtained the proposed corporate environmental improvement measures in accordance with the principles of 5S where unused goods will be moved from the production area, grouping goods based on their use, determining the procedure of cleaning the production area, conducting inspection in the use of PPE, and making 5S slogans.

  12. Recent Developments in the Research of Splat Formation Process in Thermal Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spraying is a well-established surface modification technology which has been widely used in industrial applications. As the coating properties were mainly determined by the flattening nature of each splat, much attention has been increasingly paid to the study on the splat formation process of thermal sprayed particles. This paper is concerned with the development in the research of the splat formation process of the individual splat deposited by thermal spraying during the past few decades, including the experimental and numerical simulations up to today; some classical splashing models were also reviewed. As a simulation of the actual thermal spray process, the development of the flattening behavior of free falling droplet has been mentioned as well. On the basis of the current investigation, some recommendations for the future work have been advised.

  13. Effects of spray-irrigated municipal wastewater on a small watershed in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    Spray irrigation is a method for disposing of secondary treated municipal wastewater by spraying it on the land surface (fig. 1). The sprayed wastewater either evaporates into the air, soaks into the soil, or percolates through the soil and recharges the ground water. Land application of wastewater has advantages over conventional means of disposal by direct discharge to streams because the wastewater recharges the ground-water system and increases base flow in streams. Additional benefits are derived from the "natural" treatment of the wastewater that takes place in the soil when plants and other biota remove some nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from the wastewater (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 2003). The removal of nutrients is one advantage spray irrigation has to conventional disposal methods like instream discharge.

  14. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented

  15. PERFORMANCE OF MUF RESINS FOR PARTICLEBOARDS BEFORE AND AFTER SPRAY-DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PIZZI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF resins can be spray dried to obtain resins in powder form and indefinite shelf-life. Application as particleboard adhesives of such resins after redissolving them in water does yield resins of excellent performance as particleboard adhesives if the natural advancement caused by the heat in the spray-drier chamber is taken into account. CP MAS 13C NMR analysis of the spray-dried resin in powder form and thermomechanical analysis has shown some difference in behaviour in relation to MUF resins of the same level of water tolerance which have not been spray-dried. These small but significant differences can be ascribed to differences in resin structure.

  16. A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic turbine seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the application of sputtered Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) primer in plasma-sprayed YSZ ceramic-coated turbine blades results in an improvement, by a factor of 5-6, in the thermal shock life of specimens with a sprayed, porous, Ni-Cr-Al-Y intermediate layer. Species with and without the primer were found to be able to survive 1000 cycles when the intermediate layer was used, but reduced laminar cracking was observed in the specimen with the primer. It is suggested that the sputtered YZS primer-induced properties are due to (1) more effective wetting and adherence of the plasma-sprayed YZS particles to the primer, and (2) the primer's retardation of impinging, molten plasma sprayed particles solidification rates, which result in a less detrimental residual stress distribution.

  17. Investigation about the Chrome Steel Wire Arc Spray Process and the Resulting Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, J.; Bergmann, J. P.; Jahn, S.; Knapp, S.; van Rodijnen, F.; Fischer, G.

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays, wire-arc spraying of chromium steel has gained an important market share for corrosion and wear protection applications. However, detailed studies are the basis for further process optimization. In order to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the effects of the spray parameters DoE-based experiments had been carried out with high-speed camera shoots. In this article, the effects of spray current, voltage, and atomizing gas pressure on the particle jet properties, mean particle velocity and mean particle temperature and plume width on X46Cr13 wire are presented using an online process monitoring device. Moreover, the properties of the coatings concerning the morphology, composition and phase formation were subject of the investigations using SEM, EDX, and XRD-analysis. These deep investigations allow a defined verification of the influence of process parameters on spray plume and coating properties and are the basis for further process optimization.

  18. Development of Universal Portable Spray Stand for Touch-Up Process in The Automotive Paintshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah Muhamed Mukhtar, Muhamed Abdul; Mohideen Shahul Hameed, Rasool

    2016-02-01

    A spray stand is a custom-made tool used to hold the automotive body parts as well as the devices used to facilitate the operator during the Touch Up process in Paint shop production. This paper discusses about the development of Universal Portable Spray Stand (UPSS) as a tool to hold various types of automotive body parts and model of car during the painting process. The main objective of this study is to determine the effective application of UPSS at the International College of Automotive (ICAM) and also in the automotive industry. This will be helpful to add features to the current spray stand in ICAM and to add value to the spray stand based on selected criteria which are universal, portable and cost saving. In addition, study in the UPSS is also expected to bring reduction in cycle time during the touch up process, in the paint defects and in the ergonomics issues among the operators.

  19. The Properties of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Coatings on Armor-Grade Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Adamiak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an examination of the properties of arc-sprayed aluminum on alloyed armor-grade steel. Thermal arc spraying was conducted with a EuTronic Arc Spray 4 wire arc sprayer. Aluminum wire 1.6 mm in diameter was used to produce dense, abrasion- and erosion-resistant coatings approx. 1.0 mm thick with and without nickel/5% aluminum-buffered subcoating. Aluminum coatings were characterized in accordance with ASTM G 65-00 abrasion resistance test, ASTM G 76-95 erosion resistance tests, ASTM C 633-01 adhesion strength, HV0.1 hardness tests and metallographic analyses. Results demonstrate properties of arc-sprayed aluminum and aluminum-nickel material coatings that are especially promising in industrial applications where erosion-, abrasion- and corrosion-resistant coating properties are required.

  20. Application and Research Progress of Body-centered-cubic Ti-Mo Base Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIANG Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application and research progress of β-type Ti-Mo base alloys were reviewed from aspects of aerospace, biomedical, offshore, new energy and other fields. The strengthening-toughening approach through the coupled deformation modes, namely martensitic phase transformation, twinning and dislocation slip was focused,and the control method of mechanical properties based on a combination of deformation microstructures and phase transformation was described. It was pointed out that high-performance and multifunctionality will be the development directions of Ti-Mo base alloys with multiple deformation modes.

  1. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  2. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  3. SPRAYTRAN 1.0 User’s Guide: A GIS-Based Atmospheric Spray Droplet Dispersion Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Bird, S. L.; Thistle, Harold W.

    2006-09-20

    SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) is a comprehensive dispersion modeling system that is used to simulate the offsite drift of pesticides from spray applications. SPRAYTRAN functions as a console application within Environmental System Research Institute’s ArcMap Geographic Information System (Version 9.x) and integrates the widely-used, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved CALifornia PUFF (CALPUFF) dispersion model and model components to simulate longer-range transport and diffusion in variable terrain and spatially/temporally varying meteorological (e.g., wind) fields. Area sources, which are used to define spray blocks in SPRAYTRAN, are initialized using output files generated from a separate aerial-spray-application model called AGDISP (AGricultural DISPersal). The AGDISP model is used for estimating the amount of pesticide deposited to the spray block based on spraying characteristics (e.g., pesticide type, spray nozzles, and aircraft type) and then simulating the near-field (less than 300-m) drift from a single pesticide application. The fraction of pesticide remaining airborne from the AGDISP near-field simulation is then used by SPRAYTRAN for simulating longer-range (greater than 300 m) drift and deposition of the pesticide.

  4. Are recommendations from carcinoma of the cervix Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) applicable to centers in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craighead, Peter S.; Smulian, Hubert G.; Groot, Henk J. de; Toit, Pierre F.M. du

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patient demographics, treatment resources, practice patterns, and outcome results for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) between the 1978 and 1983 Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) and a nonacademic center within a developing country. Methods and Materials: Patient details (race, age, stage, and number per year), treatment used, and treatment outcome were retrieved from the charts of the 1160 cases registered at this center with SCC of the cervix between 1976 and 1985. Demographic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated and compared with results from published PCS reviews. Results: There is a significant difference in the racial group presentation of cervix cancer at this center compared with the PCS reviews (p < 0.005), and median ages are significantly lower at this center (t = p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with Stage III or more was significantly higher at this center than the PCS centers (24 vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There were also vast differences in facility resources. Fewer cases at this center underwent intracavitary insertions than at PCS centers. Mean Point A doses were significantly reduced for this center compared with the PCS reviews. Kaplan-Meier estimates were similar for Stage I and II in PCS centers and this center, but were inferior for this center in Stage III patients (p < 0.05 for OS and p < 0.01 for LC). Late morbidity rates were similar for both PCS centers and this center. Conclusion: PCS recommendations may be applicable to nonacademic centers within developing countries, if the latter use staging techniques that are consistent with the PCS staging guidelines

  5. User-centered applications: Use of mobile information technologies to promote sustainable school healthcare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Veldsman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The youth, especially school going children, are the future of any society. It is therefore important that children should receive adequate healthcare support at an early age in order to strive to preserve and ensure better education and welfare of the children and continuity in societal success. Despite the strategic initiatives that aim at improving the general health of school going children, such as South Africa’s Integrated School Health Policy, there still exist challenges in support programmes meant to alleviate the barriers to effective healthcare towards improved education for the school children. Advances in ICT enable a fundamental redesign of healthcare processes based on the use and integration of electronic communication at all levels. New communication technologies can support a transition from institution centric to user-centric applications. This paper defines key principles and challenges for designers, policy makers, and evaluators of user-centred technologies for healthcare in schools. The paper employs the User Experience Management Model (UXM2 to review the current and emerging trends, and highlights challenges related to the design of a typical m-ICT application that supports delivery of healthcare in schools. The paper reaches conclusions for next steps that will advance the domain.

  6. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  7. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  8. Advanced Nanoscale Coatings with Plasma Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atteridge, David

    2000-01-01

    .... A secondary research charter developed as this program proceeded was the assessment of the feasibility of using cored wire filled with WE-Co powder as a feed-stock for both plasma spray and twin-wire-arc spray (TWAS...

  9. New tools to optimise spray dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, M.; Straatsma, J.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Akkerman, C.; Jong, de P.

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is an essential unit operation for the manufacture of many products with specific powder properties. It is characterised by atomisation of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by subsequent drying of these droplets by evaporation of water or other solvents. Spray drying is

  10. Reticle decision center: a novel applications platform for enhancing reticle yield and productivity at 10nm technology and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, George; Bugata, Raj; Chiang, Kaiming; Lakkapragada, Suresh; Tolani, Vikram; Gopalakrishnan, Sandhya; Chen, Chun-Jen; Yang, Chin-Ting; Hsu, Sheng-Chang; Tuo, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    In the semiconductor IC manufacturing industry, challenges associated with producing defect-free photomasks have been dramatically increasing. At the 10nm technology node, since the 193nm immersion scanner numerical aperture has remained the same 1.35 as in previous nodes, more multi-patterning and aggressive SMO illumination sources are being used to effectively print smaller feature CDs and pitches. To accommodate such specialized sources, more model-based mask OPC and ILT have been used making mask designs very complicated. This in turn makes mask manufacturing very challenging especially for the defect inspection, repair, and metrology processes that need to guarantee defect-free masks. Over the past few years, considerable innovation have been made in the areas of defect inspection and disposition that has ensured continued predictability of mask quality to wafer and final chip yields. The accurate disposition of each mask defect before and after repair has been facilitated by a suite of automated applications such as ADC, LPR, RPG, AIA, etc. that work together with the inspection, repair, and metrology tools and effectively also provide the best possible utilization of the tool capability, capacity and operator resources. In this paper we introduce a new consolidated applications platform called the Reticle Decision Center (RDC) which hosts all these supporting software applications on a centralized server with direct connectivity to mask inspection, repair, metrology tools and more. The paper details how the RDC server is architected to host any application in its native operating system environment and provides for high availability with automatic failover and redundancy. The server along with its host of applications has been tightly integrated with KLA-Tencor's Teron mask inspectors. The paper concludes with showing benefits realized in mask cycle-time and yield as a result of implementing RDC into a high-volume 10nm mask-shop production line.

  11. The Application and Future of Big Database Studies in Cardiology: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuang-Tso; Hour, Ai-Ling; Shia, Ben-Chang; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    As medical research techniques and quality have improved, it is apparent that cardiovascular problems could be better resolved by more strict experiment design. In fact, substantial time and resources should be expended to fulfill the requirements of high quality studies. Many worthy ideas and hypotheses were unable to be verified or proven due to ethical or economic limitations. In recent years, new and various applications and uses of databases have received increasing attention. Important information regarding certain issues such as rare cardiovascular diseases, women's heart health, post-marketing analysis of different medications, or a combination of clinical and regional cardiac features could be obtained by the use of rigorous statistical methods. However, there are limitations that exist among all databases. One of the key essentials to creating and correctly addressing this research is through reliable processes of analyzing and interpreting these cardiologic databases.

  12. U.S. Air Forces Aerial Spray Mission: Should the Department of Defense Continue to Operate this Weapon of Mass Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    pesticide application over farm fields to produce a better crop.2 On 3 August 1921 in a joint effort between the U.S. Army Signal Corps in Dayton, Ohio...for the Air Force aerial spray program. 3 BACKGROUND Aerial spray capability was developed in the early 1920s to aid in fertilization and... pesticide dissemination because of the relatively small amount of product needed to spray for nuisance insects over a vast area. The ULV system is

  13. Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) iPhone/iPad Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binebrink, Daniel; Kuok, Heng; Hammond, Malinda; Hull, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This iPhone application, Space Junk Sammy, is intended to be an educational application designed for Apple iPhones and iPads. This new concept educates kids in an innovative way about how orbital debris affects space missions. Orbital debris is becoming a very significant concern for NASA and all Earthorbiting space missions. Spacecraft in low-Earth orbit are in constant danger of being potentially damaged or destroyed by debris. High-profile spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS) and Hubble Space Telescope are dealing with orbital debris on a regular basis. Other basic educational concepts that are portrayed are low-Earth orbits, satellites, ISS, attitude control, and other facts that can be presented in betweenlevel popup screens. The Orbital Debris Cleanup game is relatively simple from the user s technical standpoint. It is a 2D game where the user s avatar is a satellite buddy, named Sammy, in orbit around Earth. Sammy is controlled by the user with the device s gyroscope as well as touchscreen controls. It has equipment used for taking care of the space debris objects on the screen. Sammy also has a claw, a laser deflector, and hydrazine rockets to grab or push the debris objects into a higher orbit or into a lower orbit to burn up in the Earth s atmosphere. The user interface shows Sammy and space debris objects constantly moving from left to right, where Sammy is trying to catch the debris objects before they move off the right side of the screen. Everything will be in constant motion to increase fun and add to the realism of orbiting the Earth. The satellite buddy is used to clean up the space debris and protect other satellites. Later levels will include a laser deflector and hydrazine rockets instead of a robotic claw to push the orbital debris into a higher orbit and out of the path of other satellites

  14. The erosive potential of candy sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2009-05-23

    To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of candy spray. Candy sprays have an extremely low pH (1.9-2.3) and a neutralisable acidity varying between 0.8-1.6 ml of 0.25M NaOH. In vivo, candy sprays induced a short-term 3.0 to 5.8-fold increase in salivary flow rate with a concomitant drop in salivary pH to values between 4.4 and 5.8. All candy sprays tested have an erosive potential. This information is of use for clinicians counselling juvenile patients with dental erosion.

  15. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da; Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  16. Recovery of spray paint traces from clothing by beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan

    Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit superior water repellent properties, and they have remarkable potential to improve current energy infrastructure. Substantial research has been performed on the production of superhydrophobic coatings. However, superhydrophobic coatings have not yet been adopted in many industries where potential applications exist due to the limited durability of the coating materials and the complex and costly fabrication processes. Here presented a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature and strong mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured coating topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces in nature. Compared to smooth REO surfaces, the SPPS superhydrophobic coating improved the water contact angle by as much as 65° after vacuum treatment at 1 Pa for 48 hours.

  18. Application of TQM to mental health: lessons from ten mental health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, G V

    1996-01-01

    The principles and techniques of total quality management (TQM) have only recently been applied to the field of mental health. This article reviews issues and offers some preliminary observations, based on the author's consultation and training work with ten state-operated mental health organizations in Missouri (Jul 1, 1994-Jun 30, 1995). Since many mental health organizations have operated in the public sector as part of large, hierarchical state agencies, the legacy of bureaucratic structures and a command and control leadership style may pose additional challenges. Two types of training have proven helpful in the Missouri project: general overview or awareness training for all staff and specialized training for team leaders and facilitators. To be successful with TQM, mental health organizations should clearly delineate their governing ideas, continuously reinforce them with all staff, and use the ideas as a measuring stick for progress. Some of the organizations in the Missouri project link their governing ideas and strategic planning efforts with critical success factors and the measurement methodology to track them. This dimension, which may include a quality council, a quality department, and quality improvement (QI) teams, also extends to the way in which facilities are organized and function. The structure evolving from a team-oriented, time-limited, data-based, and problem-solving approach can facilitate the functioning of the entire organization. The philosophy and techniques of TQM are as applicable to mental health as to health care in general--the question is one more of motivation than of fit.

  19. Design of the containment spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The present RFS defines the functional requirements of the containment spray system and proposes certain complementary criteria or methods to be used in its equipment design

  20. Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, J A S

    2012-06-01

    The availability of tools to control mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors that transmit disease is often limited by a variety of economic, environmental and social issues. In emergency conditions (epidemics, hurricanes, floods etc.), the application of pesticides as space sprays (either by ground or air) is the common method of choice in order to rapidly limit adult local mosquito production in the affected area. Space spray application now employs ultra-low-volume technology for the control of adult mosquitoes. However, the use of space sprays often raises social and environmental concerns by the general public that is served. This review will define and illustrate modern ultra-low-volume technology for the purpose of application as a space spray, as well as describing the engineering controls that have been developed to minimize the environmental impact. The primary social concern is validity and efficacy of application. To address this point, the review will attempt to synthesize the global literature to address the effectiveness of space sprays to significantly impact mosquito vectors in relation to human disease. © 2012 The Author. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.