Hamdan Pane; Mashhor Mansor; Ho Nai Kin
In 1981, red sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees] was first observed at site 2 (Sungai Udang) in the southern part of the Muda area. In the first cropping season of 1984, the populations of L. chinensis expanded to three sampling sites. Consequently, the populations gradually spread to other parts of the Muda area. In 1986, the infestations were recorded at sampling site 6 (Kubang Pangas) which is about 50 km from the original infestation sites. In 1988, most of the southern parts of Muda area were colonized by this weed. In 1990, the populations reached the northern part of Muda area. The whole Muda area was finally covered with L. chinensis by 1992. From 1981 until 1994, the increase of area infested per unit time was estimated at about 4% of the area based on the previous year's record. The intensive survey conducted in 1994 from the 20 sampling sites showed that in addition to L. chinensis, twelve dominant weed species were also recorded. However, by far the single most dominant weed species was L. chinensis. Based on the spatial quantitative vegetative analysis, L. chinensis populations were predominantly recorded in 75% of the sampling sites. The L. chinensis populations were also observed to thrive well on slightly acidic rice fields with pH values ranging from 4.0 to 6.8. (Author)
Mariel G. Perreta
Full Text Available Perreta, M. G., Tivano, J. C. & Vegetti, A. C. 2000. Forma de crecimiento en Leptochloachloridiformis (Poaceae. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 219-226.El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la forma de crecimiento de Leptochloa chloridiformis (Hack.Parodi. En esta especie perenne la ramificación ocurre principalmente a través de yemas axilarespresentes en la zona de innovación. Este sistema de ramificación genera una planta cespitosa, en la cual lasconexiones entre unidades estructurales son rizomas cortos. Dependiendo de su posición estas conexio-nes muestran diferentes tendencias en relación a la desarticulación estructural. En algunas plantas seobservó ramificación en la zona de entrenudos largos posiblemente debido a cambios ambientalesrelacionados con las distintas estaciones
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz
Full Text Available Leptochloa virgata (L. P. Beauv. is an annual weed common in citrus groves in the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico limiting their production. Since 2010, several L. virgata populations were identified as being resistant to glyphosate, but studies of their resistance mechanisms developed by this species have been conducted. In this work, three glyphosate-resistant populations (R8, R14 and R15 collected in citrus orchards from Mexico, were used to study their resistance mechanisms comparing them to one susceptible population (S. Dose-response and shikimic acid accumulation assays confirmed the glyphosate resistance of the three resistant populations. Higher doses of up to 720 g ae ha-1 (field dose were needed to control by 50% plants of resistant populations. The S population absorbed between 7 and 13% more 14C-glyphosate than resistant ones, and translocated up to 32.2% of 14C-glyphosate to the roots at 96 h after treatment (HAT. The R8, R14 and R15 populations translocated only 24.5, 26.5 and 21.9%, respectively. The enzyme activity of 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS was not different in the S, R8 and R14 populations. The R15 Population exhibited 165.9 times greater EPSPS activity. Additionally, this population showed a higher EPSPS basal activity and a substitution in the codon 106 from Proline to Serine in the EPSPS protein sequence. EPSPS gene expression in the R15 population was similar to that of S population. In conclusion, the three resistant L. virgata populations show reduced absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate. Moreover, a mutation and an enhanced EPSPS basal activity at target-site level confers higher resistance to glyphosate. These results describe for the first time the glyphosate resistance mechanisms developed by resistant L. virgata populations of citrus orchards from Mexico.
Reinheimer, R.; Vegetti, A. C.; Rua, G. H.
Background and Aims Inflorescence forms of panicoid grasses (Panicoideae s.s.) are remarkably diverse and they look very labile to human eyes; however, when performing a close inspection one can identify just a small subset of inflorescence types among a huge morphospace of possibilities. Consequently, some evolutionary constraints have restricted, to some extent, the diversification of their inflorescence. Developmental and genetic mechanisms, the photosynthetic type and plant longevity have been postulated as candidate constraints for angiosperms and panicoids in particular; however, it is not clear how these factors operate and which of these have played a key role during the grass inflorescence evolution. To gain insight into this matter the macroevolutionary aspects of panicoid inflorescences are investigated. Methods The inflorescence aspect (lax versus condensed), homogenization, truncation of the terminal spikelet, plant longevity and photosynthetic type were the traits selected for this study. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to test different models of evolution and to evaluate the existence of evolutionary correlation among the traits. Both, models and evolutionary correlation were tested and analysed in a phylogenetic context by plotting the characters on a series of trees. For those cases in which the correlation was confirmed, test of contingency and order of trait acquisition were preformed to explore further the patterns of such co-evolution. Key Results The data reject the independent model of inflorescence trait evolution and confirmed the existence of evolutionary contingency. The results support the general trend of homogenization being a prerequisite for the loss of the terminal spikelet of the main axis. There was no evidence for temporal order in the gain of homogenization and condensation; consequently, the homogenization and condensation could occur simultaneously. The correlation between
Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.
Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.
Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.
Apr 11, 2011 ... (Oryza sp.) growing areas in Kedah, Malaysia to identify resistant biotypes and their method of control. Weed biotypes were evaluated against all varying rates of propanil, quinclorac and cyhalofop-butyl. Except SY, all weed populations showed resistance against propanil at the rate of 5500 ml a.i. ha-1, on.
Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)
Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.
حاج محمدنیا قالی باف کمال
Full Text Available خشکی و شوری در بسیاری از مناطق جهان از مهمترین عوامل محدود کننده رشد و نمو گیاهان به شمار میروند. یک سازوکار مناسب در این زمینه استفاده از گیاهانی است که بتوانند در چنین شرایط محیطی، از تولید رضایت بخشی برخوردار باشند. بدین منظور آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 4 تکرار روی گیاه کالارگراس (Leptochloa fesca L. kunth تحت شرایط کنترل شده در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1388، انجام پذیرفت. سطوح خشکی در سه سطح (100، 50 و 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و تنش شوری در چهار سطح (0، 5، 10 و 20 دسی زیمنس بر متر تیمارهای آزمایش را تشکیل دادند. نتایج تحقیق مذکور نشان داد که صفات فیزیولوژیک سرعت فتوسنتز، سرعت تعرق، عملکرد فلورسانس کلروفیل و عدد کلروفیلمتر کالارگراس با افزایش سطوح خشکی و شوری به طور معنیداری کاهش یافت، به طوری که شدیدترین تیمارهای خشکی (FC 25% و شوری (dSm-1 20 در این آزمایش، کمترین مقادیر این صفات را به خود اختصاص دادند. تنش متوسط خشکی (FC 50% افزایش معنیدار عملکرد فلورسانس کلروفیل، و تنشهای کم تا متوسط شوری (dSm-1 10- 5 =EC افزایش معنیدار عملکرد فلورسانس کلروفیل و عدد کلروفیل متر را در مقایسه با شاهد باعث شدند. افزایش معنیدار نسبت ریشه به اندام هوایی کالارگراس در ت
Juarez, Sabrina; Dontsova, Katerina; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Chollet, Simon; Llavata, Mathieu; Massol, Florent; Cros, Alexis; Barré, Pierre; Gelabert, Alexandre; Daval, Damien; Corvisier, Jérôme; Troch, Peter; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Van Haren, Joost; Ferrière, Régis
Weathering of primary silicates is one of the mechanisms involved in carbon removal from the atmosphere, affecting the carbon cycle at geologic timescales with basalt significantly contributing to the global weathering CO2 flux. Mineral weathering can be enhanced by microbiota and plants. Increase in both temperature and amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can directly increase weathering and can also affect weathering through impact on biological systems. This would result in possible negative feedback on climate change. The goal of this research was to quantify direct and indirect effects of temperature and elevated CO2 on basalt weathering and carbon sequestration. In order to achieve this goal we performed controlled-environment mesocosm experiments at Ecotron Ile-de-France (France). Granular basalt collected in Flagstaff (AZ, USA) was exposed to rainfall at equilibrium with two different CO2 concentrations in the air, ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm); and kept at two climate regimes, with ambient and elevated (+ 4° C) temperature. Four biological treatments were superimposed on this design: a plant-free control; N-fixing grass (Alfalfa, Medicago sativa), N-fixing tree (Velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina); and grass that does not form symbiotic relationships with N fixers (Green Sprangletop, Leptochloa dubia). All used basalt had native microbial community. Mesocosms were equipped with solution and gas samplers. To monitor biogenic and lithogenic weathering product concentrations, soil solution samples were collected under vacuum after each rainfall event and analyzed to determine pH, electrical conductivity, major and trace elements concentrations, anions concentrations, and aqueous phase organic matter chemistry. Soil gases were monitored for CO2 using porous Teflon gas samplers connected to the Vaisala probes. Plant biomass was collected at the end of the experiment to determine dry weight, as well as removal of N and lithogenic elements by the plants
Full Text Available .. 130 1e-28 tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panicoid... 129 1e-28 tr|Q43230|Q43230_...UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panicoid... 129 1e-28 tr|B4G262|B4G262_MAI...E W +D Sbjct: 297 LKGGYYDFVNGSFELWGLD 315 >tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panicoide...FVKGAFVTW 213 >tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panicoides PE=2 SV=1 Length = 240 Sco
Full Text Available nhydrase (Fragment) OS=Gossypiu... 138 2e-31 tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panicoi...d... 138 2e-31 tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panicoid... 138 2e-31 tr|B6TLF0|B6TLF
Full Text Available DKRV 192 >sp|Q9XFA2|PEPC2_UROPA Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP] 2 OS=Urochloa panicoides GN=PCK2 PE=...oenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP] 1 OS=Urochloa panicoides GN=PCK1 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 624 Score = 126 bits (
Full Text Available icea sitchensis PE... 184 4e-45 tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panicoid... 184 5e-4...5 tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panicoid... 184 5e-45 >tr|Q94CE4|Q94CE4_ARATH Carb
Full Text Available drase (Fragment) OS=Gossypiu... 139 1e-31 tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panicoid...... 139 1e-31 tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panicoid... 1
Full Text Available anhydrase OS=Picea sitchensis PE... 129 8e-29 tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panico...id... 128 1e-28 tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panicoid
Full Text Available UROPA Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP] 2 OS=Urochloa panicoides GN=PCK2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 626 Score ... Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP] 1 OS=Urochloa panicoides GN=PCK1 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 624 Score = 41.
Full Text Available chysandra termina... 125 8e-28 tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panicoid... 125 1e-27... tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panicoid... 125 1e-27 tr|Q5NE20|Q5NE20_SOLLC Carbon...SWSVD 406 YYDFVN +FE W +D Sbjct: 301 YYDFVNGSFELWGLD 315 >tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panico...2 HYDFVKGAFVTW 213 >tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panicoides PE=2 SV=1 Length = 24
Full Text Available efinition sp|P49292|PEPC1_UROPA Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP] 1 OS=Urochloa panicoides Align lengt...inase [ATP] 1 OS=Urochloa panicoides GN=PCK1 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 624 Score = 135 bits (339), Expect = 2e-31 I...ANHKIGVDGKLTEEILAAGP 669 >sp|Q9XFA2|PEPC2_UROPA Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP] 2 OS=Urochloa pani...coides GN=PCK2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 626 Score = 128 bits (321), Expect = 2e-29 Identi
Sep 30, 2015 ... quantified using the combustion system CHN Thermo Finnigan EA. 1112 Series Flash Elemental Analyzer. ..... Internal water resources management by plants under various root environment stresses with special reference to kallar grass Leptochloa fusca (L.) Stapf. Proceedings of the National Seminar on ...
Full Text Available _ARATH Carbonic anhydrase OS=Arabidopsis thalian... 131 4e-29 tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panico...id... 131 4e-29 tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panico
Full Text Available ALKSTHIL 151 >sp|P49292|PEPC1_UROPA Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP] 1 OS=Urochloa panico...5 >sp|Q9XFA2|PEPC2_UROPA Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP] 2 OS=Urochloa panicoides GN=PCK2 PE=2 SV=1
Full Text Available CP000252_3134( CP000252 |pid:none) Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB, c... 64 1e-08 AF136163_1( AF136163 |pid:none) Urochloa panico...ides phosphoenolpyr... 62 1e-07 AF136162_1( AF136162 |pid:none) Urochloa panico
Full Text Available 0_SOLLC Carbonic anhydrase OS=Solanum lycopersicu... 133 8e-30 tr|Q43231|Q43231_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Urochloa panico...id... 133 8e-30 tr|Q43230|Q43230_UROPA Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Urochloa panico
Snow, Neil; Peterson, Paul M.; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Simon, Bryan K.
Abstract Diplachne P. Beauv. comprises two species with C4 (NAD-ME) photosynthesis. Diplachne fusca has a nearly pantropical-pantemperate distribution with four subspecies: D. fusca subsp. fusca is Paleotropical with native distributions in Africa, southern Asia and Australia; the widespread Australian endemic D. f. subsp. muelleri; and D. f. subsp. fascicularis and D. f. subsp. uninervia occurring in the New World. Diplachne gigantea is known from a few widely scattered, older collections in east-central and southern Africa, and although Data Deficient clearly is of conservation concern. A discussion of previous taxonomic treatments is provided, including molecular data supporting Diplachne in its newer, restricted sense. Many populations of Diplachne fusca are highly tolerant of saline substrates and most prefer seasonally moist to saturated soils, often in disturbed areas. Some populations of Diplachne fusca in southern Asia combine nitrogen-fixation, high salinity tolerance and palatibilty to livestock, which should be pursued with further research for purposes of soil reclamation. Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia is the most invasive of the subspecies and is becoming weedy in some non-native areas, including in the Old World. This monograph provides detailed descriptions of all taxa, a key to the species and subspecies, geographic distributions and information on the anatomy of leaves, stems, lemmatal micromorphology and discussions of the chromosome numbers. Lectotypes are designated for: Atropis carinata Grisb.; Diplachne acuminata Nash; Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. concinna Nees; Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. obscura Nees, Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. prolifera subvar. minor Nees, Diplachne halei Nash, Diplachne maritima E.P. Bicknel, Diplachne muelleri Benth., Diplachne reverchonii Vasey, Diplachne tectoneticola Backer, Leptochloa imbricata Thurb., Leptochloa neuroglossa Peter, Leptochloa uninervia var. typica fo. abbreviata Parodi
Lata, Charu; Gupta, Sarika; Prasad, Manoj
Foxtail millet is one of the oldest domesticated diploid C4 Panicoid crops having a comparatively small genome size of approximately 515 Mb, short life cycle, and inbreeding nature. Its two species, Setaria italica (domesticated) and Setaria viridis (wild progenitor), have characteristics that classify them as excellent model systems to examine several aspects of architectural, evolutionary, and physiological importance in Panicoid grasses especially the biofuel crops such as switchgrass and napiergrass. Foxtail millet is a staple crop used extensively for food and fodder in parts of Asia and Africa. In its long history of cultivation, it has been adapted to arid and semi-arid areas of Asia, North Africa, South and North America. Foxtail millet has one of the largest collections of cultivated as well as wild-type germplasm rich with phenotypic variations and hence provides prospects for association mapping and allele-mining of elite and novel variants to be incorporated in crop improvement programs. Most of the foxtail millet accessions can be primarily abiotic stress tolerant particularly to drought and salinity, and therefore exploiting these agronomic traits can enhance its efficacy in marker-aided breeding as well as in genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance. In addition, the release of draft genome sequence of foxtail millet would be useful to the researchers worldwide in not only discerning the molecular basis of biomass production in biofuel crops and the methods to improve it, but also for the introgression of beneficial agronomically important characteristics in foxtail millet as well as in related Panicoid bioenergy grasses.
S. A. KHANUM, T. YAQOOB1, S. SADAF1, M. HUSSAIN, M. A. JABBAR1, H. N. HUSSAIN, R. KAUSAR AND S. REHMAN1
Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional quality of some conventional and non-conventional feed resources by using in vitro gas method. Samples of various feedstuffs were analyzed chemically, as well as by in vitro gas method. The feedstuffs having different digestibilities showed significant (P<0.05 differences in the rate and amount of gas production, metabolizable energy (ME and digestibility of organic matter. Predicted metabolizable energy values were very low in feedstuffs having high fiber and low protein contents. These feedstuffs included various grasses, crop residues and wheal straw. Lowest ME value of 4.7 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM was found in wheat straw. Many of the roughages (Sorghum vulgare, Kochia indica, Leptochloa fusca studied were found to be deficient in fermentable carbohydrates, resulting in low organic matter digestibility. Concentrate feed stuffs like cotton seed meal, sunflower meal, cotton seed cakes, rice polish, rapeseed meal and Zea mays (maize grains had higher ME values (9.27 – 12.44 MJ/kg DM. The difference of ME of various feedstuffs reflects different contents of fermentable carbohydrates and available nitrogen in cereals and protein supplements. Among the non-conventional feedstuffs, Acacia ampliceps, Acacia nilotica, Sesbania aculeata, Leptochloa fusca and Prosopis juliflora were found potential fodders. Extensive use of in vitro gas method proved its potential as a tool to evaluate various ruminant feeds for energy component.
Full Text Available An analysis of some parameters of vegetation structure (coberture -%-, density and specific diversity is presented for plant formations in the Mocagua island (Colombian Amazonia. The structure of the vegetation types ranging from simple river beach zone, aquatic and floodplain environments, to complex arrangement in forest formations. The average number of individuals with DAP > 10 cm (58/0.1 ha is lower than other similar regions. In addition, we describe the types of vegetation founded according with floristic affinities, wich is related to the water content in the sustrata.Tha natural vegetation comprise from aquatic communities of Oxyearyum eubense - Pontederia rotundifolia, to continental ones of Rheedia madruno- Palieourea eroeea, Triehilia pallida - Sommera sabiceoides, phases of Montriehardia arboreseens and Ceeropia latíloba, Paspalum repens and Ceeropia latíloba, and Leptochloa seabra and Torulinium maeroeephalum.Se presentan los resultados de los análisis sobre parámetros estructurales de la vegetación (cobertura-%-, densidad y diversidad específica de las formaciones vegetales de la isla Mocagua (Amazonas, Colombia. La estructura de los tipos de vegetación diferenciados cubre desde los arreglos simples como la de las zonas de playa, ambientes lacustres e inundables, hasta arreglos complejos con diferentes estratos en formaciones boscosas. El número de individuos con DAP > 10 cm (prom.=58/0.1 ha en comparación con los valores en otras zonas es bajo. Los tipos de vegetación descritos obedecen en su distribución esencialmente al contenido de agua en el sustrato; la vegetación natural comprende desde comunidades acuáticas de Oxycaryum cubense - Pontederia rotundifolia, hasta las continentales de Rheedia. madruno - Palieourea eroeea, Triehilia pallida - Sommera sabieeoides y las fases de Montriehardia arboreseens y Ceeropia latiloba, Paspalum repens y Cecropia latiloba, y la de Leptochloa scabra y Torulinium maerocephalum.
Varón de Agudelo Francia
Full Text Available Se dividió la parte plana del Valle del Cauca en tres zonas (norte, centro y sur, habiéndose visitado 33 fincas. En la zona norte las malezas con mayor porcentaje de frecuencia y distribución en los cultivos de soya fueron Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum y Leptochloa filiformis; en la zona centro Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius y Echinochloa colonum y en la zona sur predominaron Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea Cyperus rotundus. Los análisis de muestras de suelo y raíces indicaron que H. glycines se encuentra distribuido en todo el Valle del Cauca, presentando la zona sur (Candelaria, Palmira y Puerto Tejada las mayores poblaciones. Entre las especies evaluadas (malezas, cultivos, leguminosas forrajeras y silvestres, solamente Glycine max y Phaseolus vulgaris se consideraron como susceptibles a H. glycines raza 3. y P. angularis y P. multiflora permitieron muy poca infección y multiplicación del nemátodo.A nematode recognition of Heterodera glycines was focused on crops of soybean. Valle del Cauca was divided in three zones (northen, central and southern and 33 farms were visited. The results of the analysis on samples of soils and roots showe that Heterodera glycines is scattered throughout Valle del Cauca, being the southern zone (Palmira, Candelaria and Puerto Tejada the one having the highest standards in nematode population. Weeds showing a greater frequency percentage were : Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum and Leptochloa filiformis, in the northen zone; Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius and Echinochloa colonum, in the central zone, and Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea and Cyperus rotundus, in the southern zone , From among the whole species evaluated (weeds, crops, leguminous a n d fodder plants, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris were considered to be susceptible to H. Glycines race 3. Phaseolus angularis y P. multiflora let low population levels.
R. P. Ellis
Full Text Available The leaf anatomy of Elytrophorus globularis Hack, and E. spicatus (Willd. A. Camus is described and illustrated from freshly fixed material from SWA/Namibia and Botswana. It is shown that these two species are anatomically indistinguishable. It is suggested that they are conspecific. and that E. spicatus possibly represents juvenile plants with immature inflorescences. The anatomical evidence strongly refutes a chloridoid relationship for Elytrophorus but appears to support arundinoid affinities for the genus. Striking anatomical and ecological similarities exist between Elytrophorus and Sacciolepis huillensis (Rendle Stapf. No significant leaf anatomical differences separate Elytrophorus from S. huillensis and some of the other C3 panicoid taxa and. consequently, Elytrophorus may represent a link between the Arundinoideae and the Panicoideae.
Rama Das, V.S.; Raghavendra, A.S.
S. squarrosus, a panicoid grass found on semi-arid sandy sea shores, had the typical 'Kranz' leaf anatomy and the C 4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis. Bundle sheath chloroplasts were equally distributed around the cell walls. Leaves fixed as much as 63 mg CO 2 /dm 2 /hr and possessed a low carbon dioxide compensation point. During short term exposure to 14 CO 2 , leaves fixed most of the radioactivity into the C 4 acids, malate and aspartate. Predominant malate formation, high activities of NADP malate dehydrogenase and NADP malic enzyme suggested that S. squarrosus is a NADP malic enzyme type C 4 plant. C 4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis in Spinifex is advantageous in relation to its habitat of high light intensity and high temperatures in saline sandy regions. (author)
Hingley, R.; Juarez, S.; Dontsova, K.; Hunt, E.; Le Galliard, J. F.; Chollet, S.; Cros, A.; Llavata, M.; Massol, F.; Barré, P.; Gelabert, A.; Daval, D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Ferrière, R.
Plants play an important role in carbon and nitrogen fluxes in the environment. Plants remove carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and deposit a fraction of this carbon into the soil as a result of root exudation and senescence, contributing to soil formation. Additionally, plants can facilitate sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere in inorganic form during the process of mineral weathering. With increasing temperatures and levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, it is unknown what effect these changes will have on plant growth and weathering of silicate rocks, and by extension on carbon accumulation in the soils. To identify climate change effects on C and N fluxes, a controlled study was conducted at Ecotron Ile-de-France utilizing mesocosms maintained at elevated and ambient CO2 concentration and temperature with four different vegetation treatments: control, alfalfa, velvet mesquite, and green sprangletop. Each experiment lasted for 4 months with monthly rainfall events using deionized water. After each rain, soil solution and drainage were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements, as well as anions, nitrogen, and organic and inorganic carbon. CO2 concentrations in the soil air were monitored as well. At the end of this study, soil samples were collected from each mesocosm at four different depths and then analyzed for organic carbon, inorganic carbon, and total nitrogen. Accumulation of organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen with clear differences with depth was observed in all mesocosms. Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere influenced C accumulation in the soils, while the type of vegetation significantly affected concentrations of nitrogen and organic carbon in soil and solution. This indicates that climate change would affect carbon and nitrogen fluxes in the soils causing feedbacks to the atmospheric CO2.
the objectives of this work are to use halophyte plants as suitable means for ameliorating salt-affected soils and to evaluate the use of saline water in irrigation halophyte plants as well as to determine the impact of saline irrigation on different properties of the salt -affected soil. two halophyte plants (i.e Atriplex nummularia and leptochloa fusca ( kallar grass)) were grown for 120 days during growth seasons of 2004 (first season) and 2005 ( second season)in lysimeters of 250 k gs capacity, which were filled with 180 k gs soil. the experiment was a randomized complete block factorial, involving two factors. the first factor was halophyte type (two halophytes were used, kallar grass and atriplex).the investigated data point to Ca accumulation in soil profile was increased with the increase in salinity level of irrigation water. increasing salinity of irrigation water sharply increased Mg accumulation in soil profile, especially with the cultivation of atriplex, where Mg accumulation by kallar grass was dramatically more than those occurred by atriplex.. kallar grass appears to have a good ability to reduce R Na C from the three soil layers under different saline irrigation waters rather than atriplex. R Na C (under using fresh water) was the lowest in the three soil layers rather the rest of the saline irrigation waters in both case of the two plants. a high residual sodium concentration recorded in soil cultivated by atriplex rather than kallar grass
Monier Abd EL-GHANI
Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.
Ahsan, Muhammad Tayyab; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Idrees, Muhammad; Ullah, Inayat; Afzal, Muhammad
The combined use of plants and bacteria is a promising approach for the remediation of polluted soil. In the current study, the potential of bacterial endophytes in partnership with Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth was evaluated for the remediation of uranium (U)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soil. L. fusca was vegetated in contaminated soil and inoculated with three different endophytic bacterial strains, Pantoea stewartii ASI11, Enterobacter sp. HU38, and Microbacterium arborescens HU33, individually as well as in combination. The results showed that the L. fusca can grow in the contaminated soil. Bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and phytoremediation capacity: this manifested in the form of a 22-51% increase in root length, 25-62% increase in shoot height, 10-21% increase in chlorophyll content, and 17-59% more plant biomass in U- and Pb-contaminated soils as compared to plants without bacterial inoculation. Although L. fusca plants showed potential to accumulate U and Pb in their root and shoot on their own, bacterial consortia further enhanced metal uptake capacity by 53-88% for U and 58-97% for Pb. Our results indicate that the combination of L. fusca and endophytic bacterial consortia can effectively be used for the phytostabilization of both U- and Pb-contaminated soils.
Venkata Suresh B
Full Text Available The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html, a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity.
Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Lin; Tang, Sha; Liu, Jianguang; Zhang, Hanshuang; Zhi, Hui; Jia, Guanqing; Diao, Xianmin
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is a diploid C4 panicoid species. Because of its prominent drought resistance, small genome size, self-pollination, and short life cycle, foxtail millet has become an ideal model system for studying drought tolerance of crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small RNAs that play important regulatory roles in the development and stress response in plants. In this study, we applied Illumina sequencing to systematically investigate the drought-responsive miRNAs derived from S. italica inbred An04-4783 seedlings grown under control and drought conditions. Degradome sequencing was applied to confirm the targets of these miRNAs at a global level. A total of 81 known miRNAs belonging to 28 families were identified, among which 14 miRNAs were upregulated and four were downregulated in response to drought. In addition, 72 potential novel miRNAs were identified, three of which were differentially expressed under drought conditions. Degradome sequencing analysis showed that 56 and 26 genes were identified as targets of known and novel miRNAs, respectively. Our analysis revealed post-transcriptional remodeling of cell development, transcription factors, ABA signaling, and cellar homeostasis in S.italica in response to drought. This preliminary characterization provided useful information for further studies on the regulatory networks of drought-responsive miRNAs in foxtail millet.
Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin
Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência do glyphosate e da mistura comercial paraquat + diuron, bem como o efeito do intervalo entre as aplicações desses herbicidas e a semeadura da soja, sobre o controle e a rebrota de Digitaria insularis, Synedrellopsis grisebachii e Leptochloa filiformis. O experimento foi conduzido em área de soja em sistema de plantio direto, utilizando-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliados os seguintes tratamentos: glyphosate no dia da semeadura e um, dois e cinco dias antes desta; paraquat + diuron 20 dias antes e no dia da semeadura; glyphosate 10 dias antes da semeadura e paraquat + diuron no dia da semeadura; glyphosate 15 dias antes da semeadura e paraquat + diuron no dia da semeadura; glyphosate 20 dias antes da semeadura e paraquat + diuron no dia da semeadura; e testemunha infestada. Verificou-se controle satisfatório e impedimento de rebrota de D. insularis e L. filiformis quando o glyphosate foi aplicado cinco dias antes da semeadura da soja ou quando foi realizada aplicação seqüencial de glyphosate e paraquat + diuron. Aplicações seqüenciais da mistura comercial de paraquat + diuron não foram eficientes no controle e no impedimento da rebrota de D. insularis e L. filiformis. S. grisebachii mostrou-se tolerante ao glyphosate.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the efficiency of glyphosate and preformulated mixture paraquat + diuron as well as the effect of the interval between herbicide applications and soybean sowing on the control and re-growth impairment of the following weeds: Digitaria insularis, Synedrellopsis grisebach and Leptochloa filiformis. The experiment was carried out in a soybean area under no-till system and was arranged in a randomized block design, with 9 treatments and four replications. The following treatments were evaluated: glyphosate applied on sowing day; one day before sowing day; two days
Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba
Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions.
Yang, X-F; Kong, C-H
Despite increasing knowledge of the involvement of allelopathy in negative interactions among plants, relatively little is known about its action at the root level. This study aims to enhance understanding of interactions of roots between a crop and associated weeds via allelopathy. Based on a series of experiments with window rhizoboxes and root segregation methods, we examined root placement patterns and root interactions between allelopathic rice and major paddy weeds Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eclipta prostrata, Leptochloa chinensis and Oryza sativa (weedy rice). Allelopathic rice inhibited growth of paddy weed roots more than shoots regardless of species. Furthermore, allelopathic rice significantly reduced total root length, total root area, maximum root width and maximum root depth of paddy weeds, while the weeds adjusted horizontal and vertical placement of their roots in response to the presence of allelopathic rice. With the exception of O. sativa (weedy rice), root growth of weeds avoided expanding towards allelopathic rice. Compared with root contact, root segregation significantly increased inhibition of E. crus-galli, E. prostrata and L. chinensis through an increase in rice allelochemicals. In particular, their root exudates induced production of rice allelochemicals. However, similar results were not observed in C. difformis and O. sativa (weedy rice) with either root segregation or root exudate application. The results demonstrate that allelopathic rice interferes with paddy weeds by altering root placement patterns and root interactions. This is the first case of a root behavioural strategy in crop-weed allelopathic interaction. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
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Dada la importancia de la berenjena en la horticultura del Caribe colombiano, el presente trabajo buscó establecer las bases de un manejo sustentable e integrado de malezas en este cultivo, basado en el período de máxima interferencia de aquellas sobre este. El estudio se realizó en la Universidad de Córdoba, ubicada en Montería (8°39’ N; 75°58’ W. El diseño experimental consistió en bloques completamente aleatorizados, con cuatro repeticiones y siete tratamientos relacionados con periodos crecientes de control de arvenses, seguidos por ausencia de control. Los resultados muestran que las arvenses con mayor presencia fueron paja mona (Leptochloa filiformis [Lam.] Beauv., caminadora (Rottboellia cochinchinensis [Lour.] W.D. Clayton, liendre de puerco (Echinochloa colona [L.] Link., coquito (Cyperus rotundus L. y bledo (Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Las arvenses afectaron la altura de la planta, el diámetro del tallo, y el rendimiento y calidad del fruto. Este último parámetro no se ve afectado cuando el cultivar lila se mantiene limpio durante los primeros 40 días. Al considerar el tipo de productor de esta hortaliza en el valle del Sinú, se sugiere utilizar: i para áreas pequeñas, métodos físicos, como el arranque manual o corte con machete u otra herramienta, y prácticas culturales; ii para áreas grandes, la combinación de herbicidas de presiembra con métodos físicos y culturales.
Villasenor Iribe, E.; Dontsova, K.; Juarez, S.; Le Galliard, J. F.; Chollet, S.; Llavata, M.; Massol, F.; Barré, P.; Gelabert, A.; Daval, D.; Troch, P.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Ferrière, R.
Mineral weathering is an important process in soil formation. The interactions between the hydrologic, geologic and atmospheric cycles often determine the rate at which weathering occurs. Elements and nutrients weathered from the soil by water can be removed from soils in the runoff and seepage, but they can also remain in situ as newly precipitated secondary minerals or in biomass as a result of plant uptake. Here we present data from an experiment that was conducted at the controlled environment facility, Ecotron Ile-de-France (Saint-Pierre-les-Nemours, France) that studied mineral weathering and plant growth in granular basaltic material with high glass content that is being used to simulate soil in large scale Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) project. The experiment used 3 plant types: velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), green spangletop (Leptochloa dubia), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which were grown under varying temperature and CO2 conditions. We hypothesized that plants grown under warmer, higher CO2 conditions would have larger nutrient concentrations as more mineral weathering would occur. Results of plant digestions and analysis showed that plant concentrations of lithogenic elements were significantly influenced by the plant type and were different between above- and below-ground parts of the plant. Temperature and CO2 treatment effects were less pronounced, but we observed significant temperature effect on plant uptake. A number of major and trace elements showed increase in concentration with increase in temperature at elevated atmospheric CO2. Effect was observed both in the shoots and in the roots, but more significant differences were observed in the shoots. Results presented here indicate that climate change would have strong effect on plant uptake and mobility of weathered elements during soil formation and give further evidence of interactions between abiotic and biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems.
Full Text Available Several underutilized grasses have excellent potential for use as bioenergy feedstock due to their lignocellulosic biomass. Genomic tools have enabled identification of lignocellulose biosynthesis genes in several sequenced plants. However, the non-availability of whole genome sequence of bioenergy grasses hinders the study on bioenergy genomics and their genomics-assisted crop improvement. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.; Si is a model crop for studying systems biology of bioenergy grasses. In the present study, a systematic approach has been used for identification of gene families involved in cellulose (CesA/Csl, callose (Gsl and monolignol biosynthesis (PAL, C4H, 4CL, HCT, C3H, CCoAOMT, F5H, COMT, CCR, CAD and construction of physical map of foxtail millet. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of identified proteins showed that monolignol biosynthesis proteins were highly diverse, whereas CesA/Csl and Gsl proteins were homologous to rice and Arabidopsis. Comparative mapping of foxtail millet lignocellulose biosynthesis genes with other C4 panicoid genomes revealed maximum homology with switchgrass, followed by sorghum and maize. Expression profiling of candidate lignocellulose genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormone treatments showed their differential expression pattern, with significant higher expression of SiGsl12, SiPAL2, SiHCT1, SiF5H2 and SiCAD6 genes. Further, due to the evolutionary conservation of grass genomes, the insights gained from the present study could be extrapolated for identifying genes involved in lignocellulose biosynthesis in other biofuel species for further characterization.
Full Text Available Combined abiotic stress (CAbS affects the field grown plants simultaneously. The multigenic and quantitative nature of uncontrollable abiotic stresses complicates the process of understanding the stress response by plants. Considering this, we analyzed the CAbS response of C3 model plant, Oryza sativa by meta-analysis. The datasets of commonly expressed genes by drought, salinity, submergence, metal, natural expression, biotic, and abiotic stresses were data mined through publically accessible transcriptomic abiotic stress (AbS responsive datasets. Of which 1,175, 12,821, and 42,877 genes were commonly expressed in meta differential, individual differential, and unchanged expressions respectively. Highly regulated 100 differentially expressed AbS genes were derived through integrative meta-analysis of expression data (INMEX. Of this 30 genes were identified from AbS gene families through expression atlas that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. All AbS genes were physically mapped against O. sativa genome. Comparative mapping of these genes demonstrated the orthologous relationship with related C4 panicoid genome. In silico expression analysis of these genes showed differential expression patterns in different developmental tissues. Protein–protein interaction of these genes, represented the complexity of AbS. Computational expression profiling of candidate genes in response to multiple stresses suggested the putative involvement of OS05G0350900, OS02G0612700, OS05G0104200, OS03G0596200, OS12G0225900, OS07G0152000, OS08G0119500, OS06G0594700, and Os01g0393100 in CAbS. These potential candidate genes need to be studied further to decipher their functional roles in AbS dynamics.
Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY and S. viridis (SvWRKY, respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analysed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY, followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY. Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signalling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signalling.
Wang, Fangfang; Singh, Ratnesh; Genovesi, Anthony D; Wai, Ching Man; Huang, Xiaoen; Chandra, Ambika; Yu, Qingyi
Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), belonging to the genus Zoysia in the subfamily Chloridoideae, is widely used in domestic lawns, sports fields and as forage. We constructed high-density genetic maps of Zoysia japonica using a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) approach and an F1 mapping population derived from a cross between 'Carrizo' and 'El Toro'. Two linkage maps were constructed, one for each of the parents. A map consisting of 2408 RAD markers distributed on 21 linkage groups was constructed for 'Carrizo'. Another map with 1230 RAD markers mapped on 20 linkage groups was constructed for 'El Toro'. The average distance between adjacent markers of the two maps was at 0.56 and 1.4 cM, respectively. Comparative genomics analysis was carried out among zoysiagrass, rice and sorghum genomes and a highly conserved collinearity in the gene order was observed among the three genomes. Chromosome collinearity was disrupted at centromeric regions for each chromosome pair between zoysiagrass and sorghum genomes. However, no obvious synteny gaps were observed across the centromeric regions between zoysiagrass and rice genomes. Two homologous chromosomes for each of the 10 sorghum chromosomes were found in the zoysiagrass genome, indicating an allotetraploid origin for zoysiagrass. The reduction of the basic chromosome number from 12 to 10 in chloridoids and panicoids took place via independent single-step nested chromosome fusion events after the two subfamilies diverged from a common ancestor. The genetic maps will assist in genome sequence assembly, targeted gene isolation and comparative genomic analyses among grasses. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Valent\\u00EDn Alberto Esqueda-Esquivel
Full Text Available Se condujo un experimento de evaluación del aceite mineral Agratex-HE con el objeto de determinar su efectividad como coadyuvante de la mezcla de los herbicidas ametrina + 2,4-D y su toxicidad a la caña de azúcar, durante el ciclo primavera-verano 2001, en una siembra comercial de caña de azúcar de la variedad Q-96. El experimento se estableció en Tolome, en el estado de Veracruz, México. Se evaluaron siete tratamientos: Agratex- HE a 1,5; 2 y 2,5 l por 100 l de agua, con ametrina + 2,4-D a 1225 + 650 g i.a./ha, Agratex-HE a 7,5 l en 100 l de agua sin herbicida, Agridex a 2,5 l en 100 l de agua con ametrina + 2,4-D a 1.225 + 650 g i.a./ha, ametrina + 2,4-D a 1225 + 650 g i.a./ha sin coadyuvante y un testigo sin coadyuvante y sin herbicida. Se utilizó el diseño estadístico de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. El control de las malezas gramíneas Leptochloa mucronata y Urochloa fasciculata y la toxicidad a la caña de azúcar se evaluaron a los 15, 30 y 45 días después de la aplicación de los tratamientos (DDA. Los resultados indicaron que la adición de Agratex-HE a 2 o 2,5 l por 100 l de agua a la mezcla de ametrina + 2,4-D incrementó el control de L. mucronata y U. fasciculata, y que a la dosis de 2,5 l en 100 l de agua tuvo un efecto igual o mejor que el Agridex a la misma dosis. Ambos tratamientos incrementaron ligeramente la toxicidad ocasionada por los herbicidas a la caña de azúcar, pero ésta desapareció a los 45 DDA.
Histologia da embriogênese somática induzida em embriões de sementes maduras de Urochloa brizantha apomítica Histology of somatic embryogenesis induced in embryos of mature seeds of the apomictic Urochloa brizantha
Sandra Janeth Lenis-Manzano
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de embriogênese somática em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e fornecer subsídios para o aprimoramento dos métodos de cultura de tecidos e transformação genética. Calos embriogênicos foram obtidos por indução em embriões isolados de sementes maduras, e cultivados in vitro, em meio de cultura que continha ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, 6-benzilaminopurina e caseína hidrolisada. Plântulas foram regeneradas a partir dos calos embriogênicos, na presença de ácido naftalenoacético e cinetina. Esse processo foi descrito morfologicamente por observações em microscopia de luz de secções seriadas semifinas de tecidos fixados, ao longo do processo de regeneração, em FAA [formaldeído (40%: ácido acético glacial: etanol (50%, a 5:5:90 v/v/v]. Os embriões das sementes de U. brizantha cv. Marandu não têm epiblasto e são classificados como do tipo panicoide. Nas condições estabelecidas de cultura in vitro, calos embriogênicos e embriões somáticos de U. brizantha cv. Marandu, desenvolvem-se a partir de células meristemáticas do escutelo.The objective of this work was to describe the process of somatic embryogenesis in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and to provide support for the improvement of tissue culture and genetic transformation methods. Embryogenic calli were obtained by induction in embryos isolated from mature seeds, and cultivated in vitro in culture medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine and hydrolyzed casein. Plantlets were regenerated from the embryogenic calli in the presence of naphthaleneacetic acid and kinetin. This process was described by morphological observations of serial semithin sections of tissues fixed along the regeneration process in FAA (40% formaldehyde: acetic acid: 50% ethanol, at 5:5:90 v/v/v, using light microscopy. Seed embryos of U
Ellsworth, P.; Cousins, A. B.
Low water availability is a major constraint in crop production, especially as agriculture is pushed to marginal lands. Therefore, improving drought resistance such as increasing water use efficiency (WUE) through plant breeding is needed to expand the range of soil water availability adequate for food production. With the goal of finding the genomic basis for WUE in C4 grasses, Setaria viridis makes an ideal model species because of its small size, short lifespan, and sequenced genome. Also it is part of the panicoid grass clade, which is one of the most important clades for food and biofuel production. In plant breeding programs, large numbers of genotypes must be quickly screened for drought resistance traits, but there is no well-defined method of screening for WUE in C4 grasses. However, bulk leaf oxygen (Δ18OBL) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic signatures have shown potential as recorders of transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs), and combined with biomass production potentially serve as a measure of WUE. Values of Δ18OBL record differences in transpiration rate because leaf water becomes more enriched as transpiration rate decreases, and leaf tissue records the isotopic composition of leaf water in which it is synthesized. Additionally, in C4 plants δ13C values decrease as gs decreases but the change in δ13C in response to gs may not be adequate to tease apart differences in WUE. In this study, we grew S. viridis plants under well-watered and water-limited conditions to determine if Δ18OBL and δ13C could be used as proxies for E and gs, and be used to screen S. viridis for differences in WUE in breeding programs. The Δ18OBL and δ13C were significantly different between well-watered and water-limited plants and correlated with each other and with E, gs, and instantaneous water use efficiency (Anet/gs). Therefore, Δ18OBL and δ13C can be useful proxies to screen genotypes for drought resistance by recording differences in E, gs, and WUE